UNIVERSIT^^ ©¦\1<#* 4,J i'*.The First Playin a Season of OriginalsDECEMBER 1959BELL SYSTEM TEAMWORK IS A VITAL FACTORIN EFFICIENT, ECONOMICAL TELEPHONE SERVICEDirect Distance Dialing is an example of thevalue of unified research, manufacture and operationsJLlierc arc great advantages to thepublic and the nation in the way theBell System is set up to provide telephone service. It is a very simpleform of organization, with fouressential parts.Bell Telephone Laboratories doesthe research.The Western Electric Companyis the Bell System unit which doesmanufacturing, handles supply, andinstalls central office equipment.Twenty-one Bell Telephone operating companies provide servicewithin their respective territories.The American Telephone andTelegraph Company co-ordinatesthe whole enterprise and furnishesnationwide service over Long Distance lines.Each is experienced and efficientin its own field. But the particularvalue of each is greatly extended because all four parts arc in one organization and work together as a team.Direct Distance Dialing — one ofthe greatest advances in the speedand convenience of telephone service—is an example of the value ofthis unified setup.Already more than 8,000,000 telephone customers in more than 700localities can dial direct to as manyas 46,000,000 telephones throughoutthe country. Each month there arc EXAMPLE OF TEAMWORK. At left is new fast-moving switch (actual size) used in DirectDistance Dialing. Many of them go into action automatically every time you dial. Enclosedin gas-filled glass tubes to assure perfect contacts. Made to last 40 years. The result ofBell Telephone Laboratories and Western Electric working together to get the best and mosteconomical design. At right is remarkable new machine, designed by Western Electric,which automatically assembles 360 switches an hour at a very small cost.more. Millions of others can dialdirect over shorter out-of-town distances. Calls as far as 3000 milesaway go through in seconds.All of this didn't just happen. Itcalled for years of intensive planning,the invention of wholly new machines and equipment, and the development of new operating andaccounting techniques.Research alone couldn't have doneit. Neither manufacturing noroperations separately could have clone it. And just money couldn'thave done it, although it takesmoney and a lot of it for telephoneimprovement.The simple truth is that it couldnever have been done so quickly andso economically without the unifiedsetup of the Bell System.Eor many a year it has given dynamic drive and direction to thebusiness and provided the most andthe best telephone service in theworld.BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM IS/V\emo|mNew books by old friendsMARTIN GARDNER, '35, is on the looseagain with another brain-disturber: Mathematical Puzzles ir Diversions (178 pp.;$3,50; Simon & Schuster). Martin refersto this as "recreational mathematics."To me mathematics are like measles:have them as early in life as possible andhope for immunity thereafter.But if you insist, this book will provideyou with "Paradoxes and Paperfolding,Moebius Variations and Mnemonics, Fallacies, Brain-Teasers, Magic Squares . . .Four - Dimensional Ticktacktoe — all withmathematical commentaries by Mr. Gardner" [from the jacket].Martin, who writes regularly for Scientific American, also has published Mathematics Magic and Mystery (1956) andFads and Fallacies (1957).CHARLES V. STANSELL, AMll, recently retired as chief editorial writer andradio news analyst for the Kansas CityStar, has written More or Less Personal(194 pp; privately printed) "about a fellowwith no claim to greatness but with certain convictions."Charles remembers his Midway daysunder Manley,"one of the four or five greatEnglish scholars of the world;" McClintock,"an inspiring interpreter of literature;" Tol-man, "a recognized Shakespeare authority;"Myra Reynolds; Carpenter; James WeberLinn, "down to earth comments on booksand authors"; and Robert Morss Lovett.He adds, "Under the present leadership ofChancellor Lawrence A. Kimpton the University is continuing its liberal atmosphere,its high standards of scholarship and itsresearch achievements."His convictions range from education,"aptitude tests can seriously miss fire;" toRussia, "in some quarters its seems to beassumed that if anybody sneezes in Russiawe should jump over here;" to Florida,where he and his wife have retired: theylike it.EDWARD W. ALLEN, '07, is supposedto be a Seattle lawyer of the firm of Allen,De Garmo & Leedy. But I can't figure outwhen he practices, except indirectly, maybe.As chairman of the International PacificSalmon Fisheries Commission and the International Pacific Halibut Commission formany years, he has become an internationalauthority on these problems. In 1958 hewas adviser to the United States delegationto the Geneva United Nations Conferenceon the Law of the Sea.He's served on professional and civicboards in top offices and, in his spare time,written books. His latest: The MysteriousDisappearance of Laperouse, the VanishingFrenchman. (321 pp; $3.75; Charles E.Turtle Co.).Aliens note to me: "So I've writtenanother book! It's an informal biography°i Laperouse. Who was he? Well, readDECEMBER, 1959 and see . . ." I'm going to, but meanwhile, the publishing date is November14th so I'm passing the mystery on toyou, in the event you're interested in thiswild adventurer and the first French navigator to explore Alaska.And again, out in my home country,the Pacific Northwest, BURT BROWNBARKER, '97, vice president emeritus, theUniversity of Oregon, has continued hisresearch into the family history of Dr.Jchn McLoughlin and published anotherbook: The McLoughlin Empire and itsRulers, a limited edition, handsomelyprinted, profusely illustrated (365 pp;$12.50; Arthur H. Clark Co.).FINALLY, speaking of authors, Miss M.E. Grenander, '40, AM'41, PhD'48, associate professor of English at the Collegefor Teachers at Albany, New York, writes:"I am editing the collected letters of Ambrose Bierce, American short story writer(1842-1914?) and should appreciate hearing from anyone who may know of Bierceletters still in private hands." Miss Gren-ander's address: 36 West St., Albany, N.Y.Headline of the monthAccording to the Chicago Sun-Times forNovember 5th, nine-year-old Evelyn Rudie—who won TV fame as precocious Eloiseupsetting the decorum of a luxury hotel-slipped out of Hollywood with the contentsof three piggy banks ($150!) for anunescorted jet trip to Washington for thepurpose of attracting headlines to bolsterher slipping ratings. The Sun-Times headlined the story:WELL, ELOISE, HERE'S YOUR NAMEIN THE HEADLINES-NOW SHUT UP.Quote of the monthCharles D. O'Connell, director of admissions: "Aptitude tests, treated with properrespect and proper cynicism, have an appropriate place in admissions procedure"but "we must not sell our birthright tojudge a student as an individual for a messof electronic pottage."Baukhage speakingHilmar Baukhage '11, until 1953 famedfor his daily radio lead-in "Baukhagespeaking" is 70; lives with his wife andPomeranian dog in a five-room apartmentfacing Rock Creek Park zoo in Washington;tried to retire; "went nuts" with no newsbusiness; and is now associate editor ofArmy-Navy-Air Force Register, a nongovernment weekly. He is also one of thebroadcasters for the weekly Pentagon Reports for troops overseas. Most of this wasreported in Newsweek for October 12th.Well, it's about timeWe have three girls who work five daysa week tracing and changing addresses andvital information about our 60,000 alumni.Last week came a card with this witheringmessage: Your records have me listed asMiss .... 7 have two children 6 and 4;was married September, 1950. [Signed,]Mrs Protect your children. Keep us postedon any changes of address or status.H.W.M. jT^^^f ^ UNIVERSITYMAGAZINE (j5733 University AvenueChicago 37, IllinoisMidway 3-0800; Extension 3244EDITOR Marjorie BurkhardtFEATURES2 The First Play in a Season of Originals5 ...Can Unions Be Democratic?I I ....On the Continuing Prevalence of WitchesManning Nash14 Two Prize-Winning HistoriansDEPARTMENTSI — Memo Pad16 ...News of the Quadrangles20 Books by Faculty and Alumni20 Class News3 I MemorialsPHOTO CREDITSCover, 2-4: Lee Balterman. 19: Albert C.Flores. 20: Maroon. 33: David Windsor.The University of ChicagoALUMNI ASSOCIATIONPRESIDENT John F. Dille, Jr.EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Howard W. MortADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANTRuth G. HalloranPROGRAMMING Lucy Tye VandenburghALUMNI FOUNDATIONDirector John A. PondChicago-Midwest Area Florence MedowREGIONAL OFFICESEastern RegionW. Ronald SimsRoom 22, 31 E. 39th StreetNew York 16, N. Y.MUrray Hill 3-1518Western RegionMary LeemanRoom 318, 717 Market St.San Francisco 3, Calif.EXbrook 2-0925Los Angeles BranchMrs. Marie Stephens1195 Charles St., Pasadena 3After 3 P.M.— SYcamore 3-4545MEMBERSHIP RATES (Including Magazine)I year, $5.00; 3 years, $12.00Published monthly, October through June, by theUniversity of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annualsubscription price, $5.00. Single copies, 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December I, 1934,at the Post Office of Chicago, Illinois, under theact of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, 22 Washington Square, NewYork, N. Y.1Dragansky will teach the cemetery directornot to withhold Dragansky's share. He willmasquerade as the bereaved old lady whenshe returns to the cemetery with her deadgrandson. What is lacking in this plot?Pepel. We need some one to rise up, deliverthe crushing line, the coup-de-grace. Now,it is a simple matter to play a corpse. Concentration. Complete relaxation, the smallest whisper of a smile.The cemetery director gets wind of theplot: he schemes that the First Secretaryof the Party will discover Dragansky in themidst of his act. The cemetery plumberobjects: the Secretary is bald!Really Bukin, you have an imposing, handsome head. Just like the First Secretary!But you must wait! I'm the corpse! I'm necessary. I really am necessary!2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe First Playin aSeason of OriginalsA typical season for University Theatre has, in past years,included one original play, three classics, one musical andtwo contemporary plays. Plays of Cocteau, Wedekind,Lorca, Shelley, Brecht, Shaw, and Boker have been done,often as Chicago premieres. This year, however, UT isplanning a special entire season of performances in MandelHall of original plays in premiere performances. The firstplay of this season hit the Mandel boards this November:Tepel, the Unburied Russian, a farce-parody of the one-party system by James Damico.In line with the observation that ten authors accountfor sixty percent of all the American plays produced, UTdirector Marvin Phillips feels that new playwrights mustbe encouraged. Community and college theatres, with theirestablished and loyal audiences, are in the best positionto produce original scripts. Though there are no theatrecourses or drama department at the University of Chicago,UT has three theatres operating during the year: MandelHall, the Reynolds Club Theatre and the outdoor CourtTheatre. Nearly a dozen plays are produced during theyear. These plays have a devoted audience; for example,Couit Theatre, which opened five years ago, has playedto over twenty-nine thousand. This past season, Othello,Love for Love and Francesco, da Rimini attracted eightthousand people.Furthermore, every two years, the University conductsthe nation-wide Charles H. Sergei Drama Contest, whichattracts over two hundred original scripts to its competition. Pepel, the Unburied Russian was one of those playsin the 1959 competition. Together with another play whichis tentatively planned for the next Mandel production,Pepel tied for the 1959 first prize.A tale of two freely-enterprising, indefatigable minorRussian officials, Pepel ranges from slapstick to poetry,and concludes in tragedy. However, the two officials, theirwits ever about them, emerge from their adventures unscathed: as one says, 'This day belongs to us. It is shiningin our pocket.' The capitalist image of shining coins in thepocket is the root of the whole thing, for the plot revolvesaround an old peasant woman who is bilked of her savingsby the cemetery director when she arranges the burial ofher grandson, Pepel. She complains to District CommissionerDragansky, who proclaims that this is truly an outrage.It's an "outrage" because Dragansky realizes the cemeterydirector was going to hold out Dragansky 's usual half ofthe takings. But, Dragansky has a vision:"It is shapely, it is sweet, light and poisonous. It drifts.It does not move, it wings, it darts. Heavy and weightless;black and white. All things to all men. Dishonor to onemar,.. It woos, it siren-calls, it embraces, unfailingly. Itobliterates. It is a plan."And so the plot thickens . . .DECEMBER, 1959Look at our society today in a different light. At first it may seemharsh and dangerous. Yet once you are geared to the system, itbecomes inevitable. That's the beauty of it. Become the fox.Better, be the jacked, for even the wily fox has scruples, andscruples are stones about the neck. They will drag you down.Those who understand the systemlive by it. Thosewho don't live byit wouldn't understand it. Quite foolproof, isn't it?There you see, the end result is satisfactory to all. We have had a diverting day,filled with intrigues, disguises, misplacedbodies, and no one is hurt by it. That is,except for our little mouse . . .4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOne of the major challenges the recentCongress faced was the writing of newlabor legislation. In the midst of the controversy, at the dedication conferences of theIndustrial Relations Center late this spring,two University faculty members dealt withsome of the critical issues involved.CAN UNIONSBEDEMOCRATIC?Joel Seidman, professor in the Division ofSocial Sciences and the Graduate School ofBusiness, reported on a major study he is makingof the constitutions and by-laws of Americanlabor unions. The conclusions he here reportsreflect the first step of his study, which involvesexamination of the constitutions of three-quarters of the unions in the U.S. with membership of 100,000 or more:Definition of Union DemocracyWhat makes a union democratic? The most importantrequirement, it seems to me, is that a group of members hasthe right to organize and reach the membership with candidates and a program in opposition to the administration,the membership having the opportunity to choose betweenthem. The union that does not have this is not fully democratic, though it may be democratic in the sense that theofficers are responsive to the desires of the rank and file.While I do not want to discount this, I would insist thatdemocracy requires that alternative political groups maybe formed to reach the membership.For this to be possible, members who share a similarpoint of view must have the right to meet. They must havethe opportunity to nominate candidates who will appearon the ballot. In addition, they must be able to reach amembership scattered over the country. This requires access to the union publications or the right to communicateby other means. But this takes money, and so there mustbe the right to raise funds. Finally, there must be an honestcounting of the ballots.The Right to Hold MeetingsNow let us take a closer look at some of these items-first of all, the question of meeting with others of similarviews. The problem here is that most unions have provisions in their constitutions barring dual unionism. Of the29 constitutions we have studied, 24 have such provisions,some drawn tightly and some loosely. The tight provisionis the kind that makes it clear what a dual union is, inwhich membership is prohibited, and defines it so carefully that the provision could not be used against an informalpolitical caucus.Let me give an illustration of this. The dual unionclause of the Communications Workers of America penalizes"the wilfully supporting or assisting any other labor organization in connection with a claim of jurisdiction in conflictwith the jurisdiction of the Union." Here the key wordsare "in conflict with the jurisdiction," since a caucus cannotbe so in conflict. The U.A.W. has an even better clause,very carefully drawn. What they penalize is "affirmativelyengaged in the promotion, implementation, furtherance orsupport of any other union or collective bargaining groupwith the purpose or intent of supplanting the InternationalUnion, or any subordinate body thereof, as the recognizedcollective bargaining agent/' This is the kind of dual unionclause that I think is appropriate.Of the 24 unions which have dual union clauses, however, only three, the two I mentioned and the United Electrical Workers, have clauses that are tightly drawn. Theother 21 have loosely drawn dual union clauses which couldbe used against opposition groups within the union ifthe chief officers of the union so interpreted them.In terms of the problem I am discussing, the best unionis the Typographical Union. It was not included in mypresent sample because it has just under 100,000 members.This is the only union which has an institutionalized two-party system, with the political caucus a recognized partof the union. If an established two-party system is the testof democracy, there is only one democratic union in theUnited States.There is an occasional union that permits a caucus, butonly with the consent of the international executive board.Where consent is required, it is important to recognizethat it is the political leaders of the unions who must giveconsent to a meeting of political opponents.The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,simply outlaws any caucus. It forbids "attending or participating in any gathering or meeting whatsoever, held outside meetings of an L.U. [local union] at which the affairsof the L.U. are discussed, or at which conclusions arearrived at regarding the business and the affairs of anL.U., or regarding L.U. officers or a candidate or candidatesfor L.U. office." So here it is illegal to have a caucus, andhence impossible to have a political opposition group. Theindividual member may run as a political opponent ofan incumbent, but he cannot meet with sympathizerswithout violating this clause of the constitution. So much,then, for the problem of the caucus.The Right to Communicate by MailIf one is an opposition candidate, one must either haveaccess to the official journal of the union or be able tosend material to the various locals. And here one may runinto provisions that impede such activity. Fourteen out ofDECEMBER, 1959 5the 29 union constitutions are silent on the point of publicizing or distributing material. It would be interesting tolook into their practices to see whether they permit suchactivity merely because it is not expressly forbidden, orwhether persons who do publish or distribute material maybe brought up on charges for violating other clauses of theconstitution.The I.B.E.W., which, we have seen, expressly forbids acaucus, also has extreme language which forbids attempting to reach the membership with political literature. Itsconstitution prohibits "mailing, handing out, or postingcards, handbills, letters, marked ballots, or political literature of any kind, or displaying streamers, banners, signsor anything else of a political nature, or being a party inany way to such being done in an effort to induce membersto vote for or against any candidate or candidates for L.U.office, or candidates to conventions." Under these circumstances you have political activity in the normal sensesimply forbidden, other than speaking at meetings. Thereis one exception to this. The election committee in thelocal is expressly authorized to print literature which willlist candidates for office and give a factual record of theactivities in the local in which they have engaged, butnothing more. In this union, it is also a violation on thepart of a local union officer to peimit the mailing list to beused for communications to members regarding politicalactivities.In three unions, the permission of the president is expressly required if literature is to be mailed out. Fromone point of view, the Bricklayers go even further, because their prohibition includes, not just material intendedfor the membership, but material to be published outsideas well. Their provision reads: "No subordinate union orany officer, committee or member thereof shall send out orpublish any circulars, letters, writings or printed matter ofany kind, or give out any libelling interviews for generaldistribution, either privately or