rOCTOBER 1958THE COLLEGE: NEW FACULTYGRAHAM H. BLAKE, an ex-auto-mobile salesman, was only 22when he joined the Massachusetts Mutual Agency at Barre,Vermont. 1957 sales: $805,350. JOSEPH E. ROCK, 24 when hejoined our Poston-RobertsonAgency was formerly assistantmanager for a finance company. 1957 sales: $1,226,100. CHARLES E. MITCHELL joined OUTSan Antonio Agency followingmilitary service; former graininspector and accountant. 1957sales: $664,113.PHILIP G. GALLANT, an attorney,practiced international law before becoming a member ofour Spokane Agency. 1957sales: $910,500. TREVOR D. WEISS was a successful women's wear merchant before he joined ourChicago-Geist Agency. His1957 sales: $958,600.A new career pays off for these menThese men who joined the MassachusettsMutual in 1956-1957 proved that life insurance selling can pay off — fast and profitably.• These five men are typical of the menjoining our field force each year— enthusiasticmen with varied training and business experience—men who make the most of the outstanding opportunities and facilities whichMassachusetts Mutual offers.And they've only started! Ahead are yearsof interest and challenge— and high profits, in terms of both personal satisfaction and in topearning power, well above that of the averagebusinessman. For instance, the 1957 averageincome of the 615 men with our company fiveyears or more was $12,488, with one in sixearning over $20,000. And our 100 top menare now averaging $29,712.Does your present position offer comparableopportunity? Maybe you too should investigate the potential of life insurance salesmanship with our company— one of the oldest andstrongest in the country.Write TODAY for a free copy of "A Selling Career'Massachusetts MutualLIFE IXSURAMCE COMPANYORGANIZED 1851 SPRINGFIELD. MASSACHUSETTSemoUniversity popularity at BrusselsTo Chancellor Kimpton came this letterfrom Trustee Benton:One of the most crowded American exhibits at the Brussels Fair is the line ofvoting machines. The visitors line up infront of the voting booths to vote on aseries of questions . . . One question is,"What is your favorite university?"About ten universities are listed. Harvard is number one with 17,352; M.I.T. isnumber two with 8,387; Chicago is thirdwith 6,863; Yale is fourth with 5,931.The totals are revised every day and theresults posted.August 15, 1958 William BentonFrom the Fair, where James R. Lawsonof Rockefeller Memorial Chapel was aguest carillonneur, Meyer E. Pollack, '49,wrote :After I had introduced myself as a Chicago alumnus, Mr. Lawson played theAlma Mater for all the Fair to hear. Whata thrill!Our new editorMiss Marjorie Burkhardt, '56, was appointed editor of the Magazine and ofTower Topics July first when Melania Sokolleft for Washington, D. C, for a top editingjob.Miss Burkhardt started life on the campus—at Chicago Lying-in. Her grandmother lived where the Field House nowMarjorie Burkhardt stands when President Harper's funeralprocession passed by.Marjorie attended Girl Scout sessions inMandel and visted the campus a number oftimes with her seventh grade teacher,Florence Cline Ruth, '35.I got to know Marjorie Burkhardt whenshe was a student leader and a member ofour Student-Alumni Committee. She wasin the field of editing when we persuadedher to join the alumni staff as director ofour student recruitment program. Now sheis back at her first choice— editing magazines.If she publishes all the fascinating subjects she already has on her "futures"schedule, she'll need five staff membersand an 84-page monthly.In any event, we think you will enjoythe Magazine under her editorship.Chicago's AlaskaJust 60 years ago last month gold wasdiscovered in Anvil Creek, Alaska, andNome was born. It was the fall that President Harper conferred the University's firsthonorary degree upon President McKinleyin Kent Theatre. It was the birthday ofUniversity College, in the Loop. It wasthe year Marshall Field and John D.joined in giving the University the landwhich was to be called Stagg Field.Now that Alaska will be the forty-ninthstate let me introduce you to the twenty-five alumni who probably will be "first"citizens of the State.AnchorageEvangeline Rasmussen Atwood, AM'30Editor & publisher, daily paperLt. (jg) Mary P. Byrd, AM'48Alaska Native Health ServiceJohn L. Kumb, SM'5IAlaska Housing AuthorityDr. James E. O'Malley, '30, PhysicianJack F. Scavenius, JD'54, LawyerFred W. Tisdel, '37, SM'38, GeologistBeryl Hope Brand Walther, '43Classification analystRobert F. Watson, MBA'58, Officer U. S.Air ForcePatricia Taif Yenney, '46, NurseOn 242 wooded acres in Anchorage anew school is about to be born: AlaskaMethodist University. Donald F. Ebright,PhD'44, of our Missions office has leftcampus to become the first president. TheUniversity is scheduled to open in 1960with 150 students with an eventual anticipated enrollment of one thousand.BartlettDr. F. J. Phillips, MD'37, Physician CollegeChristian T. Elvey, PhD'30, DirectorGeophysical Institute, U. of AlaskaFairbanksLeah Condit Graham, '56Elementary teacherFrank M. Newman, '18Florence M. Robinson, '43, SM'48Geological SurveyIliamnaPhyllis Servies Holzenberg, '44JuneauIsabel Miller, AM'53Board of National Missions, Presbyterian ChurchRosemary Allen Nagel, AM'50Erma H. Wainner, AM'29, SupervisorPublic WelfareKetchikanFlorence Kubek Turek, SM'45High School TeacherDr. Arthur N. Wilson, MD'24, PhysicianLake MirchumiraFlorence Rucker Collins, '43, SM'48GeologistMt. EdgecumbeLester Roberts, MBA'53Hospital AdministratorPalmerMarylou Lashbrook Rideout, SM'41Home Demonstration Agent, U. ofAlaska ExtensionSitkaDr. Robert H. Shuler, PhD'41, MD'46PhysicianValdezDr. Louis R. Fletcher, MD'22, PhysicianCommunity HospitalGloo-wa-ooKenneth Rouse, captain of the 1928football team and president of his class,could not return for his 25th anniversarylast June. Instead he wrote:Helen [King, '28] and I send greetingsfrom Monrovia, Liberia ... in West Africa.In the fall of 1957 I resigned from A. B.Dick Co. and am now acting director ofPresident RouseOCTOBER, 1958the United States Operations Mission inLiberia.Liberia is a fascinating country. It hasclose emotional and psychological ties withthe United States. It was the first independent nation in all Africa, having beenfounded as a republic in 1847. It wasestablished by freed slaves from the UnitedStates.People live in mud huts and the numberof wives is an index to wealth and community standing. Helen and I wish youcould be with us in a fascinating countryon one of the frontiers of the free world.In the words of the Bassa Tribe we say"Gloo-wa-oo," which means goodbye.P.S. For those interested in marketing,there is a need for brassieres— but absolutely no demand.Omaha Club and cultureOmaha is in the early throes of developing a cultural center. Heading theproject is John F. Merriam, '25, presidentof Northern Natural Gas Company, trusteeof our University, and executive committee member of the newly formed U. ofChicago Club of Omaha.The first unit of this center will be ascience museum and planetarium. So aPresident Wilson"natural" for the first Chicago Club program was a University of Chicago scientist.On Friday, June 13, 1958, Dr. Gerard P.Kuiper, chairman of the Department ofAstronomy, and his wife were picked upby private plane near his Yerkes headquarters and flown to Omaha.There, to greet the Yerkes guests fordinner, were the officers of the OmahaClub:Pres. Addison W. Wilson, '26VP William W. Hill, MBA'47VP Mrs. Lawrence C. Davis, '30S-T Mrs. John F. Merriam, '26and the members of the executive committee. After dinner at the Omaha Club,all adjourned to the Joslyn Art Museumauditorium to join over 200 alumni andOmaha citizens for Dr. Kuiper's illustratedtalk: "A Space Man Looks at the Moon."H. W. M. BROOKS BROTHERS CLOTHINGis extremely comfortable to wear...creates a background for a man . . .is moderately priced for such fine qualityBrooks Brothers clothing offers a man many advantages. Most of our woollens are woven exclusivelyfor us, assuring individuality and distinctiveness.Tailoring and quality are outstanding. Then there isthe exclusive styling that has made the name Brookssynonymous with good taste the world over.We cordially invite you to open a Brooks Brotherscharge account and make these advantages yours.Fall catalogue upon request."3 46" Suits, $85 to $ 9 5 • Our Own Make Suits, jrom $ 1 0 5ESTAB1ISHID1818'umishingsf, }f ate *r$hoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N.Y.1 1 1 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 6, N. Y.BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCOSSUfcTWO topics recurring again and againin the news today are reported fromcampus in this issue: American educationand Russian education. The director ofthe University's new Comparative Education Center, C. Arnold Anderson, in comparing Russian education with ours, askssome pointed questions about the aims ofAmerican schools. He also points out theextent to which the Russians have failedin realizing their educational goals.i EDEFINITION of educational programs is taking place here on campus. "News of the Quadrangles" reports amajor structural change in the Departmentof Education. Dean Chase believes thatunder the new arrangement preparation ofhigh school teachers will be greatly improved. In the College, Mr. Wegener reports on the development of a four-yearbachelor's program that will protect theliberal arts portion of the degree, whilegiving the whole program stability.AND what of those Russian student edi-. tors on page 13? They aroused a lotof student comment, for neither they northeir publications are similar to theirAmerican counterparts. Their ages werefrom 28 to 38. Their publications rangedfrom one that circulated only among the500 students of the Institute of Cinematography, to Komsomolskaia Travda, a Soviet daily with a 2,600,000 circulation insix languages.At the time the Maroon photograph onpage 13 was taken, the Russians wereposing with members of the FolkloreSociety for a movie sequence they plannedto send home. Horror stricken studentspointed out that the film must have costover $450 at the union rates of the photographers they hired. Otherwise the editors only showed interest in posing forphotos with Negroes. In touring campus,they refused to enter either Chicago Theological Seminary or the Fermi Institute.Their purchases were confined to whitedress shirts, which are of better qualityhere, and the U. S. luxury which mostfascinated them was aerated shaving UNI¥ERSITY/ ©fOCTOBER, 1958Volume 51, Number IFEATURES4 The College: new Faculty and Future9 '08 and !33 Return by Charles Wegener12 The Mirage of Russian Educationby C. Arnold AndersonDEPARTMENTS1 Memo Pad3 In This Issue17 News of the Quadrangles29 Books24 Class News31 MemorialCOVEREntering students photographed during a lull in the placement tests.Cap and Gown photo.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois Midway 3-0800, Ext. 3243Editor, MARJORIE BURKHARDTTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive Director - EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORANProgrammingELIZABETH SHAW BOBRINSKOYThe Alumni FundFLORENCE I. MEDOW Eastern OfficeCLARENCE A. PETERS, DirectorRoom 22, 31 E. 39th StreetNew York 17, N. Y.MUrray Hill 3-1518Western OfficeMARY LEEMAN, DirectorRoom 322, 717 Market StreetSan Francisco 3, Cal.EXbrook 2-0925Los Angeles BranchMRS. MARIE STEPHENSI 195 Charles St., Pasadena 3SYcamore 3-4545Published monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annua! subscription price, $4.00. Single copies,25 cents Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois,under the act of March 3, 1879 Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.OCTOBER, 1958 3HPhis University has been in a fight about-*- the bachelor's degree almost since the daythe doors of Cobb Hall swung open, and theanomaly of the situation is that the great distinction of the University and its point ofgreatest emphasis lie in the field of graduatestudy and research.The contradiction has its explanation, Isuppose, in the fact — and it is a fact — thatthe bachelor's degree really is important. Itis the beginning of serious learning, both forthose who end their formal education at thispoint and for those who go on to graduatestudy.Out of the controversy of our times therehas slowly emerged, though still blurred bythe smoke of battle, a new and exciting pattern for the bachelor's degree that, like allgood treaties, is unsatisfactory to the mostantagonistic parties but nonetheless representsa step forward. This new degree will consistof a general component containing within itall the rigor and discipline that the higheststandards of our University can impose. Itwill contain within it too a specialized partwhich hopefully will not represent only thoseesoteric interests contributed by advancedscholarship and research but will follow naturally and easily from the broad base of thegeneral. There will be also within it freedomfor the student to elect some courses thatrepresent only his interest of the moment.And finally, and most important, the directionof the program will be under a single facultywhich is neither exclusively general nor exclusively departmental but consists of thosescholars and teachers who share a commoninterest in the training of the undergraduate.Chancellor KimptonAlumni Address, June, 1958Charles Wegener, the author of this reporton the problems and deliberations leadingto the present plan for the college, receivedhis A.B. in 1942 and his Ph.D. in 1950, bothfrom the University of Chicago. He is anassociate professor of humanities in the College and chairman of the Organization, Methods and Principles of Knowledge staff.As one of four representatives of the College, he served with representatives of theDivisions and the Business School on thecommittee of the Faculty Senate which draftedthe College changes he here reports. The CollegeIast spring the University, without fanfare or dramatici controversy, again altered its arrangements for undergraduate education. This time, it is true, the changesat first sight appear much less important and interestingthan the "re-location" of the Bachelor's degree which hasoccurred twice since 1940. The broad effects of the mostrecent changes are two: there will be only two generalpatterns of college and divisional courses for undergraduate programs at the University; and a new faculty isestablished with complete responsibility for all programsleading to the A.B. degree.In order to understand why these changes are significant it is necessary to consider briefly the consequencesof the 1953 "relocation" of the Bachelor's degree. Thatchange was essentially a decision to add specialized ordivisional courses to the general education courses offeredby the College to form a four-year bachelor's degree.Regardless of the merits of this decision or of the wayin which it was worked out in particular cases, it hadsome general consequences.(1) A very large number of ways of combining thetwo kinds of courses in a single program resulted.4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEby Charles WegenerCAP & GOWN Photosnew Faculty and future(2) Decisions on undergraduate programs required,with rare exceptions, agreement between two faculties—usually the College faculty and the faculty of the division. No faculty had sole responsibility for an entire curriculum save in the case of the College tutorial program.(3) A natural desire to preserve as much as possibleof the programs out of which these "joint" programs weredeveloped— the College general education program andthe "three-year" M.A. programs in the Divisions andDepartments— led to a considerable "jamming" of curricula. Programs were in general very rigid, with littleroom for choice on the part of the student or his advisor,and in some cases, particularly the physical sciences,ostensibly four-year programs became for many studentsfour-and-a-half to five-year programs.