MAY 1957 UMfVIRSITYW*,1FACULTY ART EXHIBITPAGE 11Service now available in 12 major citiesNEW YORK DALLASBOSTON FORT WORTHWASHINGTON PHOENIXCHICAGO TUCSONDETROIT LOS ANGELESCINCINNATI SAN FRANCISCOExceptionally comfortable reservedaccommodations . . . America's fastest airliner... a congenial lounge . . . superb cuisine . . .thoughtful personal service — you fly deluxeaboard the DC-7 Mercury, all at no extra fare! For reservations, see your travel agent or call American direct! LUXURY LEADER IN THE WORLD Of FLIGHTAMERICANAIRLINESMemoTmDouble frustrationIt just wasn't Bob's day!Robert M. Strozier, Dean of Studentsand Professor in Romance Languages andLiterature, went to France in April togive a series of lectures at the Universityof Paris.I guess he went. Actually, as I writethis, his arrival hasn't been confirmed.Bob had reservations deluxe on a flightto Paris. Margaret, his wife, drove himto Midway Airport. As he was about toweigh-in it was discovered that Margaret had brought his out-dated passport.There was still time before the University National Bank closed to get thecurrent one from the safety deposit box.And maybe time to make it back to theairport before take-off.Bob stayed to try to delay the plane,which he did in every way exceptstretching across the runway. Margaretiumped in the Buick and headed for thebank. She might have made it if therehadn't been a long freight. The planewaited five minutes, she missed by tenwhile the baggage took off for Paris.Now there was plenty of time beforethe next flight for France. Time enoughfor Bob to relax, given the proper environment. This was when Margaret madeher second contribution: why not takeher matinee ticket for the Chicago symphony concert?To forget, all until plane time. Bobpresented the ticket to the doorman atOrchestra Hall, who courteously explained, "Sorry, sir, this ticket is fornext week."We found her father"Would you please help me find myfather! He is an alumnus of the University of Chicago. He and my mother weredivorced twenty-five years ago andmother brought me to Kentucky wherewe are still living. I am now marriedand have a wonderful husband and threedarling children that I am certain myfather would like to meet. His name isDad lives at a cross-roads in NorthCarolina, directly east of his daughter.H.W.M.YOU CAN HELPus discover alumni who are makingoutstanding civic contributions andshould be cited for public service.Mail your recommendations toThe Alumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago 37, Illinois DISTINCTIVE SUMMER SPORTWEARan interesting new selection featuringour own exclusive styling and good tasteBrooks Brothers have an unusually attractive andcolorful choice of Summer sportwear, includingblazers of lightweight navy blue flannel... OddJackets in Dacron* and cotton plaids and solids,India Madras and other materials . . . and a host ofgood-looking Bermuda length shorts and sportshirts ... all reflecting our individuality and taste.(shown) Lightweight Navy Blue Flannel Blazer, $50Illustrated Summer Catalogue Upon Request.*Du Pont's fiberESTABLISHED 1818ens furnishings, ff ate '*£ hoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N. Y.1 1 1 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 6, N. Y.BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCOWell, perhaps, if you want to be strictly literal.And yet, when she reaches college age will she be toolate? Too late to get the kind of higher educationso vital to her future and to the future of her country?It all depends.There is in the United States today a growing threat tothe ability of our colleges to produce thinking, well-informed graduates. That threat is composed of severalelements : an inadequate salary scale that is \steadily reducing the number of qualified people whochoose college teaching as a career ; classrooms andlaboratories already overcrowded; and a pressure forenrollment that will double by 1967.The effects of these shortcomings can become extremelyserious. Never in our history has the need for educatedleadership been so acute. The problems of business,government and science grow relentlessly more complex,the body of knowledge more mountainous.The capacity of our colleges— all colleges—to meet these challenges is essential not onlyto the cultural development of our children butto the intellectual stature of our nation.In a very real sense, our personal and national progressdepends on our colleges. They must have more supportin keeping pace with their increasing importance to society.Help the colleges or universities of your choice. Help themplan for stronger faculties and expansion. The returnswill be greater than you think.If you want to know what the collegecrisis means to you, write for a freebooklet to: HIGHER EDUCATION,Box 36, Times Square Station, NewYork 36, New York. HIGHER EDUCATIONKEEP IT BRIGHTSponsored as a public service, in cooperation with the Council for Financial Aid to Education, byTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfn j jSs fsssueTIT" hen Leonard B. Meyer's book, "Emotion and Meaning in Music" waspublished recently by The University ofChicago Press, New Yorker music criticWinthrop Sargeant called it ". . . by farthe most important work on musicalaesthetics that I have ever encountered."Beginning on Page 5, we bring you afew excerpts from the book.Has mass education meant opportunityfor all, but denial for some? The Department of Education, together with theMidwest Administration Center and theAmerican Association of School Administrators, took up this question last fallat a Conference on Educating the GiftedChild. Among the speakers was ClarenceFaust, AM '29, PhD '35, formerly Deanof The College and now President of theFund for the Advancement of Education.His remarks, "Why the New Concern forEducating the Gifted?" begin on Page you have any spare time between-* now and May 10, we suggest you dropin at Goodspeed Hall, 1010 E. 59th Street,to see the works of art faculty members.The Renaissance Society is sponsoringthis interesting show.Actually, many members of the variousfaculties produce works of art, but theshow is devoted exclusively to those whoteach the plastic arts. Starting on Page11, we bring you a se^es of photos ofthe artists, together with some of theirworks.npHE fate of the Frank Lloyd Wright-¦*¦ designed Robie House (at WoodlawnAvenue and 58th Street) is as yet undetermined. What chance art-lovers haveof saving this early Wright "prairie"house is hard to tell at this writing. Itsdisposition is causing many a headachefor Chicago Theological Seminary, whichowns it and needs the site for a dormitory. For details on the problem, see"Haze Robie House?" on Page 16.TT seems quite in keeping that the er-¦*• ratic George Bernard Shaw shouldhave