publicly, vilifying or impugning the honesty or the character of any officer ormember . . . without first submitting such circulars, letters,writings, printed matter or interviews to the ExecutiveBoard of the International Union and securing its consentand approval thereto." Here again, what vilifies and whatimpugns honesty and character? It would be one thing tohave an impartial review of that. It is quite another thingto have the man against whom one is running for officedecide whether or not this provision has been violated.Seven of the unions, without requiring advance approvalof general circulars, punish for sending certain kinds ofmaterial. In the case of the Machinists, it is for circulatinga "false or malicious statement reflecting upon the privateor public conduct, or falsely or maliciously attacking thecharacter, impugning the motives, or questioning the integrity of any officer or member of the I.A.M." In the caseof the Transport Workers, it is for "false reports or misrepresentations." In the case of the Operating Engineers,it is for "publishing or circulating literature of a defamatorynature against any candidate for office, or officer." In thecase of the Steelworkers, it is for "publishing or circulatingamong the membership false reports or misrepresentations."And so on.The Right to Campaign for FundsThe raising of funds, a requirement in any political campaign, is not mentioned in 16 of the 29 constitutions. Mostof the others require approval, usually from the presidentor the executive board of the national union, for the solicitation of funds from other locals. Usually this is in connection with the financing of strikes, though the language istypically broad enough to, cover political campaigns as well.In two cases, the Textile Workers Union and the United Mine Workers, there is express provision against the useof union funds for political purposes within the union. TheRailway Clerks prohibit solicitation of funds for any purpose. The question is how an opposition candidate canraise the money necessary to bring his program to theattention of the membership, in the absence of provisionsfor using the union journal for that purpose.The Use of Disciplinary ClausesWe have seen that a number of provisions, such as thoserelating to the distribution of circulars, could be usedagainst a political opponent. There are, in addition, manyother clauses that could punish political activity. Of the29 unions, 17 have clauses on discipline that could so beused.Let me give a group of related provisions from a particular national constitution, that of the Teamsters, to seehow possible it would be to carry on a political campaign.They have a variety of provisions which could run amember afoul of the disciplinary process. Among these are:"gross disloyalty, or conduct unbecoming a member;" "abuseof fellow members and officers by written or oral communication;" "abuse of fellow members or officers in themeeting hall;" "activities which tend to bring the LocalUnion or the International Union into disrepute;" "disobedience to the regulations, rules, mandates and decreesof the Local Union or of the officers of the InternationalUnion;" and, as a sort of catch-all, "such other acts andconduct which shall be considered inconsistent with theduties, obligations and fealty to a member of a trade union,and for violation of sound trade union principles." (I mightnote, incidentally, that the word "fealty" which is usedhere is a feudal term dealing with the obligation of a vassalto his feudal lord.)The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers hasa similarly lengthy list.Disciplinary ProceduresOf the 29 unions studied, only one, the United Automobile Workers, has provision for a Public Review Board,to which cases of the sort that we are concerned with herecould be appealed. Incidentally, the U.A.W. provisionsrelating to discipline and the rights of members are amongthe best in the American labor movement, so that that unionis less in need of such a board than most others. One otherunion, the small but important Upholsterers, also has aPublic Review Board.In terms of the disciplinary procedure with the union,the usual provision is for a trial board at the local level,which makes a report to the local. The local then takesaction, with appeal first to the international president, thento the international executive board, and finally to the convention, the last resort within the union.While this machinery may woik well enough in mostcases, the difficulty with the president's action is that hemay be reviewing the case of a political opponent. Withregard to the international executive board, an additionalquestion is whether it is independent of, or subservient to,the president. In the case or the convention, one needs toknow how often it meets, who appoints the committee thatreviews the cases, and whether there is time for the delegates to discuss the cases in view of the volume of businessthat must be dealt with in a very short time.There is, of course, a possibility that a member may takehis case to court. In general, however, the courts requirethat a member must first exhaust his rights within the union,unless he can show that this would be meaningless. Onthe other hand, many unions have provisions expresslypenalizing a member who resorts to court action before6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEexhausting all possibilities within the union.In addition to the disciplinary power against individuals,there is also, of course, the use of the disciplinary poweragainst locals, by the revocation of charters and the establishment of receiverships or trusteeships. Beyond question,a trusteeship is a proper device in certain circumstances.It would be hard to run a national union without vestingauthority in national officers for the temporary suspensionof local democratic rights under certain circumstances.But, in 21 of the 29 constitutions, there is no limitspecified for the duration of the trusteeship. In the othercases, the periods of time vary. The shortest trusteeshipperiod, 60 days, is provided for by the U.A.W. TheInternational Union of Electrical Workers has a three-monthperiod, though this may be extended. Two unions, theAmalgamated Clothing Workers and the InternationalBrotherhood of Electrical Workers, have a six-month limitfor trusteeships. Two others, the Musicians and the Bakeryand Confectionery Workers, have a one-year limit, alsosubject to extension. Where there is no limit on extensions,there is really no limit for the trusteeship. The other unionsdo not specify any limit at all.I see no excuse for such provisions. If the U.A.W. canhandle trusteeships and restore democratic rights with a60-day period, other unions should be able to do so in twoor three months, with six months as the outside limit. Itis possible in some unions for a member to spend his entireworking life without enjoying democratic rights of membership. Indeed, in the state of Illinois, we're likely to havesuch members before long, because the Illinois district ofthe United Mine Workers lost its democratic rights aquarter of a century ago, and has never regained them.Indeed, in the United Mine Workers at the present time,two-thirds of the districts are operating under trusteeships.The Executive Board and the PresidentA final consideration is the degree to which the international executive board serves as a check on the authorityof the president. A number of unions have provisions whichmake the executive board member dependent on the president. Sometimes it is salary. In the case of the Teamsters,for example, a vice-president draws $500 a month fromthe international union for engaging in the minimum dutiesof his office. But when he performs other duties underorders from the president, he may receive up to $20,000yearly from the international union. The Meat Cuttershave a somewhat similar provision. There a vice-presidentreceives $230 a week, while actually engaged by the organization; he gets no salary for organization work exceptwhen designated by the international president and theinternational secretary-treasurer.Other unions give the international president supervisoryauthority over the members of the executive board. Theconstitution of the Railway Clerks, for example, providesthat, "He [the president] shall have complete supervisionover the Vice Grand Presidents, General Representativesand all organizers, assigning them to such duties and suchheadquarters as in his opinion will permit the work of theBrotherhood to be handled in the most efficient and economical manner." Such a provision empowers the presidentto remove a vice-president from his home base, where hispolitical support lies, and assign him elsewhere, weakeninghis independent political power. Of the 29 constitutions,13 have provisions that to some degree weaken the position of the executive board members in relation to thepresident.It seems to me that the best situation is achieved if anexecutive board member is elected in the district that he represents, with duties and compensation that are fixed inthe constitution. If elected by the convention at large, asin many unions, a candidate who enjoys the solid supportof his district may nevertheless be defeated by votes fromelsewhere. A president who commands a majority vote ofthe convention delegates may carry an entire slate to victory with him. Under these circumstances, it becomes important for an ambitious man to remain on good termswith the chief political power in the union.Some ConclusionsAs I read this group of 29 constitutions, it seems to me,that very little is said about the rights of the members.There is not one that has a bill of rights for members, although the Upholsterers' Union, which is not in the sample,at their recent convention approved the writing of a billof rights. But there is a great deal in these constitutionsabout the offenses for which members may be disciplined.It seems to me also that the chief executive officers ofthe unions are given too much authority. The presidentof the union exercises the chief executive authority, hepresides at the legislative sessions, and he has a key rolein the judicial function. One of the weaknesses of unionadministration from the point of view of democracy isthe concentration of these three types of authority in thehands of the same man.Unions can be very effective in organizing, in bargaining, in striking, and in any other legitimate activity withoutthe position of their chief officer being so strong. Indeed,some of the unions that are the best from the point of viewof democracy, like the U.A.W., are very effective in termsof their bargaining and striking power.The key point in terms of democracy is whether ornot there is a genuine opportunity for the membership tochoose among alternative candidates and policies. Thismeans whether or not there is an opportunity for groupsand members who find themselves in disagreement withthe national officers to organize and reach the memberseffectively with an opposition program. From this pointof view, it is apparent that only a minority of the nationalunions could be considered democratic.In some cases, it may be ideology. I think this is truein the case of the U.A.W., and perhaps also of the U.E.and the I. U.E. In addition, where there is active competition between unions, as between the U.E. and theI.U.E., this may be a factor helping to keep both democratic. Also, where a union has not yet organized a largepart of its jurisdiction, it may tend to more democracy,since otherwise its appeal to unorganized workers may beweakened.In the case of government unions, there is another tendency that helps to keep them democratic: the fact thatmembership is voluntary in a sense not true in most otherunions; the government worker may resign union membership without suffering any loss. There may also be a tendency for unions of professional workers to be more democratic than others. This is partly because the higher educational level of the membership leads to an insistence onopportunity for democratic participation, and partly because the high pay and prestige of professional workersmakes the union post less desirable, providing less incentive for a union leader to try to crush opposition. Twounions not in my sample, the Typographical and theNewspaper Guild, make the best provision for the useof the columns of the journal by opposition politcal groups.It just could be that the communications skills that themembers have helped to preserve their right to reach themembership, and thereby promote a functioning democracy.DECEMBER, 1959 7Bernard D. Meltzer, professor of law, spoke on"Current Issues of Labor Policy." The excerptspresented here deal primarily with thegeneral problems raised by the internal unioncontrols embodied in the bill passed by theSenate last Spring. That bill, together with theLandrum-Griffin bill passed by the House, becamethe basis for the "Labor Management Reportingand Disclosure Act of 1959."The continued defense of both recognition and organizational picketing by unions without majority support is, Ibelieve, a striking illustration of the cultural lag, a laglargely traceable to a disregard of the implications of theWagner Act. Such picketing had considerable justificationin the pre- Wagner Act era. At that time, employee freechoice with respect to unionization was not legally protected, and picketing was a necessary counter measure toemployer coercion. It would be naive to suggest that thelaw today grants to employees perfect protection againstthe power of unorganized employer, who generally wantsto stay that way. But the law does reasonably well, as theincrease of organized labor from 3 to 18 million in 25 yearssuggests. And the inevitable failure of the law to reachsome lawless employers does not in my view warrant theindiscriminate use of coercive techniques against law-abiding employers and their employees.* The continueddefense of such techniques is an illustration of a pervasiveattempt to secure for organized labor both the Wagner Actprotections and the freedom of action which was appropriate only in the absence of such protection.Coercive picketing bears not only on free choice byemployees prior to union recognition but also on the promotion of internal union democracy and fiduciary responsibility thereafter. The prevalence of such picketing undoubtedly attracts into the labor movement shakedownartists who will forego picketing for the right price. It istrue that such extortion violates the criminal law, but thealready substantial obstacles to enforcing such prohibitionsare multiplied by the absence of a clear-cut and promptremedy against the conventional uses of coercive picketing. Even where such picketing is not perverted into ashakedown weapon, it is likely to have an adverse effecton other desiderata of labor policy. Unions permitted tosecure recognition by main force can scarcely be expectedto become quick converts to the democratic faith. Andemployees who have been denied the right to make thecritical choice concerning union representation can scarcelybe expected to respond to current exhortations about theirduty to take an active and responsible role in union affairs.One other point deepens the paradox which results frompreoccupation with democratic responsibility after unionshave achieved representation and the indifference to suchmatters in the pre-recognition stage. Prior to recognition,the law can give reasonably effective protection to thedemocratic idea. Once recognition has been achieved, thecontribution which the law can make to internal uniondemocracy is subject to serious limitations. . . .Safeguards of Internal DemocracyProfessor Seidman asked why do we mant unions to bedemocratic? It is often said that democratic unions are honest* Because of space limitations, Mr. Meltzer's analysis of organizational picketing has been omitted. See Meltzer, Recognition-Organizational Picketing and Right-to-Work Laws, Labor LawJournal 55 (1958).** National Planning Association, Causes of Industrial Peace.Case Study No. 4, 57-58 (1953) ones. But linking democratic procedures with honesty, anddictatorial conduct with corruption involves an obvious oversimplification. John L. Lewis, I have been told, is an honestautocrat. On the other hand, some locals are, I have been told,democratic and corrupt. And plainly, the sorry record ofcorruption in municipal politics— which I take it are democratic—I mean with a small "d"— is a warning against anyassumed correlation between democratic and honeststewardship. . .Moreover, no one has suggested that internal democracyis necessary to get more for workers. Nor is democracy acondition of industrial peace or responsible unionism. TheNational Planning Association tells us in its monograph onthe Causes of Industrial Peace** "The situations whichfurther local democracy and autonomy seem to work againstpeace. A cost of industrial peace is often the loss of freedomof choice for the workers and freedom of action by theirlocal officers. . . . Reduction in independence has beenaccompanied by an increase in peace— a triumph of union-management fraternity over worker liberty." And, we havebeen reminded, employers who used to growl about interference by outsiders now often praise the statesmanshipof the international representative while grumbling aboutthe unreasonableness of the local people.It is not immediately discernible benefits, of the kindmentioned above, which underpin the general commitmentto union democracy. That commitment is an aspect of ourpervasive democratic faith. That faith has been vigorouslyinvoked in support of legal protection and social acceptanceof the union movement. Unions were to bring democracyto the plant. They were to substitute the rule of law forthe arbitrary power of the boss; they were to provide avehicle through which workers could participate in industrial government through their chosen representatives inthe same way as citizens generally may participate inpolitical government. Plainly, such high purposes are defeated if union autocracy is substituted for, or added to,managerial power. Furthermore, it is not easy to justifythe turmoil which sometimes goes along with collectivebargaining unless we can link the union movement to asocial or moral value of general application. And of thearguments for legal protection and legal immunities forunions which were current in the thirties, only the argument that unions are, or can be, instruments of economicdemocracy still carries its old wallop. Purchasing powertheories and have been largely rejected as a justificationfor union demands for more.It is one thing to agree that union democracy is good orat least that our symbolic code requires us to praise it. It isquite another matter to define it. We know that in institutions of any size, it is something more complex andsubtle than the detailed participation of a New Englandtown meeting. We know that it encompasses ultimately anopportunity to influence policy and determine leadership.We know that free and periodic elections are typically necessary for such an opportunity, but we know also that theyare not sufficient without appropriate traditions and aninstitutional framework in which an opposition can functioneffectively and criticize freely. We know, also, that legislation may, as does the corporate proxy machinery, symbolizethe democratic faith, without generally achieving significantparticipation or control by those with voting rights. Weknow, finally, from the relevant literature that there areserious institutional obstacles to union democracy. Suchobstacles may be viewed as making legal intervention impracticable or as making it all the more necessary as acountermeasure against the pressures toward oligarchy.There is plainly no formula for resolving such issues whichinvolve judgments about both the deterrent and symboliceffect of the law. There are, however, obvious technical8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdifficulties surrounding attempts to write a detailed andlegally enforceable code for all unions with their variationsin tradition, power, stability and vulnerability to externalattack or internal disruption. . . .Take for example the provisions which would makeit a crime to restrain a member's right to participatefreely in a union meeting. Union meetings are not, wehave been reminded, models of decorum. The line betweenforceful debate and intimidation is not easy to draw, andthere are serious doubts as to whether debate, as distinguished from actual violence, should be subject to looseand drastic provisions of the criminal law.Another example of the underlying difficulty is in provisions concerning voting on changes (not