NIYEHS!¦k iyMJ^fe.- M # fy[X xix VF X f x J1 \ / * /il X x yrLX Y 1 V V 1XAV^ $JUNE 1959... a hand in things to comeReaching for tlie moonOnly a dream yesterday. . . reality todayWho dares call anything impossible today? Not when scientistshave created rockets and missiles that bring the moon within our reach.Union Carbide research in fascinating new materials has helpedtake the attack on space out of the realm of science fiction. Such researchhas developed super-alloys to withstand the forces of launching and flight. . . liquid oxygen to fire the mighty thrust into space . . . and componentsfor solid fuels that burn in an airless universe. And research is now leadingthe way to new plastics for nose cones and new batteries and other energizersfor instrumentation.With the same compelling search for knowledge that hasbrought us so close to space travel, the scientists of Union Carbide are constantly developing new substances that make possible a host of useful thingsfor our everyday life. Today's work-saving detergents, miracle fibers, andquick-drying paints and lacquers are only the beginning of an endless streamof products that will enrich the world tomorrow. Learn about the exciting workgoing on now in carbons,chemicals, gases, metals, -plastics, andnuclear energy. Writefor "Products and Processes"Booklet C, Union CarbideCorporation, 30 East 42nd St.,NewYork 1 7, N. Y. In Canada,Union Carbide CanadaLimited, Toronto.... a handin things to come?^^^, S^^— UNIVERSITY(JmcaqoMAGAZINE j^J JUNE, 1959Volume 51, Number 9FEATURES5 Distinguished Service Professorships15 How Do You Like Your Beefsteak?19 Learning at Leisure21 Quadrangles' Private ClubDEPARTMENTS1 Memo Pad3 Books by Alumni and Faculty8 News of the Quadrangles24 Letters to the Editor25 Class News32 MemorialsCOVERUniversity students suffer from a unique form of spring fever, "exam fever."These scenes were taken on a bright and beautiful Sunday afternoon inthe only library open at that hour, the Law Library. The students representnot only Law, but also the College and a number of graduate departments; the background is the skylight over the Law stairway (see page 8).Photos: Lee BaltermanTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois Midway 3-0800, Ext. 3244Editor, MARJORIE BURKHARDTTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONPRESIDENT, Arthur R. CahillExecutive Director-EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORANProgrammingELIZABETH SHAW BOBRINSKOYAlumni FoundationFLORENCE I. MEDOW Eastern OfficeCLARENCE A. PETERS, DirectorRoom 22, 31 E. 39th StreetNew York 17, N. Y.MUrray Hill 3-1518Western OfficeMARY LEEMAN, DirectorRoom 322, 717 Market StreetSan Francisco 3, Cal.EXbrook 2-0925Los Angeles BranchMRS. MARIE STEPHENS1195 Charles St., Pasadena 3After 3 P.M.— SYcamore 3-4545Published monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 UniversityAvenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $5 00. Single copies, 25 cents. Entered as secondclass matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879.Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross, director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y. MemolmLast issue this yearWith this June issue of the Magazineour publishing year comes to a close. Thenext issue will be October. We don't publish during the summer.It's been an interesting and a productiveyear with nearly a thousand more alumnireaders.Our new editor, Marjorie Burkhardt, isnow a seasoned veteran. Apart from herproblems of meeting deadlines, her interests have paralleled mine and, I'm sure,yours. She has been alert to more University and faculty reporting, the Collegecurriculum changes, Hyde Park and itsredevelopment — all of which she has interspersed with features on the research whichmakes Chicago important.You must admit that the covers havebeen changes of pace. I remember my firstshock when I saw a proof of the April coverwith the pigeons and delicate feathers in asea of robins-egg blue: "My golly, Marj.,are we publishing a poultry journal!"She smiled and came back in May witha simple tomato sprig which, incidentally,was radio-active and took its own picture.The December review of the Hyde Parkredevelopment, in my opinion, was the bestsummary which had been done to date.The 12 pages of text and pictures wereboiled down from a three-foot-high stackof materials which weren't easy to coordinate."Impetus" (on Veblen) in the Marchissue brought in the most fan mail. (I'mwriting this before you have had time toread, in May, Eby's "What Makes ReutherReuther!") Some of the mail on Veblencouldn't be printed but we tried to give youa few samples in May.The popular human interest stories wereTed Hay don's "A Meet in Russia" (March)and Margaret Strozier's clever "And aWhite Cadillac" in January.The most popular article among our thousands of teachering alumni was the specialApril feature: "The College Teacher,1959," although William H. Allen, '97, director of the Institute for Public Service,blasted us for "muffing a superb opportunity" in not "showing the problems andrewards of those who teach in higher education."In a long list of charges of misrepresentation by omission, Allen said, "It's distortion to say the college teacher has beenoverlooked; he has overlooked (sic) byabetting managements and trustees in deceiving students and publics about actualsalary conditions and teacher supplies."This year we also tried our hand at ruri-JUNE, 1959 1Chief officer of the University whileChancellor Kimpton is on Spring Quarter leavening color with commercial ads on theback cover but backed out fast. The February issue carried a beautiful pockedmoon for Transitron Electronic Corporation. We ran it in the same robin-egg bluefrom the cover and were admiring theresults when we got a red-hot letter fromtheir advertising company saying thatTransitron's color is always "4A StandardYellow" and they weren't about to agreeto our color whims.Any color on the back cover, hereafter,will be in our own "house" ads with ourown whims.Well, we may not live 'till the Octoberissue but it was fun while it lasted.Have a good summer. Remember, noMagazine in July, August, or September.II. Wendell HarrisonWhen Maroon reporter Neal Johnstonbegan his "profile" for the April 17th issuehe said, "The desk in R. Wendell Harrison's office is comfortably cluttered with aflood of books ... a stack of loose papers. . . and educational matter . . ."The Maroon photographer, GretchenGrant, shot her picture to illustrate thislead-in. There wasn't room for the picturewith the profile. So I asked permission ofeditor Rochelle Dubnow to publish it inthis column while I summarized the profile.R. Wendell Harrison, SM '25, PhD '30,earned his S.B. from Southern MethodistUniversity where he later taught biology.After doing research at Washington University he joined the Chicago faculty inmicrobiology and the dental clinic.In 1943 he became dean of the divisionof the biological sciences. In 1947 he succeeded retiring Vice President Emery T.Filbey and became dean of the faculties.In this administrative position he is alsothe quiet, effective main budget officer of Vice President and Dean of the FacultiesR. Wendell Harrisonthe University. In his budget negotiationswith department heads, there is invariablythe matter of compromise at a reducedlevel. But Vice President Harrison overcomes frustration with his philosophy:"Any university which isn't trying to dotwice as much as it can afford isn't a verygood school."Vice President Harrison, a professor inthe Zoller Dental Clinic and the Department of Microbiology, must also co-ordinate the many academic aspects of theUniversity. With it all he enjoys his work :"There's a real satisfaction in administrative work." New Trustee McDonoughJohn J. McDonough, '28, was elected tothe Board of Trustees April 9. Seldom hasa more loyal and enthusiastic alumnusjoined the Board, which has 12 alumnimembers in addition to McDonough.John came to the Midway from Yankton,S. D., where he was a member of thehigh school championship basketball teamwhich played in the 1924 National Inter-scholastics at Chicago.At the University John was a star quarterback on the football team and a guardin varsity basketball. Later, as an Oxfordscholar, he won his "Blue" three successiveyears on the varsity Lacrosse team. A PhiBeta Kappa, he earned his bachelor of artsdegree at Oxford in 1931; was awarded anOxford Master of Arts in 1953.At Chicago he was a student Head Marshall and a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon.As an alumnus John has been a memberof the Association Cabinet; chairman ofthe Alumni Foundation Board; co-chairman with fellow Trustee Earle Ludgin forthe alumni capital gifts campaign of 1955-56; president of the Order of the C; andcurrently is president of the Board of Governors of International House. In 1953 hewas cited by the Alumni Association forhis numerous civic activities.John met his wife, Anne O'Brien, atInternational House. She is the daughterof the late Michael J. O'Brien, formerpresident of the Chicago Stock Exchange.Anne was graduated from Trinity College, Washington, D. C. and took work atthe Sorbonne in Paris before returning toChicago for her Master's degree from theUniversity in 1934 (studying under RobertLovett and Thornton Wilder).The McDonough's live in Winnetka.Their daughter is a junior at Manhatton-ville College of the Sacred Heart; their sonis a freshman at New Trier High School.H. W. M.A new trustee and an alumna2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWATER WITCHING U.S.A.: by RayBy man and Evon Z. Vogt, '41, AM '46,PhD '48. University of Chicago Press,1959, Pp- 220, $4.95.Water witching, also called "divining,""dowsing," etc., had been practiced for atleast four centuries in Europe and countries colonized by Europeans. Despite theskepticism of most scientists and engineers,it continued to flourish in the U. S. A.,where there are an estimated 25,000 practitioners of the art. Most of the peoplewho utilize the services of diviners are inrural areas and most of them have onlymoderate educational backgrounds. However, a number of eminent scientists andengineers, including some geologists, havebeen convinced that witching is an effectivemeans for locating underground water supplies. Thus witching has been a subject oflively controversy since it was first described, and discredited, by GeorgiusAgricola.In this well-written and interesting volume, the authors describe the several methods of water witching — the forked twig,which is the most common, the rod, thependulum, etc. They conclude that thesedevices behave as they are claimed to behave for sound psychological and physiological reasons. With this conclusion mostexperienced geologists who have experimented with these devices would certainlyagree. At least one geologist appears tohave demonstrated that certain persons arehighly sensitive to electrical forces, whichfact to him explains the "dowsing reactions" these people experience. However,few geologists would attribute the behaviorof the rod to any attractive force betweenit and water.On the basis of information gatheredfrom County Agricultural Agents, frominterviews with water diviners and thepeople who utilize their services, fromwell drillers, and from the voluminous literature on the subject of divining for waterand minerals, the authors conclude thatmost of the "evidence" advanced in favorof divining as an effective means of locating water does not constitute valid proofbecause it is based on observations that aresubject to human fallibility. There is noway of knowing whether a diviner is moreor less successful than would be expectedby the laws of chance unless the experiments are carefully controlled. The relatively few "controlled experiments" thathave been carried out show that the divineris considerably less successful in locatingwater than would be expected under thelaws of chance. Such experiments havebeen conducted in both laboratory andfield with interesting results that lead tothe conclusion that divining is not an artbut belongs in the same class as astrology,palmistry, and other occult practices.Nevertheless, divining is not withoutvalue. It is practiced most in areas where procurement of an adequate water supplyis uncertain. It is a form of magical divination that serves to reduce the anxiety of theman who desires a water supply by relieving him of the responsibility of having toselect the site for his well.Even for the person who is not particularly interested in water witching this bookis an interesting and entertaining exampleof the use of the scientific method in studying obscure phenomena such as mind-reading, prestidigitation (one of the authorswas formerly a professional magician),spiritualism, etc. For the person who isfrequently confronted with the question"Does it work," it is a valuable referencework. H. E. Thomas, an authority on thesubject of ground water, has prepared anappendix called Water Well Location byScientific Divination. Those who have littleknowledge of ground-water occurrencemight well read this appendix first.A. Nelson Say re, PhD '28Department of InteriorGeological SurveyEARLY EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED: by Samuel A. Kirk,'29, SM '31. University of Illinois Press,1959, Pp. 213, $6.00.This book is a report of an experimentalstudy done by the author in cooperationwith Merle B. Karnes, Ray Graham, andWilliam Sloan. It was designed to studythe effects of preschool training on thedevelopment of the mentally retarded child.The author sets forth the following basicquestions:1. "Does preschool training of mentallyretarded children displace the rate ofdevelopment of such children as compared to children who do not obtainthe benefits of early training?2. "Does growth at the preschool age continue at an accelerated rate, or does itreturn to the original rate of development during the primary school years?3. "Are the results similar for children living in different environments, such astheir own homes, foster homes, or institutions for the mentally deficient?4. "Are there differences in the change inrate of growth as a result of trainingbetween children whose retardation isascribed to organic factors and thosewhose retardation is ascribed to cultural or environmental ones?"Eighty-one mentally retarded childrenbetween the ages of three and six werestudied over a period of from three to fiveyears. This group was further divided intofour sub-groups, two of which were controlunits and two experimental units. The twoexperimental groups were ( 1 ) twenty-eightchildren who attended preschool in thecommunity, and (2) fifteen children of aninstitution for mental defectives enrolledin the institution's preschool program. Thetwo control groups were comprised of (1)twenty-six children in communities whodid not attend a preschool, and (2) twelvechildren in an institution who did not participate in a preschool program. The lattergroups were called the community contrast group and the institutional contrast grouprespectively. The author explains that theanalysis of the data was made by two methods: (1) case studies of the experimentalchildren, and (2) statistical comparisonsof the two experimental and two contrastgroups.Seventy per cent of the children of thetotal experimental group displayed an acceleration in rate of growth during thepreschool period and held on to it duringthe follow-up period. The results of thisstudy were most striking when additionalgroup breakdowns were set forth for thepurpose of studying the influence of homeenvironment. Although this merely represented a small portion of the data and eventhough the sample was relatively small,some interesting light was shed on the roleof the home in the development of thechild.The author is very careful to point outthat preschool education, generally speaking, offers most in the development ofyoung mentally retarded children ofpsycho-socially deprived homes. This factor is illustrated by the case studies of children of adequate homes without preschooleventually reaching the rated growth of thepreschool children after one year enrollment in the regular school. Furthermore,there is no evidence, based on this study,to indicate that mentally retarded childrencould be trained to normalcy.Four children from culturally deprivedhomes were placed in foster homes whileattending the community preschool. Allof them showed improvement, one gainingthree levels, another two levels, and thetwo other children benefiting one leveleach. In the contrasting situation, wherechildren were living in both a deprivedhome environment and did not have theadvantage of preschool training, the studyshowed them to remain at the same rate ofdevelopment or to even drop to a lowerlevel. An in-between sample of twelvechildren, who did attend preschool although living in a culturally deprived environment, produced results of a statisticalsignificance showing a favorable rate ofgrowth. However, as indicated above, therate of growth of the preschool childrenfollowing the preschool period did notcontinue to accelerate and, as a matter offact, the community contrast children coming from adequate homes attained anequivalent rate of growth after the firstyear enrollment in the regular school.In reference to preschool' for children ofpsycho-socially deprived homes, the authormakes a most worthwhile statement — "Itappears that society would benefit fromsome attention to these children, either byorganizing intensive education programsbeginning at the preschool level to compensate for the inadequate homes, or byrinding some means of placing these children in good foster homes during the preschool period, or both."This book was primarily reviewed in thelight of practical considerations; however,the author clearly points out the theoreticalconsiderations of this study. As indicatedin the early part of the review, the basictheoretical consideration of this experimentwas the effect of the preschool on theactual change of the I.Q.JUNE, 1959 3Partly because of the reviewer's personalfocus and interest, greater exception istaken to the oversight of the institution asa key resource for so many of the educablechildren of grossly deprived home environments. The reviewer also is very much infavor of the foster home placement; however, realistically speaking, there are toofew adequate foster homes. As a matterof fact, it is my conjecture that a carefulevaluation of foster home programs wouldshow a number of such homes even bordering the culturally deprived homes fromwhich children were originally taken. Thisdoes not imply that a foster care programis not a social asset or that we should slowup our efforts in improving its qualitythrough expanded social service investigations and follow-ups.There is no reason why a state institution cannot set up a type of residentialprogram that would fully subscribe to mostof the advantages of a foster home and atthe same time avoid quite a number of therisks involved with foster home placements.Of course, I would be the first one to admitthat this proposition involves many "ifs."One of the big "ifs" is the institution underpresent circumstances in our over-all political and economic milieu to being ableto sell legislators on the notion that greatlyincreased funds for re-designing and, re-staffing would be most profitable in thelong run. For example, what is to preventthe design of a residential setting thatcompletely sets apart, geographically andprogram-wise, the facilities for the educable youngster so that appropriate mixingwith peers and other stimulating resourcesare available. This notion is not far fetchedfor the Fort Wayne State School becausethe master plan for the new institution hasbeen designed with this in mind.This is one of the best books that I haveread on the subject of mental retardationduring the past years. Its material is, asexpected, presented in a most scholarlyfashion and at the same time it is veryreadable. In keeping up with progress inthe field, all professional and administrative people working in programs for thementally retarded should know this bookas a key informational resource.Bernard Dolnick, '39, MBA '49Fort Wayne State SchoolSuperintendentSAFARI OF DISCOVERY, The Universeof Albert Schweitzer: by Herbert M. Phillips, '31, Twayne Publishers, 1958, Pp. 271,$4.00The story begins with three ebony leperspaddling the author up the swift OgoweRiver in French Equatorial Africa in adugout to the Albert Schweitzer hospitalcenter at Lambarene. The purpose of thetrip: "to request the renowned and eccentric man of learning to lend his spirit ofscholarship to higher education in Americaby allowing university chairs of distinguished professorships to be created in hisname."