UNIVERSITYMAGAZINE APRIL 1959A Special Survey:THE TEACHERMolecular model of ethylene oxide— one of the basic building blocks in Union Carbide's chemistry.Helping to shape tlie futureEver wonder what's behind the steady stream of new and betterproducts we enjoy today? The answer is research by men and women withdriving curiosity and bold imagination.Synthetic chemicals created by the people of Union Carbidehave helped make possible the latest wonder drugs, glamorous textiles,work-saving detergents, and fast-drying paints and lacquers. And in theever-changing world of plastics, the work of Union Carbide scientists hashelped bring you everything from scuff -resistant flooring and unbreakablephonograph records to transparent polyethylene wrapping that preservesthe original flavor of foods.These innovations are only a suggestion of the wonderful thingsthat will come from tomorrow's research . . . the kind of research that's beingcarried out constantly in the laboratories of Union Carbide. Learn about the exciting workgoing on now in carbons,chemicals, gases, metals, plastics, and nuclear energy .Writefor "Products and Processes"Booklet B. Union CarbideCorporation, 30 East 42nd St.,New York 1 7, N. Y. In Canada,Union Carbide CanadaLimited, Toronto.... a liandin things to comeMemojmChicagoans in the newsChancellor Kimpton, with Robert Merriam, '39, AM '40, had breakfast withPresident Eisenhower on February 18th todiscuss a program for a committee to chartnational goals. Said the President:"I must say that it was, more than anything else, an opportunity to meet this manof whom I have heard so much ... I thinkhe is a very fine man."George V. Bobrinskoy, Chairman of theDepartment of Linguistics and Russian-born authority on his native country, reviewed Pasternak's novel, Doctor Zhivagoin the Chicago Sun-Times for February22nd. Dr. Bobrinskoy read the novel bothin Russian and in the English translation.His report."All Russian critics agree that [Pasternak] is brilliant, highly cultured, has agreat influence on the younger generationof Russian poets — but at the same time isnot a poet for the masses . . ."This is a prose novel written by a poet.As such it has certain structural defects.There are too many people involved; thereare loo many plots and sub plots . . . But... the language is beautiful, particularlythe descriptions of nature. The characterizations of the people involved are strongand warm . . ."This reviewer has heard a number of criticisms pointing to apparent exaggerations and unrealities in the novel. The civilwar in Russia was truly dreadful and abundant parallels to the most horrible episodesdescribed by Pasternak can be found inSoviet literature of the 1920's. The reviewer's personal experience permits himto afiirm that Pasternak's accounts of thetimes are realistic indeed . . ."As to the English version: The translation on the whole is very good ... In thecase of one or two passages specially selected for criticism, this reviewer, a Russianby birth and education, takes the translators' side."The University of Michigan Press, whichpublished the novel in the Russian language, ran an original 10,000 which soldout before they were off the presses. Theyexpect a sale of some 50,000 copies.Dr. Bobrinskoy will speak on Russianliterature and Pasternak at Alumni Reunion, June 12-13. He will also appear onthe program of the New York Conventionin the Statler, April 16th.Louis G. Cowan, '31, president of theColumbia Television Network, was reported in the Tribune for March 1st announcing generous cash subsidies for promising writers who may, indirectly, help toimprove TV programming. Creative television has been one of Cowan's concernsthrough the years. Louis Cowan will be the speaker at theCommunications Dinner Alumni Day, June13th, in the Quadrangle Club.We get letters (cont.)Sammy (from our February Memo Pad)is still lost. We've had mail from readerswho remembered Sammy but no one remembered his real name.But the column inspired other requestsincluding one from James J. McCarthy,AM '52, Executive Secretary of International Institute of Toledo, Inc. who wrote:"/ am writing to you for a group of uswho attended Chicago with Mits Maedaand in so doing I am afraid we are tappingthe last man on a long totem pole . . ."including the army, former friends, andcongressmen. He was lost to his friends.By return mail we furnished the addressof Mitsuo Ronold Maeda, 21 19 Alta Street,Los Angeles 3 1 .But where, do you suppose, is Sammy?This is a short column . . .. . . this month because we, at headquarters, are all involved in getting the1959 Alumni Fund campaign off to a bigstart.The more gifts from members of thefamily the more support we can expectfrom industry and the foundations.H. W. M.CAREERWITHAFUTURE The Sun Life of Canada, one of the world's great lifeinsurance companies, offers men of ambition and integrity anoutstanding professional career in its expanding fieldforces. If you are interested in a career with unlimitedopportunities, then Sun Life has the answer.• Expert Continuous Training• Excellent Income Opportunity• Generous Welfare BenefitsFor full information about a Sun Life sales career,write to W. G. ATTRIDGE, Director of Agencies,Sun Life of Canada, Montreal.SUN LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY OF CANADACOAST TO COAST IN THE UNITED STATESAPRIL, 1959 1outstanding for Spring and SummerTHREE NEW LIGHTWEIGHT SUITSHere are three of the most attractive and practicalsuits a man could have... made on our own modelsof new, lightweight, specially woven materials.OUR "346" tropical suits in a handsomey 6-ounceT)acron* and worsted blend that is crease-resistant , cool,comfortable. Oxford grey, and exclusive grey, brown orblue mixtures. Coat and trousers, $75OUR DACRON, RAYON AND WORSTED SUITS for townwear. New (wash-and-weary suit, of material woven forus in charcoal brown, medium or oxford grey, navy, lightbrown . . . grey or brown Glenurquhart plaids . . . and finestrifes on blue or grey. Coat and trousers^ $52OUR DACRON, RAYON AND ORLON* SUITS, an exclusive new washable blend that offers comfort and crease-resistance. Black, oxford grey, medium brown, stone grey,natural or navy. Coat and trousers $ $39.50*Du Pont's fibers tsample swatches upon requestESTABLISHED 1818Men* furnishings, flats ^jftws346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N. Y.Ill BROADWAY, NEW YORK 6, N.Y.BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO fttTfus fsssueIVXention of those who have chosenthe profession of teaching is often accompanied by a quote from an American educator and historian, Henry Adams :A teacher affects eternity; he can nevertell where his influence stops.The spiritual and intellectual rewards ofteaching are obvious to us alumni whoremember the thrilling experience of studying under excellent teachers. We haveoften referred to them as "dedicated" men,and in many ways and at many times paidtribute to their continuing influence on ourlives.The fact that excellent teachers have amore than ordinary commitment to theirprofession has always added to the respectthey have received. The fact that theirsmight be a dedication at a price has, however, only recently become a matter ofnational concern.The huge increases in college enrollmentsanticipated in the next years and the accompanying need for additional collegeteachers, as well as the increasing demandsmade by industry, business and governmentfor our best scholars and researchers, haveresulted in this new concern with the age-old fact that it doesn't pay any too well tobe a teacher.In this issue of the Magazine a panel ofeditors representing top alumni magazinesacross the nation have compiled a summary of the problem: The CollegeTeacher: 1959.To_o apply their observations to the University of Chicago is not always simple.Over half of the undergraduate faculty hereis composed of men who hold joint appointments in the college and divisions andthus the faculty of the University as awhole must be considered. Moreover, thestudents who come to Chicago are notcoming for what a recent Saturday Evening Post article called "the accumulationof irrelevancies which together make up'a second curriculum' that often takes precedence over the first." To quote anothermagazine (Harper's: February, 1959),"Harvard and Yale and Chicago pay (faculty) no better — and in some positionsworse — than the big state universities, butthey can attract a superior faculty becausethe quality of their students makes thework more rewarding." The college hasalways had an outstanding per cent of itsgraduates go on to advanced degrees.Chicago students have proven to be amajor source of teachers for both this University and others of the nation. One outof every seventeen people listed in a recentedition of Who's Who is a former University of Chicago student. And 57.4 percentof these alumni listed are in education. Oneperson out of every ten listed in the Direc-lory of American Scholars and in Leadersin Education also attended Chicago.When, a year ago, the Chicago Tribunedid an appraisal of American colleges anduniversities, it ranked Chicago second ineminence of its faculty only to California.Recent figures showed 100 former Chicagostudents on the staff at California; Chicagoalumni make up fifty percent of the physical sciences faculty there.In speaking of Chicago as a place toteach, a faculty dean of 'a great university' was quoted in the Tribune article,"There is something about it, somethingexciting, that appeals to teachers. . . It isalways trying to raid our faculty and sometimes it is successful."Perhaps the major reason for Chicago'sreputation as an 'exciting' campus isChancellor Kimpton's contention that it isbetter to encourage brilliant young scholarswho are just now making their names thanto store up Nobel and Pulitzer prize winners. He believes that scholars and scientists rarely receive prizes or national recognition of any kind until their best work hasbeen done.In this year's State of the UniversityAddress, Mr. Kimpton could point withpride to salary increases for sixty-six percent of the faculty. Still greater increasesais needed. At the same time he listed asmajor concerns two serious inadequacies:our library and fellowships . . both crucialin building and maintaining an outstandingfaculty."The University has always prided itselfon weathering the depression of the thirties without cutting academic salaries, except in Medicine; but it cut every placeelse, and particularly the acquisition program of the library, since this was relatively painless. For reasons I do not altogether understand, the library budget wasnever really restored as times improved,and the cuts of the early fifties imposed adouble liability . . . But this is by no meansall our problem. As a structure to housethe collection, Harper Library has come tothe point where, almost literally, a bookmust be got rid of for a new book to beadded."In regard to fellowships: "The sciencesare reasonably well taken care of throughfederal and industrial fellowships andteaching and research assistantships. I amreliably informed that no graduate studentin chemistry has paid his own way foryears, but such is by no means the happysituation in the humanities and social sciences. Since there is nothing so frustratingto a faculty member as to lose a goodgraduate student or instruct a bad one, wemust elevate our fellowship stipends tocompete for the best." S^^^f ^ UNIVERSITYUuckroMAGAZINE ^} APRIL, 1959Volume 51, Number 7FEATURES8 The College Teacher: 1959DEPARTMENTS1 Memo Pad2 In This Issue4 News of the Quadrangles25 Books by Alumni and Faculty27 Fund Workers Added28 Class News32 MemorialsCOVERProfessor of modern history Louis Gottschalk (left) and professor emeritusof chemistry Herman 1. Schlesinger. This year Mr. Schlesinger receivedboth the Distinguished Public Service Award, the highest civilian honorawarded by the U.S. Navy, and Willard Gibbs and Priestley medals ofthe American Chemical Society. He is internationally known for his boronhydride research. Mr. Gottschalk, whose special interest is in Lafayette,recently received a $10,000 prize in recognition of his work from theAmerican Council of Learned Societies.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois Midway 3-0800, Ext. 3244Editor, MARJORIE BURKHARDTTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONPRESIDENT, Arthur R. CahillExecutive Director-EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORANProgrammingELIZABETH SHAW BOBRINSKOYAlumni FoundationFLORENCE I. MEDOW Eastern OfficeCLARENCE A. PETERS, DirectorRoom 22, 31 E. 39th StreetNew York 17, N. Y.MUrray Hill 3-1518Western OfficeMARY LEEMAN, DirectorRoom 322, 717 Market StreetSan Francisco 3, Cal.EXbrook 2-0925Los Angeles BranchMRS. MARIE STEPHENS1195 Charles St., Pasadena 3After 3 P.M.