designated as his "official" biographer a mathematician. Archibald Henderson, PhD '15, (in mathematics), firstdiscovered G.B.S. while studying at Chicago. Some of his observations on G.B.S.appear on Page 18, "The math studentand Bernard Shaw"4 N account of alumni club activitiesA begins on Page 24, and details of theannual Alumni Foundation drive appearon Page 26. jS*^^^/* mi^ UNIVERSITYLjmcaqoMAGAZINE M MAY, 1957FEATURES48!l16182426 Emotion and Meaning in MusicWhy the New Concern forEducating the Sifted?Faculty Art Exhibit — A Picture StoryRaze Robie House?The math student and Bernard ShawKimpton Invades the NorthBells Ring for Foundation Drive Volume 49, Number 8Leonard B. MeyerClarence FaustArchibald HendersonDEPARTMENTSI Memo Pad3 In This Issue20 News of the Quadrangles30 Books32 Class News39 MemorialCOVERFreeman Schoolcraft, Director of the campus art studio in LexingtonHall, is a highly successful artist in his own right, as well as a teacherof art in the College Humanities courses. He is pictured with twoof his works, "Young Womanhood," a limestone sculpture, and"Land-Sea," an oil painting. His works may be seen with those ofother art faculty members at the Renaissance Society Galleries inGoodspeed Hall. For more on this show, see Pages 11-15. (Photoby Morton Shapiro.)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, IllinoisEditor Editorial AssistantFELICIA ANTHENELLI STEPHEN B. APPELTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive Secretary-EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORAN The Alumni FundORLANDO R. DAVIDSONFLORENCE I. MEDOWRegional DirectorsROBERT L. BOTHWELLCLARENCE A. PETERS (Midwestern)(Eastern)WILLIAM H. SWANBERG (Western) Student RecruitmentDONALD C. MOYERProgrammingELIZABETH A. SHAWPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association5733 University Avenue, Chicago 3/, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $4.00. Single copies'25 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois'under the act of March 3, 1879 Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross'director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.MAY, 1957 3i'-When Leonard B. Meyer's book, Emotion and Meaning in Music, came out early this year it receivedoutstanding notices from the press.". . . after reading it I am convinced that it is by farthe most important work, on musical aesthetics that Ihave ever encountered" wrote Winthrop Sargeant inThe New Yorker."The vast importance of Mr. Meyer's book, to mymind," wrote Sargeant, "is that it explains for the firsttime, and in a thoroughgoing and precise way, just howmusic is related to human experience. To the critic itoffers tools of increased variety and sharpness, to thecomposer a badly needed clear statement of his purposes,and to the listener an explanation of why music affectshim as it does. It will, I think, do a great deal towardsilencing the sophomoric prattle of the formalists — including the atonalists — who for a long time have beenmistaking the calligraphy of music for its substance. Mr.Meyer, using, among other things, the resources of modern psychology, has succeeded where many a famouspredecessor has failed, and as a result the realm of thinking about music will, I feel, never be quite the sameagain."Meyer, PhD '54, holds AB and AM degrees from Columbia University. He has been teaching at the University since 1944, and is also Secretary of the Departmentof Music, and of the Committee on History of Culture.He is a violinist and composer.The University of Chicago Press published Meyer'sbook, of which Sargeant wrote: ". . . his book will makerather hard going for the casual reader, but those whoare intrepid enough to follow its complicated trains ofthought will find in it the answers to practically all themysteries that have made musical meaning such a dimand complex business."Before taking off for a well-earned ten-month stay inItaly, Meyer chose several excerpts from his book forappearance in these pages. These excerpts, with slightadaptation, follow:The meaning of music has of late been the subjectof much confused argument and controversy. Thecontroversy has stemmed largely from disagreements asto what music communicates, while the confusion hasresulted for the most part from a lack of clarity as to thenature and definition of meaning itself.The debates as to what music communicates have centered around the question of whether music can designate, depict, or otherwise communicate referential concepts, images, experiences, and emotional states. Thisis the old argument between the absolutists and the refer entialists.Because it has not appeared problematical to them,the referentialists have not as a rule explicitly considered the problem of musical meaning. Musical meaningaccording to the referentialists lies in the relationshipbetween a musical symbol or sign and the extramusicalthing which it designates.Since our concern in this study is not primarily withthe referential meaning of music, suffice it to say thatMorton Shapiro Emotion andMeaning inMusicBy Leonard B. MeyerAssociate Professor of MusicAuthor, composer and music teacher Leonard B. Meyer Reprinted from Emotion and Meaning in Music, copyright, 1956, The Universityof Chicago.MAY, 1957 5the disagreement between the referentialists and the absolutists is theresult of a tendency toward philosophical monism rather than the result of any logical incompatibility.Both designative and nondesignativemeanings arise out of musical experience, just as they do in other typesof aesthetic experience.The absolutists have contended thatthe meaning of music lies specifically,and some would assert exclusively, inthe musical processes themselves.For them musical meaning is nondesignative. But in what sense theseprocesses are meaningful, in whatsense a succession or sequence ofnon-referential musical stimuli can besaid to give rise to meaning, theyhave been unable to state with eitherclarity or precision. They have alsofailed to relate musical meaning toother kinds of meaning — to meaningin general. This failure has led somecritics to assert that musical meaningis a thing apart, different in someunexplained way from all other kindsof meaning. This is simply an evasionof the real issue. For it is obvious thatif the term "meaning" is to have anysignification at all as applied to music,then it must have the same signification as when applied to other kindsof experience.Without reviewing all the untenable positions to which writers havetenaciously adhered, it seems fair tosay that much of the confusion anduncertainty as to the nature of non-referential musical meaning has resulted from two fallacies. On theother hand, there has been a tendencyto locate meaning exclusively in oneaspect of