(Herbert Phillips is one of Chicago'sleading dentists. But his profession has become incidental to his philosophical concerns for humanity. He is convinced thatDr. Schweitzer's convictions should be exposed more effectively to the world.)The first day at Lambarene started withconfusion (language barriers) and endedin frustration ("The honor is far too great.The idea is utterly impossible.")The second day Dr. Phillips was happilydrafted to teach in the crude dental clinics.The equipment was so dilapidated that amissing screw in the drill compelled anextra assistant to hold it together. Later,when Dr. Phillips sent the screw fromAmerica, the letter of appreciation endedwith, "It is a large advantage to don't needan extra assistant."With becoming a dedicated workingmember of the Lambarene communitycame the opportunity for informal conversations with the Master that Dr. Phillipsdesired. These he reports in such chapters as"Portrait of a Modern Prophet""A Private Discourse on Ethics""Dr. Schweitzer's Views of Jesus""Catalysis and Free Will"On the author's very last night in Lambarene came the climactic consent. It followed a Bach concert by Dr. Schweitzeron his zink-line piano and some final wordsabout ethical scholarship and convictions.Then Dr. Schweitzer said."You win. You may tell those who areinterested that whereas I can do nothingpersonally even to encourage an enterprisethat purports to venerate my name, I honortheir right to utilize my literature, mymethods, my conclusions, and my name tofacilitate ethical inquiry. It is my sincerewish that no scholar will stop where I haveleft off because of a sense of loyalty to me.I will expect students of the future to gofurther and to get a clearer vision of bothfreedom and responsibility and deeper insights into moral awareness."The book closes in three more chapterswith the author outlining his theories onputting consent into practice; a dialogue ofa theoretical seminar presided over by aprofessor occupying an Albert SchweitzerChair in a university; and an epilogue,twenty-one months later when, on a secondvisit to Lambarene, the author presentsDr. Schweitzer with a photostatic copy ofthe certificate of incorporation of theAlbert Schweitzer Education Foundationof which Dr. Phillips is president.Howard W. MortExecutive Director-EditorAlumni AssociationFREEDOM OF CHOICE IN EDUCATION: Virgil C. Blum, S.J., '51, Macmil-lan, 1959, Pp. 204, $3.95.In the introduction to Father Blum'sbook, Dr. Will Herberg states: "We arepluralists everywhere else, but somehowwe remain statists and uniformitarian inthe realm of education." This, too, is thecomplaint of Father Blum. It is contendedthat we recognize the right of private education but we render its very existencedifficult, and we deny a positive freedomof choice to parents and students who pre fer the private schools to the public schools.To remedy the present inequality of opportunity Father Blum offers the certificateplan or the tax credit plan. Under thecertificate plan, a certificate equal to acertain sum of money would be issued tothe parents of students by public authorities. The certificate would be presentedat the schools chosen and the school authorities would exchange it for an equivalent sum of money. In this way tuitionwould be paid.The tax credit plan would give tax reliefto parents for tuition paid at an educational institution — public or private. Bothof these plans have been put forward inone form or another in the last severalyears by specialists in education, legislators,and professional organizations. The aidgiven by these plans seeks to by-pass legalrestrictions on public aid to private schools,particularly denominational schools, bygiving the aid to the parents or studentsrather than to the schools. Evidently thesource of this aid would be the FederalGovernment owing to the rigidity of theclauses in many state constitutions forbidding such action either direct or indirect.In many past sessions of the Congress billsproviding relief of this nature have beenintroduced.Unfortunately, as Father Blum notes,the merits of these plans have been obscured by the introduction of the emotion-charged issue of "separation of church andstate." Both in theory and in law thereexist many interpretations of the American doctrine of church and state. In truth,complete separation of church and statehas never existed in this country. Only inrecent years has it come to play any partin the field of education. The tragedy forour country is that the antagonisms arousedby the dispute are based less on love of theConstitution than on religious antipathy.Father Blum makes an eloquent plea forsome form of public aid for private education. If one may judge from the amountof attention given the matter in our time,it is one of the most important problemsof our day. If it is our determination inthis country that private education exist,we have to find some means of insuringits existence in the face of rising costs. Today it is a vital issue with the small privateschool; tomorrow it will undoubtedly be acrucial issue with the larger, better endowedschools. The solution which Father Blumproposes forms but a small portion of hiswork. His plea is based on the justice dueto parents and students in a democratic,pluralist society. His contention is that inAmerican society many parents do not wantpublic education for their children, andaccording to the United States SupremeCourt the parent has the decision as to thekind of education the child will receive.The school stands in loco parentis. Education solely under state auspices could leadto state absolutism foreign to our traditions and civilization. At times it seemsthat Father Blum's plea is over-stated andover-extended, but it may not be passedoff lightly.Jerome G. KerwinProfessor, Department of Political ScienceUniversity of Chicago4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIn announcing the appointment ofthese five faculty members, ChancellorLawrence A. Kimpton and R. WendellHarrison awarded the highest recognition the University can grant.DistinguishedServiceProfessorshipsThese men — two historians, aphysicist, political philosopher, anauthority on English prose and poetry— will join nine other holders ofendowed professorships among afaculty of more than 800full-time members.Samuel K. Allison, Frank P. Hixon Distinguished Service Professor of Physics. Mr. Allison is shown herewith the low energy atom smasher, the kevatron, thathe designed. A member of the physics faculty fornearly 30 years, he received his BS here in 1921 andhis PhD in 1923. His experiments on nuclear fissionbegan prior to the War; he participated in the workon the first nuclear reactor, and served as director ofthe Enrico Fermi Institute from 1946 to 1958. He hasbeen awarded the Army's Medal of Merit, a Presidential citation, and belongs to the National Academyof Sciences.5George Williamson, Martin A. RyersonDistinguished Service Professor of Literature. An authority on 17th Century poets, heis editor of the journal Modern Philology.He has been a member of the English department since 1936, and has been avisiting professor at Harvard Universityand Cornell University. He is best knownfor his scholarly works on T. S. Eliot andJohn Donne; his early books. The Talentof T. S. Eliot (1929) and The Donne Tradition (1930) were pioneer studies, nowbeing issued in paper back, and have beenadmired and used by scholars and laymen.Christian W. Mackauer, William RaineyHarper Professor of History. Chairman ofthe College's "History of Western Civilization" course since 1954, Mr. Mackauer hasbeen connected with the course since itsinception in 1946. He received most of hisformal education in Germany, and emigrated to this country in 1940. He hasbeen at the University since 1943, and hereceived the $1,000 Quantrell award in1956 for excellence in undergraduateteaching. While waiting to come to theUnited States, Mr. Mackauer spent a yearat Oxford, doing research on the knowledge of Plato and the nature of scholarshipin the Middle Ages.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELouis Gottschalk, Gustavus F. and Ann M. Swift Distinguished Service Professor of History. Recentlyawarded $10,000 by the American Council of Learned Societies, Mr. Gottschalk is a specialist on thehistory of the French Revolution and Lafayette. Formerly editor of the Journal of Modern History, heis also the co-author of a two-volume work, Europe and the Modern World. A past president of theAmerican Historical Association and Chevalier of France's Legion of Honor, he is currently working onthe fourth volume of UNESCO's History of Scientific and Cultural Development of Mankind.Leo Strauss, Robert M. Hutchins Distinguished Service Professor of Political Science. Before joining the University facultyin 1 949 he was professor of political science and philosophy at the New Schoolfor Social Research. His writings include:The Political Philosophy of Hobbes (1936),On Tyranny (1950), Persecution and theArt of Writing (1952), and Nature/ Rightand History (1953), which has subsequentlybeen translated into French, German, andItalian. A member of the editorial board ofthe American Political Science Review, heis currently preparing a series of studies onthe origins of political science.JUNE, 1959College students FrancesMoore from Clearwater,Florida, and Larry Harrisfrom Chicago take a breakin studies at the LawLibrary to discuss thesuccess of the fifthannual Festival of theArts. Frances and Larrywere committee chairmenof the week-long event whichbrought artists, musicians,writers, and the BeauxArts Ball to campus.Lee BaltermanNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOff to BattleW. Allen Wallis, Dean of the Graduate School of Business, was sworn intooffice as the executive chief of the Cabi-net Committee on Price Stability thislast March. Following the ceremony atthe White House, President Eisenhowertold him "Now you can start to fightinflation."The Committee was created by Mr.Eisenhower on January 31, to "serveas a continuing Cabinet group to studythe problem of how to maintain reasonable price stability as an essentialbasis for achieving a high and sustainable rate of economic growth."According to Vice-President Nixon,the construction, maritime, and transportation industries have been suggestedas areas for Committee studies. Nixonsaid the Committee considers the appointment of Mr. Wallis a "major stepforward in our work. We want a manwho not only is well-qualified in hisfield, but one with experience in government and with the confidence of thebusiness community and the top economic and financial minds of thecountry."The Committee study will include,according to Nixon, "the whole problemof whether the United States, with regard to certain commodities, may bepricing itself out of the world market."Wallis has been dean of the Graduate School of Business at the Universitysince 1956; he will be on leave fromthat position in order to devote full-timeto work on the Cabinet Committee.Among the government and government-related agencies on which he has previously served, is the Office of ScientificResearch and Development, for whichhe acted as director of statistical research from 1942-46.A Look at the RecordLast year, in a talk before the Orderof the C, Vice-Chancellor of the University, John I. Kirkpatrick, said, "Let'shave a strong intramural program, andthis will bring a strong intercollegiateprogram. I want to see by 1961, themid-western tennis championship teamat the University of Chicago, by 1962,the star miler and the star low-hurdler,and by 1963, the champion free-styleswimmer — all of whom came to Chicago, without proselytizing, because thestudent body and the climate for theextra-curricular was as outstandinglyattractive as the curricular."This year, speaking before the Orderof the C, he noted that the season'svarsity records have had the comfortingeffect of making his words seem less anexcess of rhetoric and more those ofmodest prophecy. Mr. Kirkpatricknoted, "The basketball team had its best won-lost record in 38 years; the swimming team broke every University ofChicago record, as well as most of theUniversity's pool records, the trackteam is undefeated in dual competition,and the wrestling team was the bestsince 1946."Maroon athletes posted the followingresults during the 1958-59 season:Won LostBasketball 13 6SwimmingWrestlingIndoor Track 955 250FencingGymnastics 21 88Mr. Kirkpatrick also noted that inthe past year the budget for athleticequipment, repairing facilities and providing travelling expenses for the varsityhas been increased 25%. The basketballteam will go East to meet Army andJohns Hopkins this winter, and the baseball team will take a spring trip intothe South. New uniforms have beenissued and new tennis courts are beingbuilt.Huck and Russian SchoolboysWith the Fiftieth Anniversary ofMark Twain's death in April of nextyear, Soviet publishers plan a new edition of Mark Twain's works in Russiantranslation. This is evidence for GeorgeV. Bobrinskoy's contention that noAmerican writer has more prestige inRussia than Twain, and that Huckleberry Finn remains the single mostpopular American character.Mr. Bobrinskoy, who is chairman ofthe department of linguistics at the University, was born in Russia, and is particularly interested in the history andliterature of Russia. In a recent interview for a Chicago radio station he commented that "three major elements inThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finnaccount for its popularity in Russia. Theyare its spirit of adventure, its humor,and its optimism." Huck came and wentat his own free will; he slept on doorsteps in fine weather and in empty hogsheads in wet; he did not have to go toschool or church, or call any beingmaster, or obey anybody; he could gofishing or swimming when and where hechose, and stay as long as it suited him;nobody forbade him to fight; he couldsit up as late as he pleased; he was always the first boy who went barefoot inspring and the last to resume leatherin the fall; he never had to wash, or puton clean clothes; he could swear wonderfully. In a word, everything thatgoes to make life precious that boy had.While there is a strong tradition ofhumor in Russian writing, it is the "laughter through tears" school ofhumor. "The difficulty in Russia today,however, is that one can only laughabout certain things, and humorists cannot overstep certain limits. Easily themost popular contemporary Russianhumorist is Mikhail Zoshcheko. Hiswork has been alternately condemnedand praised by the critics and authorities, depending upon which aspect ofday-to-day life he lampoons."But one can always laugh at Huckleberry Finn; unlike authors whose popularity has waned or whose works havebeen subjected to political censorship,Twain's books are far enough removedfrom contemporary implications to betaken for what they are — classics."Finally, Huck Finn personified a typenot often found in Russian literature —positive hero. "A great spirit of pessimism prevails among Russian writers inthe Nineteenth Century. In Turgenev,for example, young people with nobleideas, either are frustrated or die in theirattempts to achieve them. But Huckstruggles and overcomes the obstacles ofa young man torn between his sense ofright and the prejudices of the time.When he goes to the aid of a runawayslave, his triumph is humanity's triumph." Bobrinskoy finds the moralideas and the mood of Huckleberry Finnto be very much in line with Russianpessimism."It is an interesting commentary thattoday great pressure is put upon Russianwriters to produce a positive hero, inthe general sense; such a hero might bea leader of a collective. However, it doesnot appear that the Russians have beenhaving much success in finding a young,national literary figure, with as muchappeal as the American Huck."Teaching Religion in CollegeThe Lilly Endowment Incorporated ofIndianapolis, Indiana, has granted theUniversity $27,300 for a study of thebest way to teach religion to college students. The announcement of this philanthropic foundation stated that thestudy can "be highly significant, not onlyto a further development of religiousprograms at the University of Chicago,but also for other universities, considering the role of religion in undergraduateeducation."A committee of five faculty memberswill be set up at the University to makethe study. Three will be from the stafffrom the College and two will be fromthe Federated Theological Faculty ofthe University. The committee will becharged with making a detailed report,describing and evaluating alternative approaches to the teaching of religion in aliberal arts college, and they will beasked to outline a recommended program for religious education in the Col-JUNE, 1959 9lege of the University of Chicago.Among the areas for investigation areincluded: what kinds of sensitivity tovalues can be taught and what is thefunction of religious instruction in thislearning; what aspects of religion areboth crucial and "teachable"; to whatextent should instruction be concernedwith contemporary theology and theology as seen in its historical development; what should be the relationshipbetween religion and philosophy; shouldthe College have a single year-longcourse in religion, or a number of different courses; should the faculty forthese courses be from the field of religion or should they be inter-disciplinaryfaculty.At present the College includes discussions and investigations of religionas part of the History of Western Civilization, as well as non-Western Civilization. Questions of value are also raisedin a year-long course called "Organizations, Methods, and Principles of Knowledge." The Federated Theological Faculty, on