memo padDURING THE SUMMER I was checking throughthe picture files and discovered these eight attractive"Tappers" from the 1934 Mirror Revue, "Step Ahead."I think the other picture (left) was from the 1935show. I recognize the first girl, Virginia New — whowas later supervisor of the Ida Noyes "Cloister Club."Of course I wondered what had happened to thesesprightly tappers of the mid-thirties. Here is what Ifound (top picture reading from the left):Lorraine Watson, '34, AM'38. Mrs. Keith I. Parsons,16 W. 5th Street, Hinsdale. Keith, '33, JD'37, is amember of the Chicago law firm, Milliken, Vollers &Parsons.Margaret Holahan, '34. Mrs. Frank R. Howard, 2200 E.Kensington Blvd., Milwaukee. Frank, '32, is districtmanager, International Harvester Co., Milwaukee.Virginia New, '36. Mrs. Robert B. Falsing, OverlookDrive, Golf, Illinois.Margaret Moore, '35. When last we heard from herin 1946 she was Mrs. Radcliffe Hall of New York City.Margaretha Moore, '34. Mrs. Donald R. Kerr, 159 ParkSt., Wickenburg, Arizona. Donald, '34, JD'36, is alawyer.Elizabeth Cason, '34. Mrs. Edward Wheelock SteeleNicholson, 18 Devon Road, Summit, N.J. Edward, '34,is with the Esso Research and Engineering Co.Margaret; Burns, '34. Mrs. John Drew Ridge, Box 111,Lemont, Centre County, Pa. John, '30, SM'32, PhD'35,is head of the department of mineral economics atPennsylvania State.Helen Leventhal, '37. Mrs. Herbert Michel, 5454 SouthShore Drive, Chicago. Herbert, '28, MD'32, is aphysician.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHE FANDANGOFor those of you who weren't around the quadranglesin the mid-thirties I should tell you that the FANDANGO was dreamed up by the Class of 1935 to>'aise a huge class gift for scholarships. It was a two-night carnival in the Field House and they gave doorprizes like mad— from trips to Lake Louise to freedental fillings. Personally I remember the Swift Premium hams that people were carrying around underIheir was quite a party and provided ten scholarships. Itwas the biggest show since the World Columbian Exposition, which celebrated the opening of the University in 1892-93.In the same file where I found the ladies on theopposite page I found these Fandango pictures. Ithought you would want to see what the Field Housecan look like when they aren't playing basketball ortennis. H.W.M. ¦L Ill tfewrJohn F. Dille, Jr., a memberof the Class of 1935is serving his second term asPresident of the Alumni AssociationNOVEMBER, 1961 1UNIVERS ITY OFCHICAGOmagazine5733 University AvenueChicago 37, IllinoisMidway 3-0800; Extension 3244EDITOR Marjorie BurkhardtEDITORIAL ASSISTANT Rona MearsFEATURES3 A Graduate Student Family4 Stipends and Spouses7 Two Aspects of the Civil War12 Psychology in AdvertisingGary A. Steiner14 Space Age Department2 1 Robot!DEPARTMENTS| Memo Pad10 News of the Quadrangles|7 Books26 News of the Alumni35 MemorialsCOVERThe "Old University of Chicago" at left,with its neighbor, Civil War Camp Douglas.CREDITSCover, 7: Chicago Historical Society; 3-5,10, 13, 14: Albert C. Flores; 21-22: ArgonneNational Laboratory; 31: Chicago Sun-TimesTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONPRESIDENT John F. Dille, Jr.EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Hdward W. MortADMINISTRATIVE ASST Ruth G. HalloranPROGRAMMING MaryJeanne CarlsonALUMNI FOUNDATIONDIRECTOR Chet LacyChicago-Midwest Area Florence MedowREGIONAL OFFICESEastern Region W. Ronald Sims26 E. 38th StreetNew York 16. N. Y.MUrray Hill 3-1062Los Angeles Mrs. Marie Stephens1195 Charles St., Pasadena 3After 3 P.M.— SYcamore 3-4545MEMBERSHIP RATES (Including Magazine)I year, $5.00; 3 years, $12.00Published monthly. October throuqh June, by theUniversity of Chicaqo Alumni Association. 5733 University Avenue, Chicaqo 37, III. Annual subscriptionprice $5.00. Sinqle copies, 25 cents. Entered ass'econd class matter December I. 1934, at the PostOffice of Chicaqo. III., under the act of March 3,1879. Advertisinq aqent: The American Alumn,Council 22 Washington Sauare. New York, N. Y. OUR "346" DEPARTMENTBrooks Brothers quality and generally lower pricesOur popular "346" Department offers an excellentopportunity to become acquainted with BrooksBrothers distinctive styling and quality at moderateprices. All our "346" suits, topcoats, sportwear andevening wear are made to our exacting specifications...on our own exclusive models ... mostly of materials woven especially for us. The suits— made onour traditional 3-button, single-breasted model,feature our comfortable and correct naturalshoulders, trousers without pleats, and matchingvests... in a range of sizes from 36 to 46, includingshorts, regulars, medium longs, longs... and extralongs for the tall, slender man.Our "346" Suits, $90 to $ 1 05Topcoats, from $95 • Sport Jackets, $65 to $75ESTABLISHED 1818IgUns furnistongij^ats %% boea74 E. MADISON ST., NEAR MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 2, ILL.NEW YORK • IIOSTON • PITTSBURGH SAN FRANCISCO • I .OS ANGKl.KSTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESTIPENDS AND SPOUSESA GRADUATE STUDENT in the BusinessSchool PhD program, Eugene Fama from Maiden, Massachusetts, has been here one year.A Phi Beta Kappa, he has a BA from Tufts,1960, and applied here, Wharton and Harvardfor advanced study. Gene came here "BecauseChicago has the best PhD program in the nation." He has always held some kind of stipend,at one time having as many as three. He nowhas an Earharl Foundation fellowship. Perhapsreflecting his bargaining position as a top student, he observes that in Business school everyone seems to be financially quite comfortable.But, Gene is not a typical student, academicallyor financially.NOVEMBER, 1961SOME FACTSon STIPENDS and SPOUSESA study of the consumer finances of graduate education— Natural science students who are seen as poor PhDmaterial have almost the same chance for a stipendas social science and humanities students who arerated as competent for PhD work.— Public university students who are rated poor PhDmaterial have almost the same chance for a stipendas private university students rated superior orexcellent.— The impoverished graduate student putting himselfthrough school by washing dishes in a beanery haspractically disappeared. But, financially comfortablestudents get that way by sacrificing their academicprograms.These facts and others have been revealed by astudy prepared by the National Opinion ResearchCenter, which is affiliated with the University of Chicago. Jointly financed by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, the SocialScience Research Council, and the American Councilof Learned Societies, the study is entitled "Stipends andSpouses — the Consumer Finances of Graduate Studyin America." It was directed by James A. Davis,senior study director for NORC, and assistant professor of sociology at the University.The NORC report analyzes the financial conditionand performance of a cross-section of the 63,000 graduate students enrolled in American schools at thebeginning of the 1958-59 academic year. Only artsand science students were studied, thus excludingstudents in professional fields such as law, medicineor business.Half of these students were enrolled in publicschools, half in private institutions. Some 47 per centwere studying in the Division of Natural Sciences(both Physical and Biological Sciences), 30 per centwere in the Division of Humanities (English, History,Philosophy, etc.), and 23 per cent were in the Division of Social Sciences (Political Science, Sociology,etc.).NORC researchers found that one-quarter of allstudents seeking either a master's or doctorate degreewere enrolled in the nation's seven largest graduateschools — Columbia University, the University of Chicago, the University of California at Berkeley, theUniversity of Michigan, the University of Wisconsin,New York University, and the University of Minnesota.Some 82 per cent of the graduates were found tobe male, 18 per cent female. While 47 per cent of themen were single, 71 per cent of the women were single. Half of the students were between the ages of 24 and29. One-quarter were 30 or older.Students view their roleAmong the findings of the study were the following •The students like what they are doing. Very few ofthem eschew the PhD, although a number are notcertain that they will get one. Moreover, a clearmajority of the students prefer academic jobs, anda slight majority expect them — the discrepancy beingaccounted for by the 16 per cent of the sample whoprefer academic jobs but do not expect them, oftenbecause of their sex or academic record.Although often critical of specific aspects of graduate school, the students tend to be pleased with theirchoice of schools and optimistic about their vocationalfutures. Their personal esprit compares favorably wit*1the highest morale groups of enlisted men in theWorld War II army.What are they like?About half of the students were over 22 years o*age when they received their bachelor's degree; largelythis is accounted for by lower class origins and thenecessity of self support. In addition, a little more than40 per cent of the students were out of college ayear or more before they began graduate work. De"lay in starting graduate school after receiving theAB is only partly due to military service and economlCdifficulties. More commonly it seems to be due to latedevelopment of motivation for graduate studies, par*ticularly in the humanities and social sciences.Over-age students are disproportionately concen-4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZlN#. HERE'S another reason he's nota typical student: Sally Fama,his daughter Mary (2) and Gene,Jr. (8 months). They live onthe first floor of one of the University s rather elderly apartment buildings housing marriedstudents.Since they have been in Chicago,each member of the family hasbeen in the hospital at least once.Gene is proud that even throughhis bout with pneumonia hemaintained his straight "A" record. Sally and Gene find theUniversity community thrilling,and Gene might go into teaching . . ¦ "if they decide to payteachers.'November, i96itrated in the social sciences and humanities, and inwhat the study calls the "lower stratum" schools — interms of prestige, size and extent of academic offerings.Regardless of his academic progress, the typicalmale student marries around the age of 26, is fairlylikely to have a child by the time he has been married three years, and expects a child within the nexttwo years unless he has two children already or hasbeen married seven or more years without any children(Roman Catholics have and expect more children).Women students have a lower proportion marriedand a higher proportion expecting to be married thanmen, which suggests that women tend to drop out ofgraduate school when they get married.Income: Sources, TotalsGraduate students have income from sources rangingfrom National Science Foundation fellowships to royalties on a popular song. The median income of thestudents was approximately $400 per month, with anaverage of 15 per cent of income spent on education.The single most important source of income is "stipendincome," or income derived from scholarships, teaching assistantships, or research assistantships. Almosthalf of the students received $150 a month or moreincome from stipends, while 40 per cent received halftheir incomes from stipends.Also contributing to the students' incomes, in orderof importance, were: income from spouse's employment, income from part-time jobs, savings, veterans'benefits, full-time work, investments and borrowing.The authors of the study point out that these figureswere obtained before the government made it possible for students to obtain federal loans under theNational Defense Education Act (NDEA).Eighty-four per cent of the students believe thatthey have enough income to cover their expenses, 53per cent believe they have enough for their expensesplus a surplus for emergencies. Whether incomes areseen as adequate or not depends on the size of theincome and the size of the family it must support. Onthe average, it takes an income of $300 a month toput married men with no children in the same financial position^ as* single students receiving $200-299 amonth, and it takes over $500 a month for the fathersto achieve the same proportion as those who believetheir incomes are adequate. Thus the family is themajor determinant of financial situations:Single students have low incomes, low income needs,and seldom work full-time. Married women tend tohave high income and to be supported by workinghusbands. Childless married men tend to have highincomes, fairly high income needs, and working wivesto supplement their other income sources. Fathershave higher income needs than married men with nochildren, about the same income receipts, and appearto compensate for the loss of spouses' employmentby taking up full-time work (although the fact thata quarter of the wives of the married men with childrenare working is a striking one). Of all the groups, onlythe fathers seem to have financial troubles, and these are not due to low incomes but to jobs which divertthem from their studies."The Courses they can Afford"Since 91 per cent of the students indicated they d°not expect to borrow money, the researchers state:"It appears that the students decide how much moneythey need to prevent their going into debt, then raiseit, even if this means cutting down seriously on theiracademic progress. . . . The financial solvency otAmerican graduate students comes at the price ofmuch less formal education in a given year then theschools' catalogues would have one believe. It wouldappear that the students take as many courses as theycan literally afford, and no more."In support of this conclusion, the study reports thattwo-thirds of all students expecting to be employed i*11958-59 did not complete more than two-thirds of afull-time academic load. On the other hand, all but37 per cent of the students who weren't working finished more than this amount of work.StipendsSeventy-one per cent received some sort of stipend-About half had a non-duty stipend ( that is, one whichrequires no kind of service in return ) , about one-fourthhad a non-duty stipend worth $1,000 or more per yearover and above tuition costs. Four out of ten studentshad a duty stipend. Teaching assistantships weretwice as common as research assistantships — a littlemore than one out of four students holding a teachingassistantship.The NORC report indicates that many students havea better chance of obtaining some sort of stipend itthey study "the right thing at the right school" thanif they have a great deal of ability. For example;Natural Science students who were viewed as "poorPhD material by faculty members have almost the samechance for a stipend as Social Science and Humanitiesstudents who were rated "superior" or "excellent.,,And public school students who are rated as "p°or,PhD material have almost the same probability °*receiving a stipend as private school students rateu"exceptional" or "superior." In addition, PhD candi*dates generally receive more and better stipends thando master's candidates.Thus, stipends for students enrolled in NaturalSciences at some public schools have reached whathe study terms a "saturation point," since 85 per cenof PhD candidates in the Natural Sciences at largfpublic schools receive stipends. In 1958, federal sti'pends went to 27 per cent of Natural Science P*1^candidates, and ten per cent of the Social ScienCPhD candidates. Not a single Humanities PhD can"didate interviewed reported receiving a federal stipendSpouses, etc.Employment of some sort is characteristic of grad^'ate students. Students who have full-time jobs tenCONCLUDED ON PAGE 16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZlN#TWO ASPECTS OFTHE CIVIL WAR . . .and between them, a 12-foot wooden fence.The "Old University" of Chicago, and itsstrange neighbor, a Civil War prison camp,Well illustrated the experience ofwar which Walt Whitman described,"THE SOLDIERS IN COMPANIESOR REGIMENTS— SOME STARTING AWAY,FLUSH'D AND RECKLESS,"SOME, THEIR TIME UP, RETURNINGWITH THINN'D RANKS, YOUNG,YET VERY OLD, WORN,MARCHING, NOTICING NOTHING . . ."November, i96i IhE "Old University" of Chicago was incorporatedin 1857 and located on 10 acres of land, donated bySenator Stephen A. Douglas. Douglas was also president of the first board of trustees and helped draft theschool's charter. The University fulfilled the functionsof a preparatory department, college, and law schooluntil 1886 when it closed its doors because of financialdifficulties. Graduates of the Old University were later"adopted" by the present University when it was established, and they became active participants in thealumni organization.In the early 1860's the Old University occupied asingle building on 34th street near Cottage Grove surrounded by open plains and situated in a grove of oaktrees near the "edge" of town. (See Cover.) Its granitewalls' were adorned with a variety of arched windows,high towers, protective railings, and several turrets (notwo alike). Below these towers— which were still toonew to boast an ivy covering— the students, bustledladies and top-hatted men, walked. Here with fieryspeeches and bunting decked halls, they rallied to thecause of their day: "The War of the Rebellion.Responding to the spirit of patriotism in the air,nearly 100 of the student body of about 225 in 1861,joined the army in the War's first years. (This loss ofenrolment was actually one of the several events whichled to the failure of the University.) Other studentsvolunteered for the University Cadets.In their blue uniforms with brass buttons, shiningbelts and tasseled sashes, they trained for infantry dutyunder their student captain, Lansing B. Tucker Tucker,who, according to the University newspaper, had wonthe affection of the entire company as well as ot hisfellow students generally," for his efforts fell victim tothe War's most common killer, disease, and died soonafter joining the army. ,,„,., A c -*iOthers in the Cadets included Frederick A. Smith,'64, second lieutenant, and later circuit court judge in7Chicago, and Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed, '62, whobecame secretary of the Baptist Union TheologicalSeminary, and later of the second University of ChicagoBoard of Trustees. Wrote Goodspeed, "The Universityof Chicago men who went into the army were not rawrecruits. Before the War began, a military companyhad been organized. Its captain had drilled his command with the greatest zeal and the students whoentered the army were well trained and were preparedfrom the day of their mustering in for efficient service;many of them became commissioned officers."As the War lengthened and began to dominate theeveryday scene, student speakers became eloquent(some "declamation" speeches in 1863 were: "Loyaltyto the Union," "Conciliating the Rebellion," and "Extract from a War Sermon").This was the glory spirit which Walt Whitman described when he said, "The blood of the city up —arm'd! arm'd! the cry everywhere, the flags flung outfrom the steeples of churches and from all the publicbuildings and stores . . ." Yet, there was anotheraspect to the War which Whitman chronicled:"Arous'd and angry, I'd thought to beat the alarum, andurge relentless war,But soon my fingers fail'd me, my face droop'd and Iresign'd myself,To sit by the wounded and soothe them, or silentlywatch the dead . . ."A student with classes on the University building'snorth side, or with a dorm room, high in one of thenorthern turrets, could hardly escape the kind of viewwhich one student described as a "constant reminder ofthe country's peril." He said, "A high board fence extended along the north line of the campus, near thetop of which was an elevated walk where the soldierswith loaded muskets marched back and forth, guardingthe Confederate prisoners of war within CampDouglas."Another student, Herbert A. Howe, '75, observed oneday, "10,000 disarmed confederate prisioners — rugged,ragged, hungry-looking men accompanied by dapperlittle guards in blue — marched into this camp. I wondered why this throng of stalwart men did not snatchthe muskets from the well-groomed young fellows inblue, whom they must have outnumbered 20-1, andmake a dash for liberty."Conditions in Camp Douglas were bad — it wasoriginally built as a temporary site for training Unionrecruits. Later, when it was pressed into service as aprisoner of war camp, there wasn't adequate sanitation,it was too crowded, and rebels "died off like rottensheep," as one Union officer put it.But the Union commanders, who were always surethe war's end was near, thought improvements wereunnecessary. Smallpox, typhoid and pneumonia resultedin many deaths every day. A University student wrotethat the ground west of the University site served asone burial place for the camp's dead. And for someyears the sons of the University professors walked overthis tract to Sunday School, avoiding those graves whichwere sunken and carelessly kicking the rusty canteenswhich were scattered about.Some students along with other Chicagoans, tried to aid the poor "Johnny Rebs." Divinity students eagerlyministered to the prisoners' sins, and some got theirfirst preaching experience conducting services in thecamp on Sunday mornings. We can surmise too thatthe women students donned their starched white pinafores and entered the camp to nurse the sick andwounded — presumably on Monday morning after Sunday inspection had rid the prisoners of their "littledomestic broods."Northern and rebel loyalties colored the stories oflife in Camp Douglas. The rebels wrote about horrifying atrocities, while northerners thought life at CampDouglas was better than the Rebels had had back inthe South.Griffin Frost, a rebel soldier described his stay nextdoor to the Old University, in his Camp and PrisonJournal:Had we been a lot of horses under their careand keeping, we would have been provided for, byhaving good warm stables, to ward off the inclemency of the blast, and with plenty of goodsubstantial food to satisfy the cravings of ourappetites, but, being rebel prisoners we weredenied either of these essentials. . . . Outside otthe limits of the prison, might be heard the soundsof mirth, revelry and sport, while we were pinchedby cold, hunger and thirst, and rendered as miserable as the fiendish malice of our persecutors couldmake us. I presume that they were never in thecompany of gentlemen before, and they wishedto show their contempt for them as much as possible. If it had been a lot of wooly-headed negroesthey would have known better how to have behaved.After a visit to the camp, Edmund Kirke, a northernnews reporter described a very different picture, "AHof the prisoners at Camp Douglas are well-fed, well-clothed, and well-cared for in every way." He added,"Among the scores that I conversed with, not onecomplained of harsh treatment, and many admittedthat they fared much better than at home."Yet, the rebel complained, ". . . rations were reducedto a small piece of tough beef or pickled pork or breadwith occassionally some beans and a little vinegar,while Kirke said, "No better food than theirs was evertasted and with the best intentions I could not, for thelife of me, eat more than three fourths of the quantitythat is served out to the meanest prisoner."Likewise, the rebel wrote that Sunday inspection washeld "while standing in the cold; hundreds were frostbitten, and those who escaped contracted some disease,for the effect of which very many were carried to thatbourne from hence no traveler returns." But the northern reporter said, "The three hours review is an irksomeordeal to the prisoners, but blessed be the man whoinvented it, for it keeps the doctors idle, and gives aneasy life to the gravediggers."Each night, said the rebel, "At sundown the buglewas sounded and all the prisoners were obliged to g°to their bunks . . . and not a word was allowed to bespoken by us from the time the bugle sounded at sundown until its sounding at sunrise next morning." Andthe northern reporter gave this description:"At sunset the drums beat the 'retreat' and all the8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEprisoners gather to their quarters. . . . Then the candlesare lighted and each barrack presents a scene worthy°f a painter. Some are writing, some reading news-Papers or musty romances, some playing at euchre,seven-up, or rouge-et-noir, or more are squatted on thefloor or leaning against the bunks, listening to the company 'oracle' who, nursing his coattails before the stoveis relating 'moving accidents by flood and field,' fightinghis battles over again or knocking the rotten Union intoeverlastin' smash."