(4) Administrative complications arising out of thesearrangements were endless. Students found it difficultto determine what requirements they had to meet for agiven degree. Typically a student would find himself withtwo advisors— one College and one departmental— and hisprogram would be adjusted between them and requiredapproval by two Deans of Students. A student who wished to change from one program to another might find that,in extreme cases, the two programs differed so much fromthe beginning that what he had done in one was largelyirrelevant to what he must do in another. The programsavailable at the University were difficult to explain toprospective students— or even to faculty members who didnot devote a good deal of time to the problem. Whileit is possible to exaggerate the confusion which resulted,it is safe to say that the system was and is inefficientand inconvenient.Faculty Committee EstablishedThese difficulties became evident very early in the operation of the "joint" programs, and various efforts weremade to deal with them. The College faculty— the onlyfaculty which had undergraduate responsibilities only-set itself to revise the general education curriculum tomeet the new circumstances; successive committees ofthe Council of the University Senate, the supreme academic body on campus in which all faculties are represented, studied the problems and made recommendationsOCTOBER, 1958to the various faculties designed to eliminate some of themost obvious difficulties. However, it gradually becameevident that an energetic, central attack on the problemswas necessary, and in the Spring of 1957 the Councilof the University Senate established a committee whichit designated The Executive Committee on UndergraduateEducation— a name which rapidly got abbreviated toECUE (pronounced "E-quay with a short "e").This committee was charged with very broad executivepowers to make whatever changes seemed to it desirablein undergraduate programs at the University in order toachieve greater clarity, efficiency and educational sense.The committee consisted of four members of the Collegefaculty, one member from each of the four Divisions, anda member from the professional schools: William W.Bradbury, Eugene Northrop, Gerson Rosenthal, andCharles Wegener (all of the College); Joseph Ceithaml(Biological Sciences); George Metcalf (Humanities);Norman Nachtrieb (Physical Sciences); C. Herman Pritchett (Social Sciences), Corwin Edwards (Business). TheChancellor served as chairman.The committee met regularly for a year. Relativelyearly in its deliberations it decided that the basic difficulties of undergraduate education could not and shouldnot be solved by executive "decrees" from any committee,no matter how representative or well-informed, and itset itself to making proposals to the Council of the Senatefor broad changes in the University's arrangements forundergraduate education— changes which would not bedecreed by the Committee but legislated by the Councilof the Senate.The Committee ReportsThe ECUE report is a lengthy document, full of detailsand couched for the most part in rather formidable legislative language. However, as was said above, its majorprovisions are an attempt to deal with the two fundamentalproblems^ in the present undergraduate programs — themultiplicity of kinds of programs and the absence of clearresponsibility in the faculties of the University for undergraduate education. Faculty photos of Gerhard Meyer 0ef0 at a cla88registration session in Bartlett Gym, Meyer Isen-berg in Humanities class (below), and Donald Mei-klejohn (right), who is also an ECUE member.With respect to the first problem, the Committee's recommendation was that there be two— and only two— general outlines for undergraduate programs. One of thesewould be for programs leading to the A.B. degree and theother for those leading to B.S. At the base of these wouldbe a two-year program in general education; a programwhich would be substantially the same for all students inthe University. Beyond this point the two programs woulddiffer. The A.B. program, on top of the two years of general education, has two general components, a year's workconsisting of what the committee calls "guided and freeelection" and a year's work concentrated in a given fieldand generally standardized for all student's working in thisfield. The B.S. programs have, in addition to the commonbase of general education, up to two years of work in agiven scientific concentration. In general discussion thesetwo formulae are commonly referred to as the "2-1-1"formula (BA.) and the "2-2" formula (B.S.).So stated, the two formulae are indeed very simple, butrequire some further explanation. (1) While the first twoyears will be the same for all students in the sense that theobjectives and standards will be the same and that no morethan two years will be required of any students, the courseswhich a student actually takes will depend, in the Chicagotradition, on placement tests and other criteria, so that alternative "packages" of courses will exist for different students. (2) Also in accord with existing practices, it isexpected that in some cases less than two years will berequired of well-prepared students. (3) This componentwill contain provision for meeting basic standards in English composition, a foreign language, and mathematics,though it is otherwise left unspecified.The notion of "guided and free election" also requiressome clarification. The fundamental intent of the committee was that every A.B. program should contain agenuinely variable element to be constructed with an eyeto the particular interests and abilities of individual students, but making sense as a real part of his whole program.To this end it recommended that (1) there be a year'swork which could not be prescribed— though programsmight contain suggestions of various alternatives whichwould make sense with a given concentration, (2) everystudent have an unqualified right to choose at least threecourses freely, (3) in cases where "prerequisites" for concentrations are essential they must be limited to a maximumof three courses. The committee points out that developingTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcourses for students who wish to take some work in agiven field but do not intend to take a degree in the fieldis a serious task confronting the undergraduate faculty.The final element in the A.B. program is, of course, theeasiest to explain, since it is essentially the notion of anundergraduate "major". However, the committee pointedout that while most such "concentrations" would be "departmental"— in English, Sociology, Economics, etc.— theyneed not be so. Thus undergraduates may explore intellectual interests not so restricted as is sometimes necessaryfor graduate study.The difference between the "2-1-1" formula for the and the "2-2" formula for the B.S. degree reflectsfundamental differences between the significance of thesedegrees at the University and in American education ingeneral. A.B. degrees tend, traditionally, to be "liberal"degrees without specific porfessional meaning, while B.S.programs in many cases are largely pre-professional incharacter, committing a student much more thoroughly toa given field early in his educational career. Again, however, clarification is required. (1) The two years of concentration are maximal, not minimal: in many cases therewill undoubtedly be room in a given scientific programfor election and variation. (2) The committee's reportprovides for the possibility of developing A.B. programsconforming to the 2-1-1 pattern in the sciences, andstrongly recommends that this development be pushed.Otherwise, of course, the University is in the position ofconfining the undergraduate education in science to general education and pre-professional programs, so that astudent not committed to a scientific career but interestedin science has no clear provision made for serious development of his interest.The College FacultyFrom the beginning discussion of the proposed reorganization of programs and degree requirements in thecommittee was closely tied to the problem of a responsibleOCTOBER, 1958 faculty group which would have genuine control overentire programs. But the problem of constructing sucha faculty is exceedingly complex and delicate. On the onehand, it was clear that the faculty could not be too largeif it was to be effective. On the other, however, it wasequally clear that such a faculty must incorporate facultymembers representing all the portions of the Universitywhich have important interest in undergraduate education—and practically every part of the University is andought to be so interested if one takes seriously the kindsof programs which the University offers and will continueto offer.One important simplification of this problem became possible when it was decided to confine the direct responsibilities of the new College faculty (as it will continue tobe called) to A.B. programs and the general educationcomponents of all programs. The same considerations whichled the committee to propose a different pattern for B.S.programs seemed to make it unnecessary to have a singlefaculty responsible for all four years of the B.S. The sharpseparation of general from special components in theseprograms seemed to justify maintaining them in their statusas joint degrees, with divisional faculty being responsiblefor the last two years.However, the committee was not willing to go as far asto say that the new faculty should incorporate only facultymembers from the general education faculty and thefaculties of the social sciences and the humanities, if onlybecause of its strongly held opinion that there should beA.B. programs in the sciences. In the end, the committeerecommended the following: (1) The new faculty will include all the members of the present College faculty. ( 2 )It will also include approximately one hundred membersappointed from the Divisional faculties with most of thesecoming from the Humanities and the Social Sciences. (3)The new faculty will have a total membership of approximately 225.This faculty will have full responsibility for and jurisdiction over all the requirements for the degree of Bachelorof Arts— over the entire 2-1-1 range of these programs—and over the general education requirements in B.S.programs. It will, in the normal way of faculties, be headedby a Dean and will initially be organized into four sections—Biological Sciences, Humanities, Physical Sciences, andSocial Sciences— each of which will have a chairman.Against the background of these changes the committeefound it possible to make one other recommendation ofgreat administrative importance. It recommended thatthere should be a Dean of Undergraduate Students whowould be charged with administrative authority over allundergraduates, both A.B. and B.S. candidates. Thischange is intended to make it possible to have a unifiedadvisory system and uniform regulations for all undergraduates and supersedes a system in which the Dean ofStudents in the College and the Dean of Students in theDivisions had joint jurisdiction over undergraduates.New Faculty Faces Full AgendaThe recommendations of the ECUE were debated in theCouncil of the Senate in May and June and were adoptedin June. The coming academic year will be devoted toputting them into effect— bringing existing programs intoconformity with the uniform degree patterns which arenow standard, constituting the new faculty and appointingits officers, reorganizing the undergraduate functions ofthe office of the Dean of Students, and so on. Just how7Swift Hall Library in the early eveningrapidly all these changes can be accomplished remains tobe seen, but it would seem reasonable to expect to find thenew scheme of undergraduate things well shaped out byJune of 1959.I observed at the beginning of this account that at firstsight the changes made in June may not seem as importantas the "relocation" of 1953. In a sense, of course, it isobviously the case that they are not. The relocation and re-relocation of the Bachelor's degree marked major changesof educational policy with respect to undergraduate education. It would be possible to argue that the present changesare simply the natural result of what happened in 1953and represent a kind of tidying up and clarification atleisure of what was done then in something of a rush.It is probably the case that in the coming year there willbe no major curricular changes or radical developmentsas a result of the Council's action in approving the recommendations of ECUE, nor is it likely that the newCollege faculty will institute sweeping reforms of thewhole undergraduate program within a year or two of itsconstitution.On the other hand, the most obvious fact about undergraduate education at the University since 1953 has beenthat the responsibility for it was so divided that no considerable changes in policy or performance could beeffected. All the major faculties of the University otherthan the professional schools had actual legal responsibilityfor undergraduate educations, and the ancient saw that"everybody's business is nobody's business really suppliesthe basic reasons for the change which has just beenbrought about. It is now clear just whose business undergraduate business is.Comprehensive examinations in Rosenwald What, then, will be the business of the new Collegefaculty and its partners in the B.S. degrees? Another lookat the ECUE report gives clear indications. The reportabounds in the statement of unsettled problems, newproblems which will arise, and educational enterpriseswhich could not before be attempted. Some of these areproblems which ECUE was originally set up to solve— suchas the problem of degree programs which extend overmore than four years for some students— but they are allproblems which ECUE felt it could turn over with confidence to- the new authorities responsible for undergraduate education.Some of these "agenda items" for the new faculty inparticular have already been mentioned. B.A. programsin the sciences, which at present do not exist, are a majoritem. The development of programs in fields which donot correspond to departmental or other fields defined forgraduate study is a project which can provide opportunityfor a new kind of creative thinking on the Chicago scene.Further, ECUE strongly recommends the institution ofspecial programs for superior students: programs whichwould permit them to undertake "independent and sophisticated work" of a kind for which there is at presentno provision on a University-wide basis. Also, ECUEpointed out that the University had no device applying toall students for the recognition of superior academic performance by undergraduates other than election to PhiBeta Kappa and recommends that a uniform policy withrespect to honors be adopted. Finally, the committee calledattention to the complex examination system at the University and urged that it be clarified and reordered in theinterest of efficiency and the integration of bachelor'sprograms.The purport of this agenda, in my opinion, is that thenew faculty is not intended to be a kind of caretaker ofexisting programs, but rather a vigorous instrument forthe continuing development of the University's strong interest in undergraduate education. It is intended to be,in the words of ECUE's report, "an institutional environment in which fresh educational thinking and creative development can occur . . ." As such it may, in the long run,be more important than any relocation of anything couldbe.8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERight, Davie Hendricks Essington, Mrs. McKibbin, MaySimon Berger. Above, Mrs. McKibbin, Una Jones Nelson, Lois Markham, Jennie Beery Hough. Below, Adelaide Spohn and Mary Moynihan.ReturnsA feeling of companionship and accomplishmentThe windows had been washed in 110 Cobb; aside fromthat, it was the familiar lecture room in which Teddy Linnand Mr. Boynton had taught. Behind their desk stood ourpresident Norman Barker, presiding at the meeting of theClass of 1908.There was not nearly enough time to cover with each onethe intervening years, but we found that whatever the lackof understanding and appreciation that stood between usin our college days, the years seemed to have brought withthem a feeling of companionship and of accomplishment.We plan to meet again!Helen Sunny McKibbinReunion ChairmanA. C. Allyn, the Hon. Frank S. Bevan, Edward G.Felsenthal, Louis Berlin and Joseph R. Varkala.Above, Walter Gore Mitchell and Charles Schwartz. At right, Dr. Max S. Rohdeand Robert R. Mix. The photos were taken at the Reunion luncheon at the Quadrangle Club.OCTOBER, 1958 9Three members of the reunion committee who likethe way things are working out: (below) Mrs. JosephSibley, Re-Cap and Gown Editor John Hollowayand Joe Zoline. Right, Mr. and Mrs. Jim Simonand Mr. and Mrs. Herman Ries.After 25 Years,Qreetings from some old favorites:-A Left, Bob Shapiro checks some of the table reservations. Mrs. Abraham Doctorsky (above) and Walter Maneikis. Below, Art Hein andMr. and Mrs. Truman Gibson and a copy of the Re-Cap and Gown.10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECoach Amos Alonzo Stagg:On the thirteenth of this month, they are graduating the firstclass from the school which is called Amos Alonzo Stagg SeniorHigh School. I expect to make an address, a short one, andI'm glad that it comes twenty-five years after the last class thatI saw graduate at the University of Chicago. I send them mygreetings. Tell them hello and good luck from Amos AlonzoStagg, the Old Man of the Midway . . .Professor T. V. Smith:Greetings to the Depression Class of 1933 from, now as then,an ignorant man and philosopher. I understand, by the way,that you have survived not only the adverse years of the GreatDepression, but, and this is more, the exhilaration of the University of Chicago under President Hutchins.Let that, let both, be a lesson to you as long as you live. It'salways too early to despair, and it's never too late to hope. Ifyou cannot get out of life all you want, you can learn to wantwhat you get. To that lesson add this wisdom: Eat as fewcockroaches as possible.Chancellor Robert Maynard Hutchins:In 1929, things looked pretty good. The stock market wasbooming and everybody was getting rich. But there were threesleeping disasters hidden under this superficial surface. Therewas the Depression, there was Hutchins, and there was theClass of 1933. These descended upon the world at the sametime with results that cannot be calculated.Fortunately, the country overcame the Depression. The Classof 1933 has surprised everybody by turning out to be the mostbrilliant and most affluent of all those groups of noble and courageous young men and women who have gone forth from theUniversity of Chicago. Hutchins is still causing trouble, butnot as much as was once feared.As this great man, who, like General De Gaulle, always refersto himself in the third person, looks back over his past, heregards the Class of 1933 as one of those few good contributions he has made to the advance of civilization, by which hehopes to be remembered. He sends you now his salutationsand felicitations as you press forward to rise to ever higher andnobler heights.Reunion photos by Lee BaltermanOCTOBER, 1958Perhaps the best lesson from the Russiansystem is realization of the educationalweaknesses we share.The Mirage of RussianBY C. Arnold Anderson, director of the Comparative Education Center and professor of education. Mr. Anderson is a sociologist who has doneextensive work in comparative studies in educationand has been professor of sociology at the Universityof Kentucky, a member of the Iowa State Collegefaculty, and a visiting professor at Harvard and theUniversity of California. He took bachelor's, master'sand Ph.D. degrees from the University of Minnesota.A consultant for the U. S. Department of Agriculturein 1942 and 1943, he has also done research in Sweden in 1955 on a Fulbright grant.