the other hand, offers graduatework in religion, and preparation .forBachelor of Divinity degrees.Mr. Finer to NetherlandsHerman Finer, professor in the department of political science, has received a Fulbright award to teach inthe Netherlands this fall. Mr. Finer haschosen to help the Dutch launch a program to develop the economies of theFar Eastern and Pacific peoples, and hewill teach at the Institute of SocialStudies at The Hague and at the University of Leyden from September toDecember this year. The Institute plansto offer western technical assistance inthe economic and educational field todevelop native born administrators andeducators.Mr. Finer was brought up in Englandand became an American citizen in1952. A director of the Chicago Regional Port Authority, he is a specialistin the field of comparative government,and most recent of his books is Governments of Greater European Powers.Sign of the TimesLast month the following advertisement appeared in newspapers throughout the nation:FOR SALEj 100-million volt BETATRONFully equipped 100-million volt electronaccelerator, in good operating order,built by General Electric Corporation.Has served as fine instrument for basicresearch laboratory. Address: ClementMokstad, University of Chicago.This instrument was a 200-ton atomsmasher, which th^ late Enrico Fermi put into operation in 1950 for basicresearch at the University. In 1951 theUniversity built a synclocyclotron ratedat 450-million volts, and a 12.5 billionvolt accelerator is now being planned atArgonne National Laboratory, which isoperated by the University; the biggerinstruments have shifted the nature ofresearch being done here. The smallerinstrument, though it is still rated effective by the University scientists, is beingneglected, and space now occupied bythe betatron could be put to more profitable use.The betatron, according, to Mr. Mokstad who is in charge of the transaction,would be an excellent addition to theresearch facilities of a college or university in this country or abroad."We do not know precisely what toask for this machine, since there is noprecedent, to our knowledge, of thiskind of a sale. However, we are convinced this instrument represents a bargain special of the atomic age, and willnegotiate about price with the prospective buyer."Mr. Mokstad further points out thatmany nations of the Free World wouldfind this betatron a significant researchand teaching tool. "In fact, the shippingof the betatron abroad would be a symbolic cargo for the opening operationsof the St. Lawrence Seaway."At press time, inquiries on the betatron had been received on behalf of twoforeign countries, Venezuela and Pakistan. Should either of these purchase theinstrument, they would find moving ita massive job. The device is surroundedby 300 tons of heavy density concrete,used as shielding; an over-head crane,capable of lifting 100 tons, must beused to remove the 20-ton slabs whichmake up the roof of the betatron chamber. The betatron could then be dismantled and lifted out of this opening.Included in the purchase price would bethe concrete shielding, an extra ceramic"doughnut," or accelerator tube (inwhich electrons are accelerated untilthey approach the speed of light); andspecial tools needed for maintenanceand adjustment of the betatron.Among the basic investigations inwhich the betatron has served are thefollowing:The fission of bismuth and uraniumby x-rays in experiments conducted byProfessor Nathan Sugarman.The disintegration of the nucleus ofthe carbon atom by high energy gammarays in experiments by Professor Valentine L. Telegdi.The proton Compton effect, which involves the scattering patterns of x-raysbombarding protons in liquid hydrogen,and the disintegration of the heavy hydrogen atom by Professor Telegdi andassistant professor Charles L. Oxley. Too Many BooksThe space problems of large researchlibraries are among the most serious thatthe Council on Library Resources havefound, according to its president, VernerW. Clapp. Mr. Clapp has cited the massive production of modern research literature as creating both an intellectualand physical problem for contemporaryscholars.A grant of $84,600 to the Universityhas been awarded by the Council tosupport a year-long study of the problem. Most of the information for thestudy will be drawn from an analysis ofuse of materials at the University.The study will attempt to learn moreabout the frequency of use and patternsof obsolesence of books in twenty different fields. It will analyze past and current patterns of use. Invitations will bemade to small panels of experts to independently rank carefully selected lists oftitles, as to probable "importance" of individual titles in their fields. A scientific check on patterns of browsing willattempt to determine patterns of use ofresearch materials by readers consultingbooks directly from the shelves.The study is also expected to throwlight on the speed and efficiency withwhich basic disciplines, such as economics, have made major shifts in their detailed subject interests.National Academy of SciencesAppointment to the National Academy of Sciences is one of the highesthonors that can be bestowed uponAmerican men of science. The Academy, which was established in 1863under a Congressional charter, is theprivate, non-profit organization of scientists to advance science and advisethe government on scientific and technical matters. It has served as the principal agency through which Americanscientists participate in the cooperativeworld undertakings, such as the International Geophysical Year.Throughout the nation, only thirtyscientists were elected to the Academythis year. Among them are four members of the University of Chicago faculty, the largest number of appointmentsreceived by any university in the nation.They are:Professor John A. Simpson, physicistin the Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies. He is one of the twoAmericans on the special committee ofthe International Geophysical Year, anda pioneer in cosmic ray research.Professor Henry Taube, chairman ofthe department of chemistry, who recently was named to head one of theAmerican Chemical Society's largestnational units, the division of inorganic10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe new $1.3 million Charles Stewart/v\ott Building of the Industrial RelationsCenter is now in operation at Kimbarkand 60th. Services to its industrialmember firms include the establishmentof questionnaires and survey techniquesthat aid in the diagnosis of the needsof industrial plants, and development oftraining programs, as well as research.chemistry. He received the first American Chemical Society Award for Nuclear Applications in Chemistry in 1955for research with radioactive and stableisotopes.Professor Gregor Wentzel, a physicist in the Fermi Institute and an international authority in theoretical physics whose recent investigations havebeen in high energy particle physics andsolid state physics. He is particularlyinterested in the problem of super-conductivity in solid state physics.Professor Raymond E. Zirkle, chairman of the committee on biophysics,and principal biologist on the plutonium project of the Manhattan Districtduring the war years, the project whichdeveloped the atomic bomb. He is president of the Radiation Research Society.In addition to these faculty membersot the University, an alumnus of theUniversity, Dr. Melville J. Herskovits,'20, who is director of the program ofAfrican Studies at Northwestern University, was also elected to the Academy.Dr. Herskovits is former head of theanthropology department there, and oneof the world's leading authorities onAfrica, as well as the author of numerous books on general and cultural anthropology.Ricketts Memorial AwardDr. Albert B. Sabin, developer of anoral polio vaccine now undergoing tests,has been named the recipient of the1 959 Howard Taylor Ricketts MemorialAward by the University. Dr. Sabin,professor of research pediatrics at theUniversity of Cincinnati College ofMedicine, is also chief of the divisionof infectious diseases at the Children'sHospital Research Foundation in Cincinnati. While on campus this monthto accept the award, Dr. Sabin will givea lecture on his vaccine. The vaccineuses live, but weakened, polio virusesto build up the body's protection againstthe disease, unlike the Salk vaccine,which uses dead viruses. It is administered orally; the Salk vaccine by injection.Dr. Sabin's research accomplishmentsinclude the development of vaccine forone type of encephalitis and for dengue Lee Baltermanfever. He discovered that B virus, anorganism carried by monkeys, causes afatal infection of the central nervous"system when transmitted to man. He hasalso done extensive studies on humanpolio in other parts of the world, andwas successful in isolating sand fly feverin the Middle East, Sicily, and Italy. Hewas first to isolate the microscopic parasite, toxoplasma, in the United States.Dr. Sabin has also conducted studieson the ECHO viruses, some of whichare belived to be involved in asepticmeningitis.The Ricketts Award was first conferred in 1913 as a memorial to University of Chicago bacteriologist, HowardTaylor Ricketts, who proved that RockyMountain spotted fever is transmittedby ticks, and discovered the relatedorganism that causes typhus fever. Inrecognition of his work with this classof bacteria, it was named Rickettsia.Previous recipients of the Awardhave included Rene Jules Dubos, pathologist for the Rockefeller Institute ofMedical Research, in 1958, and Dr.Jonas Salk, whose polio vaccine is nowin general use in the United States, in1957. Talking CampusDuring the peak telephone hours ofthe University's day, between 12,000and 13,000 calls come into the switchboard on the sixth floor of the Administration Building. To meet the immediatepressing needs, and with an eye to thenext 20 years of University expansion,another board was recently installed.The new number, MUseum 4-6100, isa direct line to the University of ChicagoClinics, and (warning!) an off-campuscaller loses his dime by calling theClinics on Midway 3-0800.The last time the board was overhauled was in 1949; and until this latestannex, the telephones had been operating at full capacity for the past fewyears. Although there are at presentonly eight women on the Midway 3board and six on the MUseum 4 number during the busy hours, there is roomfor several more operators when theproposed buildings south oi the Midway(the Law School, the Industrial Relations Center, the Business School), andthe new men's dormitory at 55th andUniversity are completed.JUNE, 1959 11The mechanical and electronic devices that take care of campus calls areon the seventh floor of the Ad Building,and are serviced by the Illinois BellTelephone Company, which rents theequipment to the University.Each switchboard operator, accordingto Mrs. Edna Layden, coordinator oftelephone services and facilities, worksa seven-hour day, with a break everytwo hours, because of the confining nature of her work. The operator's mouthpiece is so constructed that it amplifiesa whisper to a conversational tone —which is less tiring on the operator andless taxing on the caller.A private lounge for the operator'sbreak-time is described by Mrs. Laydenas a place where they can get away fromthe boards and relax — but just as themailman who takes a walk on his dayoff, invariably an operator will pick upthe lounge phone to make a call duringher free moments.Hospital-Side ConstructionGround was broken this April for the$1,980,000 Goldblatt Pavilion, whichwill be built across Drexel Avenue, connecting Billings Hospital with ChicagoLying-in. It will make the final connection among the 36 clinical areas of theUniversity of Chicago Clinics; and reflects the advance of medicine that hasmade it no longer considered necessaryto separate Billings from Lying-in inorder to guard against possible spread ofinfection.A sweeping concave facade will markthe entrance to the building from thesouth. The building will consist of base ment, first and second floors, and a roofproviding recreational area for the psychiatry unit on the third floor of Billings, to the east. Diagnostic facilitiesplanned include the latest in cancer detection tests; automatic cell counting andautomatic blood chemistry machines;and new x-ray equipment, designed toreduce substantially the amount of radiation given to patients, which will permitmicrofilming of the stomach and colon,as well as the chest areas.The Pavilion is named for a voluntaryorganization of employees of 21 Goldblatt stores and units, which has raisedin excess of $400,000; the Nathan Goldblatt Society for Cancer Research, agroup which has raised more than $300,-000 for cancer research, and the Goldblatt family, which has devoted countless hours to the fight against cancer,which took Nathan Goldblatt's life. Thebuilding is scheduled for completion inJune of next year.A new three-story hospital for geriatric and disabled patients will rise withinthe next two years, adjacent to the clinics, on a site south of 58th Street, atDrexel Avenue. This will be the newlocation of the Chicago Home for Incurables, which became affiliated with theUniversity last July. The Home, whichopened its main building at 56th andEllis in 1890, now cares for chronicallyill patients, most of them elderly. Underthe terms of the recent contract theHome will use funds to build the newhospital, and its present property willbecome part of the University.The University will provide all medical and other specialized service in thenew unit, with major emphasis on an active program of intensive study, treatment, and rehabilitation of the chronically ill or aged patient. It is anticipatedthat the majority of the admissions willbe elderly; however, there will be no agelimit and the chief criterion for admission will be the presence of a severedisabling disease. It is expected that theaverage stay will be three to fourmonths.Excellent opportunities for researchinto the multiple problems of aging, andof chronic disease, will also become possible under the new set-up. The newunit will continue to operate under thetouching name of Home for the Incurables.International AgricultureTheodore W. Schultz, chairman ofthe department of economics at the University, reported a basic shift in theimportance of the forces at work inagriculture, when he spoke before theInternational Agricultural Convention inJerusalem, Israel this April.Mr. Schultz said that what farmersknow is now becoming more importantthan the land they farm. Mr. Schultzoutlined six main points of supportingevidence for his hypothesis that the"quality of input" on farm work is thesignificant factor:1. Agricultural production in theUnited States and some other countrieshas increased impressively while therehas been little or no change in theamount of land used for farming, andeither a static or diminishing farm laborforce.2. Some studies indicate that the "rateTHE GOLDBLATT PAVILION12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDR. TALALAY DR. HUGGINSof return" for agricultural research havebeen very high by normal market standards, running perhaps as great as 700%in one calculation on the return on hybrid corn research.3. In the United States, resources arebeing poured at a more rapid rate intoimproving, among other things, the skillsand abilities of human agents, than intothe formation of physical capital.4. The rates of return on this formof human capital appear to be relativelyhigh, one study showing that malesearned 14.8% return on what they hadprivately invested in education.5. Many farm studies indicate thatthe rate of return has been relativelyhigh from the introduction of theseparticular farm inputs, that act as carriers of new knowledge and from theuse of fertilizer.6. "There are strong indications thatthis improvement in the quality of human effort and of reproductable physicalinputs can serve as a substitute for farmland under a wide range of conditions."While, in countries like the UnitedStates, the farm labor force is too largeand policies must be devised to reduce it,the new trends in agriculture indicatethat in countries trying to increase agricultural output, may be going about itin the wrong way. They may be tryingto improve the land when they shouldbe investing in people, according to Mr.Schultz. "In many of these countries,much new capital is being invested inirrigation structures, wells, drainage, andother forms of land improvement, andall too little in training farm people.Hormones and CancerTwo research projects carried on inthe University's Ben May Laboratoryfor Cancer Research have been cited ina recent New York Times report on anAmerican Cancer Society meeting asbeing "of great potential importancefor understanding of the mechanismswhich control cancer."A first project concerns steroid hormones. In addition to controlling growthdevelopment, sexual characteristics andmany other fundamentals, the researchof Dr. Paul Talalay and Dr. H. GuyWilliams-Ashman, shows that steroidsalso function in collaboration with enzymes at the cellular level.The evidence, Dr. Williams-Ashmansaid, suggests steroids' action at the mostbasic level may be a factor in keepingcells in proper balance with respect togrowth and energy. This function isinvolved with the uptake of hydrogenatoms by two fundamental substancesPresent in all body cells. These arediphosphopyridine nucleotide, called1JPN, and triphosphopyridine nucleotide, called TPN. According to the Times, atoms can beaccepted either by DPN or TPN to takepart in the production of energy andbuilding of substance. The end reactionof the hydrogen atoms accepted by DPNis the formation of water and release ofenergy. The reaction to TPN leads tothe building of substances.Doctors Williams-Ashman and Talalay have found that steroid hormonescan act as shuttles carrying hydrogenatoms between DPN and TPN and thusmaintain the cell's proper balance between production of energy and substance. There appears to be a family ofenzymes for which steroid hormones actin this hydrogen-carrying capacity. Research suggests that this regulation ofthe flow of hydrogen atoms may be away in which steroid hormones influence structural and functional modification of cells.In another report, "one of the foremost pioneers in research on hormonerelationships to cancer described a newlaboratory 'tool' for study of breast cancer." Dr. Charles Huggins, director ofthe Ben May Laboratory, said that hisresearchers had also found a method ofproducing, in one breed of rats, rapidand invariable breast cancer that appears to mimic the disease in humans.Forty per cent of these animal cancers are dependent for their growth onhormones while 60 per cent are independent of hormones. This is particularly significant, Dr. Huggins said, because the same percentages apply inhuman breast cancer, which is the mostprevalent form of malignancy in humans.Dr. Huggins said he believed thatfurther studies of the experimental tu mors might yield the key to understanding and possibly eventual control ofbreast cancer.Keeping Tahs on His HonorProfessors Harry Kalven, Jr. and HansZeisel, of the Law School, gave a preview recently, of their forthcoming bookDelay