**N editorial in 1863 from Index Universitatis, thefirst University newspaper:A year has rolled around since the issue of ourfirst paper, during which time have occurred manyimportant events. We had hoped that, before this,peace would be established in our land, and thatour old flag would now be floating above the rebelcapital, and every stronghold of the South. Butstill the war goes on. We hear the tramp of armiesand the thunder of their artillery. We see ourformidable navies drawn up before rebel forts andcities, and hear the booming of the guns andmortars. There are bloody battles yet to be fought.May the God of battles crown our arms withvictory!The following year, when the War seemed to bevirtually over, the University Cadets were to maketheir active contribution. "In the spring of 1864" writesThomas Goodspeed, "Grant began the campaign whichresulted in the capture of Richmond and the surrender°f Lee, and at the same time Sherman began his ad-Vance which culminated in the fall of Atlanta and the^arch to the sea. All the veterans in the northernarmies were needed in these great campaigns, which^ere intended to end the war and did end it by winning**•" To relieve them for this service, the governors ofseveral states, including Illinois, tendered to the President a force of 100,000 men to serve for a hundred daysand garrison posts, "repress guerrillas," and maintain°rder in the occupied areas of the South. Most of theUniversity Cadets volunteered, and Charles Hostetter,65, wrote, "The School record still bears the formalNotice of this action — 'excused for the remainder of theterm.' " He adds, "In this manner we spent our summervacation."The hundred-day volunteers ( who were in the 134thRegiment, Illinois Infantry), took half of the Universityclass of '65, and so many other students, the group wasdubbed the "University Guards." The Cadets spent the^mirier in Columbia and Mayfield, Kentucky, wherethey guarded prisoners, "repressed guerrillas," and genially kept in order the western border of Kentucky^hile Grant fought his way toward Richmond. After^turning to Chicago in September the Regiment wassent to St. Louis to avert Price's attack there.In late October when the students were finally mussed out, and enroled for fall term, their service hadWretched to over 150 days. Nearly all the Cadets reused the high bounties offered them to remain in thearmy, and most returned to their classes that fall.When the War of the Rebellion ended in 1865, thestudent body at the Old University of Chicago rejoiced, and Hostetter wrote the following entry in his diary:Monday, April 3, 1865— At 8:15 this morning,Richmond fell. So says the telegraph this noon,and the electric fluid is spreading the glad newsthroughout the length and breadth of the land. Allhearts are filled with rejoicing, for it is the harbinger of the end of the war. "Richmond is taken"resounds throughout the halls of our college. Werush to the roof to raise the old flag, and as itunfolds to the breeze, cheer after cheer goes up.Soldiers, citizens and workmen re-echo the shout,"Richmond has fallen!" Peace and prosperity seemto smile in the distance and gladden every heart.It is hard to think that Mr. Hostetter's sentimentswere shared by the men across the road from him.Two weeks later Hostetter's diary reflected a differentcampus mood, in the same emotional prose. What wasthen considered the final "rebellion blow" affected thecampus this way:Saturday morning, April 15, 1865 — Now comesthe news that President Lincoln has been shot. Fewcould believe it; so confident had we become thatthe rebellion had been crushed; that war wasvirtually ended and the bright dawn of peace wasat hand. That such a tale should be told, that sucha deed should be done, seemed incredible. Butsuch was the fact, and the news that he died earlyin the morning of the same day on which wereceived it could not be doubted. Who did notmourn when the sad intelligence came? Like afather and a friend to all, by each one was hemourned and acknowledged to be the best friendof the North and the South. The spirit of slaveryand of its minions is made visible by this outwardact. They have wreaked their revenge on aninnocent and just man, have even destroyed theirbest friend, a man in whom the whole nation hadconfidence. He had in his mind a plan for thespeedy reconstruction of the Union and had justbegun to carry it out. He was perhaps too lenientwith the rebels, but then, when we thought thatthey were our fellow-countrymen we all acquiescedand believed that he was doing the best that couldbe done under the circumstances. But God in hisProvidence has taken him away. In no other casedo I imagine that I can see so clearly the guidinghand of the Almighty, as in the life of AbrahamLincoln. He seems to have been born and rearedfor the part that he has performed in life.His tragic end prostrates the whole nation ingrief. The city is draped in the emblems of mourning. The streets but a few days ago were decoratedin the gayest holiday attire, with flags and bannerseverywhere. But today it seems like walking inthe grave, as you pass along the pavements, andthe banner of the nation, wherever it appears,hangs heavily with a deep, dark border of mourning. Such a transition from joy to sorrow thisnation or any other has never experienced. I wasvery busy, with others, procuring drapery andplacing it on the college. For the first time we havehung the arch over* the doorway of the main building with the emblems of mourning. ¦November, i96i 9THEATRE SEQUEL-Last month theMagazine featured a midwest theatreconference at the University, "Dialog:the American Theatre Today." TheDowntown Center of the University,which co-sponsored the conference, isoffering a continuing study-discussionprogram, "Dialog: the Lively Arts ofthe Theatre," for adult play-goers andmembers of community theatre groups.Each quarter there will be elevenweekly discussion sessions, and a generalworkshop session in which prominenttheatre professionals will participate.Carefully selected readings on the artsand crafts of the theatre and certainbasic plays, supported by audio-visualaids, will form the basis for study anddiscussion.One section of the class will meetat the Downtown Center, and othercommunity sections are now beingformed at selected suburban and neighborhood theatres throughout the Chicago area. Further information may beobtained from Norbert Hrubv, University of Chicago Downtown Center,64 East Lake Street.THE BIG PAY-OFF - Theodore W.Schultz, holder of the Charles L.Hutchinson Distinguished Service Chairof Economics, charged recently thatU.S. foreign aid programs have "grosslyneglected" the areas of "the really bigpay-off." He said, "The abundance ofmodern agriculture and industry is notto be had by a people who are predominantly illiterate and unskilled."Of past and present American programs to improve education in low-income countries, Mr. Schultz charged:-"too much stress has been placedon importing and too little on producingthe required skills and knowledge within the particular low-income countries;-"too much attention has been givento activities at the university level andall too little to developing elementaryand secondary schools within thesecountries;-"the training and instruction offeredto foreign students in the United Stateshas been too specific to the demandsfor skills and knowledge of our economyand thus, too remote from the demands(for such capabilities) of the economyof these low-income countries "He added, "We have put most of our money in public health,, industrial productivity!public and business administration, andin some trade schools and vocationaltraining. . . . Surely, we and they havebeen very shortsighted in the neglectthat this emphasis implies of elementary and secondary schools. Taking along period view, as one must in i'1'vesting in human capital, the reallylarge payoffs are likely to be in precisely the areas that have been sogrossly neglected."SCHEVILL PROFESSOR-EdwarcjLowinsky, distinguished pianist ancmusicologist, formerlv of the University of California, Berkeley, has beenappointed to the Ferdinand SchevillDistinguished Service Professorship atthe University. Mr. Lowinsky is serving as professor in the Department otMusic, teaching both undergraduateand graduate courses in music history,and continuing his own writing andresearch in the field of Renaissancemusic.Mr. Lowinsky, who was visiting p1'0'fessor of music at the University duringthe summer of 1949, is currently engaged in two major research projects;a two-volume work on Origins of Musical Expression, and an edition of theMedici Codex, a significant music"1manuscript of the Renaissance. TheSchevill chair was established in recognition of Lawrence A. Kimpton's service to the University as Chancellor, andnamed for Mr. Schevill, a historianwhose interests contributed to the design of the University's first generalcourse in the humanities in 1930.NEW ARGONNE STUDY CENTER"A center for high energy physics research will be built at Argonne National Laboratory near the site of th.eZero Gradient Synchrotron, it""0'billion volt atom smasher. The centerwill be a laboratory and office buildingwith space for more than 400 scientists and technicians including personnel of Argonne's High Energy Phys>c*Division as well as over 100 visitingmidwestern university professors a"'1students, who gather there for researchTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN^n e w s o F the quadrangles^ith the atom smasher. Constructionis expected to begin in April, 1962.In addition to an area of about 10,-000 square feet for experiment assembly and testing, the building will alsonave electronics laboratories, chemistrylaboratories, shops, darkrooms, anddata processing rooms for designingand building experimental equipmentj*nd for interpreting results. There willbe a lecture hall with a seating capacity°f 300 and a library and reading roomwith space for 10,000 volumes.The new building, as well as the£ero Gradient Synchrotron itself, willbe a focal point for high energy physicsresearch in the central United States/'said Dr. Roger Hildebrand, AssociateLaboratory Director for High EnergyPhysics.ENROLMENT-There are 690 newCollege students at the University thistall quarter, a decrease of five per centfrom the number of entering Collegestudents a year ago. With transfer students added into the figure, total undergraduates number one per cent overlast fall at this time. Graduate student enrolment is up two and a halfPer cent from last fall, and the totalnumber of students on campus is 6,175,a rise of two per cent over last year.TELL-TALE BREATH-By testing theradioactive breath of a mouse, scientists£an tell whether it has cancer, evenbefore any visible sign of a tumor.The scientists have not, however, comeUP with a new cancer detection method:the object of their experiments is tonnd the underlying biochemical cause°t cancer.George T. Okita, assistant professorln the Department of Pharmacology,and Esmat A. Ezz, a graduate student,rePort that in the experiment, radioactive carbon dioxide exhaled by the^ouse undergoes exacting laboratorytests. If the tests show that the mouse's£ells are changing their method oftuel-burning, then the mouse is cancer-Prone.Mr. Okita said in reporting the experiments to the First InternationalPharmacology Meeting in Stockholm,Sweden, August 22, that this work is probably the first evidence in a livinganimal of the hypothesis of Otto Warburg, 1931 German Nobel Prize winner. Mr. Warburg postulated thatcancer is the result of oxygen deprivation in the cell. As the cell grasps formore oxygen to stay alive, it switchesover its fuel-burning system to a primitive method of metabolism in whichless oxygen is required. This changein fuel-burning method converts thenormal cell into a cancer cell, Mr.Warburg demonstrated in a test-tube.For the experiment, cancerous andpre-cancerous mice were given injections of "biochemical intermediates,"—biochemicals that are immediatelyburned in the cell machinery. Andeach of these substances was taggedwith carbon14 a radioisotope.The mice were then placed in asmall chamber where all of the radioactive carbon dioxide exhaled by themouse was collected and measured.From these measurements, the scientistscomputed whether the C14-labelledbody fuels were being burned withinthe mouse's cells via a normal orprimitive method and they could alsomeasure the amount of radioactive carbon dioxide being exhaled.In both tumor-bearing and precancerous mice, there was a drop in"oxidative" or normal fuel burning andan increase in "glycolitic" or the moreprimitive fuel burning pattern, indicating the presence of cancerous cells orthe beginning of a metabolism changewhich would lead to cancer.DIG DEEPER— An increase in tuitionand fees at the University has beenannounced for the fall of 1962. Quarterly rates will rise from $385 to $485for both undergraduate (College) andgraduate students. This brings thetotal for the three-quarter academicyear to $1,455 compared with the current $1,155. As of 1961-62, tuition atHarvard was $1,250; at Columbia itwas $1,450.TRUSTEE-Benjamin E. Bensinger,president of the Brunswick Corporationof Chicago, was elected a member ofthe University's Board of Trustees onSeptember 14. Mr. Bensinger is alsodirector of the Inland Life InsuranceCo., and the American National Bank and Trust Company of Chicago andis on the Graduate School of BusinessAdvisory Council. His civic activitiesinclude directorships on the boards ofMichael Reese Hospital and the Chicago Council, Boy Scouts of America.POPULATION EXPLOSION ATHOME-The United States fails to seethe consequences of its population explosion, according to Philip M. Hauser,professor and chairman of the Department of Sociology and director of thePopulation Center at the University."As a matter of sound national policy,it is clear that the United States cannot indefinitely maintain its presentnational rate of increase— a rate atwhich the population doubles in aboutevery 40 years," he added.In a speech to the Tenth PacificScience Congress, August 29, at theUniversity of Hawaii, Mr. Hauser included among the "costs" of rapidpopulation growth in the U.S.:—the inundation of the schools, withattendant depreciation of the qualityof education;—the exacerbation of the physicalproblems of metropolitan areas— slum,blight, congestion, air pollution, watercontamination and shortages, and the"commuters' crisis;"—the threat of chronic unemploymentas postwar babies enter the labor forceat rates which challenge the capacityof the economy to absorb them;—the increased interventionism ofgovernment— federal, state, and local—as an inevitable consequence of increased interdependence and the morecomplex problems of metropolitanismas a way of life;—the quickened tempo of social andcultural change bringing greater frictions and tensions in urban living.He added, "The United States has,however, already gone a long waydown the road of controlling its rateof population growth. The postwarbirth rate, high as it is, is only halfof the U.S. birth rate in 1800. A furtherdecrease in the birth rate of about one-third would produce a growth of approximately .5 per cent per year. Atsuch a rate, population would doublein about 140 years instead of 40 andgreatly diminish the deleterious consequences of the population explosion."November, iwi nWhat kind of a WCRLD is itwhere a Beer is a punch in the Mosea Cake means Love, and ladies retire tothe TLB for a little peace and quiet?The world of P§yCH€LCGy, IN ADVERTISING naturally!I HOSE of you fortunate enough to have read TheHidden Persuaders and books of that type in the pastcouple years know that you haven't made a decisionon your own since you were an adult and probably notbefore that. Everything you've bought, you've boughtbecause of some subconscious motive or because somehidden persuader has made you buy it. And you areobviously here today because of powers outside yourcontrol. Those of you naive enough not to have readthose books probably think that you may be makingsome of these decisions on your own. But that's purelyfallacy as I'll try to point out.There is no question but what psychology has gotteninto advertising, certainly if you put it in terms ofpsychologists. That is, there are very few major advertising agencies today that don't have an office someplacewith a "Dr." on the door (also inside the office). Andthese people make fairly good money — about as muchas an account executive. So in terms of economiccriteria they are quite valuable. On the other handthere are a great many things they are not doing.I would like to discuss very briefly some of the thingsthat I think they are doing and some that they are notdoing in psychology in advertising.Many people believe that psychology in advertisingprovides something of a secret weapon. That is, asecret weapon with which you can induce the consumerto do lots of things that he probably would not want todo. This is the notion of hidden persuasion: that superiorknowledge which psychology gives about the innerworkings of the soul and of the mind gives the huckstera real advantage over the consumer. Well, that mightbe nice — I wouldn't personally object if we had thatpower — but unfortunately I think we don't, and I thinkwe don't for at least three reasons:First of all, it's hardly economically sound to try thiskind of persuasion. You can obviously get a kid to thecircus much more easily than you can get him to thedentist. And so no advertising man, let alone psychologist, spends a great deal of time and trouble trying toinduce people to do things that people do not or wouldnot ordinarily want to do.Secondly, they couldn't if they wanted to. That is, Iknow of no way that psychology, or even psychiatry,for that matter, can have a very great impact on people in an area beyond that in which they want to cooperatewith you. For example, take something like psychotherapy. An individual goes to a psychoanalyst for fouryears, four hours a week, pays him lots of money f°rthe privilege. And then, maybe, a small percentage orthe time, the analyst is successful in producing someeffect — and never anything beyond that which thepatient is willing to tolerate. Try to imagine a oneminute commercial going direct to the subconscious,inducing people to do things that they really do notwant to do!And finally you have the realities of the competitivemarket place. Let's say that psychologists could, thatadvertising could in fact, induce people to do things insome unfair way. Soon every airline would have apsychologist, every railroad, every automobile manufacturer and every home builder. It's a little difficultto see how all these psychologists could be gettingpeople to spend their money the way they want themto spend it since there is a limited amount of moneyavailable. In other words, even if this kind of powerwere available, it would very quickly cancel itself outsince everyone would be pulling in a different direction— just as advertisers already do without the advice ofpsychologists.If these are the things they cannot do, then what coflpsychology do, in principle, and what does psychologydo in fact in advertising?First of all, one of its chief functions: it helps sellthe agency to clients. This is an innovation of the lastten years and for quite a while it was very effective tohave more or better or more Viennese psychologiststhan the other agency had, especially since the clientdoesn't pay for it. ( The agencies are on a straight commission basis. They simply get 15 per cent of thebillings. )Beyond that, psychological theory has for better otworse a profound effect on advertising. For example20 to 30 years ago psychologists were experimentingwith conditioned response and getting the dog to salivate by ringing a bell and presenting some food. Psychologists of that day who went into advertising or whoinfluenced it produced all those campaigns that someof us remember: the ad nauseam repetition of things.Well, if it takes 150 exposures to get a dog to salivate12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGARY A. STEINERof the Graduate Schoolof business gave this talkto alumni last Juneto the ringing of a bell, it must take at least that much*° get a housewife to salivate, and even more for a man.The past ten or fifteeen years psychology did an aboutface from the study of habit to the study of more globalaspects of personality and behavior. Accordingly, wehad a revolution in advertising called the revolutiontoward "image advertising," in which the concern iswith the total picture presented by the product, verysimilar to the total personality in psychology. So psychological theory is reflected in different fads of advertising.But the most important function of the psychologist inadvertising is research: Consumer research probablyoccupies most of the time and most of the considerations°f psychologists in advertising today. And this is againthe sign of the times; everyone is a scientist today. Insome agencies they even wear white lab coats, or walkaround with slide rules in their pockets.