the communicative process;on the other hand, there has been apropensity to regard all meaningsarising in human communication asdesignative, as involving symbolismof some sort.Since these difficulties can be bestresolved in the light of a general definition of meaning, let us begin withsuch a definition: "... anything acquires meaning if it is connected with,or indicates, or refers to, somethingbeyond itself, so that its full naturepoints to and is revealed in that connection," says Morris Cohen, in APreface to Logic.Meaning is thus not a property ofthings. It cannot be located in thestimulus alone. The same stimulusmay have many different meanings.To a geologist a large rock may indi cate that at one time a glacier beganto recede at a given spot; to a farmerthe same rock may point to thenecessity of having the field clearedfor plowing; and to the sculptor therock may indicate the possibility ofartistic creation. A rock, a word, ormotion in and of itself, merely asa stimulus, is meaningless.Thus it is pointless to ask what theintrinsic meaning of a single tone ora series of tones is. Purely as physicalexistences they are meaningless. They-become meaningful only in so far asthey point to, indicate, or imply something beyond themselves.Nor can meaning be located exclusively in the objects, events, orexperiences which the stimulus indicates, refers to, or implies. The meaning of the rock is the product of therelationship between the stimulus andthe thing that it points to or indicates.Though the perception of a relationship can only arise as the result ofsome individual's mental behavior, therelationship itself is not to be locatedin the mind of the perceiver. Themeanings observed are not subjective.Thus the relationships existing between the tones themselves or thoseexisting between the tones and thethings they designate or connote,though a product of cultural experience, are real connections existingobjectively in culture. They are notarbitrary connections imposed by thecapricious mind of the particularlistener.Meaning, then, is not in either thestimulus, or what it points to, or theobserver. Rather it arises out of whatboth Cohen and Mead have calledthe "triadic" relationship between (1)an object or stimulus; (2) that towhich the stimulus points — that whichis its consequent; and (3) the conscious observer.Discussions of the meaning of musichave also been muddled by the failure to state explicitly what musicalstimuli indicate or point to. A stimulus may indicate events or consequences which are different fromitself in kind, as when a word designates or points to an object or actionwhich is not itself a word. Or astimulus may indicate or imply eventsor consequences which are cf the samekind as the stimulus itself, as whena dim light on the eastern horizonheralds the coming of day. Here boththe antecedent stimulus and the consequent event are natural phenomena. The former type of meaning may becalled designative, the latter embodied.Because most of the meaningswhich arise in human communicationare of the designative type, employinglinguistic signs or the ionic signs ofthe plastic arts, numerous critics havefailed to realize that this is not necessarily or exclusively the case. Thismistake has led even avowed absolutists to allow designation to slip inthrough the secret door of semanticchicanery.But even more important thandesignative meaning is what we havecalled embodied meaning. From thispoint of view what a musical stimulusor a series of stimuli indicated andpoint to are not extramusical concepts and objects but other musicalevents which are about to happen.That is, one musical event (be it atone, a phrase, or a whole section)has meaning because it points to andmakes us expect another musicalevent. This is what music means fromthe viewpoint of the absolutist. . .Meaning and AffectIt thus appears that the same processes which were said to give riseto affect are now said to give rise tothe objectification of embodied meaning.But this is a dilemma only so longas the traditional dichotomy betweenreason and emotion and the parentpolarity between mind and body areadopted. Once it is recognized thataffective experience is just as dependent upon intelligent cognition as conscious intellection, that both involveperception, taking account of, envisaging, and so forth, then thinkingand feeling need not be viewed aspolar opposites but as different manifestations of a single psychologicalprocess.There is no diametric opposition, noinseparable gulf, between the affectiveand the intellectual responses madeto music. Though they are psychologically differentiated as responses, bothdepend upon the same perceptiveprocesses, and the same stylistic habits, the same modes of mental organization; and the same musical processes give rise to and shape both typesof experience. Seen in this light, theformalist's conception of musicalexperience and the expressionist'sconceptions of it appear as complementary rather than contradictory6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpositions. They are considering notdifferent processes but different waysof experiencing the same process.Whether a piece of music gives riseto affective experience or to intellectual experience depends upon thedisposition and training of the listener.To some minds the disembodied feeling of affective experience is uncannyand unpleasant and a process ofrationalization is undertaken in whichthe musical processes are objectifiedas conscious meaning. Belief alsoprobably plays an important role indetermining the character of the response. Those who have been taughtto believe that musical experience isprimarily emotional and who aretherefore disposed to respond affectively will probably do so. Thoselisteners who have learned to understand music in technical terms willtend to make musical processes anobject of conscious consideration.This probably accounts for the factthat most trained critics and aestheti-cians favor the formalist position.Thus while the trained musician consciously waits for the expected resolution of a dominant seventjsf^chordthe untrained, but practiced listenerfeels the delay as affect. . .Expectation and Learning1VT eaning is not static and immuta--*-»¦*- ble but an evolving, changingattribution of a gesture or sound term.The meaning of sound terms on allarchitectonic levels, even the highestone, exhibits growth and change. Andthe entire comprehensive meaning ofa given musical work includes thehypothetical, evident, and determinatemeanings of the multitude of soundterms that are contained in it as wellas the relationships existing betweenthese sound terms.Often the hypothetical meaning ofa sound term is very different fromits evident meaning, and its evidentmeaning is conditioned and