— SYcamore 3-4545Published monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 UniversityAvenue, Chicago 37, Illinois Annual subscription price, $5 00 Single copies, 25 cents Entered as secondclass matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B A Ross, director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N Y3NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESThe Case of theMysterious MummySeven of the mummies at the Oriental Institute can be accounted for, butthe eighth remains a mystery. A regentinventory of the Institute's mummieslisted the five which form the specialdisplay which illustrates the stages of themummification process. In addition tothis popular exhibit, there are two othermummies held "in reserve."Records at the Institute show that fiveof the mummies were purchased fromA. E. Cyril Fry in Cairo, Egypt in1894-5 by James Henry Breasted, thefounder of the Institute. He also purchased another in 1920 from a Mah-moud Mohasseb of Luxor, Egypt, anda seventh was acquired in 1941 whenthe Chicago Art Institute donated thebulk of its Egyptian collection to theOriental Institute.There are, however, no records explaining the eighth mummy or how itcame into the Oriental Institute's possession.Dr. Watson Boyes, Oriental Institutesecretary recalls that the eighth mummywas part of the Institute's collectionwhen it was moved in 1930 from Haskell Hall to its present building. At thattime he noted several features whichmade him doubt its authenticity. Although it bore certain resemblances toa human skeleton, the mummy, whichhad been partially opened, was linedthroughout with sticks, while the chestcavity was filled with an improbableheap of bones. No further explorationwas made at that time, and the mummy,wrapped in a purple shroud, was placedon top of a filing cabinet in a secondfloor office.It remained untouched for 28 years.Boyes took a close look at it a fewdays ago and confirmed his earlier appraisal : "The location of sticks through out the package, as well as the boneplacement indicates that the mummywas possibly used as a repository for thebones of not one, but several, persons."The sticks may have been inserted intothe package to provide substitutes forlost limbs in the after-life. He pointedout, however, that the package is authentic, but does not appear to be asthick as that usually found on mummies.The riddle of where the mummy camefrom provides another exercise in educated guess work. The best explanationseems to be that the eighth mummy wasincluded as a bonus in the five-packagepurchase Breasted made in 1894-5.Other explanations, however, are possible.Mummy collecting had a nationalvogue back in the 1880's and 90's.Newspapers of the period advertisedmummy unwrapping parties at $2.50 ahead and, according to director of theInstitute Carl H. Kraeling, scores ofmummies were imported. "The noveltyof having a mummy around the housesoon wore off, and many people tookthe first opportunity to get rid of them.Museums were the logical target."The eighth mummy, meanwhile, hasbeen taken to the basement of the Oriental Institute, where may be officials willtake another look at it in 28 years or so.General Theory of AgingA general theory can provide an intellectual basis in science upon whichnew experiments and new theories canbe built. It can mean a breakthrough;it can also be a dud. Such theories asYukawa's postulation of the meson onthe atomic nucleus, or Darwin's andWallace's identical theories of biologicalevolution were brilliant insights intoreality. And the reality later was proved.A theory which attempts to explainthe phenomenon of aging has been advanced by Leo Szilard, professor of bio physics at the Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies. With the right numbers,the derivation of which he explains ina recent issue of the Proceedings of theNational Academy of Sciences, Szilardpresents mathematical formulas for agewhich produce distributions of ages atdeath that match well the actual censusof the numbers of persons that die atvarious ages in the United States.Szilard's formulas are based on thehypothesis of "aging hits." The hits inactivate functioning chromosomes; theydo not alter future generations of them,as do mutations.This concept of a "aging hit" is entirely hypothetical, and as such, will beattacked from all quarters. As Dr. Kimball C. Atwood, associate professor ofhuman genetics, points out, it will be ofthe greatest heuristic value. "That is,it will tend to stimulate research, particularly experiments designed to test itspredictions and the nature of the 'aginghit'." The "aging hits" that Szilard postulates occur at random, that is, any cellin the body is as likely to be struck asany other cell. Thus cell death is a probability statistic.The nucleus of every human cell —except the sperm and egg cells — contains23 pairs of chromosomes which directthe intricate manufacture of such basicsubstances as protein. Thus, according toSzilard's theory, when the chromosomeis neutralized its genes can no longerdirect chemical processes. When a singlechromosome is knocked out of commission, its mate can assume its functions.But when both chromosomes are neutralized, the cell dies.As a person grows older, the numberof functioning cells decreases. When lessthan one-third to one-twelfth of the totaladult number remain, the individual diesa "natural" death, Szilard estimates.Among the questions raised by thetheory are: How do you neutralize a4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMiss University of Chicago, Margaret Stinson, presents Irish Consul General SeanRonan with two tickets to the St. Patrick'sDay performance of "Playboy of theWestern World," sponsored by the AlumniAssociation as a benefit for student activities. Maggie is a third generation Chicagoalumna.chromosome without completely destroying it? How can Szilard's theory becorrelated with some current observations and theories of aging? What is thesite of the aging process?According to Dr. Atwood, "Certainlynot all of the body is involved, sincemost organisms of the body replace deadcells by the division of live ones. As anexample, the liver has as many cells atsixty years of age as it did at twentyyears." The site of the aging processmust most likely be in organs which donot have regenerative powers, accordingto Dr. Atwood. The best bet is the cen-trat-nervous system; "brain cells do notdivide during a person's lifetime. Butnot all of the brain is involved, sinceportions can be destroyed in diseasewithout increasing aging."The Happy Farmer?D. Gale Johnson, professor of agricultural economics, has outlined a six-point long-range program for puttingAmerican agriculture on a "profitableand self-sustaining basis." Johnson's goalis to correct the contradictory government programs that manipulate farmprices, resources and incomes, withoutregard to the other areas of the nationaleconomic policy.Realizing that the issues are difficultto solve, Johnson does not predict that,even if his program were followed withgreat vigor, agriculture could becomeself-sustaining in less than five to tenyears. He moreover warns against anysudden change in agricultural programs.These are his six points:•We should stop trying to fool thefarmers about the prospective demand, supply, and the price conditions that are likely to prevailover the next several years, andabout the possibilities of government action to effectively limit theoutput of agricultural products. •We should stop our programsthat have the effect of increasingagricultural output and that cannotbe justified on a direct benefit-costbasis.•The inventories now held and thestocks to be accumulated in thenext years by the CommodityCredit Corporation should be withdrawn from the American marketand disposed of through foreignaid programs.•A new schedule of price supportsover a period of five years shouldbring CCC stocks in line with market prices, and allow farmers toadjust to the lower prices.• If price supports were to be continued after the five years theyshould be used not to influence thelevel of farm prices, but to reduceprice uncertainty confronting farmers, and to provide an even year-to-year distribution of storable supplies.•We must develop a program tofacilitate the transfer of labor fromfarm to non-farm occupation.Mr. Johnson, who has three timeswon the national agricultural economicsaward and served as consultant to theDepartment of Agriculture, pointed outthat "No one seems to be happy withthe present situation — farmers believetheir incomes are too low, consumersthink the prices are too high, tax payersobject to the heavy governmental expenditures, and competing producersand friendly nations object to the damage done to their foreign markets dueto our frenzied effort to dispose of oursurplus stocks." He finds all of thesecomplaints to be well-founded. Therough total effect of all the government's programs of the post-war periodhas been to induce farmers to increaseoutput by as much as to 8 to 10%.The first of the farmers' post-war difficulties resulted from the continuation of price supports at 90% of parityinto the post-war period. This, accordingto Johnson, was a major blunder ineconomic policy. It was an action whichfarm organizations, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and most agricultural economists agreed would lead toexactly the difficulties we now find ourselves in, and is nothing more than, hesays, "an example of logrolling so reminiscent of tariff legislation."The Agricultural Conservation program, in effect since 1936, according toJohnson, helps increase both output andgovernmental costs of price support,while reducing net farm income. Underthis program the farmer pays for halfor more of the cost of such farm practices as fertilization, erosion control,pasture improvements, drainage, andprotective cover crops. "One of thepurposes of the program is, to find ameans of giving money to farmers without being too obvious."Another crop spur is the Federal program for irrigation development. Few,if any of these projects result in netbenefits equal to costs, yet each Congresstends to approve additional projects.The government would do better, Johnson says, to concentrate more of its efforts on research in education. Theseactivities are highly desirable "becausethere is a reasonable presumption thatthe returns from the activities exceedthe costs involved."South Asian Studies ExpandedA Ford Foundation grant of $249,000will enable the Committee on SouthAsian Studies to broaden the scope ofits training and research. The Committee, which is composed of scholars andscientists in anthropology, languages,religion, history, geography, sociology,philosophy, and literature, offers undergraduate programs in introductions toAPRIL, 1959 5the civilizations of India, China, andIslam, as well as graduate-level study.The new resources make possiblethree major appointments, including aspecialist in the Bengali language andliterature, another in Sanskrit and Indiestudies, and a third in the economics ofSouth Asia. The new resources will alsopermit the collection of special librarymaterials for the South Asian area, andan expanded research and field investigation program by senior members ofthe staff.Milton B. Singer, a social anthropologist and secretary of the Committee onSouth Asian Studies, illustrated the magnitude of the task of Americans in understanding Asian cultures in this way:"From what we actually know ofEuropean life and history and from thelittle we are aware of in South Asianlife, we can take the measure of the taskfacing American scholars, educators,statesmen, businessmen, and technicians.Suppose that Columbus had been anAsian, and had set sail from India acrossthe Pacific, instead of the Atlantic, todiscover America. Suppose that theNorth American continent had beensettled from the Eastern instead of theWestern world. Then the problems ofthe United States today would be tolearn almost from the very beginningabout the language and culture of thenations of Europe, just as they must dofor the nations of Asia."Since 1951 a growing number of University of Chicago faculty and researchworkers have been active in the SouthAsian field, particularly in India. TheCommittee was formed in 1954, and atpresent had a total staff of 34 teachingrelated subjects or engaged in research.More than 40 graduate students are enrolled in its programs.What Makes ElectronicBrains Think?Nicholas Constantine Metropolis is afaculty member who has spent most ofhis career thinking about MANIACS.He is director of the Institute of Compu ter Research at the University and professor in the department of physics andthe Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies.The MANIACS he is concerned withare Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical/ntegrater, and Computers. In otherwords, electronic computers.Metropolis has been chosen to headan international panel discussion on thelogic organization of very high speedcomputers at the International Conference on Information Processing, sponsored by UNESCO this June in Paris.He is one of five computer men chosento head group sessions.One of the first scientists to solve problems on ENIAC, the world's first electronic computer, Metropolis' electronicbrain child, MANIAC I, helped to solvethe intricate arithmetic involved in thedevelopment of the hydrogen bomb atthe Los Alamos scientific laboratory.MANIAC II, completed at Los Alamosin 1957, is faster, and even more versatile. The third MANIAC, now in construction at the University of ChicagoInstitutes for Basic Research, will bestill faster and more flexible, and havea greater memory capacity than its olderbrothers.What kind of questions do computerexperts discuss? Here are some of thepoints that will be raised at Mr. Metropolis' symposium:What sort of arithmetic instructionsshould a machine be given?How do you "speak" to it, and howdoes it "speak" back?How much memory should a machinehave, and what should be the hierarchyof things stored?To what extent should the machine"think" ahead, so as to "know" whatoperations to be prepared for?What kind of logical operation shouldthe machine be able to perform, as comparing two numbers and determiningwhich is the larger?Warning to Home DoctorsDr. Frank W. Newell, professor ofophthalmology and head of that section at the University, pointed out at a recentChicago Medical Society meeting thatthe most common eye disorder "pinkeye," or conjunctivitus, has been virtually wiped out by sulpha drugs andantibiotics. Its contagiousness has beenvirtually eliminated, and exposure of theeyes to many bacteria harbored in lungsand throat that used to cause eye infection has also been reduced.However, according to Dr. Newell,"antibiotics are too often supplied fromthe medical cabinet of a relative orfriend who 'had the same kind of pinkeye' sometime in the past." These drugs,instead of helping, cause a supersensitivity of the conjunctiva, or eyeball coating, and the