• Mr. Anderson joined the Chicago faculty as firstdirector of the Comparative Education Center thisJuly. The Center will prepare students for careers incomparative education, history of education, researchand foreign educational projects. Fellowships for students include a resident fellowship for non-Americanstudents, foreign study fellowships for students whohave completed work at the Center and assistantshipsat the Center. IN the clamor over the Russian Sputnik critics haveconcluded that our schools are inadequate to matchRussian accomplishments. But how large a part doschools play in such developments as the atomic bomband Sputnik? A few scientists in this country with unlimited resources created the atomic bomb. The qualityof our schools, in the large, may have been irrelevantto this accomplishment. Likewise, production of Sputnik proves little about the general quality of Russianschools, or about the changes in that quality duringSoviet times. After all, the first textbook in the worldon aeronautics was published in Russia before WorldWar I, and many of the senior Soviet scientists wereeducated in Tsarist universities or studied in the Westduring the 1920's and '30's.Russian education cannot be judged on such dramatic accomplishments as Sputnik. This accomplishment,like most of the widely discussed features of Sovietschools, has been lifted out of context. It is really thecomplexity of the massive Soviet system, organizedaround a few main themes, that I shall try to describe.You will find that many of those features of Sovieteducation that critics would have us adopt are precisely the ones now being played down in Russia.Two Streams of Russian EducationIn the old Tsarist tradition, virtually all vocationaltraining is included within the formal Russian schoolprogram. While in America a boy learns to drive atractor as play, a Russian goes to a tractor drivers'school; similarly the vast on-the-job training programsof American industry are in Russia the responsibilityof special schools, "technicums," each linked with itsindustry. This vocational approach to education withits rigid curricula and narrow specialization developed12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEducationAmong the 400 Russians to come to the U. S. during the first half of this year werethree of the Russian "student" editors shown seated in the foreground (wearing whiteshirts) with University of Chicago students. The scene: just outside Ida Noyes Court.out of the demands of rapid industrialization in acountry where labor was unskilled and leisure andconsumption are minor values.Seven-year elementary schools prepare students forvocational and semi-professional training in the tech-nicums. Many of the technicums are being upgradedand half the entrants now come from ten-year schools.Many of these students are night and correspondencestudents, for there are numerous evening literacyschools for adults, town schools covering grades fivethrough ten for working youth and night schools ofgrades one through seven for rural working youth.Prior to the expansion of the ten-year schools, theirgraduates were likely to enter the universities or higherschools. The difference between this education andthat offered by the technicums is one of social statusand later job attainments for graduates rather than ofhumanistic versus technical orientation. There are only35 Russian universities in our sense of the word; theother 700-odd schools in this category are specialized.There is little resembling our liberal arts colleges andthe technocratic flavor is becoming stronger. For example, in 1955 humanities subjects were cut to lessthan half the study hours in the ten-year school.Two-fifths of the university students are in education(these degrees are typically taken in a subject field),a third are in some branch of engineering, with smallfractions in agriculture, health and socio-economicfields (mainly law). The Orthodox church has a fewseminaries and there are Party schools as well asacademies for military and police. Within science andtechnology the higher courses are closely linked toparticular industries, with such schools as road, railroad and canal institutes. The arts, music and dramaare also taught separately; though recent data are lacking, in 1939 five percent of the higher instituteswere in the arts.Judgements of the quality of the Russian universities must take account of the fact that only a fewyears ago full professors made up less than a tenthof the teachers, a fifth were docents, and the majoritywere assistants and instructors. Of this whole teachingcorps, only a fifth held doctors' degrees (doubtlesssuperior to our doctorate) and only two-thirds of thefull professors held the doctorate. A fourth of thedocents had no advanced degrees. The much heraldedprofessorial salaries apply to a rather small group,but assistants are supplied freely and research time isnormally a large fraction of the load. Textbooks arereported to be poor at all levels of schooling.Reality of Equal OpportunityA large part of the Russian people seem to have beengenuinely convinced that they enjoy the right and thereality of equal opportunity. Millions of peasant andlaborer sons are today officials, officers, professionals,managers, and responsible white-collar workers. Muchof this social promotion, however, was incidental tothe transformation of a peasant economy into an industrial one, and to the political gyrations that drovethousands of skilled men from their positions.The fact that virtually all kinds of training are formalized and budgeted by the government has beenthe means of creating at least a presumption in Sovietminds that everyone has a chance for all the traininghe can use. Enormous resources are devoted to inducing people to seek training and to strive for betterjobs. Generous arrangements have existed for admitting night students and others with irregular preparation to vocational or higher schools.OCTOBER, 1958 13The aggregate numbers of persons to be trainedhave risen steadily. Recent figures show about one inevery eight Russian youngsters finishing ten years ofschool (which is equivalent in days to the twelve yearscompleted by something over half our youngsters),but the ten-year students are increasing. We haveabout twice as large a fraction of the population enrolled in higher schools ( three-versus two millions innumbers); however, it must be acknowledged thatmuch of what we call college work is dealt with inRussian secondary schools, as elsewhere in Europe.Half the Russian students are women, in contrast toa third here.But, already we have seen some evidence of unequaleducation opportunity. Most of the ten-year schoolsare in towns and there are higher schools in only 271cities, with six Russian cities possessing a fourth of allthe higher schools. Children completing the seventhgrade in a complete ten-year school have the firstchances at the eighth grade places.Rural children attending ten-year schools in thecities must pay board and room. Moreover, vocationalschools have been cheaper: until 1956 there were feesbeginning with grade eight, and no ten-year school hasstipends. In all cases parents must buy books, uniforms and supplies. In this connection it is importantto remember that there are very low taxes on higherincomes; while low-income families must bear theloss of a child's potential earnings while he continuesschool.When a favored student reaches the university level,he will likely receive a stipend, amounting to abouthalf of a typical worker's income. Tuition was recently abolished at this level, and when it was charged,the following groups were exempted: orphans andchildren of the crippled, veterans, children of retiredsenior military officers, and children of persons whoreceived prizes for eminence. The latter two exemptions are hardly democratic.Moreover, Russian doctrine decrees that every activity is shaped by national objectives; no individualmay plan his life, for each must adapt his motives andcareer to the needs of the state. The annual plan setsquotas for every kind of specialist and schools allotthe designated places. A surplus of would-be geologists must fill the niches the state finds empty. Sucha doctrine is bound to produce its share of square pegsand students unhappily caught in less financially orsocially rewarding positions.It has been argued that selection of the talentedfor higher training by strict testing is democratic, butthe degree of faith placed in examinations as measures of ability and attainment is greater in Russia thanhere. While probably few persons of low ability enterRussian Universities today, there must be many acapable youngster who missed on the tests. And theRussians can't ignore the class-selective factors ofcrowded living conditions and the influence of parental example and stimulation on classroom and examination results.University officials have been arrested for falsifyingstudent records, and it is freely stated that children ofimportant people are favored in grading, particularlyin oral exams. Such bias is especially likely in the conduct grade, which is heavily affected by politicalactivism, and this grade counts for university entrance.According to rumor, the elite manage to have the bestteachers assigned to the schools in their neighborhoods.It is striking to observe the progressive ideologicalrationalization of these inequalities. During the '20'semphasis was on the glorification of the proletariat.Figures show that very likely this effort resulted inurban workers' children claiming just about their dueproportion of places in the universities— which is notthe case in any other country. (In the U. S. manualworkers and farm children together have somethingover half their quota of college places. ) In their effortsto hasten eradication of capitalist views and educateproletarian children, the Russians excluded childrenof the previous elite and intelligentsia from the higherschools, and efforts were made to short-cut schoolingby moving workers rapidly through trade schools intouniversities. Examinations were de-emphasized and"projects" became the vogue. The utter failure of thisplan could not be ignored and in the early '30's policywas reversed.The formal courses, tough exams, and strict discipline that critics of U. S. education would have usadopt, were revived. We can only speculate about theoccupation groups represented in higher institutionsduring this time. University enrolments are definitelyheld below the level of demand and the proportion often-year graduates going to the universities has declined. We can only ask, if the higher schools havebeen further democratized since 1938, why the datato demonstrate this fact has been withheld.With the current expansion in 1950 of the ten-yearschool to mass numbers, the picture is changing again.Behind this latest change is a history of political, philosophical and educational conflict.Vast Laboratory for Social ControlThe Russian education and propaganda system mightbe regarded as a vast laboratory test in social control.Outside ideas have been excluded until late yearswhile conformist and ambitious men have been rewarded. Propaganda funds are bottomless and thepenalties for defaulters harsh. No counter influencesfrom church, union, or party undermine loyalty. Ifany regime could mould the kind of younger generation it wanted, the Soviets should have succeeded.The outcome has been rather different. Incentivesset up to move people toward one Party goal generateattitudes jeopardizing other aims.It is effective to hold out university education andprofitable careers as goals if Russian youth will beable to attain this dream. But until very recently fewpeople had been obtaining a general secondary education, though many attended a technicum or otherpost-elementary short-course. These individuals hada poor outlook unless they had unusual talent or werepolitically active because of the stress on universitycertificates for responsible positions.So long as it was impossible to educate the massesof Russian people beyond seven years, it was easy toset aside as transitional the conflicts between communist ideologies that glorified manual work and themore generous rewards to graduates of ten-year14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAMEPMKAHCKME bYAHMOfficial Russian view ofU. S. school children. Source: theSoviet hi-weekly magazine, Krokodil.schools and universities. But the expansion of theten-year schools and their establishment in areas previously not served hits at the weakest point in educational mobility in Russia. Each extension in availability of ten-year education means a potentialincrease in the groups of Russian youth qualified foruniversity education.So long as the secondary pupils were highly selectedthey could be overworked. But if the secondaryschool is to be for the masses, something must give.It is admitted officially that the work is too difficultfor the new student group, which is one reason fornow demanding ten years of preparation for entranceto the technicums. Hitherto about 90 percent of theten-year school students were expected to pass eachgrade. The failure rate has been rising, courses arebeing simplified and craft courses introduced. Also,with expanded enrollments medical experts havebrought about the abolition of year-end exams exceptin the seventh and tenth grades and have specifiedthat homework ought not to exceed three to fourhours daily. Granted all this rugged training for thefew, American teachers can appreciate the irony ofthe complaints by Russian professors that secondarystandards are not uniform and that too many incapable children are being graduated.The strains discussed thus far may be called structural, but more basic tensions are finding expressionin errant behavior among Russian youth. Most ofthe complaints come from university students or sec ondary graduates; the uneasiness of the less articulateis not so readily documented.Secondary graduates finding no place in the universities are in many cases demoralized. Theyresent being shunted into inferior places, for theSoviet regime has not eradicated the intellectual'sdisdain for working with his hands.This demoralization expresses itself in loafing, taking entrance exams over again, or just waiting for aplace in some college. Some, including spoiled children of the new rich, turn to vice and crime. Othersflaunt outlandish costumes and revel in disapprovedmusic and art. Some of this dissent reflects newlydiscovered and wider intellectual interests than areto be found in technical education and Marxian philosophy. Evidently youth are shifting from a production to a consumption philosophy. Some merely wantto live well and have soft jobs in the cities. Othersare fed up with propaganda and listen to westernbroadcasts, write satirical outlaw newspapers, and onrare occasions riot. The regime complains that eventhe university students cram and show no originality.Education as PropagandaThe benefits of socialist society have not been self-evident, else such strenuous efforts to keep peoplefrom learning about the outside world would havebeen needless. Appeals to raw egoism as inducements to hard study and hard work have been morepotent than the enthusiasm for a new society, andgetting ahead of the Russian Joneses has been proffered as a praiseworthy socialist ambition.OCTOBER, 1958 15All of this raises the question whether the Partyhas actually set and attained the wisest educationalgoals. Inevitably, in the hectic pace of industrialization many blind alleys were entered and then withdrawn from, and these blunders squandered resources. Less drastic procedures and more diversityof program at any given time might have been cheaperin Soviet terms— not to mention costs in terms of livesand liberties.I always come back to the question raised by somewriters: if you extrapolate the trends in education andindustry that were under way from 1880 to 1914,would you not come out at nearly the same place asRussia now stands? That is, is there any major newfeature of Russian society not predictable in 1914,other than state ownership of all productive resourcesand the related program of planning? Even as farback as 1897 a sizable fraction of the bourgeois andskilled groups had some middle schooling or evenuniversity training, and among urban males a majority of even the middle-aged were able to read. Schoolsfor the workers' and peasants' children were beingorganized rapidly in the last third of the 19th century.The Tsarist universities of that time were of highquality; it would not be a rash guess that as of 1910there were more Russian scholars and scientists thanAmerican ones of world reputation. University stipends, an old Tsarist custom, enabled many studentsof humble origins, including women, to attend.Much in Russian society has not changed in generations: statist conceptions of utility, suspicion offoreigners, secret police, corrupt bureaucracies, andeven— despite Soviet preachings— the concept of whatan intellectual may respectably do. The roots weretough and some observers find Russia today morelike that of 1910 than was the Russia of 1930. But,should one conclude that Russian education has beenless effective than claimed, that education never isas potent as many of us believe, or that Russian societyhas really changed less than the regime class?Evaluation of Russian EducationWhen all qualifications have been taken into account, some facets of the performance of the Sovietregime have been highly creditable. Although technicums are not part of "higher education," those graduates with the ten-year preparation are undoubtedlyas well qualified for productive work as many of ourcollege graduates. The continuation of Tsarist effortstoward equal educational opportunities for the urbanpopulation must be fully acknowledged. If one excludes peasants from consideration, it seems highlyprobable that in Russia a larger percentage of themost talented youth enter college than in the U. S.,despite the fact that we enroll a larger proportionof our youth. More of our students possess rathermodest ability and there is not the same attitude ofdriving work here as still exists in Russia.While Russians strive to restrict higher educationto the gifted (if politically acceptable) and to insurethat a student is financially independent, we admitanyone to college who meets the rather low requirements if he has the money, and our premium collegesare disproportionately available to the well-to-do. It is noteworthy also that the Russians make aneffort to identify children possessing artistic or musicaltalent in early grades and move them into specialschools.Thus, if one ignores the rural population, Russiamay well recruit its college students more "efficiently"than we do. How far this goes in constituting a sound,sole criterion of selection is another question. Combined with what is essentially a rigid job-quota system, it involves rigid limitations on choice of studiesexcept as subject preferences match grades. It leaveslittle room for those values which we regard as "thewell-rounded man" and "individualism." In this respect the two systems rest on different bases.