modifiedby this difference. The C -minorFugue from the first book of theWell-tempered Clavier furnishes anexcellent instance of such a changein the meaning of a sound term(measures 9-11, see illustration). Inmeasure 9 a sequence through thecycle of fifths with imitations betweenthe soprano and alto is begun. Thesequence continues through measure10 and apparently into measure 11,where the motive marked x is at firstunderstood as part of the sequence; that is, we suppose that the sopranowill move to D in the following bar.However, once the whole of measure11 and the beginning of measure 12have been heard, we realize that thehypothetical meaning attributed to xwas wrong, that it is not really partof the sequence but the beginning ofthe fugue theme, in short, that itsevident meaning is quite differentfrom its hypothetical meaning. It isvery clear that Bach intends us tomake this "mistake." For he could =easily have made it clear that thefugue subject begins at this point bystopping the sequential progression inthe left hand at the beginning ofmeasure 11. Notice that our cognition of the evident meaning includesour conception of the hypotheticalmeaning; the sound term is not onlyevidently the beginning of the fuguesubject, but it is the beginning aboutwhich we were originally mistaken.Furthermore, it is not only our opinion of the significance of x that isrevised in measure 11 but our opinionas to the significance of the wholeepisode, which now appears to havethis musical "pun" as one of its meanings.The fact that as we listen to musicwe are constantly revising our opinions of what has happened in the pastin the light of present events is important because it means that we arecontinually altering our expectations.It means, furthermore, that repetition,though it may exist physically, neverexists psychologically. Thus, thoughit may seem a truism, it is of somemoment to recognize that the repetition, say, of the exposition section ofa sonata-form movement or that ofthe first-theme group in the recapitulation has quite a different meaningfrom that communicated by the original statement. . .Belief and the Presumption of LogicBecause of the tremendous importance of belief in the response to art, the most devastating criticismthat can be leveled against a workis not that it is crude or displeasingbut that it is not aesthetically purposeful and meaningful. Statementsthat compositions in the twelve -tonetechnique are conceived within anessentially mathematical framework,implying that they are not honestlyfelt or aesthetically conceived by thecomposer, have done more to makethe music of this school unpopular andhated than all the accusations of cacophony and ugliness put together.It seems probable that audiences object to the dissonance in this music,not because it is unpleasant, but because they believe that it is the product of calculation rather than anaesthetic affective conception. Thesecriticisms have weakened belief inthe logic and seriousness of the music,and listeners have consequently abandoned their attempts to understand.The power of most journalistic criticism derives not so much from itsability to influence judgment as fromits power to enhance or weaken belief.Much of the information suppliedin the program notes for a symphonyconcert, the popular biographies ofcomposers, or the run-of-the-millmusic appreciation course is aimed,albeit unconsciously, primarily at enhancing belief. The story of the composer's "life and hard times," the circumstances under which a particularcomposition was written, the testimonials to the greatness of the work tobe heard, and so forth do not help usto appreciate (to understand) thework directly, only our own properhabit responses can do this, ratherthey aid appreciation by strengthening belief and creating a willing attitude.Just as criticism can enhance belief(and hence the disposition to respond) through praise or negate belief (and the disposition to respond)(Continued on Page 28)Excerpt from the Well-Tempered ClavierMAY, 1957 7Clarence FaustPresident,Fund for the Advancementof EducationRalph CreasmanWhy the new concernfor educating the gifted?The title of this paper is not intended to question the value orimportance of attention to the education of superior persons. Rather, it isdesigned to invite a consideration ofsome of the chief reasons for the newurgency many of us feel about adequate educational provisions foryoung people of exceptional abilities.An analysis of the reasons for oursharpened concern for the educationof superior students might do morethan merely strengthen our interestin the problem. It might be useful inReprinted from The School Review, Spring8 suggesting the lines of thought, planning, experimentation, and new educational development along which wehave the best prospects of success ineducating the gifted.There are two major sources of ournewly aroused interest in adequateeducational provisions for the gifted.One of these is an awareness of certain urgent needs of our society inthese troubled times. The other is aclearer sense of the meaning and responsibility of democratic educationwith respect to the development ofU 1957 individual capacities.Perhaps the greatest change inthe general outlook of Americanshas been the emergence, as a consequence of two world wars andof the periods of uneasy and precarious peace which have followedthem, of a sense of the possibilitiesof disaster for America and for Western civilization. Those of us who canremember what Walter Lippmann hasdescribed as "the soft air of the world"before the two world wars of thiscentury recognize that the attitude ofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmen with respect to the future haschanged - radically. Before 1914 weexpected steady and almost inevitableprogress on all fronts of human welfare. We fondly supposed that greatwars would never again take place.We were confident that democraticforms of government would ultimatelybe adopted everywhere. We could notconceive that democracy would beseriously threatened or even challenged.Over the past forty years, and especially over the past fifteen, we havehad an increasing sense that continuation of our progress was not at allinevitable, that indeed we faced menacing possibilities of disaster to America and to Western civilization, andthat, if we were to avoid catastropheor a slow and sad decline of the kindSpain and Rome had known beforeus, we must muster all the resourcesof wisdom and energy available to us.It has been increasingly clear to usalso that our ultimate dependencemust be not upon our material resources but upon our human resources. The strength, indeed thevery life, of our democracy dependson making the most of our humanpotential. And certainly a large shareof