¦ HIS research is directed to two major questions. Thefirst has to do with perception; that is, how do individualssee the world? And most importantly of course, howdo they see the products we make, how do they see°ur competitor's product? One thing psychology has'earned in the past couple of decades is that all thethings you and I learned about perception when wewent to school are not true. You remember learningthat the eye is like a camera; well, that's not true. Yousee a lot of things that aren't there, and you fail to seea lot of things that are there. This has a lot to do withwhat you expect, what you want to see, what you donot want to see, etc. I'll give you just one illustration ofhow this affected a large scale campaign in advertising.There was a beer on the market several years ago,still on the market today; the story I'm going to tell youhas to do with several years ago. Its sales had beenskidding for some time whereas most of the other beershad been selling well. And when you went out andasked people why they were not drinking it or why theypreferred another beer, the answer was very simple:"It's too harsh, it doesn't taste good, it's a strong beer.I prefer a light, mild beer." That's reasonable and sothe brand considered, I suppose, revising its formulato make itself a little milder. I don't know whether they did it or not; I wasn't working for them. But the problem persisted — sales kept going down — it kept being a"harsh" beer, which people were not drinking.I was then associated with an agency that wassoliciting the account, so we started doing research onthe problem. The first thing we did was to run whatwe call a "blind" taste test. We simply took bottles ofthis and of every other beer, took the labels off, cooledthem all to the same temperature, and proceeded toget everyone drunk. And we found out very quicklythat our brand was indiscernable in taste from theother beers, including for those people who would tellyou "I don't drink X because it's harsh."Next, we wanted to find out how is it that the branddid have this image. We began a series of surveys, andone of the things we found out very quickly was thatcertain things frequently came to mind when theythought of our beer — the locker room in a gym, a bellringing, strong men hitting each other on the nose.And then if you ask them what kind of people drink it,they would tell you prize fighters and steam fitters andtruck drivers. I mean, these guys aren't panty waistswho are going to drink a mild light beer.Where did they get this image? Obviously from themany successful years that this beer sponsored the TVprize fights. In terms of how many viewers they couldbuy for their dollar, there has rarely been a moresuccessful television presentation. But what was happening? By association with those fights, the beer wasseen more and more as a harsh masculine beer— andpeople were giving it up. And what kind of people weregiving it up— the beer buyers. And who were the beer-buyers— the women. In this country today, more andmore of the beer is bought by women, for the simplereason that it is consumed at home, and much of it inthe suburbs. It used to be that beer was drunk intaverns; the largest percentage by far was drunk intaverns. Today, the percentage consumed at home isgoing up and up. And as proof we looked at Wisconsin—where there is still a lot of beer drunk in barsby men— and sales were holding up.Well, we didn't get the account, so we werent ableto put this marvelous discovery into practice. But the1 CONTINUED ON PAGE UNovember, i96i 13SPACE AGE DEPARTMENT14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE^ NEW department, planned to provide unifiedscientific investigation of mans immediate surroundings, the resources of our planet, and the phenomenain outer and inner space, is offering its first coursesthis fall. Under the chairmanship of Sverre Petterssen,world-famous meteorologist and holder of many scientific and governmental awards, the Department ofGeophysical Sciences will investigate the environment°f man from a space age point of view.Mr. Petterssen says, "Weather can no longer beviewed as an isolated element of environment. To beProductive, meteorological research must be connectedwith investigations of the earth's surface and its interior and with the study of how the earth 'communicates' with the sun."Our search is for basic principles of environmentwhich are valid not only for this planet but for otherPlanets as well. In this way the whole solar systembecomes the domain of the new Department of theGeophysical Sciences."Members of the new Department of GeophysicalSciences gather at a stairway in the Meteorology Bulldog next door to Alumni House. On the first landingfrom left to right are:JVERRE PETTERSSEN, chairman of the department,formerly head of the Department of Meteorology anddirector of the Weather Forecasting Research Center.Known as the scientist who put mathematics intoweather forecasting, he has directed his research toward improving the reliability of weather predictions.Mr. Petterssen came to the University in 1952 and isPast president of the American Meteorological Society.JULIAN R. GOLDSMITH, associate chairman of thedepartment, is professor of geochemistry and associatedean of the Division of the Physical Sciences. He hasbachelor's and doctor's degrees from the University.His research has involved the chemical investigationof geological materials, their crystal structures andequilibrium conditions at high temperature and highPressure.HORACE R. BYERS, professor of meteorology andformer chairman of that department, is director of theGloud Physics Laboratory. His investigations otthunderstorms provided the first authentic model otthese phenomena.WALTER H. NEWHOUSE, professor of economicgeology, is investigating the relationships between theconcentrations of chemical elements in rocks and theirstructural features. He was chairman of the Department of Geology from 1946-57.D- JEROME FISHER, professor of geophysical sci-ences has been at the University since 1912 when hecame as a senior at the University High School. Mr.\isher, who will retire soon after 41 years of service tothe University, is currently president of the International Mineralogy Assn.ROBERT N. CLAYTON, on the faculty since 195b,ls assistant professor in the Department of Chemistryand the Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies. Hehas applied stable isotope techniques in geological^search to gain quantitative information about trietemperature and pressure under which rocks and minerals were formed in the earth's crust.November, i96i HANS RAMBERG, professor of petrology in the Department of Geology, joined the faculty in 1947. Hisresearch is on the metamorphic and plutonic rockswhich make up the greater portion of the continentalcrust of the earth.RALPH G. JOHNSON, assistant professor of paleontology, has a Ph.D. from the University. He worksat both the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution andat the Pacific Marine Station on the dynamics andstructure of marine communities, their modificationin evolution, and the history of extinct marine life.JOSEPH V. SMITH, professor of mineralogy andcrystallography in the Department of Geology cameto the University in 1960. The British-born and educated scientist does research on the mineral and structural properties of geological materials which dependon temperature.J MARVIN WELLER, professor of invertebrate paleontology in the Department of Geology, has all hisdegrees from the University. He is investigating thedevelopment of a method to estimate the structureof ancient animal populations on the basis ot information from fossil records. 9ROSCOE R. BRAHAM, JR., who has masters anddoctor's degrees from the University, has been associate professor in the Department of Meteorology andassociate director of the Cloud Physics Laboratorysince 1954. His research is aimed at the developmentof a scientific basis for weather modification and con-TOHN C. JAMIESON, associate professor in the Department of Geology, holds three degrees from theUniversity. He has studied the physical condition inthe interior of the earth, and particularly the behaviorof geological materials under conditions of high pressure and high temperature.On THE second landing from left to right are:E PAUL McCLAIN, who has a bachelor s degree fromthe University, is assistant professor in the Departmentof Meteorology. His research is on weather and motioncystems, and currently, on storm development in NorthAmerica and the effects of mountain ranges on mobileweather systems.DAVE FULTZ, head of the Hydrodynamics Laboratory and professor in the Department of Meteorology,does research on the dynamics of atmospheric motionwith extensions to related types of motion, particularlyin the oceans.EVERETT C. OLSON, chairman of the Departmentof Geology since 1957, has three degrees from theUniversity" and is a paleontologist. His research includes studies of the evolutionary process in extinctvertebrates based on fossil records.GEORGE W. PLATZMAN, professor in the Department of Meteorology, has bachelor's and doctors de-wees from the University. His current research is onSe meteorological effects of wind tides over water.WILFRED ELDERS, who joined the faculty on September 1, has recently studied at the University ofOsk T Norway, for two years. His specxalty is hardrock petrology.15STIPENDS— CONTINUED FROM PAGE 6to be characterized by high-paying professional andmanagerial occupations, heavy family responsibilities,retardation in academic progress, and concentrationin the lower stratum private schools, which are adaptedto their needs.The spouses of women students tend to have quitegood jobs, the spouses of men students tend to havefairly good jobs. The rate of employment of the students' wives is, not surprisingly, a "joint function offertility and economic pressures."Less than a quarter of the students were receivinghelp from parents and/or in-laws. The major reasonreported for not receiving parental aid is "I don'tneed any." Among students who "need" parental aid,the proportion receiving it varies directly with theclass level of the parental family and the family's orientation toward higher education.Borrowing is rare, savings are common in thesample. The best predictor of borrowing is extantindebtedness.Who's Worried?Graduate students typically worry less about theirfinances than the general American population. Because financial worries are strongly affected by anticipated and existing debts, the persistent tendencyto avoid debt, documented in the survey, goes somedistance in explaining the low level of worry amongthe students.Worry is greater for students who feel their situationis worse that that of their friends, regardless of perceived adequacy of income. Students were asked,"Compared with other graduate students you know,would you say that your financial situation is — MuchBetter, Slightly Better, About the Same, Slightly Worse,or Much Worse?" "Relative deprivation" affects worryregardless of income adequacy. Among the studentswho expect a surplus, but feel they are worse off thantheir friends, more are worried than among those whoonly expect to come out even, but feel their situationis much better or slightly better than that of theirfriends.Employment per se adds to worry, unless its financialreturn is high. The result is that students with part-time jobs or assistantships are more worried than thosewith no job at all. The researchers observe, "Therelatively high worry levels of those students withpart-time jobs or assistantships appear to stem from thefollowing: That they must work at all makes themmore worried than those students with fellowships orother sources which keep them free of employment;that they work only part-time, however, makes themmore worried than the full-time workers who earn aconsiderable amount of money. Because a little morethan half of the students fall into the part-time jobor assistantship classification, this effect is fairly important. While, over-all about one-third of the students are worried about money, all other things equal,if the part-time workers and assistantship holderscould be kept from working at all, the worry proportion would drop to 23 per cent. The possibility is remote, but it does illustrate that, beneath the surface,the American system for financing graduate educationby means of duty stipends and part-time jobs doesadd to the financial worries of the students.Because anticipated salaries do not correlate withcurrent incomes, some students expect a big increasein income when they complete their studies, someanticipate a lowered annual income. Natural sciencestudents have higher income expectations than humanities students and social scientists tend to fall in themiddle. This is true regardless of sex, academic stageor career plans. Non-academic jobs, except in thehumanities, offer higher salary expectations.The higher the current income and the lower theexpected starting salary for PhD candidates, thegreater the proportion of students who expect to takemore than five years for their PhD. The suggestion isthat the students' perhaps unrealistic pessimism abouttheir financial futures, in combination with their ratherhigh current incomes, result in a lessening of incentiveto complete the PhD with unseemly haste.How do they stick?Students interested in research have low drop outrates; students interested in neither teaching or research have high drop out rates. Self-defined intellectuals have low drop out rates.Natural science students have low drop out rates,humanities students have high drop out rates, socialscience students tend to be in the middle.Full-time workers have high drop out rates, assistants have low drop out rates, other students (thosewith fellowships, part-time jobs, or no employment)are in the middle.Older students and fathers have higher drop outrates.Study Director Davis Comments"The picture drawn from our research is both optimistic and pessimistic."The optimistic tone stems from the fact that Artsand Science graduate students have fewer immediatefinancial problems than we feared when the researchbegan."The pessimism arises from the series of findingswhich suggest that our system of graduate educationis essentially wasteful in terms of the working livesof the country's brightest young people."Too many graduate students start their studies afterbeing out of college for a year or more, and too manywork their way through — on or off the school's payroll— so that PhD's are far too often on the verge of middleage before their training is completed."The sharp differences in financial help in differentfields of study and types of schools suggest that thisnation has a long way to go before we can say thatwe are providing real encouragement for excellenceacross the board in arts and science graduatetraining." ¦16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBOOKS: WE'VE BEEN COLLECTING INTERESTING NEW BOOKSBY FACULTY AND ALUMNI ALL SUMMER LONG.HERE'S A LISTING AND SOME PROVOCATIVE PASSAGES WE FOUND WHEN WE WERETHUMBINGT#E ADOLESCENT SOCIETYBY JAMES S. COLEMAN"THE FREE PRESS OF GLENCOE(CROWELL-COLLIER)368 pp.boys in whiteBy BECKER, GEER, HUGHES.AND STRAUSSUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS458 PP., $10.00William kornhauser inculture and socialcharacterEdited by lipset, lowenthalthe free press of glencoe( crowell-collier )466 pp.; $7.50 As our society moves more and more away from the era of farm and smalltown the family has less chance to train its adolescents-not only in theiroccupation, but in all areas of life. It was once true that the major interactionbetween a father and son were in the father's activities-helping with his work,or in jobs around the house. In these activities, the boy learned adult workand adult responsibilities. Now the major interactions must be in the son'sactivities-Little League baseball, Boy Scouts, and play activities of varioussorts. The father's participation brings him into the son's world; but the songets no chance to move into the father's world. (Every teacher knows thedistinction between the teacher who becomes popular with students by comingdown to their level, and the teacher who gains his popularity-or at leastrespect-by bringing them up to his level. The first type of teacher has losthis potential for influence, for he has tacitly agreed to become like them,rather than the reverse.)I asked Perry whether there were any kinds of patients he preferred. Hesaid, "There are a lot of things around here you have to get used to and youget used to them pretty quick. I thought I would not like it having patientsthat might die, but I've had patients die on me now-I went to a post-mortemthis morning— and it doesn't really bother you too much. I guess you kindof get calloused about it. Especially little infants. When they die there's justno feeling about that anymore than I suppose there would be when old peopledie. I'll tell you the kind that bother me are some of these kids that we'vehad in here. Like that kid who was up on the third floor, seventeen-year-oldkid, big good-looking blond kid. He dived off a diving board and hit his headon the bottom of the swimming pool and he was paralyzed from the neckdown and I imagine hell stay that way for the rest of his life. Now somethinglike that really seems like a terrible waste, and that's pretty unpleasant tosee." Moore said, "Yeah, those things depress me too. I don't like that at all.We've had two or three kids here like that who have fallen off things, fallenoff bikes, and who landed on their heads and done serious damage to theirbrains. They're just never going to be the same, and that's pretty unpleasantto see."In the 50's two books appeared purporting to describe the structure of powerin present-day America. They reached opposite conclusions: where C. WrightMills found a "power elite," David Riesman found "veto groups." Both bookshave enjoyed a wide response, which has tended to divide along ideologicallines. It would appear that The Power Elite has been most favorably receivedby radical intellectuals, and The Lonely Crowd has found its main responseamong liberals. Mills and Riesman have not been oblivious to their differences.Mills is quite explicit on the matter: Riesman is a "romantic pluralist" whorefuses to see the forest of American power inequalities for the trees of short-run and discrete balances of power among diverse groups. . . . Riesman hasbeen less explicitly polemical, but he might have had Mills in mind when hespoke of those intellectuals "who feel themselves very much out of powerand who are frightened of those who they think have the power, and who"prefer to be scared by the power structures they conjure up than to face thepossibility that the power structure they believe exists has largely evaporated. . . ."November, i96i 17THE ADOLESCENT SOCIETY: by JamesS. Coleman. The Free Press of Glencoe,Inc., 1961, 368 pp.Mr. Coleman has comprehensively explored and analyzed the students and theirself-established social systems in ten highschools in widely varied communities— fromsmall rural towns to large urban centers.He lias related the differences between theschools to the students' value systems. The"elites" of these subcultures, their attitudes,interests and achievements are considered,as are the effects on adolescents of theValues of their societies, of the social rewards for athletic, scholastic, and 'popular" prowess. The author has examinedthe various adolescent societies, the specialeffects of early maturity, and the effectsof the structure of the activities in theschool. This book, which is interestinglywritten with generous use of tables, graphsand original statistics, should be of concernto everyone interested in youth and theireducation— whether as a professional or asa parent. One of Mr. Coleman's assistantswas John W. C. Johnstone, AM'55, PhD'61.AMERICAN PROTESTANTISM: by Win-throp S. Hudson, PhD'40. The University of Chicago Press, 1961, 224 pp.,$3.95.A history which evaluates the development of the Protestant churches in America,their weaknesses and their strengths, anddie pattern throughout that makes them allpart of a Protestantism that is specificallyAmerican. Mr. Hudson stresses that thetendency to depart from theology— to feelthat as long as people are going to church,they need not subscribe to any particulardoctrine— has brought about a loss of Protestant identity.ANEURIN BEVAN-CAUTIOUS REBEL:by Mark M. Krug, PhD'60, assistant professor of education in history, Universityof Chicago. A. S. Barnes-Thomas Yose-loff Co., 1961.A political biography of the famed British labor leader.BOYS IN WHITE - STUDENT CULTURE IN MEDICAL SCHOOL; byHoward S. Becker, '46, AM'49, PhD'51,research associate, Department of Sociology; Blanche Geer; Everett C. Hughes,PhD'2S, professor of sociology; and An-selm Strauss, AM"42, PhD'45.A pioneering and important study ofthe students at a state medical school.The students' common understanding oftheir roles, their attitudes toward the faculty, and their conception of the medicalprofession, its ideals and practicalities, areall analyzed. The frequent use of directquotations from the students, lend life andpungency to a book of special interest tosociologists and medical and generaleducators.CONTEMPORARY PSYCHO-THERAPIES: edited by Morris Stein, formerassociate professor of psychology, University of Chicago. The Free Press ofGlencoe, Inc., 1961, 386 pp., $7.50.A book containing a series of lectures on psychotherapy which was sponsored by theDepartment of Psychology at the Universityduring 1958 and 1959. Ten therapistspresent their approaches to psychotherapyand discuss their current thinking aboutsignificant issues in the therapeutic process.Major theoretical orientations representedare Adlerian, Client-Centered, Existential, THE INFORMED HEART: by BruoOBettelheim, principal, Sonia ShankmaflOrthogenic School, and professor of edU"cation, psychology and psychiatry, Ur>|*versily of Chicago. The Free Press <*Glencoe, Inc., 1961, 309 pp., $5.00.Mr. Bettelheim offers a challenge^ t°self-fulfillment in a world of the organiza-Interactional, Interpersonal, Psychoanalytic, tion man and seemingly overpowering tccfrReparative-Adaptational, and Transactional, nology. From his experiences in Dacha*plus group therapy and family therapy, and Buchenwald— purposely contrived set-Roy R. Grinker, '21, MD'21, now director tings for the dehuina'nization of man-'1of the Institute for Psychosomatic and Psy- derives an opposite pattern for new into*chiatric Research and Training at Michael gration and a deepening of vision whic"Reese Hospital, Chicago, has contributed accepts the challenge of modern mas*two chapters on Transactional therapy. society and