& But there is a similarity in our systems which cannot be ignored. I recall a jolting assessment by Frenchman Mauriac:It is not what separates the Soviet Union andthe United States that should frighten [usEuropeans], but on the contrary what theyhave in common. Their ideological oppositions are perhaps less to be feared . . . thantheir agreement regarding the scale of humanvalues. These two technocracies which thinkof themselves as adversaries are dragginghumanity in the same direction of aehu-manization/But it should be noted that Russia's system goeseven further than ours in denying the humanistic educational tradition on which western Europeans pridethemselves.A Thoughtful LessonOut of Russia's industrialization has emerged a newand elaborate status system based not on wealth, buton occupation. The key to achievement in this system is education and for a Russian this means he mustread only what preaches the accepted values, forotherwise he would draw the wrong moral. He isnot trusted to examine the situation and make hischoice. This certainly cuts off potentially superiorideas in not only education but also government andleads to dead-end self-perpetuating policies in publicplanning.The harshest incentives are bluntly used. Titlesand medals are handed out freely, but shame is amore common weapon. The much advertised vacation resorts give preference to conformists and bureaucrats. A man may give up his job and seek another,but how much insurance he can draw if sick or injured depends on how long he has worked in the sameplant.That these incentives work in the crucial area ofindustrial production and warfare is sufficiently obvious. It is equally obvious that a large share of thestudents have not found sufficient incentive to work,and that educational policies have suffered from theofficious meddling common in the Russian system.What, then, is it that we should learn from Russianaccomplishments in education— for those accomplishments are real enough. Perhaps the answer to thisquestion requires examination of our own values, andin particular those we share with Russia, those aboutwhich we are in conflict with Russia, and perhapsalso those we have neglected along with the Russians.16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESTrustees Robert C. Gunness and Arthur M. WoodTwo New University TrusteesElection of Robert C. Gunness andArthur M. Wood as trustees of theUniversity has been announced byChairman of the Board, Glen A. Lloyd.Executive vice-president of StandardOil Company (Indiana), Mr. Gunnessis a graduate of the University of Massachusetts and Massachusetts Instituteof Technology, from which he took theD.Sc. degree in chemical engineering.Before joining Standard in 1938, Mr.Gunness taught at MIT for two years.In his research career, he was prominent in development and design ofnew processes of petroleum refining,including the process of fluid catalyticcracking and the development of thefirst hydroformer, a unit that improvesthe quality of gasoline.Mr. Wood, a native of Chicago, isa graduate of Princeton and of Harvard Law School. He joined the Chicago law firm which is now Bell, Boyd,Marshall and Lloyd in 1937, and afterservice in World War II with the rankof lieutenant colonel, joined Sears ashead of its legal division. He has beensecretary since 1952, and vice-presidentsince 1956.Among the companies of which heis a director are The Peoples Gas Lightand Coke Company; Simpson-Sears,Ltd., Allstate Insurance Company, aiidElgin National Watch Company.Mr. Brozen on a Stable EconomyMaintenance of a stable rate ofgrowth in the quantity of money,rather than discretionary measures tomeet inflation and recession, is an important means of maintaining economicstability according to Yale Brozen, professor of economics in the BusinessSchool.In a paper prepared for deliveryat a meeting of the American FarmEconomic Association and the Canadian Agricultural Economics Society at Winnipeg, he suggested that the rateof growth in money might be stabilizedat two, or perhaps three, percent peryear. In no event, he maintained,should the Federal Reserve shift itsmonetary policy from time to time inorder to accelerate or slow the rate ofgrowth of money. Changes in the rateof growth of the money supply, Mr.Brozen said, are primarily responsiblefor the fall of prices and for the risein real wage rates while economicactivity is declining."The current recession stems in partfrom the policies used to cure the1953-54 decline," Mr. Brozen said."Reserve requirements were reducedin June, 1954; the unemployment peakhad already occurred in March, 1954.By June, the action was hardly necessary. A much smaller cut, or moderate open market operations, wouldhave meant a less rapid growth in themoney supply in 1954 and 1955, and the inflation which alarmed the Boardin 1956 and 1957 would not have occurred.The second factor helpful in stabilizing the economy is preventing thecontinuance of an upward wage ratemovement after employment has turneddown. To do this, Mr. Brozen suggested an employers' escape clause inlong-term contracts providing for future wage increases. Another devicewould be to bring labor monopolywithin the range of the Sherman Act,limit the size of collective bargainingunits, and outlaw collusion amongthem. "Perhaps the community andemployees must be taught that an employer who cuts wage rates, or failsto give a wage increase in times ofdeclining business, is performing a social service and maintaining employment by doing so," Mr. Brozen said.Wage rates are set by both governmental authorities and by the con-OCTOBER, 1958 17gainst a background of law students and the approximately 400' members of the American Bar who gathered at± i- the Law School cornerstone laying this August, are Chairman of the University Board of Trustees Glenn A. Lloyd;Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Earl Warren; Chancellor Kimpton; and Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain,Viscount Kilmuir. The importance of the occasion was marked by the attendance of the two heads of the Americanand British judicial systems. Mr. Warren said, "It will be unique among the law schools of the world. Standing betweenits great parent university and the American Bar Center, and containing a courtroom that will be used for sessions ofthe Illinois Supreme Court, this building will . . provide the best opportunity^ in America for an integrated approachto the many problems that confront all of us in the administration of justice."tracts for long periods in advancebetween employers and unions, hepointed out. This year's wage increasesfor steel workers were negotiated when1958 economic circumstances and markets were imperfectly known. Many ofthe wage increases now occurring under long term contracts are in industries suffering severe unemployment,such as steel and railroads, and theeffect, in Mr. Brozen's judgment, is toadd to the number of unemployed.Education and Present NeedsAmong the many activities of theeducation department this summer season was a lecture series, "RedesigningEducation for Present Needs." Speakers included Dean of the new Schoolof Education Francis S. Chase; RalphW. Tyler, director of the Center forBehavioral Sciences in Stanford, California; Clarence H. Faust, president ofthe Fund for the Advancement of Education and vice president of the FordFoundation; A. J. Stoddard, consultantfor the Fund for the Advancement ofEducation; John H. Fischer, superintendent of schools in Baltimore, Maryland; and C. Arnold Anderson, directorof the Comparative Education Center,University of Chicago.Mr. Fischer:The fact that we so desperately needa new approach to education leads meto believe we shall have it.Because of our pattern for governing our schools, the school crisis willproduce no national leader of heroicstature around whom we shall rally, but many Americans will combine their•efforts to leadership. Each school district will have its opportunity— and itsresponsibility— to share in the total national movement.This condition need not be a handicap, but a priceless opportunity. It willpermit widely scattered inventiveness,full freedom to attack the common task,and it will enable us to demonstrate ina world of increasing regimentationthat a vast undertaking can be accomplished without a mass approach.Mr. Chase:We must set the ends of education:our present conflict and confusion maybe resolvable on the basis of the American dream of a society in which thefull potentials of the individual arerealizable. We must not continue tounderestimate the capacity of our children; it is an ironic commentary onAmerican traditions that a totalitariansociety, which by definition places alow value on the individual man, shouldbe exhibiting higher expectations thanour own as to what young people canaccomplish.We must value teaching enough tomake it attractive to creative minds;we must relieve teachers of the burden of clerical, custodial, and policefunctions so that they may be free toteach; and we must reward the uniquetalents of gifted teachers.To bring practices in the schools inline with the demands of our times andthe current state of knowledge aboutlearning, will add to the cost of maintaining the schools. Education must not be barred from revenues providedby income and sales taxes.The establishment of a national education commission is recommended tosuggest how tax revenues may be apportioned without accompanying political control.Mr. Faust:Our education must be most unfortunately incomplete unless the studyof the humanities in and for themselvesis given an appropriate place in it.Three suggestions for the study ofhumanities in the high school:1) That the core of humanitiescourses be actual works of art, music,and literature studied as works of creative imagination.2) That the method of study mustbe discussion so that students learnwhat to read for in novels, plays, andpoetry, what to look for in painting,and what to listen for in music.3) That use be made of new communication methods — films, radio andtelevision, with such approaches asRobert Frost reading his poetry, Bernstein interpreting music, and other creative artists illustrating their skills.Raytheon Fellowship EstablishedThe University has been granted oneof the ten $3,000 Raytheon Manufacturing Company fellowships.Carrying a stipend of $1800 a yearfor the student, plus $900 for tuitionand fees, it includes a grant of $500 tothe department in which the recipientstudies. It will be assigned to a Ph.D.candidate in the Institute for theStudy of Metals.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENew School of EducationANNOUNCEMENT of the establish-L ment of a Graduate School ofEducation brings to full circle the University's attempts to extend its contributions to elementary and secondaryeducation. Even under President Harper, experiment was carried from thejunior college, through the nurseryschools. As at many universities, thiswas done under a framework of aSchool of Education, College of Education and the Department of Education.Under this system it was found thatthe School, College and Departmentof Education tended to be isolatedfrom the rest of the University. Students in Education were taking theircourses only under teachers of education and were often not adequatelygrounded in the subject matter theywere preparing to teach. Faculty inEducation were out of touch with theother branches of the University, andother departments were often unawareof Education research.In 1933 the School and College ofEducation were therefore abolished.The remaining Department of Education became a part of the Division ofthe Social Sciences and responsibilityfor training teachers became the business of the whole University. For example, future teachers of history, English and modern languages began totake their masters' degrees in thosedepartments, for they do most of theirwork there. In this framework for thelast 25 years the Department of Education has grown.In a sense, it has out-grown its nichein the Social Sciences Division. Thisis the primary reason for the structuralchanges announced this August.The new Graduate School of Education will be in charge of the schoolimprovement programs, now being conducted with 15 elementary schools;will conduct school surveys, and supervise specialized projects such as theReading Clinic, Center for TeacherEducation, the Comparative EducationCenter and the Midwest AdministrationCenter. Under a Ford Foundationgrant, it will administer the current advisory program to the Ministry of Education of Pakistan on the improvementof teacher training and secondaryschools.Once one of the most important centers in the country for experiment inelementary and secondary education,the Laboratory School has graduallylost connection with the University. ItOCTOBER, 1958 will now become the responsibility ofthe School of Education and will beused to try out and evaluate new ideasin teaching.Francis S. Chase, formerly chairmanof the Department who has now beennamed dean of the School, is awareof the disadvantages that led to theabolition of the old School. He pointsout that Chicago will be trying aunique arrangement in its new School."The responsibility of the Schoolwill not be to provide teaching in fieldsother than education, but to assist otherdepartments in developing programsfor this purpose," Mr. Chase reported."Under the new arrangement we expect the departments to be activelyengaged in preparing teachers andhelping the high schools to make necessary curriculum changes."We envision a cooperation betweenthe University and elementary andsecondary schools on a scale never before existing in American education,"the new dean concludes.All doctorates in Education will begiven through the Division of the Social Sciences. The master's degree forteaching will be awarded by the University upon recommendations fromthe School, its recommendation beingbased upon satisfactory completion ofthe program of study designated bythe teaching faculties involved in thestudent's preparation. The bachelor'sdegree will continue to be the responsibility of the College.Mr. Chase, who will continue aschairman of the Department as wellas dean of the new School, has beenat the University since 1949. He received his Ph.D. from Chicago in 1951,when he was appointed professor ofeducational administration and directorof the Midwest Administration Center,one of eight programs in the Cooperative Program for Educational Administration, which was established by theKellogg Foundation. He is co-editorof the new book, The High School ina New Era.Government Executives Studied"Federal Executives: Their Origins,Training, Mobility and Attitudes," isthe title of a three and a half yearstudy now in progress. Under a grantfrom the Carnegie Corporation, a scientific sampling of 20,000 top federalexecutives will be made by W. LloydWarner, professor of sociology and anthropology; Norman H. Martin, associate professor in the Business School; and Paul F. Van Riper, professor ofadministration at Cornell. The research will include both military andcivilian executives.Among other purposes, the studyshould be useful in meeting such practical problems as recruiting of executives for federal service, ascertainingextent of management training and development, and defining the career opportunities of the service.In a broader way, the study shouldhelp reveal the extent to which theadministrative apparatus can be expected to act in accord with the desires of the American voting public.Comparison with the results of the profiles of American business men alsowill give some measure of abilities,attitudes and performance of the twogroups.National Academy ofScience PostHenry Burr Steinbach, professor andchairman of zoology, has been appointed chairman of the National Academyof Sciences National Research CouncilDivision of Biology and Agriculture.As chairman of the Division, Mr.Steinbach will bring together scientistsfrom government, industry, and universities. They will deal with such problems as the search for