the work of developing our humanresources falls upon education. Inshort, one source of the new concernfor the education of the gifted is ourawareness of the urgent necessity tomake the most of the very best of ourhuman resources in these momentousand fateful days.I like to believe that a second basisfor our sharpened concern for theeducation of superior young people islocated in our concern, not for societyas a whole, but for the individual.Adequate provision for the educationof exceptional talents is important,quite apart from its value in producing creative leadership in society, inthat it provides for the fullest flowering of the individuals who composethe society. And I take it that ourultimate aim is to achieve nationalor social strength, not for its ownsake, but for the sake of providingthe conditions in which each individual may realize his possibilities.It is not exaggerating matters to saythat we have neglected or undervalued this function of education. Inmaking the great strides we havetaken to provide the kind of education a democratic society needs, andespecially in providing universal edu cation, we have, perhaps naturally,stressed the giving of a quantity ofeducation to all young people. Ourcommitment to universal education,to education for everybody, led us toa concern for giving some educationto each. And in our concentrationon this effort we were inclined to decry, as undemocratic, the giving ofspecial attention to some. Provisionfor education of the gifted was opposed because it was said to be aristocratic, tending to the creation of anelite, and fundamentally undemocratic.In the past several decades we havecome to see that democratic educationdoes not necessarily mean equalamounts of education for all butmeans equal opportunity for education to all. Insofar as we have cometo this view, we are recovering insights of the founding fathers of theRepublic. There is an interesting andilluminating correspondence betweenJohn Adams and Thomas Jeffersonon this point. In their old age thesetwo, who had stood shoulder to shoulder through our war for independenceand later became bitter political foesin the new republic, entered into correspondence about their agreementsand differences. John Adams seemsto have been convinced that Jefferson was guilty of a kind of unrealisticand dangerous leveling, or egalitari-anism, and in several long letterswritten in 1813 Adams argued that,whether we like it or not, there isamong men a natural aristocracy andthat to pretend that it does not existis to court political and social disaster. Jefferson's reply was in thesoundest democratic tradition. Hewrote:I agree with you that there isa natural aristocracy among men.The grounds of this are virtue andtalents. . . . There is also an artificial aristocracy,, founded on wealth and birth, without eithervirtue or talents. . . . The naturalaristocracy is the most preciousgift of nature, for the instruction,the progress, and the governmentof society. . . . May we not evensay, that that form of government is the best which providesthe most effectually for the pureselection of these natural aristoiinto the offices of government?The artificial aristocracy is a mischievous ingredient in government, and provision should bemade to prevent its ascendancy.Jefferson then goes on to point outthat the proposals for the abolishingof entails and of the privilege of primogeniture, together with anotherbill he had placed before the VirginiaLegislature "for the more general diffusion of learning," were designed tolay "the ax to the foot of pseudo-aristocracy" and to provide for thediscovery and development of unusualtalents.I like to believe we have lost anynotions of an undemocratic and aristocratic sort that might block the extension of education to all Americanyouth, and that we are now preparedto see the force of Jefferson's argument. We are, I hope, as much opposed as ever to the creation of anartificial aristocracy through processesof education, but I hope we are alsoprepared to accept the view that theopening of equal educational opportunity to all, with provision for thefull development of persons with superior abilities regardless of social oreconomic class or of nationality orrace, is one of the prime responsibilities of democratic education.If we accept this view, the questionbecomes: What kind of provisionsshould education make for youngpeople of superior capacities? Thesimplest approach would seem to beto set up testing programs designed toidentify the gifted, to establish instructional programs calling fullyupon their ability and developingfully their capacities, and to instituteguidance programs which would makesure that the gifted take the coursesthey ought to take. There are, itseems to me, serious objections to thisformula, at least in its simplest forms.The process smacks of a kind of"human engineering" in which ademocratic society ought not to engage. It seems, moreover, to be related much more closely to the firstMAY, 1957 9of the two considerations for concernabout tne education of the gifted thanto the second, that is, it tends to stressthe needs of society to the point whereindividuals come to be seen merelyas social instruments and as meansto the achievement of social ends. Atest of the difference would be thequestion whether a young personcapable of very high achievement inone line of activity and much less inanother is or is not better off in thesecond if he strongly prefers it. Ishould be inclined to say that, evenin this extreme and oversimplifiedcase, the freedom of the individualis more important than the desires,or even the needs, of society.There seem to me difficulties, in anycase, with the emphasis on identification. People capable of high achievement may be late bloomers, whowould be overlooked in the effort toidentify exceptional possibilities at anearly age. The biographies of men ofvery high achievement will, I am confident, support the view that thereis no point at which the signs of thecapacity for high achievement can beconfidently expected. -If, furthermore, we are concernedwith really creative capacity, the taskof identification, early or late, is extremely difficult. Almost by definition,the creative, imaginative, originalmind will fail to fit the patterns onwhich any general process of selection must naturally depend.Finally, high achievement is certainly not the result merely of nativeability but of varied and complex interrelationships of native ability, intellectual energy, motivation, andeven cultural background. Student Xwith a very high intelligence quotientmay lack other characteristics necessary to really high achievement,whereas Student Y with lesser nativeintelligence may possess the energyand motivation to go far.Besides the