makes it serve the full hurnaoCULTURE AND SOCIAL CHARACTER-THE WORK OF DAVID RIESMANREVIEWED: edited by Seymour M.Lipset and Leo Lowenthal. The Free life. In order to achieve this, the authorsays, we must have an informed heart!"No longer can we be satisfied with a Wwhere the heart has its reasons wb»c»reason cannot know. . . . The daring hearmust invade reason with its own livingPress of Glencoe, Inc., 1961, 466 pp., warmth ;ven if the svmmetry of reosO»* must give way to admit love and the pu*A symposium of nineteen essays by 26 sation of life."scholars who give an overall view of thereception accorded fiiesman's theory ofinner- and other-direction, during the yoarssince it was first presented in The LonelyCrowd, published just over a decade ago.These are critical evaluations— pro, con,and developmental— by major scholars inthe disciplines affected by Ricsman's work. THE INQUIRING M.1ND-A STUDY OfTHE ADULT WHO CONTINUES T"LEARN: by Cyril O. Iloule, PhD*£professor of education, University of^Cn 'cago. The University of Wisconsin VtBS .1961, 87 pp., cloth, $5.00, paper, $1-^An analysis of the nature and activityThe editors point out, however, that the 0f the continuing learner-the first substances are not designed to nraise nr nttnrV tiai effort )o kui]ci an understanding ®adult education through a study_ of »'studies are not designed to praise or attack tial effort to build an understandingThe Lonely Crowd, but to determine why ' ' ¦¦>---(this is an important book, where in thegeneral course of intellectual thought itsmain ideas come from, to what extent itsformulations are intellectually rigorous oropen to criticism, and to report researchfor which the ideas of the book have beenuseful." In a concluding section, Mr. Riesman and Nathan Glazer report developments and changes in their own points ofview since the first publication of theirwork, with special reference to their re- sponse to the studies represented in this eated view of the past as it relates tovolume. Contributors include, Arthur Brod- presentbeck, '44; Robert D. Hess, PhD'50, asso- ..ciate professor, Committee on Human De- THE KENNEDY CABINET by Dea"?yelopment at the University of Chicago; ('48) and David Heller, '43, JD*''William Kornhauser, '48, AM'50, PhD'53; Monarch Books (paperback), 159 pP"and Sheldon L. Messinger, '47. individual-based on the author's fcctur<fas Knapp Visiting Professor at the U«»versity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.INVITATION TO THE ROMANCE OJHISTORY: by Lorentz I. Hansen, ^AM'15. Exposition Press, Inc., 1»0J"$3.00. . AA handbook to the study and learninghistory which suggests techniques for m^tering an orderly, patterned and uncoinR35c.EUROPE-OR UP AND DOWN WITHSCHREIBER AND BAGGISH: by Rich- JOC. fayThe Hellers have done a succinct, »man interest series of profiles withtoiical backgrounds on the departrncJ. Edward Day, ('35). "The wittJ*, -j j. „„waru uay, \ w/. ix.t. .,arcl O. Stern, assistant professor of Eng- man in Washington. The only other PAlish, University of Chicago. McGraw- son in government who can compete wHill Book Company, Inc., 1961, 213 pp., him in the brilliant bon mot . . > if £a j,$4.95. * " PP"A light-hearted novel about the escapades of three American men who flee to Stevenson." Ralph Nicholson, '3& tnoted as an Assistant Postmaster GeneAbraham Ribicoff, ('33), "The CJ»jEurope (for reasons as varied as their Grant of politics: handsome, suave .ages, fortunes and past?) in three separate loaded with talent ... yet no g^'^e-pursuits of "experience"-and encounter an ing politician. "Sincere' might be a "5-IN RE^t18 imaginative, fresh collection of fellow inno- worc* descriptioncents and not-so-innocents abroad. The au- „rl „-thors characters are essentially human MODERN DANCE FORMS-IN H^jjdespite their eccentricities; he likes the TION TO THE OTHER MO}**people he makes fun of, and persuades ARTS: by Louis Horst and Cotton*the reader to sympathize with them-and sell, '43. Impulse Publication, San *""¦rrfrv Ml' ?^n haS written another novel, cisco, 1961, 149 pp. ,jedUULK, and has written many reviews, The authors have compiled a dew"articles poems and stories in Kent/on Re- study of modern dance for the chore e{c'etf'Werfern Recfew, Epoch, Prize Stories rapher and composer, including r"10' -jof 1954, and elsewhere. CONCLUDED ON PAGETHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZ^THE INFORMED HEARTBY BRUNO BETTELHEIMTHE FREE PRESS OF GLENCOE(CROWELL-COLLIER )309 PP., $5.00 For example, both Jews and SS behaved as if psychological mechanisms comparable to paranoid delusions were at work in them. Both believed that members of the other group were sadistic, uninhibited, unintelligent, of an inferiorrace, and addicted to sexual perversions. Both groups accused each other ofcarina only for material goods and of having no respect for ideals, or for moraland intellectual values. In each group there may have been individual justification for some of these beliefs. But the strange similarity indicates that both"roups wore availing themselves of analogous mechanisms of defense. Moreover, each group thought of the other in terms of a stereotype and was thusprevented from realistically evaluating any member of the other group andthus its own situation. Unfortunately members of minority groups, in myexample the Jews, were much more in need of being able to reason clearly.the inquiring mindby cyril o. houleuniversity of wisconsin^RESS87 PP., $5.00 The desire to learn, like every other human characteristic, is not shared equallyby everyone. To judge from casual observation, most people possess it onlyfitfully and in modest measure. But in a world which sometimes seems tostress the pleasures of ignorance, some men and women seek the rewards ofknowledge-arid do so to a marked degree. They read. They create or joingroups in order to share their studies. They take courses. They belong toorganizations whose aims are wholly or partly educational. They visit museumsand exhibits, they listen to radio and watch television with discrimination, andthey travel to enlarge their horizons. The desire to learn seems, in fact, topervade their existence. They approach life with an air of openness and aninquiring mind.No sharp lino divides such people from the rest of mankind. Like the beautiful, the gifted, or the intelligent, they possess to a marked degree what, allmen' and women have in some measure. Everyone might be placed somewhereon a single scale ranging from the most avid to learn to the most incurious,if only we knew what kind of progression to set up and how to establish itsstages. But even those at the lowest end of any such scale would still havesome wish to leam. It would be hard to think of any adult so content witha semi-vegetative routine of eating, working, sleeping, and staring at thebasilisk eye of television that he does not sometimes wonder, and act as aresult of his wonderment. Even Ortega y Gasset's "mass-man," whose imagehas so greatly influenced modern sociology, must occasionally learn how tobe more like everyone else.robert m. hutchins, formerchancellor, university ofchlcago, reviewing leoszilard'sthe voice of the dolphins,Bulletin of the atomicscientists, september, 1961 How bright are the dolphins? This study leaves the question unsettled. Weare told that their intelligence "far surpasses" that of mankind. They are,however unable to advance any ideas for the salvation of the world that hadnot been previously put forward by Leo Szilard. This means either that thesalvation of the world is an even more difficult problem than we had supposedor that Szilard's intelligence far surpasses that of the rest of mankind. Iembrace the latter alternative. It seems possible that Szilard is a dolphin.There is some internal evidence for this. Not only do the dolphins think likeSzilard; they also speak (at least in translation) in the same style. In writingof the offers made him before his trial as a war criminal, Szilard says, "Howmany years would it take me to get a sufficient command of Russian to beable to turn a phrase and to be slightly malicious without being outright offensive? No, I did not want to go to Russia."The voice of the dolphinsBy LEO SZILARDSIMON AND SCHUSTERl22 PP., $3.00 As the reader may recall, Gamov, a member of the staff of the Vienna Institute had married the sister of one of his American colleagues and did notreturn in 1990 to Russia, but joined the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California.Upon his retirement ten years later, he began to write the Conversations.In his book he relates that the dolphins, who grasped mathematics, chemistry,physics and biology with ease, found it difficult to comprehend America's socialand political system. The American staff members whose task it was to explainAmerica to Pi Omega Ro were at times so exasperated by the questions askedby this dolphin that they asked Gamov, who spoke flawless English, to cometo their rescue. Thus, on one occasion, Pi Omega Ro asked whether it wouldbe correct to assume that Americans were free to say what they think, becausethey did not think what they were not free to say. On another occasion, heasked whether it would be correct to say that in America honest politicianswere men who were unable to fool others without first fooling themselves.November, iqgi 19composition, and elements, backgroundsand sources of the dance. In their analysesof dance forms they have suggested musical accompaniments and specified thedance exercises and ideas related to each.But, the book is also an expression ofmodem dance as art, and an attempt torelate it to the other forms of arts. Profuseillustrations of painting, sculpture andprints as well as dance positions, depictmodern dance as an integral part of theart scene and relate it to specific modemart movements such as expressionism, cere-bralism, jazz, etc. As a result the book isof interest not only to dancers and choreographers, but to all those interested inart and its varied forms of expression.NATHANAEL WEST-AN INTERPRETATIVE STUDY: by James F. Light,'45, AM'47. Northwestern UniversityPress, 1961, 220 pp., $4.75.Nathanael West's four short, powerfulnovels have been widely acclaimed andWest is regarded as the foremost exponentof American literary surrealism. Mr. Lighthas done a noteworthy work in constructing from available sources and personalinterviews, a perceptive and informativestudy of West. Mr. Light traces out thethreads of West's life and illuminates therelationship between his life and his work,his personality and his art. With detailedanalysis of each novel, the artistic influences which molded it are shown. Mr.Light reveals that West's art both reflectsand transcends its time, so that the socialcriticism in his novels becomes an eternalindictment of human cruelty.THE OBOE PLAYER: by James L. Weil,'50. The Golden Quill Press, 63 pp.,$2.75.A collection of poetry, by a modernmetaphysical poet, who specializes in thetight craft of interlocking puns; he is editorof Elizabeth, a journal of modern Elizabethan and metaphysical poetry.PERSISTENT ISSUES IN AMERICANLIBRARIANSHIP: editor, Lester As-heim, PhD'49, dean of the GraduateLibrary School, University of Chicago.The University of Chicago Press, 1961,$3.75.These papers from the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Conference of the Graduate Library School are devoted to an explorationof current trends and future possibilities inthe field of library services. Published fromthe Library Quarterly, January, 1961.PERSPECTIVES IN AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE CHANGE: edited byEdward H. Spicer, Ph.D'39. The University of Chicago Press, 1961, 549 pp.,$10.00.Mr. Spicer and five contributors including Edward M. Bruner, PhD'54, and EvonZ. Vogt, '41, AM'46, PhD'48, have reportedhere their studies of the acculturation ofsix American Indian tribes. The studieshave in common a systematic frameworkof investigation and analysis so the editor'scomparisons and generalizations representa real advance in forming an acceptablecross-cultural analytic scheme. POEMS ON PERTINENT TOPICS: byErwin P. Zeislcr, '07. Pageant, 1961,$2.75.A book of lyrical poems published underthe pen name of Walter Erwin.POLITICAL DECISION MAKERS: editedby Dwaine Marvick. The Free Press ofGlencoe, Inc., 1961, 347 pp., $7.50.A series of articles which study the recruitment, socialization and professionaliza-tion of public policy-makers. Using variedtypes of inquiry and evidence, the thirteencontributing authors have tried to showhow policymakers acquire their sensitivities, skills, loyalties and performance standards. The methodology of the articlesranges from several kinds of interviewingto participant observation; and the subjectmatter, from the politicians of newly emerging states to American state legislators.Among the contributing authors are: Harold D. Lasswell, '22, PhD'26, of Yale University, and Edward A. Shils, '37, professorof sociology, on the Committee on SocialThought, University of Chicago.POPULAR CONCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH: by Jum C. Nimnally,Jr., PhD'52. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1961.The results of a study by psychologistsand communication specialists who foundthat the public is uninformed about mentalhealth, and the mass media are presentingan even less accurate picture of the field.Original research material is included, plussuggestions for improving the situation.PROGRAMMING COMPUTERS FORBUSINESS APPLICATIONS: by NedChapin, MBA'49. McGraw-Hill BookCo., 1961, 269 pp., $7.50.How programming is done and someof the more major and popular automaticand symbolic programming languages;stresses COBOL— the Common BusinessOriented Language.REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION: by Mrs. Robert Woellner, andM. Aurilla Wood, '21, AM'26. The University of Chicago Press, 1961, $3.50.An up-to-date summary of the requirements necessary to obtain initial certificates as teacher, counselor, librarian, oradministrator in the public schools of theUnited States.SKELTON AND SATIRE: by Arthur R.Heiserman, '48, AM'51, PhD'59. TheUniversity of Chicago Press, 1961, 328pp., $6.50.In considering the work of John Skelton,Mr. Heiserman has surveyed medieval English satire thoroughly to show how Skeltonfreshened and modified the conventionaldevices of his predecessors. The bookfocuses mainly on Skelton's five majorsatires, from Bowge of Court (1499) toWhy Come Ye Nat to Court? (1522-23).SWIFT AND ANGLICAN RATIONALISM: by Phillip Harth, AM'49, PhD'58.The University of Chicago, 1961, 184pp., $5.00.A study of Swift's religious satire in "A Tale of a Tub" which offers a general examination of the rationale, methods, andbackground of the earliest of his controversial writings in prose; and demonstratesan impressive knowledge of the traditionof Anglican apologetics.THE RHETORIC OF FICTION: byWayne C. Booth, AM'47, PhD'50. TheUniversity of Chicago, 1961, 416 pp->$6.95.The rhetoric of fiction with which Mr-Booth is concerned, is the technique bywhich an author engages his reader's interest and controls his responses. Mr. Boothargues that the modern tendency to deploreall signs of the author's inevitable presence has led to uncritical acceptance ofrules about objective narration. By relatinganalysis of technique to die specific valuesand purposes of each work he bridges thegap that often exists between technicalstudies and discussions of meaning. Hemakes original contributions to the criticism of Fielding, Sterne, Austen, Jamesand Joyce.THREE PLAYS OF RACINE-PHAEDRA,ANDROMACHE, BRITANNICUS:translated by George Dillon, '27. TheUniversity of Chicago, 1961, 208 pp-paper, $1.95, cloth, $4.00.Mr. Dillon, a poet himself, and an experienced translator, has in well-pacedblank verse, aimed to capture what hedescribes as Racine's "particular combination of precision and spontaneity." Although Racine is considered France's mostbrilliant dramatist, few have actually readhis work until now, due to lack of a translation that conveys the quality of Frenchclassical tragedy.TIMBER: by Manuel Conrad Elmer,PhD'14. The Christopher PublishingHouse, 1961, $4.00.A comprehensive survey of Americastimberlands including such topics as: Treesof Commercial Value, Early Logging, TheUse of Waste and By-Products, TimberPirates— Insects and Diseases.THE VOICE OF THE DOLPHINS-ANDOTHER STORIES: by Leo Szilard, professor of biophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago. Simonand Schuster, 1961, 122 pp., $3.00.Mr. Szilard, a scientist who nelped construct the first atomic pile, and who wasone of the first men to conceive of its potential effect on the world, has written fiveshort stories about the future, all withpolitical and social satire in its best sophisticated and playful form. The author hasapplied his wit and great insight to suchtopics as social customs a hundred yearshence, "war trials" after the U.S. surrendersto Russia in World War III, and the conclusions of a group of scholars from outerspace who on their arrival, find life extinct on Earth. In the principal story, "TheVoice of the Dolphins," Mr. Szilard writesan account of world events from 1963 to1988. He includes a wealth of ingeniouspolitical thought on what it would taketo solve the problem that the bomb posesto the world.20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINET " E call him a slave-robot because he can do onlywhat the operator orders him to do. The ordersare relayed to the robot electrically."The robot has a very low Intelligence Quotient(IQ). The only self-controls it has are forcelimitors to keep it from lifting loads which aretoo heavy or moving beyond predetermined limits.As it is, the robot can carry 30 pounds continuously and 50 pounds intermittently with each ofthe two arms."No chance of this robot running amok and taking^e world into its own "hands" according to that quoter°m one of its makers, Raymond C. Goertz, directorthe Remote Control Engineering Division at Ar-§°nne National Laboratory. (Argonne is operated byr? University of Chicago for the Atomic Energy Commission.) This one of many "master-slave" tools deigned at Argonne weighs more than a ton and stands'ght and a half feet at its maximum height. It was* nighlight exhibit at the 1958 International Confer-s^e on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy at Geneva,The slave-robot has electronically controlled "arms"November, mi ROBOT!(for real)that can reach about four feet, one cable crane, andstereo television for auxiliary "seeing." The arms,crane, and the television cameras are attached to aturret, which in turn is supported on a vertical columnrising' from a platform about four-feet square. Theplatform has four wheels, each of which has a drivemotor, gear box and brake. The arms of the robotcan reach down to the floor and up to about six feetby moving the arm assemblies up and down on a vertical column.This was a fore-runner of the slave-robots whichwill work in hot (radioactive) laboratories. According to Mr. Goertz, "We designed the robot to becapable of making complete repairs, repairs on another similar unit, and on other remote handling equipment and to some extent repairs on itself, providingat least one arm and the crane is still working. Someof the repairs on the slave-robot can be carried outby replacing small subassemblies, but many of therepairs require the replacement of individual parts."However, if these descriptions give a sense of robotalindependence, they are misleading. Tagging alonglike a big brother— at a distance, perhaps even inanother room, but tagging along nevertheless— is themaster control.The master controls weigh about 1,500 pounds andits accompanying rack of electronic equipment about1000 pounds. Seated at the controls (as shown onthe following page), the operator can move the robotand put it into position by pushing a series of footswitches. During operations, the operator can see therobot's actions either by direct viewing or throughthe closed-circuit stereo television set-up.The stereo television system was designed primarilyfor use when the operator does not have a clear viewof the robot's operations. The TV set-up consists oftwo wired television systems with cameras and viewing monitors. The cameras are placed at approximatelyinterocular separation (the space between a humanbeing's eyes). Two pictures from these cameras aresuper-imposed on each other with a mirror system Theright hand picture is relayed to the right eye and theleft hand picture to the left eye when the operatorwears polaroid glasses. This gives him a three dimensional picture. ,.Once the robot is in position, the operator can directarm and hand motions with the electronically controlledmaster-slave manipulator. „The manipulators, mechanical hands with feel, arethe most important parts of the robot. The hands andarms are moved by the operator who manipulates asTmi ar set of mechanical arms which are located in21MECHANICAL MANIPULATORS LINK THE OPERATOR TO HIS W0.,LOW, THE SLAVE-ROBOT AND ITS MASTER CONTROL AND lNS'ICAL MANIPULATORS LINK TMt UffcKAlUK IO ma ¦¦ tfAT LEFT, AND BELOW IN A THREE-CELL FACILITY AT ARGONNt;rt|fLOW, THE SLMENT PANEL. ,rid i*front of him. Any movement in the master handduplicated by the robot. ,>In explaining the mechanical hands' ability to iee'Mr. Goertz says, "The manipulators reproduce the D&motions of the human hands and reflect back tooperator the forces that are exerted at the slave, there •giving him a sense of feel." eThis slave-robot was not constructed for actual uin a hot laboratory, but as an aid in the developn^of new slave-robots for improved performance andpair abilities. Today it has been broken up, with rna \of its parts utilized in modified and more special'2devices.T" iS 'HE whole field of "remote control engineering 'new and growing one. It has grown with the increin research with radioactive materials. .Although research with radioactive materials begover 60 years ago, only small quantities were handIn the entire period until 1945, only about two p°un^of radium — a little more than 1000 curies of activity ¦had been refined for research, therapy, or commeruse throughout the world. Today it is not uncommonutilize a single source to produce 1000 curies or mEven as the hazards of the early-day work be&apparent, moderate precautions were sufficient to pvent injury. Simple tongs and shields, many origindesigned for other purposes, were the tools of e rexperimenters. Not until the postwar expansionresearch activities was real attention given to thedling, viewing and shielding of radioactive materiIODAY, one of the world's most advanced faCllltljsfor studying highly radioactive chemical elernen ^now under construction at Argonne. This facility ^three-story wing of cave-like shielded cells anlaboratories, which will serve as a center for tumental research with man-made elements thatheavier than uranium. The hot materials will betained within a two-story area of "cells" surrounded ^a four-foot thick wall. Once the laboratory is in.