a low cost proteindiet to nourish children in underdeveloped countries, evaluations ofdamage by pests to farmland, andpreparation of biological handbooks.The division, whose recommendationsare widely accepted by U. S. agricultural and food industries, also nominates advisory committees to hear appeals of manufacturers regarding foodand drug administration limitations onpesticide residues in agricultural products.Henry Burr Steinbach19AppointmentsAdministrationWilliam V. Morgenstern, director ofpublic relations, has been named secretary of the University. Mr. Morgenstern was publicity director from thetime of the organization of the officein 1927 until 1942, when he becamepublic relations director.In his 32 years at the Universitythe campus has grown from a placewhere a science professor could win aNobel prize with no more apparatusthan a small metal mirror polished ina pan of rouge, to the huge plant whichnow finds its $2,250,000 cyclotronisn't big enough.His biggest story was one that he'sstill not permitted to fully report.Speaking of the time during WorldWar II when the atomic bomb wasbeing developed beneath the standsin Stagg Field, he says, "No one ever"told me anything. Yet I knew whatwas going on down there. You couldn'thelp it. You'd be sitting in the Quadrangle Club at lunch time and in wouldwalk 30 or 40 men— every nuclear scientist you ever heard of."For more than three years he officially parried every newspaper inquiry.It was only a month or so afterHiroshima that he was permitted toturn out a heavily censored story aboutthe University's part in the Manhattanproject. Today, thirteen years later, he/ still is not permitted to tell the wholestory of the atomic experiments.Succeeding Mr. Morgenstern as publicity director will be Carl W. Larsen,who has been executive assistant forpublic information at Argonne NationalLaboratory. Mr. Larsen was formerlyon the editorial staff of the ChicagoSun-Times , United Press Association,Time , and Sports Illustrated. From1949 to 1951 he was information officerfor the United States Marshall PlanMission to Sweden. He held a Niemanfellowship in journalism at HarvardUniversity in 1947-48.Appointed to a new position, mediaservices director, is Sheldon Garber,formerly state editor of United PressInternational in Chicago. Mr. Garberwas also secretary of the United Pressof Illinois Newspaper Editors' Association, and the United Press Broadcastersof Illinois.In his new position he will be incharge of the Office of Press Relations.Mr. Garber graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1942 with adegree in economics; he did graduatestudy in education at the University ofChicago in 1952 and '53.Business SchoolReturning to the Business School asRobert Law Professor of Business Administration and director of businessresearch, is John E. Jeuck. Mr. Jeuckis currently professor of business ad ministration at Harvard School ofBusiness, and in returning to Chicago,will be rejoining the faculty of whichhe formerly was dean.As director of business research hewill increase the usefulness to the business community of the School's broadresearch program.Mr. Jeuck, who holds bachelor's,master's, and Ph.D. degrees from Chicago, taught marketing in the schoolof business from 1946, and was dean,from 1952 until July '55 when he wentto Harvard. At Chicago he also servedas director of the executive program,a two-year evening course conductedby the School for executives with extensive business experience.Alex Ordin, manager of appliedmathematics for the Electrodata Division of Burroughs Corporation, hasbeen named director of the Universityof Chicago's Operation Analysis Laboratory. This laboratory includes operation of the IBM and Univac computers.Mr. Ordin will also hold a facultyappointment as professor of appliedmathematics in the School of Business.Mr. Ordin took his master's from theUniversity of Michigan, and his mathematics from MIT in 1950. Hehas supervised research in the adaptation of mathematical problems to electronic computers since he started withBurroughs in 1952. Before that, heconducted computer research for theUnited States Air Force, and the Bureau of Standards.Two other new professors are SidneyDavidson, professor of accounting, andHoward L. Jones, professor of statistics.William V. Morgenstern Easley Blackwood20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMr. Davidson, since 1956 professor ofaccounting at John Hopkins University, also has been a visiting professorat the University of California at Berkeley and at the London School ofEconomics. A certified public accountant, he holds a Ph.D. degree from theUniversity of Michigan.Howard L. Jones has been supervisor of statistics at Illinois Bell Telephone Company since 1951. Currentlyhe is vice-president of the AmericanStatistical Association, and was one ofthe founding members of the AmericanSociety of Quality Control.MusicEasley Blackwood, a 25-year-old Indianapolis composer who has won majorawards, has been appointed an instructor in the Department of Music.His "first symphony" won the BostonSymphony Orchestra Merit Award in1958, which provides a cash prize of$1,000 and a performance by the Boston Orchestra. In 1957, he was commissioned by the Fromm Music Foundation to write a string quartet whichwas first played at the Berkshire MusicFestival in Tanglewood, and is in therepertoires of the Kroll and Budapeststring quartets. This quartet is amongthe works scheduled for performancein this season's six University concerts.Having taken his bachelor's and master's degrees from Yale UniversitySchool of Music, Mr. Blackwood hasalso studied under Oliver Massiaen,Bernard Heiden, and Paul Hindemith.CollegeJoining ex-Carleton athletic director, Wally Hass, at Chicago, is ChesterT. McGraw, former Carleton track andswimming coach. He will be directorof intra-mural activities, and replacesKooman Boycheff, golf coach and intramural director, who becomes directorof the University of California intramural program this autumn.A 1931 graduate of the Universityof Washington, Mr. McGraw servedas assistant to Mr. Hass, both at Hid-ding, Minnesota High School and atCarleton College.Biological ScienceDr. Dwight E. Clark is the newchairman of the Department of Surgery, succeeding Dr. Lester E. Dragstedt, who becomes emeritus next yearbut has resigned his chairmanship tocomplete research he is conducting.Dr. Clark took his M.S. and M.D.degrees from the University of Rochester School of Medicine. He was asurgical intern, fellow, resident, andinstructor in the University Clinics atChicago from 1937 to 1944. After serving in the Army Medical Corps atthe Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge,Tenn., he returned to the University in1947 as associate professor of surgery,and in 1951 was appointed professorand senior attending surgeon at BillingsHospital, and secretary of the department. His work is centered on researchin clinical use of radioactive iodine inthe treatment of diseases of the thyroid, including cancer, in which hewas a pioneer. Dr. Clark is vice-president of the Society of Nuclear Medicineand a member of the board of governors of the American College ofSurgeons.Dr. Dragstedt received his B.S.,M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Chicago and in 1921 receivedhis M.D. from Rush. He also tookpost-graduate training at the University of Vienna, the University of Budapest, and the Surgical Clinic in Berne,Switzerland. Coming to the Universityin 1920 as an associate professor ofphysiology, in 1948 Dr. Dragstedt wasmade chairman of the Department ofSurgery, and in 1952 became theThomas D. Jones Professor of Surgery.His research interests have beenwide-ranging, and honors have beenheaped upon him. He has receivedtwo silver medals from the scientificassembly of the American Medical Association, and two gold medals fromthe scientific assembly of the IllinoisState Medical Society. He is an honorary lecturer of the Royal College ofSurgeons of Canada, has received themedal of the University of Louisville,and is an honorary member of theSeattle, Minneapolis, Detroit, and LosAngeles Surgical Societies.Succeeding retiring Dr. Paul C.Hodges as chairman of the Department of Radiology is Dr. Robert D.Moseley, Jr. Dr. Moseley is one of thethree-doctor team which developed amethod of destroying the pituitarygland that eliminates the need for major surgical procedure in some cancers.Dr. Moseley came to the Universityin 1949, as assistant resident in radiology, and left the following year to conduct radiobiological research at LosAlamos scientific laboratory. He returned as an assistant professor in 1955.William L. Doyle, professor of anatomy, has been appointed associate deanof the University's division of biological sciences. Mr. Doyle, who has beenon the faculty since 1942, will administer the non-clinical affairs of thedivision. He succeeds Merle C. Coulter, who died March 17.Mr. Doyle received his M.S. andPh.D. degrees from Johns Hopkins. Hecame to Chicago in 1942, and has beena full professor since 1950.OCTOBER, 1958Law and EconomicsThe first issue of a new journal, "TheJournal of Law and Economics," willbe published this month by the LawSchool. An annual publication, it willspecialize in the examination of issuesof public policy of joint interest tolawyers and economists. Editor of "TheJournal of Law and Economics" isAaron Director, professor of economicsin the Law School.University of Chicago faculty members who have written articles, for thefirst issue include: Reuben A. Kessel,assistant professor of economics; GeorgeJ. Stigler, professor of business; D.Gale Johnson, professor of agriculturaleconomics; John S. McGee, associateprofessor of business, and Allison Dunham, professor of law.Other contributors are: John Jewkesof Oxford University, Stanley S. Surrey of the Harvard Law School, Herbert Stein, member of the Committeefor Economic Development, Gary S.Becker, Columbia University, and ScottGordon of Carleton University, Canada.U-CTA Extends Its OperationsUniversity bus service, long familiaron 57th and 59th streets, has extendedits route to include service back andforth on Woodlawn.University people will now be ableto ride between 48th and 59th. Fareis by ten-cent ticket, which must bepurchased in advance at one of themany "agencies" on campus.Salt, Strife,DESPITE its oil royalties, modernIraq is as economically dependenttoday upon agriculture as its ancientSumerian, Akaadian and Babylonianempires were. In an effort to learn frompast mistakes before embarking on alarge-scale soil reclamation and irrigation project, the former Iraqi kingdomappropriated more than $100,000 forthe study of its ancient agriculture.The project was jointly undertakenby an Oriental Institute team underProfessor Thorkild Jacobsen and theDirectorate General of Antiquities ofIraq. Project director for the Instituteteam was Professor Robert Adams. Thearea of concern was the Diyala RiverBasin, southeast of Baghdad; the period, from ancient times to 1500 A.D.The expedition members studiedwritten historical records, such as temple rolls, contracts and inscriptionswhich survived because they werewritten on clay or inscribed in stone. Portable ReactorA low power portable nuclear reactor has been designed at ArgonneNational Laboratories to produce electricity and heating. Developed at theIdaho Falls Testing Station, it is intended to provide power for radarequipment and heat for buildings atisolated military locations where conventional fuel is very expensive. Thereactor can be transported in AirForce cargo planes.It will produce 3,000 kilowatts ofheat (about 750 electrical kilowatts),and will operate for three years on eachloading of its uranium fuel. An alloyof aluminum and nickel especially developed at Argonne is used for mostof the reactor's core and all of the containers of the fuel elements.Dissertation Secretary RetiresMrs. S. G. Turabian has retiredfrom her post as dissertation secretaryand editor of official publications.In the 26 years she has been at herpost, some 11,000 theses submitted bycandidates for higher degrees at theUniversity have had to "make thegrade" with Mrs. Turabian as well aswith the students' professors.At a reception held in her honor,Chancellor Kimpton presented her witha leather-bound copy of her A Manualfor Writers of Dissertations. First published in 1935 by the University Press,it has had world-wide circulation andits sales have quietly moved into thebest-seller class.StarvationThey made excavations and surfacesurveys of pottery remains in order todate occupation, and did topographicalstudies of parts of the old irrigationsystems."To the contributory causes of thefall of Sumer . . internal strife andfinally foreign invasion . . must beadded that of economic decline broughton by the Sumerians' irrigation practices," according to Mr. Jacobsen."Around 2500 B.C. irrigation had soraised the water table that mineralsalts were deposited to an extent thatcrop yields were reduced sharply."Once able to produce wheat andbarley crops comparable to those ofthe best land in Canada today, Sumerian farmers were first driven toplanting only barley, which was moreresistant to salinity, and finally, about1700 B.C., to abandoning much of theland, which never since has made anysubstantial recovery. A Sumerian expression of the desolation resulting in some of the greatcities and villages is found in early literature: "The city gates stood stuckin the dirt ... in the midst of thetowns were all kinds of weeds . . . onesilver shekel bought half a liter of oilonly ... he who lay down (to die)in the house was left there unburied."One factor that may have hastenedthe salting of the land was a great increase in the available water supplywhen the Tigris was tapped by Ente-menak, king of Girsu in about 2400B.C. He vigorously developed irrigation, building a huge control weir thatthe expedition excavated. His canalfrom the Tigris was of such extentthat it became a main bed of the river,and within thirty years after it wascompleted the literature of the timeshows that salinity was rapidly increasing.Mr. Jacobsen feels that the investigations show the vulnerability of irrigation agriculture and its close link tostable and vigorous government. "Today, as then, the size and complexityof a great irrigated system demandsthat control extend beyond the irrigatedarea, if necessary to the source of thewater supply."Science Books for ChildrenThe Graduate Library School andthe Center for Children's Books co-sponsored a workshop this summer on"Literary Materials for Children — theSciences." Emery L. Will, chairman ofthe science department of State University Teachers College, Oneonta,New York, spoke on science teachingin the grammar schools.He claimed that science teaching inthe grammar school has been improved by a "do-it-yourself" approachthat has replaced telling about science.The initiative that led to today's elementary science programs began at theUniversity of Chicago LaboratorySchool under Wilbur S. Jackman, according to Mr. Will. Students wereencouraged to think for themselves, tomake observations from experiments,locate and sift evidence, and use scientific tools and instruments.It is important that science textbooksfor young children should be carefullywritten so that they will have permanent value for teaching. "Too manyscience books appear to have been written from very thin background, to capitalize on waves of public interest inspecial science topics. These materials will be outdated almost as fastas the printer's ink dries on their pages."An author of science books for22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPhotos: Lee Baltermanchildren, Mrs. Millicent E. Selsan, alsocontributed to the workshop. She believes that the purpose of science booksshould not be to give a child enoughfacts to win a prize on a quiz program.Accuracy is much less important as agoal than the communication of suchbeauties of science as appreciation ofnature, the excitement of discovery, andthe triumph of solution.The book should be well-written ina simple, dignified style that dependson the excitement of the subject matter to interest the reader.Three common writing styles of science books are now obsolete. Theseare "sugar-coating," which tells everything of a scientist's home life andnothing of his achievements; "fancifulpresentations," as in accompanying animaginary character, such as Wind, tolearn about weather; and the "wiseadult," in which a grown-up knows allthe answers.Books by Mrs. Selsan include Exploring the Animal Kingdom, Microbesat Work, See Through the Jungle, andPlay with Seeds.1957 Monroe Poetry AwardA New York poet, Stanley J. Kunitz,is recipient of the University's $500Harriet Monroe poetry award.Mr. Kunitz is the author of two volumes of verse, "Intellectual Things"and "Passport to the War." His third,"Selected Poems," will be published inthe fall. Prizes which have been awarded to him previously include the OscarBlumenthal Prize (1941) and the Lev- Mrs. Una Jones Nelson, taking time outfrom Class of '08 reunion, learns to"friz." Catching the bright-colored plastic platters, which float eerily and unpredictably, has become a major campusactivity.inson Prize (1956), the oldest prizeawarded by Poetry Magazine.A lecturer at the New School ofSocial Research, New York, Mr. Kunitzwill hold a visiting professorship atBrandeis University in the fall.Judges of the award were: ElderOlson, professor of English; Beuel N.Denney, professor of social sciences inthe College, and Henry Rago, poet andeditor of Poetry: A Magazine of Verse.Research with Small AcceleratorsWhile the trend in nuclear researchis toward larger and more complex accelerators to provide higher and higherenergies for nuclear projectiles, recentexperiments at the University show