difficulties of identification, I should like to note also the difficulties of educational programmingfor exceptionally talented students.To begin with, the children and youngpeople of any community cannot realistically be divided simply into thegifted, the average, and the handicapped. Examination of their abilitiesand promise would certainly presenta continuum rather than a hard andfast tripartite, or even many-com-partmented, division. There cannot,therefore, be a program for the gifted and another for the average. Therange within each of these groups andthe overlapping between them on various counts would make such anarrangement artificial, and the problem of individual differences would, ifwe were realistic and conscientious,arise anew within each group.TT here, you may reasonably ask,does this lead us with respect to the4 education of the gifted? Not to the* point, certainly, of disenchantmentwith it or despair about it. If thereis anything in the analysis I havemade, certain general principles maybe suggested. How these might beput into effect in concrete educationalprograms may be another matter,though I should be surprised if therewere not already a considerable bodyof relevant concrete experience tobring to bear on the question.What seems to me to be suggestedby way of general approach is thatprocesses of testing to identify thegifted and special programs for thesuperior students who have been thuslocated by testing should be a subordinate rather than the main line ofapproach to the problem. I wouldsuggest that the main line of approach be that of introducing muchgreater flexibility into educationalprograms, so as to open up to allstudents the possibilities of enrichment, acceleration, and independentstudy which seem peculiarly appropriate for exceptionally able students.All three of these devices are im portant for the gifted students. Thesestudents ought to carry much moredemanding work than is now requiredof them. They ought not to be heldback in the lock step of the elementary-grade and, later on, of thecourse -credit systems, Their capacityfor originality and for creative workshould be stimulated and developedby truly independent study. Enrichment, acceleration, and independentstudy are essential to the developmentof superior capacity. And there seemsto be no reason why students of superior intellectual power or exceptional intellectual energy or excellentmotivation should be restrained within the bounds of the elementary -school unit of study, the high-schoolcourse, or the college course, exceptas a matter of convenience to teachers and administrators.But opportunities for the threekinds of enlargement of educationmentioned should not, I am convinced,be limited to those who, by someseries of tests, have been identified asexceptionally capable. These opportunities should be open to all, partlybecause success in making the mostof them depends upon so complex aninterrelationship of many factors thatidentification is difficult, partly because the capacity to profit from themmay emerge early or late or suddenly, and partly because the process of human engineering involved inclassifying and directing into whatseem to be appropriate programs agroup known as the gifted would, inthe long run, be a threat to humanindividuality, independence, and freedom. That some students would overestimate their capacities and enterupon programs that they could notcarry through does not seem to me avalid objection to offering the opportunities to all. A student's discoverythat he has overestimated his abilitiesor energies or fortitude is itself ofeducational value and would, I amconvinced, be much less likely to generate a sense of inferiority or instability than is the attempt at rigid classification. Testing devices would havetheir place as a basis for advice andstimulation, but not as a source ofstratification in the school system.Programs providing open-ended opportunity for talent and ambitionwould need to be devised, but not asthe privilege of one order of studentsonly. Students would be expected to(Continued on Page 28)10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFacultyArtExhibitPhotographs by Morton Shapiro A unique art show is now on exhibit at Goodspeed Hall. Works ofseveral professional artists who are also members of the art facultiesof the University are being shown under the sponsorship of the Renaissance Society, in cooperation with the third annual Festival of the Arts.Open to the public, the show runs until May 10.Shown above is Harold Haydon, Associate Professor of Art in TheCollege. A graduate of University High School, The College, and theHumanities Division, Haydon has been a member of the faculty since1944. In 1945 he won the $1,000 Quantrell award for excellence in teaching. Pictured above are two of his oils, "The Neon Jungle" (1.), and"Nude in Doorway." He also creates mobile sculpture, the latest of whichwill be hung in the Bobs Roberts Hospital playroom. Haydon is alsopresident of the Renaissance Society.MAY, 1957 11Roland GinzelVisiting Instructor in ArtDoubling on the faculties of Chicago and Illinois, Ginzel concentrates on abstract paintings and prints, two of which are picturedbehind him, (1. to r.: "May Twenty-Sixth" intaglio; and "AugustTwenty-Seventh" color lithograph). Ginzel studied at Iowa, theArt Institute, and the Slade School in London. He has exhibitednationally, including the Metropolitan Museum and the Museum ofModern Art in New York, and has been awarded by the Art Institute, the Dallas Museum, and the University of Southern California.12 THE UNIVERSITYFACULTY ART EXHIBITContinuedWilliam J. TallonAssistant Professor of Art and EducationDirector of the University's Midway Studio, Tallon is picturedwith some of his earthenware and stoneware ceramics. He specializes in ceramics and sculpture, and has studied with LarryHeller in Colorado Springs and at the Art Institute of Chicago.Tallon has taught at the University of Minnesota, and put inthree years at free-lance commercial art after World War II.1__¦MAY, 1957 13_H i *_l— V 1 1 '1James I. GilbertAssociate Professor of Humanities (College)A member of the faculty since 1945, Gilbert's career in art hasbeen varied. Pictured with "New England Homestead" done in oil,he is equally at home with portraits, still-lifes, and landscapes.He has studied at the Art Institute and in Madrid, and his workshave been exhibited throughout the country. One of his paintings,"The Cellist"— owned by Viola Manderfeld, AM '34, of Chicago,and lent to the exhibition — was shown at the New York World's Fair.