irritated eye will thenviolently react to many other drugs.Locally applied cortisone, for example,can bring on fever blisters.Dr. Newell urges that patients throwaway unused remainder of eye medicinesfor still another reason. "Eye drops andointments are contaminated by bacteria,viruses or yeast after use." Infectionscaused by such germs can sometimeslead to blindness.The ABC's of Rain-Making"In cloud physics, we have a casewhere people try to run before theylearn to walk, and the consequenceshave been disconcerting, to say the least.Now we need desperately to go throughsome of the beginning steps," accordingto Professor Horace R. Byers, chairmanof the Department of Meteorology.Weather permitting, Mr. Byers wouldhave us all walk in the sun, for hewarned against the generally unregulated commercial rain-making, andother radical schemes for weather control in a recent speech he gave at aforum at the Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.In the twelve years since scientificweather modification studies began, Mr.Byers said, "progress has been distressingly slow, mainly because most of theeffort went into trying to apply at onceprinciples that were too poorly under-WUCB MARATHONFeaturing variety (handbells to bongo), the student radiostation WUCB once yearly tries to raise money with around-the-clock marathon. This year they collected about$130 and featured programs like a debate (at left) onbeatnik poetry between Paul Carroll, late of the ChicagoReview, and Robert Lucid of the English department.Center: moderator Harold Haydon, who is dean of6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEstood, instead of into performing research of fundamental importance forour understanding of the atmosphericprocesses involved. Commercial rain-making sprang up throughout the world,and especially in the United States,almost overnight. Unscrupulous operators in some instances engaged in business, making claims that were withoutvalidity. Even today, this activity goeson unregulated, except by some looserequirements in certain states."According to Mr. Byers, we need tohave more statistically well-designedtests for all kinds of clouds, for we needto find the true reason why one cloudproduces rain while another one, likeit in appearance, does not. In addition,much more must be learned of suchphysical phenomena, as the effect uponrain production of ground contours,electrical currents within the clouds,and the general structure and dynamicsof clouds.Mr. Byers, who came to the University in 1950, after having been withthe U.S. Weather Bureau from 1928,speaks from his experience as directorof the Thunderstorm Project in 1945-49,which was an attempt jointly sponsoredby the U.S. Weather Bureau, the AirForce, Navy, and the National AdvisoryCommittee for Aeronautics, to obtaindefinitive material about thunderstorms.He has also led the University's cloudseeding experiments in the tropics andsouthwestern United States.Mentioning a plan for changing theweather at the top of the world, Mr.Byers said, "before we start meltingArctic ice with thermo-nuclear energy,we should be sure we know what theside effects will be." He was referring toa member of the U.S. Weather Bureau,Harry Wexsler, who stated that ten hydrogen bombs placed in the Arctic couldchange ice to steam, the steam wouldform clouds, the clouds would trap thesun's heat reflected from the ice, andthe warmth would moderate Northernwinters, and reduce the intensity of coldwaves rolling southward. 'Queen Clytemnestra has a bad color . . . she puts on blood!'students in the College. The chess playing continued undisturbed during the debate, during a preview of Giraudoux's Electro by University Theatre(top), a live jam session, live wing-ding, a Blackfriars performance, and rock 'n roll. But, the firstannual farewell concert of the Pro Nausea Musica(at right) completely broke up their game. Ther iece: "The Sewers of Rome."PHOTOS: HARVEAPRIL, 1959 7¦ |M I » — J?' • A ^ -» • f^— w ¦ ^rmUjMJDeji JLWiQl' 'tIB^ ^ ^L ^^J .41 r HIA ^k \ B^ •A ^ t * ^ i ^^&^ ¦ ^^^^^^^^¦¦M¦¦tfttjj '¦>.¦ ^--i -*¦-;..- • -;,'.7i+<^ --.'. » . '~r^^^. ¦¦¦K.W\ f 7™|¦!5?r5?>*K^S^Kl£3lfrr3 ^H '^*3nf?k •i*s*^^a^*&iaaX': ¦',,'.. s• .-';;..i .... iTHE COLLEGETEACHER: 1959"If I were sitting hereand the whole outside worldwere indifferent to what Iwas doing, I would still wantto be doing just what lam."I'VE ALWAYS FOUND IT SOMEWHAT HARD TOSAY JUST WHY I CHOSE TO BE A PROFESSOR.There are many reasons, not all of them tangiblethings which can be pulled out and explained. I stillhear people say, "Those wjio can, do; those whocan't, teach." But there are many teachers who can.They are teachers because they have more than theusual desire to communicate. They are excited enoughabout something to want to tell others, have otherslove it as they love it, tell people the how of something, and the why.I like to see students who will carry the intellectualspark into the world beyond my time. And I like tothink that maybe I have something to do with this.THERE IS A CERTAIN FREEDOMIN THIS JOB, TOO.A professor doesn't punch a time clock. He is allowedthe responsibility of planning his own time and activities. This freedom of movement provides somethingvery valuable — time to think and consider.I've always had the freedom to teach what I believeto be true. I have never been interfered with in whatI wanted to say— either in the small college or in thelarge university. I know there have been and are ifl"fringements on academic freedom. But they've neverhappened to me.THE COLLEGETEACHER: 1959I LIKE YOUNG PEOPLE.I REGARD MYSELF AS YOUNG.I'm still eager about many of the things I was eagerabout as a young man. It is gratifying to see brightyoung men and women excited and enthusiastic aboutscholarship. There are times when I feel that I'm onlyan old worn boulder in the never-ending stream ofstudents. There are times when I want to flee, when Ilook ahead to a quieter life of contemplation, ofreading things I've always wanted to read. Then abrilliant and likeable human being comes along,whom I feel I can help — and this makes it all themore worthwhile. When I see a young teacher get astart, I get a vicarious feeling of beginning again.AND THERE IS THISMATTER OF "STATUS."Terms like "egghead" tend to suggest that the intellectual is something like a toadstool — almost physically different from everyone else. America is obsessed with stereotypes. There is a whole spectrum ofpersonalities in education, all individuals. The notionthat the intellectual is somebody totally removed fromwhat human beings are supposed to be is absurd. THE COLLEGETEACHER: 1959PEOPLE ASK ME ABOUT THE"DRAWBACKS" IN TEACHING.I find it difficult to be glib about this. There are majorproblems to be faced. There is this business of salaries,of status and dignity, of anti-intellectualism, of toomuch to do in too little time. But these ate problems,not drawbacks. A teacher doesn't become a teacherin spite of them, but with an awareness that theyexist and need to be solved.TODAY MAN HAS LESS TIMEALONE THAN ANY MAN BEFORE HIM.But we are here for only a limited time, and I wouldrather spend such time as I have thinking about themeaning of the universe and the purpose of man, thandoing something else. I've spent hours in librariesand on park benches, escaping long enough to do alittle thinking. I can be found occasionally sittingout there with sparrows perching on me, almost."We may always be running just to keepfrom falling behind. But the person whois a teacher because he wants to teach,because he is deeply interested in peopleand scholarship, will pursue it as long ashe can." — Loren C. EiseleyTA he circumstance is a strange one. In recentyears Americans have spent more money on the trappings ofhigher education than ever before in history. Moreparents than ever have set their sights on a college educationfor their children. More buildings than everhave been put up to accommodate the crowds. But in themidst of this national preoccupation with highereducation, the indispensable element in education — theteacher — somehow has been overlooked.The results are unfortunate — not only for college teachers, butfor college teaching as well, and for all whose lives it touches.If allowed to persist, present conditions could leadto so serious a decline in the excellence of higher educationthat we would require generations to recover from it.Among educators, the problem is the subjectof current concern and debate and experiment. What is missing,and urgently needed, is full public awareness of theproblem — and full public support of measures to deal with it.A Xere is a task for the college alumnus and alumna. No oneknows the value of higher education better thanthe educated. No one is better able to take action, and topersuade others to take action, to preserve and increase its value.Will they do it? The outlines of the problem, and someguideposts to action, appear in the pages that follow-WILL WE RUN OUT OFCOLLEGE TEACHERS?No; there will always be someone to fill classroom vacancies. Butquality is almost certain to drop unless something is done quicklyWl IERE WILL THE TEACHERS COME FROM?The number of students enrolled in America'scolleges and universities this year exceeds lastyear's figure by more than a quarter million. In ten yearsit should pass six million — nearly double today's enrollment.The number of teachers also may have to double. Someeducators say that within a decade 495,000 may be needed—more than twice the present number.Can we hope to meet the demand? If so, what is likelyto happen to the quality of teaching in the process?"Great numbers of youngsters will flood into our colleges and universities whether we are prepared or not," areport of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement ofTeaching has pointed out. "These youngsters will betaught— taught well or taught badly. And the demand forteachers will somehow be at least partly met — if not withwell-prepared teachers then with ill-prepared, if not withsuperior teachers then with inferior ones."Most immediate is the problem of finding enoughqualified teachers to meet classes next fall. College administrators must scramble to do so."The taffing problems are the worst in my 30 years'experience at hiring teaching staff," said one college president, replying to a survey by the U.S. Office of Education's Division of Higher Education."The securing and retaining of well-trained, effectiveteachers is the outstanding problem confronting all colleges today," said another.One logical place to start reckoning with the teacherMortage is on the present faculties of American colleges•d universities. The shortage is hardly alleviated by the¦8 that substantial numbers of men and women find it8e°essary to leave college teaching each year, for largely financial reasons. So serious is this problem — and sorelevant is it to the college alumnus and alumna — that aseparate article in this report is devoted to it.The scarcity of funds has led most colleges and universities to seek at least short-range solutions to theteacher shortage by other means.Difficulty in finding young new teachers to fill facultyvacancies is turning the attention of more and more administrators to the other end of the academic line, wheretried and able teachers are about to retire. A few institutions have modified the upper age limits for faculty. Othersare keeping selected faculty members on the payroll pastthe usual retirement age. A number of institutions aretilling their own vacancies with the cream of the men andwomen retired elsewhere, and two organizations, the Association of American Colleges and the American Association of University Professors, with the aid of a grant fromthe Ford Foundation, have set up a "Retired ProfessorsRegistry" to facilitate the process.Old restraints and handicaps for the woman teacher aredisappearing in the colleges. Indeed, there are specialopportunities for her, as she earns her standing alongsidethe man who teaches. But there is no room for complacency here. We can no longer take it for granted thatthe woman teacher will be any more available than theman, for she exercises the privilege of her sex to changeher mind about teaching as about other matters. SaysDean Nancy Duke Lewis of Pembroke College: "The dayhas passed when we could assume that every woman whoearned her Ph.D. would go into college teaching. Sheneeds something positive today to attract her to the colleges because of the welcome that awaits her talents inbusiness, industry, government, or the foundations. Herfreedom to choose comes at a time when undergraduatewomen particularly need distinguished women scholars toinspire them to do their best in the classroom and laboratory — and certainly to encourage them to elect collegeteaching as a career."Some hard-pressed administrators find themselvesforced to accelerate promotions and salary increasesin order to attract and hold faculty members. Manyare being forced to settle for less qualified teachers.In an effort to attract and keep teachers, most collegesare providing such necessities as improved research facilities and secretarial help to relieve faculty members ofpaperwork and administrative burdens, thus giving facultymembers more time to concentrate on teaching andresearch.In the process of revising their curricula many collegesare eliminating courses that overlap one another or areconsidered frivolous. Some are increasing the size oflecture classes and eliminating classes they deem too small.Finally, somewhat in desperation (but also with thefirm conviction that the technological age must, after all,have something of value to offer even to the most basicand fundamental exercises of education), experiments arebeing conducted with teaching by films and television.At Penn State, where televised instruction is in its ninthsemester, TV has met with mixed reactions. Studentsconsider