increases) indues, initiation fees, and special assessments. It is a fairquestion whether such a provision is compatible with theessential characteristics of the modern union. The modernunion is often a relatively centralized institution in whichbargaining and strike policy evolve from the top. Dues are,of course, closely connected with strike policy and strikebenefits. If bargaining and strike policy may be determinedon the basis of representative democracy, it may be anomalous to legislate a concept of town hall democracy withrespect to dues. Such legislation may, moverover, createsome unexpected consequences. Just as it is easier to raisetaxes in time of war, it may be easier to raise union duesif a strike is made to appear likely. And the sense ofgrievance which may have to be exploited or created forsuch purposes will scarcely contribute to healthy labor-management relationships.In raising such doubts, I do not mean to quarrel withthe basic idea of attempting to use the law to safeguardunion democracy. I want only to call attention to theinherent difficulties and to the limited role which the lawcan play. Secret and periodic elections might, of course,serve as a restraint on leaders who push members aroundand should provide an opportunity to throw the rascalsout— at least if the discontented members have the necessary gumption. But it would be folly to let our enthusiasmfor the forms of democracy blind us to the solid advantages enjoyed by the incumbents and to the institutionalobstacles to effective internal opposition. The incumbentscontrol the union press, the paid staff, and the grievanceand arbitration procedure. On the national level at least,the incumbents have advantages similar to those flowingfrom corporate control of the proxy machinery. Furthermore, union insurgents, unlike their corporate counterparts,cannot, by sound management, lawfully recoup the financialcosts of a take-over. At least, I know of no way to usethe stock-option device in the union context. . . .Before leaving the issue of democracy, I want to makeone familiar, and perhaps an unduly hortatory, point. Thequality of union democracy is shaped by, and in turn shapes,the quality of our larger democracy. And perhaps thelargest contribution which the community can make tounion democracy lies in improving the quality of government. In particular, some of the energy and resourceswhich decent employers and unions now devote to the greatnational issues might be devoted to working for the selectionof local officials who cannot be diverted from law enforcement by bribery and fear of political power and who havethe energy and resourcefulness equal to their large responsibilities. I have not drafted the law or the social blueprintwhich would achieve that result. But it seems plain thatunion members sharing the prevailing cynicism about political corruption and believing that political influence is alicense to use the lead pipe with impunity, will scarcelybuild the attitudes and traditions required for a democraticunion movement. If such traditions— which are the sourceof the really effective restraints— do not somehow evolve, the law may prescribe periodic, secret and non-coerciveelections, but the law may be less pertinent than MarkTwain's observation. He told us, you may remember, "It isby the goodness of God that in our country we have thoseunspeakably precious things: freedom of speech, freedomof conscience, and the prudence to practice neither."The Ethics of TrusteeshipThe attempt to safeguard internal democracy is both anend in itself and one element of a larger program aimed atcorruption. That program also includes comprehensive disclosure and record-keeping requirements, enforced by thecriminal law, criminal sanctions against flagrant misconductsuch as embezzlement, bonding requirements for custodiansof union funds, and provisions excluding certain ex-convictsfrom responsible union jobs.The key element in this program seems to be the disclosure scheme. The Secretary of Labor is given comprehensive powers to determine whether reporting requirementshave been obeyed and to make copies of reports availableAnd he may be able to accomplish the mammoth jobinvolved. He should at least be able to keep his eye onthe trouble spots and, along with the Justice Department,improve on the sorry record* of enforcement in connectionwith the Taft-Hartley disclosure requirements.Disclosure is, however, not an end in itself; it is designedto deter illegal or unethical conduct. There is a seriousquestion as to the deterrent effect of the proposed disclosure requirements. Some of the transactions which must bedisclosed violate the criminal law. Plainly, a criminal is notgoing to supply the government with a report of his completed crime regardless of whether the reporting requirements are consistent with the privilege against self incrimination.* Furthermore, if a would-be criminal is notdeterred by the punishment provided for the criminal act,he is unlikely to be deterred by the additional punishmentprescribed for failure to report his crime.The disclosure requirements apply not only to criminaltransactions but also to a broad range of conduct which isnot criminal but is questionable. They apply, in particular,to conflict of interests transactions i.e., transactions betweenunion personnel and employers in actual or potentialbargaining relationships, and to transactions between unionsand firms doing business with them in which union personnel have an interest. As to this general class of transactions, the theory behind disclosure requirements mustbe that these requirements will either move the would-beperpetrator to refrain from questionable transactions orwill cause him to disclose, with the result that he will gethis just deserts. Both aspects of this theory depend onthe severity of the sanctions which may be brought to bearon the perpetrators of questionable transactions. If thenon-criminal sanctions are theoretically severe but easyto evade without disclosure, disclosure may serve as a deterrent by making evasion more difficult. But if there are noeffective sanctions against known transactions the would-beperpetrator may both perpetrate and disclose withoutmuch risk.The degree of risk from disclosure of questionable transactions depends on three considerations: (1) the sense ofshame of those involved; (2) the discipline including lossof employment or office, which may be imposed on theindividuals involved by the local, or its membership, bythe international or by the AFL-CIO confederation; (3) andthe liabilities imposed by law. It is the force of theserestraints which I now want to examine.*See generally Meltzer, Required Records, The McCarran Act,and the Privilege Against Self-incrimination, 18 U. of C. L. Rev.687, 714-15 (1951).DECEMBER, 1959 9The financial irregularities which have triggered theproposed regulations have involved men whose sense ofshame is scarcely a basis for optimism. Indeed, it is notunlikely that the labor movement has attracted more thanits fair share of unsavory characters whose principal worryis not their reputations but how to get and keep the loot.As to internal housecleaning, disclosure may, of course,furnish ammunition to an opposition group or may facilitatecleanup by the AFL-CIO. But reform by amputation, assomeone has described expulsion by the AFL-CIO, willbecome increasingly less attractive to the federation. Andthe serious obstacles in the way of opposition groups arenot likely to be removed by the contemplated legislation.In short, it is doubtful that the non-legal sanctions fordisclosure of questionable transactions are strong enoughto deter such transactions in the first place.With respect to legal sanctions, it is especially necessaryin this context to distinguish between the law-in-the-booksand the law in action. The law in the books, and I am herereferring to state law, bristles with criminal prohibitionsand with doctrine which could be invoked against a widerange of abuses. Flagrant misconduct, such as embezzlement and extortion, is typically prohibited by state law.The current federal proposals would partially duplicatesuch state prohibitions and would plug certain loopholesin existing federal statutes. Although Americans are spendthrifts when it comes to passing new laws and niggardlyabout enforcing old ones, this duplication is all to the good.Dispersion of responsibility should afford some protectionagainst apathy, incompetence, or corruption in any onequarter. But as to transactions subject to criminal sanctions,the deterrent effect of disclosure will, as I have said, notmaterially add to the deterrent effect of the prohibitionof the transaction itself.As to non-criminal conflict-of-interest transactions, theprospect of civil liability plus the duty to disclose mightdeter such transactions. Or if deterrence failed, the imposition of civil liability in particular cases would at least recouptainted gains resulting from such transactions.There has been a loud debate as to whether federallegislation should recognize the basis for such liability bydeclaring that union officials and agents have fiduciary ortrustee's obligations. More than a century ago the common law, building on the Biblical injunction against servingtwo masters, developed the fiduciary standard. The essenceof that standard is that one empowered to act for othersmust promote the interests of others and not his own andmust avoid relationships which will, or may, compromisethe discharge of his responsibility.Mr. Meany has, however, recently urged that the fiduciary principle is not applicable to union officials becauseunions, unlike corporations, do not exist to make money.This contention is, with deference, not worthy of Mr.Meany or of the aspirations of the union movement. Thesame reasoning would exempt a pastor from the fiduciaryprinciple since he is to serve God rather than mammon.Mr. Meany happily showed more vision when the fiduciaryprinciple was explicitly incorporated in the ethical codesadopted by the AFL-CIO. I do not view this as evidenceof the AFL-CIO's slackening in its fight against those whoexploit union powers for the purpose of feathering theirown nests. My guess, which I cannot pursue here, is thatthe labor movement is concerned about possible personalliability of officers for political expenditures which mightbe held illegal under vague prohibitions of existing law. Problems in Law EnforcementIn any event, the critical issue, as I see it, is not whetherunion officials are fiduciaries but whether the law canadapt itself to the distinctive aspects of the union contextand whether the law can provide effective enforcementmechanisms. At present, state law would, I believe, permitthe individual union member to maintain private actions,on behalf of the union, to recover personal profits obtainedin violation of fiduciary duties where the responsible unionofficers refused to bring such actions. But the individualmembers have only rarely gone to law, presumably becauseof ignorance, apathy, fear, and their small and indirectfinancial stake in large and complex and expensive controversies. Disclosure requirements may facilitate such actions,but the relatively few actions initiated after the revelationsof the McClellan Committee are no grounds for optimism.It is accordingly a fair question whether the government,at the request of a member and subject to appropriatesafeguards against harassment, which I will not attemptto spell out here, should have authority to recoup ill-gottengains on behalf of the union. In this connection, it is ofsome interest that Section 12 of the English Trade UnionsAct, enacted in 1871, authorized the Registrar of FriendlySocieties to bring an action to recover trade union fundsimproperly withheld or used. That provision is a narrowone and does not make the government a far-ranging proctorof the fiduciary ideal. I see no controlling objection toimitating it, at least in connection with flagrant misconduct such as embezzlement.Whether government enforcement of civil liability shouldbe expanded to cover the whole range of fiduciary misconduct is a much more difficult question. Such expansionwould involve an assumption by the government of broadresponsibilities which ideally should be discharged by individual members of the union and by honest and vigilantunion officers. It would, moreover, involve possibilities ofharassment— particularly in the areas of political expenditures. It would aslo provoke cries of discrimination ifsimilar mechanisms were not evolved for the corporatesector. The corporate sector might be distinguished on theground that lately there have apparently been fewer abusesand that shareholders can more easily enforce the fiduciaryprinciple. But such contentions are not easy to documentand, in any event, are often ignored when legislation isviewed as a struggle between contending power groups.Furthermore, they could be met with the argument that ifthey are valid, the corporate community has little to feaifrom parallel enforcement of fiduciary duties. In any event,the difficulties raised by proposals to expand governmentpower to enforce civil liability are substantial. They suggestthat such a large step should be reserved pending a testof other devices and of labor's program for an internalcleanup. . . .While raising questions about some aspects of recentlegislative proposals, I am fully aware that it is one thingto point up problems and another to devise solutions whichwill meet the stern tests imposed by political realities andwhich will work in practice. The legislation raisesa familiar question, i.e., whether in the end legislationwhich does not follow our own blueprints should nevertheless be supported as an acceptable compromise betweenconflicting and strongly held positions. Such questions areof fundamental difficulty in a society which reflects a geniusfor compromise, untidy as compromise may seem to somewho speak from positions remote from the legislative firingline. In our law school, we leave the difficult questions tothe students.10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOn theCONTINUINGPREVALENCEOfWitchesBy Manning NashDECEMBER, 1959 In southern Mexico, the Pan American Highway— thatnewly paved, all-weather road which some day will runthe length of our two continents— passes above the beautifulAmatenango Valley. Just 150 feet off the Highway theTzontahal Indians live in dusty adobe huts. Here theyraise their corn and wheat, make remarkable pottery without the use of kilns, and distill a powerful liquor frombrown sugar. Small, brown-skinned natives, they are oneof a few tribes which are racially pure Mayan stock. Theyspeak Tzeltal and have no written language. Their villagehas no electricity; the water supply comes from communalwater pipes at village corners. Their contact with the outside world is generally limited to the weekly visit of adoctor from the Instituto Nacional Indigenista and anoccasional federal raid on the Amatenango stills.In June of 1957, the first North Americans ever to livethere moved into Amatenango. They were Manning Nash,a social anthropologist on the faculty of the Graduate Schoolof Business of the University of Chicago; his wife, whois a cultural anthropologist; and their 15-month-old son.The N ashes had come to participate in a National ScienceFoundation project called "Man in Nature," which wasbeing conducted by a University of Chicago team. Mr.Nash here reports some of his observations during a stayin Amatenango which totalled 11 months:In the community of Amatenango, men are frequentlykilled for being practicing witches. In the nine monthsthat I spent in Amatenango, and for three additional monthsfor which I have data, every two months a man was murdered for being a witch.Amatenangueros believe that some men have animalcounterparts, called nahuales. A man is born associatedwith, or possessor of a nahual. His nahual is revealed tohim in a dream. He does not necessarily announce thisto the community, or act in any special way because hehas an animal counterpart. The nahual may be a commondomesticated animal like a horse, dog, or bull, or it maybe one of the wild animals that roves the hills, such as themountain lion or deer. It is never a fantasy animal. Thepossessor of a nahual may, on whim, but only at night,transform himself into the animal and roam the streets ofthe pueblo or travel the hills near the community. As thenahual he may converse with other nahuales.11The nahual is the source of power in medical practice,and all curers must have at least one nahual in their possession. Sometimes men with nahuales may get vicious anduse their power, which is essentially a medical and curingpower, to bring illness rather than to cure it. The nahualwho walks by night may pass a sick person's house andnight by night "eat" a bit of his soul, until the body hasno strength and the bewitched victim dies. Possessors ofanimal counterparts who use the special medical powerthat such animals confer to inject illness into others or toeat souls, are witches.Two things must be stressed about the nahual witchbelief system. First, all curers have nahuales, but some menwith nahuales are not known to the community. Secondly,possession of a nahual does not necessarily mean that a person is a witch or practicing witchcraft.This witchcraft system leaves open the empirical definition of who is a witch. Cultural theory does not tell anyone who a witch is, and gives no particular, immediaterules for the logical or empirical establishment of a witch.But this I take to be a characteristic of any functioningsystem of witchcraft belief. Since witches are practitionersof aggressive and deadly magic and are continual threatsto the social order, and operate in violation of the moralrules of a society, it is not possible to have a set of culturalbeliefs which provides general and immediately verifiablerules for the identification of a witch. If such operationalwitch theory did exist it would mean that no witches wouldoperate, for nobody would suffer their presence. It isthis general characteristic of a system of witch beliefs thatmakes the study of witchcraft a study of social process.For, one of the issues perennially at stake in such a societyis the identification of witches and their elimination.The society with witchcraft beliefs must have some socialmachinery to decide, when a man, or group, or the wholesociety eliminates a witch, whether they have served asexecutioners, or as murderers. The problem of social orderrests on the consensual meshing of public opinion aboutan act of violence which is either a favor to the societyas a whole, or the most flagrant violation of its moralequilibrium.Viewing witchcraft from the side of the victim that is,someone who feels that witchcraft has been exercisedagainst him— is a convenient perspective for seeing how theidentification and validation is conducted:A man or a member of his family gets sick in Amatenango. Like us, he assumes it will pass. He may takea bottle of the home brewed trago, a medicinal herb, someaspirin, and forget about it. The illness, however, does notpass. He needs the services of a specialist. He calls one12 of the curers, of which there are about a dozen. A curingritual is carried on. Time passes and he worsens. He callsthe curer again, this time asking if he is under the spellof a witch. A ceremony of pulsing and blood letting jscarried on, and foreign objects are sought in the man'sblood. His blood is asked to "talk" to the diviner and savwhat kind of illness he is afflicted with.He gets sicker and sicker, no curing ceremony helps, noherbs relieve, no liquor eases, no penicillin brings abatement. It is witchcraft, certainly. As he sickens, he cannotwork, his assets melt awav, he cannot look after his animalsand thev are lost. All this is a further sign of witchcraft.His pressing problem is to get the spell lifted, to identifythe witch who is causing this trouble. He calls all theCiirers together in a major curing ceremony. Each onepulses, each one says he is trying to cure the man. Nobodywill name a witch. The man is dying and no one knowswho is behind it.He may invite one of the curers with whom he is especially friendly or in whom he has confidence, ply the manwith liquor and attempt to get a name from him. Failingthis, he will review the reasons why anyone would holda grudge against him. Was it envy for his good crop?Was it an argument in a brawl? Was it refusal to offerliquor to a curer? Was it stickiness in a marriage negotiation? Was it his hauteur in treating a poor villager? Theseare the kinds of questions he asks.He then inakes a decision that someone is doing him in.He asks one of the curers to send his nahual