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFACULTY ART EXHIBITContinuedEdmund GiesbertAssociate Professor of ArtAlthough pictured with two other types of painting, (I. to r. : "TheBreakfast Table" and "Outdoor Cafe, Dalmatia"), Giesbert is primarily a portrait painter. He has created oils of many campusfigures, including Ernst Puttkammer, Laird Bell, and the late EnricoFermi. At 20 Giesbert was a student of George Bellow at the ArtInstitute. He was also a fellow at the Royal Vienna Academy andstudied in Paris. In 1928 he was awarded the Frank Logan Medal.--=*_MAY, 1957 15Sun-Times PhotoRaze Robie House?Should the famous Frank Lloyd Wright masterpiecebe destroyed to make way for a much-needed dormitory? The suggestion has prompted howls of protest, loudest being from the old master himself.Should Robie House, Frank LloydWright's early masterpiece at thecorner of Woodlawn Avenue and 58thStreet, be razed to make way for amarried students' dormitory?The Chicago Theological Seminary,which owns the 51-year-old structure, says it should, and has outlinedplans for construction of a badlyneeded dormitory on the site.Announcement by A. C. McGiffert,president of C.T.S., to this effect hastouched off a storm of protest from art lovers, som| from as far off asEurope. A Committee to PreserveRobie House has sprung up, and several organizations are working together in an effort to save the houseas an architectural monument.Loudest protest of all came fromthe 87-year-old master himself, FrankLloyd Wright."I think this is a special speciesof vandalism," he roared, when firstinformed of C.T.S.'s plan. "A religious organization has no sense of beauty. You can't expect much fromthem."A unique solution has been proposed by the University's chapter ofPhi Delta Theta, Wright's own fraternity, which he joined when at theUniversity of Wisconsin. The fraternity has offered to take over RobieHouse in exchange for its own structure, which is three doors north, at5747 S. Woodlawn.In addition, Zeta Beta Tau fraternity, which occupies a house at 5749Hoping to convince C.T.S. not to tear down his early masterpiece, Wright, (above), recently visited Robie House.16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBulletin:As we went to press, FrankLloyd Wright, in a dramaticmove to save Robie House, offered to design without chargean alternative building for C.T.S.Wright's offer was phoned toA. C. McGiffert, Jr., presidentof C.T.S. The latter said itwould require consideration bythe seminary's board.Said Wright: "Why divideyour establishment by crossingWoodlawn? I will undertake todesign without charge a building meeting all your requirements where you are now, onethat will have the admirationof the world. I will put theplan in your hands within 30days."Another group, the Commission on Chicago ArchitecturalLandmarks, has joined the fightto save the house. Daniel Cat-ton Rich, '26, Director of theArt Institute, was elected chairman of the newly-formed group,which voted to take immediateaction.S. Woodlawn, has offered to exchangethis building for C.T.S.'s massive FiskHouse, at the corner of 56th Streetand Woodlawn Avenue.Since C.T.S. already owns anotherhouse located between Zeta BetaTau's house and Robie House, thiswould give it three adjacent lots onwhich to build the proposed dormitory.If Robie House should become theproperty of Phi Delta Theta, the fraternity proposes to recondition it forchapter use and set apart a sectionas a museum, to show some of themementoes of Wright's architecturalfame.Wright heartily approves this plan."It could be a clubby little rendezvous," he said, "with models, drawings, and books on architecture."C.T.S. declined to comment on thefraternities' offers. Supposedly theyare under consideration.C.T.S. has been struggling for sometime with the problem of housing itsincreasing married student population. Temporary housing presentlyused for married students' residencesare in violation of Chicago BuildingCodes. In addition, C.T.S. needs adining hall for students.The proposed site for the new married students' unit is directly acrossthe street from the Seminary's mainbuildings and C.T.S. does not ownsufficient real estate in any othersuitable location. Even if available,the purchase of an alternate sitewould add at least $100,000 to the costof a new dormitory.C.T.S. also claims it cannot affordto maintain Robie House as an architectural monument. Due to structural deterioration, the building requires an immediate expenditure of$65,000 to $75,000, says C.T.S. Otheressential repairs necessary to complywith city building codes, would require another $25,000.Wright came to campus recentlyto examine Robie House for himself,and estimated that he could restorethe house, including the furniturethat he designed for it, for from$10,000 to $15,000."Nothing has been done to keepthis house in shape," he remarked,"but very little is wrong with it despite all the abuse it has had.""It looks just as good as it everdid," Wright said, swinging his canetoward the wide balconies. "In fact, it is better than ever after all that ithas come through. This house has thequalities that have come to pass inthe name of modern architecture."To destroy it would be like destroying a great piece of sculpture ora great work of art. It would neverbe permitted in Europe. It couldonly happen in America, and it isparticularly sad that professional religionists should be the executors."In a recent poll taken of a panelof experts by the magazine, Architectural Record, Robie House tiedfor first place with Wright's KaufmanHouse in Pittsburgh as the most significant American home design in thelast 100 years. Wright's own home,Taliesin West in Arizona, came insecond.Wright has described Robie Houseas "the cornerstone of what we callmodern architecture."In a letter to McGiffert, the facultyof the State Academy of Fine Arts inHamburg, Germany, wrote: "TheRobie House is one of the monuments of our time." They decried thefact "that this monument should nowgive place to a barracks!"Plans to wreck the house, the German artists contended, are "evidenceof a shameful tendency" to subordinate "the creative spirit of man."Joining them in protesting the destruction of the house are the ChicagoChapter of the American Institute ofArchitects and the Artists EquityAssociation. C.T.S.' Board of Directors and administrative officers recognize thesignificance of the work as an architectural monument, but feel theysimply cannot afford to keep it anylonger.