°Pee3)tion, conceivably no man will ever again enter this &for it is designed to be operated and maintainedrobot machinery. . yThe hot cell complex will consist of a series of 1* Jj16 foot working cells or "caves" connected by a s^ tuecorridor. A second floor level will have essentially *same cell arrangement located directly above the lowfloor cells. An elevator will connect the two n°°within the shielding walls. 'For most of their experiments in the new laboratoryArgonne scientists and technicians will use stand'*Model-8 Master Slave manipulators. These manipu) jtors, like those on the robot, provide a mechanic*means of duplicating almost all motions of the hum".hand and arm behind heavily-shielded walls. Each c&will have one or more sets of these manipulators. .,,Much of the work that will be done in the cells **»THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZlN*5ln containment boxes designed to prevent thecVea^ °f highly toxic radioactive contamination fromernical processing operations. The containment boxesWil ^esemble small houses with gabled roofs. Theyhign six feet wide> four feet deeP' and six feet°h at a center peak. The master-slave manipulatorssid Cnter tlle boxes tnrougn flexible sleeves on eachWit} °f *iS center Peak> allowing them to handle objectsnn the boxes without becoming contaminated.Pleti ° a" exPeriment in one of these boxes is com-} ted, the box and experimental apparatus can be dis-Wat by remote control and packaged in 30-gallonv ,te drums for transfer to underground waste storagecell a This 0Peration will be performed in a special" designed and equipped to package contaminated,, rail system has been incorporated as part of the hotc«ll de:trials( sign so that containment boxes, radioactive ma-,als, and experimental equipment can be moved bysb-i3 Contro1 from cel1 to celL The rails wiU nm m• raignt lines with externally-operated turn-tables at'J^ions. Low, battery-operated flat cars or "mules.. l be used to carry boxes and materials throughoutle cave complex. These cars will be controlled by,.ai0 signals to eliminate fouling of cables and to1Qw them to move freely between floor levels on theJach cell, during the course of chemical processing,I!111 require a remotely-controlled handling device to, rve the containment boxes and to assist the master-lave manipulators. This device, which looks very much like a human arm, is called a "hinged arm polar manipulator." Three of these manipulators will be installed inthe new facility. Each will be mounted on a supportcolumn that will enable the hand of the manipulator toreach objects 11 feet high and nine feet in any direction from the central column. The hinged arm polarmanipulator can handle objects weighing 25 poundsyet is gentle enough to handle laboratory glassware.For added mobility, the entire manipulator assemblycan be mounted on one of the radio-controlled flat cars./\ND, looking still further into the future, what canone envision in the development and use of robots? Ifradiation hazards created the first real demand forrobots, they are already finding their usefulness in otherareas. Hughes Aircraft Company has suggested thatits mechanical man may be the first on the moon, thatits robot astronauts might take on tasks like assembly,maintenance and repair of large orbiting vehicles.Hughes also suggests that a completely different hazardous environment — the bottom of the ocean — might beexplored and exploited by robots, including salvage andrecovery of valuable objects, gathering of minerals on orbeneath the ocean floor, or development of permanentcomplex installations below the surface.Machine Design magazine envisions robot policemenmanning busy corners, robot sandhogs digging transoceanic tunnels. Scientists are more and more thinkingthat wherever man now does a dangerous job, a robotmay replace him. ¦From New York Life's yearbook of successful insurance career men!BERNIE KLAZMER-Mathrnajor who solved hiscareer problem with milliondollar insurance sales!Natural sales ability and a college background inmathematics proved to be a highly successful careercombination for Bernie Klazmer. Within a short timeafter becoming a New York Life Agent, these twoqualities won Bernie a position on the industry sfamous Million Dollar Round Table-a distinctionhe has earned five years in a row.Bemie is planning to complete his studies for hisChartered Life Underwriter degree this year. Heknows that the career he has chosen is limited only byhis own efforts and talents. And he has found that byhelping others provide for their future years, he receives unlimited personal satisfaction, as well.!f you believe that a career like Bernie's would interestyou, or someone you know, write for information. BERNARDKLAZMERNew York LifeRepresentativein thePhiladelphiaGeneral OfficeEducation: West Chester PaState College, B.S., -54 'Employment Record: JoinedPresident's Council (composed of 200 leaders amonsover 6000 representativeMillion nQ?flifying M^ber ofMillion Dollar Round Table.New York LifeInsurance (£^fe) CompanyCollege Relations, Dept. H-751 Madison Avenue, New York 10, N.Y.November, 1961 23STEINER— CONTINUED FROM PAGE 13other agency that got it apparently arrived at the sameconclusion, and you might recall that a few years ago,the brand changed from sponsorship of fights to veryslick magazine advertising with Suzic Parker, Theytook it out of the locker room; they put it into theparlor, they put it into the backyard in suburbia.(Apparently that didn't do much good either, becausethe campaign didn't last very long — but that's the wayit goes.)This kind of study — what is the picture or the imageof a product or a brand — occupies a great deal of psychological time and a great deal of advertising thinking.We try to put our finger on exactly what it is that theconsumer sees when he thinks of our product, over andbeyond the physical objective characteristics. And eventhose physical characteristics are often interesting because what is "true" and what consumers think is trueare frequently two different things — as in our beerexample.The other major type of research has to do withmotivation — or what people really want. "Motivationresearch" is what has been so glamorously documentedin such books as The Hidden Persuaders.Why has motivation research come about? To my mindit's not a result of subconscious motivation, it's not theresult of Freudian theory; it's the result of a very simpleeconomic fact: for most products with which we'reconcerned, any housewife can go to the supermarketand buy any of 17 brands that are for all intents andpurposes identical. Consider the implications. If everybox of rice you buy contains rice, or if salt is salt, thenthe obvious reasons for buying rice or buying salt areno longer of great interest to the advertiser.^O motivation research essentially asks itself twoquestions: what are some of the non-obvious appealsthat we can build into the product's advertising, overand beyond its basic function. And what are someof the non-obvious traps that are to be avoided — someof the resistances that keep people from buying theproduct.I'll give you a couple illustrations of those "traps" tomake it clear. One comes from the history of the automatic washer. When the automatic washer was firstdeveloped, advertisers sat down and asked themselves,what are the appeals, what are we really selling, andsaid, well, obviously an automatic washer makes thingsmuch easier for the housewife. She can take it easyinstead of having to go through all this pain of washingand wringing. So the first ads for automatic washersshowed a gal reclining on a chaise longue eating grapesor candy and reading a novel. The headlines said, "She'sdoing her washing." Then there's a price tag underneath on the automatic washer for $425 or somethinglike that.Well, certainly women buy automatic washers tosave themselves work. And certainly that's what theywere portraying in the ad. But some women had alot of resistance to this kind of campaign. You don'thave to spend much money to figure out why; it justtakes a certain point of view. ( Although you do have to prove you're right by spending the money.) You'reasking a woman, in effect, to go to her husbandpretty hard working fellow (you know she does preciouslittle as it is, just sits around and flips the frozen fo0(jin the stove before he comes home). You're asking herto go to the husband and say, look, spend $425 so 1can eat more grapes and read a novel instead of doingthis little thing that I'm still doing, washing your shirtsfor you.Now I'm not saying this is the real state of affairs, butthis is the image you are trying to portray. When thiswoman runs out to buy the washer, the picture in theback of her mind is supposed to be: well, now I canrecline and eat grapes instead of doing work. Well,some women don't like this because they don't like tothink of themselves in this way. And they don't wanttheir husbands to think of them in this way, and thevdon't want the salesman in the appliance store to thinkof them in this way. Especially if it's going to cost 425bucks.If you asked some of these women about automaticwashers, they'd tell you the washers don't do the job aswell. Well, what were they saying? Tou see, thatmachine can't do it as well as I can do it with my ownhands.'How did the advertisers get around this resistance?Some very clever advertising was developed showingwomen playing with their children, or attending PTAmeetings, or going bowling with their husbands. Thecopy says, in effect, "Save time on the washing, on thedrudgery, so you can put it into more meaningfulactivity." Now she owes it to her family to spend moretime with the kids, to participate in civic affairs, to cooka better meal, or whatever. Now she is no longer lazyif she takes advantage of an automatic washer, butactually she is doing her duty as a wife and mother.This rationale provides a good reason for buying thewasher, as against the real reason which might be tosave some work. It provides a reason that's respectablein her own mind. And of course in many instances.actually true.Well, the same type of hidden resistance has come upin numerous products. For example, why is it that wehave ready-to-make cake mixes with some of the thingsartificially removed so you can put them back in? Youbuy the cake mix and then you take two eggs and youcrack the eggs and stir it up yourself. They could putthose powdered eggs into the cake mix, but there's moreresistance to that because "I'm not really producing,I'm not really cooking. A cake is love and I'm not goingto be short on love."Frozen orange juice is another good illustration. Theyhad a lot of trouble selling frozen orange juice at first.Again the standard reply was: it's not as good as thefresh; how can it be? I go through all this squeezingand my elbow hurts and my family waits for it eagerly.I'm a good mother, a good housewife: how can &machine take my place? Now how did they finallyadvertise frozen orange juice, you remember? Nothingat all about convenience; what was the big slogan? "1*gives you more yitamin C than the fresh." Well, howcan you avoid, how can you deprive, how can you beso nasty as to deprive your family of the frozen orangejuice by insisting on squeezing it yourself?24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETo show you that these things aren't all confined tonSUmer products: here is another illustration of someotivation research on a rather interesting topic, thetopic of adult education.The classical thinking on it was that, well, its justtoo much work. People don't want to go to school atiaht. They're tired, they'd rather watch television andtake it easy, talk, lie around the house. Why go to allthis trouble of studying? So all the campaigns for adulteducation were designed to make it appear to be morefun; education doesn't hurt so much. (You know, theway we used to do with our colleges before Sputnik, )Well, we went out and studied this issue.7 OU sometimes get to the people's real resistance bymeans of something called fancifully, "projective questions." If you ask a direct question — "Why don't yougo to adult education?" — then that's not psychology,that's just a direct question, what used to be calledStandard Market Research. But, "Why do you think thatmost people don't go to study in adult educationclasses?" is a projective question. You can see that insome ways you get more true answers. If there are somenasty reasons that don't sound so good, a person mightnot be willing to say "this is one of my reasons," buthe might be perfectly willing to say "this is how mostpeople feel about it."When we asked questions like this about adult education we got the following kinds of things. Lots ofwomen don't go out because they think that theirhusbands would think they're running around in theevening instead of staying home and taking care of thekids. And the husbands thought that most womenwould think that they would be cruel to leave themalone. Wives would think they're just going out to havea ball with the boys, and not really studying anyway.And even if they were studying, they ought to be athome with the family and the kids.What were they telling us? They're telling us thatadult education is no good, not because it's too muchwork, but because it's too much fun. Because there'dbe a certain amount of hesitation about participatingin an outside-the-home activity that didn't include thewhole family. And, I can immediately think of someanswers to this. That is, try to work out family programs so you get around this resistance. Of course,you might be getting around one of the basic appealsof adult education too.Sometimes motivation research suggests an entirelynew approach to the whole field of advertising. I'll giveyou just one illustration of that, that grew out of research on a specific product.The specific product happened to be a toilet soap.The problem was how to advertise this soap in a waythat was unusual. Well, we started out by doing acontent analysis of soap advertising over the past twentyyears. We found that in fact there are about threekinds of approaches that everyone uses. Approach No.f— Use this soap or your skin will peel off. You knowthe kind of thing, the health approach. Approach No. 2~— Use this soap and you'll immediately go to Hollywood, and be a movie star. And Approach No. 3 — Use this soap and you'll have romance in your life, you'llget your man.Well, what else can you say about soap. They all getyou clean so there's not much point saying thatabout a beauty soap. That is what you do with washpowders and you certainly don't want a woman to feellike a dirty undershirt. So what else can you say. Thetrouble is those three appeals are unbelieveable to theaverage housewife. She knows she's not going to be amovie star by using a soap, and she knows she's notgoing to get romance in her life. It's too late for that,she's had the romance in her life. So it really bothersher. You see, in a way it's just digging the knife a littlein the wound to talk about movie stars all the time, totalk about beauty, to talk about romance. This is allright with teenagers or women in their early 20's whoare still eligible for this or who still have the fantasy.But the average housewife who buys soap isn't going tobe much fooled by this.So our problem was to try to figure out something ofthe real functions of soap — beyond washing. Somethingin her actual life that we could tie an appeal to. Nowone of the discoveries was — it was a discovery to me —that a large percentage of housewives have a sort ofquiet hour around four or five in the afternoon: a timein the day when the kids are put to bed or out playing.Most of the housework is done; the husband hasn'tcome home yet; and at this point lots of women take abath, just sort of retire to the tub to get away from itall. They've done a hard day's work, and now they getthemselves ready for going out that evening or simplyfor the husband coming home.^1 OW this, you see, is an actual use of soap, as againsta fantasied advertising man's use of soap.So the agency put this into a campaign: They tookthe woman as she was, a normal 33-year-old housewife,and put her through her paces in the television commercial. She cleaned up, she picked up, the phone rang,she went shopping. The first 50 seconds just showedher going about her day's work, and the final 10 secondsshowed her in the bathtub relaxing. The line was:"You lead an active life — a woman's life — now it's yourtime to relax and enjoy a warm brand X bath."That's all — nothing about marvelous consequences,nothing about Hollywood, romance, etc. Simply tyingthe product into her life as she actually lived it — andabove all, glamourizing her as she was. This ad said,look, we think you're important enough just as you areto be on television. And it created some sense ofidentification between this particular soap and thehousewife because this was the soap that portrayed hera little more realistically than the rest.And so it goes. You get these large sweeps and fadsin advertising based on an original observation in motivation research with or without a great deal of evidencethat it works. For a while, everyone gets on the bandwagon for "realistic" advertising. Then perhaps there'sa swing back to fantasy material.But, no matter what the going trend in advertising is,we can be pretty sure the psychologist is there — atleast for now. ¦NOVEMBER, 1961 25yersatilityFrom a small one-color sheet to awork of thousands of pages, from afull color catalog to a giant display,here one can see the gamut ofprinting jobs. Diversity of productclearly indicates our versatility.Fine skills and varied talents of ourpeople are supported by a widerange of camera and plate equipment,offset presses of several typesfrom the smallest to the largestand a complete pamphlet binderyPhotopress| INCORPORATED¦uj^.imi.M,.,....Congress Expressway at Gardner RoadBROADVIEW, ILL COIumbus 1-1420F. A. KEHHQUBT COf SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433We operate our own dry cleaning plant1309 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Ml dway 3-0602 NO rmal 7-98581553 E. Hyde Park Blvd. FAirfax 4-57591442 E. 57th Midway 3-0607GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzIe 3-3186MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica -Bolex - Rolleiflex - Polaroid1342 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259NSA Discounts24-hour Kodachrome DevelopingHO Trains and Model Supplies 13-27EDWIN S. HAMILTON, 13, MD13,physician and surgeon of Kankakee, 111.,was installed in May as president of theIllinois State Medical Society. He willserve in that position until the next convention of the Society in May, 1962.LYDIA LEE PEARCE, 14, is taking avery active part in community affairs atClaremont, Calif. She is president of thePomona Valley chapter of the AmericanAssociation for the United Nations, andholds the office of treasurer in the Claremont Civic Assn. In addition, she is onthe board of directors of the Pomona Valley Women's Democratic Club, and doesresearch on foreign policy for the Leagueof Women Voters there. She writes,"When one's children are grown and thegrandchildren are old enough to have noneed for a babysitter, there is lots of timefor activities outside the clan, and I'mnot enthusiastic about sitting at home rocking away to the click of knitting needlesor to the rhythm of a TV commercial!"LEVI S. SHIVELY, AM16, PhD17, retired mathematics professor formerly ofNorth Manchester, Ind., is now living inLa Verne, Calif.WILLIAM A. IRWIN, 17, PhD'25, professor emeritus of Old Testament at theU of C, and Southern Methodist University's Perkins School of Theology, receivedan honorary Doctor of Humane Lettersdegree in June from Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in NewYork City. Mr. Irwin, one of the country'smost distinguished Bible scholars, was amember of the committee of 22 Biblescholars which, in 1952, produced the Revised Standard Version of the Bible forthe Protestant Church. He has workedfor the past 10 years on a revision of thetranslation of the Old Testament for theComplete Bible, to be published by theU ot C. Mr. Irwin retired from U of Cin 1950 and then served for five yearsas professor of Old Testament at PerkinsSchool of Theology from which he retiredin 1955.LEOLINE GARDNER KROLL, 17, hasmoved to Mount Pleasant, la., where herhusband has taken a position as coordi nator of guidance services for HenryCounty. The Kroll's recently had a visitfrom their son, HARRY, '47, MD'50, whois an orthopedic surgeon in Topeka, Kan->with his wife and three children.MANDEL SHERMAN, 18, MD'20, PhP'27, psychiatric consultant in Los Angeles, addressed a meeting of the KernCounty Psychological Assn. in San Francisco during April. He discussed emotional disturbances of children and experiments in motivation and frustration. Vx'Sherman is the author of many books andprofessional articles, and during his careerhas been an associate in psychiatry, seniorpsychiatrist in juvenile research, directorof a child research center, professor °*child development and for 29 years wasprofessor of educational psychology at theU of C. From 1950-53 he was directorof the Reiss-Davis Clinic in Los Angeles-LEE ETTELSON, 19, is now editor °fthe San Francisco Examiner, a positionwhich he assumed in November, 1960. Hehad formerly been general manager of theNews-Call Bulletin in San Francisco, andbefore that, managing editor of the CallBulletin prior to its merger with the NetVs'Mr. Ettelson has spent his entire newspaper career with Hearst Newspapers,serving in executive capacities with sevennewspapers throughout the country.DEAN McCLUSKY, AM'20, PhD'22, ofNice, Calif., met WILSON STEGEMAN,19, MD'25, at the office of Dr. Stegemanin Santa Rosa, Calif., recently.CHESTER E. McKITTRICK, '20, assistant to the publisher of the Chicago Trib'une, was awarded an honorary Doctor otLaws degree by Rocky Mountain College(Billings, Mont.) on May 29. He was theconvocation speaker following the ceremony. On the Midway, at our June Be-union, Mr. McKittrick was also cited bythe Alumni Association for his civic leadership.JOHN R. SAMPEY, JR., '20, SM'2l>PhD'23, professor of chemistry at FurmanUniversity, Greenville, S.C., was one °isix outstanding college chemistry teachersin America honored during the annuajmeeting of the Manufacturing ChemistsAssn. in June. In making the presentationof a meaal and citation, accompanied bya $1,000 check, the Association paid tribute to Mr. Sampey as a man who "basshared the exciting quest for new knowledge with his students, using the limitedhours beyond his crowded teaching schedule to direct personally their research «*'forts. Few students in any institution haveTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEN EWS O F the alumninad the benefit of working as true labora-tory partners of a man of such experience.' Mr. Sampey taught for eight yearsat Howard College in Birmingham, Ala.,before going to Furman. His principalResearch relates to the chemistry of cot-*°n- He has also been awarded the HertyMedal of the American Chemical Societyas the outstanding scientist in the South.,^NpREW M. BAIRD, '21, was named in^Pfil as one of six appointees to three-year terms as governors of the New York^tock Exchange. He is vice president andSector of A. G. Becker & Co. in Chi-Cago and was the only Chicago businessman named to the post.