in the Courts, at a joint meetingin Chicago of the Bar Association andthe Judicial Conference of the 7th Circuit of Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin.This book, which is the first of between6 and 9 volumes, to emerge from "TheJury Project" started in 1954, reflectsjust one aspect of the Project. The Project brings together the resources of thebehavioral sciences and legal authoritiesto seek a greater understanding of theactual processes of the law. It has expanded beyond the initial series of questions it asked on the operation of thejury system in the United States, and itsramifications now extend from the studyof court delays to mental health questions in insanity trials.In studying the problem of delay incourts, Mr. Kalven pointed out, thatwhile the problem is huge, it is not insurmountable. In New York City, forexample, the authors estimate that itwould take the work of one judge for12 years or 12 judges for one year toclear up the pending cases. The figuresfor Chicago — which has the longest delay of any court in the country — wouldbe considerably larger.Abolition of jury trials in personal injury cases won't help dramatically, andwould destroy a basic democratic right,trial by jury. As an illustration of thissituation, if the extreme step of eliminating jury trials in personal injury suits inJUNE, 1959 13New York City were taken, the savingswould amount to only the time of 1.6judges a year, in a court whose lawdivision has some 26 judges, and itwould still take from five to seven yearsto clear up the cases. "But," accordingto Mr. Kalven, "without sacrificing sucha basic right as jury trial, the same position could be reached by adding twojudges to the court." It was also notedthat speeding up the jury trial has beensuccessful in New Jersey, and this solution deserves more attention than it isgetting.The authors also found that pressureto settle cases before they come to trialcan be carried too far, and result indenying the court its meritorious litigation. The professors noted that 71% ofNew York court suits are settled withouttrial; yet these cases take up only 16.2%of the total court time. Not quite fiveout of every 100 personal injury claimsever reach the trial stage in New YorkCity, and not quite two are ever triedto completion. The fact that lengthydelays are in prospect does not materially effect the ratio of cases settled, tothose brought to trial, though it mayeffect the size of the settlement.As a remedy for delay, the authorsnoted that pre-trial hearings have anoff-setting cost, since they give judgesless time for actual trials. Adding substitute judges, such as arbitrators andauditors, tends to raise suspicions thatsuch cases are getting "second-classjustice." Of help would be the use ofimpartial medical experts; this wouldtend to speed up settlement and hencereduce demands for trials.The key source of improvementwould be having judges work harder andlonger. "While we must emphasize thatthe judge can not be regarded as anordinary employee," they said, "it wouldseem that one of the minimum requirements is that there be some record keeping which measures the performance ofindividual judges. The problem of thejudges' time is the delicate one of utilizing the efficiency of modern businesswithout destroying the dignity of thejudge and his court." They cited the factthat New York City judges lose 13.4%of the available whole trial days, compared with 6.3% for New Jersey judges;in New Jersey the same type of casestake 40% less time to try than in NewYork City.But, as mentioned before, the problemof the judges' time, is a delicate one.The cite the example of, in 43 A.D.,Roman Emperor Claudius, trying toclear up court congestion by shorteningjudges' summer vacations, but the decreedidn't stick for more than one year. NewYork City tried the same remedy in1956, with the same results — it lastedone year.14 Pulitzer Prize for HistoryThe 1959 Pulitzer award for historyhas been given to The Republican Era —1869 to 1901 by the late Leonard D.White, Ernest DeWitt Burton Distinguished Service Professor of Public Administration. Miss Jean Schneider, whowas Mr. White's research associate inpreparation for the book, was also citedby the Pulitzer committee.Miss Schneider is now executive secretary and manuscript editor for the JamesMadison Papers, a project preparingPresident Madison's material for eventual publication in from 20 to 22volumes. This project,' which was initiated in 1956 by Mr. White, is under thedirection of. senior editor, William T.Hutchinson.The book, the final volume of a four-part series on the history of the federaladministrative process in the UnitedStates, was published in March, 1958,only one month after Mr. White died.It covers the years beginning with President Grant's administration, and endswith the assumption of the Presidencyby Theodore Roosevelt, in March of1901.The three previously published volumes in the series were The Federalists,which came out in 1948, and receivedthe Woodrow Wilson Award, grantedby the American Political Science Association; The Jeffersonians, which waspublished in 1951, and covered theperiod from 1801 to 1829; and TheJacksonians, which was published in1954. This latter volume was honoredwith the highest award in the field ofAmerican history, Columbia University'sBancroft Prize.In summarizing the four volumes byMr. White, for his review of them inthe Magazine of May, 1958, C. Herman Pritchett, chairman of the departmentof political science, said: "In these fourvolumes we have a dramatic and insightful account of the development of theAmerican administrative system, from1789 to 1901. No future historian of theAmerican nation can fail to profit fromthis story. Administration has often beendisparaged, as concerned with ways andmeans by those who concentrate only onends. But White has made it clear thatgoals become realizable only as properadministrative instruments are developed, and also demonstrates how clearlythe spirit of a period is reflected inpublic administrative history."Bancroft PrizesThe nation's highest awards in history,Columbia University's Bancroft Prizes,were announced for 1959 this April.Recipients are University of Chicagoprofessor Daniel J. Boorstin, for hisbook, The American: The Colonial Experience, and Ernest Samuels of Northwestern University, for his book, HenryAdams, the Middle Years. Mr. Samuelsholds four degrees from the Universityof Chicago (PhB '23, JD '26, MA '31,PhD '42).The prizes, each of which carries astipend of $3,000, are awarded for distinguished studies in American history,diplomacy and international relations.Dr. Samuels, who has been in Belgiumsince last fall as a Fulbright lecturer onAmerican literature, will return to thiscountry shortly. His book has also received the Francis Parkman Prize for1958, granted by the Society of American Historians.Mr. Boorstin has been professor ofAmerican history at the University since1944; his book, the first of a trilogy, wasreviewed in the January issue of theMagazine.MR. WHITE MR. BOORSTINTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHow do you likeyour Beefsteak?A SCIENTIFIC VIEW OF THE QUESTION IVlany questions about meat can be answered only throughscientific understanding of the basic chemistry of the product and by tracing the chemical changes that occur undera wide variety of circumstances. Beef, in commercialpractice, is made tender and more savory through aging —holding the meat under refrigeration while natural chemicalchanges take place in the muscle fibers and in the connective tissues. These changes, at least in major degree, areinduced by enzymes — natural chemical compounds withinthe meat itself. What are these compounds and what are theprocesses through which they act? Can these enzymes beisolated and identified, synthesized, controlled, and utilizedto provide greater quantities of tender beef, perhaps fasterand at lower cost?Why is it that two steers from the same herd, fed thesame food, marketed at the same time, and handled anddressed out in precisely the same manner — steers that lookalmost alike on the hoof and on the packinghouse rail —can be so different in tenderness and flavor when they reachthe table in the form of steaks? What is flavor? What is thechemistry of meat color and what happens when this colorchanges; how can it be controlled?These questions, basic concerns of every housewife and,indeed, everyone who enjoys good meat, are some of themany primary questions behind basic research now beingconducted by the American Meat Institute Foundation,an unusual institution, which established its laboratories onthe University campus in 1947.Incorporated in 1944 as a not-for-profit scientific andeducational institution, the Foundation was created toundertake a broadly inclusive research program relatinggenerally to the production of live stock and the processingand utilization of products derived from meat animals.While founded as a corporately separate and independentorganization, the Foundation was a progressive outgrowthand expansion of an all-industry research program initiatedin 1924 and maintained for more than two decades at theUniversity by the American Meat Institute, national tradeassociation in the meat packing industry.The Foundation's specially designed, three-story andworking basement laboratory home at 939 East 57th Streetis situated on a site provided by the University. Funds forthe construction and equipment of the building, which nowrepresents an investment of well over a million dollars, werecontributed by several hundred companies of the meatpacking and allied industries.During the decade since its arrival on the Universitycampus, the Foundation's steadily expanding research activities have attracted widespread interest and some of itsachievements have been accorded national and internationalrecognition. Its guest book records the names of hundredsof visitors and included are the signatures of many distinguished scientists from all parts of the United States andfrom major universities and research institutions abroad.A total of more than 350 Foundation publications of scientific and general interest have been issued and manyJUNE, 1959 15Left to Right: A Fulbright student from Finland, Martti Knuut-tila, checks the controls on the Institute's smokehouse in connection with research on high temperature aging of beef. Adevice is used to test the "shear strength" of meat as a gaugeof tenderness. Don Lake, a candidate for a master's in microbiology, consults with Dr. Niven. A home economist uses athermo-couple to gauge the internal temperature of meatprepared for a taste panel.hundreds of institutions and individuals, on this continentand in a large percentage of all countries overseas, have sentfor and received copies of publications of specific interest.An average of more than 1,200 copies of AMIF bulletins,circulars, special reports or reprints of papers that haveappeared in scientific journals are sent out each month inresponse to such requests. Twenty-eight new AMIF publications were issued during the institution's last fiscal year and23,600 copies of these were mailed automatically to theseveral hundred meat processing and allied industry companies, here and abroad, that are contributing to thesupport of Foundation research.Several AMIF staff members hold professorial appointments in the University's Departments of Microbiology andBiochemistry and at intervals lecture before members ofthe faculty and students in these Departments. These scientists are qualified to accept graduate students interested inthesis studies within mutual areas of interest and from eightto twelve graduate candidates for master or doctorate degrees normally are conducting thesis research in the Foundation's laboratories. To date, twelve Master's degrees and tenDoctor of Philosophy degrees have been granted by theUniversity to students who have worked on thesis studieswith members of the AMIF staff. A similar, though somewhat less formal, arrangement exists between the Foundation and the Illinois Institute of Technology and two candidates for Ph.D. degrees at I. I. T. currently are conductingthesis research at the Foundation. Four fellowships forgraduate students are provided by the Foundation, two forUniversity students conducting thesis research with theAMIF staff and two for students at universities other thanthe University of Chicago. A fifth fellowship is providedfor senior research and teaching scientists from other universities who are interested in conducting residence studiesat the Foundation during the summer months. An eveningcourse in nutrition also has been conducted by two membersof the AMIF staff and University credit has been granted tostudents in this course.Approximately 80 per cent of AMIF effort is in basicareas of research. The research staff numbers fifty scientistswhose training and experience effectively encompass thescientific disciplines of bacteriology, biochemistry, foodtechnology, histology, parasitology, home economics, nu trition, organic chemistry, analytical and physical chemistry,and — in lesser degree — the physical and engineering sciences. Operating and research expenses are financed bycontributions from the live stock and meat industries andthrough research grants and contracts. The Foundation'sbudget is in excess of a half-million dollars annually.The Foundation's research fields merit the attentionbeing accorded to them. Animal agriculture represents oneof the most important elements of the national economy.Approximately thirty per cent of farm cash income is derived from the sale of live stock and over half of thenation's farm land is devoted to the grazing of live stock orto the growing of feeds for live stock.Live stock is converted into meat and a wide varietyof other products. Meat processing comprises the secondlargest industry in the United States in terms of value ofproduct handled, and meat wholesaling and retailing amajor part of the food distribution system of the nation.Animal source by-products, processed or utilized by alliedindustries, provide pharmaceuticals and meat and glandular extracts to correct bodily diseases and provide relieffrom illness; fats and oils, used in soaps and for importantindustrial purposes; hides and leather; insulating materials;fertilizers to maintain the fruitfulness of the land; and highlyessential protein feed supplements that speed growth andprovide economy in production of poultry and hogs. Tothis basic live stock and meat industry must be added thatpart of the country's population and facilities identified inthe transportation, sale, or handling of live stock and livestock products and those enterprises which utilize byproducts as major ingredients in manufactured or processeditems.The production, marketing, and processing of live stockand the distribution and utilization of products derivedfrom live stock are a progression of interlocking operations.Involved throughout is the basic chemistry of life itself andeach step in the chain of production has its direct influenceon and induces its changes in the physical, chemical, andbiochemical conditions to be encounterd in later operations.A high percentage of Foundation research is directed towardbreaking meat and other products down into their chemicalcomponents and toward identification and measurement of16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthese components and of the changes that take place inthem.Consider meat displayed for your selection at the market.Meat men and you gauge quality in terms of color and therelationship between fat and lean. But have you ever lookedat a piece of meat through a miscroscope? Meat is madeup of hundreds of little muscle fibers. These fibers arewrapped neatly into little bundles. Little bundles, sheathedin connective tissue, are bound together in larger bundles,here and there interspersed with little cells of fat.Have you ever wondered about the composition of thosetiny muscle fibers? Have you thought of them as one of themost highly complex chemical systems known to man?Almost everyone knows about vitamins and protein, andmay have heard about the amino acids that are the buildingblocks of protein. But no one has ever seen them, as such,even under a microscope. These are some of the chemicalcomponents of meat — the nutritional elements that areassimilated as food by the cells of the body. They providethe energy burned up at work, in playing golf, or in watching television. They are the nutrients that build strongbodies and that maintain health and repair cells damagedby illness or accident.Many of these constituents of meat have been isolated,defined, and even synthesized, but there are other elementsthat play their role in nutrition that still are unidentified.Biochemists at the Foundation, in breaking meat down intoits component parts, are seeking to isolate more of theseminute elements that are a part of the meat you eat andthat, actually, provide the reason for eating. But it is notenough to know that these nutrients are there or even toknow what they are and how much. To extend the valueof this information, AMIF scientists are seeking to find outhow these nutrients are used by the body cells, what purposethey serve, and whether they are readily assimilated or areconverted to other forms.Thus, major investigations at the Foundation have included studies on the nutritive value of meat, including thevarious vitamins and amino acids; the possible relationshipsof fats to arteriosclerosis; meat preservation through irradiation, antibiotics; and dielectric heating; the bacteriologyof meat; the chemistry of meat color and of discoloration; tc&*x>£^beef tenderization through high temperature aging and useof proteolytic enzymes; the chemistry of meat flavor; andrancidity and/or the chemistry of animal fats.In studies of meat tenderization, including use of enzymepreparations such as papain, a papaya fruit extract, andhigh temperature aging, AMIF researchers have utilizedhistological techniques to follow microscopic changes in thephysical structure of the product. The objective in suchresearch is to learn what happens to meat during tenderization, and to provide information that can be utilized indeveloping satisfactory processes for more effective, morerapid, and more economical production of tender beef. Afurther objective is to develop effective processes for tenderization of lower grades of beef and thus to increasethe supply of acceptable beef at lower cost.Tenderization, in essence, constitutes a breakdown of thestructure of the muscle fibers and connective tissues inmeat. This breakdown is a chemical process induced byenzymes — chemical compounds that are present naturallyin the meat and that may be readily obtained from vegetables sources. These enzymes seek to destroy the nuclei ofthe cells. Some act first on muscle fibers, and then on connective tissue. Other compounds act in reverse order, andstill others may act with essential uniformity on both typesof tissue. AMIF studies have shown why over-applicationof enzyme solutions renders meat portions soft. The majorproblem in tenderization by this process is one of procuringeffective penetration or distribution of the enzyme preparation