thatthere is still much to be learned throughuse of relatively primitive machines.Professor Samuel K. Allison has beenworking with a Van de Graaf generator,a vertical machine in which particlesare propelled down a vacuum by theforce of an electrostatic charge accumulated in a dome at the top. He bombarded a thin (about 500 atoms thick)film of lithium-7 with lithium-7 nucleiand produced for the first time a newboron isotope of atomic number 13.The two million electron volts (mev)energy imparted by the Van de Graafgave the lithium missiles enough of a"push" to overcome the repulsive forceof the target— lithium. Because of itssimple principles, the machine, whichwas designed primarily to accelerateprotons, easily accommodated theseheavier nuclei without the extensivealterations and readjustments that would be necessary in such complexaccelerators as the University's 450-mev synchrocyclotron.Lewis Award to MayerA holder of the Carl EisendrathProfessorship at the Fermi Institute,Joseph E. Mayer has received the Gilbert Newton Lewis Award of theAmerican Chemical Society. Mr. Mayeris known for his contributions to themodern development of statistical mechanics and molecular theory.Honoring the American chemist whodeveloped the theory of chemical bond,the Lewis medal is presented in recognition of special achievement in theoretical chemistry. It has been awardedpreviously to Linus Pauling of theCalifornia Institute of Technology, J.G. Kirkwood of Yale, and S. F. Giauqueof the University of California at Berkeley.William C. Bradburyand Wife DieMr. Bradbury and his family werereturning from the University of Washington, where he had been studyingunder a Ford Foundation Fellowship,when the auto accident occurred. Twoof his three children were less seriouslyinjured.One of nine Chicagoans to receive1958 Ford Fellowships for training inforeign studies, Mr. Bradbury had beenon the University faculty since 1941and was an associate professor of sociology.OCTOBER, 1958 23a Nass \ows94-14Frank Wiedemann, MD Rush '94, recently marked his sixty-fourth year of practice in Terre Haute, Ind. where he hasspent almost all of his medical career. Aspecialist in gastro-intestinal diseases, he isa pioneer in the fields of musical therapy,instruments, and equipment, being creditedwith making and using the first X-ray machine in the U.S.Cora E. Gray, '06, of Salisbury, NorthCarolina, reports on her 75th birthday thatshe continues as part-time librarian for thedoctor's library in her local hospital, andis on the board of her church's home forold folks. She has proudly just passed anexam to renew her license to drive forfour more years.John F. Moulds, '07, and his wifecelebrated their 50th wedding anniversarywith their children last spring at theirhome in Claremont, Calif. A decade agoJohn retired as secretary of our Board ofTrustees and has since been assistant to thepresident of Pomona College.Ethel Preston, '08, AM '10, PhD '20,passed through Chicago in June on herway to Conn, where she spent July painting and piano playing with water colorartist Hazel McKinley. Retired from theModern Language Department of Vin-cennes University, she returned to herhome in Vincennes, Ind., in September.Libbie H. Hyman, '10, PhD '15, received a doctor of science degree fromGoucher College. She is on the invertebrate zoology staff of the American Museumof Natural History in New York, and isworking on a comprehensive treatise oninvertebrate zoology, of which four volumeshave already been published.Education CitationsNine Chicago alumni were among 106persons receiving citations for service tosecondary education during June fromShattuck School, Faribault, Minn. Theawards were given as part of the school'scentennial celebration. Honored were:Thomas H. Briggs, '07, chairman of theboard, Council for the Advancement ofSecondary Education; John Daniel Hull,Jr., AM '23, director of instruction services for the US Office of Education; RalphTyler, PhD '27, director of the Center forAdvanced Study in the Behavioral Sciencesand former chairman of the U of C Department of Education; John Gehlmann,AM '34, head of the English departmentof Oak Park and River Forest High School;Carrol C. Hall, AM '37, head of thechemistry department of Springfield, 111.High School; Frances S. Chase, PhD '51,chairman of the U of C Department ofEducation; Leonard V. Koos, AM '15,PhD '16, professor emeritus of secondaryeducation at U of C; Clarence HenryFaust, AM '29, PhD '35, president of theFund for the Advancement of Education,Ford Foundation; and Nelson L. Bossing,PhD '25, professor of education at theUniversity of Minnesota. Aaron Arkin, '09, MD '12, PhD '13,has become clinical professor emeritus ofthe University of Illinois College of Medicine. He is continuing his activities withthe numerous other hospitals and clinicswith which he has been associated.John A. Greene, '14, retired from theboard of the Ohio Bell Telephone Co. inJuly, was recently mentioned in the Cleveland Plain Dealer. "It is fortunate forCleveland that John A. Greene will continue the community activities which havemade him so valuable to his fellow citizens . . . We feel certain that he willlose none of the drive and charm whichhave made him one of Cleveland's mostuseful and best-loved citizens." The AlumniAssociation discovered this in 1944, andwe then cited John Greene for worthycitizenship.Lydia Morton Lee, '14, writes thatClaremont, Calif., her present home, hasfive colleges and a theological school. Thismakes it "a perfect spot for those of advanced years who still are perennialsophomores." She and her husband havesigned up for a course in Oriental Affairs,an interest developed during their stay ofthree and a half years on the island ofGuam.LeRoy H. Sloan, '14, MD '17, clinicalprofessor emeritus of medicine, Universityof Illinois, was cited with a distinguishedservice award at the annual medical alumni reunion banquet on June 12. Dr. Sloan,a Life Member of the Alumni Association,lives in Michigan City, Tnd.15-27Edwin G. Nourse, PhD '15, receivedan honorary doctor of science degree fromIowa State College. Formerly a facilitymember of Iowa State, he was professorof agricultural economics and farm management from '18 to '23. He was the firstchairman of the President's Council onEconomic Advisors when that group wasformed in '46, and remained in that position until 1950.John Everett Gordon, 16, PhD '21,MD '24, professor of preventive medicineand epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, will become emeritus this year.Paul Garrett Blazer, '17, received thehonorary degree of doctor of laws fromMarshall College, Huntington, W. Va., inrecognition of his contributions to thecountry in the field of industry.Cecilia Q. Pierce, '17, and her husbandare spending the year in Europe.Lorraine Green, '18, AM '19, has beenappointed a member of the Chicago Boardof Education by Mayor Daley. Past chairman of the department of education andrecreation of the Welfare Council of Metropolitan Chicago, Mrs. Green is a memberof advisory committees to the Board ofHealth, and to the chief justice of Municipal Court. Her husband, Wendell E.Green, '20, is judge of the Family Court,and a member of the Chicago Commissionon Human Relations.John C. Henderson, '19, retired inJanuary after 37 years with Sinclair Re fining Co. He plans to go into the realestate business in Youngstown, Ohio.Leonard J. Bezark, '21, and his wife,Harriet Rolfe Bezark, '35, announce themarriage of their daughter Janet, MA '58in S.S.A., to Merrill A. Freed, '49, JD '53,who is now associated with D'Ancona,Pflaum, Wyatt & Riskind.Floyd G. Dana, '21, president of Dana-Pocock, Inc., real estate, was made chairman of the hoard of the Chicago RegionalPort District in June.Col. Paul A. Campbell, '24, MD Rush'28, authority on space and aviation medicine, has been assigned to the USAFSchool of Aviation Medicine at RandolphAir Force Base, Texas, as director ofmedical research. During the past twoyears he has been special assistant formedical research to the Commander of theAir Force Office of Scientific Research inWashington, D. C. Recipient of the Legionof Merit and two commendation medalswith oak leaf cluster for his work in aviation medical research, Dr. Campbell isalso rated Chief Flight Surgeon. He is anhonorary surgeon of the French Air Force,and was awarded the Royal Order of theSword of Sweden during World War II.Loft and McNeilCharles K. McNeil, '25, and GeorgeM. Lott, Jr., '28, last summer paired upfor the men's doubles at the EdgewaterBeach Tennis Club in Chicago and wontheir six matches to take the tournament.George was a world ranking player in theearly thirties. Charles points out that theirages total 106— which adds something extra to the victory.Martha Gose Wright, '25, writes fromher "Paradise Hill Farm" in Arnold, Md.,that her daughter, Marjorie, was awardeda National Merit Scholarship and wasamong the top 313 out of over a millionNational Honor Society winners. Mathematics and English are her strong subjects,just like mother, who majored in math atChicago, and dad, who majored in mathat Kansas State.Willis Knapp Jones, PhD '27, hasreceived a $1,000 faculty research fellowship at Miami University where he willstudy the history of the Latin Americantheater.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE30-37Helen Moore Onufrock, '30, receiveda master of science degree in social administration from Western Reserve University.Mrs. Helmut Blumenthal, 31, writesthat her son, James Abbott Blumenthal, hasjust finished his first year at U of C. Heis a member of Phi Sigma Delta fraternity.Gov. Abraham A. Ribicoff, '33, ofConnecticut, visited Chicago this springto speak before 75 Chicago industrialrealtors and location engineers. His purpose was to interest midwest industrialistsin establishing branch plants in Connecticut. David Allan McCaulay, '34, SM '40,research assistant in the Whiting ResearchLaboratories of Standard Oil Company(Indiana) spoke at the University of Indiana in June. He is an authority in thefield of hydrocarbon reactions.Harold L. Hitchens, '35, AM '36, isa major in the Air Force. He is currentlyon leave from the department of historyat the Air Force Academy in Denver towork on his doctorate at Chicago.Budd Gore, '36, retail advertising manager of the Chicago Daily News, was recently installed as president of the Advertising Executives Club of Chicago.Los AngelesThe Los Angeles alumni club hasorganized a placement committee tohelp Chicago alumni relocate and findemployment in Southern California.Letters have been sent to all LawSchool, Social Service Administration,and Business School alumni in the area,asking their help and information forthe project. Harriet Erickson is actingas the clearing house for S.S.A. information, and Forrest Drummond andAlexander H. Pope are doing a similarjob for Law and Business Schools respectively.The committee needs help fromalumni who could provide such information for humanities, social science,and College graduates. Volunteers whocould provide the specific informationabout jobs, help orient recent graduates, or call on new arrivals should contact Alexander H. Pope, placementcommittee chairman, at 8631 TruxtonAvenue, Los Angeles. His telephonenumber is Oregon 8-4828.Summer alumni activities in Los Angeles included the Chicago Law SchoolAlumni Luncheon which was held inthe Statler Hotel. Professor Nicholasde Belleville Katzenbach spoke on "ThePlace of International Law in the LawSchool Curriculum."At press time plans were being madefor a meeting at alumnus Art Hanisch'sStuart Company. This is the companywhich was written up in the Magazinea few months ago; it was designed byEdward Stone, the designer of the U. S.pavilion in Brussels. The alumni meeting will include tours of the plant,cocktails, dinner, and a program atwhich Earl Heidtschmidt, an architectfriend of Stone, will be the principalspeaker. The date is September 26.SeattleJacob Getzels of the Education Department met August 28 with Seattleand Tacoma area alumni and students. San FranciscoHosts at a party in their new Ather-ton home designed by Frank LloydWright, were Dr. and Mrs. Ralph Tyler.Dr. Tyler, who heads the Ford Foundation's Behavioral Sciences Center,had among his alumni and studentguests, University of Chicago facultymembers currently spending a year atthe Ford Center: Morton Grodzins,Joseph Schwab, David Apter, and FredEggan.Seven hundred people attended theBay Area Scholarship Benefit programthis July at the Sheraton-Palace Hotel.Proceeds of the evening will help sendone student to the University of Chicago and another student to anycollege of his choice.Four panel members and a moderator discussed "The Capitalist Revolution and a New Look at Democracy."They were: Moderator Clark Kerr,newly elected president of the University of California, a labor economist,arbitrator, author and professor of industrial relations; Mortimer J. Adler,director of the Institute of Philosophical Research in San Francisco, formerprofessor of philosophy of law at theUniversity of Chicago, one of the originators of the Great Books Program,and co-author of the recent CapitalistManifesto; Milton Friedman, professorof economics at the University of Chicago, former economist with the U. S.division of tax research, and associatedirector of the statistical research groupat Columbia; Louis O. Kelso, corporateand financial lawyer of San Francisco,former associate professor of law at theUniversity of Colorado, and co-authorof the new Capitalist Manifesto; andfinally, Ithiel de Sola Pool, associateprofessor of political science and director of the research program in international communications for the Centerof International Studies at MIT, formeracting director of RADIR Project inthe Cooper Institute of Stanford University. Producersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton H- Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S . . .A product I Swift & Com|7409 So. StalPhone RAdcliCompanyState Streetffe 3-7400SHERRY HOTEL53rd Street At The Lake . . .Complete Facilities ForConference Groups — ConventionsBanquets — DancesCall Catering FAirfax 4-1000Free Parking for Our Guests!LOWER YOUR COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURESOCTOBER, 1958 25W. Edgar Gregory, '36, has been promoted to full professor of psychology byCollege of the Pacific, Stockton, Calif. Heis listed in the current issue of Who's Whoin the ^West.Bobert E. Elder, AM '37, PhD '47, hasbeen raised to the rank of full professorof Colgate University.Louis G. Wanek, '37, of Chicago, hasbeen elected to the board of governors ofthe Kemper Insurance Men's Club, an organization of 600 male employees in theChicago offices of the company.John G. Morris, '37, writes that hiswife, Mary Adele Crosby Morris, '39, isfighting a hard fight with multiple sclerosis. He is executive director of MagnumPhotos. They live in Armonk, N. Y.38-44Warren G. Skoning, '38, was appointedproperty manager for Sears, Roebuck andCo.'s midwestern territory.Hiram L. Kennicott Jr., '38, has beennamed second vice president of Lumber-mens Mutual Casualty Company and American Motors Insurance Company.Harold H. Webber, '38, vice president ofCowles Magazines, Inc., has been electedto the board of directors of the company.In the May issue of the Magazine he waserroneously reported as being a vicepresident and director of Look magazine.Look is a publication of Cowles Mag-"azines, Inc.Lindsey M. Hobbs, PhD '38, was backon campus for a short business visit recently. He is assistant director of chemicalresearch with the Air Reduction Co. ofMurray Hill, N. J. The company deals inindustrial gases, dry ice, plastics, etc. KennicottFormerly Dr. Hobbs was associate professor of chemical engineering at the University of Michigan where he was workingwith plastics and rubber.Josiah Grudup, PhD '39, president ofBrenau College, was awarded the honorary doctor of laws degree by Mercer University this June. He was formerly thehead of the Physics Department at Mercer, and has taught at several othersouthern colleges.William Tucker Dean, JD '40, waspromoted to full professor of law atCornell Law School in July. '?£- ^SkoningJoseph Airov, MBA '40, has beenpromoted to associate professor of business administration at Emory University.J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr., '40, SM '41,PhD '42, was the subject of a feature storyin the February issue of Ebony Magazine.At Chicago Wilkins was a child prodigy,taking his PhD at the age of 19. He nowworks as a physicist with the NuclearDevelopment Corp. of America.Arthur C. Connor, '41, MD '43, andhis wife Selma became the parents oftheir seventh child, William Peter, January 15.©©©©©®®©©©©©©© SPECIAL REPORTMr. HERBERT V. KIBRICK NEW YORK LIFE AGENTBOSTON GENERAL OFFICEat_BORN: July 8, 1915.EDUCATION: Harvard University, B.S., 1938; HarvardGraduate School of Business Administration, 1943.MILITARY: U.S. Army Q.M.C. —First Lt. Sept. '43-June'46 — U.S. Army Reserve T.C. (Active) — Major.REMARKS: In or out of uniform, Herbert Kibrick is aman of many accomplishments. Entering the Army as aPrivate, he was released with the rank of Lieutenantand is now a Major in the Active Reserve. His record asa New York Life representative is equally impressive. Joining the Company onAugust 17, 1938, Herb Kibrick — whose father is also a New York Life representative — is today a member of New York Life's Presidents Council and a 1958Qualifying and Life member of the industry-wide Million Dollar Round Table. Inaddition, his intense interest in life insurance led him to study for and earnthe coveted designation of Chartered Life Underwriter. Herb Kibrick, vitallyinterested in his community's cultural and educational activities, has servedon the staff of Northeastern University's School of Taxation and is a Directorof both the Friends of Music, Boston University, and of the New England AlumniAssociation of Phillips Academy. Popular and personable, Herb Kibrick in everyway exemplifies why "The New York Life Agent is a good man to know — and to be."rW Herb Kibrick is established in a career as a NewYork Life representative that has provided himwith security, substantial income and the deepsatisfaction of helping others. If you'd like toknow more about such a career for yourself with one of the world's leading insurance companies,write to the address below.NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE GO.College Relations Dept. ,17Si Madison Avenue, New York 1 0, N.Y.