^AYBELLE I. CAPRON, '21, resigned*r°m teaching in the Chicago Public?chools in November, 1960, and is "ending life in Florida." She lives in BacaKaton, Fla.JOHN R. FANSELOW, SM'21, has beenpromoted to professor of paper technologyat Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, where he has taught since 1957. Hebegan teaching at Western after retiringJ{"0rn the Kimberly Clark Corp. During*ne spring semester of 1961 he acted asead of the paper technology department.RUSSELL E. PETTIT, '24, general manner of Greater San Jose (Calif.) Chamber 0f Commerce, made a trip to Europeand Russia, and has talked to severalgroups in his community about the tourRecently. Mr. Pettit began his work withtne San Jose Chamber in 1925 and became its general manager in 1936. He isa Past president of several organizationsdeluding the American Chamber of Commerce Executives, California Association°* Chamber of Commerce Managers, andWestern Fair Assn.^ALTER V. SCHAEFER, '26, JD'28,^n/ef Justice of the Supreme Court of Illinois, was appointed chairman of the visit-!ng committee for the U of C Law School1X1 June. The committee is comprised ofa group of distinguished citizens who serveas a non-academic advisory body to the^aw School. He succeeds HENRY TEN-JjEY, 13, JD15, lawyer with Tenney,Sherman, Bentley and Guthrie in Chicago,Wno will continue as a member of thec°nimittee. Justice Schaefer was electedt0 the Illinois Supreme Court in 1951, andPrior to that had been professor of law at^orthwestern University. In 1955 he wasf-rnst Freund Lecturer at the U of C, and}n 1956, he was Oliver Wendell Holmes^ecturer at Harvard University. Mr.^ohaefer lives with his family in LakeBluff, I1L ELSA E. SCHILLING, AM'26, retired inJune as a teacher at Joliet Township HighSchool and Junior College, Joliet, 111. Shewas recognized by the student body atthe time of her retirement with a plaquewhich read, "in appreciation for a life ofdedicated services. Miss Schilling hasmoved to Bloomington, 111., where she willdo substitute teaching at Illinois WesleyanUniversity.MAYME V. SMITH, '26, who retired in1947 from Central Michigan University inMt. Pleasant, Mich., is now living inFriendship, Wise.EARL F. ZEIGLER, AM'26, and his wife,of Philadelphia, Pa., celebrated their 50thwedding anniversary on June 28. Over150 friends, four children and seven grandchildren celebrated the golden affair withthem. Mr. Zeigler taught Bible at BereaCollege, Berea, Ky., and later at McCor-mick Seminary in Chicago. He retired in1957 from his work with the Board ofChristian Education, where he served fortwenty years in various editorial positionsfor their publications.HILDA WELLS HAYES, '27, of Kalamazoo, Mich., is teaching mentally-handicapped children at Lincoln School there.She recently obtained her master's degreein special education from Western Michigan University. Previously she had taughtart in Kalamazoo public schools for several years.28-38WILLIAM G. DAVIS, JD'28, secretaryand general counsel for Eli Lilly and Indianapolis, Ind., was elected a director of L. S. Ayres and Co. in May.JULIA JARRATT GEIGER, AM'28, ofYellow Springs, Ohio, has retired from herpart time teaching position as assistantprofessor of Spanish at Antioch College.EVERETT C. HUGHES, PhD'28, formerprofessor of sociology at the U of C, hasaccepted an appointment as professor inthe department of sociology at BrandeisUniversity, effective this fall. He and hiswife, HELEN MacGILL HUGHES, AM'27, PhD'37, are taking up residence inCambridge, Mass. Mr. Hughes was namedpresident-elect of the American Sociological Assn. recently and will serve as president of the organization from 1962 to1963. Mr. Hughes was associate editorof the American Journal of Sociology from 1938-1951 and became its editor in 1952,a position which he resigned in January,1960. Mrs. Hughes has been managingeditor of the Journal. Mr. Hughes servedas chairman of the U of C Departmentof Sociology from 1952 to 1956.HAROLD HAYDON, '30, AM'31, associate professor of art at the U of C, wascommissioned to create stage settings forThe Princess and the Pea, an opera byErnst Toch, presented in April and Mayby the Community Music Center of theNorth Shore in Wilmette, 111., and at theStudebaker Theatre in Chicago. Thepainted, transparent designs constituted theChicago premiere of the new Nagy Multi-Screen Projection System for the stage.During the winter and spring he showedworks in nine exhibitions by the ChicagoChapter of Artists Equity and the ChicagoSociety of Artists. He was also re-electedpresident of the latter organization.ARCHIBALD M. KIRKPATRICK, '30,AM'53, is serving as president of the Canadian Correctional Assn. He is executivedirector of the John Howard Society ofOntario and director of United NationsAffairs of the International Prisoners AidAssn. Mr. Kirkpatrick lives in Toronto,Canada.THOMAS PARK, '30, PhD'32, professorof zoology, and DAVID B. MERTZ, '60,also of the Department of Zoology atU of C, are currently conducting a studysupported by the National Science Foundation. They are investigating the phenomenon of competition within and between two species of common flour beetles.SAUNDERS MacLANE, AM'31, professorof mathematics at the U of C, was onleave during Spring Quarter, 1961, at theRockefeller Institute and Columbia University. His wife is DOROTHY JONES,AM'27.CHARLES W. MARSHALL, '31, SM'33,PhD'49, research biochemist with G. D.Searle & Co., Skokie, 111., was recentlyelected to the Board of Education, Elementary School District 73 % in Skokie.HENRIETTE NAESETH, PhD'31, professor of English and divisional chairmanof Augustana College, Rock Island, 111.,received an honorary Doctor of Lettersdegree from Luther College in Decorah,la., at the school's May commencementceremonies. Miss Naeseth, who has beenat Augustana for 27 years, headed theEnglish department for 26 years, and waschairman of the division of humanities for19 years. Miss Naeseth was cited in part:"To the teaching of English language andNovember, i96i 27literature she has brought a broad background, sound scholarship and critical insight, a contagious enthusiasm for learningand the faculty of inspiring in her studentsa genuine love and appreciation of literature."CHARLES NEWTON, '33, was appointedin June as director of development at theCalifornia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif. Mr. Newton has been at Caltech since 1948 as assistant to the president(a title which he retains) and was chiefstaff officer for the recent developmentprogram which financed new buildings andincreases in faculty salaries. In his newposition, Mr. Newton will head a new program of fund raising activities formulatedby the board of trustees which seeks toincrease the financial resources of the Institute by obtaining a greater annual income from private gifts. Mr. Newton'swife is NANCY KENNEDY, '31.J. WILBUR PRENTICE, AM'33, hasmoved to Duarte, Calif. Because of health,Rev. Prentice and his wife have retiredfrom their work in India. They have beenin New York on furlough, since returningfrom India last November.BURTON H. DOHERTY, '34, and CARLJ. DUESER, MBA'48, were at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., in May at a seven-day combat division refresher course held forselected army reserve officers. Mr. Dohertyand Mr. Dueser are both colonels andassigned to the 85th division of the armyreserve in Chicago; Mr. Doherty as chiefof staff, and Mr. Dueser as assistant commander. Mr. Dueser is an account executive with Wade Advertising, Inc., inChicago, and Mr. Doherty is with CadillacAssn., Inc.JOHN F. DILLE, Jr., '35, AM'56, whopublishes the Elkhart (Indiana) Truth, adaily, operates radio station WTRC, Elk-hart-South Bend, and WKJG-TV andWKJG in Fort Wayne, Ind., has addedanother unit to his communications responsibilities: the Mishawaka Times, whichhe organized this summer. It is a morning paper printed in his Truth plant inElkhart, 11 miles away. Mr. Ditie is alsopresident of the University of ChicagoAlumni Association. Recently GovernorMATTHEW WELSH, JD'37, appointedJohn Dille to the Indiana Toll Road Commission.WALDEMAR A. SOLF, '35, JD'37, ofAlexandria, Va., has been promoted to therank of full colonel in the U.S. Army,according to WILLIAM J. MATHER, 17.Colonel Mather, a retired army officer,of Chicago, visited the Alumni Houserecently where he and OLIVE GREENS-FELDER, 16, reminisced about theirclassmates at the U of C, and the manyalumni Miss Greensfelder has taught during her long teaching career.SHERMAN E. JOHNSON, PhD'36, hasbeen awarded a Fulbright Lectureship inHolland. Mr. Johnson is dean of theChurch Divinity School of the Pacific, anEpiscopal college in Berkeley, Calif. Hewill begin a lectureship at the Universityof Utrecht in Holland, in the spring of1962. He will also take a trip through the Far East as part of the year's sabbatical leave, and will be accompanied byhis wife and son.BRUCE A. KING, '35, JD'37, is an attorney in the staff judge advocate office ofthe Air Force Accounting and FinanceCenter in Denver, Colo., and is a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army reserves.HERBERT D. LANDAHL, SM'36, PhD'41,professor on the Committee on Mathematical Biology at the U of C, presenteda paper at a symposium of the AmericanMathematical Society in New York Cityduring April. The paper was entitled,"Mathematic Models in the Behavior ofthe Central Nervous System."ARTHUR H. LEONARD, '36, and hisfamily of Kansas City, Mo., are participating in a Human Relations Council program to provide housing for foreign visitors to the city, in residents' homes. TheLeonards have entertained visitors fromall corners of the world, and find they"get a new perspective on our own country by seeing how other people think andfeel about us." Mr. Leonard is assistantoffice manager of the National Manufacturing Co. in Kansas City.EVA M. NEWMAN, PhD'36, has retiredfrom her position as chairman of the department of Greek at the College ofWooster in June. She will remain inWooster, Ohio, for a time, then settledown permanently in Palo Alto, Calif.ALBERT I. KEGAN, '38, president of thePhi Beta Kappa Assn. of Chicago, andMILTON G. PETERSON, '29, memberof the association's board of governors,participated in the presentation of the organization's distinguished service award toChancellor George Beadle in May. Theaward is given to a man or woman whothe Association's board of governors believes has made the greatest contributionto knowledge. Dr. Beadle was selected bythe group for his work in the field ofgenetics. Mr. Kegan is a partner in Kegan,Bellamy and Kegan, in Chicago, and Mr.Peterson is a teacher in Wilmette, 111.ELLIS B. KOHS, AM'38, has recently hada two-volume text, Music Theory, published by the Oxford University Press, NewYork. Mr. Kohs is chairman of the department of theory at the University ofSouthern California School of Music, LosAngeles. He also reviewed a music book,The Rhythmic Structure of Music, published by the U of C Press, for the Aprilissue of the Journal of Music Theory.W-U7JOHN W. BOND, JR., '40, is now directorof military and space applications for theGeophysics Corporation of America. Mr.Bond, who was a senior staff scientist forthe Defense Department's Institute for Defense Analysis, was named to the newposition in July. Mr. Bond is now re sponsible for coordinating the corpora*tion's government sponsored laboratoryinvestigations in areas of physics research-In his previous position Mr. Bond handledtechnical management and planning °*physics related to ballistic missile defense-DAVID C. DAHLIN, MD'40, a memberof the section of surgical pathology °lthe Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., baSbeen promoted from associate professor toprofessor in the Mayo Foundation. Thefoundation is a part of the graduate schoolof the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.JAMES J. FRITZ, SM'40, associate professor of chemistry at the Cryogenic Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University*University Park, Pa., has been awardeda Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship i°xthe 1961-62 academic year. He will spendmost of the year at Oxford University ij|England, doing low temperature researchand studies in the theory of magnetism-Mr. Fritz will spend a month at the University of Leiden in Holland and anothermonth visiting laboratories on the continent as well. Mr. Fritz, who joined thePenn State faculty in 1949, held a DuPon*fellowship for summer research in 195--MELVIN B. GOTTLIEB, '40, PhD'52, became director of Princeton University sPlasma Physics Laboratory on July 1. Since1955 Mr. Gottlieb has been associate director of the laboratory and head of theexperimental division. He taught or conducted research at the U of C, Harvard,Michigan and Iowa Universities beforegoing to Princeton in 1955 as researchassociate in the program to control thermonuclear fusion.DUNCAN HOLADAY, '40, MD'43, professor of surgery at the U of C was *guest lecturer at the post-graduate coursein anesthesiology at the University olKansas Medical Center in April.FRANK R. BREUL, AM'41, associate professor in the U of C School of Social Service Administration, has been named chairman of the Illinois State Board of Unemployment Compensation and Free Employ'ment Office Advisers.WILLIAM D. BURBANCK, PhD'41, biologist at Emory University, Atlanta, Ga'jreceived a travel award from the NationaScience Foundation to attend the FirsInternational Protozoological Conference,held in Prague, August 22-30. Mr. Bnr-banck was senior author of a paper pre'sented at the meeting.HERMAN H. FUSSLER, AM'41, PhD'4&professor in the U of C Graduate LibrarySchool and Director of University Library*participated in a meeting in Washington*D.C, called by the National Science Foundation to advise on its scientific inform3'tion and library programs. Mr. Fusslehas also been appointed chairman of £committee of the Association of ResearchLibraries to review the relationships between research libraries and the federagovernment.JAMES W. MOULDER, '41, PhD'44, pro-28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElessor and chairman of the U of C Department of Microbiology, has been appointed|° the Microbiology Fellowships ReviewPanel of the National Institutes of Health.**e is also a member of the newly formedadvisory committee to the publicationsboard of the American Society for Microbiology.GEORGE L. NARDI, '41, MD'44, wasPromoted to assistant clinical professor ofsurgery at Harvard University. His newappointment took effect on July 1. Dr.^ardi has been at the Harvard Medical^hool since 1948. In 1958 he receivedjbe annual award of the R. Franklin CarterFoundation, Inc., for outstanding researchwork. Dr. Nardi lives in Belmont, Mass.^HEGORY D. HEDDEN, '42, SM'50,^hD'5l, was named executive vice president of Trionics Corp., Madison, Wise, inJ£ay- Mr. Hedden, technical director of|be firrn smce 1959^ was ajso named tojbe board of directors. At Trionics, Mr.Redden is responsible for the direction andadministration of contracts for govern-ment and industrial research and develop-ment in the field of ceramics, metallurgy,aPplied chemistry and electronics. Beforejoining Trionics in 1959, Mr. Hedden wasa research chemist in the organic chemis-ty department of E. I. du Pont de^emours & Co., and assistant to the direc-**** of the Institute for Air Weapons Re-search at the U of C.JOSEPH B. KIRSNER, PhD'42, professor°f medicine at the U of C, presented the**ied Lecture at Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton, Mass., on May 4 and the^iddleton H. Lambright Memorial Lec-jUre at the Forest City Hospital, Cleve-iand, Ohio, on May 10. He is chairman°* the section on gastroenterology andProctology of the American Medical Assn.,and a member of the Board of InternalMedicine.J*ALPH G. WILBURN, AM'42, PhD'45,former professor of historical theology atJne College of the Bible seminary, Lexing-C°n> Ky., became dean of the seminary inMarch. Since January, Mr. Wilburn hadbeen serving as chairman of the facultywith responsibility for directing the school'sacademic program. In 1954-55, Mr. Wil-bnrn spent a year in post-doctoral studiesat the University of Heidelberg, Germany,where he also served as an interim minister*°l the American Protestant Community^nurch. He has also taught at George\epperdine College, Los Angeles, and atthe Graduate Seminary of Phillips Uni-Versity, Enid, Okla.J^IC G. ERICKSON, '43, MBA'52, ofStamford, Conn., has been promoted in theManagement of the molded-packaging divi-*10n, of Diamond National Corp. He hasbecome general sales manager for disposable plates and "Foodtainer" trays. Mr.J^ickson is a divisional vice president ofthe firm, and for the past year had beendlrector of manufacturing for the division.^HL LAESTAR, SM'43, of Portsmouth,~hlo, is president of the Scioto CountyMedical Society there this year. Dr. Laes-tar is also on the executive committee of the staffs of Portsmouth General and MercyHospitals.TACK A. BATTEN, '44, MBA'50, of Wellington, Ohio, received a bachelor of divinity degree from Oberlin College, Oberlin,Ohio, in June.NATHAN N. BRAVERMAN, MBA'44, hasbeen appointed divisional vice president ofsales planning at Spiegel Inc., in Chicago.Mr. Braverman lives in Skokie, 111.DEBORAH ISHLON, '44, vice presidentin charge of creative services of ColumbiaRecords, was honored recently by theColumbia Broadcasting System Foundation.An unrestricted grant of $3,000 was givento the U of C in recognition of her serviceto CBS. Eight colleges and universitieswere given similar contributions by CBS toacknowledge the services of private collegeand university graduates to the firm. Iheintent of the grant is to contribute to thecost of education which was borne in partby endowment funds and hence not fullypaid by the students' tuition fees at thetime they attended college. Executives tobe honored by CBS are determined by aformula which automatically selects employees who meet specified standards including length of service and level otresponsibility.RACHEL B. MARKS, AM'44, PhD'50, professor of social service at the U of Cis now associate dean of the School otSocial Service Administration. In additionto her administrative responsibilities shecontinues to teach a research course forsecond-year graduate students, and to serveas editor of the Social Service Review, anational professional journal she has editedsince 1956.ANDREW FOLDI, '45, AM'48, lecturer inthe University College fine arts program atU of C and former music critic for theChicago Sun-Times, has been named aleading basso for the Zurich Opera Seasonextending to July, 1962. In June he sangthe role Baron Ochs in Der Rosenkavaherwith the Santa Fe Opera, and this fallbefore going to Zurich, he returns to theSan Francisco Opera Company where healso appeared last fall. Mr Foldi has 60roles at his command, 45 of which he hassung in public. He is cantor and directorof music at Temple Isaiah Israel in HydePark.FRED STEININGER, AM'45, director ofthe Lake County (Indiana) Department ofPublic Welfare, is president of the American Public Welfare Assn. for the 1960-62term. He lives in Gary, Ind.TANG TSOU, AM'45, PhD'51, assistantprofessor of political science at the U of Chas been awarded a grant by the SocialService Research Council to visit the majorlibrary centers in the United States for aperiod of six months in 1961-62 to begincollecting material for a long-term researchproject entitled, "Force and Diplomacy inthe Foreign Relations of Communist China.His wife is YI CHUANG LU, AM'42.HULBURT W. BARDENWERPER, '46MD'49, was appointed assistant medicaldirector of Northwestern Mutual Life In- RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneM On roe 6-3192Since 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERPOND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in Letter*Hooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisYOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S . . .A product -{ Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400November, i96i 29surance Co., effective June 15. For thepast eight years, Dr. Bardenwerper hasbeen a general practitioner in Waterford,Wise, and a staff member of the Memorial Hospital in Burlington, Wise. He haswritten several articles on clinical medicine that have appeared in national magazines. Northwestern Life is based in Milwaukee, Wise.ROSEMARY DIAMANT BEYER, AM'46,was appointed principal of the HubbardWoods School in Winnetka, 111., in April.She was formerly a primary teacher inthe school. Her husband, ROBERT, '47,MBA'49, is credit manager and office services manager of Dole Valve Co., in MortonGrove, 111. The Beyers moved into a newhome this spring which they designedthemselves and had built on an acre lotadjoining a forest preserve in Glenview, 111.THE NEW CHICAGO CHAIRAn attractive, sturdy, comfortablechair finished in jet black withgold trim and gold silk-screenedUniversity shield.