it a good technique for teaching courses with large enrollments — and their performance in courses employing television has been as good as that of studentshaving personal contact with their teachers. The reactionof faculty members has been less favorable. But acceptance appears to be growing: the number of courses offeredon television has grown steadily, and the number of facultymembers teaching via TV has grown, also.Elsewhere, teachers are far from unanimity on the subject of TV. "Must the TV technicians take over the colleges?" asked Professor Ernest Earnest of Temple University in an article title last fall. "Like the conventionallecture system, TV lends itself to the sausage-stuffing concept of education," Professor Earnest said. The classroom,he argued, "is the place for testing ideas and skills, for theinterchange of ideas" — objectives difficult to attain whenone's teacher is merely a shadow on a fluorescent screen.The TV pioneers, however, believe the medium, usedproperly, holds great promise for the future.For the long run, the traditional sources of supplyfor college teaching fall far short of meeting the demand. The Ph.D., for example, long regarded bymany colleges and universities as the ideal "driverslicense" for teachers, is awarded to fewer than 9,000persons per year. Even if, as is probable, the number otstudents enrolled in Ph.D. programs rises over the nextfew years, it will be a long time before they have traveledthe full route to the degree.Meanwhile, the demand for Ph. D.'s grows, as industry,consulting firms, and government compete for many of themen and women who do obtain the degree. Thus, at thevery time that a great increase is occurring in the numberof undergraduates who must be taught, the supply of newcollege teachers with the rank of Ph.D. is even shorterthan usual."During each of the past four years," reported theNational Education Association in 1958, "the averagelevel of preparation of newly employed teachers hasfallen. Four years ago no less than 3 1 .4 per cent of thenew teachers held the earned doctor's degree. Last yearonly 23.5 per cent were at this high level of preparation."Here are some of the causes of concern about thePh.D., to which educators are directing theirattention:? The Ph.D. program, as it now exists in most graduateschools, does not sufficiently emphasize the developmentof teaching skills. As a result, many Ph.D.'s go intoteaching with little or no idea how to teach, and makea mess of it when they try. Many who don't go intoteaching might have done so, had a greater emphasis been'aid upon it when they were graduate students. ? The Ph.D. program is indefinite in its time requirements: they vary from school to school, from departmentto department, from student to student, far more thanseems warranted. "Generally the Ph.D. takes at leastfour years to get," says a committee of the Associationof Graduate Schools. "More often it takes six or seven,and not infrequently ten to fifteen. ... If we put our headsto the matter, certainly we ought to be able to say to agood student: 'With a leeway of not more than one year,it will take you so and so long to take the Ph.D.' "? "Uncertainty about the time required," says theAssociation's Committee on Policies in Graduate Education, "leads in turn to another kind of uncertainty —financial uncertainty. Doubt and confusion on this scorehave a host of disastrous effects. Many superior men,facing unknowns here, abandon thoughts about workingfor a Ph.D. and realistically go off to law or the like. . . ."A lthough roughly half of the teachers in Amer-/\ ica's colleges and universities hold the Ph.D., more•*- ^- than three quarters of the newcomers to collegeand university teaching, these days, don't have one. Inthe years ahead, it appears inevitable that the proportionof Ph.D.'s to non-Ph.D.'s on America's faculties willdiminish.Next in line, after the doctorate, is the master's degree.For centuries the master's was "the" degree, until, withthe growth of the Ph.D. in America, it began to be movedinto a back seat. In Great Britain its prestige is still high.But in America the M.A. has, in some graduate schools,deteriorated. Where the M.A.'s standards have been kepthigh, on the other hand, able students have been able toprepare themselves, not only adequately but well, forcollege teaching.Today the M.A. is one source of hope in the teachershortage. "If the M.A. were of universal dignity andgood standing," says the report of the Committee onPolicies in Graduate Education, "... this ancient degreecould bring us succor in the decade ahead. . . ."The nub of the problem ... is to gtt rid of 'good' and'bad' M.A.'s and to set up generally a 'rehabilitated' degree which will have such worth in its own right thata man entering graduate school will consider the possibility of working toward the M.A. as the first step to thePh.D "One problem would remain. "If you have a master'sdegree you are still a mister and if you have a Ph.D., nomatter where it is from, you are a doctor," Dean G. BruceDearing, of the University of Delaware, has said. "Thetown looks at you differently. Business looks at you differently. The dean may; it depends on how discriminatinghe is."The problem won't be solved, W. R. Dennes, formerdean of the graduate school of the University of Californiaat Berkeley, has said, "until universities have the courage... to select men very largely on the quality of work theyhave done and soft-pedal this matter of degrees."A point for parents and prospective students to remember — and one of which alumni and alumnae might remind them — is that counting the number of Ph.D.'s in acollege catalogue is not the only, or even necessarily thebest, way to judge the worth of an educational institutionor its faculty's abilities. To base one's judgment solely onsuch a count is quite a temptation, as William James noted56 years ago in "The Ph.D. Octopus": "The dazzled reader of the list, the parent or student, says to himself, 'Thismust be a terribly distinguished crowd — their titles shinelike the stars in the firmament; Ph.D.'s, Sc.D.'s, andLittD.'s bespangle the page as if they were sprinkled overit from a pepper caster.' "The Ph.D. will remain higher education's most honoredearned degree. It stands for a depth of scholarship andproductive research to which the master has not yetaddressed himself so intensively. But many educationalleaders expect the doctoral programs to give more em phasis to teaching. At the same time the master's degreewill be strengthened and given more prestige.In the process the graduate schools will have taken along step toward solving the shortage of qualified collegeteachers.Some of the changes being made by colleges anduniversities to meet the teacher shortage constitutereasonable and overdue reforms. Other changes areadmittedly desperate — and possibly dangerous — attemptsto meet today's needs.The central problem is to get more young peopleinterested in college teaching. Here, college alumni andalumnae have an opportunity to provide a badly neededservice to higher education and to superior young peoplethemselves. The problem of teacher supply is not onewith which the college administrator is able to cope alone.President J. Seelye Bixler, of Colby College, recentlysaid: "Let us cultivate a teacher-centered point of view.There is tragedy as well as truth in the old saying that inEurope when you meet a teacher you tip your hat, whereasover here you tap your head. Our debt to our teachers isvery great, and fortunately we are beginning to realizethat we must make some attempt to balance the account.Money and prestige are among the first requirements."Most important is independence. Too often we sitback with the comfortable feeling that our teachers haveall the freedom they desire. We forget that the payoffcomes in times of stress. Are we really willing to allowthem independence of thought when a national emergencyis in the offing? Are we ready to defend them against allpressure groups and to acknowledge their right to act ascritics of our customs, our institutions, and even ournational policy? Evidence abounds that for some of ourmore vociferous compatriots this is too much. They see noreason why such privileges should be offered or why ateacher should not express his patriotism in the same outworn and often irrelevant shibboleths they find so dearand so hard to give up. Surely our educational task hasnot been completed until we have persuaded them that ateacher should be a pioneer, a leader, and at times a nonconformist with a recognized right to dissent. As HowardMumford Jones has observed, we can hardly allow ourselves to become a nation proud of machines that thinkand suspicious of any man who tries to."By lending their support to programs designed to improve the climate for teachers at their own colleges, alummcan do much to alter the conviction held by many thatteaching is tolerable only to martyrs.WHAT PRICEDEDICATION?Most teachers teach because they love their jobs. But low pay isforcing many to leave the profession, just when we need them mostEvery Tuesday evening f or the past three and a halfmonths, the principal activity of a 34-year-oldf associate professor of chemistry at a first-rate mid-western college has centered around Section 3 of the previous Sunday's New York Times. The Times, which arrives at his office in Tuesday afternoon's mail delivery,customarily devotes page after page of Section 3 to largehelp-wanted ads, most of them directed at scientists andengineers. The associate professor, a Ph.D., is job-hunting."There's certainly no secret about it," he told a recentvisitor. "At least two others in the department are looking, too. We'd all give a lot to be able to stay in teaching; that's what we're trained for, that's what we like.But we simply can't swing it financially.""I'm up against it this spring," says the chairman ofthe physics department at an eastern college for women."Within the past two weeks two of my people, one anassociate and one an assistant professor, turned in theirresignations, effective in June. Both are leaving the field—one for a job in industry, the other for governmentwork. I've got strings out, all over the country, but sofar I've found no suitable replacements. We've alwaysprided ourselves on having Ph.D.'s in these jobs, but itlooks as if that's one resolution we'll have to break in1959-60.""We're a long way from being able to compete withindustry when young people put teaching and industry onthe scales," says Vice Chancellor Vern O. Knudsen ofUCLA. "Salary is the real rub, of course. Ph.D.'s inphysics here in Los Angeles are getting $8-12,000 in industry without any experience, while about all we canoffer them is $5,500. Things are not much better in thechemistry department."One young Ph.D. candidate sums it up thus: "We wantto teach and we want to do basic research, but industryoffers us twice the salary we can get as teachers. We talkit over with our wives, but it's pretty hard to turn down$10,000 to work for less than half that amount.""That woman you saw leaving my office: she's one ofour most brilliant young teachers, and she was ready toleave us," said a women's college dean recently. "I persuaded her to postpone her decision for a couple ofmonths, until the results of the alumnae fund drive are in.We're going to use that money entirely for raising salaries, this year. If it goes over the top, we'll be able to holdsome of our best people. If it falls short. . . I'm on thephone every morning, talking to the fund chairman,counting those dollars, and praying."The dimensions of the teacher-salary problem in theUnited States and Canada are enormous. It hasreached a point of crisis in public institutions and inprivate institutions, in richly endowed institutions as wellas in poorer ones. It exists even in Catholic colleges anduniversities, where, as student populations grow, moreand more laymen must be found in order to supplementthe limited number of clerics available for teaching posts."In a generation," says Seymour E. Harris, the distinguished Harvard economist, "the college professor haslost 50 per cent in economic status as compared to theaverage American. His real income has declined sub-stantially, while that of the average American has risenby 70-80 per cent."Figures assembled by the American Association ofUniversity Professors show how seriously the collegeteacher's economic standing has deteriorated. Since1939, according to the AAUP's latest study (published in1958), the purchasing power of lawyers rose 34 per cent,that of dentists 54 per cent, and that of doctors 98 percent. But at the five state universities surveyed by theAAUP, the purchasing power of teachers in all ranks roseonly 9 per cent. And at twenty-eight privately controlledinstitutions, the purchasing power of teachers' salariesdropped by 8.5 per cent. While nearly everybody else inthe country was gaining ground spectacularly, teacherswere losing it.The AAUP's sample, it should be noted, is not representative of all colleges and universities in the UnitedStates and Canada. The institutions it contains are, asthe AAUP says, "among the better colleges and universities in the country in salary matters." For America as awhole, the situation is even worse.The National Education Association, which studiedthe salaries paid in the 1957-58 academic year by morethan three quarters of the nation's degree-granting institutions and by nearly two thirds of the junior colleges,found that half of all college and university teachersearned less than $6,015 per year. College instructorsearned a median salary of only $4,562 — not much betterthan the median salary of teachers in public elementaryschools, whose economic plight is well known.The implications of such statistics are plain."Higher salaries," says Robert Lekachman, professorof economics at Barnard College, "would make teachinga