within the meat. Where the muscle fibers are parallelto the broad surface of the cut, the penetration of enzymesmust proceed cell layer by cell layer. As attacked, the cellsswell with water, slowing penetration of the enzyme to lessthan a millimeter an hour. Extensive application onlyresults in over-destruction of meat tissue at the surface,while the interior tissue remains untouched. In some AMIFexperiments, beef has been freeze-dehydrated and thenreconstituted by soaking in dilute enzyme preparations.Satisfactory tenderization has been achieved in these studies,due to uniformity of enzyme distribution and, concurrently,of enzyme action on the meatIn microbiology, basic Foundation studies have led todevelopment of methods that are widely used by publicJUNE, 1959 17Research planning and direction: (left to right) Associate Directors Dr. C. F. Niven, Jr. and Dr. D. M. Doty; Chief ofInformation Service H. A. Armstrong; Assistant to the Director Dr. Earl Auerbach; Director of Research and EducationDr. B. S. officials and others seeking to determine the causativefactor in food poisoning outbreaks. The most commonsource of this type of difficulty is the microorganism, Staphylococcus, a bacteria that produces an illness-causing substance called enterotoxin. This type of food poisoning, oncetermed "ptomaine" poisoning, is seldom fatal, but peoplesometimes are affected so violently that they are afraidthat they are going to die — or wish they could. Staphylococci are a quite common class of microorganism. Theyfrequently are identified in irritations of human nasalpassages and throats or in even minor skin infections, andfood readily can be contaminated from such sources. Notall types of "staphs" produce food poisoning toxin, however,and this fact complicates the problem of identifying theexact food involved in a specific outbreak. Until recently,the only method by which such a poison could be demonstrated to be in food products was to feed the questionableitems to human volunteers. Laboratory tests developed atthe Foundation have now made it possible to distinguishbetween types of the microorganisms that are capable, andthose that are not capable, of causing trouble, and havemade easier the task of pinpointing the offending food item.Actually, there is little excuse for incidence of foodpoisoning. Reasonable precautions in the handling of foodwould competely eliminate this problem. Foundation andother studies have shown that virtually all cases of foodpoisoning arise because food has been abused — exposedfor long periods at room temperature — after it has beenprepared for serving. Any food is subject to inadvertentcontamination, in the home or anywhere else. Unfortunately, the normal characteristics of the food are not affected — color, odor, and taste remain unchanged. For thisreason all perishable foods, especially ham, bread dressing,poultry, custard-filled bakery products, potato salad, andlike products, always should be kept under refrigeration,except during the immediate period of preparation or serving. It has been shown repeatedly that food poisoningstaphylococci multiply very rapidly in food at room orsummer temperature, and that food exposed to such conditions for only a few hours can, if contaminated, causeillness.Not all microorganisms are trouble makers. Some, asin the cheese and brewing industries and in a limited num ber of meat items, are essential to the production of satisfactory products. The cheese industry long has used purecultures of certain types of bacteria to induce, or start,essential processes. Until recently, however, the meatprocessing industry has had to depend on chance introduction of certain types of beneficial microbes essential tothe production of the "tangy" or acid flavor in some typesof summer sausage, pork roll, and other of "fermented"products. Recently, Foundation bacteriologists isolated andestablished pure cultures of a harmless type of microorganism, Pediococcus cerevisiae, for use as a starter culture in such meat products. The new starter culture wasthoroughly tested by the Foundation's Division of FoodTechnology and now is available through commercialsources to manufacturers of summer sausage and similarproducts.In one of the most significant reports yet issued, theFoundation recently announced the successful chemicaldissolution of collagen, the major component of hides,skins, bones, and tendons, and the reconstitution of typical,natural collagen fibers from this dissolved material. Whilemuch research will be required before the results of thisresearch can be applied for practical purposes, the possibleuses are manifold. The fact that collagen is not antigenic, orat least is a poor antigen, invites exploration of possibleuses in the fields of medicine or surgery and potentialindustrial use, as in fabrics and other items, is quite obvious.Other equally significant research could be mentionedand the potential areas of investigation are almost withoutlimit. In the words of Wesley Hardenbergh, first presidentof the Foundation: "This is the age of science. It is an erain which men and women trained in the physical, chemicaland biological sciences and in engineering are buildingprogress on and beyond the firm foundation established bythe more limited practical and scientific resources of another day. This is an age of great opportunity, but onecalling for critical analysis, far-sighted thinking and purposeful planning. It is a time for courageous, forcefulenterprise, but enterprise that is deeply rooted in sound,scientific determination of the avenues of progress. Yes,this is the age of science and science today has become thecreative genius behind business, behind industry and behind the nation — providing new methods to meet the needsof these new times."18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA very special twenty-five hundred students of the University —more than the total enrolment of the College — never attendclasses yet are rated by their instructors as the mostinterested students they've taught. They are adultsLearning at LeisureiN 1892 NO UNIVERSITY IN this country or abroadconsidered extension work an important part of its program. But, at the founding of the University of Chicago,William Rainey Harper divided the institution into threeparts: the University proper, the University Press, and theUniversity extension work. This unique division would serveto carry the University through its presses and correspondence courses to scholars and students throughout the world.In an age of monopolies, Mr. Harper came to Chicagowith a well-established monopoly on extension work. It hadgrown out of an extremely popular Hebrew class he taughtat the Baptist Seminary in Morgan Park, Illinois. Preachersand students from all over the country wrote that they wouldlike to attend his summer school sessions, but couldn't affordto. Why not teach by correspondence . . . use mimeographedlessons . . . send them by mail? Within three years (this was1886 and Harper was not yet thirty), thousands of studentsall over the country were studying Hebrew by mail.He needed texts: he Wrote them. He felt the need forgreater understanding between the scholars in the field andbetween the students: he established two journals, one for thestudents and one for scholars, and an organization of Hebrewteachers, the American Institute of Hebrew. Tuition mustbe kept low: he established a stock company to raise moneyat $100 a share. A building was taken over to house officesand press. Even the Morgan Park postman got a raise because he could prove he was handling several hundred pieces ofmail for a Mr. Harper every day.Mr. Harper's extension classes were so popular that whenhe left Morgan Park for Yale in 1886, he left with all hisassistants and the equipment of this operation. (This includeda complete composing room of Hebrew type.) The movetook a whole summer and required a three-story building onthe Yale campus.Now in its seventh decade since its establishment atChicago by Harper, the correspondence school — or moreproperly, the Home Study Department — has enrolled a totalof more than 100,000 students. It has seen the war yearswith special courses for armed forces personnel: students stillregister at reduced rates through the United States ArmedForces Institute and the Korean G.I. Bill. It offers coursesfor the blind: four have been Brailled, three on compositionand one on psychology. The Great Books Program — the firsttwo years of which have been adapted for correspondencestudy for students who don't have access to a Great Booksdiscussion group — remains a major part of its program.Its over a hundred course offerings range from professionalcourses — some offered as credit courses toward degrees —such as "The Teaching of German" and "Municipal FinanceAdministration" to courses of broader interest such as "Let'sUnderstand Astronomy," "Making the Most of Maturity,""How to Look at the Movies." Most popular are "ThePsychology of Personal Adjustment," "Short Story Writing,"S. I. Hayakawa's "Language in Thought and Action," and"Basic Mathematic Statistics."The students who send in their courses from all over theUnited States and from foreign countries have one characteristic in common: they are adults. Leonard Stein, the directorof the Home Study Department emphasizes this requirementin the Department catalogue, and the result has been thatthe median age of the students is forty. They study eitherindividually or in groups, and groups registering for the sameJUNE, 1959 19course receive special tuition benefits, for they need pay onlyone tuition fee for as many as fifteen persons, plus the costof extra syllabi and text. (Reminiscent of the Harper tradition, tuition remains low; a tuition assistance fund is available and books may be rented for a fifth of their cost.)In keeping with the homey spirit of the Department,couples and families may register as groups. But a sternsection in the catalogue on the subject of tuition refundsmentions that "unanticipated personal factors making it impossible to continue Home-Study work can result in a partialrefund of tuition . . ." It specifies that "Childbirth, entry intofull-time academic training, or military services are not considered adequate grounds for a refund."For a closer look at the students consider the registrationsin three courses: "The Principles of Pharmacology," "TheWriting of Poetry," and the World Affairs program. Out ofthe first sixty who registered for the pharmacology course,fifteen held Ph.D. degrees. It is a course that is recommendedby such firms as drug houses as a source of a good generalunderstanding of the field for men who have specialists'training. Accordingly, the two instructors at the Universityof Chicago who teach the course find that only a small portion of those who register complete all the lessons; toread the syllabus and texts and do a few of the lessons isoften all that is necessary for these students.In the poetry course the completion rate is higher. Theregular assignments consist of the analysis of methods andtechniques employed by great masters of poetic style; thecourse does not require the writing of poetry. "However,you are invited to submit your own poems," according to theinstructor, Galway Kinnell, a poet residing in New York.Mr. Kinnell may advise his fifty-odd budding poets on themarketing of their verse. One-third of the students are men,with the total group including housewives, ministers, a bookkeeper, graduate assistant in physics, and a building guard.The World Affairs program was first announced threeyears ago; a student in the program undertakes to completeeight courses — four required and four electives — in order toobtain a "Citizen's Certificate in World Affairs." Of theover 125 people registered in the program, three-fifths aremen, typically over 35, college-educated, and middle-classby occupation, though included are an American agriculturalexpert working in Iran under the Point 4 program, a wholesale shellfish buyer, two members of the Foreign Service, acinema producer, merchant seamen, and one prisoner.It is clear from the lessons submitted by these studentsthat serious study of world affairs appeals more to older menthan to younger men or to women of any age. In this connection, Mr. Stein recalls Aristotle's distinction betweenMathematics and Ethics. "The first can be learned by anyboy, being purely abstract; the second demands for its.mastery prudence, which comes only with experience andmaturity." The converse also seems true to Mr. Stein, whois obviously a spokesman for the men in the course: "thatthe more difficult philosophical subjects, those requiring prudence for their mastery, are more attractive to the older menamong us."The heart of these courses and all the others offered by theHome Study Department is in the teacher-student relation ship. The Department is a leader in developing a "conversation by mail" teaching technique which has been cited againand again by its students as the most valuable facet of theprogram.Students mail their lessons directly to their instructors andreceive back from the instructors the corrected assignmentswith whatever notes or comment the instructors think willhelp. The instructors thus provide stimulation and guidance,and encourage rebuttal on the part of the students so that theinterchange of courses and comment will be a vital andprovocative experience.In many cases students have good practical reasons fortaking the courses. The course, "Common Sense for theindividual Investor," written by alumnus William C. Norby,who is a vice president of the Harris Trust in Chicago iscertainly a practical course. Mr. Norby, naturally, makes nopromises of preparing his students to equal the record of theimpoverished Greek immigrant who never made more than$135 a month in the 23 years he worked in Omaha restaurants and invested his money. The man ended up with anestate of $160,000. But, his students will find a great deal offacts and ideas in the course which will help them in formulating sound investment programs for themselves. Primarilydesigned for employees of members of the InvestmentBankers Association of America, the course not only dealswith such solid texts as the annual report of InternationalHarvester Company, but also is spiced with sprightly quotesfrom the experts (here, Bernard Baruch):"If you are ready and able to give up everything else, andwill study the markets and every stock listed there as carefully as a medical student studies anatomy, and will glueyour nose to ticker tape at the opening of every day of theyear and never take it off till night; if you can do all that,and in addition have the cool nerve of a gambler, the sixthsense of a clairvoyant and the courage of a lion — you havea Chinaman's chance of becoming a successful speculator."Speaking of medical students, as Mr. Baruch was, one-third of those registered for Mr. Norby's course are M.D.'s.No less concerned with their studies than Mr. Norby's students, are the women who send their "Writing for Children"stories and poems to Alice B. Cramer. Mrs. Cramer reportsthat they all in some way work with children. One womanwas so eager to get into the course that she dashed off twolessons before she had even received her textbooks. Mrs.Cramer cites two types of people who would like to writefor children. One is the brave sort who thinks all you need isa simple plot and maybe a couple of animals for characters... a few typewritten pages and there's a book. The otherviews writing as a kind of mystical communication; he terrifies himself with questions like 'What do you say? What arechildren really like? How do you know what words theyunderstand? I'm not sure I know hbw to talk to children!'She, and the author of the course, Marylynn Boris, promisetheir students about an equal mixture of ease and difficulty,pleasure and pain. But, they also promise that students willfind their efforts rewarding . . . just as the instructors of theseHome Study courses have found the experience of teachingserious students subjects in which they have a true interest,rewarding.20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA LOOK INSIDE THEQuadrangles'Private ClubAt THE CORNER of 57th and University stands athree-story building of impressive, if mongrel architecture,complete with canopy to the curb and coat of arms. Save forthe nights of faculty members V-ing toward it at lunch timeand other faculty vying on the tennis courts, it remainsshrouded in mystery for most students. Alumni, who occasionally find themselves made welcome during reunion weekend, still rarely see it when in the swing of its normalactivities.The heart of the day at the Quadrangle Club is lunch time.True, ten to 25 "regulars" gather in the Sun Parlor (wickerfurniture with floral trim) to share a newspaper over breakfast. And perhaps 35 will come to dinner, but this group islargely made up of non-U — that is, members who are notdirectly employed by the University — and families. Mondaynight buffets are particularly attended by family groups.But noon time. About 250 faculty and administrationpersonnel arrive. As a certain "Professor Newcomber" oncerapsodized, "It's such a wonderful idea — all these great menfraternizing, eating and talking together informally, minglingtheir disciplines, sharing their insights. What a wonderfulopportunty for the rest of us!"If the case sounds suspiciously well-put, it might be because Professor Newcomber was the creation of ProfessorsHarry Kalven, Jr. (Law) and John O. Hutchens (Physiology)for the 1954 Quadrangle Club Revels. "Professor Newcomber" is new here ... he has just come to the Universityand it is the first time he has come to the Quadrangle Clubalone. . . .The professors come in for lunch in two's and three'sand go silently and automatically to their places. Theyignore Professor Newcomber entirely and more or less pushhim aside as they come on. The Comptroller enters wearinga tuxedo and goes to a table by himself.Prof. N: (timidly approaching the first table) Pardon me,but would you mind if I joined you? I'm a new member. . .The group at the table rises and says in unison:Root a toot, root a tootWe're the boys from the InstituteWe don't teach and we don't stewAnd we don't eat with profs who do.Prof. N goes shyly to another table: Pardon me, butwould you mind if I joined you? I'm a new member here.The group rises and says in unison:Sonny, you'd better run home to mawThis table is reserved for law.He goes to a third table: Oh, hello. Would you mind ifI joined you? You remember we discussed the Pauli exclu- Located in the bay window of the dining room, the University of Chicago Round Table, of radio fame. Photos: LeeBaltermansion principle for a few minutes this morning.Prof.: (haughtily) Since when does intellectual intercourseconstitute a social introduction?Prof. N: I'm a new member here. I don't suppose I couldsit here.Two seedy looking characters: Definitely not bub, we'rewriting a Revels.Prof. N wearily approaches the Comptroller: I can'tsit here, can I?Comptroller [played by Former Dean of Students RobertMcStrozier]: Oh, sit down. Delighted. Why, this is thefirst time anyone has ever asked to eat with me. (He turnsto waiter) Garcon — (to Prof. N) I used to teach French• — Garcon, a menu for myself and this gentleman.He glances at the menu briefly: I'll have the usual —the Gentleman's Sandwich:At this point there is an uproar in the first table on the left.A figure jumps up screaming: I can't stand it any longer,I can't stand it. Every day he orders a Gentleman's Sandwich, while the poor professors eat peanut butter!