$30.00Order from and make checks payable toTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION5733 University Ave., Chicago 37Chairs will be shipped express collect from Gardner, Mass. withinone month.BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersH Ay market 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., Chicago JOHN J. SPEED, MBA'47, was appointedthis summer to a new executive position inthe Chemical Group of General Aniline &Film Corp., New York. His appointmentas manager of special projects was effectiveJuly 1. The Chemical Group consists ofAntara Chemicals, General Dyestuff Co.,and Collway Pigments Divisions. Mr. Speedjoined the Company in 1951 and has heldvarious personnel relations positions. Formerly he was personnel relations managerat the company's Rensselaer, N.Y., plant.From 1947 until 1951, Mr. Speed was withthe National Industrial Conference Board,New York City, as staff and research associate in personnel administration.H. EUGENE SWANTZ, JR., '47, MBA'50,is now with Arthur Young & Co., CertifiedPublic Accountants in San Diego, Calif.Formerly Mr. Swantz was manager ofaudits at Solar Aircraft Co. in La Jolla,Calif. He served as chairman of the U of CFoundation spring campaign in San Diegothis year. Mr. Swantz is the son of HENRYE. SWANTZ, '23, and ETHEL PALMER,'22, of Oak Park, 111.HARRIS W. WILSON, AM'47, Universityof Illinois professor of English in Champaign, was one of four U of C alumnifrom the state of Illinois who receivedGuggenheim study awards for 1961-62.The awards, given to 265 scholars andscientists this year, enable recipients tocarry on research and further study intheir field of specialty. Mr. Wilson's grantis for studies of H. G. Wells and theFabian Society. Other winners from Illinois are: MURRAY KRIEGER, AM'48,University of Illinois professor of English,of Urbana, to study post-Renaissance literature; WILLIAM A. CHUPKA, SM'49,PhD'51, Argonne National Laboratory associate physicist, of Argonne, 111., forstudies in mass spectrometry; and PAULE. POTTER, '49, SM'50, PhD'52, IllinoisGeological Society associate geologist, ofUrbana, to study primary directional properties in sedimentarv rocks.1+8-50ELIZABETH A. HARTH, '48, a major inthe Women's Army Corps, recently completed the officer advanced course at theWAC Center, Fort McClellan, Ala. Thefive-month course provided her with advanced training in the duties and responsibilities of a field grade WAC officer. Maj.Harth joined the WACs in 1943 and waslast stationed in Chicago.ROSE BROUSEMAN KELMAN, '48, iscurrently at the Institute for Social Research in Oslo, Norway, assisting her husband as a research interviewer on a studyof Scandinavian students in the UnitedStates. Mrs. Kelman who lives in Cambridge, Mass., has been a supervisor Inthe prenatal-pediatric social service department, Beth Israel Hospital, in Boston.HARRY PROSCH, '48, AM'50, PhD'55,professor of philosophy at Southern Metho dist University, Dallas, Texas, was selectedas one of six SMU faculty members tobe the first fellows of the school's newly-formed Graduate Council of the Humanities for 1961-62. Each professor on thecouncil will be free during the year t°engage in scholarly discussion, researchand writing on a specific project in thearea of the humanities. Mr. Prosch is studying the relation between metaphysics an"ethics.MARTIN F. STURMAN, '48, is_ practicing medicine in Manhattan and "enjoyingNew York life."ALAN T. WAGER, PhD'48, was on »leave of absence last year from ArizonaState University where he is professor Otphysics. He spent the year at the NationalScience Foundation in Washington, V-y-as associate director of academic year institutes.JOSEPH M. WEPMAN, PhD'48, associateprofessor of surgery and psychology athe U of C, has been elected to the Executive Council of Division 22 of the American Psychological Assn. and to the executive council of the American Speech andHearing Assn.MARCIA WHITE ROSENTHAL, PhD'49>of Argonne National Laboratory's biological and medical research division, reported in May to a meeting of the Radiation Research Society in Washington, D-^-She stated that scientists at Argonne havesucceeded in reducing the occurrence °'bone cancers in laboratory animals whichhave been given highly radioactive plutonium. The long-term experiment at Argonneuses a well-known chemical compound)DTPA, to remove absorbed plutonium fro"1the bones of mice, and thus reduce bonetumors and lengthen their survival time-Argonne is operated by the U of C for theU.S. Atomic Energy Commission in Argonne, 111.LOLA G. SELBY, AM'49, of Los Angeles-Calif., who is adjunct associate professorof social work at the University of Southern California, is lecturing at the University of Leicester, England, this fall undera Fulbright grant. She will lecture >»social casework for the entire acadeni'cyear 1961-62. Miss Selby attended theInternational Conference of Social Wor*held in Rome last January. She has beenat USC since 1956, and formerly ha0taught at Iowa State University for "Vyears.JAMES F. SHORT, JR., AM'49, PhD'51-visiting professor of sociology at the uof C, and director of the Youth StudiesProgram, served as a consultant to thePlanning Committee for the 30th AnnualGovernor's Conference on Youth held jnChicago in April. The theme of the conference this year was "New PerspectiveThrough Research." Mr. Short moderateda program on "Relationship of Research toAction."HENRIETTA A. SPILLE, MBA'49, ofColumbus, Ohio, has taken a position «shospital consultant with the Ohio Department of Health division of hospital iaci'-ities. She was formerly superintendent ot30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHREE JUDGES-Three U of C Law Schoolgraduates have been appointed to lifetimePositions as U.S. District Court Judges for•he Northern District of Illinois. They werenamed to fill three of the four vacanciesjn the district (the fourth has not beenfilled yet.)Richard B. Austin, JD'26, (right) is aformer Superior Court Judge for CookC°unty, Ml., and recently headed the9roup 0f lawyers who formulated theRevised Criminal Code, passed by the last'Hinois General Assembly. He has been inPrivate practice and a state prosecutor.Hubert L. Will, '35, JD'37, (below)formerly a lawyer with Nelson, Boodell &Will, has been chairman of Mayor Daley'sCommission of Youth Welfare in Chicago,ana is a member of the Hyde Park-Ken-w°°d Community Council. While a studentat the U of C, Mr. Will remembers work-'¦]9 for Robert Maynard Hutchins, shining™s shoes, pressing his pants and doings°me jobs of higher intellectual content.". James B. Parsons, AM'46, JD'49, (farn9ht) is the first Negro to be appointed,0 a Federal district bench in the continental United States. He was a Superior^•ourt Judge in Cook County and formerlyn°d been an assistant U.S. attorney inJhe Northern District. Judge Parsons orig-'nally studied music and taught school,'° he is a relative latecomer to law—6 Passed his bar examination when 38.Children's Convalescent Home in Cincin-nati, Ohio.EUGENE ZEMANS, AM'49, director of:lle John Howard Association of Chicago,™ current president of the Internationalnsoners Aid Assn., and vice-chairman ofl' ncwly-formed statewide committee inIllinois to abolish capital punishment. Heattended the second United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the.treatment of Offenders which was heldm London during August, 1960.DOROTHY AIKIN, AM'50, PhD'57, asso-c»ate professor in the U of C School of0cial Service Administration, has beennamed consultant on social work educa-tlon to a seminar on Family Diagnosisand Treatment. The seminar, jointly ar-£}nged by the Elizabeth McCormickMemorial Fund and the Family ServiceAssociation of America, will extend overa period of three years.Edward c. banfield, am'so, PhD51» has become the first Henry Lee Shat-juck Professor of Urban Government atharvard University. An expert in the poli-oal and social problems of urban centers,*"• Banfield has been a professor of government at Harvard since 1959. Previouslye had been an associate professor of poli-J"cal science at the U of C. At Harvard^r- Banfield teaches students of local andstate government and conducts research'n the Joint Center for Urban Studies ofMI-T. and Harvard. During 1938-48 heforked for the federal government in theforest Service and the Farm SecurityAdministration. of Rex Hospital in Raleigh, N.C.ALTON BROTEN, AM'50, has returnedto Chicago as director of the Mary Bar-telme Home for Girls of MetropolitanChicago. Under his direction, the newagency, representing a merger of the MaryBartelme Clubs and the Chicago Home forGirls, will continue to provide group carefor adolescent girls in residences throughout the Chicago area. He hopes to develop several types of residential programsin order to serve girls with more complexemotional problems. In the past, Mr.Broten was associate director of the groupchild care project and lecturer at the University of North Carolina School of SocialWork, Chapel Hill, N.C.ANDREW S. KENDE, '50, research chemist at American Cyanamid Company'sLederle Laboratories received a grant foradvanced education from the company inMarch. Mr. Kende, chemist in the organicchemistry research section of the laboratory, expects to do advanced studies inthe field of organic chemistry at the University of Munich in Germany, and follow-up studies elsewhere in Europe. He willbe working with scientists well known inthe fields of theoretical organic chemistryand quantum mechanics (the study ofthe electronic structure of molecules).Mr. Kende was also the recipient of anAmerican Cancer Society Fellowship whichenabled him to study at the University ofGlasgow in Scotland, in 1956-57. Lederlepharmaceutical laboratories where Mr.Kende is employed, are located in PearlRiver, N.Y.JOSEPH E. BARNES, MBA'50, is director WILLIAM LAZER, MBA'50, has been promoted to the rank of full professor inthe Graduate School of Business Administration at Michigan State University. Mr.Lazer is a prominent marketing analystwho is well-known as a contributor tomany professional journals. He is co-authorof three books on marketing, and has frequently served as a consultant to businessfirms and governmental agencies. During1959-60, he did post-doctoral work as aFord Foundation Fellow at Harvard University.SAMUEL SOMORA, JR., '50, of Bloom-field Hills, Mich., is now promotion manager of WXYZ Radio and Television, Inc.,in Detroit, Mich. Formerly Mr. Somorawas with other stations in Flint and Benton Harbor, Mich.RICHARDSON L. SPOFFORD, MBA'50,and his wife, JANICE BROGUE, '44, '46,PhD'55, announce the birth of a son, JohnRawson, on March 17. Mr. Spofford is anaccountant with Sinclair Refining Co. inChicago, and Mrs. Spofford is assistantprofessor of biology and research associatein zoology at the U of C.GEORGE M. STANFIELD, MBA'50, ofLake Oswego, 111., has been appointed amanager-consultant on programmed learning materials for Encyclopaedia BritannicaFilms, it was announced in June. Mr. Stan-field was regional manager for AmericanSeating Co. before joining Britannica.WILLIAM N. WEAVER, '50, was appointed associate dean and dean of students in the U of C Divinity School lastFebruary. He is in charge of studentactivities and affairs and takes part inadministrative operations of the school.November, i96i 31ALUMNI AFFAIRSALUMNI CLUB CALENDARFORT WAYNE, Indiana. June 28, BessSondel, '31, PhD'38, author and consultanton general semantics and communications,spoke before our alumni and the FortWayne General Semantics Society. Themeeting was set up by alumni HarrySigele and Bernard Dolnick.ST. LOUIS. September 7, Professor HansMorgenthau (Political Science), authorityon foreign policies, spoke on the BerlinCrisis to 80 alumni at dinner in the KingLouis IX Room in Union Station. He alsoappeared on TV. Leonard J. Schermerwas chairman of the program.NEW YORK. October 25, President GeorgeW. Beadle met with our New York alumniat a reception in the Palm Terrace Suiteof the Hotel Roosevelt. Kenneth Axelsonis the President of the Club.MILWAUKEE. October 26, Professor JosephCropsey (Political Science) addressed ourMilwaukee Club on some of the causesof our foreign crises. Edward P. Wileywas chairman of the meeting.WASHINGTON, D.C. October 26, President George W. Beadle was the guest ofthe Washington Club at a reception atthe Mayflower Hotel. William B. Cannonis president of our Washington Club.NEW YORK. December 8. Theatre Party:"A Man for all Seasons," direct fromLondon and starring Paul Scofield. Forticket reservations call our New York office, MUrray Hill 3-1062.AXELSON '44The University of Chicago Club of NewYork has elected new officers. President,Kenneth S. Axelson, '44, of Peat, Marwick,Mitchell & Co.; Vice Presidents, Jack J.Honomichl, AM'56, of the Chicago Tribuneand John Joseph, '20, of the Hilton HotelCorporation; Treasurer, A. V. Smith, MBA'53, of Lion Match Co.; and Secretary,Mrs. Edward C. Grauel (Emily Wood, '36).SPECIAL GIFT "KICKOFFS"Proceeding the start of the 1962 annualalumni fund drive, special gift campaignsare set for this fall in major cities. Committees have been formed and assignmentswill be made at special gift "kickoffs" inthe following cities: Chicago, Milwaukee,St. Louis, Detroit, Cleveland, Cincinnati,Minneapolis-St. Paul, Miami, New York,and Washington, D.C.FOUNDATION CITATIONAt its national convention in July, theAmerican Alumni Council cited our AlumniFoundation "for creditable achievement intraining volunteer solicitors".32 WILFRED R. SMITH, AM'50, of Taylor,Mich., is now an instructor at Henry FordCommunity College in Dearborn, Mich.He was formerly a high school teacherin Alpena, Mich.THURMAN WHITE, PhD'50, of Norman,Okla., is president of the National University Extension Assn. He presided atthe annual meeting of the association inMay, calling university extension, "one ofthe great education frontiers in the UnitedStates." Mr. White is head of the extension division at the University of Oklahoma.51-57THOMAS T. SUGIHARA, SM'51, PhD'52,associate professor of chemistry at ClarkUniversity, has received both a FulbrightGrant and a Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship for study during 1961-62. TheFulbright award was granted for researchin nuclear chemistry to be conducted atthe University of Oslo in Norway; theGuggenheim fellowship is for studies of theeffects of angular momentum and excitation energy in high-energy fission. About500 American scholars have received Fulbright grants, and the Guggenheim fellowship is one of 265 awards given this year.A Clark faculty member since 1953, Mr.Sugihara has served with an Atomic EnergvCommission subcommittee to study standards for waste disposal from nuclear-powered ships, and also has been an associate scientist at the Woods Hole Oceano-graphic Institution since 1954. In the past,he has held a National Science Foundationgrant and several other federally-sponsoredgrants for research on nuclear and fissionable materials. Mr. Sugihara and hisfamily live in Worcester, Mass.W. ROBERT THOMPSON, PhD'51, formerly associate professor of psychology atWesleyan University, Middletown, Conn.,was promoted to full professor effectiveJuly 1. An experimental psychologist, Mr.Thompson was awarded a GuggenheimFellowship in 1959-60 and is co-authorof a book, Beliavior Genetics, published in1960. He has also written nearly 30 articlesfor professional journals, primarily on inheritance of behavior and effects of earlyenvironmental influence.JAMES M. WEINRAUB, '51, has openedhis own office for the general practice oflaw in New York City (15 East 40th St.).Mr. Weinraub received a master's degreein international law from New York University School of Law in June, 1960, andis currently working on his doctor's degreein the same field at N.Y.U. Mr. Weinraubcelebrated his first wedding anniversary onApril 30, and is "at home to all alumniand friends" at 233 Lexington Ave., NewYork City.EVA FISHELL BLATT, '52, AM'55, PhD'60, has a joint appointment as clinicalpsychologist at the Mount Sinai Hospital outpatient clinic and as instructor of psychology in the Department of Psychiatryand Neurology in the U of C Medica'School. Her husband, ROBERT S. BLAT1.'49, JD'52, is a partner in the law firm 0lCurtis, Friedman and Marks in Chicago.MATHILDE A. IIAGA, AM'52, has takena position as chairman of the departmenof nursing at Hartwick College in Onconta,N.Y. She was formerly with the OryisSchool of Nursing, University of Nevada,Reno.GILBERT C. HORNUNG, '52, SM'54, i»May took a new position as managwfcdirector of the Flamingo Hotel in SantaKosa, Calif. Formerly Mr. Hornung vvasan exploration geologist with Standard OiCompany of California in Bakersfield. M*1Hornung's wife is HELEN HARVEY, 53.FREDERICK C. PRUSSNER, PhD'52, andEVELYN P. ROWE, AM'55, have beenpromoted from associate professors to professors at Emory University, Atlanta, Ga.Miss Rowe became professor in the Schooof Nursing and Mr. Prussner was name"professor in the School of Theology.LOUISE W. SIVYER, AM'52, is spendingher year on sabbatical leave "seeing 8smuch of Asia, Africa and Europe as possible in 14 months." She teaches in thepublic schools at Manhasset, N.Y., whereshe is a specialist in remedial reading.JOHN C. WARDEN, '52, '55, is an instructor at the University of Kentucky department of biology in Lexington, Ky. FormerlyMr. Warden lived in Danville, 111.FERDINAND C. BATES, SM'53, receiveda PhD degree in meteorology at Sain'Louis University in June. Mr. Bates hasrecently been a meteorologist with the U>Weather Bureau in Kansas City, Kan.WILLIAM BLAU, AM'53, has been electedpresident of the Detroit (Mich.) chapterof the American Marketing Assn. Mr-Blau, who is vice president of marketingat Harley Earl Associates, has been activein the Detroit chapter for four years. Heorganized and was in charge of a highysuccessful Regional New Product Marketing Conference which took place last year-In 1957, Mr. Blau left his position in thecreative advertising research group of theToni Division of Gillette in Chicago, t°become director of market research forHarley Earl Associates. He was elevatedto his present position in 1959.RICHARD I. BROD, '53, AM'58, is a graduate student at Yale University working onhis PhD degree in Germanic philology-DONALD BUTTERFIELD, '53, of Cambridge, Mass., is continuing his surgicaresidency at the Boston City Hospital andserving as a pre-medical adviser in residence at Harvard University.FRANK W. FITCH, MD'53, SM'57, PhD'60, has been selected a Markle Scholar for1961 to 1966. He is assistant professor otpathology at the U of C Medical School.MARY JOHNSON FREY, AM'53, announces the birth of a daughter, MarthaMary, born on October 18. She and herhusband, Richard, live in Winnetka, 111.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEROBERT G1EDT, '54, '56, has movedjr°m Minneapolis, Minn., to Reseda, Calif."Je is a member of the technical staff ofme Aerospace Corp., in El Segundo, Calif."is work is in experimental gas dynamics.ROBERT G. JACOBS, '54, has been promoted to associate professor of English atJowa Wesleyan College, in Mount Pleasant.•¦irmerly he was assistant professor there.**e joined the faculty in 1958 and wasformerly at the State University of Iowa.&ANIEL LEVINE, '54, AM'59, a PhDdegree candidate in the Midwest Admin-lstration Center at U of C was recentlypected to Phi Delta Kappa, educationalhonor fraternity for men. Mr. Levine currently is working for the Center on a proj-ect involving the St. Louis, Mo., publicp'Jools, and had an article published in thet'ebruary issue of the Chicago Schools J our-"<"• His wife is RAYNA FREEMAN, '60.Leonard b. meyer, PhD'54, professorof music at the U of C, has been on leave°J absence during the past academic year.He was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies at Wesleyan University.Mr. Meyer was invited to participate inJ*"0 panel discussions at the meetings ofle International Musicological Society ini5ePtcniber in New York City.JACK F. SCAVENIUS, JD'54, lawyer in^"chorage, Alas., is also master for thebuperior Court there.EpWARD G. STRABLE, AM'54, librarian*,tn J- Walter Thompson Co. in Chicago,as elected a director of the Special^'Maries Assn. at the group's annual busi-^ss meeting held in May at San Francisco.f "e association is an organization of professional librarians in fields concerned withPenalized research and information such<s business, industry, communications/¦edia, scientific or educational societies..r> Strable has served in several com-¦1 i?e capacities for the association, in-c'uding as chairman of the group's Chicagoinvention in 1958. He was an advertisingcopywriter, library assistant and library"ecutive assistant before joining J. Walter'nompson in 1955.piARLENE SUNESON, '54, a lieutenantthe Waves, has become the first woman"ss'gned to active sea duty in the 186-£ear history of the Navy. In July, Miss•meson received her orders to go to sea^board the military transport USS General, • A. Mann which ferries troops and theirdependents between the West Coast Orient. She had been hoping for seauty when recently the Navy sent out apl" for a woman to serve aboard theeneral Mann to help with some of theOmen dependents carried on the trans-P0rt- Miss Suneson said the Navy has tolder she's a "sort of trial balloon" and sheP ans to do extensive brushing up onautical terms and shipboard procedure so'of6. wiH he no mistakes. Miss Suneson'Hit. "I live in a small private room on board.ut share mess and laundry facilities withJne riirt« t_i — •.. *'v — k...... f.