reasonable alternative for the bright young lawyer, thebright young doctor. Any ill-paid occupation becomessomething of a refuge for the ill-trained, the lazy, and theincompetent. If the scale of salaries isn't improved, thequality of teaching won't improve; it will worsen. UnlessAmericans are willing to pay more for higher education,they will have to be satisfied with an inferior product."Says President Margaret Clapp of Wellesley College,which is devoting all of its fund-raising efforts to accumulating enough money ($15 million) to strengthen facultysalaries: "Since the war, in an effort to keep alive theprofession, discussion in America of teachers' salaries hasnecessarily centered on the minimums paid. But insofaras money is a factor in decision, wherever minimums onlyare stressed, the appeal is to the underprivileged and thetimid; able and ambitious youths are not likely to listen." PEOPLE IN SHORT SUPPLY:WHAT IS THE ANSWER?It appears certain that if college teaching is toattract and hold top-grade men and women, adrastic step must be taken: salaries must be doubledwithin five to ten years.There is nothing extravagant about such a proposal;indeed, it may dangerously understate the need. Thecurrent situation is so serious that even doubling his salary would not enable the college teacher to regain hisformer status in the American economy.Professor Harris of Harvard figures it this way:For every $100 he earned in 1930, the college facultymember earned only $85, in terms of 1930 dollars, in1957. By contrast, the average American got $175 in1957 for every $100 he earned in 1930. Even if the professor's salary is doubled in ten years, he will get only aTEACHERS IN THE MARKETPLACE$70 increase in buying power over 1930. By contrast, theaverage American is expected to have $127 more buyingpower at the end of the same period.In this respect, Professor Harris notes, doubling facultysalaries is a modest program. "But in another sense," hesays, "the proposed rise seems large indeed. None of theauthorities . . . has told us where the money is comingfrom." It seems quite clear that a fundamental change inpublic attitudes toward faculty salaries will be necessarybefore significant progress can be made.Finding the money is a problem with which eachcollege must wrestle today without cease.For some, it is a matter of convincing taxpayersand state legislators that appropriating money for faculty salaries is even more important than appropriatingmoney for campus buildings. (Curiously, buildings areusually easier to "sell" than pay raises, despite the seemingly obvious fact that no one was ever educated by a pileof bricks.)For others, it has been a matter of fund-raising campaigns ("We are writing salary increases into our 1959-60budget, even though we don't have any idea where themoney is coming from," says the president of a privatelysupported college in the Mid-Atlantic region); of findingadditional salary money in budgets that are alreadyspread thin ("We're cutting back our library's bookbudget again, to gain some funds in the salary accounts");of tuition increases ("This is about the only private enterprise in the country which gladly subsidizes its customers;maybe we're crazy"); of promoting research contracts("We claim to be a privately supported university, butwhat would we do without the AEC?"); and of bargaining."The tendency to bargain, on the part of both the colleges and the teachers, is a deplorable development," saysthe dean of a university in the South. But it is a growing practice. As a result, inequities have developed: theteacher in a field in which people are in short supply or inindustrial demand — or the teacher who is adept at"campus politics" — is likely to fare better than his colleagues who are less favorably situated."Before you check with the administration on theactual appointment of a specific individual," says afaculty man quoted in the recent and revealing book, TheAcademic Marketplace, "you can be honest and say tothe man, 'Would you be interested in coming at thisamount?' and he says, 'No, but I would be interested atthis amount.' " One result of such bargaining has beenthat newly hired faculty members often make moremoney than was paid to the people they replace — a happycircumstance for the newcomers, but not likely to raisethe morale of others on the faculty."We have been compelled to set the beginning salaryof such personnel as physics professors at least $1,500higher than salaries in such fields as history, art, physicaleducation, and English," wrote the dean of faculty in astate college in the Rocky Mountain area, in response to arecent government questionnaire dealing with salary practices. "This began about 1954 and has worked until thepresent year, when the differential perhaps may be increased even more."Bargaining is not new in Academe (Thorstein Veblenreferred to it in The Higher Learning, which he wrote in1918), but never has it been as widespread or as much amatter of desperation as today. In colleges and universities, whose members like to think of themselves as equallydedicated to all fields of human knowledge, it may proveto be a weakening factor of serious proportions.Many colleges and universities have managed to makemodest across-the-board increases, designed to restorepart of the faculty's lost purchasing power. In the 1957-58 academic year, 1,197 institutions, 84.5 per cent ofthose answering a U.S. Office of Education survey question on the point, gave salary increases of at least 5 percent to their faculties as a whole. More than half of them(248 public institutions and 329 privately supported institutions) said their action was due wholly or in part to theteacher shortage.Others have found fringe benefits to be a partialanswer. Providing low-cost housing is a particularly successful way of attracting and holding faculty members;and since housing is a major item in a family budget, itis as good as or better than a salary increase. OglethorpeUniversity in Georgia, for example, a 200-student, private, liberal arts institution, long ago built houses on campus land (in one of the most desirable residential areas onthe outskirts of Atlanta), which it rents to faculty members at about one-third the area's going rate. (The costof a three-bedroom faculty house: $50 per month.) "It'sour major selling point," says Oglethorpe's president,Donald Agnew, "and we use it for all it's worth."Dartmouth, in addition to attacking the salary problemitself, has worked out a program of fringe benefits thatincludes full payment of retirement premiums (16 percent of each faculty member's annual salary), group insurance coverage, paying the tuition of faculty children atany college in the country, liberal mortgage loans, andcontributing to the improvement of local schools whichfaculty members' children attend.Taking care of trouble spots while attempting to whittledown the salary problem as a whole, searching for newfunds while reapportioning existing ones, the colleges anduniversities are dealing with their salary crises as best theycan, and sometimes ingeniously. But still the gap betweensalary increases and the rising figures on the Bureau ofLabor Statistics' consumer price index persists.HOW CAN THE GAP BE CLOSED?First, stringent economies must be applied byeducational institutions themselves. Any wastethat occurs, as well as most luxuries, is probably beingsubsidized by low salaries. Some "waste" may be hidden in educational theories so old that they are acceptedwithout question; if so, the theories must be re-examinedand, if found invalid, replaced with new ones. The ideaof the small class, for example, has long been honoredby administrators and faculty members alike; there isnow reason to suspect that large classes can be equallyeffective in many courses — a suspicion which, if foundcorrect, should be translated into action by those institutions which are able to do so. Tuition may have to beincreased — a prospect at which many public-college, aswell as many private-college, educators shudder, butwhich appears justified and fair if the increases can betied to a system of loans, scholarships, and tuition rebates based on a student's or his family's ability to pay.Second, massive aid must come from the public, bothin the form of taxes for increased salaries in state andmunicipal institutions and in the form of direct gifts toboth public and private institutions. Anyone who givesmoney 4o a college or university for unrestricted use orearmarked for faculty salaries can be sure that he is making one of the best possible investments in the free world'sfuture. If he is himself a college alumnus, he may consider it a repayment of a debt he incurred when his college or university subsidized a large part of his own education (virtually nowhere does, or did, a student's tuitioncover costs). If he is a corporation executive or director,he may consider it a legitimate cost of doing business; thesupply of well-educated men and women (the alternativeto which is half-educated men and women) is dependentupon it. If he is a parent, he may consider it a premiumon a policy to insure high-quality education for his children — quality which, without such aid, he can be certainwill deteriorate.Plain talk between educators and the public is a thirdnecessity. The president of Barnard College, Millicent C.Mcintosh, says: "The 'plight' is not of the faculty, but ofthe public. The faculty will take care of themselves in thefuture either by leaving the teaching profession or bynever entering it. Those who care for education, thosewho run institutions of learning, and those who have children — all these will be left holding the bag." It is hard tobelieve that if Americans — and particularly college alumni and alumnae — had been aware of the problem, theywould have let faculty salaries fall into a sad state. Americans know the value of excellence in higher education toowell to have blithely let its basic element — excellent teaching — slip into its present peril. First we must rescue it;then we must make certain that it does not fall into disrepair again.Some1^1X6 StZLO J1S^ Is your Alma Mater having difficulty finding qualifiednew teachers to fill vacancies and expand its faculty tomeet climbing enrollments?^ Has the economic status of faculty members of yourcollege kept up with inflationary trends?> Are the physical facilities of your college, includinglaboratories and libraries, good enough to attract andhold qualified teachers?? Is your community one which respects the collegeteacher? Is the social and educational environment ofyour college's "home town" one in which a teacher wouldlike to raise his family?? Are the restrictions on time and freedom of teachersat your college such as to discourage adventurous research,careful preparation of instruction, and the expression ofhonest conviction?? To meet the teacher shortage, is your college forcedto resort to hiring practices that are unfair to segments ofthe faculty it already has?? Are courses of proved merit being curtailed? Areclasses becoming larger than subject matter or safeguardsof teacher-student relationships would warrant?? Are you, as an alumnus, and your college as an institution, doing everything possible to encourage talentedyoung people to pursue careers in college teaching?If you are dissatisfied with the answers to these questions,your college may nQtd help. Contact alumni officials atyour college to learn if your concern is justified. If it is,register your interest in helping the college authoritiesfind solutions through appropriate programs of organizedalumni cooperation.EDITORIAL STAFFDAVID A. BURRThe University of OklahomaDAN H. FENN, Jr.Harvard UniversityRANDOLPH L. FORTEmory UniversityCORBIN GWALTNEYThe Johns Hopkins UniversityL. FRANKLIN HEALDThe University of New HampshireCHARLES M. HELMKENSt. John's UniversityJEAN D. LINEHANThe American Alumni CouncilROBERT L. PAYTONWashington UniversityMARIAN POVERMANBarnard College FRANCES PROVENCEBaylor UniversityROBERT M. RHODESLehigh UniversityWILLIAM SCHRAMMThe University of PennsylvaniaVERNE A. STADTMANThe University of CaliforniaFREDERIC A. STOTT, Jr.Phillips Academy, AndoverFRANK J. TATEThe Ohio State UniversityERIK WENSBERGColumbia UniversityCHARLES E. WIDMAYERDartmouth CollegeREBA W1LCOXONThe University of ArkansasCHESLEY WORTHINGTONBrown UniversityACKNOWLEDGMENTSPhotographs: Alan J. BeardenPrinting: R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co.This survey was made possible in part by funds granted by Carnegie Corporation of New York.That Corporation is not, however, the author, owner, publisher, or proprietor of this publicationand is not to be understood as approving by virtue of its grant any of the statements made orviews expressed therein.The editors are indebted to Loren C. Eiseley, professor of anthropology at the University ofPennsylvania, for his contributions to the introductory picture section of this report.No part of this report may be reprintedwithout express permission of the editors.PRINTED IN U.S.A.poojcs^and AL-^Jrv/IMIPlays and Poems: 1948-58 by Elder Olson, '34, AM '35, PhD. 38, professor ofEnglish, currently visiting professor ofcriticism at Indiana University. Universityof Chicago Press, 1958, Pp. 169, $4.00.Elder Olson is one of the professor-poetswho, in the company of Archibald MacLeish, Howard Nemerov and Ivor Winters,has demonstrated by impressive creativeproductions that the academic life is notnecessarily at a remove from that of art —the "ivory tower" is today a busy workshop.Those of us who read Olson's plays andpoems as they appear in such magazines asHudson and Partisan Reviews, Poetry andThe New Yorker, can only respond withgreat pleasure to the publication of a generous selection of this work.In Faust, A Masque, Olson displays theskill of a major poet as he develops somenew and unique variations on the Faustlegend. His