around totalk to this man's nahual (the witch) and tell it that noharm, envy, or hatred is held by the sick man. If he recovers soon thereafter, the affair is closed. But, sav it isone of his children yvho is ill and the child dies. He thenholds a grudge against a witch. He mav not be sureenough to act, but he keeps looking for evidence. Hewatches his suspect, keeps asking, keeps worrying the idea,and he begins to sound out public opinion about the man,and, perhaps, to spread news of his growing suspicion.If a further misfortune hits him in short order, he acts.In Amatenango killing a witch is always an affair ofambush, is always a group of men against the witch.Amatenangueros mav or may not be brave as we measurebravery, but onlv a fool will pit his ordinary self againsta man he suspects of being a powerful witch, and only afool will even seek vengeance when his intended victimis in command of his powers. The killing of a witch thenis an ambush, with the man to be killed set upon whenhe is drunk, and set upon by a group of men. The mostusual method of killing is to poke a shot gun through thewattle-and-daub wall of the suspect's house when the manto be killed is in an alcoholic stupor, pull the trigger, anddisappear into the night. Other killings of which I haveknoyvledge include cutting a witch to pieces with amachete, kicking him to death with the heavy eleatedcaites, and shooting in the back with a pistol.The crucial factor here is that a man, together with asmall number of his friends or kinsmen, have decided tokill another man as a witch . . . and have carried out theirdecision. The problem facing the community is whetherthe killing was justified. That is, was a witch destroyed,and therefore a source of potential evil removed, or dida man indulge a personal grievance or a drunken impulse?This is what the trials after a killing are concerned with.It is rarely a question of who did the killing; that is almostimmediate public knowledge. The question is one of thevalidity of the slaying, and that validity turns on the problem of identification. Identification is a social decision asto the character of a dead man, and as to the characterof his slaver. For after all, it is nearly as uncomfortable aTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe women of the village make remarkable pottery without the use of kilns. Thejars, shaped from ropes of clay, are set todry in the sun. They are then stacked andbaked in open fires.situation to have a murderer about in a small communityas it is to have a witch. Both share the trait of irresponsible evil-making.Here I want, in part, to describe, a trial after the killingof a man. The suspected slayer was brought before theassembled officials of Amatenango in the building whichhouses the civil officers. The accused man was seen drinking with the dead man the night before. They hadquaneled, the accused had called the man an ak chamel-a caster of sickness— and had cursed him for bringingmisfortune. The now dead man had laughed and staggered away to his house. So much was common knowledge.Witnesses were assembled. They included the immediate family of the accused, the widow and brother of thedead man, and the father of the dead man. Several of theneighbors of the dead man and several neighbors of theaccused were also on hand inside the juzgado. Outside,many people of the dead man's barrio hovered near theentrance to the juzgado. Everybody in the community wastalking about the recent death. The people in the deadman's barrio came to view the body, which was underthe charge of the officers of the civil hierarchy.Tiie questioning went something like this. The judgesaddressed remarks to the accused. Did he drink with thedeceased last night and did he insult him? Yes, he didboth. Why the insult? The accused recounted the deathof one of his children, from witchcraft. Then he said thedead man had told him at the time of the funeral thatdeath was not finished yet in that household. Two weekslater another member of the household died. The man'swife supported the story. Neighbors said they had heardthe threat at the funeral. Neighbors then went on to saythe dead man was becoming muy bravo as he learned tobe a curer. He was not as humble as a beginning curershould be, but demanded much.The judge then turned to the dead man's family, whohad heard all this testimony, which established two important things: First the dead man was a novice curer andthis meant that he had a nahual, and second that he wasregarded as bravo or aggressive by the neighbors and didnot properly abide by the age respect rules of Amatenango.The kin of the dead man then began a line of testimonywhich carefully and systematically severed their social relations with the deceased. The dead man's wife testifiedthat her husband was often gone nights, drinking, or doingshe knew not what. She did not know of his special powers-had she not recently lost a child from what appeared tobe witchcraft too? She established the fact that her husband was a mystery to her and that she did not know of hisviolation of respect relations or his beginnings in curing.Effectively she denied her social relation as yvife. Thedead man's brother then testified that he was a friend of the accused and that they had been drinking the nightbefore and in fact were together when the killing tookplace, but were far from the site of the slaying. Now,every one knew that the dead man's brother had been sodrunk that he could not with reliability testify to anything.What he was affirming was his confidence in the accusedand his unwillingness to assert the claim of sibling forrevenge. He too severed social relationships with the deadman.It was now clear to the judges, and to me, who wasamazed and confused by the trial, that nothing was goingto happen to the accused. He was free. His just grievancehad been established, his neighbors had called him acumplido, honorable man. And the dead man was singledout as a violator of norms, his wife and brother had publicly cut their connections to him and had established thebasis for a verdict. The judges decided the slain man hadbeen in fact a witch. The slayer was in fact an executioner, not a murderer. Community consensus was quicklyreached on this killing.When the Mexican police came the next day to investigate a killing, they were presented with a minute description of the position of the dead man, the time of the killing, the size of the hole in his head, etc. But they werenot presented with any suspects. To the outside world,nobody in the community had the slightest suspicion ofwhy the man was killed, or the remotest idea of who did it.The police took notes, went home, muttering about inditosand their ways.Not all killings reach this level of agreement. Somemen are killed and many people have reservations aboutthe justice of the slaying. In a case of a curer who waskilled by the rest of the curers for what essentially was aviolation of guild rules, many people in the communitythought an injustice was committed. Nor do the familiesof the victims always cut off social relations with the deceased in a public display. Some women mourn their deadhusbands long after they have been slain as witches, andcontinue to say that a murder was committed. Thus, witchcraft leaves many unresolved strains in the community andgenerates cause for further violence.Since the process of identification of a witch is one ofcommunity consensus, a killer runs a risk of death if hemisjudges the community attitude toward his victim, or ifhe himself is not well integrated into his neighborhoodand kin group. However, the ad hoc identification of awitch is not an invitation to indulgence or to wanton killing. The constraints of communal judgments about thecharacter of the persons involved, both slayer and slain,set the limits of witchcraft action. And in a small face-to-face community, no one, as a moral man, can for longlay false claim to virtues and to social status.DECEMBER, 1959 13The following are excerpts from the acceptanceremarks of the two 1959 recipients of the Columbia Bancroft Prizes, the nation's highestawards in the field of history.Two Prize-winnine HistoriansMr. BoorstinMr. Samuels Daniel ]. Boorstin is professor of American History at theUniversity of Chicago, where he has been since 1944. Fornearly twenty years he has been working on a sweepingreinterpretation of American history which would try tofind in the story of our past some of the secrets of thedistinctive character of American culture. His original training was in law; having received two law degrees fromOxford, he is one of the few Americans qualified to wearthe wig and plead in Her Majesty's High Courts. However, the center of his interest has been American history.While a student of American law, he feels that the bestapproach to the study of American culture is that of ahumanist and social scientist. The book for which hereceived the Bancroft Prize, The Americans: The ColonialExperience, is the first of a trilogy.Our attitude toward our own culture has recently beencharacterized by two qualities, braggadocio and petulance.Braggadocio— empty boasting of American power, Americanvirtue, American know-how— has dominated our foreignrelations now for some decades. It is the spirit of makingthe world safe for democracy, of unconditional surrender,of crusading for the American Way of Life— in a word,of belief in American omnicompetence. It is the beliefthat there is nothing we cannot do if we only put moremoney into it and get organized. Its symbol is Paul Bunyanwho, contrary to common belief, is not an ancient figureof our true folklore, but is the invention of men advertisingthe lumber industry around 1910. We can not only lickthe world, we can out-preach them, out-televise them, out-philosophize them, out-democratize them. The humblestexpression of this braggart spirit would be the prayer ofthe Pharisee (in the Gospel according to St. Luke, 18.11),"God, I thank thee that I am not as other men are."Here at home— within the family, so to speak— our attitude to our culture expresses a superficially different spirit,the spirit of petulance. Never before, perhaps, has a culture been so fragmented into groups, each full of its ownvirtue, each annoyed and irritated at the others. The sureand familiar formula for a successful non-fiction book, fora novel, a movie, or a TV show, is to expose the vices ofsome occupation, some section, or some class. We areashamed of our hucksters, our hidden persuaders, ourexurbanites, our men-in-grey-flannel-suits, our occupiers ofexecutive suites (and their wives), our organization men,our labor racketeers, our anti-intellectual TV-watching,comic-book-reading populace, and our ineffectual eggheadprofessors. Adidts are horrified by our beatnik youth, andour beatnik youth are horrified by the squares who are us.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENorthern pulpits resound with outrage at the inhumanityto Negroes of fellow-Americans in the South. Southernersare astonished at the anarchistic love of violence of thejsjAACP and their northern supporters (including theSupreme Court).Among intellectuals this petulance has been worst ofall. For perhaps the first time in American history theyhave blatantly and with some success declared theirseparateness from the rest of the nation. Both the words"intellectual" (and its by-product, the word "anti-intellectual") have come into use in this country only very recently-in the present century. Among intellectuals, at least,much of the petulance is based on the assumption that wecan and should shape our culture on West-Europeanmodels. That we must Oxfordize our universities, Great-Bookify our reading matter, Left-Bankify our Art, Parlia-mentiarize our politics, Aristocratize our social life, andsalonize our Conversation.What both the braggadocio spirit and the petulant spirithave in common is that they both overestimate our nationalcapacity. They both assume that a great nation like ourscan do whatever it wishes. They share the illusion ofomnicompetence which has haunted every world power.Because we have decent political institutions, a mobile andegalitarian society, a high standard of living, and a literatepopulace, they say we can also be the world's greatestphilosophers, the world's most amusing conversationalists,and the world's greatest artists. In this national arroganceperhaps our only competitors in the world today are theSoviets, whose illusions of omnicompetence are more dogmatic than ours.We must try to displace arrogance by self-respect. Andself-respect can come only from a clearer image of theextent and the limits of our competence. To try to seeAmerican culture as a whole, to try to balance our failures and our successes can help us sharpen that image.The best clues are in our past, in the kind of thing wehave and have not been able to do, in the price we havehad to pay for our successes. Paranoia may be engagingin children, it may even be necessary in artists, but it isdeath to a nation and an offense to the world. To faceour own limitations— and those are defined largely by ourpast— not only helps us economize our energy and ourpassion, it helps us discover and respect the whole Un-American World.Ernest Samuels holds four degrees from the University ofChicago: PhB '23, JD '26, MA '31, and PhD '42. Like Mr.Boorstin, Mr. Samuels was originally trained in law, andpracticed until 1937, when he decided to turn to teaching.He has never regretted the change. When he returned toChicago for his PhD, the subject was the early career ofHenry Adams, and his materials for the thesis were eventually to shape up into the first volume of three on the lifeof this American literary figure, educator and statesman.Mr. Samuels received the Bancroft Prize for the secondvolume of the series, Henry Adams, the Middle Years. Heis on the faculty of Northwestern University.Henry Adams used to say that man would have todouble up his mind power if he was to survive the machinesof his own creation. In spite of his rather ostentatiousterrors, he never lost faith in man's capacity to do so.Moreover, no matter how detestable the Brave New Worldand scientific technocrats might be, it did promise to beinfinitely amusing, and Adams, for one, never lost his tastefor amusement. Man might be a rational animal, even apolitical animal, but chiefly he was an animal in need ofcomplicated amusements.Perhaps a word or two would be of interest to you about the aim of Henry Adams: the Middle Years and certainaspects of the research on which it is based. One is boundalways to start with The Education of Henry Adams. Itsauthor once deprecated it to Henry Adams as a mere shieldof protection in the grave. The most ambitious biographerwould have to concede that, on the score of literary art,Adams is quite safe behind that shield; like St. Augustine,Jean Jacques Rousseau, and Benjamin Franklin he createdone of the great autobiographical personae of our literature. But the more I have followed the track of HenryAdams outside the hypnotic pages of the Education, themore I have come to think he never really believed in thebiographical efficacy of his shield.Ed Howe, the Kansas philosopher, once expressed withhomely insight Adams' unique habit of mind. Henry Adams,he remarked, was the only man in the world who could siton a fence by the side of the road and watch himself goby. The careful reader of Adams' letters must agree withHenry James' reaction, when in 1890 John Hay showedhim one of those letters from Tahiti: "What a power ofbaring oneself hitherto unsuspected in Henry Adams!" Theobject of my own long researches has been to try to getup on that fence and share Adams' pleasure in that spectacle. Though he tried to scorn the pageant of the bleeding heart, he played the leading role with disarming candor.It was not until 1954 that my researches brought me tothe Adams Family archives in the Massachusetts HistoricalSociety. We had been warned by Henry's editor, W. C.Ford, that Adams had destroyed all of his papers. Thatdestruction proved to be, as one could have surmised, morerhetorical than actual. Hadn't Adams once written of Hay'sletters that "Burn when read" meant no more than "veryprivate?"The very mass of materials, largely unpublished, is great.A special interest attaches to the countless letters fromAdams' distinguished contemporaries. Time indeed turns backin the bewildering array of scripts. The crabbed illegibilitiesof John La Farge are almost matched by the anarchicscrawl of Henry James and the Byzantine mysteries ofGeorge Cabot Lodge's hand. The ambiance of a vanishedage comes back in the confidences of Edith Wharton andRuth Draper, the comments of Edward Augustus Freeman,Robert Louis Stevenson, Bernard Berenson, and scores ofothers. On the back of each letter carefully inscribed inAdams' faultless script is the name of each sender and thedate of the letter, all carefully filed for posterity. Fromthis counterpoint of unpublished materials I was able toestablish some of the fugue-like themes of Adams' innerlife, themes which had been blotted out in the silencesof the Education.It is this experience which I have tried to share withmy readers in Henry Adams: the Middle Years. Adamswas one of the most self-aware intellectuals of his generation. Like Jonathan Swift, whom he greatly admired, hemay not have thought highly of man in the mass, but herespected the individual consciousness in a way matchedonly by his friend Henry James. If Rousseau disgracedthe ego, as Adams chose to say, Adams himself did muchto rehabilitate it, for he suggested not a common denominator of weakness and shame, but one of intellectual andmoral strength.One may quarrel with many of Adams' intemperateopinions, dismiss his historical theorizing as no more thana system of provocative metaphors, but what the full recordat last reveals is an extraordinary humanity that unitedthe highest intellectual courage with an indefeasible curiosity. It is that humanity, complex and contradictory,tragic and wryly humorous, that seems to me to belongto the real Henry Adams.DECEMBER, 1959 15Chancellor Lawrence A. Kimpton16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESExcerpts from ChancellorKimpton's Annual State of theUniversity ReportIt may or may not be true that everygreat university has a kind of geist,ot character, or unity; I only know thatthis one has. As I read our history,we had it the day our doors opened,and there has been no significantchange since then. All sorts of people,including me, have tried to monkeywith it, but nobody can win. One maylike or dislike it, but there it is. It isnot too easy to put into words, but itsessence is a passionate dedication topure research and scholarship. Everything else is secondary and derivative.This is the geist, the character, theunifying principle of the institution. . . .When Chicago was founded, it towered above all other institutions westof the New England Seaboard. Onedid not associate Nobel Prize winnersand Guggenheim Fellows with stateuniversities, but this is a commonplacetoday. . . . The states, whether out ofpride or necessity, are continually increasing their commitment to highereducation within their borders. They arebuilding new junior colleges, and creating or absorbing new four-year institutions; by 1965 they will be swampedby students at all levels whom they areobligated to train. The single greatuniversity of the state runs a seriousrisk of being weakened by the ambitions of the more specialized and localized public institutions within the statewhich have been very successful intheir appeals to the legislature basedon local pride and service to the localconstituency. From the overall viewpoint of the strength of American education, this tendency worries me, butit reinforces my conviction that we at Chicago should go right on being whatwe truly are and doing what comesnaturally.What are the virtues of our character? First and most important, we arean institution dedicated to basic research, with all that that implies. Thissets the tone and creates the atmosphere that is Chicago. The teachingloads are light, the committee assignments are minimal, and the demandsof the university that would distracta man from his primary responsibilityare few. There is an easy communication across departmental lines making for interdisciplinary research andleading naturally to institutes and committees which draw together men ofdiverse backgrounds who share a common research interest.Our system of government, too, is asensitive instrument which allows forthe easy flow of intelligence and counsel between faculty and administration,and provides privileged information forthe entire faculty. . . .We are a