-,6 men. Her comment: "You have toi,rr> to adapt in the Navy.'ANJGELA TERESA VIGETTI, '54, has become director of the School of SocialWork in Santa Fe, Argentina, and teachescourses in statistics. Drawing on her experience as holder of a scholarship from theInstitute of International Education, she issecretary of a local committee in Santa Feon study and training in the United States.ELAINE DORFMAN, PhD'55, is assistantdirector of the research and statistics unitat Eastern Mental Health Center in Philadelphia, Pa.DAVID A. FRIESKE, '56, is one of threeU of C alumni to receive MD degrees fromWashington University, St. Louis, Mo., inlune. Others who also were awarded MDdegrees are KENT E. KELLER, '57, andSTEVEN OPPENHEIMER, '58.GEORGE C. HOFFMANN, AM'56, PhD'61, has been promoted to assistant profes-. sor of political science at Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio, effective September 1. Formerly Mr. Hoffmann was aninstructor at the university. He has beenon the faculty there since 1959.EUGENE R. KANJO, '56, AM'56, of LosAngeles, Calif., has received an assistant-ship in English at Claremont GraduateSchool, Claremont, Calif., for this academic year.ANTHONY M. LEMOS, SM'56, instructorin -physics at Lake Forest College, LakeForest, 111., was awarded a fellowship bythe National Science Foundation to support his participation in the 1961 BrandeisUniversity Summer Institute in TheoreticalPhysics. Mr. Lemos, who lives in Chicago,read a paper at the May meeting of theChicago section of the American Association of Physics Teachers at NorthwesternUniversity, Evanston, 111. His topic was,"The Neutron-Proton Mass Difference fromElectric Self-Energy Considerations." Presently Mr. Lemos is completing work forhis PhD degree at the Illinois institute ofTechnology.MAURICE S. MANDEL, '56, '57, and hiswife, CAROLYN KIBLINGER, '59, movedinto a new home in Port Washington, N.Y.,during June. Mr. Mandel was recentlyappointed an account executive in theinvestment advisory department of Shear-son, Hammill & Co.HARRY R. TEMPLETON, '56, was associate director of the American & CanadianSportsmen's Show in Cleveland, Ohio. Mr.Templeton lives in Lakewood, Ohio.KARL ANN, AM'57, is assitant professorof political science at Waterloo UniversityCollege, Waterloo, Ontario.DELPHINE B. BARTOSIK, '57, of Chicago, received her MD degree fromWoman's Medical College of Pennsylvania(Philadelphia) in June and is interning atthe University of Illinois Research andEducational Hospital in Chicago. MissBartosik was president of her senior classat the medical college and a member ofAlpha Omega Alpha.KENNETH E. BROWN, MBA'57, lieutenant colonel of the Ballistic Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, atInglewood, Calif., has been awarded the LOWER YOUR' COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURESROBERT B. SHAPIRO, '33, FOUNDERBOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophono NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS— 1708 E. 7 1 ST ST.PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumpi6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfox 4-0550PENDER SEWER COMPANYUNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1 354 East 55th Street" s4 afooHf font"MemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMUaeum 4-1200Phone REgent 1-331 1The Old ReliableHyde Park AINC. wning Co.Awnings and Canopies1142 E. 82nd for All Pu.Street posesCHICAGO ADDRESSING SPRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdverlisersPRINTING— LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters • Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addreising • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Deirborn . Chiufo 5 . WA 2-4MINovember, i96iAir Force Commendation Medal for meritorious achievement. Colonel Brown distinguished himself from 1957-1961 asplanning officer and test director of thejoint test force for the category testing ofthe GAM -77 Hound Dog air-to-surfacemissile. During World War II he flewwith the 13th Air Force in the SouthPacific and during the Korean conflict,served as an exchange pilot with theMarines. Colonel Brown is presently assigned as Deputy Director for Tests, Directorate of Development, MINUTEMAN.Colonel Brown resides in Hawthorne, Calif.RITA JAMES PhD'57, former researchassociate with the Law School and assistant professor in sociology, is planning toleave the U of C at the end of the year.NORMAN C. PARDUE, MBA'57, U.S.Army colonel, and HOWARD D. ELLIOTT, SM'48, U.S. Army lieutenant colonel,both completed a ten-month course ofstudy at the Army War College, CarlisleBarracks, Pa., in June. The War Collegeprepares selected officers for future assignment to key command and staff positionsin the Armed Services.MARY SHUMWAY, '57, took over editorial-advertising management of the TiburonPeninsula Pelican, Tiburon, Calif., newspaper, in April. Miss Shumway is formereditorial assistant and society editor ofthe Mill Valley Record, and has recentlyhandled publicity for a publishing house,Graphic Arts of Marin, Inc., in Sausalito.While a student at the U of C, Miss Shumway did editorial work for two academicjournals published by the U of C Press.Her poetry has appeared in several national publications.LUBERT STRYER, '57, received the Borden Undergraduate Research Award inMedicine for original research at the timeof his graduation from Harvard University Medical School in May. Dr. Stryer,a member of the Boylston Medical Societyat Harvard, has been appointed a WhitneyFoundation Fellow in the department ofphysics at Harvard for the coming year.HERBERT SULLIVAN, '57, is instructorin the department of religion at Duke University, Durham, S.C. He teaches classesin non-Christian religions and philosophies.Mr. Sullivan received his PhD degree fromthe School of Oriental Studies at the University of Durham, England, and has alsostudied in India. He is a fellow of theRoyal Asiatic Society and member of theAmerican Oriental Society.ROY S. WEINRACH, PhD,57, graduatedfrom Northwestern University MedicalSchool (Evanston, 111.) in June. He is anintern at Philadelphia General Hospital.Last year Dr. Weinrach was at the NationalInstitutes of Health in Bethesda, Md.,doing research in dermatology. At Northwestern University, he was elected toAlpha Omega Alpha.JAMES WILSON, AM'57, PhD'59, former assistant professor in the Departmentof Political Science at the U of C wentto Harvard University this fall as lecturerin the department of government. He willspend much of his time also with the34 Joint Center for Urban Studies, a groupwhich studies city politics and is co-sponsored by Harvard and the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology. In cooperationwith a colleague at Harvard, Mr. Wilsonplans to compile a synthesis of availableinformation on the politics of cities in theU.S. One of Mr. Wilson's previously published books is Negro Leaders and Politics.58-61RAYMOND BRETON, AM'58, has beenelected to membership in Phi Beta Kappahonor society at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Mr. Breton is acandidate for the PhD degree in social relations and won the honor for outstandingscholarship in his studies at Johns Hopkins.He and his wife live in Baltimore.IRENE KENNETH, '58, a teacher in For-restville South High School in Chicago,participated in an eight-week GermanLanguage Institute, June 16 to August 10,at the University of Washington, Seattle.The Language Institute at Washington wasone of 67 summer institutes held at variouscolleges and universities for the improvement of language teaching. Miss Kennethwas one of two teachers selected from thestate of Illinois to attend. She took Germancourses and classes in modern teachingtechniques. During the institute, participants lived in a university residence wherethey spoke only German.CHARLES Y. PAK, '58, OWEN M. REN-NERT, '57, '57, and JOSEPH JARABAK,'56, MD'60, are all interns at the U of CClinics for the year 1961-62. Dr. Jarabakis a U.S. Public Health Service postdoctoral fellow in the Ben May Laboratoryfor Cancer Research.ERNA M. RUEGGEBERG, AM'58, hastaken a position with Central MissouriState College in Warrensburg, Mo., whereshe is associate head of the nursing program and an assistant professor. FormerlyMiss Rueggeberg was an assistant professor in the department of nursing at theUniversity of Kansas School of Medicinein Kansas City, Kan.EUGENE E. SKINNER, MBA'58, is nowresearch and development director in theAir Force air research and developmentcommand at Waltham, Mass. Mr. Skinner,who is a lieutenant colonel, lives in Burlington, Mass.ROBERT L. RANDALL, SM'59, formerlyemployed as a chemist with Topco Associates in Chicago, is now a private in theU.S. Army. Mr. Randall has been trainedin protective techniques against chemical,biological and radiological contamination.PHILIP N. REEVES, MBA'59, formerlystationed in Guam with the U.S. Air Force,was promoted to major on January 1. Heis now in a new position as chief officerof the records branch in the military airtransport service headquarters at Scott Air Force Base, 111. Mr. Reeves was repla<*£in Guam by ALAN F. OLIVER, MBA o"'During a vacation in Japan last spiwMr. Reeves spoke to members of the opartment of economics at Kansai Univesity in Osaka.LAWRENCE B. STEINBERG, '59, h*entered the army and in June completethe five-week disbursing specialist courtat the Finance School, Fort Benjarn^Harrison, Ind. Mr. Steinberg was ^ployed by the Internal Revenue Servicbefore going on active duty.DAVID M. WEITZMAN, '59, formedof New York, N.Y., is presently teachingchemistry in Athens, Greece.ALLAN M. ZWICKEL, PhD'59, former^instructor of chemistry at Florida StaUniversity has been appointed assistsprofessor at Clark University, Worcester*Mass. His appointment took effect September 1. Mr. Zwickel's special fieldstudy is inorganic chemistry. He Jsmember of Sigma Xi, honorary scienttfsociety.MAX G. ABBOTT, PhD'60, former facultymember at the U of C has been appoint^associate professor in the University °Rochester's College of Education. M ^Abbott was assistant professor of eductional administration and assistant to tfldean in the U of C Graduate School £Education. Before coming to the U oiin 1958, he was superintendent of schoo^in Vernal, Utah, and served as direct?of research in the department of puD .instruction at Salt Lake City. A specialin administrative theory, he joins the edcation administration faculty at Rocheste •JOHN M. BAHNER, PhD'60, formerlyprincipal of Englewood School in Engie|wood, Fla., has been appointed assistaflprofessor in the Graduate School of &.cation and director of the Ford Foundattfteam teaching project at Harvard Unl'versity in Cambridge.RICHARD C. BUSH, PhD'60, secretaryof the Christian Study Center on Chine^Religion in Hong Kong, won first plaC,in an international essay contest sponsorby World Outlook, Methodist missl£!magazine, recently. The subject of *contest, which drew more than 75 enttj^/was "the philosophy of missions.' Mr-woo ui\> umiuowL/iiy \jm. niuaiuu"" .., t.Bush was pastor of several Method!churches in the U.S. before beginning *Vmissionary service as Protestant chapla ,at the University of the Philippines aflprofessor at the Union Theological Serflinary. Then Mr. Bush returned to *United States in 1956 as assistant profess**of the history of religions at SoutherMethodist University. In 1960 he we*back to missionary service and was asigned to his present post in Hong Kong'ARTHUR W. GHENT, PhD'60, is n°£assistant professor of zoology at the Ur^versity of Oklahoma in Norman. He Jetures in biometry and introductory zoology'PAUL B. HIGDON, MBA'60, of Chicag0;served as the transportation section chai^man of the American Cancer Society ^\sade this year. Mr. Higdon is secretaryTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZlN#an<l treasurer of the Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Co.EDWARD E. KENT, AM'60, second lieutenant in the U.S. Army, completed an^ght-week officer orientation course at theGantry school in Fort Benning, Ga. lastsP*ng. 6LEo J. LELLELID, AM'60, is a missionary at Fort Dauphin, Malagasy inj^theast Madagascar. He writes that a?°pical hurricane on March 27, damaged^e Lutheran mission there, of which he isMeasurer, to the extent of $65,000.MMES MEIGS, PhD'60, formerly assist-^nt ^ice president of the Federal Reserveank of St. Louis, was named economistot the New York Stock Exchange on June* Mr. Meigs will advise the Exchangen national economic questions. He hadoeen with the St. Louis Federal Reserve°ank since 1953, first as a business econo-J^lst and then as senior economist before. ^c°ming assistant vice president. Beforejoining the bank, he served as assistantProfessor of economics at the University01 Arkansas.^AYNE M. NICHOLS, MD'60, has enured a general practice of medicine inJ^ rural community of Keenesburg, Colo.V1*- Nichols announces the birth of aaaughter, Donna, on February 10.^LVIN PLATT, AM'60, has become Tem-P e youth supervisor and administrativeassistant to the director of the religiouscnool at North Shore Congregation Israel,* Glencoe, 111. For the past four years^ r- Piatt has taught in the Chicago pub-c schools, and served as a teacher in the*lte£toediate and high school departmentsthe Temple's religious school.j*9BERT D. RACHLIN, JD'60, hasj°ltted J°hn H. Downs in a general lawPractice under the firm name of Downs01 Kachlin, in St. Johnsbury, Vt.J^ES T. RULE, SM'60, and his wife,JEANNE THOMPSON, AM'54, moved toJutland, Ore., in September, 1960, when~ r* Rule took a position as assistant pro-rySsor in the anatomy department of thej^jversity of Oregon Dental School. Mrs.r|e *s working as a medical social con-r tant in the crippled children's divisionthe University s Medical School.jpNNETH L. SELWAY, MATM'60, ofuclid, Ohio, has taken a position asathematics coor(jmator with the Cleve-land Heights school board.jtoEWEY A. SHAW, MFA'60, is now an^structor of art at Wisconsin State Col-§e» Oshkosh, Wise. Mr. Shaw was for-merly of Ingleside, 111.rBeETE JOY SPECTER, '60, of Chicago,peived a master's degree in social ad-lrustration from Western Reserve Uni-ersity m Cleveland, Ohio, in June.j*ARBARA GOLDBERG, AM'61, andDAVIDried A. CRAMER, MD'61, were mar-wt 0n June 11 in Chicago. Mrs. Cramer .Sei graduated from the School of Socialervice Administration, is the daughterarJ Tecretary of Labor Arthur J. Goldberg,*nci DOROTHY KURGANS, '33.November, iqbi MAX A. WEISSKOPF, MD'96, long-timeChicago area physician, died on August19. Dr. Weisskopf, who moved his officeto Berwyn, 111., in 1951, practiced up untiltwo weeks before his death. He was former president, and head of the obstetricaldepartment at St. Anthony de PaduaHospital.CHARLES D. W. HALSEY, '00, of Mont-clair, N.J., died on May 27.HAL A. CHILDS, '02, of Creston, la.,died on June 28. He was an eye, ear, noseand throat specialist.ANNA MARSHALL MERRIFIELD, '02,died from a stroke at her home on Kim-bark Avenue on July 12, at the age of 81.Her husband, Fred, '98, '01, died in 1935.Mr. Merrifield, who had been captain ofa championship baseball team in his college days, was responsible for introducing baseball to Japan and for our varsity'sfirst trip to Japan in 1920. He had beena teacher in Japan for five years. Mrs.Merrifield had been dean of the Kenwood-Loring School for Girls, had taught inour University elementary school, andfinally had been made supervisor of the4 model" Greendale School near Milwaukee where she remained until she was 67.All five children attended Chicago and accumulated a variety of degrees. Fred, theoldest, died in 1959; Charles is head ofthe social science department of the newAlameda State College, Calif.; Margaretis married to John Clark ( Downers Grove )a Chicago lawyer; Bruce heads the research department of Texas U.S. ChemicalCo. (N.J.); and Marcia, his twin, is married to John Schenck, a Tucson highschool teacher. memorialsMYRA V. SMITH, '02, of Natchez, Miss.,died on August 23.LESLIE H. WOOD, AM'02, former headof the geography department at WesternMichigan University, and deceased sinceJune 10, 1933, was honored recently whenWestern announced that its new $3,500,000natural science building will bear his name.Mr. Wood joined Western in its first year,1904, and served there until his death. Apart of Wood Hall will be ready for usein February, with completion of the building due in the fall of 1962.CLARENCE W. SILLS, '04, of Chicago,111., died on August 4.JESSE C. HARPER, '07, former coachand director of athletics at Notre DameUniversity, died July 31, at his 20,000-acrecattle ranch near Sitka, Kan. Mr. Harper,who was 77, had resigned from NotreDame athletics in 1915, but took overagain for a period of two years in 1931.He resigned the position permanently in1933 to devote all his time to cattleranching.ETHEL SHANDREW HAYNE, '07, ofThree Rivers, Mich., died on May 7, 1960.CAROLINE SCHOCH, '07, of Lincoln,Neb., died on August 12.FLORA DODSON SKIPP, '07, of Granville, Ohio, died on January 7.ELIZABETH BARNHART, '08, of Greens-burg, Pa., died on August 12.LEMUEL R. FREER, '08, died on May14 in Carlsbad, Calif.WARREN D. FOSTER, '09, of Ridge-wood, N.J., who was an internationalpatent attorney, a pioneer in educationalmotion pictures and an inventor of motionpicture apparatus, died September 22.Mr. Foster headed two patents corporations, was founder and president of theCommunity Motion Picture Bureau (makers of educational films), and received65 patents in the motion picture field.He was co-inventor of the ultra-violet system of sound recording.KATSUJI KATO, AM'10, '11, PhD'13, MD'22, former associate professor of pediatricsat the U of C, died recently at a resortnear Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Kato, who was ablood specialist, had practiced medicinein Los Angeles before joining the University staff in 1929.35COLE Y. ROWE, '10, of Jacksonville, 111.,died on August 9.ROBERT L. I. SMITH, '10, MD'13, ofSouth Laguna, Calif., died on April 6.FAY-COOPER COLE, '12, LLD'55, professor emeritus of anthropology at the Uof C, died on September 4 in Santa Barbara, Calif. Mr. Cole was chairman of theanthropology department at the U of Cfrom 1929 until 1947, when he retired.He and his wife were noted in localpapers for their feat of "dauntless daring"in 1908 and 1909 when they went onscientific expeditions among the head-hunters of the Philippine Islands. In 1925,Mr. Cole represented the American Anthropological Assn. at the famous Scopes"monkey trial." After his retirement, Mr.Cole became acting chairman of the anthropology department at Indiana University and taught at Northwestern University.He moved to California in 1951.RACHEL P. CROUCH, '12, of LosAngeles, Calif., died in 1959.YOSHIO ISHIDA, '12, PhD'16, of Tokyo,Japan, died recently from diabetes. Mr.Ishida was a research physicist.LESTER W. SHARP, PhD'12, of Nuevo,Calif., died on July 17 in Hemet, Calif.JOHN L. GARRISON, '15, of Denver,Colo., died on July 22 at the age of 77.FRANK B. MAREK, MD'15, of Racine,Wise, died on August 24.JULIUS KREEGER, '17, JD'20, lawyerof Chicago, 111., died on March 7.LEON E. ROWLAND, AM'18, of Kalamazoo, Mich., died September 24. Mr.Rowland had retired in 1954 after completing 23 years service with the Evangelical and Educational Mission work inKovali and Suriapet in South India, andpreviously, 14 years as principal of MissionHigh School in Ongole, India.MARJORE HALE DICKSON, '19, ofEvanston, 111., died on August 26.LAWRENCE J. LAWSON, '19, MD'21,of Evanston, 111., died on July 11.JAMES T. GROOT, '20, of Chicago, III,died on August 6.CYRUS C. MacDUFFEE, SM'20, PhD'21,University of Wisconsin mathematics professor, died on August 21 in Park Ridge,111., where he was visiting. He had beenchairman of the mathematics departmentat Wisconsin from 1951 to 1956 and previously had taught at Princeton Universityand Ohio State University.GRANT L. MARTIN, '22, of Minneapolis,Minn., died on June 28.MARIE OLIVER, '22, of Oak Park, 111.,died in August, 1959.MARY E. SMITH, '22, of Indianapolis,Ind., died on April 3.LOUIS B. STINNETT, '22, of Indianapolis, Ind., died on March 7. He was aretired school principal.THERESA KEIDEL KIRBY, '23, AM'30,died on April 11 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Mrs.Kirby was supervisor of kindergarten and primary grades for Hamilton CountySchools.ANORIA BUTLER LEVEN, '23, of FallsChurch, Va., died recently.O. PAUL DECKER, '24, of Chicago, diedon August 15. He was president of theNational Boulevard Bank of Chicago, aposition he had held since 1956. Previously he had been vice president of theAmerican National Bank & Trust Co. ofChicago. After his graduation, Mr. Deckerhad taken graduate work and taught atthe U of C for three years.WILLARD VAN HAZEL, MD'24, ofChicago, 111., died on August 24.EUGENE P. KING, MD'24, of Waukegan,111., died on February 12.FRANK W. BUBB, PhD'25, of WebsterGrove, Mo., died on May 1.Sister MARY ELLEN O'HANLON, PhD'25, recently of Dubuque, la., died onAugust 24. She was professor of botanyand head of the department at RosaryCollege, River Forest, 111., from 1922 to1953. Since 1953 she has been living atSt. Dominic's Convent in Dubuque. SisterMary Ellen was the author of many articles, and had a book, Fundamentals ofPlant Science, published in 1941. Shewas a member of several organizations including the Botanical Society of America,Ecological Society, and the Chicago RacialCouncil of Christians and Jews.HERMAN E. HAYWARD, SM'25, PhD'28,of Riverside, Calif., died on May 31, 1960.MAUDE CRAWFORD LIDDELL, '25,of Los Angeles, Calif., died on August 12.SYLVIA M. GRUENER, '27, AM'36, ofLaGrange, 111., died on August 17. MissGruener was a biology teacher at Stein-metz High School.GEORGE R. HOLBROOK, '27, JD'29, ofFrankfort, Ky., died February 12.DAVID KATZ, '30, a Chicago schoolteacher for 25 years, died August 11. Mr.Katz, who had been teaching history andsocial studies at Austin High School since1958, died in New York while visitingfriends. He had just completed six weeksof study in Eastern Asian philosophy, religion and history at Wesleyan University,Middletown, Conn., under a fellowshipawarded by the Chicago Board of Education.BERNARD YEDOR, '30, JD'31, of Glencoe, 111., died on August 1, 1960.ALBERT H. MILLER, SR., '32, of OakPark, 111., died on July 30, 1959. Mr.Miller, who died at the age of 95, hadreceived an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Concordia Teachers College,River Forest, 111., in 1956.JOHN H. ELAM, '33, died on June 7,in Indianapolis, Ind.HELEN HIETT WALLER, '34, directorof the New York Herald Tribune Forumfor the last sixteen years, died August 22in Chamonix, France, of injuries sustainedin a mountain-climbing accident. Mrs.Waller, who was 47, had directed theHerald Tribune's annual forum which brought world leaders to this country fordiscussions, until it was dropped in 1955-She was also director of the forum ro*high school students which continues pre*'ently. Mrs. Waller was a correspondentfor the National Broadcasting Companyduring World War II, and the author ofNo Matter Where, a book based on herEuropean experiences.WALLACE W. CLARK, '36, of Nashville,Tenn., died in June, 1961. He was &the division of management research wit*1General Shoe Corporation.PERRY CAFFERTY, '37, who had beendelayed in getting his degree, was chiefaccountant in the Chicago treasurer's officeuntil his recent retirement. After a per*0.of illness, he died on July 25. Always wiujenthusiasm and devotion Mr. Cafferty hadworked for the University and the Association.WALTER W. HAMBURGER, JR., '3^MD'40, of Rochester, N.Y., died on September 21. He was associate professor opsychiatry at the University of Rochester.CHARLES HOY, '38, president of theUnited States Land Development Co->Fort Lauderdale, Fla., died from a heartattack on September 26. Mr. Hoy hadbeen active in student affairs as a Urn-versity Marshal and member of BlacK'friars, Owl & Serpent, and Alpha Del*8Phi.JOHN DALEY, '49, of Dunkirk, N.Y"died in April, 1961. Mr. Daley, who was34, had been a member of Phi GammaDelta.VITA SLODKI, '59, of Chicago, died 0*August 3, in Luzern, Switzerland, whneon a tour of Europe. She was aboardbus of tourists which was side-swiped °na dangerous mountain road and plungeinto Lake Luzern. Miss Slodki, who WaS22, taught history at Kelly High Schoolin Chicago.JOHN JUSTIN McDONOUGHJohn J. McDonough, '28, vice presidentof the Harris Trust and Savings Bar*'died from a heart attack October 2, 19° 'He was 54. He had been a RhodesScholar and a Phi Beta Kappa.From his student days, when he ^aquarterback on the football team, ) .was one of Alma Mater's most enthusias »and active supporters. He was a Truste >president of the board of governors °International House, served on numeroimportant committees including the AlumFoundation Board. Sai'aHis civic services were legion. ^aMilburn P. Akers in a Sun-Times efl>torial: "He made Chicago a better plaCfor all Chicagoans . . . possessed ot „abiding passion to help his fellow r^LThe Association cited him for his J)ut>service in 1953. His wife, Anne O BrijjjJearned her Master's from Chicago in ^]nThey have two children, Nancy and J°nMichael. ,eMemorial gifts may be made to tflJohn J. McDonough scholarship fundthe University.36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZlN^What ifsomething happensto Mr. Mac?Mr. Mac is any of those key men who are soimportant in most businesses. His loss wouldmean serious and immediate problems formanagement. 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