images are sharp and pithy:We are wary, we are accustomed todeception from our cradle,The honeyed finger for tit, the fakedmaidenhead, the stateman's promise,The little rouge that makes the dead lookhealthy . . .Frequently his characters make observations having wide application:How one grovels like an animal in painamong one's memories . . .Believe me, there is something in us— The soul perhaps — sits like a clerkat his desk,Scribing and summing all . . .Lines like these are equal to Eliot's "Andlast the rending pain of re-enactment . . ."Olson is particularly adept at wit, ranging from the burlesque of his prose playsto the metaphysical conceit which he canelaborate. In The Sorcerer's Apprenticestwo servants visit the tower study of amagician and are eventually confrontedby a talking skull which turns out be thatof Aristotle. Greek spoken by a skullnaturally bewilders them. The scene provides a good deal of humor as one of theservants reassures his friend that "a voice can't do nobody no harm." But his friendanswers:You'd be surprised what a voice can do,A voice can put a notion in a head,A notion in a head can wreck the world.At first presented comically, this is thetheme which the rest of the play's actiondemonstrates.The radio play, The Carnival of Animals, which won a national award in 1957,compares favorably with MacLeish's /. B.Olson uses the themes of illusion and reality, of deception and magical trickery, toprobe deeply and eloquently into man'sexperience and fears. He matches MacLeish in his success with this large task.For sheer enjoyment, my choice of theplays was The Illusionists. In an urbaneCocktail Party tone, a group of future interplanetary diplomats receive the ambassador from Earth. The mingling of Orwell-Huxley revelations with a tone of trivialsociability provides the unique flavor of theplay. Highly original in conception, thedrama provides a picture of the future stateas one where illusion and dream replaceall activity (except that of machines), solving the problem of production and consumption. Instead of knowing the frustrations of acting and thus of reality all thecitizens merely dream:That man's moving his mouth — probablydreaming that he's making a fiery speech.He thinks that flags are flying, that greatcrowds are cheering his every word, thathis eloquence is about to bring him intopower . . . This one's moving his fingers —probably playing some musical instrument — brilliantly and perfectly of course.Olson has made this fantasy into a metaphorical comment on certain aspects of oursociety. The ambassador's son observesthat "We have lots of propaganda — notfalse propaganda, you understand, but truepropaganda. Everyone believes it — everyone . . ."And when the same boy recoils at thepractice of each man simply dreaming ofthe same sensational woman, Lilia, he isasked:— My dear boy — is there any woman onUrth with whom many thousands ofmen are in love?— Yes, I suppose so. Movie stars andactresses, for instance.— Can all the men who love these womenget to know them intimately?— Of course not.— Well — this way they can.Olson is speaking of a world in which thereare no unsatisfied desires, the logical endof all our misguided science and philosophy. The play is so much more successfuland convincing than many Orwell-Huxleytype fantasies because it is executed withan air of complete realism, without anyintrusion of science-fiction horrors. Thereis a sense of probability usually lacking infantasy plays. And in coming up with somenew tricks in the genre Olson has made agenuine contribution in a field in whichmany have failed.Among the poems are included some ofthe best from Olson's previous volumes,Thing of Sorrow, The Cock of Heaven, and The Scarecrow Christ. My own favorites include "Plot Improbable, CharacterUnsympathetic," "Jack-in-the Box," (bothwidely familiar through the Oscar Williamsanthology of American verse), "The Cry,""A Nocturnal for his Children," "In Defense of Superficiality," "Mobile By Cal-der," and more than any other — "Punchand Judy Songs." Certain of these poemsremind me of Richard Wilbur and of Yeats,not in any way by derivation, but by asharing of intensity and beauty. Olson observes, in his "A Valentine for MarianneMoore":Detestable the eloquenceThat must turn each pebble to a jewelTo make it a fit subject; yes, and hatefulThe raging of a false poetic fire,The bellows working audibly . . .He observes the criterion himself; the artis always silently at work, evading therange of eye or ear; and the images are assharp and familiar as the objects within therange of our touch:Strange — at such a time — to noticeA butterfly. Just out of its cocoon;It lay upon a sun-warmed stone, movedfeeblyWings that in minutes, doubtless, wouldunfoldTo full perfection; a thing so delicateIt was difficult to think that the samepowerThat made the enormous suns had madethis too . . .David Ray, '52, AM '57, former ChicagoReview editor, editor of its forthcomingAnthology; Dept. of English, NorthernIllinois University, DeKalb.Geology of The Great Lakes, by Jack L.Hough, '32, SM '34, PhD. '40, Universityof Illinois Press, 1958, Pp. 313, $8.50The North American Great Lakes areone of the unique features of physicalgeography. Nowhere else on earth is thereany comparable array of fresh waterbodies. The Great Lakes also happen tolie in a area that has the most completerecord of later Pleistocene glaciation thusfar found in North America, and the history of the lakes is intimately associatedwith those glacial events. The sequence ofrise and fall of the lake levels associatedwith retreats and advances of the glacialice fronts and the successive blocking andfreeing of different outlets of the lakes constitute a most complicated sequence ofevents; a fascinating puzzle that generationsof geologists and physiographers haveworked diligently to solve. The latter factis attested by the more than 230 paperscited in the bibliography of Jack L.Hough's Geology of the Great Lakes.Dr. Hough has essayed a fairly completesummary of both the natural characteristics of the Great Lakes and the history oftheir development. He bases his accounton a thorough acquaintance with the entiregeological literature pertaining to the lakesand on many years of field research of hisown on the Great Lakes. He has directedAPRIL, 1959 25his volume to both the professional geologist and the layman. The work is of utilityand interest to the geologist because it giveshim a complete summary of the presentstate of knowledge concerning the physiography and geologic history of the lakes,and thereby spares him the necessity ofreading and summarizing the extensive literature for himself.One of the gratifying aspects of physiographic research is the fact that the resultscan easily be comprehended by the layman,no matter how much skillful observation,imaginative theorizing, and shrewd deduction may have been required for the successful solution of the problems. Severalsections in Part 1 of the volume are intended to acquaint the lay reader withsome background facts about techniquesof geological investigation, and if the nonprofessional will read those sections carefully he will find that there is little in therest of the book that he cannot understand,even though Part II is primarily directedto the trained geologist.Major problems concerning the GreatLakes still remain to be solved, however.It is common knowledge that the watersurface levels of the Great Lakes fluctuateup and down notably. (Hough presentsgraphs showing a hundred-year record ofthese variations.) As yet, however, thereis no satisfactory explanation for thesefluctuations. Although many details of thephysiography of the Great Lakes areknown with great precision, the geologicalorigins of the main outlines of the lakebasins are still relatively obscure. And there are numerous other problems. The Geologyof the Great Lakes clearly and conciselysummarizes what is known about the GreatLakes and calls attention to much that isnot known. In short, it is an authoritativetreatment of a most interesting subject.Wesley Calef, PhD. '48, Professor ofGeography, University of Chicago.The Philosophy of Plotinus: EmileBrehier, translated by Joseph Thomas, AM'26, associate minister of the First Methodist Church, Evanston, Illinois. Universityof Chicago Press, 1958, Pp. 197, $4.50.Plotinus, the last great figure in Greekphilosophy, who flourished in the thirdcentury A.D., is not well know amongreaders of English. This is partly becausethe fifty-four treatises which make up theEnneads are a forbidding mass for anyreader to tackle and were not all availablein English anyway until the late Dean Ingetranslated them. It is also because Plotinus'way of thinking — "Neo-Platonic," but notvery much like Plato, really — is not of akind that comes naturally to us, even whenwe are fairly well acquainted with othertypes of philosophy.Plotinus' thought, then, has been particularly in need of an introduction thatwould help ordinarily intelligent readersget the hang of it and find their waythrough his writings. The thumb-nailsketches to be found in most standard histories of philosophy say too little; andthey are more often than not the work ofmen whose acquaintance with Plotinus hasbeen skimpy when not at second hand. Ingiving us a good translation of this shortand lucid book by M. Brehier, therefore.the Reverend loseph Thomas has at oncehelped make accessible an unjustly neglected chapter in the history of philosophyand honored his former teacher by translating the first work of that outstandingscholar to appear in English.Like his contemporaries Etienne Gilsonand Leon Robin, Brehier represents Frenchscholarship at its best, combining literarydistinction and clear exposition with anintimate understanding of his subject. Heis not here writing for other scholars, butfor what used to be called "the republic ofletters," and his quality comes through verywell in English, thanks to Mr. Thomas'careful and unobtrusive translation. In addition to writing a notable general historyof philosophy, Brehier edited the first modern critical text of Plotinus' Enneads andtranslated them into French. He is unexcelled in his knowledge of the period. Hecould therefore draw on rich reserves ofpower in producing this sensible and illuminating little book. In it he gives us aninterpretation of Plotinus' philosophy as awhole in the context of its time, whileshowing how, like all first-rate philosophy,it continues to be significant for our owntime as well.Warner A. Wick, PhD. '41, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy.©©©©©©©©©©©©©© SPECIAL REPORTMr. J. EDWARD FEIN NEW YORK tIFE AGENTat- CHICAGO, ILLINOISBORN: January 20, 1924EDUCATION: University of Michigan, B.B.A.PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT: Public AccountantREMARKS: Ed Fein, a college-trained accountant, had ayear of practice in this field, then joined New YorkLife on July 1, 1948. Concentrating on planninginsurance programs for young doctors, dentists, internes and students, Ed sawhis sales record start its meteoric rise to establish him as one of theCompany's consistent leaders. A Qualifying and Life member of the insuranceprofession's Million Dollar Round Table, this personable young man has alsoqualified every year since 1950 for New York Life's highest Honor Club — theCompany's President's Council. Outstandingly successful, Ed Fein is one moreexample of why "The New York Life Agent is a good man to be!"N& Ed Fein, like so many other college alumni, iswell-established in a career as a New York Liferepresentative. It offers him security, substantialincome and the deep satisfaction of helping others.If you or someone you know would like more information about such a career with one of theworld's leading life insurance companies, write:NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANYCollege Relations, Dept. N -751 Madison Avenue, New York 10, N.Y.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEYOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERt Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAINING; v. WA9E INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURES FundWorkersAddedBringing our list of fund workers up-to-date: two more Canadian committees were announced by Howard L.Willett, Jr., national chairman. CliffordA. Patrick is the chairman in Winnipeg,and Miss Violet Munns in Toronto.Other new committees organized duringthe last month include:EASTERN STATESDistrict of Columbia: William P. MacCracken, Jr. Florida: Orlando andWinter Park, Prof. Zens L. Smith. Massachusetts: Springfield, Charles E. Lee.New York: Ithaca, Dr. Catherine Stur-tevant. Virginia: Richmond, James E.Nail.CENTRAL STATESIllinois: Danville, Daniel Eckert; Rockford, Mrs. Lawrence J. Schmidt; Springfield, George C. Hoffmann. Indiana:Lafayette, Mrs. Paul A. 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Cunningham, Jr., theNear North Side; C. E. McKittrick,Lincoln Park; and Dr. George J. Dros-sos and Barbara Holdsheim, Mid-City;Bruce A. Young, Jr., Loop. CHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING— LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters • Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addressing • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Dearborn • Chicago 5 • WA 2-4561Since 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for UCollege, Secondary and Elementary.wide patronage. Call or write us at niversity,Nation-37 South Wabash Ave.Chicago 3, 111.Wasson - PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesSHERRY HOTEL53rd Street At The lake . . .Complete Facilities ForConference Groups — ConventionsBanquets — DancesCall Catering FAirfax 4-1000Free Parking for Our Guests!Since 7878HANNIBAL, INC.FurnitureUpholsteringAntiques Repairing• RefinishingRestored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71ST ST.POND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisFREE VITAMINS!In order to introduce you to our top-quality 20-element vitamin-mineral foodsupplement, we will send you A FULLMONTH'S TRIAL SUPPLY absolutelyFREE — no strings attached! Just sendthis ad with 25c coin or stamps to helpcover shipping expenses. UNCONDITIONALLY GUARANTEED. Sorry— thisoffer limited to those who have notpreviously ordered trial supply. Only oneto a customer.MacNeal & Dashnau(AM '52, U. of Chicago)P.O. Box 3651, Dept. C-4, Phila. 