rich university as privateuniversities go. We have enoughmoney through endowment income,gifts, and tuition receipts to do thethings we need and want to do so longas we have a care about the size ofthe institution and the peripheral activities we engage in. Our salary averageis one of the best in the country, andwe are determined to make it the best.The Humanities and the library aresoft spots in our budget, and these wepropose to remedy. But most importantof all is the air of freedom, even ofmagnificence, that pervades the place.These are wise and good men whosurround us, dedicated to the searchfor truth and in easy and free communication with one another. Theseare our assets, and these we must preserve and indeed exploit in the future. Lawyers in GovernmentWhy do lawyers go to work for thegovernment when they can earn morein private practice?Retired U. S. Supreme Court Justice Stanley Reed, speaking this October at the first dedicatory conferenceof the new University of Chicago LawSchool said that although pay for government lawyers probably will nevermatch that of lawyers in private practice, there will be no shortage of legaltalent on the government's payroll."As long as service to others remainsthe ideal of humanity, we shall havean adequate supply of competent lawyers interested in performing their obligation to their generation on the rollsof Government lawyers," Mr. Reedsaid. Salary and security are onlyminor determining factors in bringingmen into government legal service."It is the hope for stimulating contacts, broadening legal experience,training in special fields of law." Theinterpretation and construction of constitutions and statutes falls into thehands of the lawyers in government."This responsibility calls for intellectualintegrity and loyalty to the importantfunction lawyers perform in government. He must be a lawyer, not merely an employee of a Government. . . ."The government lawyer must approach his duties with an understanding of the spirit as well as the letterof the law. The calculated risks ofbusiness judgments are not for him.The satisfaction of his own social orpolitical theories of course ought notto warp his conclusions as to the law."Justice Reed said that in many respects the work of the governmentlawyer differs little "from that of hiscivilian brother," but has compensations aside from pay. "He has anadvantage in that he need not busyDECEMBER, 1959 17himself in securing an adequate clientele to keep him occupied. There iswork enough to occupy all his time."The government lawyer's work, however minor his position, "will almostcertainly bring him into contact withassociates and the public more widelythan a comparable position with afirm or through his private practicealone."But the problem of pay is an important one, Mr. Reed said.While a government lawyer maystart at a salary somewhat higher thanbeginning lawyers in private practice,he soon reaches a ceiling. It is thenthe government loses some of its bestlegal talent to private corporations, hesaid. "It is unfortunate for the Government that legal personnel leave theGovernment. But there are compensating incidents. It places in privatepractice a group of men experiencedin the routine of government legalwork to convey to business and thepublic an understanding of the purposes, practice and policy of the Government toward their respective industries. Such contacts cannot fail to 'helpbusiness understand that Governmentdoes not seek to interfere with management, but only wishes to see thatits necessary activity is carried on within the bounds of regulation for thepublic welfare."As long as service to others remainsthe ideal of humanity, we shall havean adequate supply of competent lawyers interested in performing theirobligation to their generation on therolls of Government lawyers."Mr. Reed was one of seven scheduled speakers at the day-long FirstDedicatory Conference. Others were:William E. Stevenson, President ofOberlin College; Professor John M.Gaus, Harvard University; Sir Per-cival Waterfield, KBE, First Civil Service Commissioner, 1939-51; OscarSchachter, Esq., Director, Legal Division, United Nations; Brigadier General Charles L. Decker, Assistant JudgeAdvocate General, Department of theArmy; and Harrison Tweed, Presidentof the American Law Institute andPresident of Sarah Lawrence College.This first conference, "The PublicServant," was one of seven dedicatoryevents scheduled for the "dedicatoryyear" of the new Law School. Thesecond dedicatory conference was heldNovember 18th with Robert M. Hutchins, former chancellor of the Universityof Chicago and now president of theFund for the Republic, as introductoryspeaker. A third dedicatory conferencewill be held January 7, 1960, when thefeatured speaker will be the Honorable Patrick Arthur Devlin, Justice of the High Court, King's Bench Division, Great Britain. And, another Englishman, Lord Alfred Thompson Denning, will deliver the fourth ErnstFreund Lecture on March 1, 1960.Lord Denning, one of the law lordsof Great Britain, sits as a member ofEngland's highest court in the Houseof Lords and the Privy Council.University ConcertsA performance by the Masterplayersof Lugano, now on their first Americantour, opened the 1959-1960 season ofsix Mandel Hall concerts on October23rd. The ensemble of ^20 string andwind players, each a §oloist of nationalreputation, has been widely praised inEurope and South America for its"perfection of style and virtuosity."The group presented Handel's concerto, "Alexander's Feast," Haydn'spiano concerto in D major, Stamitz'Quartet for Orchestra in F major,Genzmer's Concerto da Camera forViolin and Orchestra, and Mozart'sSymphony in A major, K. 201.University Concerts, the oldest continuing series of chamber music in Chicago, also will sponsor the appearanceof the following groups this season:November 13— Alfred Deller Trio.December 11— Quartetto Carmirelli.January 29— Quartetto Di Roma.February 19— Netherlands ChamberChoir.March 11— Levins and McGraw,piano duettists.Reports to industryAt the most recent quarterly meeting of the Industrial Sponsors of theInstitutes for Basic Research on campus, seven University scientists spokeon basic scientific investigation programs. Companies represented at thetwo-day sessions included AluminiumLaboratories Limited, Aluminum Company of America, Borg-Warner Corporation, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours &Company, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Inland SteelCompany, International Harvester Company, Standard Oil Company (Indiana) ,Union Carbide Corporation, UnitedStates Steel Corporation, and Westing-house Electric Corporation. Government agencies represented included AirForce Office of Scientific Research,Atomic Energy Commission and Officeof Naval Research.Physicist Morrel H. Cohen told thegroup of industrial and governmentscientists how sound waves and magnetic forces can be combined to examine the sub-atomic world of metalcrystals."For the first time, we have a theoryand a method that will give us newkinds of information about the elec trons that 'glue' together the atoms inmetals," he said. "We can now getinformation about the family life ofelectrons which we can be sure aretypical of electrons inside the crystalrather than on the surface."Mr. Cohen traced a line of expertments which first began in the BellTelephone Laboratories and culminatedwith the work at the University ofChicago of Darrell Reneker, now withthe E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware.The work was given its theoreticalstructure by Cohen and Walter A.Harrison of the General Electric Company laboratories, Schenectady, NewYork, and Michael J. Harrison, presently a graduate student at the Universityof Chicago. The Harrisons are notrelated."As a result of this research," hesaid, "we can now pose a range ofnew possibilities that can be exploredin the laboratories about the behaviourof the electrons. The experiments already conducted have given us knowledge we have never had before aboutbismuth. We can now go on to studyother metals by this method. Experiments on antimony are now underwayat the University of Chicago."Richard H. Dalitz, a member of theEnrico Fermi Institute for NuclearStudies, of the University of Chicago,toured basic research facilities in theMoscow area last summer. He toldthe group that despite Russian successes with rockets and satellites inapplied physics, work in basic physicshas lagged."Experimental physics and particleaccelerator .physics have lot a gooddeal as a result of the isolation ofthe Soviet scientist from Westernlaboratories, although they have completed a few important experimentsrecently," he said. As a result, "TheRussians seem to be repeating the samemistakes we made or are making mistakes we avoided."The four main laboratories he sawon his tour were the Joint Institutefor Nuclear Studies, Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics,Institute for Physical Problems, andthe Lebedev Institute.Mr. Dalitz predicted that the Russians "will very rapidly gain experience and will make important contributions to basic physics within a yearor so."Edward Anders, assistant professorof chemistry, reported that meteoritesspend most of their estimated five billion year life at temperatures around120 degrees below zero Fahrenheitbefore making a 30 million year tripto earth. In this deep-freeze asteroid18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEActor Morris Carnovsky Addresses College Studentsbelt, diamonds which are occasionallyfound in meteorites are manufacturedby a process not yet understood.Mr. Anders said his calculationsbased on measurements by other scientists of the gas, Argon 40, in meteoritesrevealed that the meteorites came froma belt beyond the orbit of Mars. Itis known that this belt does not extendbeyond Jupiter, Mars' neighbor inspace. He speculated that the meteorites may manage to remain coldthroughout their trip through spacebecause of their light color. The lightcolor would limit their absorption ofthe sun's heat. This may also explainwhy some newly fallen meteorites feelcold to the touch, Anders said. Ameteor which fell to earth in July 1917,at Colby, Wisconsin, was covered withfrost.It is believed that larger meteoritesmay not spend enough time plummeting through the atmosphere to havetheir interiors heated by atmosphericfriction. The meteors might be shattered by the flight through the atmosphere, thereby exposing their frozeninteriors.Limits on the size of the asteroidhave raised questions about the findingof diamonds in meteorites. The onlyknown method for forming diamondsinvolves giant pressures and temperatures. Since small asteroids could notproduce these conditions, they mustbe able to make diamonds by somenew, unknown method.Other speakers at the conferencewere John A. Simpson, professor ofphysics and director of the University'sCosmic Radiation Research Group, whoreported cosmic ray findings made bythe Explorer VI earth satellite; WilliamLichten, assistant professor of physics, who discussed the size and distribution of nuclear charge and magnetism;Professor Inghram, who reported onhis study of the break up of hydrocarbon molecules under ultravioletradiation; and C. C. J. Roothaan, associate professor of physics, who reported progress in the UniversityLaboratory of Molecular Structure andSpectra in determining accurate electronic wave functions for atoms andmolecules.Carnovsky and the BardAt the invitation of Dean of theCollege Alan Simpson, Morris Carnovsky, the distinguished actor who appeared as Shylock in the GoodmanTheater production of The Merchantof Venice, spoke before a group ofCollege students in November."The unconscious of Will Shakespeare crushes me when I think of it—the way in which nothing was lost . . .the hints beyond the reaches of oursouls reveal themselves in the consciousness of his work. The great challenge is for us to plunge more andmore into that area of one of the greatest artists who ever lived." With this,the actor plunged into the contentsof the book on Shakespeare he's goingto write some day. Among the chapterswere "The Whale— Moby Will," "HereCome the Lilliputians," and "BehindShakespeare is Shakespeare." Betweenchapters five and six are five emptypages during which the reader has timefor reflection and contemplation."Here Come the Lilliputians" isabout the "rest of us," the readers andscholars, who shred apart the images,who begin to tap at the great bodyof Shakespeare's work and make ourclaims upon it. "The baroqueness of Shakespeare's form is apt to dismayus. It is a reflection of the rough andtumble richness of the life Shakespearefound himself in when he was writing,and he came as close to making something of it as anyone we know. Butthe actor, as well as the reader, mustask himself 'What can I make of it?'Actors rely heavily upon the scholars.We are Lilliputians," he said, "only inproportion to the Gulliver we are trying to understand."When asked by a student whichplay he enjoys most, Mr. Carnovskyanswered, "The Merchant of Venice.I enjoyed doing Shylock most. He callson more of me, as a modern man, asa Jew. There is something about thekind of injustice that is handed outthat reminds me of things in our ownlife. An actor must mingle materialof his own with that of the creator."From the back of the room came thequestion, "What about Marlowe's TheJew of Malta? Would you ever wantto play that?" The actor answered,"You must not take chances with anyplay that can be taken the wrong way.I would hesitate even to play Merchantof Venice under less than ideal conditions. I would not do Marlowe's Jewof Malta. That character emanatesfrom hate. Shakespeare may havestarted to paint Shylock as a hatefulindividual, but he didn't get very farbefore he changed. The man lives!"Asked to list five Shakespeareanplays that would be successful financially and artistically in a theatre season, Mr. Carnovsky named The Merchant of Venice (it's always successful), Twelfth Night, Hamlet, Timon ofAthens (that's taking a chance, but Ithink it is an important play), andMidsummer Night's Dream.DECEMBER, 1959 19=»t-\cl AI_l_JI\^lr-^llTHE MAGIC OF BRINGING UPYOUR CHILD, by Frances R. Horwich (Miss Frances), '29, McGraw-Hill, 1959, $3.95.There is the same informal warmthin this book of suggestions to youngparents as there is on TV's Ding DongSchool, over which the author has presided for years.Setting the ground rules in her introduction Miss Frances says: "If I werea child again I would want to knowthat my parents' [rules of discipline]are firm but not rigid; . . . that therules are the same for mv brothers andsisters; and that mv parents . . . liveIn those same rules."A few typical questions (The one-sentence answers are extracted frommore detailed treatments in the book.):• How can we get our son to eat whathe should? Miss F.: I have oftenwondered what it would be like if 1were two years old and my motherbore down on me grimly every morningwith a poached egg and a spoon which,in her determined hand, became aweapon.• When should we introduce our childto books? You can begin at eight to tenmonths.• Should we teach our child to read?No.• My husband brings home gifts forour child every time he returns from atrip. Is this wise? Daddy will suddenlyrealize that the gift has become moreimportant than he has.• Do we hurt our son's feeling's whenwe laugh at him? If it is laughter athis expense, give him a hug while youare laughing. He knows he is beingappreciated, not humiliated.• How soon should we let our sonhave a bank account? When he is earning money of his own.• How can ice teach our child to behave well xchen we visit friends whohave no children he can play with?Such visits should be brief.From 8,000 Ding Dong School letters a week, Miss Fiances has writtena sympathetic, practical question-and-answer book concerned with the yearsfrom birth into school davs.H.W.M. 99-16Percy B. Eckhart, '99, is a senior partnerin the Chicago law firm of Eckhart, Klein,McSwain & Campbell.Margaret II. Byrne, '09, retired principalof the Taylor School in Chicago, spendsone day each week at the downtown officeof the Chicago Chapter of the Red Cross,working in the Foreign Inquiry LocationService.Mary E. Courtenay, '09, AM '37, is thedirector of the Women's Division of theChicago Heart Association, developingeducational programs in cardiology formany different groups.Arthur Goetsch, TO, MD '12, of FortLee, N. J., retired in 1954 after 35 yearsof surgical practice in Brooklyn.Charles G. Mason, '10, lives in HighlandPark, 111.Elizabeth Fogg Upton, TO, of St. Joseph,Mich., travelled to Turkey and Greece thisyear as a member of the World ServiceCouncil of the YWCA. Mrs. Upton recently retired from the national board of20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEQass Netusthe American Hearing Society and theboard of the Retarded Children's Association.Conrado Benitez, AM '11, of the Philippine Islands, is running for the office ofcity councilor in Quezon City. He wasamong those drafted by the Citizens Leaguefor Good Government. Two years ago, Mr.Benitez was awarded the Alumni Medalfor his top services to the nation and hisleadership in international affairs. Hisdaughter is Helena Z. Benitez, '38, whobrought the Philippine's Byanihan DanceGroup to the U. S. this fall.Gwendolen Haste, '12, retired in 1954and "loves every minute of it!" Part of hertime goes to the secretaryship of the NewYork Posse of The Westerners, an organization of writers, artists, dealers in Americana, librarians and hobbyists interestedin the development of the American West."Otherwise," she says, "I write a fewpoems, go to art exhibits, concerts, plays,and two years ago even went to Greece."Leon Unger, '13, MD '15, of Chicago,has been in the practice of medicine since1915, with the exception of two yearswith the British and American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. He is nowan attending physician at the ChicagoWesley Memorial Hospital and an associateprofessor in the department of medicineat Northwestern University. Dr. Ungerhas written numerous medical articles,including a monograph on "BronchialAsthma.". L. Emma Brodbeck, '14, has just returned to Chicago after more than 40 yearsin the Orient (China and the PhilippineIslands) as a missionary teacher and directress of the American Baptist ForeignMission Society.Margaret F. Williams, '14, AM '23, is anassistant professor of English at RooseveltUniversity in Chicago.Jeanette S. Loeb Adelman, '15, has moved from Decatur, 111., to Chicago.John William Chapman, '15, JD '17,lieutenant governor of Illinois, writes thathis son, John William, Jr., '42, is RegionalCommissioner of the Federal General Services Administration, in charge of all theU. S. government property in Wisconsin,Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky andIllinois. Young Mr. Chapman supervisesall the buying, selling, lending and leasingfor all federal agencies in those states. Theproud father reports that his son is doinga great job, and notes that the job is a"top Civil Service position— not a politicalappointment."Julia F. Conklin, '15, has retired as asenior high school teacher and is busygiving French lessons to children betweenthe ages of six and twelve— in Canton, 111.William D. Inlow, '15, SM 17, MD 17,is still in active surgical practice as seniorsurgeon at the Inlow Clinic in Shelbyville,Ind. He will retire as soon as his secondson, a surgeon now in the graduate periodof his training, joins the clinic.Harold T. Moore, 16, of Hinsdale, 111., isa special representative in the new businessdepartment of the Mercantile NationalBank of Chicago.18-21A. J. Brumbaugh, AM 18, PhD '29, andhis wife, the former Ruth Sherrick, AM'43, were visitors on the quadrangles inlate October. They have retired to anattractive Florida home which they recently built at Clearwater. Mr. Brumbaughcontinues as a consultant for the SouthernRegional Education Board, coordinatinghigher education in 16 southern states. Healso has other educational interests whichprovide constructive diversions from retirement. Dorothy Davis Turner, 18, is a housewife in Evanston, 111.May Theilgaard Watts, 18, lives inNaperville, 111., and is a naturalist at theMorton Aboretum in Lisle, 111.Andrew W. Brunhart, '20, JD '22, ofMilwaukee, Wis., writes that his daughter,Barbara Ann, MA '60, resides in International House on the U of C campus whileworking for her master's degree in education.Rowan F. Crawford, '20, has been ateacher at the Bay View High School inMilwaukee, Wis., since 1922, and has beencoach of the swimming team there for thepast 25 years.Arthur B. Cummins, '20, of Manville,N. J., who is the manager of central research at the Johns-Manville Corp., hasbeen elected president of the Society ofMining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers.Leona Bachrach Gerard, '20, is directorof research at the Mental Health Instituteof the University of Michigan and professor of neuro-physiology at the medicalschool there. She writes that she is "struggling to write a novel and having a wonderful time at it."B. C. MacDonald, '20, is president ofB. C. MacDonald & Co., manufacturer'sagents, University City, Mo.George L. McKay, '20, retired at the endof 1958 from his 35-year job, first as curator and later as curator and librarian atthe Grolier Club of New York. For thelast ten years, he has been compiling acatalogue of the Beinecke Collection ofbooks, manuscripts, autographed letters,etc., by and about Robert Louis Stevenson.It is the finest Stevenson collection in theworld and is now owned by the Yale University Library. Volume 4 of Mr. McKay'scatalogue was published in the summerof 1958; he is now working on Volume 5at Yale.DECEMBER, 1959 21Producersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton H. Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4Catch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEPARKER-HOLSMANiiiiiiiiiintiwiinnnMrmj C Q M P A n -v~ \iniiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiimi' fREALTORSfReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525PhoneThe REgent 1-331 1Old ReliableHyde Park AwningINC. Co.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes1142 E. 82nd StreetCHICAGO ADDRESSING SPRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING— LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters • Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addressing • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Dearborn • Chicago 5 . WA 2-4561^wii Y6«r costsIMPROVED METHODS >EMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVES \JOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURES Joseph R. Thomas, '20, retired vice-president of the Pullman Couch Co., hascompletely re - engineered the PullmanSleeping Sofa, which is now being introduced into Canada and Great Britain, aswell as the U. S. The Thomases live inChicago and will spend the winters inPhoenix, Ariz., where they are buildinga house.Geoffrey Zubay, '20, SM '53, receivedhis Ph.D. from Harvard in 1957 and isnow doing research at King's College inLondon. In 1960, he will be at the Rockefeller Institute in New York.Paul G. Annes, '21, JD '23, of Chicago,is national vice-president of the AmericanJewish Congress. Last wVugust, he was adelegate to the World Jewish CongressPlenary Assembly in Stockholm, Sweden.A year ago, he vistied various countries inthe Far East.Ruth C/Mosser, '21, is the editor of theIllinois Public Aid Commission's monthlymagazine, Public Aid in Illinois.22-32Alger D. Goldfarb, '22, is president ofMetal Craft Constructions, Inc., a firmspecializing in architectural metal work.Mr. Goldfarb and his family live in Highland Park, 111.John Gunther, '22, has a new televisionshow, "J°hn Gunther's High Road," on theABC television network. Basically an adventure-travel series tied to Mr. Gunther'sreputation as an author and reporter, theprogram has little, if any, of the politicalcommentary associated with his "Inside"books. Mr. Gunther serves as the narratorof the program.Marjorie H. Morgan, '23, an instructorin the speech department of the eveningcollege of DePaul University, has just completed the fifth 13-week series of her television program, "Rediscovering Poetry,"on WTTW, Channel 11 (the educationalTV station in Chicago). Mrs. Morganspends her "spare time" with her sevengrandchildren.Cornelius Gouwens, PhD '24, has retiredas professor of mathematics at Iowa StateUniversity in Ames, Iowa.James A. Hans, '25, is with the accounting department of the U. S. Steel Corp.in Chicago. He and his family live on afarm in Worthington, Ind.Winifred Wadsworth, '25, is the executive assistant of the Simmons-BoardmanPublishing Corp., publishers of businesspapers. Miss Wadsworth lives in LakeForest, 111.Louise Montgomery Cross, AM '26, ofNew York City is the author of The Preparation of Medical Literature, a practical technical book planned to help physicians inpreparing professional papers and booksfor publication, published by Lippincott.Elizabeth H. Tuft, '26, is the executivedietitian at the Wesley Memorial Hospitalin Chicago.Luther A. Anderson, '27, is the author ofHow to Hunt Deer and Small Game, re cently published by The Ronald Press. Thisis Mr. Anderson's third book. He alsowrote Hunting, Fishing and Camping, published by The MacMillan Co., and Huntingthe American Game Field, published bythe Ziff-Davis Co. Writing is Mr. Anderson's avocation; he is employed as anaccountant by Armour and Co., Ironwood,Mich.Anthony Bay, '27, MD '31, practicesmedicine in Chicago.Elva Brown Bergstrom, '27, teachesEnglish at Kelvyn Park High School inChicago.Allan A. Filek, '28, MD '33, is a regionalhealth officer with the Illinois Departmentof Public Health in Aurora, 111.Kenneth A. Norton, '28, chief of theRadio Propagation Engineering Division ofthe Boulder, Colo., laboratories of the National Bureau of Standards, will receivethe highest award offered to a governmentemploye in the field of radio and electronics. Presentation of the Harry DiamondMemorial award will be made to Mr.Norton during the 1960 annual conventionof the Institute of Radio Engineers in NewYork next March. The award is made foroutstanding contributions to the field ofradio and electronics as indicated by publications in scientific journals. Mr. Norton'scitation is "for contributions to the understanding of radio wave propagation."Captain James B. Steere, '29, MBA '37,of the Air Forces, and his wife, CharlotteAyres Steere, '33, visited the campus inearly November. They were on their wayfrom Labrador to Denver, where Capt.Steere will begin his new assignment asAuditor General in the liaison office of theAir Force Accounting and Financial Center.Kathryn Styles Carroll, '29, a home-maker and the mother of three children,lives in Chicago.Joel F. Alstad, '30, is the editor ofemploye-training materials at Sears Roebuck and Co., Chicago.Ameda Metcalf Gibson, '30, is professorof education and director of the Bureau ofPlacements at the Illinois State NormalUniversity in Normal, 111. She has helpedher husband, Harold, compile, direct andpublish debate materials for high schoolsand colleges since 1933, in addition to raising a family and participating in social andschool activities.Alice deMauriac Hammond, '30, SM '32,helps the rehabilitation of the handicappedin her work as a clinical psychologist at theJewish Vocational Service in Chicago.Harrell H. Johnson, '30, is completinghis 29th year as a teacher in the Indianaschools. Both he and his wife teach at theCovington Community High School inCovington, Ind., where Mr. Johnson ishead of the science department.Bernice Leary, '30, AM '31, PhD '33,taught at Northwestern University thissummer after returning from India, whereshe had been working on textbooks with aworkshop of educators from all over India.It was her fourth assignment for the International Cooperation Administration since1954. The first two were to Thailand, thethird to the Philippines.Mary Rosina Martin, '30, resigned as22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEssistant professor at Eastern MichiganUniversity last June to care for her 93 yearId mother. She hopes to return to teaching someday.Dorothy Cahill Sargent, '30, AM '40,writes from Rim Station, Pinedale, Wyo.:"Bill (husband) and I live at 7900 feetaltitude in one of the most beautiful spotsin the Jackson Hole country. We havea gas station, lunch counter, and gift shop,and would be glad to see any U of Calumni when they are out this way onvacation. We are just 50 miles south ofthe town of Jackson and 30 miles north ofPinedale. I am a member of the SubletteCounty Artist Guild. Bill and I spend ourwinters in the southwest, where I stillteach French whenever I can. I am delighted that Bernard Weinberg of our classis head of the French department at theU of C."Russell P. MacFall, AM '31, is nighteditor of the Chicago Tribune.Elizabeth Newman Morrison, AM '31,is an admissions officer at the Universityof Chicago.Meyer S. Ryder, '32, chairman of thedepartment of industrial relations in theSchool of Business Administration at theUniversity of Michigan, was recentlymarried to Cecilie Sorenson of Oslo, Norway.Eleanor F. White, '32, lives in Chicagoand is supervisor of copy research at theLeo Burnett Company, Inc., advertisingagency.L. R. Wilcox, '32, SM '33, PhD '35,professor of mathematics at the IllinoisInstitute of Technology, was recentlyelected to a three-year term on the Boardof Education, Cook County District 39,Wilmette, III.33-38Lorraine Solomon Moss, '33, of Aurora,111., is president of the Chicago Woman'sAid, an organization in which 1300 womenof the Chicago area engage in cultural,philanthropic and civic activities.Harry W. Malm, AM '34, is a Chicagoattorney.Allen R. Moore, AM '34, has retired assuperintendent of the J. Sterling MortonHijrh School and Junior College in Cicero,111.James W. Tobin, MD '34, is a practicingphysician-surgeon in Elgin, 111.Robert Woodman Wadsworth, '34, AM'43, is head of the acquisitions departmentof the Chicago Public Library.Helen Hiett Waller, '34, director of theNew York Herald Tribune Forum, wasrecently honored by the Institute of WorldAffairs at its 35th anniversary dinner atNew York's Waldorf-Astoria.Lewis A. Dexter, '35, of Belmont, Mass.,a Fellow of the American SociologicalSociety, was recently awarded a Ph.D. byColumbia University for his thesis, "Congressmen and the People They Listen To."Major Harold L. Hitchens, '35, AM '36,PhD '59, was on campus last year to complete work on his doctorate in history. He has now returned to Denver and his job asfaculty secretary of the Air Force Academy.Howard P. Hudson, '35, who is the director of information and public relationsat the National Planning Association inWashington, D. C, is the editor of TheQuarterly Review of Public Relations. Hewas recently appointed to the Public Relations Advisory Panel of the U. S. Information Agency and was chairman of therecent 6th Middle Atlantic Public Relations Conference sponsored by the Washington Chapter of the Public RelationsSociety of America.Frances Cecelia O'Hare, '35, has retiredas kindergarten director of the KenoshaPublic Schools, Kenosha, Wis.Thelma Meaux, '35, of St. Louis, Mo., isa supervising teacher in charge of an eight-room school with an enrollment of 340children, from kindergarten to the fourthgrade.Ralph Edgar Siegel, '35, MD '37, is inthe private practice of ophthalmology inPerth Amboy, N. J., and is a member ofthe State of New Jersey Conservation ofVision Committee. Dr. Siegel is also amember of the Council of the New JerseyAcademy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology.Stanley W. Drigot, '36, of Chicago, isa research chemist with the ContinentalCan Company.Fanny Arnsten Hassler, '36, is a symphony conductor of student's symphonies.Her husband, Edwin B. Hassler, '39, isdirector of engineering at the WarwickManufacturing Co. of Chicago.Lillian Louise Doria Malpe, '36, is ateacher at the Eberhart School in Chicago.Robert L. Oshins, '36, was recently appointed director of research of the Democratic National Committee; Charles Percy,'41, is chairman of the Republican Progressand Planning Committee.William H. Weaver, '36, of Hinsdale,111., is manager of the contracts departmentof the Acme Steel Company in Chicago.Alvin I. Weinstein, '37, JD '39, whoselaw offices are in Chicago, has just openeda 100-room motel outside of the city,known as the Country Club Motel.Elizabeth Cannon Mann, '38, is theowner and manager of Cannon's BookStore in Oak Park, 111.Eugene T. Mapp, '38, a radiations specialist in the inspection division of the U.S.Atomic Energy Commission, Chicago Operations Office in Lemont, 111., has just completed a nuclear safety course at OakRidge National Laboratory.Karl A. Olsson, AM '38, PhD '48, became the new president of North ParkCollege and Seminary, Chicago, on November 5. He had been a member of thefaculty of the college before he was appointed to its presidency.39-40Bernard Adinoff, '39, PhD '43, has recently been appointed chief chemical engineer of the Fruehauf Trailer Co., Detroit, Mich. He was formerly the assistant director of research and development for theDayton Rubber Co.Beulah Hagermann, '39, AM '44, headsthe English department at Wells HighSchool in Chicago.May Gomberg Elinson, '40, is a therapeutic dietition and diet instructor at theHoly Name Hospital in Teaneck, N. J. Sheis married to Dr. Jack Elinson, associateprofessor at the School of Public Health,Columbia University, and is the mother offour children: Richard, 14; Elaine, 12;Mitchell, 11; and Robert, 8.Robert S. Miner, Jr., '40, director ofchemical manufacturing at Ciba Pharmaceutical Products, Inc., has moved with hisfamily to a new homo in Westfield, N. J.KATHERINE DUNHAM, '36, has become "Haiti's 'Good Samaritan'." Since1949, she has filled her spare hourswith building her Haitian estate into aone-woman clinic and health station forthe underprivileged and undernourishedislanders of Haiti. A world-renownedchoreographer and dancer, she hastravelled to nearly every country on theglobe with her troupe, having performed before kings and queens, ma-harajahs and other potentates. She hasvowed to stop touring after this year,according to a recent article in EbonyMagazine. When Miss Dunham beganher clinic, she financed it with her ownmoney. She received help from hospitalsand from doctors who often stop in toprescribe medication and dosages. Oneof these doctors is her neighbor, UlyssesDailey, '35, a former Chicago physiciannow in retirement in Haiti. Miss Dunham's autobiography, A Touch of Innocence, has just been published byHarcourt, Brace Co.DECEMBER, 1959 23The space for this advertisement has been contributed by this publication.With Each Card Sent A Child Is HelpedThe gut of health and hope is the Christmas present you give tomillions of children in need — when you send UNICEF Cards.Through the United Nations Children's Fund the proceeds from justone single box of ten cards, priced at $1.25 provides 45 hungry childrenwith a glass of milk every day for a week or the vaccine to protect 60children from tuberculosis. How truly the spirit of Christmas is captured when you know that through your remembrance a child will behelped. When you send UNICEF Cards the happiness you spread atChristmas extends to the farthest corners of the earth.FILL IN AND MAIL COUPON. All curds are $1.25 for a box of 10with matcliing envelopes and bear a Season's Greetings message in thefive official languages of the United Nations. U.S. COMMITTEE FOR UNICEF -GREETING CARDSP.O. BOX 22, CHURCH STREET STATIONNEW YORK 8, NEW YORK? #101 MIRO -"Children and Birds"10 cards of one designD #102 BETTINA -"Playmates" series' 2 each of five designs? #103 KINGMAN -"Fountain of Peace"10 cards of one design? #104 DOMJAN -"Fairy Tale Shepherd""Fairy Godmother"— 5 each of two designsO #105 LEE - "Christmas Eve"10 cards of one designTOTAL BOXES <f» $1 ?.5 p.-r l,m sNAMEADDRESSCTTV 7DNF. STATPMorton S. Postelnek, '40, MBA '59, soldhis auto parts business in 1957 and enrolledin the Graduate School of Business. Heearned his degree, was on the Dean's listthe last four quarters and passed his C.P.A.examination in May. He is now a partnerin the accounting firm of Sidney L. Gimbeland Co., Chicago.William C. Rogers, '40, AM '41, PhD'43, director of the World Affairs Centerat the University of Minnesota, will takea group of students to Europe next summerfor the third world affairs study tour of theUniversity of Geneva.David J. Severn, '40, SM '42, is aneditor of medical publications and pharmaceutical house organs with Physicians Publications, Inc., of New York.41-46Stephen Walsh, '41, of Chicago, is withthe customer's service department of theW. M. Welch Manufacturing Co., manufacturers of scientific apparatus.Ruth Steel Wilson, '41, and her husband,James, '48, live in Gary, Ind., with theirfive children. Mrs. Wilson was recentlyelected president of the Gary Council forRetarded Children, Inc. Mr. Wilson is ageneral foreman with Inland Steel. Bothare active in community activities.George A. Sacher, '42, has been promoted to the rank of senior scientist at theArgonne National Laboratory in Lemont,111. A biologist, Mr. Sacher's current workconcerns the effects of radiation on lengthof life and production of disease in animals. He is also working on the theoreticalproblem of relating data on animals towhat can be expected in humans. Thiswork has led to investigations of the agingprocess in animals and man. Mr. Sacherhas been a member of Argonne's staff sincethe Laboratory's formation in 1946. From1942 to 1946, he worked at Argonne'spredecessor, the war-time MetallurgicalLaboratory.MRS. WILSON '41 Charles L. Folio, AM '43, assistant director of the University of Michigan Extension Service in charge of the Upper Peninsula area, recently received a citation fromthe American Association for State andLocal History for outstanding service concerning the state and local history ofMichigan.Beverly Glenn Long, '44, who has beenpracticing law in Providence, R. I., formany years, has recently been made a partner in the law firm of Edwards & Angellof that city. Mrs. Long was on campus inJune when she was cited for civic leadership by the Alumni Association.Elliot M. Schrero, '44, AM '45, PhD '54,recently joined Sales Communication, Inc.,a subsidiary of McCann-Erickson, Inc.,(nation-wide advertising agency), as a copywriter on industrial and technical accounts.He and his family live in Teaneck, N. J.Robert J. Snyder, '44, is president of theAmerican Typesetting Corp. and is alsopresident of Kling-Bielefeld Studios, a Chicago commercial art studio.John M. Dickerson, '45, is assistant vice-president of the First American NationalBank in Duluth, Minn. Active in community activities, Mr. Dickerson is a memberof the Duluth Symphony, the DuluthPlayhouse, local charities, and the Chamber of Commerce. He recently played oneof the leading characters in "The Matchmaker," produced by the Duluth Playhouse.Philip Glotzer, '45, MD '48, of Bronxville, N. Y., was elected to the AmericanCollege of Surgeons this year. He becamea member of the American Board of Surgery in 1957.Joseph H. Kuney, '45, of Washington,D. C, has been named assistant to thedirector of publications of the AmericanChemical Society's applied journals. Beforejoining the ACS editorial department in1946, Mr. Kuney worked on the U of Cmetallurgical project for the developmentof the atomic bomb. He is president-electof the Society of Business Publication Designers and a member of the AmericanInstitute of Graphic Arts, the National Society of Art Directors, and The Chemists'BRETTHOLLE '41 Club (New York), among other organizations.Janet E. McAuley, '45, an instructor inthe department of physical education forwomen at Indiana University, hopes tofinish the work for her doctorate in physical education this year.Betty Stearns, '45, AM '48, of Chicago,was recently in Russia as a supervisor of adisplay of commercial products at theAmerican National Exhibition in Moscow.Wallace William Tourtellotte, '45, PhD'48, MD '51, associate professor of neurology at the University of Michigan, wasrecently awarded the S. Weir MitchellAward given by the American Academy ofNeurology. In September, he attended atwo-day meeting of a commission of theWorld Federation of Neurology in Antwerp, Belgium, studying the relation between neurology and neurochemistry.Daniel C. Weaver, '45, MD '47, is anassistant professor at the Yale UniversitySchool of Medicine and an attending anesthesiologist at the Grace-New Haven Hospital. Before this appointment, Dr. Weaverwas chief of the anesthesiology section atthe Lovelace Clinic in Albuquerque, N. M.,and a consultant in anesthesiology in thedepartment of surgery at the William Beaumont Army Hospital in El Paso, Tex.Lyman B. Burbank, AM '46, has beenappointed holder of the Eppley Chair ofHistory at Culver Military Academy, Culver, Ind. Before joining the Culver faculty,Mr. Burbank was a lecturer in the masterof arts teaching program at Yale University.Evelyn Millis Duvall, PhD '46, of Chicago, 111., is the author of Family Development, a senior college text published byJ. B. Lippincott and Co., and Facts of Lifeand Love, published by the AssociationPress, which has reecntly come out inFrench, German and Portuguese editions.The latter book is widely read, for theauthor reports that "this is the book foundin the library of Batista's teen-age sonbehind a volume of