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJune Sark Heinrich, '41, and her husband Bernard became the parents of ababy daughter, Doris, on Easter Sunday,April 6. They live in Oak Park, 111.Robert O. Evans, '41, is lecturing atthe University of Helsinki on a Fulbrightgrant this fall. Going to Helsinki witlihim via England and France, are his wife,Margery Brooks Evans, '42, and sons,Robert, 16, Michele, 14, and Douglas, 10.Bina D. House, AM '41, has acquiredthree new grandchildren since October 17,'57. Her daughter, Bina House Beglie,AB '54; and Renato Beglie, JD '54 became parents of a set of twins, a boyand girl. Another daughter of Mrs. Househad her third boy on May 7.Herbert N. Friedlander, '42, PhD '47,group leader in Standard Oil ( Indiana )Company's research laboratories, spokelast spring at the Polytechnic Institute ofBrooklyn. He was one of the scientistswho improved the process for makingpolyethylene, the plastic used in toys,squeeze bottles, and refrigerator bags.The following alumni received degreesat Harvard University's June commencement: Jay Paxton Bartlett, '42, MD '43,master of public health degree; KennetbD. Butler, Jr., '57, master of arts degree; Donald Englund Butterfield, '53,doctor of medicine degree; Albert MarkFortier, Jr., '55 bachelor of laws degree,Howard Myron Kremen, '52, doctor ofmedicine degree; Armaiid Stephen Leh-mann, '52, bachelor of laws degree;Robert Alan Levine, '51, AM '53, doctorof philosophy degree; Lawrence ReynoldsPote, '58, master of business administration degree, graduating with distinction;Paul Machotka, '56, master of arts degree; Roy L. Prosterman, '54, bachelorof laws degree, magna cum laude; JohnR. Van Steenberg, 47, doctor of philosophy degree; and William C. Withers,53, bachelor of laws degree.Charlotte Morrison, '42, AM '43, ofProvidence, R. I., sends us a story fromthe Providence Sunday Journal aboutElizabeth Brown Chase, PhD '37. Mrs.Chase, who teaches zoology at the University of Rhode Island, believes there ismore of a social attitude against womenin science than a lack of aptitude, andfeels there is a pressing need to overcomethis feeling. The article points out thatRussia turns out 13,000 women engineersannually, and that 75% of all Russiandoctors are women. Mrs. Chase is themother of three children, and the wifeof Herman B. Chase, professor of biologyat Brown University.Emilie Rashensky Strand, '43, movedto Washington, DC, where her husbandwill be director of the Division ofAstrometry and Astrophysics at the U.S.Naval Observatory.Horace M. King, '43, a major on active duty in the Air Force, is currentlysenior analyst in Tokyo Weather Central.He and his wife have a daughter age 12,and a son age 10.Jay Orear, '44, SM '50, PhD '53, wasfeatured in the European edition of theNew York Times under the head "Outspoken Physicist." It was a complimentarystory about his nuclear physics work asan assistant professor at Columbia. Jay,who has been making important studiesin his field, feels strongly that there shouldbe a test-ban agreement. "If Russia balks,then we finally will have won the propaganda battle; if she agrees, we will havewon something much more important."His wife is Jeanne Bliven Orear, AM51, in social science administration. Phones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awnins Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenuePHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpeciallyQuality Book ReproductionCongress St. Expressway andGardner RoadCOIumbus 1-1420Joan I .yd ing Bell, '41, returned to photograph campus this mid-August with hertwo young sons. The scene is the WestStand of Stagg Field. Reliving the dayswhen she was in everything from Cap hGown, Mirror and Pulse, to the Student-Advisory Council, she looked only a fewmonths older than her full-page Court ofBeauty picture in the 1941 Cap b- Gown.Joan and the boys were completing a tourto New York financed by the Glendale,Calif., Auto Show where Joan won a newPlymouth and sold it in favor of the summer trip. Dad, James G. Bell, '40, ispresident of the Lachmiller EngineeringCo. in Glendale, manufacturers of reloading equipment for guns. VITAMIN USERS!45-48Frank J. Orland, SM '45, PhD '49,was recently elected editor of the Journalof Dental Research. This is the officialpublication of the International Association for Dental Research. In May he presented a paper on animal experiments inthe dental field at the New York Academyof Science.Carroll Atwater Bishop, '45, announcesthe birth of her new daughter, KatherineElizabeth this May. Her husband, Harding E. Bishop, is studying for his doctorate in the Department of Psychology atChicago.John H. Kautsky, '46, AM '47, hasbeen named an associate professor ofpolitical science at Washington University,St. Louis.Louis A. Kokoris, '47, SM '48, PhD'52, has been named an associate professor of mathematics at Washington University.Mary Ella Hopkins, '47, who has heldoffice and been active in our New YorkClub, was married to James Hall Reutershan of East Hampton, Long Island onAugust 12. Mr. Reutershan is a graduateof Antioch College and was a captain inthe Air Force during the War. Their homeis on Stony Hill Road, Amagansett, LongIsland. Mary Ella is teaching English andsocial studies at the Pierson High Schoolin Sag Harbor.Donald Gerth, '47, AM '51, is admissionscounsellor at San Francisco State College.Willis J. Service, Jr., '47, is one offour chemical engineers who last yearformed their own consulting engineeringfirm, Pace Company, located in Houston. Don't miss this opportunity! In order to introduceyou to our product, we are offering a FULL TWOMONTHS' TRIAL SUPPLY of our top-quality, 20-element vitamin-mineral formula for the amazingprice of only $1.00! Our comprehensive formulacontains ALL vitamins AND MINERALS known tobe needed in human nutrition — PLUS two meg. ofthe phenomenal blood-building Vitamin B12 — PLUSTHREE International Units of Vitamin E! Don't delay! Send $1.00 cash or check with this ad forFULL TWO MONTHS' SUPPLY. Freshness, potenciesand product UNCONDITIONALLY GUARANTEED.MacNeal & Dashnau(AM '52, U. of Chicaqo)P. O. Box 3651, Dept. C-2, Philadelphia 25, Pa.POND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisPARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica - Exacta - Rolleif lex - Polaroid1342 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259NSA Discounts24-hour Kodachrome DevelopingHO Trains and Model SuppliesCHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mall AdvertisersPRINTING— LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters • Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addressing • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Dearborn • Chicago 5 • WA 2-4561OCTOBER, 1958 27UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMUseum 4-1200BEST BOILERREPAIR& WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoWebb-Linn Printing Co*Specializing in theproduction ofSCIENTIFICMEDICALTECHNICALBOOKSMOnroe 6-2900PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEZJkeCxcbuHve CleanexiWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57fh Street. Midway 3-0608 Philamena Capocci Sobush, '48, AM'51, and her husband are now living inMiami, Fla., where he is doing graduatework. The newest member of their familyis Donatta Amelia, born January 15.Harold A. Katz, JD '48, AM '58, ofthe Chicago law firm of Katz & Friedman,attended the International Congress onSocial Legislation in Brussels last Juneand addressed delegates from 20 countrieson "Workmen's Compensation in theUnited States." It was the fiftieth anniversary of the passage of the first workmen's compensation act in the UnitedStates. Mrs. Katz was Ethel Lewison, '43.They live in Glencoe, 111.Richard W. Gable, AM '48, PhD '50,is associate professor in the School ofPublic Administration, University ofSouthern California, Los^ Angeles, havingpreviously taught at Ojiio State Universityand Stanford University. In September,1957, he returned from a two-year stintin Iran, where he and his family were living while he was teaching at the University of Tehran.49-53Lisa Loewenthal Travers, AM '49, announces the birth of her son, MichaelDavid, born March 8.Leon M. Atlas, SM '49, PhD '50, W. K.Sumida, and C. Arne Arensburg, SM '47,are authors of technical papers appearingin the May issue of the American CeramicSociety Journal. Sumida was juniorchemist on the Cloud Physics Project atthe U of C. He and Atlas are co-authorsof a paper on the system Fe-Al-O, andArensburg is author of a paper on uraniumdioxide.Paul J. Gerstley, '50, received hismaster of social work degree from theUniversity of Denver.Charles M. Leslie, AM '50, now an instructor in sociology and anthropology atPomona College, is doing research thissummer in Mexico under a Haynes Foundation Fellowship. He will spend sometime with the Zapotec Indians of Mexicoin their native villages.George J. Resnikoff, '50, has beenselected by the Atomic Energy Commission to do an international display inGeneva, Switzerland. Resnikoff is associate professor of industrial engineering atIllinois Institute of Technology.Fauzi M. Najjar, AM '50, PhD '54, hasbeen promoted to assistant professor ofsocial science at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. He and hiswife, Vivian Berquist Najjar, '54, have ason, Mitri, now two years old.Douglas Laird Guy, MS '51, receivedhis PhD degree from Washington University, St. Louis.Vladimir Reisky de Dubnic, AM '51,was married in March to Mary LouiseKemp of Baltimore. He is currently teaching at Washington College, Chestertown,Md.Susanna Leona Chase, MA '52, received her doctor of education degreefrom the University of Denver.SARGENT'S DRUG STOREestablished 1852Chicago's most completeprescription and chemical stockphone RAndolph 6-477023 N. Wabash AvenueChicago Arthur M. Solomon, '52, is home fromJapan having finished his term of activeduty in the Navy. He is starting LawSchool this summer.Ellen McGiffert Brokaw, '53, is busyraising avocados and daughter, DeborahAnn (age 18 mo.) in Oxnard, Calif. Herhusband, Hank, AM '53, is teaching highschool chemistry.Joseph E. Brenner, '53, SM '54, is finishing his PhD in organic chemistry atthe University of Wisconsin; and willspend next year on a National ScienceFoundation post-doctoral in Zurich.Harry R. Adler, '53, JD '56, passedboth Illinois and New Jersey bar examsbefore entering the Army last November.Susanne Carol Brussel, '53, '55, JD'56, was married to Peter Brian Clark,'56, '57, last March. She has a privatelaw practice in Chicago, and he is in hisfinal year of Law School at Stanford University.Anne Donchin Adams, '53, reports thatby the time this goes to press she willbe the mother of two. Her husband,John, '46, PhD '51, is completing hisfourth year as associate professor ofgeology at Rice Institute.Averil E. Stephanson Pielemeier, '53,has moved to St. Paul, Minn., where sheis active in church organizations, particularly teen-age work. Her husband is rector of St. Christopher's Episcopal Churchin Roseville, St. Paul.Dr. Philip S. Haring, AM '53, PhD '54,was elected a governing member of' theboard of the Library of International Relations in Chicago. The Library servesas a depository for official documentsfrom all over the world. Dr. Haring isassistant professor of political science atKnox College. He is spending the summer doing research in preparation for aconference on underdeveloped countriesthis fall.53-58Bernard J. Del Giorno, '54, '55, MBA'55, who is with the Republic Steel Corporation in Chicago, has been advancedto training supervisor and has become amember of that company's speaker's bureau. His subject for lodges, schools andclubs: "U. S. A. Tomorrow."Paul Alexander, '54, and his wife,Cynthia Wood Alexander, '53, reportthat their son David Knox is now a yearand a half old. They live in Long Island.Bruce D. Larkin, '54, was married toBarnard graduate Linda Ruth Novick onJune 1, 1958. His term as vice presidentfor international affairs of the UnitedStates National Students Association endedAugust 30th. The Larkins live in Cambridge, Mass. Bruce plans to return tothe social sciences for further study.Paul Horvitz, '54, received his PhD ineconomics from Massachusetts Instituteof Technology in June.Adalbert U. Scharpf, AM '55, is doingmissionary work in Tanganyika, Africa.He had been teaching at the Boys' Secondary School in Ndanda, and is now ata mission in Nanyamba.Peter W. Hanen, '56, of Berwyn, isserving in the army in Germany.Andrea Stenn, '57, was married toLubert Stryer, '57, June 22, in Chicago.Donald D. Duffey, MBA '58, recentlyjoined the research division of Du PontsPolychemicals Department at the Experimental Station in Wilmington, Del.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPetrarch at Vaucluse: Letters in Verseand Prose Translated by Ernest HatchWilkins, Dean of the Colleges of Arts,Literature and Science, 1923-26. University of Chicago Press, 1958. Pp. 215. $7.50.IN all of Petrarch's canon no work is morerevealing of the man than the letters.It is to them we must inevitably turn foran understanding and appreciation ofPetrarch's complex personality because itis in the letters that we are given a minutehistory, a meticulous account, and a detailed analysis of the poet's introspection.A sensitive and perceptive observer of men-above all of himself— and events Petrarchcertainly was. But the reader who turns tohim for the garrulous gossip of the day,didactic platitudes on behavior, or the unrestrained outpouring of anguished sentiment will be disappointed. And the reasonis that while Petrarch probes the depthsof the psyche, he expresses himself with VAUCLUSE: Petrarch's "dearest spot on earth.classical restraint. Seldom do the lettersgenerate in the reader a feeling of spontaneity or immediacy. After all they werecomposed for publication. Indeed Petrarchhimself revised and edited a large numberof them.Our most eminent Petrarch scholar, Professor Ernest Hatch Wilkins, has judiciously selected fifty letters written between 1338 and 1353, and he presentsthem to the reader in the volume Petrarchat Vaucluse. In an introduction entitled"Petrarch's Youth" he gives us the salientbiographical data leading to the first letter.Other brief statements are inserted forthose years not covered by the letters, thusNeedcorrugated boxesin volume?yourH&D packagingengineerHINDE&DAUCHDivision of West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company15 Factories, 42 Sales OfficesSandusky, Ohio establishing a chronological continuity.Where it is needed, succinct and informative comment is printed in italics at theend of the letter. Professor Wilkins hasbeautifully translated the letters, both inverse and in prose. Avoiding the linguisticScylla of antiquarianism and the Charybdisof neologisms he has achieved— a rare accomplishment with translators— an Englishversion which captures not only the formand meaning of the original, but its veryspirit, sacrificing little of its decorum, restraint, or beauty.Equally commendable is the selection.Petrarch reveals himself to us in theseletters under many guises. The lover, whorecognizes the futility of escape in retreator in woods for the beloved pursues himeverywhere; the friend, grateful for simplegifts, desirous of the company of hisfriends, tenderly compassionate of theirtroubles, movingly and delicately reconciling two friends who have quarrelled; thepatriot, who with acumen can evaluate thepolitical events of the day and weep overthe unhappy fate of his native land; theChristian, pious in his practice, confirmedin his beliefs, indignant against unworthyprelates; the humanist, with his insatiabledesire for books and his genuine pleasurein their perusal and their study; the poetand critic, mockingly satiric of the contemporary poetic fad, but able to encourage and to appraise with equanimity thework of those he considers worthy."Petrarch is well worth knowing, andknowing well," Professor Wilkins tells usin his preface. No other recent work inEnglish will better serve the general readerto this end.Hannibal S. NoceAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Romance Languages hLiteratureLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVEROCTOBER, 1958PROGRESS REPORT FROM AVCO RESEARCH LABORATORYNEW LIGHT onMHDNO MAGNETIC FIELD. This shock tube photograph, taken byemitted light only, shows the typical shock wave configurationformed by high-velocity gas flowing around a pointed cone.WITH MAGNETIC FIELD. Here is shown the magnetohydrodynamicdisplacement of the shock wave. The magnetic field is causedby electric current flowing through a coil of wire within the cone.This experiment qualitatively demonstrates the interaction ofa high-temperature gas with a magnetic field. This effect wouldbe expected to produce drag and reduce heat transfer to the body.AvcoRESEARCHLABORATORYA Division of Avco Manufacturing Corporation / Everett, Mass. The Avco Research Laboratory wasfounded a little more than three yearsago for the purpose of examining high-temperature gas problems associated withICBM re-entry. The success of thisresearch led to