25, Pa.t L^wtr y^Ur cosw"v'r^APRIL, 1959Otass i\eu7s02-18Robert H. Goheen, '02, MD '05, a retired doctor, lives with his wife and daughter in his son's home in Princeton, N.J.(The home is "Prospect," the mansionoccupied by Princeton University President,Robert F. Goheen.)Annie L. Weller, '02, retired from thegeography department at Eastern IllinoisState Normal College a number of yearsago, and writes to tell us that the schoolrecently named their new girls' hall, "Wel-lie Hall."Aaron Arkin, '09, MD '12, PhD '13, amember of the Fiftieth Anniversary class,is an emeritus professor of medicine" of theUniversity of Illinois, having taught atRush Medical College prior to this. He hasbeen a consulting physician at CookCounty Hospital and has published numerous research articles on immunology, pathology, and internal medicine.Walter L. Pope, JD '12, a member ofthe U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco, has become chief judge of this court.The Women's National Book Association has announced two winners of its 1959award for a "distinguished contribution tothe world of books." Mary Hill Arbuth-not, '13, '22, one of the recipients, is apioneer organizer of nursery schools, anda lecturer and writer of numerous children's basic readers and books, includingTime for Poetry, and Time for True Tales.Ruth Morse Calkins, '14, has spentmany months away from her Chicagohome, in trips that have taken her aroundthe world.Lewis Mercer Francisco, '14, head ofhis own business which produces commercial films in Chicago, has written numerousarticles on personal selling in the pastyears. He is currently writing a book to bepublished in the "Advertising and Selling"series of McGraw-Hill Book Co. and ishelping the marketing department ofNorthwestern University set up a seminarin merchandising, scheduled to begin nextfall.James E. Lebensohn, '14, SM '16, MD'17, plans a European vacation this spring,but will be back in Chicago in time forthe annual reunion.Virginia Folkes Lewis, '14, writes fromDragoon, Ariz., where she spends the winter months, before returning to her home inStuarts Draft, Va.Bud P. Mast, Sr., '14, living in LosAngeles, is co-partner of the Conover-MastPublications, Inc., a New York firm.Paul R. Pierce, '14, of West Lafayette,Ind., is in semi-retirement, "the 'semi' partbeing spent in writing books on education."MJles O. Price, '14, currently a professor of law at Columbia University, is retiring from the staff this June.Lathrop Emerson Roberts, '14, PhD'19, living in Tucson, Ariz., has recently retired from his chairmanship of the department of chemistry at the U. of Arizona,and now spends his time gardening, andplans to do some writirig.Otto A. Sinkie, JD '16, is editor of "TheAltruist," a publication of the AltruisticIntegration Society, of Phoenix, Ariz.Fred B. Huebenthal, '17, has been appointed director of the Chicago office ofthe Federal Housing Administration. Mr.Huebenthal, of May wood, 111., has been apresident of the Chicago Real Estate boardand active in real estate since 1924.LeRoy H. Sloan, MD '17, has retiredfrom medical practice, a one-time memberof the Rush Medical College staff and theSchool of Medicine at the University ofIllinois.A response to our N. Y. Alumni listingin the class news section of the FebruaryMagazine: William S. Hedges commentsthat many of his friends may be shocked tofind him listed in the class of '11; "someare going to be sure that I was a childprodigy or that I have been lying for years."In future issues, Mr. Hedges, vice-presidentof N.B.C. will be listed with the Classof '18.19-32Sylvia Meyer Hammer, '19, left in February for a three month trip around theworld. Stopping places on her itinerary include Honolulu, Tokyo and India.Mervin J. Kelly, PhD '19, chairman ofthe board of directors of Bell TelephoneLaboratories in New York has retired fromthe firm, after 41 years of scientific andadministrative service with Bell TelephoneSystem.Genieve Lamson, '20, SM '22, finds"retirement" in Randolph, Vt. filled withmany activities. She is president of theVermont division of the AAUW and plansto attend the International Federation ofUniversity Women Conference in Helsinki,Finland next July. At a recent meeting ofthe Association of American Geographersshe met many old U of C friends, andenjoyed a motor trip with Marion Stein,'21, of Chicago, last fall.Chester T. Schrader, '20, has traveledfor Western Union for the last 35 years,and has now been appointed auditor ofleased wires, and, stationed in Chicago,finds it "great to be home each night."David W. Bransky, '21, who has beenwith the Whiting, Ind. research laboratoriesof Standard Oil Co. since 1926, has recentlyretired from his position as a research associate. His home is in Chicago.Walter E. Landt, '21, of Hartford, Wis.spent part of last summer travelling withhis wife through Alberta to the CanadianRockies.Arthur E. Brooks, SM '22, PhD '29, aresident of Nutley, N. J., takes on the new post of assistant director of research anddevelopment at U.S. Rubber this month.Charles Dudley Eaves, AM '23, a specialist in European history, is retiring froma half-century of teaching at Texas Technological College. Mr. Eaves moved hishistory courses to the Continent, at times,so that the students could study at theactual sites of the historic events and doresearch there. His plans for the futureinclude writing a novel with a Japanesesetting and tending a fruit farm in the RioGrande Valley.Seward A. Covert, '26, is the new editorof "The Ohio Motorist," a monthly publication associated with the Ohio A.A.A.Jack P. Cowen, '27, MD '32, has beeninvited to present a paper on the techniqueand visualization of the anterior chamberof the eye before the Opthalmological Society of the University of Graz, Austria, inMay. Dr. Cowen recently demonstratedthis technique, which deals with someaspects of the diagnosis of glaucoma, before the American academy of this organization.Frank P. Goeder, PhD '28, retired fromthe physics department at Colorado StateU. in 1955, after 40 years of teaching there.John A. Larson, MD Rush '28, recentlyjoined the staff of the Montana State Hospital in Warm Springs. Dr. Larson, associated with medical and psychiatric workfor the past 44 years, has taught at BostonUniversity, and the University of SouthernCalifornia. He was a one-time instructorat Rush, and is a fellow of the AmericanPsychiatric Association.Marguerite Logan, SM '30, an associateprofessor of geography at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, is the authorof two new books: Geographical Techniques, and Geographical Bibliography.Earl V. Pullias, AM '31, professor ofhigher education at the University ofSouthern California, was so impressed withour Young Man in A Hurry booklet (thestory of William Rainey Harper) that hesecured 25 copies from the Alumni Officeto make available to his advanced students.Dr. Pullias remarked: "It seems to me tosay something very significant about theUniversity and about the modern development of higher education in this country."Jane Kesner Ardmore, '32, is the coauthor of a recently published book, TheDress Doctor, with Edith Head, the fashionchief of Paramount Pictures.Alfred Frankenstein, '32, art and musiccritic for the San Francisco Chronicle, gavea recent lecture at a symposium on thearts at Wellesley College in Wellesley,Mass.Emil H. J. Rintelmann, AM '32, hasbeen teaching at the Milwaukee UniversitySchool in Wisconsin for the last 42 years,and at present he is the supervisor of thejunior high department, head of the mathematics department, faculty supervisor, andanalyst of student academic records. Oneof the "greatest honors" of Mr. Rintel-mann's teaching career came two years agowhen 2 newly established trophy cups werenamed in his honor, to be presented to thesenior boy and girl who had reached "thehigh goals of life, academic, social, moraland spiritual, despite great difficulties."35-39Peter M. Kelliher, '35, JD '37, an attorney and arbitrator of labor disputes, ispresident of Kelliher Co., Inc., a real estatefirm. He has recently been appointed to afive-year term as a commissioner of the28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEChicago Land Clearance Commission byMayor Daley. This Commission has 20redevelopment projects in progress throughout the city, two of which are the HydePark A and B plans, (discussed in theDecember 1958 issue of the Magazine).Ray W. Macdonald, '35, was recentlyelected a director of the Burroughs Corp.,manufacturers of business machines. He isvice-president of the company's international division and a former president ofour Detroit Alumni Club.Katherine Maclntyre, '35, plans to retire from her position as director of aschool cafeteria in Hammond, Ind. as soonas her successor has been trained and theboard approves her application for pensionand social security. Then she plans to goto Texas.Harold H. Grothaus, MBA '36, hasbeen elected a resident vice-president ofNational Securities and Research Corp.,who have their main offices in New York.Mr. Grothaus has his headquarters andhome in St. Louis, Mo.Harriet D. Hudson, AM '36, PhD '50,has been the academic dean of Randolph-Macon Woman's College, Lynchburg, Va.,since 1953. Miss Hudson received an honorary LLD degree from Blackburn College, Carlinville, 111. in 1957. She is currently on the executive committee of theAssociation for Higher Education.Irwin J. Askow, '36, JD '38, has beenappointed to the Mayor's Advisory Commission on Youth in Chicago, and waselected to the executive committee of theWelfare Council.Alexander M. Moore, '36, living inIndianapolis, Ind., has been the principalof Crispus Attucks High School there since1957.Robert S. Hardy, PhD '37, is directorand dean of the American College forGirls in Istanbul, Turkey. This institutionis under the auspices of the Near East College Association. Mr. Hardy was formerlydirector for this Association.A new graduate research center in genetics, radiation biology, and allied fieldshas been established at Brown University,Providence, R. I. Of the 24 researchersand 3 specialists on the staff, Herman B.Chase, PhD '38, is a specialist. His wife isalumna Elizabeth Brown Chase, PhD '37,and Beulah Seide Bresler's husband isanother member of the staff. Mrs. Bresleris a '51 graduate.The School of Social Work at the University of Southern California in Los Angelesis now headed by a new dean. Malcolm B.Stinson, AM '37, a former professor at theUniversities of Minnesota and Pittsburghcomes to his new position after havingrecently completed a two-year assignmentas an advisor on social work education tothe University of Lucknow, India. Theretiring dean, Arlien Johnson, PhD '30,former president of the National Conference of Social Work, has directed California's school for almost 20 years: she willcontinue with the University until June as aprofessor.Seymour Meyerson, '38, is a senior pro'jrect chemist at the Whiting, Ind., laboratories of Standard Oil Co. Mr. Meyerson'sresearch in complex chemical reactions thattake place when organic compounds arebombarded with electrons in a mass spectrometer, has resulted in numerous scientific articles. He recently spoke before agraduate seminar in chemistry at the U. ofIllinois; his residence is in Gary, Ind.Erwin F. Beyer, '39, wrote the scriptfor and directed the cast of a play for theannual dinner of the "Y" at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago. He recalls memories of Acrotheatre at the U of C,and to his surprise found the former stagemanager of Chicago's Acrotheatre BillTexter, '49, backstage in his same role atthe Amphitheatre.Morrison Handsaker, PhD '39, head ofthe department of economics at LafayetteCollege, Easton, Penn., has been appointedchairman of the National Academy ofArbitrators' research and education committee. He will be responsible for directingresearch projects of the Academy in thisposition.Howard Hawkins, Jr., '39, JD '41,MBA '53, and his wife, announce the birthof their third child, Lawrence Arthur, onJanuary 27, in San Mateo, Calif.Karl H. Pribram, '39, MD 41, is currently a fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences inStanford, Calif. Next fall he will be aresearch associate in the Mental HealthInstitute of the University of Michigan inAnn Arbor.41-46Robert O. Evans, '41, and his wife, theformer Margery Brooks, '42, are in Helsinki, Finland where Mr. Evans is a Fulbright lecturer in 16th Century British Literature. They spent New Years in Moscow,and on their way back to Helsinki wereawakened at 5 A.M. by Russians on thetrain with the announcement that the moonrocket had reached outer space. As far asthe Evans' could observe, "the rockets areabout all (the Russians) do have in theSoviet Union. The American concept ofabundance is incomprehensible to them."Maxine Mann Raine, AM '46, and herhusband, Walter, AM '54, PhD '56, live inTopeka, Kan., where Maxine is an instructor in sociology at Washburn University,and Walter is doing research at the Men-ninger Foundation.Robert A. Harper, '46, '47, SM '48,PhD '50, associate professor of geographyat Southern Illinois University, has beennamed chairman of the department. Heheld the Salisbury Memorial Fellowshipwhile he was at the U of C; and is theco-author of two geography textbooks forthe Karachi, Pakistan elementary schools.Olaf Skinsnes, SM '46, MD '47, PhD'47, and his wife, the former S. ElizabethAnderson, '47, now of Muskegon, Mich.,haye been medical missionaries at the Christian University Medical School, Cheeloo,North China in 1949. When the politicalsituation became tense, Dr. Skinsnes joinedthe pathology department at the Universityof Hong Kong as the only American member of the British-owned and staffed university. His studies of leprosy incidence inthe British Crown Colony began with agrant from American Leprosy Missions,Inc. which has resulted in a specially designed hospital for the study and treatmentof this disease. Dr. Skinsnes' work waspart of "MD International," an hour longtelevision program devoted to outstandingpeople doing medical work in the Far East.Sidney I. Lezak, '46, JD '49, chairmanof the Portland, Ore. Alumni Club, writesof the "stimulating evening" spent by theClub when Kermit Eby, professor in thesocial sciences at the University, spoke on"What Makes Reuther Run." He comparedthe more conservatively-oriented audiencefor labor-spokesman Eby to the previousmeeting of the club, when classical economist, Milton Freeman, spoke before themore liberally cast attendance. It was interesting because, "in each case, the dis- UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMUseum 4-12001 PARKE ft-HOLS MAN 1* c ?........