Mark Twain."Nicholas Melas, '46, '48, MBA '50, isin charge of Cook County personnel problems, working at the County Building inChicago.HORTON '46DECEMBER, 1959 25John T. Horton, '46, a contracting engineer in the Chicago general sales office ofthe Chicago Bridge and Iron Co., wasrecently elected a director of that company,filling the vacancy left by the death of hisfather, Horace B. Horton, '10, on September 17.Janice Trimble, AM '46, is assistant tothe director of the Home-Study Department of the U of C.47-49Hugh Casey, '47, AM '51, JD '56, in thepractice of law in Charlotte, N. C, writes:"If any of my friends or classmates shouldpass through Charlotte, they should stopby the Law Building or Courthouse andask for me. With four children, Bettie andI seldom travel and we would be delightedto s^e a friend from Chicago/'Charles Richman, '47, and his wife arethe parents of a third child, Celia Clare,born on October 18.Charles J. Curtis, MA '47, was installedon February 8 as pastor of the historicImmanuel Lutheran Church in Chicago.Mr. Curtis served for the past six yearsas pastor of Bethel Lutheran Church inEnglewood on Chicago's South Side. Serving for several years on the EnglewoodUrban Renewal and Community Conservation Board, he received a citation in1957 from the National Conference ofChristians and Jews— the James Yard Fellowship Award— for outstanding service inthe cause of brotherhood and communityunderstanding.Bliss Forbush, MA '47, headmaster ofthe Friends School, Baltimore, was electedpresident of the Baltimore Private SchoolAssociation for the 1958-60 term. Mr. Forbush's latest book, Study of the Gospel,was published in March, 1958. xHenry A. De Wind, AM '48, PhD '51,and his wife, Violet Krai De Wind, '46,AM '49, are the parents of Peter James,born March 10, 1959.Ed Lyon, '48, '50, MD '53, and JohnSommer, '48, '49, MD '53, are completingtheir residency at Billings Hospital andhave already joined the busy clinical andresearch staff of the urology division here.Thomas Payne, AM '48, PhD '51, hasrecently been promoted to professor ofpolitical science at Montana State University in Missoula, Mont., and is the chairman of the newly-established departmentof political science there.Nao Sekiguchi Wenkam, '48, SM '51,announces the birth of a son, Jay Koki,who was born in August of 1958 in Honolulu.Sarah Jane Barmore, AM '48, teaches atthe Thornton Township High School inHarvey, 111.James M. Blaut, '48, '50, assistant professor of geography at Yale University, recently spent four years doing research andstudy in southeast Asia and Latin America.Charles L. Smith, '48, is a member ofthe art faculty at Wilson Junior College inChicago.Robert H. Anderson, PhD '49, whosefield is elementary school administration,was recently appointed associate professorof education at Harvard University. Mr.Anderson has directed the program fortraining elementary school teachers atHarvard since 1954. His interest in thereorganization of elementary schools led tothe publication, last June, of The Non-graded Elementary School, written withJohn I. Goodlad. From 1954 to 1959, he served as chairman of the National Education Association's Commission on Crowdingin our Schools. Mr. Anderson lives in Winchester, Mass., with his wife and fourchildren, who range in age from six tofifteen.Alice Werden Bares, '49, lives in ChagrinFalls, Ohio, with her husband Jack andtheir daughter, Lori, born July 27.Douglas J. Duffy, AM '49, PhD '51, wasrecently appointed head of the departmentof education and psychology at Iowa Wesleyan College in Mount Pleasant, Iowa. Forthe past six years, he has held administrative positions in mission schools in India.He was principal of the Eastern Theological College at Jorhat, Assam, India, and amember of the senate of Serampore College, Serampore, West Bengal, India. Priorto that, Mr. Duffy was an assistant professor at the Northern Baptist TheologicalSeminary in Chicago.Tyler Henry Haynes, Jr., '49, '53, is nowa graduate student at the U of C.Dorothy Sasak Kroko, '49, of Pitcairn,Pa., and her husband, Leonard, recentlywelcomed an addition to the Kroko family—Caroline, born on September 2. Theirfirst child, Catherine, is three years old.Leonard S. Stein, AM '49, director ofthe Home-Study Department of the U ofC, was recently appointed secretary of theCorrespondence Study Division and chairman of the Committee on World Affairsof the National University Extension Association.50-51Harry N. D. Fisher, '50, JD '53, is alegal counsellor with Lemoine Skinner Jr.Public Relations Inc., of St. Louis. FromRECENT ALUMNI MEETINGSSeptember 20 St. Louis Dean Alan Simpson discussing the presentCollege.Alan Simpson.September 23 ClevelandSeptember 25 Buffalo Dale Bossert, County Planning Director forBuffalo and Erie County, discussing localcounty charter.September 30 Tucson Herbert Thelen, Professor in School of Education, Director of Teaching-Learning Lab:"Education Unshackled."October 17 Seattle Herbert Thelen.October 20 Highland Park Egyptologist John Wilson: "Seven Years ofEgyptian Revolution."October 25 San Francisco Bay Area party to greet alumni new to SanFrancisco.November 5 Washington, D.C. W. Allen Wallis, Dean of School of Business: work of the President's commission tostudy inflation.November 6 Los Angeles Presentation, in advance of the Americanpremiere, of a reading of "The Young Elizabeth."November 12 Downers Grove Alan Simpson.November 15 San Diego Alan Simpson.November 17& 18November 18 Los Angeles Alan Simpson.Minneapolis- Julian Levi, director of the South East ChiSt. Paul cago Commission: "How Big is a Campus?"November 19 San Francisco Ba) r Alan Simpson.& 20November 21 Portland Alan Simpson.November 22 Seattle Alan Simpson.Swami Akhilananda: "The True Meaning ofNovember 30 ProvidenceYoga." BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS—I 708 E. 7 1 ST ST.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMUseum 4-120026 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE^953 to 1957, he served with the Judgeadvocate of the U. S. Air Force. Mr.Fisher is married and has two children:Hal, born in 1957, and Diane Joy, bornthis year.Wolf Kahn, '50, who exhibits his artwork at the Grace Borgenicht Gallery inNew York, will be a visiting associate professor of art at the University of Californiaat Berkeley during the spring semester,1960.Robert Kauf, AM '50, assistant professorof foreign languages at the University ofIllinois at Chicago, will spend his sabbatical leave in Europe doing research.Lewis P. Lipsitt, '50, an assistant professor in the department of psychology atBrown University, is doing research inchildren's learning processes and is participating in the development of a trainingprogram in experimental child psychologyat Brown. He and his wife and their twochildren, Mark, 4, and Ann, 2, live inSeekonk, Mass.Francis D. Logan, '50, was a Rhodesscholar at Oxford University from 1952 to1954 and attended Harvard Law School in1954 and 1955, when he received his LLBdegree. Since then, he's been with theNew York law firm of Milbank, Tweed,Hope and Hadley, where he specializes infinancial and corporation law. Mr. Loganmarried Claude Riviere of Paris, France in1957; their daughter, Carolyn Giselle, wasborn last April.Gale B. McCarty, '50, has been in Djakarta, Indonesia since April, 1958, studyingthe political situation and working towardhis doctor's degree in political science.Frank C. McCurdy, AM '50, is the rehabilitation coordinator at the MunicipalTuberculosis Sanitarium of Chicago.Marvin M. Schuster, '50, '54, MD '55,is preparing for the completion of histraining in medicine and psychiatry at theJohns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Md.William C. Schwartz, '50, a group leaderin operations analysis at the North American Aviation Corp., was recently electedvice-president of the California JuniorChamber of Commerce. Mr. Schwartz and his wife, Pat, live in Los Angeles, Calif.,with their five children— Bob, Steve, Linda,Alice and Kanny.Charles Michael Shapiro, '50, '54, MD'54, a captain in the Medical Corps of theU. S. Army stationed at Fort Benning, Ga.,will finish his army duty in 1960. He thenhopes to return to Chicago and practiceinternal medicine. Capt. Shapiro and hiswife, Renetta, have two children: JamesAdam, 18 months, and Steven Marc, bornthis fall.Lennert N. Thunstrom, '50, an applications engineer with the McDonnell Aircraft Corp. in St. Louis, is working on hisMBA at Washington University. He, hiswife and their two children, Karin, Tk, andHolly, 8 months, live in Bridgeton, Mo.James F. Ulrich, AM '50, of Mount Prospect, 111., teaches at the Arlington HighSchool in Arlington Heights, 111.Jerrie D. Wilkening, AM '50, of Evanston, 111., is a teacher in the Chicago PublicSchools.Beverly Segal Williams, '50, has recentlybeen elected president of the South ShoreValley Community Association and a boardmember of the South Side Jewish Community Center of Chicago.John W. Winchester, '50, SM '52, received his PhD in chemistry from M.I.T.in 1955 and received a Fulbright grant tothe Netherlands for the academic year1955-56. He has been an assistant professor of geochemistry at M.I.T. since Julyof 1956 and has held the appointment ofUniversity Research Participant at OakRidge National Laboratory during the summers of 1958 and 1959. Mr. Winchesterand his wife, the former Ellen Sullivan,live in Concord, Mass.William R. Smith, MBA '50, has beenappointed staff engineer of the patentsection of IBM at Owegeo, N. Y.Albert L. Caney, MBA '50, has beenappointed Mid-West regional sales manager of the mobile hydraulics division ofVickers, Inc.L. Winston Cone, PhD '50, is an associate professor of history and internationalrelations at Purdue University in LaFay- ette, Ind. He has just returned from ayear of teaching at the University Collegeof Ghana, West Coast of Africa, and asix-week trip home via South and EastAfrica and the Middle East.Bob Lindblom, '50, writing from Oil-dale, Calif., spent the summer in Alaskaon field geology work. He returned to hiswork in the Sacramento Valley in the fall.Eji Suyama, MD '50, has opened a45-bed hospital— the Eastern MemorialHospital— in Ellsworth, Maine.Vern Bullough, AM '51, PhD '54, hasmoved to Los Angeles, Calif., from Youngstown, Ohio, after completing the successful alumni fund campaign there. Mr. Bullough is now on the faculty of the SanFernando Valley State College in LosAngeles.Yung-Teh Chow, AM '51, PhD '58,assistant professor of sociology at EasternMichigan University, has been awarded agrant of $1,000 from the Wenner-GrenFoundation for Anthropology Research,Inc. The grant was made by the foundation to enable Mr. Chow to revise andcomplete a manuscript entitled "StatusMobility of the Contemporary ChineseGentry." The study will center aroundthe district of Kunyang in the provinceof Yunnan, Southwestern China, an areasupporting a population of approximately69,000. Mr. Chow was born in East Chinaand taught in the Department of Sociology,Tsing Hau University, Peiping, beforecoming to the U of C. He is the co-authorof a book entitled Chinas Gentry, to whichan introduction was written by the lateRobert Redfield, '20, JD '21, PhD '28,well-known professor and writer in thefield of anthropology. Mr. Chow alsoWorked with W. Lloyd Warner, author ofthe famous "Yankee" studies.William D. Bray, PhD '51, has beenelected president of the Fellowship ofChristian Missionaries in Japan, whichrepresents more than 200 missionaries ofalmost all of the major Protestant denomi-:nations. He is a teacher of Greek, NewTestament, and the history of the Greco-Roman world at the Kwansei Gakuin Semi-The Sun Life of Canada, one of the world's great lifeCAREER insurance companies, offers men of ambition and integrity anoutstanding professional career in its expanding fieldforces. If you are interested in a career with unlimitedWITH opportunities, then Sun Life has the answer.• Expert Continuous TrainingA • Excellent Income Opportunity• Generous Welfare BenefitsFUTURE •Fer full information about a Sun Life sales career,write to W. G. ATTR1DGE, Director of Agencies,Sun Life of Canada, Montreal.SUN LIFE ASSU IRANCE COMPANY OF CANADACO/ 1ST TO COAST IN THE UNITED STATESDECEMBER, 1959 27T. A. REMWJUT CO SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineww FoundationsV Concrete BreakingCI.IW NOrmal 7-043HPOND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisSARGENT'S DRUG STOREestablished 1852Chicago's most completeprescription and chemical stockphone RAndolph 6-477023 N. Wabash AvenueChicago*7^e Sxclcc&ive @te<ute>t4.We operate our own dry cleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Ml dway 3-0602 NO rmal 7-98581442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica -Bolex - Rolleiflex - Polaroid1342 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259NSA Discounts24-hour Kodachrome DevelopingHO Trains and Model SuppliesPhoto press¦•i ji uam.ii in j;uFine Color Work • Quality Book ReproductionCongress St Expressway of Gardner RoadBroadview, Illinois COIumbus 1-1420 nary in Nishinomiya, Japan, and is a missionary of the Division of World Missionsof the Methodist Board of Missions. Duringhis first term of missionary service, from1952 to 1957, Mr. Bray helped to organizethe first Christian church in Takarazuka.He has also done historical research on theearliest days of Christianity in Japan.Myrtle V. Lundquist, '51, is editor of theemployee publication of the FederalReserve Bank of Chicago.Marguerite C. Rand, PhD '51, who livesin Washington, D. C, has recently beenpromoted to associate professor of foreignlanguages and literature at the Universityof Maryland.Robert D. Mitchell, '51, and his wifehave been living in Southern Californiafor the last seven years. They now livein Encinitas, where they have "11 acresof hillside, three miles from the ocean,overlooking a beautiful valley." Mr. Mitchell is now teaching at Oceanside JuniorHigh School, remodeling his farm house,and developing his land in his "sparetime."Henry Inouve, MD '51, has been working with Hilger Perry Jenkins, '23, MD '27,at Woodlawn Hospital and will soon gointo private practice in Chicago.52-53Lt. J. G. William I. Moore, '52, is studying Chinese at the Army Language Schoolin Monterey, Calif.L. R. Schroeder, MD '52, is at theNational Institute of Health in Bethesda,Md., attending at the Acute LeukemiaService there.Elizabeth M. Easterbrook, AM '52, is thenew librarian at the Kenmore East SeniorHigh School in Tonawanda, N. Y.Werner F. Greenbaum, AM '52, PhD '55,has recently been promoted to associateprofessor of political science at the University of Houston, where he has beenteaching since 1955. CANEY '50Homero Castillo, PhD '53, associate professor of romance languages at Northwestern University in Evanston, 111., is theauthor of two recent publications, RelatosHumonsticos, Oxford University Press, andLa Literatura Chilena en Los Estados Uni-dos, University of Chile Press. Mr. Castillohas also written scholarly articles in manyprofessional journals, such as Hispana,Symposium, and the Inter-American Review of Bibliography.Alexander Breslow, MD '53, is an instructor in pathology at the University ofWashington. The Breslows' third daughter, Rachel, arrived September 20, 1958.Mari Jane DeCosta, '53, was married toDavid M. Terman, '55, MD '59, on June14 in Highland Park. They will live inPhiladelphia for the coming year, whereDr. Terman is interning at PhiladelphiaGeneral Hospital.At the ninth annual Youth CitizenshipLuncheon of the YMCA of Chicago, lastApril, Raye Linda Farr and John C. Berg-hoff were chosen "Youth Citizens of theYear" and awarded $200 scholarships tothe college of their choice by the JuniorAssociation of Commerce and Industry.Raye is the daughter of Thomas S. Farr,PhD '53, and John's parents are DorisAnderson Berghoff, '32, and John, Sr., '32.Harris D. Hartzler, '53, SM '54, PhD'57, has recently joined the staff of theDu Pont Company s Central Research Department at the experimental station inWilmington, Del. For the past two years,Mr. Hartzler has been a faculty memberof the department of chemistry at theUniversity of Michigan.John H. Landor, MD '53, has joinedthe faculty at the University of Missouri,where he will first be instructor in surgeryand then assistant professor.Barbara Miller Lane, '53, has beenawarded an AAUW Educational Foundation National Fellowship for 1959-60. Herproject is the study of the involvement ofart and politics in Germany which led toproscription of modern architecture duringthe Nazi dictatorship. She is currentlya teaching assistant at Harvard, along withbeing a doctoral candidate at Radcliffe.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECaroline N. Lee, '53, who was awardeda Fulbright Scholarship last year for thestudy of art in Paris, is one of nine Fulbright Scholarship holders in all of Europe whose scholarships have been renewed for 1959-60. Only two of theserenewals were in art. Miss Lee is engagedin metal sculpture, and works daily in aFrench foundry, far from the "LatinQuarter."Paul A. Michael, '53, SM '55, receivedsi doctor of philosophy degree from NewYork University's Graduate School of Artsand Science last June. His doctoral thesisis entitled "The Transmission of Neutronsthrough Multiplying Media."Eric F. Sharton, MD '53, and his wifenow have a second son, born October25, 1958.Marvin S. Shepard, '53, SM '55, receivedhis PhD in chemistry from the Universityof Rochester last spring. John CoventryLowe, 54, was awarded his master of artsin sociology degree in the same commencement exercises.Lois Ablin, AM '53, and Louis Kries-berg, '47, AM '50, PhD '53, were marriedAugust 23, 1959, in Chicago.William Blau, AM '53, is now the director of market planning for Harley EarlAssociates, a Detroit industrial design firm.He was recently elected a director of theDetroit chapter of the American Marketing Association. His wife, Marjorie MillerBlau, '42, is the vice president of theHuntington Woods, Mich., PTA. BothMr. and Mrs. Blau are co-leaders of aGreat Books discussion group.James I. Gabby, MD '53, has finishedhis residency in adult and child psychiatryand is in part-time private practice inSan Francisco. He is also in charge of theAdult Intake Service of the Mount ZionPsychiatry Clinic.John Thompson, MD '53, resident inmedicine at the U of C hospitals, has beenextremely active both clinically and inresearch here. He plans to continue bothof these activities with the hematologyservice.Amy E. Viglione, AM '53, is dean ofthe School of Nursing at the Universityof South Carolina.54-56Michael J. Brennan, AM '54, PhD '56,an economist on the faculty of Brown University, is in The Netherlands on a FordFoundation grant to study their economicpolicies as they may relate to the surplusagricultural commodities of the U. S.Harold L. Coltman, MBA '54, spokerecently on "Value Analysis in Systemsand Procedures Work" at a meeting ofthe California chapters of the Systems andProcedures Association of America. Anassociate in the Los Angeles office ofMcKinsey and Co., Inc., management consultants, Mr. Coltman is also national secretary of the National Society for BusinessBudgeting. He lives in La Canada, Calif.,with his family.Barbara Feldman, '54, '57, AM '57, is currently working for the Cook CountyDepartment of Welfare, Chicago, 111.Zygmund A. Gonglewski, AM '54, hasresigned his position with the Crane Co.of Chicago to become personnel andindustrial relations assistant with the Na-tional-U. S. Radiator Co. of Johnstown,Pa. Mr. Gonglewski was formerly programdirector of the Alumni Association.Earl S. Huyser, PhD '54, who has beenwith the Dow Chemical Co. at Midland,Mich., for the past two years, has beenappointed assistant professor of chemistryat the University of Kansas. Mr. Huyserwas with the U. S. Army Chemical Corpsbefore joining the Dow Chemical researchstaff.Richard Alan Strohl, '54, received amaster's degree in education from theUniversity of Pittsburgh in June.Morris H. DeGroot, SM '54, PhD '58,assistant professor of mathematics at theCarnegie Institute of Technology, is thedirector of a research study of "OptimumSequential Sampling Plans" which recentlyreceived a grant from the National ScienceFoundation.Lloyd J. Keno, '54, received an L.L.B.from Yale in 1957. After a year as a trialattorney with the Tax Division of the Department of Justice, he is now workingwith them as an appellate attorney. Heand Fred Solomon, '54, MD '58, who iscurrently doing psychiatric research at theMental Health Institute of the NationalInstitute of Health in Bethesda, Md., aresharing a house in Washington, D. C.Clyde Curry Smith, '54, is currently anassistant professor of Oriental languagesand literature and Old Testament studiesat St. John's College, University of Manitoba.Donovan