the birth of a new corporate enterprise, Avco's Research andAdvanced Development Division.The Research Laboratory, now established as a separate Avco division, hasexpanded to embrace all aspects of physical gas dynamics. We are currently gravidwith several embryonic projects which weanticipate will likewise grow into newcorporate enterprises. Our work in thephysics, aerodynamics and chemistry ofhigh-temperature gases is growing in thefollowing areas:Magnetohydrodynamics —Flight and industrial power-generation applicationsSpace flight —Manned satellitesElectromagnetic propulsionThese developments have created a number of openings for physicists, aerody-namicists and physical chemists. If yourbackground qualifies you to work in anyof these areas, we would be pleased tohear from you.72-1/frDr. Arthur Kantrowitz, DirectorAvco Research LaboratoryP. S. A listing of laboratory research reports indicative of the scope and depthof our activities is available. Addressyour request: Attention: Librarian, AvcoResearch Laboratory, 2385 Revere BeachParkway, Everett, Massachusetts.?Magnetohydrodynamics, the study of the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids interactingwith magnetic fields.Other divisions and subsidiaries are:AK DivisionCrosley Division Ezee Flow/ DivisionLycoming Division New Idea DivisionMoffats Limited Crosley Broadcasting CorporationResearch and Advanced Development Division30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDeyo L. Ramsdell, MD '90, of KansasCity, Mo , died last September.James F. Morning, MD '91, of LosAngeles, Calif., died November 9.Bavid M. Robinson, '98, PhD '04, ofthe University of Mississippi, died January 2.Chester H. Keogh, MD Rush '99, diedJune 18.Leon Block, '00, MD '03, an internationally known gastro-enterologist andpracticing physician in Chicago for morethan 50 years, died last June in Los Angeles. He was a former chairman of thedepartment of medicine at Michael ReeseHospital, president of the medical staffand a founding member of the Instituteof Medicine and of the Gastroenterological Society. Born in Poland, Dr. Blockhad moved to California after his retirement in 1951.Dr. Philip A. Krome, MD '00, of Chicago died November 25.Lindley W. Allen, '00, died April 28,in. San Francisco, Calif.1. A. Corbett, '01, died at his home inLawrencetown, Nova Scotia, in September, 1957.Isabel McKinney, '01, died January 7,in Princeton, N. J. She was a memberof the faculty of Eastern Illinois Collegeat Charleston for forty years where shewas head of the English Department. LastSeptember a new dormitory on theCharleston campus was dedicated andnamed in her honor. Mrs. Fred Merrifield, '02, writes that Miss McKinney 's"gift of friendship endeared her to allwho knew her." She was co-author ofseveral text books and other literary writings.Lina Small Harris, '02, died on January 21 in New York City. She was thedaughter of Dr. A. W. Small, a memberof Chicago's first faculty. Her husband,Haydon B. Harris, died in 1951.Horace Street, '02, of Dixon, 111., diedAugust 15, 1957. William Armitage Averill, '02, of Sullivan, 111., died in March.Earl L. Moulton, '03, died June 25.William H. Stratford, MD '03, of HawRiver, N. C, died May 16.Edwin B. Bradley, MD '03, of Spencer, Nebr., died November 23, 1957.Cornelia Smith Crawford, 03, diedsuddenly on April 15.James Henry Fairchild, MD Rush '04,died at Pomona, Calif., August 22. During his years in medicine, he practicedin Salem, Oregon, where he taught at themedical school of Willamette University,now part of the University of Oregon;and Claremont, Calif., where he was college physician at Pomona College. In1952 he retired because of failing health.He served on the staff of Pomona ValleyCommunity Hospital for 27 years.John B. Hamilton, AM '04, of Greens-burg, Ind., died in June of 1957.Homer E. Watkins, '05, died Dec. 15,Albert B. Enoch, '06, died June 7,while visiting in Ottumwa, la. He wasin the law department of the Rock IslandRailroad and retired as general solicitorfor the Road in 1951, since which timehe lived in the University Club.Elizabeth Casey Carlsen, '06, died May9th in her home in Pasadena, Calif.Charles N. Sawyer, '07, died in Wichita, Kansas, February 19.Owen Earl MacBride, 07, of Ojai,Calif., died suddenly in February, 1957.Mae Veronica Pruner, AM '08, diedearlier this year in Clarkston, Wash. Shetaught high school in Ohio until her retirement in '45, when she moved to SantaBarbara, Calif.Edgar Noble Durfee, JD '08, professoremeritus of the University of MichiganLaw School, died July 5 at his home inAnn Arbor.Harold L. Nickerson, '09, of Shreve-port, La., died in February of 1956.Gustavus S. Paine, '09, PhM '09, ofNew York City, died April 24.Florence Leland Manning Needham,'09, SM '10, died June 26.Edward L. McBride, '09, of New YorkCity, died June 13. Active with the NewYork Club, he had four children, two boysand two girls. He was a member of BetaTheta Phi. Jesse Newton Davis, '09, of Seattle,Wash., died on March 1.Lillian Gubelman, '10, AM '23, diedJune 21 in Santa Cruz, Calif.Leroy E. Cowles, '10, AM '14, of SaltLake City, died in January.Louis Begeman, PhD '10, died thisMay in Cedar Falls, la. He was head ofthe department of physics and chemistryat Iowa State Teachers College from 1909until he retired in 1935. He studied underMichelson and Milliken, and received hisPhD magna cum laude.Fred Blue, MD 10, of Oak Park, 111.,and Vero Beach, Fla., died November 5.Junia Emry, '11, of Madison, S. D.,died in December.Estelle Rhinehart Hunt Richey, SM'11, of Escondido, Calif., died April 21.Jacob H. Enns, MD Rush '11, died inNewton, Kan., June 26, after 10 years ofill health. He was in general practice inInman, Kan., until 1920 when he went toVienna, Austria, to specialize in eye, ear,nose, and throat. During his years ofactive medical practice he was vitally interested in education, and gave financialassistance as well as encouragement tocountless young people.Edith M. Gurd, '11, of Natchez, Miss.,died in April.Jacob Logan Fox, '11, JD '13, diedJuly 24 in Cincinnati, on a business trip.Mr. Fox was a partner in the law firm ofBrown, Fox, Blumberg & Markheim inChicago, and was chairman of the NorthAmerican Accident Insurance Co. Heleft an unrestricted bequest to the University.Paul Moser, '12, JD 12, died June 17.Founder and president of the Moser Secretarial School, he was also secretary ofthe Illinois State Board of Private Business Schools, and a former president ofthe National Association of CommercialTeachers.Shere L. Ballard, 12, of Fillmore,Calif., died March 25.David M. Berkman, MD 12, a member of the board of governors of the MayoClinic, died May 28. Chiefly concernedwith the general practice of medicine,Berkman had an extensive acquaintancewith Midwest physicians.ONE THOUSAND M/NUTEEvery working day the Sun Life of Canadapays out an average of one thousand dollars aminute to its policyholders and their heirs.Since organization $3 billion in policy benefitshas been paid by the company. Established for more than 60 years in theUnited States, the Sun Life today is one of thelargest life insurance companies in this country — active in 41 states and the District ofColumbia, and in Hawaii.SUN LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY OF CANADAOCTOBER, 1958 31Col. W. Lane Rehm, 14, who servedas finance officer in the Office of Strategic Services during the War, died of aheart attack in France on July 25. Hewas on vacation with his wife. More recently Col. Rehm served as executive director of the Washington (D. C. ) HomeRule Committee. Members of his Classhave been making contributions to theClass of 1914 Student Loan Fund in hismemory.Ruth Sandeson, 13, a teacher for 38years at Danville (111.) High School, diedrecently.Lillian M. Frasch, 13, of Pittsburgh,Pa., died March 13.Roland G. Mayer, MD 16, oi Aberdeen, S. D., died January 8.Wendell Z. Miller, 12, an independentgeologist of Tulsa, Okla., died in March.A memorial fund in his honor is beingestablished for a geological scholarshipwith contributions sent to headquartersof the American Assn. of Petroleum Geologists in Tulsa.Lloyd Almy Rider, 14, died in March.Harold M. Helm, 14, of Rockton, III,died in January.Melbourne J. Pond, MD, 15, of Kirks-ville, Mo., died last December.Edna Bonfield Maccani, 16, died August 2, 1957.Lena M. Crum, 16, AM 17, of Clinton, 111., died March 28.P. M. Mattill, SM 16, MD 19, of OakTerrace, Minn., died in January.Cleona Lewis, 17, AM '21, died May 5.John McClure, SM 17, of Roswell,N. M., died in March.Anthony A. Olis, 19, JD '21, diedJune 3. President of the MetropolitanSanitary District of Greater Chicago, under his administration the District cut itstax rate, and expanded its operations.One of its features, a $450 million sewagedisposal system, is considered to be one ofthe most important engineering feats inthe U. S.John J. Pink, MD Rush '20, of Milwaukee, Wis., died in May.Dr. W. Arthur Cable, '20, of Tucson,Ariz., died in January.Dana Kelly, '21, of Ogden, Utah, diedlast December.Rev. Carl A. Glover, '21, died on February 12.Mathew Winters, MD '21, of Bloomington, Ind., died in February.Karl E. Seyfarth, '22, died June 30.He was of the Seyfarth & Atwood lawfirm in Chicago.Aldine "Peg" Sears Laves, '22, ofOklahoma City, died March 7. Active inthe state League of Women Voters, shewas a past president of the organization.Meyer J. Steinberg, '23, MD '25, ofHighland Park, 111., died in January.Karl M. Guyer, '23, died in October,1957.Anna I. Ostrowsky, '23, of HighlandPark, 111., died in December.Daniel Joseph Vaughan, '23, died inApril.Charles E. Shannon, '23, MD Rush'26, died of a heart attack July 18, in theMarshall Field & Co. department store inChicago. He was director of the firm'smedical bureau. Samuel Marsh, '24, died June 27 inChicago. Former director of Illinois Department of Health and Public Welfare,of late years he had been practicing law.Richard Corwine Stevenson, JD '25,treasurer of the Chicago Bar Associationand president of the Legal Club of Chicago, died in April. He was senior partner of the law firm of Stevenson, Con-aghan, Velde and Hackbert.Myron W. Larson, MD '25, of Water-town, S. D., died in May.Ralph P. McCasky, '25, of Chicago,died in May.Frances Elisabeth Nichols, '25, died inMarch in Jacksonville, 111.William R. Boorman, AM '25, of Sherman Oaks, Calif., died last September 5.Kellam Foster, '26, of Chicago, diedin April.Leonard Power, AM '27, died in 1956.Laurence J. Smith, '27, of Lyons, 111,died in the summer of 1957.Cecelia M. Galvin, '28, died February7 in Indianapolis, Ind.Anna L. Shinn, '28, of Stockton, Calif.,died April 12.Ralph S. Newcomb, PhD '28, presidentof Newcomb Investment Co., OklahomaCity, died after an accident in his homeApril 10.Hilma Louise Enander, '29, died April30 in Evanston, 111. She was a musician,authoress, and teacher, and taught for several years at the Chicago Musical College.Robert E. Ledbetter, '29, of Neches,Texas, died November 20, 1954.Perry Olcott, '30, of Houston, died onFebruary 21.Mabel K. Howell, AM '31, died May19.Garnetta Carlisle Carter, '31, diedMay 19 in Detroit, Mich.Leslie Bernard Levin, '32, president ofthe Cicero Realty Co., died in April. Hewas in the real estate business for 30 years.Ruth Movers Ziemer, AM '34, ofPhoenix, died in December, 1957.Bernard Zhitnik, '35, a teacher of Hebrew, died in Chicago in August, 1957.Clara G. Brown, '35, of Huntington,W. Va., died last December 30.Harold Z. Harris, '35, died June 6.Renzo Bianchi, '36, AM '38, PhD '50,was honored this spring by the CarletonCollege Economics Club. The undergraduate organization published, as a fittingmemorial to a scholar and friend, his bookLiberalism and Its Critics.Mildred E. Carson, AM '37, died inApril in Georgia. She was associated withthe Mount Berry School for Boys.Matthew Arnow, MD '37, of Eustis,Fla., died last December.Christine Nagy Nemeth, '38, died June5 in Chicago.Jean A. Fortier, AM '39, died in Waukegan July 6.Thomas H. Allen, Jr., AM '40, PhD'50, of Port Arthur, Texas, died recently.Margaret L. Zener, AM '44, died inMay.Geraldine L. Clark, PhD '56, diedApril 20, in Atlanta, Ga.John J. Stratte, MD '42, formerly ofBret Harte Sanatorium, died in April. Since 7885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for University,College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at37 South Wabash Ave.Chicago 3, III.GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRE5S-1708 E. 71ST ST.T. A. REHNQU1ST COf SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433Since 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192Wasson- PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-21 16-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson Does32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWALLACE J. FLYNN and family live in Arlington, Massachusetts. Inaddition to his business and family life, Flynn has scouted for the Harvard¦football team on which he once played. With him are his sons and his wife,the former Nancy L. Gillmore. (Reprinted by courtesy of the Boston Herald.)New England Life agentsubject offeature articleTo lead off his fine series of articles on various occupations, Juan Cameron of The Boston Herald focusedon the accomplishments of Wallace J. Flynn.Wally's been with New England Life four years — anagent with the Hays Agency of Boston. Previously hehad held a good position in another field: merchandisingmanager of a large textile company. He is a graduate ofHarvard (class of '46) and was an outstanding memberof three varsity football and baseball teams. His collegecourse was interrupted by service as a Navy torpedoplane pilot.Why did he choose to go to work for New EnglandLife? "I like the career opportunities of life insuranceselling," Wally explains. "I now have control over myown time . . . I'm sure of getting rewards in direct proportion to my efforts . . . and I feel good about the complete cooperation T get from my company."Perhaps a career of this sort appeals to you. Thereare opportunities at New England Life for olher ambitious college men who meet our requirements. You getincome while you're learning. You can work anywherein the U.S.A. Your future is full of substantial rewards. $456 Billion Beckons Go-Getters^—' ' - ' '—¦ -¦ " ¦¦'¦¦¦— ¦¦'—'¦¦Life InsuranceBig Selling Job(Business is more than the action within executive suites.It is the sum tola! 0/ hundreds of skills and professions whichbuild and operate the $440 billion V. S. economy. This is thefirst of a fljjitinuing series 0/ Herald articles on variousjobs and the persons behind them. They will appear on successive Mondays.)By JUAN CAMERONOne day last winter Boston insurance salesman 1Wallace J. Flynn went to work on a friend who statedyflatly he "didn't believe in life insurance." Several meetings later Flynn signed up his disbelieving friend on$40,000 life policy with an annual premium of $1000.Such efforts of the 33-year-old Fly» Jnhnininnrfc jtbam invasjYou can easily get more information by writing toVice President L. M. Huppeler, 501 Boylston Street,!Boston 17, Massachusetts.NEW ENGLANDQ^VfCiM/CCCty M-i M. JL M-i boston. MassachusettsTHE COMPANY THAT FOUNDED MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE IN AMERICA-1835These Chicago University men are New England Life representatives:Harry Benner, '12, Chicago George Marselos, '34, Chicago Robert P. Saalbach, '39, OmahaJohn R. Downs, C.L.U., '46, Chicago Herbert W. Siegal, '46, San AntonioAsk one of these competent men to tell you about the advantages of insuring in the New England Life.How the Bell System's TransistorHas Created Business and Jobsin Many IndustriesIt has been just a little over tenyears since the Bell Telephone Laboratories announced the inventionof the Transistor.This amazing little electronic amplifier was recognized immediatelyas one of the big breakthroughs inscience that come only at rare intervals. Every year since its birth ithas opened new fields of use andprogress.Developed originally for telephony, where its first use was in DirectDistance Dialing, the Transistor hasenabled many other industries tobring out entirely new products andimprove others. It has also made itpossible for a number of new businesses to get started and to grow.There is no doubt that the Transistor has been one of the leadingforces in an electronics boom and isin considerable part responsible forraising the electronics industry froma two billion dollar level in 1946 toover thirteen billion dollars in 1958. NEWS FROM OUTER SPACE. One of the many uses for the Transistor is in the radiotransmitters in satellites. Some other uses of this mighty mite of electronics, in addition toits growing use in telephony, are in hearing aids, personal radios, automobile radios, portableTV sets, phonographs, clocks, watches, toys, computers, data processing, machine toolingcontrols and even a guidance system for a chicken-feeding cart. A most important use is in awide range of military equipment, including radar and guidance systems for missiles. Thoughlittle larger than a pea, the Transistor can amplify electric signals up to 100,000 times.The Bell System has licensedmore than seventy companies tomake and sell transistors. More than50,000,000 will be made this year.The Transistor is just one exampleof how the basic research of the BellTelephone Laboratories contributesto the economy and progress of thecountry. Frequently this constantsearch for new knowledge to improve communications brings forth discoveries of great value to otherindustries and the whole field oftechnology.For telephone users, the Transistor has made possible advances thatwould have been impossible a briefdecade ago.In the years to come it will bringmany new ways to make telephoneservice more convenient and usefulto more and more people.BELL TELEPHONE