^"."..l!i".""^."".^f y yReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525Photo press| INCORPORATED¦ IJJU«.II!I.I,IUJ!UFine Co/or Work • Quality Book ReproductionCongress St Expressway at Gardner RoadBroadview, Illinois COIumbus 1-1420BEST BOILER REPAIR&WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. 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Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirtax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEPhone: REgent 1-331 1The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings ond Canopies for Ad Purposes1142 E. 82nd StreetRICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192SARGENT'S DRUG STOREestablished 1852Chicago's most completeprescription and chemical stockphone RAndolph 6-477023 N. Wabash AvenueChicago ZVIRBLIS '48parity between audience and speaker tendedto increase the audience participation" andto spark argument rather than complacentacceptance of the "word." Mr. Lezak is amember of a Portland law firm.47-50Robert S. Rushing, '47, visited campusin February with his wife. Mr. Rushing ishead of the geological exploration divisionof Alice-Sidney Co. in his home town ofEl Dorado, Ark., a firm concerned with oiland farming. Mr. Rushing hadn't beenback in ten years, and had trouble gettinghis bearing, since most of the old 55thStreet landmarks have been leveled.Capt. Padriac Burns, '48, finishes histwo years in the Army this summer. Stationed in Japan, he will return to psychiatric residency at Yale University.Charles F. Custer, '48, JD '58%and hiswife, the former Irene Maearow, '48, livein Chicago, where Charles is with the lawfirm of Meyers and Matthias. Irene operates the Hyde Park TV store, which theyhave owned for the past nine years.Gale Scribner Gill, '48, and her husband, John, '46, MD '49, are living inNorth Charleston, S. C, where John isstationed, but they expect this to be a temporary address, as John is thinking of taking up the life of a civilian by next year atthis time.Clarence Lipschulz, '48, is the directorof Emerson House, a settlement house onthe northwest side of Chicago. This settlement, founded in 1911 to help young working mothers and Polish-Italian immigrantsin the area, today has three main types ofservice: it works with children and adultsin group activities; counsels family problems to help parents understand the behavior problems of their children; andhelps families cope with the problems ofmoney and old age.Prior to this position, Mr. Lipschutz wasyoung adult director of the Jewish Community Centers of St. Louis, Mo.Elizabeth Mouse Carroll, MBA '47,has recently joined the brokerage firm ofE. F. Hutton and Co., in San Francisco,as a registered representative.Gerald Handel, '47, AM '51, writes PEIFER '52from Hamburg, Germany, where he isspending five months working with theGerman affiliate of the Chicago Social Research, Inc., (Institut fur Absatzpsycholo-gie). His co-author of Family Worlds, published by the U of C Press this March isRobert Hess, PhD '50, a member of theCommittee on Human Development at theUniversity. Mr. Handel has collaboratedin another book, Workingman's Wije, published this April by Oceana Press.Among the distinguished guest lecturerswho recently appeared at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, Pa., isEarl N. Lockard, PhD '47. Mr. Lockard,a research analyst and writer, is known asa shrewd observer of the architecturalscene.In the December class news section ofthe Magazine we said: David II. Shaft-man, '48, SM '49, reports that she's "justa gadfly in community affairs" . . . She hastwo children, etc. Actually David Shaft-man, an associate mathematician at Argonne National Laboratory, is too busy tobe a gadfly. He does have two daughters,but they are: Sarah, 7%, and Rebecca, 6.We regret our inaccurate reporting and aretrying to determine who actually did writeto tell us she is "a gadfly in communityaffairs."Rae Bernstein Sherwood, AM '48, hasreturned to the North American continent,after spending 10 years in South Africawith her husband and two children. Mr.Sherwood is completing a study of personality among the Swazi (a Bantu tribeof S.A.). Rae has taught in the departmentof social studies at a university in Grahams-town in the Union of South Africa, and hasbeen senior research officer in the S.A.National Institute for personnel research.Their new home is in Ottawa, Ontario,Canada.Maj. Alexander Ulreich, Jr., '48, MBA'49, of Falls Church, Va., announces thebirth of a second son, Eric Sandor, born inOctober.George J. Zvirblis, MBA '48, has beenappointed group controller of the industrialproducts group of Mine Safety AppliancesCompany of Pittsburgh, Pa. Mr. Zvirblisis a former faculty member of Northwestern University.Joseph M. Gabriel, '49, is the proudfather of a son, Mark, born Friday, February 13.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMorton Gordon, AM '50, PhD '53, ishead of the Berkeley extension of the University of California.51-58Lowell Myers, MBA '51, is a corporation counsellor with Sears Roebuck in Chicago; he and his wife are the parents of atwo month old daughter, Lynda Rae.K.ari Snellen, '51, was married to Robert Rubin on January 1 1 in San Francisco.Stanley Baron, AM '52, formerly ananalyst with the Zellerbach Paper Co., inSan Francisco, is now a business formsconsultant, specializing in designing andpurchasing.Writing from Woodside, N. Y., Da viceG. Chimene, '52, the wife of Kenneth E.Chimene, '50, MBA '52, acknowledges as"true, that marriage is said to make a manand his wife 'one,' however, that does notquite apply to (their) names." Our apologies for the misnomer of "Kenneth DaviceChimene" in the February issue of theMagazine.Robert Kirshen, '52, graduated fromChicago Medical School in 1956, internedin Philadelphia, Penn., and spent a year ofresidence at the Mayo Clinic. He is nowstationed in Munich, Germany with theArmy Medical Corps.Lawrence T. Peifer, MBA '52, has beenappointed business development managerof the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co. inChicago. In this capacity, Mr. Peifer willdirect the continued corporate diversification of the company in its fields of recreation, education and defense. His home isin Zionsville, Ind.Zoltan Kato, MBA '53, of Livonia,Mich., has been the radio communicationsrepresentative with Motorola, Inc. for thepast three years, working specifically withmobile communication products and miniature communication items.James R. Beerbower, PhD '54, is anassociate professor of geology at LafayetteCollege, in Easton, Penn. Mr. Beerbowerhas been a member of the staff there forthe past 6 years, and has been awarded a$500 prize for superior teaching by thecollege.William A. Ward, AM '55, is an assistant professor of humanities at MilliganCollege in Tennessee. He has done researchon a comparative analysis of Indo-European and Egypto-Semitic languages. Thiswas the basis for his paper on "Evidenceof an East Mediterranean Vocabulary inthe Pre-Classical Age," delivered at theannual meeting of the Tennessee PhilogicalAssn. at Vanderbilt University.Feter S. Bauchwitz, PhD '56, was married to the former Maria H. Palmeira onJanuary 2. The couple will live in Louisville, Ky.Donald C. Bell, DB '56, until recently,assistant minister of the First PresbyterianChurch of Brooklyn, N. Y., is studying atthe College of Physicians and Surgeons ofColumbia University; he is engaged toRobinette Nixon of New York City.Helen A. Sutton, AM '58, formerly anursing instructor in the Illinois Neuro-psychiatric Institute in Chicago, has beenappointed an assistant professor in the College of Nursing and Health at the University of Cincinnati. Miss Sutton was headnurse at the children's psychiatric ward ofMichael Reese Hospital's PsychosomaticInstitute in Chicago.Don Trauscht, AM '58, is with theArmour Research Foundation in Chicago. plan now to attend .THE FIFTH ANNUAL(f)(o\( t}(a\FESTIVAL OF THE ARTSApril 17-26The students of the University extend a special invitation for you tovisit the campus during the FESTIVAL OF THE ARTS week, April17-26. A few of the feature, week-end events include:FRIDAY Lecture by Saul Bellow, '36, author of TheAPril 24 Adventures of Augie March, Seize the Day, andothers.Blackfriars' annual student production.Beaux Arts Masquerade Ball (with poetry as atheme). This year at the Quadrangle Club.Concert by the University of Chicago Choirand members of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, "Israel in Egypt" by Handel.An International Exhibition and Festival of theNations (a program of native dances andsongs) at International House.OTHER EVENTS: A Picasso Exhibition (with gallery talks) at theRenaissance Galleries; a Student Art Show; aFaculty Art Show,- an Architectural Exhibition(with tours of the new buildings); and an Outdoor Sculpture Show; to mention but a few.For further information, send for a Festival brochure and special hotel rates:SATURDAYApril 25SUNDAYApril 26FESTIVAL OF THE ARTS, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, IllinoisNAME CLASSADDRESSCITY STATEAPRIL, 1959 31AAemortofValeutiua Denton Bachrach, '09, diedon December 31 in Chicago.Francis W. Hamilton, '15, died thisFebruary in River Forest, 111.Wilfred E. Gordon, 17, AM 18, diedon November 27, 1958 at his home inNorwood, Manitoba, Canada.Myer J. Hatowski, '23, a Chicago realestate operator and attorney, died in TelAviv, Israel in February. An active leaderin Jewish affairs, Mr. Hatowski was one of15 on a fact-finding tour of Israel for theCombined Jewish Appeal of MetropolitanChicago, at the time of his death.Melvina Scoville Rounds, '23, of Exeter, N.H., died on February 22.Walter A. Praxl, '24, JD '28. died onOctober 8, 1957. News was sent to us byMargaret Pollard Praxl, '28. of Evanston, III., the wife of the late Mr. Praxl.Joseph K. Wexman, '29, died on Feb ruary 4 in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 'Isee L. Council, MD '30, a retiredArmy surgeon, died on February 14 athis home in Jacksonville, Fla. Dr. Connellhad been our alumni fund chairman forthe Jacksonville area for the past sevenyears.Martha C. Pritchard, AM '35, ofSierra Madre, Calif., died on February 12.Miss Pritchard had served as a member ofthe library board of trustees there, andprior to this position organized and conducted a department of librarianship atNew York State College for Teachers inAlbany.Samuel M. Strong, PhD '41, a sociologist at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, formerly at Carleton Collegein Northfield. Minn, died on January 24.Muriel Lawson Bloch, '42, died in January, after a year's illness, in Nashville,Tenn.Need fast deliveryof corrugated boxes?your H&DPackaging EngineerHinde & DauchSandusky. Ohio15 Factories • 42 Sales Offices 1t?eiipoWthcvtloMASSACHUSETTSMUTUALLife InsuranceCompany. . . for setting its all-time annual sales record of over $1.1billion in 1958!At the year's end individuallife insurance policy saleswere 34.2% ahead of 1957,with policies averaging $14,-083 — $3,146 higher than in1957.During 1958, 703 men joinedthe company's sales organization — many of whom firstlearned of these opportunities on the pages of the University of Chicago Magazineand other alumni magazines.The opportunities offered byMassachusetts Mutual wereemphasized by experiencesof field force newcomers:First and second-year menaccounted for 26% of theyear's individual policy sales!MIDWEST ALUMNI MAGAZINESThe Ohio State MonthlyThe Michigan AlumnusThe MinnesotaThe Wisconsin AlumnusThe Purdue AlumnusThe Indiana Alumni MagazineUniversity of Chicago MagazineTotal Combined Circulation Over 94,000For JuU inform a t ion write orphone Hir<je K'mne, 22 Washington So. Xorth, Xew York, X. Y.ORa mercy 5-203932 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEI f you are an executivewith a "Corporation Mind". . .You are deeply concerned with . • .-jf Getting and holding key men to assureefficient management and sound growth for your business^ Protecting stockholders and their families against lossresulting from the death of an executive-owner^ Arranging the best possible plan to provide emergencyprotection for employees and their families . . .and a pension for employees who retire.A hese problems reach to the very foundationof your business and call for important long-range decisions. In these areas, you probablyfeel the need to talk with a specialist who canadd to your own knowledge and help youarrive at the right decisions.Your Massachusetts Mutual man, throughhis experience and understanding of businesslife insurance and group coverages, has helpedmany executives in these complex areas of decision. 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