(He is quickly removed by the B and G. The sandwich isJUNE, 1959 21Members of the Geography Department atlunch with a guest: (clockwise, from left foreground) Harold Mayer; Jean Gottman, aFrench geographer, currently at the Institutefor Advanced Studies in Princeton; RobertPiatt; Marvin W. Mikesell; Brian Berry; NortonGinsburg; Wesley Calef; and Chauncey Harris.Manager of the Club, Richard Blair at thehead of the third floor stairs, where guestrooms are located. Below, faculty membersleave the dining room on the second floor. then served with great pomp on a flaming sword, etc.)Comptroller: Garcon, some catsup please. (Waiters dosome intensive juggling with four catsup bottles.)Prof. N: Gee, look at that roundtable. There's EnricoFermi, Richard McKeon, Paul Weiss, and Napier Wiltsitting at the same table. What a stimulating conversationthey must be having. If I could only hear.(Spot falls on roundtable.)Fermi: Nice day today.Silence.McKeon: Sorry, what did you say?Silence.Fermi: I said, nice day today.Silence.McKeon: Yup.Silence.Weiss: Please pass the butter.Silence.Wilt: What did you say?Silence.McKeon: I didn't say anything; I was just clearing mythroat.Silence.Wilt: Oh, sorry, I thought you said something.Silence.Fermi: What's good on the menu today?Silence.McKeon: I always say that's a decision every man has tomake for himself.Wilt: Yes, that's what I always say.Silence.Weiss: I wonder who'll pitch today.Of course the rest is not silence. A lot gets said in theRevels and none of it is ever taken very seriously, and neverin its 55-year history has been.Early Revels were "Gentlemen Only" affairs — as was theearly Club. But by 1914 women began to sneak into the act,and the show was moved from the Club house then at 56thand University "via a fresh-air canopy, to the AbandonedWomen's Gym." This deserted gym is now known as Lexington Hall. By 1916 the show was a large enough affair tomove to Mandel. Titles of the shows have included "Plannedand Banned," which was prophetic, for everyone got the fluand it was banned; "Christmas Grieve and Christmas Moron," which must be read rapidly to be understood; "TheLittle Red School on the Midway," in 1948; and "Birth of22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa Salesman" in 1954. After the national fame of the 1949Revels, in which Chancellor Hutchins appeared in a footballsuit, the show crashed all bars and was put on in Mandel forstudents and alumni. The same period brought an end to thetraditional timing of the show in the Christmas season;gone were the celebrations recorded by a historian of theclub: "the boar's head processions with gorgeously gownedcarolers, leading the audience in medieval pomp and pageantry, to the billiard-room buffet."However, by now the Club itself had crashed all bars, forthe initial organization in 1893 of two score and ten gentlemen "for the association of members of the faculties of theUniversity of Chicago and other persons interested in literature, science, or art," had grown until it now numbers1,045, two-thirds of whom are directly associated with theUniversity. •But, we once set out to investigate the activities in theQuadrangle Club during a typical day. The dining room isemptying. In the Library, someone will be reading the latestIllustrated London News. Directly below him the "diehardbilliard players" will be using their two tables — veterans of along battle in which four other tables succumbed to theencroachments of the new cocktail lounge. Perhaps as afortification against further assaults, a brick (literally)partition has been raised between the two camps. The villainof this fray was former Cook County Sheriff Joseph Lohman,who is a Club member and occasional faculty member. TheSheriff checked into the long-held ruling that being locatedacross from two churches, the Club could not operate a bar;he discovered somebody was all wet, because the QuadrangleClub was there first.As the afternoon stretches on, the "locker room crowd"gathers for its secret rites; and in the cocktail lounge, someone is probably telling the story — to Professor Newcomber,for everyone else has heard it — of the time a faculty membersuffered a heart attack while in the dining room. His tablecompanion rose and asked the assembled diners, "Is there adoctor — I mean an M.D. — in the house?"One tale recalls another: Looking back upon his experiences as Club president in 1914, James H. Tufts, who wasnot a member of the University staff, observed, "It's been atreat, as Shaw says in his play, 'to observe the workings ofa trained mind.' " It obviously was, but those who seem toenjoy the experience most are the "trained minds."Sporting facilities of the Club includesome of the best clay tennis courts oncampus; a library to do honor to anygentlemen's club; a billiard room (leftto right: Prof, and Chrm. of PhysicsWilliam Zachariasen; Assoc. Prof, ofEconomics — College Maynard Krueger, and shooting, Prof, of EconomicsAbram Harris); and canasta (Prof.and Chrm. of Linguistics George V.Bobrinskoy, Howard Mort (winning!),Prof, of Geology Jerome Fisher, andProf, of Chemistry Earl Long.JUNE, 1959(settersDoctor's Dr.I'm sure that you must occasionally receivecomplaints regarding the content, quality,make-up, etc. of the University of ChicagoMagazine. My complaint deals with noneof these. I think the Magazine is excellent, far better than most other similarpublications, and I enjoy it thoroughly.My objection is to the exterior, not theinterior, and within that area, not to yourchoices of cover subjects or to the advertisement on the back cover. I object to theway you have me labeled on your addresso-graph plate. My magazine is regularly sentto "Dr. Alvan R. Feinstein, M.D."I well recall from my days on campusthe prevailing intellectual snobbery bywhich Ph.D.'s were reluctant to be called"Dr." lest it be assumed that they weretainted by a medical diploma. As medicalstudents at the University, we humbly recognized this distinction, gradually absorbedour status as quasi-scientists, tried valiantlyto adjust it, and hoped that some day, ifwe were careful, we might attain first classintellectual citizenship.Alas, however, it is not to be. Perhapsthe double label given me on your addres-sograph plate is simply a redundancy, inadvertently committed by a benign typist.After years of psychic conditioning on thecampus, however, I doubt it. I suspect thatin your subscription department there stilllurks a Ph.D. who does not want to let usdown-trodden M.D.'s rise, and attempts inthis way to give us a monthly reminder ofour inadequacies.Although it saddens me, and although itdoes seem a waste of space, it serves itspurpose.Excelsior.Sincerely yoursAlvan R. Feinstein,'47, SM '48, MD '52Irvington HouseIrvington-On-Huds.on, N. Y.LoyaltyWhen I discovered your special three-year [membership] offer II) estimatedmy average life expectancy (present age:80) X 0.7; and 2) checked my membership expiration date. The calculation gaveme a reasonable chance to obtain fulladvantage of your offer — and who wouldrisk being without the "officially judgednational alumni magazine?" Hence Imailed my check to cover the 3 -year membership.Upon retirement from teaching in 1956I had expected a more leisurely life. However I now find myself helping in air-pollution research in our Institute forCellular Research. I even spend two anda half months in Denmark, Sweden, andNorway to learn what is going on therein our study fields.24 We are just now putting out a completelyrevised and enlarged Laboratory Guidein Pharmacology. I [am also] president ofour Norden Club, founded in 1947 whenDr. Reuben G. Gustavson was our chancellor and strongly interested in Scandinavian traditions. I am also president ofDanish Brotherhood Lodge No. 84.Looking forward to a constant flow ofthe inspiring Alumni Magazine and withall good wishes, I amHarald Hoick, '21, PhD. '28University of NebraskaDepartment of PharmacologyThe College Teacher, 1959Please permit me to* express my sincereappreciation for the University of ChicagoMagazine, April 1959.The timeliness of the contents of theMagazine I am sure will be appreciated by-all the readers of the Magazine and' especially the college men and women whohave devoted and are continuing to devotetheir energies to college teaching. Withthe close of the current academic year Ihave been teaching in college 53 years.Eighteen at the state college, Warrensburg,Missouri and 35 as a professor of educationat the University of Missouri.My major concern here in the universityhas been Director of the Laboratory Schoolfor 18 years, and the remainder of the timedirecting graduates for their masters' anddoctors' degrees in education.Very truly yoursC. A. Phillips, AM '10College of EducationUniversity of MissouriColumbia, MissouriSixty Years in BusinessIt did my old heart good to read the article"Sixty Years in Business" in the Novemberissue of the University of Chicago Magazine, and learn that Professors Christ,Duddy and Nerlove, among others, are stillassociated with the University.It's good to get the news regularlythrough the Magazine, and to be keptabreast of the progress on the Midway. Irecall Chancellor Hutchins' statement:"The University of Chicago is not a greatUniversity, but it is the best there is." Perhaps, with all the improvements, it is nowapproaching the "great."With kind regards.Sincerely yoursT. N. McClure, '47Business Manager & TreasurerUniversity of Rhode IslandKingston, Rhode IslandBOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71ST ST. POND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PriceAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisYOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERf Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Parle 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEaassews11-29Jeannette Thielens Phillips, '11, has decided, after 27 years as an underwriter forthe Massachusetts Life Insurance Co. inChicago, that she preferred "more leisureto more income." After retiring, she spentsix months travelling through Europe,mostly in England and France, doing research in genealogical archives. Her son,Colonel Arnold T. Phillips, '38, is at theIndustrial College of the Armed Forces inFort McNair, Va. His next assignment isas director of guided missiles procurementfor the Air Force, with headquarters in thePentagon. He and his wife announce thebirth of a second daughter, their fifth child,Jeannette Irene, born on February 19.Merrill Wells, '12, MD '14, is practicing internal medicine in Grand Rapids,Mich.Laura E. Brodbeck, '14, is the directressof the Filamer Christian Institute in RoxasCity, Capez, the Philippines. Miss Brodbeck has spent 40 years in the Orient, working with women and children. Thirty-fiveof them have been in China, including twoyears under the Communists before shewas permitted to leave.Celia Gamble House, '15, writes fromSaugatuck, Michigan: "I am one of thoseHarpers and Reporter readers, but couldnot be happy without the University ofChicago Magazine also, to keep abreast ofthe news in education."George S. Counts, PhD '16, is currentlyvisiting professor of education at the U.of Pittsburgh's School of Education. Dr.Counts is an emeritus professor of education from Columbia U., where he taughtfor 28 years, until his retirement in 1955.He taught at the U of C prior to his position at Columbia, his major fields of research — the social foundations of educationand comparative education.Mary L. De Land, '16, is enjoying lifeat Presbyterian Village in Detroit, Mich.,as a "delightful place for older people tofind gracious living."Marion Hines, PhD '17, professor ofanatomy at Emory University in Atlanta,Ga., will retire this fall. She will continueher research in experimental anatomy,however, at Emory, under a three yeargrant from the National Institute of Health.Prior to her position on the Emory faculty,she taught at Johns Hopkins medical schoolfor 22 years.A. J. Brumbaugh, AM '18, PhD '29,25'Boom or Bust"- ¦at Los Angeles andthe San Francisco ConventionSome 250 Chicago alumni and friends in the Bay Area re-charged mental batteries atthe third annual Alumni Convention in San Francisco on the afternoon and evening ofApril 18. They were the guests of the University of California at its new ExtensionCenter. Morton Gordon, PhD '53, heads the Center.Twenty-one nationally known authorities participated in the six afternoon sessions.The after-dinner program was a panel show with Attorney General Stanley Mosk, '33,presiding and Morton Grodzins (Political Science, Chicago) making the summary statement. The subject: "Some Suggestions for Winning the Real War with the Communists."Panelists: Daniel Bell, currently writing a book on the History of the CommunistParty and the American Labor Movement; Dr. Jerome D. Frank, M.D., author of"Psychological Aspects of the Nuclear Arms Race;" Harold H. Fisher, author of "SovietRussia and the West;" Max F. Millikan, co-author of "A Proposal; Key to an EffectiveForeign Policy."Between the afternoon and evening sessions a meeting of all fund officers and committee workers was held and the Graduate School of Business alumni met with EzraSolomon, following his appearance on an afternoon panel.The new Bay Area officers were announced:President Ralph Larson Secretary Mrs. J. J. CarrollVice President Howard G. Hawkins, Jr. Treasurer Benjamin P. Draper"Boom or Bust" was the title of the talk by Professor Ezra Solomon at the final meeting of our Los Angeles Club on April 17 with over 200 in attendance at the CaliforniaTeachers Association Auditorium. The new officers were announced.President • Elizabeth Roe Milius Secretary Sara Gwin RamseyVice President Brownlee Haydon Treasurer Philip H. Wainand his wife, the former Ruth Sherrick,AM '43, live in Clearwater, Fla. Mr.Brumbaugh serves as consultant for research at the Southern Regional EducationBoard in Atlanta, Ga.Ruth Cowan Clouse, '18, SM '22, PhD'33, is professor emeritus of home economics at the University of Miami, CoralGables, Fla. She retired from her positionas chairman of the department in the summer of 1957.Emily Taft Douglas, '19, wife of Illinois Senator Paul H. Douglas, was themain speaker at the annual Southern Illinois Women's Day program in April. Mrs.Douglas, a former congresswoman-at-large,where she served on the Foreign AffairsCommittee, preceded her husband inCongress.Corinne S. Eddy, '19, has been a psychiatrist for the past 12 years, and has beensenior psychiatrist at Pontiac State Hospital,Michigan, for the past three years. Kemp Malone, PhD '19, now living inLondon, has written Studies in HeroicLegend and in Current Speech, publishedby Rosenkilde and Bagger of Copenhagen,Denmark.Jacob M. Braude, JD '20, a Chicagojudge, is the author of his fourth book, tobe published in August. Its title: NewTreasury of Stories for All Occasions.Hermann H. Thornton, AM '22, PhD'25, retired head of the department of foreign languages at Michigan State University, will be awarded an honorary doctorof literature degree at Wittenberg College'sJune commencement in Springfield, Ohio.George Hartman, '23, of HighlandPark, 111. was married to the former Josephine Hanchett McFadden in the Kenil-worth Union Church recently.Louise Viehoff Molkup, '23, AM '35,and her husband, Joseph, '41, have justreturned to Chicago from a year's tour ofduty in Thailand. Writes Louise: "It isgood to be home, but we were very happy in the oriental cultures where the peopleare never too busy to be polite and thoughtful of the comfort and pleasure of strangers. In fact, we never felt like strangersat any time. We saw nothing of 'hatred orfear of Americans,' but only a little aweand reticence which was quickly dispelledwhen we learned a few words of their language and showed a genuine interest in thepeople and their ways."John Francis Merriam, '25, and hiswife, the former Lucy Lamon, '26, announce the engagement of their son, Jamesto Gail Macintosh of South Orange, N. j'Mr. Merriam is the son of the late CharlesE. Merriam, former professor of politicalscience at the University.Gus J. Solomon, '26, living in Portland,Ore., has become chief judge of the U.s!District Court for Oregon. Judge Solomonhas been a district judge since 1949.Leslie A. White, PhD '27, professor andchairman of the department of anthropology at the University of Michigan in AnnArbor, is the author of the recently published book: The Evolution of Culture,the development of civilization to the Fallof Rome.May L. Cowles, PhD '29, professor ofhome management and family living at theUniversity of Wisconsin, returns to KansasState University, where she received herbachelor's degree, to be cited for her outstanding achievement and service in thefield of home economics.30-39Leo Rosten, '30, PhD '37, special editorial adviser with Cowles Magazines, New York is the author of the forthcoming book: The Return of Hyman Kaplan.Sinah Kitzing Beames, '31, writingfrom Oakland, Calif., is happy to tell usthat her daughter, Miriam, will come tothe University of Chicago in September ona Woodrow Wilson Fellowship for hergraduate study in classics.Donald H. Dalton, '31, and his wife,the former Irene Martin, '30, live in ChevyChase, Md. with their three children. Mr.Dalton, an attorney and former newspaperreporter, was re-appointed public relationsconsultant to the American Bar Association's special committee on improving theThe Sun Life of Canada, one of the world's great lifeCAREER insurance companies, offers men of ambition and integrity anoutstanding professional career in its expanding fieldforces. If you are interested in a career with unlimitedWITH opportunities, then Sun Life has the answer.