E. Smucker, AM '54, PhD '57,is chaplain and assistant professor of religion at Lake Forest College in LakeForest, 111. He and his wife have recentlybeen elected to the board of AssociationHouse, a well-known Chicago settlementhouse.Martin H. Flax, MD '55, looks forwardto an appointment as clinical fellow inpathology at Massachusetts General Hospital upon completion of his tour of dutywith the Air Force.Floyd H. Gilles, MD '55, reports thearrival of his third daughter, Susan Kay,on March 24. He recently began activeservice in the Navy after completing histhird and last year of neurology residencyat Johns Hopkins.Kenneth Halprin, MD '55, left the dermatology section of the U of C hospitalto be with the U. S. Air Force at SanAntonio, Tex.E. Jack Harris, MD '55, is in the lastyear of his residency at the BrooklynJewish Hospital. Andrew, the Harris' firstson, was born last March 1.Douglas A. Johnson, PhD '55, is assistantprofessor of elementary education, Sacramento State College, Sacramento, Calif.Arthur F. Kohrman, '55, received thedegree of Doctor of Medicine from WesternReserve University at the commencementexercises there last June.Sumner Kraft, MD '55, and RichardReilly, '48, '50, MD '53, are residents ingastrointestinal medicine here and plan to continue their research and clinical workin that department during the comingyear. Dr. Reilly is interested in tumortransplantation, and Dr. Kraft is studyingtissue localization of antigen-antibody reactions.Audrey Rubovits Loewenthal, '55, andher husband, Richard J. Loewenthal, havemade the big move from the city to thesuburbs. Their new home is in HighlandPark, 111.Emmett B. Lorey, MD '55, will finishhis residency in internal medicine at SanFrancisco County Hospital this year, whenhe will become chief resident in medicineat the Veterans Administration Hospital.Richard Osband, MD '55, is now completing his obstetric and gynecologic residency at the University Hospital in Birmingham, Ala., after which he plans topractice there. His residency was begunat the University of Rochester and interrupted by two years in the Air Force.Leonard F. Barrington, PhD '55, hasbeen named director of Applications Research at the A. E Staley ManufacturingGONGLEWSKI '54Co. Until 1957, he was a project coordinator and research chemist at the ArmourResearch Foundation of Chicago.Robert Martin Bookchin, '55, receivedhis MD from Washington University inSt. Louis in June.Faylon Brunemeier, MD '55, internedat Minneapolis General Hospital and returned here for residency in ophthalmology.He will practice in Calif.Marian Jane Holl, MBA '55, is assistantdirector of the Metropolitan General Hospital, formerly City Hospital, in Cleveland,Ohio. Alexander Harmon, '43, MBA '49,is the director of the hospital.Richard Woellner, MD '55, is in residency in internal medicine at the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Hospital,under the University of Minnesota's Department of Medicine.Paul C. Muick, AM '55, is an assistantprofessor in the Department of Art atStephen F. Austin State College in Nacogdoches, Tex.Adalbert Scharpf, AM '55, a reverendwith the Benedictine Mission in the Tan-DECEMBER, 1959 29ganyika Territory of East Africa, writesthat his job since last year is inspector ofschools in his diocese. He has to reachevery corner of the bush by jeep. Sometime this fall, he will likely be back toteaching in the secondary schools there.David L. Singer, MD '55, recently completed his research in thyroid physiologyat Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. Thisyear, he will have a U. S. Public HealthService clinical fellowship at Boston CityHospital for the study of diabetes.Robert Philipson, '55, MBA '57, and hiswife, Sonya, moved to Houston, Texas,last March when Mr. Philipson took thejob of personnel director of the GordonJewelry Corp. there. A son, Marc Steven,was born to them on June 11 of this year.Leonard Sagan, MD '55, is leaving theArmy to resume his medical residency at theUniversity of California in San Francisco.Betty Jo Tricou, MD '55, has spent thelast year working toward her PhD inpharmacology and will be so involvedduring the coming year.Margaret Anderson Peters, '55, is continuing to publish the Washington CountyNews (the weekly newspaper of Abingdon,Va.), after the death of her husband, Frank,last September.Norma Janeau Schulman, '55, lives inOak Park, Mich. Her husband is" a residentphysician in internal medicine at the Detroit Osteopathic Hospital. The Schulmanshave two children: Sharan Lee, 4, andDavid, born last May. John E. Frey, PhD '56, assistant professor in the department of chemistry at Bow-doin College in Brunswick, Maine, is directing the research project, entitled "Solvent Properties of Compounds of GroupIIIB Elements," which has recently beenawarded a National Science Foundationgrant of $16,600.Robert Marcus, '56, SM '58, and hiswife, Johanna, are the parents of a newdaughter, Karen, born in July. The Marcuses will be at the University of Michiganuntil Mr. Marcus receives his Ph.D. inphysical chemistry.Robert I. Yufit, PhD '56, is a staff clinical psychologist at the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago.Willard C. Anker, ^MBA '56, is a member of Investors Diversified Services, Inc.Gertrude Pollitt, AM '56, is a caseworkerwith the Jewish Children's Bureau ofChicago* She has recently started thechild care course at the Institute forPsychoanalysis in Chicago.Clifton R. Wharton, Jr., AM '56, PhD'58, an economist with the Council onEconomic and Cultural Affairs, Inc., isthe council's representative in the Singapore region, where his second son, BruceDuncan, was born on April 17. Mr. Wharton is an economic expert on the problemsof economic development and has previously been associated with the U of Cand the National Planning Association.Prior to his interest in Asia, he was associated with Governor of New York Nelson A. Rockefeller's enterprises in LatinAmerica.Kenneth B. Basa, '56, is leaving Swiftand Co. Research Laboratories for a research assistanceship at the Illinois Institute of Technology where he will studyfor his masters' degree in bacteriology.Donald C. Bell, '56, was married recently to Miss Robinette Nixon. Both Mr.and Mrs. Bell are studying medicine inNew York City.Dorin S. Daniels, MD '56, is in privatepractice in the small eastern Oregon townof Vale, where he moved with his wifeand three children in June, 1958.Robert Druyan, MD '56, is still withthe Navy in Washington. He says that,despite the rather pleasant wage scale, heyearns for the academic life.1957F. L. Coleman, MBA '57, moved toNew York from Chicago when he wasappointed office manager of the Commercial Division of the Associates DiscountCorp. of New York. Mr. Coleman writesthat he finds New York as nice a placeto live as it is to visit. The New Yorksubway, he says, "is not any more crowdedthan the Chicago El."Herzl Ragins, PhD '57, resident in surgery at the U of C hospitals, will stay onat the hospitals here. In 1956, Dr. RaginsFrom New York Life's yearbook of successful insurance career men!HOWARD J. RICHARD-dialed his way toa million-dollar career!It is Howard Richard's theory that contacting prospectsby telephone is the most productive, least wasteful selling technique. A look at his annual multimillion-dollarsales record as a New York Life representative doesmuch to prove his theory. In addition to being wellknown in his chosen profession, his spectacular successhad already provided him with a very substantial lifetime income under New York Life's rewarding compensation plan when he was only forty-one years of age.Howard Richard, like many other college alumni, iswell established in a career as a New York Life representative. In business for himself, his own talents andambitions are the only limitations on his potential income. In addition, he has the deep satisfaction of helpingothers. If you or someone you know would like moreinformation on such a career with one of the world'sleading life insurance companies, write: HOWARD JR'CHARD,C.L.UNew York LifeRepresentative atthe Boston, Mass_ Generai Office "5"ap'Sy„:, %S2J41y "ir Force,Member o? ?„„ le' LIf«*»*'• ?ouncuPany'S PrSSI-IVewYorkLifeInsurance (nvuc) CompanyCollege Relations, Dept. S751 Madison Avenue, New York 10, N. Y.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwon the Chicago Surgical Society honorsfor his work in research.Roy M. Tollefson, PhD '57, will teachRussian history and Soviet foreign policycourses at Northeastern University in Boston. Mr. Tollefson is a member of theAmerican Association of University Professors, the American Political ScienceAssociation, and the American-Scandinavian Foundation. He is married and isthe father of three children, Rolf, 15;Erik, 11; and Margot, 8.Dan A. Wheaton, AM '57, has recentlybeen appointed an instructor in Englishat the Carnegie Institute of Technology.Since his graduation from the U of C in1957, Mr. Wheaton has been doing graduate work at Oxford University in England.Sherry Feinberg Israel, '57, just receivedher MA in psychology from UCLA. Sheand her husband, Rabbi Richard Israel,'50, are moving to New Haven, Conn.,where Rabbi Israel will be director of theB'nai B'rith Hillel Foundation at YaleUniversity. Mrs. Israel will be going onfor a PhD in social psychology as a UCLAstudent in absentia and has been awardeda National Science Foundation Co-operative Graduate Fellowship for '59-?60.Theodore Jacobs, MD '57, is a residentin psychiatry at the Albert Einstein MedicalCenter in New York City.Myron Karon, MD '57, recently beganhis appointment as chief resident in pediatrics at the University of Wisconsin. Hisson, Michael Scott, was born in July of1958.Harry Kaste, MA '57, has returned tothe U of C and to his former occupation-assistant editor at the University of Chicago Press— after an excursion in teachingEnglish at Indiana and De Paul Universities.Imogene Leitner Kittlaus, '57, and PaulKittlaus, '59, announce the birth of theirson, Mark Darrow, April 30. Mr. Kittlausis now Minister of Christian Education atthe Kensington Community Church in SanDiego, Calif.Anne R. Kimmel, AM '57, has been appointed director of nursing at the ShermanHospital in Elgin, 111.Albert P. Kretz, Jr., MBA '57, has beenmidwest district manager of the IndustrialProducts Division of Wilmot Castle Co.,manufacturers of industrial and institutional sterilization and lighting equipment.Theodore A. Peterson, MD '57, has ason, Todd, born in August of 1958. Dr.Peterson calls attention to the new surgicalmask perfected by Joe Kiser, MD '57,which is described in the American Journalof Surgery.Roy S. Weinrach, PhD '57, is enteringhis junior year at Northwestern UniversityMedical School.58-59Charles M. Baugh, '58, is continuing hiswork at Tulane University under the support of a National Cancer Institute Research Fellowship, and hopes to receivehis PhD in biochemistry in 1961.Donald R. Chimene, MD '58, will stay on at Bronx Municipal Hospital as assistantresident in surgery.Mildred R. Collins, AM '58, and herhusband, Richard B. Collins, are the proudparents of a baby boy, Mark Kenneth, bornMarch 16, in Albany, N. Y. Mrs. Collinsgraduated from the School of Social ServiceAdministration in June, 1958.Robert A. De Vries, '58, married EleanorSiems on August 16, 1958. They've movedto Dayton, Ohio, where Mr. De Vries willserve an administrative residency in hospital administration at the Miami ValleyHospital.Donald D. Duffey, MBA '58, writes thathe is employed by E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company's Polychemicals department in the research and developmentdivision.Olga Kirshenbaum, '58, was married toDr. Gerald Weiss in Chicago last summer.Allan Roin, '58, is presently attendingNorthwestern Law School.Rachel Jacobson Rosenblum, '58, received her AM from Radcliffe College inJune.Richard E. Stafford, AM '58, is one oftwo recipients of a fellowship award of$2,650 given annually by the EducationalTesting Service for graduate study in psychology at Princeton University. Mr. Stafford is currently working for his doctorateand hopes to receive the degree in Juneor September of 1960. The fellowshipprovides for a program of training andresearch at ETS as well as full-time studytoward the doctorate.John M. Barbee, '58, is parish minister atthe Ingleside Avenue Methodist Church inChicago.J. Richard Mota, MBA '58, of Chicago,is a process engineer with Tab Engineers,Inc., consultants.John C. Wilkens, MBA '58, is an AirForce Contracting Officer, stationed atOson Air Force Base near Seoul, Korea.Stephen I. Abrams, '59, will give a seriesof lectures under a Bollingen Foundationgrant at the Institute of Analytical Psychology (C. D. Jung Institute) in Zurich,Switzerland, this winter. Mr. Abrams is theformer president of the ParapsychologyClub on campus and the author of thearticle, "Defining the Sixth Sense," whichappeared in the March, 1959, issue of theMagazine.Franklyn Broude, '59, has recently beenappointed to the faculty of the economicsdepartment of Roosevelt University. He iscontinuing his studies in the GraduateSchool of Business at the U of C and willreceive his master's degree in June. He'sthinking of going on for a Ph.D. in international economics, after which he maystudy international law. Mr. Broude is notplanning to do any ambitious impresario-ing this year. In May, 1957, when he was18 years old, he produced "A Night ofJazz" at the Civic Opera House in Chicago.( See October, 1957, Magazine. )Mary L. McDermed, AM '59, is an instructor of pediatric nursing at the CookCounty School of Nursing, Chicago.David Zack, '59, MA '59, is teaching atthe College Station in Mayaguez, PuertoRico, a branch of the University of PuertoRico. LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERSince 1878HANNIBAL, INC.FurnitureUpholsteringAntiques Repairing• RefinishingRestored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoSince 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for University,College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at37 South Wabash Ave.Chicago 3, III.DECEMBER, 1959MemorialA University of Chicago Memorial Service was held at Rockefeller MemorialChapel on Sunday, November 1st to commemorate the deaths of University facultyand staff members during the past year.Chancellor Lawrence A. Kimpton read thescripture lessons and the service was conducted by the Reverend Jerald C. Brauer,Dean, The Federated Theological Faculty,the University of Chicago. The ReverendW. Barnett Blakemore, associate dean ofRockefeller Memorial Chapel and dean ofDisciples Divinity House, gave the sermon,"The Nearer and the Last Enemies."A list of faculty and staff who diedduring the past year follows:Edward Eagle Brown (1885-1959) Honorary Trustee of the University.Dwight E. Clark (1910-1959) Professorand Chairman, Department of Surgery.Harry B. Gear (1872-1959) HonoraryTrustee of the University and BaptistTheological Union.Evelyn G. Halliday (1877-1959) Associate Professor of Home Economics.Fred M. Merrifield (1911-1959) Research"'Associate, the Law School.Daniel Mitziga (1923-1959) AssistantProfessor in Oral Pathology, Zoller DentalClinic.Howell W. Murray (1890-1958) Trusteeof the University.William F. Ogburn (1896-1959) Chairman and Professor Emeritus, Departmentof Sociology.Martin Sprengling (1877-1959) ProfessorEmeritus, Department of Oriental Languages and Civilization.William W. Sweet (1881-1959) ProfessorEmeritus of Church History, FederatedTheological Faculty.Ruth E. Taylor (1895-1959) ClinicalAssistant Professor of Medicine, Physicianin Student Health Service.Nancy Upp (1903-1959) Assistant Deanof Students, School of Social ServiceAdministration.John P. Wilson (1877-1959) HonoraryTrustee of the University.Horace G. Lozier, '94, died recently athis home in Glen Ellyn, 111. Mr. Lozierwas the writer of numerous college songs;his Beta song was regarded by many asthe most popular of the college songs.Sarah A. Wallace, '02, of Washington,D. C, died in August.John W. Turner, *04, of Greensboro,N. C, died on May 9. Frieda Schmid Simson, '07, died in Chicago on September 14.Milo M. Quaife, PhD '08, died on September 1. Mr. Quaife was one of Michigan's foremost historians, having writtenmore than 100 works, including 37 volumesof the Lakeside Classics, "I RememberDetroit," "This is Detroit," "River of Destiny," and the Lake Series. Through hiswork, he became known as the greatestauthority on the history of Michigan andthe Northwest. He was secretary-editorof the Detroit Public Library's BurtonHistorical Collection from 1924 to 1947and was lecturer at both Wayne State University and the University of Detroit.E. H. Hatton, MD '12, of Evanston, 111.,died on August 15.Vivian O. Tansey, '13, PhD '21, professor emeritus of geology at the University of Arkansas, died on February 11in Fayetteville, Ark.Louis Mills Norton, '14, of South Orange,N. J., died on August 18. Among others,he is survived by his sister, Louise NortonSwain, '09.Louis J. Tint, '14, died in Chicago onFebruary 3.Russell J. Callander, '15, MD '18, diedin September at his home in Solana Beach,Calif. He had retired from the Veterans'Administration Center in Mountain Home,Tenn., since June, 1958.Mildred S. Henderson, '15, of SanDiego, Calif., died on December 7^ 1958.Harry D. Kitson, '15, retired professor ofpsychology at the Teachers College ofColumbia University, died on September25 in Mishawaka, Ind. Mr. Kitson was oneof the first in his profession to devote himself primarily to problems of occupationalchoice and adjustment. Before teaching atColumbia, he taught at the U of C; he wasthe first to measure the capacities andabilities of college students and give themeducational and vocational guidance.Morris S. Kharasch, '17, PhD '19, internationally famed research chemist, whodied in Copenhagen in 1957 while workingon a defense contract, is being memorialized with a fund from alumni, friends,former students and colleagues. The formof the memorial will be determined by thefinal amount contributed. Dr. Kharaschwas a Distinguished Service Professor atthe University.Arthur V. Bishop, '18, JD '21, who lived in Chicago Heights, 111., died on April 161959.Charles J. Ritchey, PhD '18, died onSeptember 2 in Parkdale, Ore., where heretired in 1956 after 24 years as head ofthe history department at Drake Universityin Des Moines, Iowa. He is survived byhis wife, Mary Still Ritchey, AM '16, a sonLeslie M. Ritchey, a daughter Frances Ritchey Rogers, AM '46, and B.ve grandchildren.Jennie D. Wyse, '19, of Chicago, died in1958.Charles T. Smythe, '21, died in Dela-field, Wis., on February 3.Walter B. Herrick, '22, died on April 16.Oscar L. Holmgren, '22, of WonderLake, Wis., died last January 10.Meyer Halushka, '23, SM '33, died onJuly 26 in Chicago.Ruth E. Taylor, MD '23, who died ofleukemia on July 18, 1959, spent thirtyyears of her professional life watchingover the health of the students throughthe University's Student Health Service.Last year was spent at Florida State University where President Robert M. Strozier(formerly dean of students at Chicago)invited her to set up their student healthservice.A memorial fund in her honor has beenset up to be used by the Division of Hematology.Scott M. Matheson, '25, died on October4, 1958 in Salt Lake City, Utah.Emma H. Lamde, '26, died on June 20in Chicago. Miss Lamde had been ateacher at Calumet High School.Edith M. Fisher, AM '27, died in SanPedro, Calif., on October 13.Herbert Crawford Jenkins, '30, died recently in his home in Cleveland, Ohio.Mr. Jenkins was a member of the SoldiersRelief Commission in the Cleveland area.He was appointed a commissioner of theorganization a few years ago after havingserved as an investigator since 1940.Helen McFrancis Friedman, '31, died onAugust 17 in Los Angeles, Calif. She hadbeen in charge of the rental library at theUniversity Bookstore for several years afterher graduation from the U of C. Duringthe last 20 years, she had worked as amedical writer and editor and was activelyat work on a new book at the time of herdeath.Albert H. Miller, Sr., '32, of Oak Park,III, died on July 30, 1959, at the age of95& years.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJ.DECEMBER, 1959 33Gifts for Christmas . ? ?WEDGWOODsent an artist from England tosketchRockefeller Chapel,Mitchell Tower,Hull Gate, andHarper LibraryHe sketched the border foreach plate from a Gothic design found high in the gable ofRyerson Laboratory.DINNER PLATESare ten-inch Traditional Warein Williamsburg sepia withDysert glaze. They make aSET OF FOURChicago memorial plates andwill be delivered to your doorfor only$12 per setWRITEThe Alumni Association5733 University Ave.Chicago 37 , IllinoisENCLOSE check for $12(per set)Give instructions as towhere and when to mail.