• Expert Continuous TrainingA • Excellent Income Opportunity• Generous Welfare BenefitsFUTURE For full information about a Sun Life sales career,write to W. G. ATTRIDGE, Director of Agencies,Sun Life of Canada, Montreal.SUN LIFE ASSU IRANCE COMPANY OF CANADACO/ ^ST TO COAST IN THE UNITED STATES26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEadministration of justice in the District ofColumbia. He is currently an editor of theJournal of the Bar Association of the District of Columbia, and a public relationsconsultant to the Federal Bar Association.Fred B. Millet, PhD '31, has recentlyretired as Olin Professor of English anddirector of the honors college at WesleyanUniversity in Middletown, Conn., after 43years of teaching. He plans to spend thewinters in his home town of Whitman,Mass., and his summers at West Falmouth,Mass. With writing projects planned that"will occupy me for the rest of my life,"he has coined the slogan: "Retire at theearliest possible moment, or Life begins atsixty-eight."James D. Nobel, '34, president of theUniversity's Cleveland Alumni Associationfor the past two years, and director of theCouncil on Human Relations there, hasbeen re-named to a top volunteer positionin the metropolitan division of Cleveland'sUnited Appeal. Mr. Nobel is also on theexecutive committee of the Encampmentfor Citizenship.On the last week in April J. P. Morgan& Co., Inc. merged with the GuaranteeTrust Co. to make the fifth largest bank inthe United States: the Morgan GuaranteeTrust Co. The same week Ellmore C.Patterson, '35, who has been with J. P.Morgan since his graduation, was elected asenior vice president of the new company.On the Midway Mr. Patterson was captainof the football team, a member of theconference champion tennis team, a studentMarshal, a member of Owl & Serpent andof Psi Upsilon. In 1953 he was cited bythe Alumni Association for outstandingcitizenship.Clifford G. Massoth, '35, recently participated in the mid-year workshop of theMiddle Atlantic Association of IndustrialEditors in Washington, D.C. The topic: "ACloser Look at Communications Unlimited"; Mr. Massoth, the director ofpublic relations for the Illinois CentralRailroad, spoke on "Merchandising yourMagazine to Management."Anton H. Berkman, PhD '36, hasserved as acting dean of the graduate division of Texas Western College in El Paso,and is now dean-elect of arts and sciencesat this school.Margaret Day Blake, '36, wife of thelate Tiffany Blake, is called one of the"grand dames of our time," in a recentfeature article in Chicago's Daily News.Mrs. Blake is one of the guiding forces atthe Art Institute, where she was the first COUNTS "16woman's board president from 1952-55.This is a milestone in the Institute's history,where women hadn't been invited to participate in the official development of themuseum until this recent date. Reminiscingabout the beginnings of the woman's board,Mrs. Blake said that their aim was goodpublic relations, and that they weren't fundraisers. Mrs. Blake is also a pillar of theInstitute's Antiquarian Society — the artrental plan that keeps artists in Chicago,interests collectors, and creates the spiritof discovery and adventure for art lovers.Edward B. Cantor, MD '36, of ShermanOaks, Calif., is the co-author of an articleon hyaline membrane disease published in"Obstetrics and Gynecology."Willard G. De Young, MD '36, a resident of Chicago, is now associated with a10 man speciality group of physicians inBlue Island at the Medical Center.Ellis K. Fields, '36, PhD '38, is a research associate at the Whiting researchlaboratories of Standard Oil of Indiana.He recently gave a talk before a chemistryseminar at the University of Cincinnati,describing recent research on the oxidationof hydro-carbons. He also gave a similarlecture at the University of Chicago.Philip R. Clarke, Jr., '37, president ofthe Chicago Committee on Alcoholism,recently presented Dr. Granger E. Westberg, professor of religion and health at MRS. DOUGLAS '19the University, with the Open Door Award,for his work as a clergyman in counselingalcoholics.Robert L. Brackenbury, '39, AM '39,PhD '48 at UCLA's School of Education,has Getting Down to Cases, a problemsapproach to educational philosophizing asthe latest addition to Putnam's educationalbooks series.Irving L. Janis, '39, associate professorof psychology at Yale, is the winner of theAmerican Psychiatric Association's Hof-heimer Prize for Research for 1959. Hisstudies are described in his recent book:Psychological Stress: Psychoanalytic andBehavioral Studies of Surgical Patients.Irwin Martin Lieberman, '39, AM '41,is chairman of the planning committee ofthe annual meeting of the Illinois divisionof the American Civil Liberties Union. Mr.Lieberman is employee relations director ofthe Toni Company and he is also on thefaculty of the labor education division ofRoosevelt University in Chicago. His interest in public affairs extends to the vice-chairmanship of the Hyde Park-KenwoodCommunity Conference; his wife, the former Rose Axelrod, '42, as a psychiatricsocial worker, is director of the social service department of the legal aid bureau ofUnited Charities.Robert P. Saalbach, AM '39, is anassociate professor of English at ArkansasHAVE YOU MAILED YOURS?Here is my contribution of $_ to the 1959 Alumni FundPlease use my gift for:Q general purposes of theUniversity, orO 'he following specificpurpose (PEASE PRINT]ADDRESSChecks should be payable to The University of Chicago.JUNE, 1959 27HOME IS THE LAND OF THE SMALLERDRAGON for the Plagge family. James C.Plagge, '37, PhD '40, and his wife, DorothyWells Plagge, '38 and their three childrenwill be living across from the President'spalace in Saigon, Viet Nam for two years,while Dr. Plagge is medical education advisor to the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Saigon.Dr. Plagge is on leave of absence from thedepartment of anatomy at the U of IllinoisCollege of Medicine.Though coolies in their straw conical hats,the "pousse-pousses" (bicycle chairs), andthe food vendors who transport full-coursemeals on push carts have now become apart of their life, the Plaggfts note that theystill bank in Oak Park.State College as of Sept. 1. Formerly hehad been at Scottsbluff College in Nebraska.Addie G. Thomas, AM '39, has beenappointed chief of the medical social services division of The National Foundation,president Basil O'Connor announced recently. A former teacher at the Universityof California Medical Center in San Francisco and their School of Social Welfareat Berkeley, Miss Thomas has also beena consultant on medical social work practice to physicians, administrators and socialworkers in medical care and teaching institutions.40-47William H. Easton, PhD '40, professorof geology at UCLA, will go to Europethis fall, under a Guggenheim Foundationfellowship award. In addition to studyingfossils and out-croppings of coral and rocks,he will attend the International GeologicalCongress in Copenhagen in August, 1960.John A. Johnson, JD '40, and his wife,the former Harriet Nelson, '37, are settledin their new home "overlooking a ravine"in Arlington, Va. John is general counselfor NASA (the new space agency). Theywrite that their four children, ranging inage from 15 to 7, are interested in everything from music to outer space.The University of Colorado in Boulderplayed host to the twelfth annual UnitedNations week Conference on World Affairs,which met during April. Among the distinguished visiting participants were AbbaEban, Ambassador of Israel, Wentzel duPlessis, Ambassador of the Union of SouthAfrica, and Abdel Moneim El-Khedry,Consulate General of the United ArabRepublic. The participants ranged from awriter for England's humor magazine,Punch, to the secretary-counsel for theN.A.A.C.P., to a physicist in the jet propulsion laboratory at Cal Tech. Includedin this list were: Ralph Lapp, '40, PhD,'46, a nationally known scientist, a consultant to industry on the uses of nuclearenergy, and one who has a talent for beingable to explain complicated scientific matters in simple terms. He is the author ofseveral books on nuclear energy, and special editor for the U of C's Bulletin of theAtomic Scientist. Another member of theConference was Aaron Novick, '40, PhD'43, who is now director of the Institute28 of Molecular Biology at the University ofOregon. Prior to this, he has worked onthe Atomic Energy project, both at Chicago and Los Alamos, and was a memberof the Committee on Biophysics in thedepartment of microbiology at the University of Chicago. Robert Cuba Jones,'40, author of numerous books and articleson general economic and social conditionsin Latin America was another participantin the Conference. He is currently technical consultant for the Mexican Institutefor Economic Research. In 1951-52 he served on the President's Commission onMigratory Labor.William H. McCulIough, AM '40, PhD'59, has been appointed assistant dean ofthe Graduate School of Social Work at theUniversity of Pittsburgh. Mr. McCulIoughhas been on the faculties of the Universityof Oklahoma and the University of Washington, where he was associate professorand acting dean of their School of SocialWork. His special fields are public welfareand social security, juvenile corrections,and public assistance.Sandusky, Ohior k. 15 Factories • 42 Sales OfficesTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETVROBINSON '47Marshall B. Clinard, PhD, '41, his wife,the former Ruth Blackburn, MA '36, andtheir two children are living in New Delhi,India for the year, where Mr. Clinard iswith the Ford Foundation in India as aconsultant on urban community development. He is on leave of absence from theUniversity of Wisconsin, where he is a professor of sociology. While he is in India,Mr. Clinard is working out plans and pilotprojects for stimulating citizen participationin self-help activities in the slum areas ofIndia.Norman Hilberry, PhD '41, director ofArgonne National Laboratories, mentionedin a recent Chicago Tribune article: "TheUnited States is not paying enough attention to the potential of its women scientists.It is quite clear this country is not as yetdeveloping 50 per cent of its best brains."Ann Hepburn Hilberry, '19, SM '21, PhD'26, however, the wife of Argonne's head,received her doctorate in physics 15 yearsprior to her husband. Mrs. Hilberry recallsin her student days at the University, women doctoral candidates were "just tolerated." Miss H. Gladys Swope, '29, seniorchemist at Argonne mentions in the samearticle that "there's no barrier against women in science except Dame Nature — mostare wed by the time they've gotten theirbachelor's degree." Hoylande D. Young,PhD '26, head of Argonne's technical information division, views the problem as aconflict within women themselves, ratherthan the situation of men being hired before women. Because most women have afamily orientation, she says, "it is difficultfor them to give their full attention to acareer." An instance of marriage and careerworking out is reflected in Miriam Finkel,38, PhD, '44, and her husband, Asher,36 PhD '47. Mrs. Finkel is an associatebiologist at Argonne, and her husband isdirector of the health division. Besides this,they have four sons.John D. Louth, MBA '41, a marketingconsultant in the San Francisco office ofMcKinsey and Co., Inc., was elected western regional member of the national boardof directors for the American MarketingAssociation.Stephen E. McPartlin, '41, has openeda sales company in Chicago which bears"is name; they are manufacturers' representatives, specializing in the hardware industry.Joan Augustus Dix, '43, has left her position as head of the physical therapydepartment at Presbyterian Hospital inChicago.Gertrude Himmelfarb Kristol, AM '44,PhD '50, married to Irving Kristol, thepresent editor of The Reporter magazine,is the authoress of a new book, Darwin andthe Darwinian Revolution. Writes Mrs.Kristol about the idea for the book: "Icame to Darwin by way of a projectedstudy of 1859 — that annus mirabilis —which saw the appearance of Mill's 'OnLiberty' and Marx's 'Political Economy,'as well as Darwin's 'Origin of the Species!'... I soon decided to concentrate myefforts on Charles Darwin when I discovered how faulty and superficial were theconventional ideas about the man and thebook, and how instructive for intellectualhistory in general, and for the history ofscience in particular a close and carefulstudy of Darwin and Darwinism might be."Bates Lowry, '44, AM '52, PhD '56,assistant professor of art at the Institute ofFine Arts at New York University hasbeen appointed associate professor of artand chairman of the department at PomonaCollege in Claremont, Calif. Mr. Lowry,an art historian specializing in Renaissancearchitecture, succeeds Peter Selz, who resigned last fall to become curator of thedepartment of painting and sculpture exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art inNew York.Dorothy Granquist Petersen, '45, MBA'47, and her husband Dick, '47, MBA '48,live in Oak Lawn, 111., where Dick is withthe Crane Co., as a financial analyst on thepresident's staff. Dorothy also sends newsof the death of her uncle, Ethan E. Granquist, '26, who died last August at hishome in Hinsdale, 111.Franz Schulze, '45, associate professorof art at Lake Forest College has beenappointed mid-west art editor of The Christian Science Monitor. Mr. Schulze wasalso recently made Chicago editor of thenational publication, Art News.Henry H. Reinhardt, '46, of Chicago,has recently entered the field of profit sharing and pension planning in connectionwith his life insurance sales work. He findsthis aspect of the business stimulating andextremely challenging.Chloe M. Steel, AM '46, assistant professor of French at Agnes Scott College inDecatur, Ga., will return to the Universityof Chicago this summer through a summerstudy award from the Danforth Foundation, for her dissertation work on Balzacand Proust.John M. McCrea, SM '47, PhD '49, isa research technologist in the Applied Research Laboratory of U. S. Steel. As aresult of this, he and his wife, Fae, aremoving to Pittsburgh, from their home inValhalla, N. Y.Lawrence Rieser, '47, AM '51, has beennamed director of the University of Chicago's Cancer Research Foundation. Mr.Rieser will serve as executive officer for thetrustees of the Foundation in this capacity.Prior to this position he served as publicrelations director of the Citizens Information Service and executive secretary of theMedical Research Institute of MichaelReese Hospital.William H. Robinson, AM '47, is oneof the two Illinois residents, who have beenappointed to the new advisory council onpublic assistance, established to work withthe Department of Health, Education, andWelfare. Mr. Robinson's career in welfarework for the last 20 years has ranged fromparole work for the state of Illinois to hispresent position as a lecturer in social science at the Baptist Missionary Training UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMU<=eum 4-12W)PARKER-HOLSMANUral Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525Photo press¦,IJJUJ1LJII.IIIIJ.1|Fine Color Work • Quality Book ReproductionCongress $f Expressway a/ Gardner RoadBroadview, Illinois COIumbus 1-1420BEST B01LERREPAIR& WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoLeica - Bolex - Rolleiflex - Polaroid1342 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259NSA Discounts24-hour Kodachrome DevelopingHO Trains and Model SuppliesLINCOLN LOREby Color Camera500 35mm.(2x2in.)slidesin full color — Send$1.00 for three Samplesand complete catalogueWILLEMS COLOR SLIDES Box 1515-E Chicago 90T4e S^cl'c^ive @Ua*t&i&We operate our own dry cleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St.Ml dway 3-06021442 East 57th Street 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.NOrmal 7-9858Midway 3-0608JUNE, 1959 29School. He was elected to the Illinois legislature in 1954, and has served continuouslysince that time.48-55Donald R. Bentz, '48, SB '50, is withthe law firm of Curtis, Morris and Saffordin New York City. He is doing patent,trademark, and copyright work.Wendell V. Clausen, PhD '48, an outstanding Latinist, who is currently an associate professor at Amherst College, hasbeen appointed professor of Greek andLatin at Harvard University. Mr. Clausenis best known for his editions of the poetryof Persius, a Roman satirist and philosopher of the First Century, A.D.Louis Cohen, '48, MD '53, is one ofeight Chicago investigators in the field ofheart research who has been awarded agrant given under the national researchsupport program of the American HeartAssociation. The grants were announcedby Wright Adams, president of the ChicagoHeart Association. Dr. Cohen, who is aresearch fellow in the School of Medicineat the University received his grant for hisproject dealing with the role of phospholipids (certain fats in the blood) in bloodclotting. In his study, newly developedmethods will be used to evaluate the factorsthat control the amount of phospholipidsin the blood, in the hope of better understanding these abnormalities of clotting,that will lead to the ultimate control of thisailment. Merle S. Moskowitz, SM '55,MD '55, an advanced research fellow at theUniversity, and also a recipient of thisaward, is making a study of female sexhormones and the way in which they appear to safeguard women of child-bearingage against coronary artery disease, in aneffort to isolate the specific protectivefactors.Mary Constance Foley, AM '48, is program secretary for the League of WomenVoters, with headquarters in Washington,D. C. She works in the field of researchand writing in the program field of waterresources. She is the author of "LittleDrops of Water" and "On the Waterfront,"a report on the basic national water problems, which has claimed national attention.Michael J. Nagy, Jr., '48, MBA '53, hasbeen transferred from Chicago to Pittsburgh. He is with the Blarsville Metal GOODBYE, COLUMBUS, by Philip Roth, AM '55,(left) was recently published by Houghton MifflinCompany. For this short novel of major scopeand impact, Mr. Roth received the firm's LiteraryFellowship Award. An English instructor in theCollege from 1956-58, Mr. Roth has contributedshort stories to The New Yorker, Esquire, Commentary, and The Paris Review. This present volume contains, besides the novelette, five shortstories.THE PICARESQUE SAINT, a recently publishedbook by Richard W. B. Lewis, AM '41, PhD. 53,studies the common theme underlying important contemporary fiction, using the works offive such diverse writers as: Moravia, Faulkner,Camus, Silone, and Greene. Mr. Lewis, a onetime faculty member at the University of Chicago, is currently a professor of English at Rutgers University in Newark, New Jersey.Plant of Westinghouse as a quality controlengineer on exotic metals for nuclear andmissile development.Enrico L. Quarantelli, '48, AM '53,who has been a lecturer in sociology andpsychology at Indiana University for thepast three years, has joined the sociologydepartment of Harpur College in Endicott,N. Y. as an assistant professor. Among hiswritings are: The Nature and Conditionsof Panic and The Behavior of Panic Participants; his doctorate dissertation, recently completed, is on the motivations ofdental school students.Katherine Willis Ballard, '49, has beenchosen "Mrs. Chicago Leaguer" at the recent annual meeting of the League ofWomen Voters of Chicago. Mrs. Ballard,the mother of three boys, is the wife ofJohn Horn Ballard, '47, AM '49.Francis M. McDermott, MBA '49, hasbeen appointed technical advisor to thedirector, in the bureau of research and development in the national Aviation Agency,which has recently been created. He isliving in McLean, Va.Robert H. Albright, AM '50, in renewing his membership in the Alumni Association, brought us up to date as to his whereabouts and post-graduate activities. Aftergraduating, he spent three years teachingEnglish to Greek students at Anatolia College, Thessaloniki, Greece ("a wonderfullyeducational experience for me and forsome of the students too, I hope!"). During his summer travels through Greeceand other parts of Europe, he met andmarried Gertrude Dolezal, of Vienna,Austria. With their three children, Susan,5; Niki, 4; and Mark, 10 weeks; they returned to the States, and Robert joined thefaculty of Rochester Institute of Technology in New York as an instructor in thesocial sciences. An attack of paralyticpoliomyelitis a year later resulted in aboutan 80% paralysis of his arms and legs;inside of a few years, he has been able toreturn to almost full-time teaching atRochester from a wheel chair. A sporadicfiction-writing attempt in September, 1958resulted in a short story about Greeceunder Nazi occupation, published in theSaturday Evening Post.Ernest Kanrich, MBA '50, is vice-president of Percy Wilson Mortgage andFinance Corp. in Chicago. His home is inEvanston.Ellhu Bergman, AM '51, is the executive officer of the U.S.A. Operations Mis- Douglas Duke, PhD '51, formerly headscientist of the satellite tracking project atthe Air Force Missile Test Center atPatrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral,Fla., joined the staff of Radiation, Inc. inMelbourne, Fla., where he will serve astechnical advisor in space technology.Arnold M. Katz, '52, was married to theformer Phyllis Beck of Hamden, Conn.The couple will live in Silver Spring, Md.G. Northrup Simpson, MBA '52, whois in the trust department of the First National Bank of Chicago, recently passed theIllinois Bar examinations.Harold A. Ward, '52, JD '55, was married on November 8, 1958 to Mary Elizabeth Lewis of Bethesda, Md. They areliving in Arlington, Va.George Stone, '52, is now out of theArmy and living back in Hyde Park, working with the Chicago Land Clearance Commission on their slum clearance project onNorth La Salle Street.Elizabeth Cope Brunette, '53, lives inMilwaukee, Wis. She mentions that shehopes she has "started the next generationof Chicago students in the family" withthe arrival of Andrew on March 18.Evelyn Ware, AM '53, is a psychiatricsocial worker at Birmingham, Alabama'sV.A. Hospital.Charlotta Evans, AM '54, is now withthe Chicago Heart Association. Her homeis in Hyde Park.James W. Wilson, PhD '54, has beenappointed chairman of Rochester Instituteof Technology's general education division.Raymond J. Corsini, PhD '55, formerdirector of tests and assessment at the Industrial Relations Center of the University,has become associate director of Daniel D.Howard Associates in New York City. Mr.Corsini is one of the contributors to OurLanguage and Our World, a recently published book by S. I. Hayakawa, a formerfaculty member at the U of C. The bookdeals with a wide range of subjects fromproblems in international communicationto the language of psychoanalysis as an artof one-up-manship.Stanley T. Friedman, '55, SM '58, living in Loveland, Ohio, has recently finisheddirecting a series of nuclear shielding experiments for General Electric's aircraftnuclear propulsion department in FortWorth, Tex.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEdward C. Gernat, AM '55, whosehome is in Bridgeport, Conn., is now stationed in Korea, as a psychiatric socialwork officer with the Army. He mentionsthat although it "isn't the most pleasurablespot to be assigned to," the experiencegained in the neuro-psychiatric clinic isworth the inconvenience.Ethan Z. Kaplan, '55, AM '58, is apsychological tester in the examining section of the Army. He is living in Houston,Tex., during his service term, with his wife,the former Jane Breese.Michael Scarpitto, PhD '55, who hadbeen assistant superintendent of schools inJoliet, 111. for the past four years, hitStoneham, Mass. with a big splash, if wecan judge correctly from a feature articlein a December Boston Globe. As superintendent of schools one of the featuresthat Mr. Scarpitto has innovated is ateacher recruiting program that rivals theNew York Yankees' search for baseballtalent. His appeal seemed to be so greatthat he got five times the candidates thathe needed for his fall openings; he has setup a "reading for pleasure" program thathas virtually driven the youngsters to thelibrary; according to the paper, the greatesttribute that has been paid to Mr. Scarpittowas the passing of financial appropriationsfor the addition to an elementary schoolwithout one dissenting vote — the first timethis has happened in the 225-year history ofthe Massachusetts town.Amos N. Wilder, '55 (honorary degree)is the author of Theology and ModernLiterature, a recently published book. Heis on sabbatical leave from Harvard duringthe current year, on a Guggenheim Fellowship in Europe. He is spending most of histime in Basel, Switzerland.56-59Ben S. Gantz, Jr., AM '56, is leavinghis Navy post in Alaska as instructor inpsychology at the University of Alaska tobe assigned to the missile research facilityin China Lake, Calif, in the Mojave Desert.Judith A. Kitz, '56, was married toSolomon I. Hirsh, '52, JD '55, on April19, in Highland Park, 111. Mr. Hirsh is anassociate with the law firm of Albert S.Light in Chicago; the couple will live at4180 Marine Drive.Anthony M. Lemos, SM '56, is an instructor in physics at Lake Forest College,in Lake Forest, 111.Charles Mittman, '56, '57, of Chicago,announces the birth of a son, Scott Harvey,who is now 7 months old.Theodore C. Owen, PhD '56, has become head of the department of English atKansas State Teachers College in Emporia,Kansas.Lee G. Pondrom, SM '56, PhD '58,stationed at Wright Patterson Air ForceBase in Ohio for two years, is working atthe aeronautical research laboratory there.John G. Thompson, SM '56, has recently solved a 50-year-old math problemthat has been perplexing mathematicians.His achievement was described by AdrianAlbert, professor of mathematics at theUniversity of Chicago at a meeting of theAmerican Mathematics Society in NewYork. This is a major contribution to thefinite group aspect of contemporary mathematical problems. His solution has to dowith the organization, into groups, of limited numbers of things under algebraicrules of combination. The "things" areusually abstractions of no practical value,out certain aspects of finite group theory are being applied to code analysis andguided missile systems. Mr. Thompson'sproblem solution is known as Frobenius'conjecture: "If a finite group, G, possessesan automorphism of prime order withoutfixed-points, then G is nilpotent." Translated into layman's terms, the followinganalogy can be drawn: Take a room papered with wallpaper of a regular, repeatedpattern. It is possible to move a panel onewhole space to the right or left and do thiswith all the other panels so that when thework is done, the room will look just likeit did before. The same can be done bysliding each panel up or down, coveringthe spaces with paper of correspondingpattern, or by turning each panel upsidedown or sideways. In other words, thereare rules by which things can be manipulated without changing the basic nature oftheir groupings.Varda Peller Ganz, MD '57, is finishingher first year of residency in psychiatry atthe Massachusetts Mental Health Center ofBoston's Psychopathic Hospital.Franklin Mangrum, PhD '57, is anassociate professor at Morehead State College in Kentucky as of September. Hischief duty will be to establish a philosophydepartment there. He is presently at ShimerCollege in Mount Carroll, 111.Under the Bell Telephone LaboratoriesGraduate Fellowships, yearly fellowshipsfor doctoral work in sciences relating tocommunications are granted to enable students to continue their studies at Brown,the University of Illinois, MassachusettsInstitute of Technology, the University ofChicago, Princeton, Stanford, Harvard, andYale. Three of this year's fifteen winnershave chosen to come to the U of C.Daniel Weiner, SM '57, is continuing hiswork here in the field of experimental solidstate physics. Mr. Weiner is a two-timerecipient of a National Science Foundationfellowship; Ya'akov Eckstein, who received his SM in physics from the HebrewUniversity in Jerusalem, Israel, is also working towards a doctorate in solid state physics; Robin T. M. Fraser, who received hisSB and SM degrees from Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand, is continuing his studies at the University inchemistry, where he is presently a researchassistant.Bernard J. Williams, '57, AM '59, iscurrently working in the personnel office atthe U of C as an interviewer and wageadministrator.Ian F. Brown, '58, is assistant pastor atthe First Baptist Church in Kalamazoo,Mich.Alice Lonsdale, '58, is living in Chicago,and working in cancer research, whilestudying for a master's degree in biology.Hsio-Yen Shih, MA '58, is continuinggraduate study in art history at Bryn MawrCollege in Pennsylvania.Richard A. Weiss, '58, is in his firstyear of study at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, preparing forthe Reform rabbinate. He has recentlyconducted the "Words to Live By" radioprogram in Cincinnati, Ohio.Lallie Ann Westzig, '58, was marriedto Rachid A. Malik, AM '58, in his hometown of Lahore, West Pakistan on March2, in a Moslem ceremony. The couple planto return to Chicago, where Rachid expectsto continue his graduate work in the department of geography.Richard K. Diehl, MBA '59, is with theadvertising department of Procter andGamble, in Cincinnati. He will assist inplanning advertising and sales promotioncampaigns for one of the company'sproducts. GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186T. A. REHNQU1ST COf SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 74433Producersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton H< Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEPhone: REgent I -33 1 1The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes1142 E. 82nd StreetRICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192SARGENT'S DRUG STOREestablished 1852Chicago's most completeprescription and chemical stockphone RAndolph 6-477023 N. Wabash AvenueChicagoJUNE, 1959MemortofAugust F. Huxhold, MD Rush '96, diedthis past year in Denver, Colo.Emma Fidelia Adams, '02, died inPortland, Ore. on April 15. She had livedhere since her retirement as head residentof the Mattie Rhodes Neighborhood Centerin Kansas City, Mo. Prior to this time, shehad served as assistant to Mary McDowellat the University of Chicago SettlementHouse. News of Miss Adams' death comesto us from Grace Manning Downing, '01,of Chicago.Mary E. Sinclair, AM '03, PhD 08,died in Belfast, Me., on June 4, 1955.Henry N. Whitelaw, '04, MD Rush, '06,died in Corvallis, Oreg., on July 19, 1957.Arthur L. Young, '04, died in June,1957 in Chicago, 111.Sanford A. Winsor, '05, MD Rush '06,died in Pompano Beach, Fla. on August 2,1958.Harley C. Darlington, '07, died onMarch 19 at his home in St. Petersburg,Fla. Until his retirement in 1950, he hadbeen assistant manager of the Stevens Hotelin Chicago.Herbert F. Evans, '07, PhD '09, died onOctober 29, 1958 in Whitier, Calif.Claude Schofield, '07, died in OklahomaCity on February 9.W. Burton Wallis, '07, died on November 27, 1958, in Glen Ellyn, III.Walter L. Wentzel, 09, MD Rush, '11,died in Corpus Christi, Tex., in October,1958.Clarence E. Campbell, '10, died inJanuary, 1957, in Tulsa, Okla.An unrestricted bequest to the Universitywas recently announced from the will ofthe late Jacob Logan Fox, '11, JD '13.William W. Peter, MD Rush, '11, diedon March 31 in Port Republic, Md.John G. Reid, '12, died on January 31in Colorado Springs, Colo.Ole O. Stoland, SM *12, PhD '13, diedon February 24 in Lawrence, Kan.R. J. DeMotte, MD Rush '13, died onFebruary 16 in Chicago.John P. McArthur, '13, died in Vancouver, B. C, on July 20, 1958.Edna Keith, '15, died in December,1956 in Joliet, 111.Elizabeth M. Adams, '16, died in Peo-tone, 111., on December 27, 1958.Agnes Graham, AM '16, who died onAugust 29, 1958 in Chardon, Ohio, left anunrestricted bequest to the University.Robert H. Harper, '16, died on December 6, 1957 at his home in Chicago.Jesse J. Knox, '18, SM '26, died inMitchell, S. D. on April 10.Grace Brandt Mellard, '19, died onMarch 24 at her home in MontgomeryCity, Mo.William L. Richardson, PhD '19, diedon April 16, at his retirement home inWinter Park, Fla. Mr. Richardson, a member of the Butler University faculty inIndianapolis from 1918-45, was dean of thecollege of education from 1930-39, when32 he became professor of educational psychology.Carter W. Hazzard, '2 1 , died in Chicagoon March 24.Proctor F. Sherwin, '22, died in thefall of 1958. He had been a member ofthe faculty at Knox College, in Galesburg,111.William A. Starin, PhD '23, died onApril 6. He had been the retired chairmanof the department of bacteriology at OhioState University, and had served as generalinspector of laboratories for the U. S. Public Health Service in 1920.Nellie Sheean, '25, died on October26, 1958 in Grand Rapids, Mich.Eleanor Hughes Rehm, '26, died inWest Palm Beach, Fla., on April 6.James L. Watson, '27, JD '29, died inSummit, N. J. on March 11. Word of Mr.Watson's death came to us from his wife,the former Virginia Lane, '30.Verna Bell Flanders, '28, SM '32, diedon December 31, 1958 in Massachusetts.Robert Eastnor Johannesen, MD Rush,'28, died on April 2 in his home in Altadena, Calif. Dr. Johannesen, a one-timeassistant of the late Ernest E. Irons, '00,MD '03, PhD '12 (mentioned in the Memorial column of the March Magazine),continued practicing medicine in Chicagountil 1947, when he moved to California.Ernest Lauer, PhD '29, died on November 11, 1957. He had been a memberof the Montana State College faculty inBozeman.Emma C. W. Gray, '30, AM '34, diedin an automobile accident on June 19,1958; her home had been in Atlanta, Ga.Donald H. McGill, AM '30, died onMarch 1, at his home in Los Angeles.Raymond B. Baer, MD '31, died onFebruary 7 in Detroit, Michigan.Esther Henderson Calvert, '32, died inChicago on December 16, 1957.Clyde R. Croft, Jr., MBA '38, died inLittle Rock, Ark. on April 22.SHERRY HOTEL53rd Street At The lake . . .Complete Facilities ForConference Groups — ConventionsBanquets — DancesCall Catering FAirfax 4-1000Free Parking for Our Guests!Since 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • II 9-7180 William F. Ogburn, Sewell L. AveryDistinguished Service Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago, until hisretirement in 1951, died on April 28 inTallahassee, Fla. A former president ofthe American Statistical Association andthe American Sociological Society, he hadbeen a vice-president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Mr. Ogburn was an authority on the sociological effects of advances in technology,and he served the federal government inmany capacities. Because his publishedmaterials extended to so many fields, hewas classified by some as a sociologist, byothers as an economist, and by still othersas a political scientist. His subjects coveredculture and social change, living costs, inventions and technology, the family, urbanlife, child labor and population shifts. Under the Hoover administration he compiledthe first "national inventory." Some of hisviews were controversial, as in the instancewhen he wrote that, biologically speaking,man has not changed since cave-man days.He held that man now has the same fears,hates, appetites, and instincts, althoughsociety has changed because of inventions,and changing cultures. After retirement hewas visiting professor at 20 of India's universities under the Fulbright program. In1953 he accepted an appointment to Florida State College where he was teaching atthe time of his death. He is survived,among others, by a son, Fielding, '41, ofWashington, D. C.CHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING— LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters . Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addressing • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Dearborn . Chicago S . WA 2-45JISince 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for University,College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at37 South Wabash Ave.Chicago 3, III.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEINDEX TO 1958-59 ARTICLESMonth Year PageAbrams, Stephen I., Defining the Sixth Sense March 59 22Ames, Polly Scribner, Chicago Showing December 58 29American Alumni Council, The College Teacher: 1959 .April 59 8American Meat Institute Foundation, How Do You Like YourBeefsteak? June 59 15And a White Cadillac, Margaret Burnett Strozier January 59 9Anderson, C. Arnold, The Mirage of Russian Education October 58 12A Place for Poetry, Judith Bond November 58 4Argonne National Laboratories, How Does Your Garden Grow May 59 22Art to Live With : The Shapiro Collection March 59 7As Many Workmen as Students, Beauty in Building November 58 8Beauty in Building, As Many Workmen as Students November 58 8Berland, Theodore, Science: East and West December 58 20Berland, Theodore, The Cities of Asia February 59 13Bond, Judith, A Place for Poetry November 58 4Chicago Showing, Polly Scribner Ames December 58 29Cities of Asia, The, Theodore Berland February 59 13Class of '08 Returns for its Fiftieth October 58 9Coggeshall, Dr. Lowell T., Report on Cancer May 59 18College, The: New Faculty and Future, Charles Wegener October 58 4College Teacher: 1959, The, American Alumni Council April 59 8Community Action, Hyde Park — Urban Renewal December 58 6Community of Scholars, A, Hyde Park — Urban Renewal December 58 4Decline of Democratic Government, The, Hans J. Morgenthau January 59 5Defining the Sixth Sense, Stephen I. Abrams March 59 22Distinguished Service Professorships June 59 5Eby, Kermit, What Makes Reuther Reuther May 59 9Executive and his Health, The, Executive Program May 59 4Executive Program, The Executive and his Health May 59 4Fourteen Thousand Called him Teddy, Howard W. Mort November 58 2Gods and Games on the Corinthian Isthmus II, Oscar T. Broneer. . . .January 59 12Graduate School of Business, Sixty Years in Business November 58 13Hauser, Philip M., World's Dilemma: Too Many People? .May 59 24Haydon, Edward M. "Ted", A Meet in Russia March 59 11Home Study, Learning at Leisure June 59 19How Does Your Garden Grow? Argonne National Laboratories May 59 22How Do You Like Your Beefsteak? American Meat InstituteFoundation June 59 15Hyde Park-Urban Renewal December 58 4Impetus, Joseph J. Schwab and T. V. Smith March 59 4Knowledge in Search of a Mind, Joshua C. Taylor February 59 17Learning at Leisure, Home Study June 59 19Mark Hopkins and the Masses, Radio-TV Office January 59 17Meet in Russia, A, Edward M. "Ted" Haydon March 59 11Mirage of Russian Education, The, C. Arnold Anderson October 58 12Morgenthau, Hans J., The Decline of Democratic Government January 59 5Quadrangles' Private Club June 59 21Radio-TV Office, Mark Hopkins and the Masses January 59 17Report on Cancer, Dr. Lowell T. Coggeshall May 59 18Reunion on the East River, Howard W. Mort January 59 1Schwab, Joseph J., and Smith, T. V., Impetus March 59 4Science : East and West, Theodore Berland December 58 20Shapiro Collection, The: Art To Live With March 59 7Shireman, Charles H., Wednesday's Child February 59 4Sixty Year's in Business, Graduate School of Business November 58 13Smith, T. V. and Schwab, Joseph J., Impetus March 59 4Strozier, Margaret Burnett, And a White Cadillac January 59 9Taylor, Joshua, C, Knowledge in Search of a Mind February 59 17Three Major Projects, Hyde Park-Urban Renewal December 58 12Wednesday's Child, Charles H. Shireman February 59 4Wegener, Charles, The College : New Faculty and Future October 58 4What Makes Reuther Reuther, Kermit Eby s. May 59 9World's Dilemma: Too Many People? Philip M. Hauser May 59 24¥P,¦?' '>ISf