(Continued. on Page 27)"Just needs a little tuck-pointing here and there," says architect Frank LloydWright, poking his cane into corners on his recent visit to Robie House.Sun-Times PhotoMAY, 1957 17The mathstudentandBernard ShawBy Archibald Henderson, PhD '15Professor Emeritus, MathematicsUniversity of North Carolina When the George Bernard ShawSociety invited Archibald Henderson, PhD '15, to Chicago last Julyto help celebrate the centenary ofthe famous playwright's birth, it wasan especially fitting return. As agraduate student at the University in1903 Henderson first discovered Shaw.The enthusiasm with which he reacted has lasted a lifetime.Henderson was then working for adoctorate in mathematics. He becameso excited over Shaw after seeing oneof his plays that he wrote to Shaw.The correspondence which resultedled to a deep friendship, and ultimately to Shaw's designation of theChicago mathematician as his "official" biographer.Henderson has written severalbooks on Shaw, (the latest, GeorgeBernard Shaw: Man of the Century,is reviewed in this issue starting onPage 30). He is also the author ofarticles in the field of mathematics.From 1920-48 he was head of theDepartment of Mathematics at the University of North Carolina. He hasbeen Professor Emeritus since 1948.He is also a former vice president anddirector of the National DramaticLeague of America.Chicago, incidentally, was the onlycity in the world to hold a city-wide,all-day observance of the Shaw centenary. Out of this came the Chicago chapter of the Shaw Society ofAmerica in which University students,faculty and alumni are active.Preceding the arrival of 79-year-oldHenderson in Chicago last July was atelegram to the Shaw Day chairmanfrom his doctor, which read: "Mypatient, Archibald Henderson, is arriving on the 2 P.M. train. He iscoming against my wishes. Please seethat he does not strain himself."Like his hero, Shaw, Hendersonscoffed at his doctor's advice and carried on a full round of festivities.He spoke briefly and informally at amorning symposium on "The ManySides of Shaw." With his kind permission, his delightful remarks follow.Man, (r., above), reveals typical audience reaction as Archibald Henderson,PhD '15, gives delightful account of his friendship with Bernard Shaw.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJLf it had not been for the Universityof Chicago and two people, MissMaude Miner and Mr. Hart Conway,I should certainly not have been heretoday.I spoke at the University of Chicago on Shaw some thirty years agoand I remember only that as I lookedout at that audience in Mandel Halland saw the ushers bringing peoplein, I recall the number, because Iam an authority on numerology, 177extra chairs. The doors were keptopen to take care of the crowd thatwas on the outside.After the lecture, my good friend,a great sculptor here in Chicago,Loredo Taft, who had been so goodas to make a plaque of O. Henry inmy native state, came up to me, accompanied by his two maiden sistersdressed in black. One of these ladiescame forward and said, "Dr. Henderson, we enjoyed your lecture verymuch, but we enjoyed even morelistening to your delightful southerndialect." I hoped then, as I do now,that she meant "accent." At the Durham, North Carolina airport when Iwas leaving for my trip here, thechauffeur said to me, "I love to hearyou talk — you make me feel sodrowsy."With my delightful southern "dialect" and my ability to put myaudience to sleep, this talk is boundto be a howling success!On the morning of February 24,1903, I came down to breakfast atHarcourt House near the Universityof Chicago, and the proprietor, MissMaude Miner, said, "I want you to gowith me to see a play tonight givenby the Hart Conway School of Acting." I replied, "That is impossible. Iare here doing research work in mathematics." She said, "I have two complimentary tickets and you must gowith me." I asked her, "What is theplay?" "You Never Can Tell" was heranswer. I said that I had never heardof it. "Who is the author?" I askedher. "An obscure Irish dramatist,George Bernard Shaw," she answered.My resistance overborne by twocomplimentary tickets, I went to seethe play, and that was one of themost crucial moments in my life, andit happened here in the city of Chicago. I came out of the theater andI felt as though I had passed throughan explosion of cosmic rays, and Ibelieve today I cannot use an expres-MAY, 1957 sion that is more adequately expressive of Shaw than that he is a humanexplosion of cosmic rays!I read on the program that the topictoday is "The Many Sides of BernardShaw," taking up different sides ofShaw's character. It occurred to methat it might be interesting to tellsomething of the man himself; andbeing his biographer, I asked permission to talk on the subject of Shawas I knew him.I spent a year trying to find everything I could on Shaw after seeing"You Never Can Tell." I got up mycourage to write to him, telling himthat I wanted to spend some years ofmy life to write about him.Three weeks later I received a postcard from Shaw in which he said,"Your proposal is interesting andsignificant to me," and he added further that I should send him myphotograph. My wife threw up herhands in horror and said that in mypictures I looked either like an escapee of Bellevue or someone whohad eluded the guards of Sing Sing!I then said that I was going up tohave a photograph taken.I asked the photographer if he couldtake a picture of one who was thepotential biographer of the great undiscovered dramatist, George BernardShaw. He said, "Hell, no!" I had thepictures taken and I showed them tomy wife, who said, "This proves whatI said, and I insist that you abandonthe whole project now." She finallyselected a picture, however. She tookit in her hand and said, "I wouldsay that this is the least forbiddingof the lot!"Let me say that the first time I sawShaw was when I rolled into therailroad station of St. Pancras, London, looked out the window of thetrain and recognized him from hispictures, surrounded by men withsquare-toed shoes arid bowler hats.Mark Twain got off the train immediately in front of me and I stoodthere and introduced the greatest living humourist to the greatest livingwit, although the world didn't knowthis about Shaw then.I went down with Shaw to his homein the country, and after we talkedhe said, "How would you like to goto the graveyard?" We went out andthe moonlight was bright and I couldeasily read the tombstones. [Oneread:] "Mary Ann Smith, Born 1801,Died 1871," and at the bottom of the tombstone was inscribed, "Her timewas short." Shaw said to me, "Assoon as I saw that tombstone I thoughtthat if the time of one who lived tobe seventy is short, this is the veryplace for me to settle!"One of the greatest aversions thatShaw had was a complete and entirehatred of smoking cigarettes or anykind of tobacco at all, and he sufferedmost from the people who smoked inthe theatre. It was a very expensiveperformance because it made his wifeill when he came home and he had tosend his suit out to the cleaners, andtherefore he suffered greatly.Lee Simonson, the famous scenerydesigner from New York, visitedShaw to discuss The Devil's Disciple.Shaw [later wrote to him and] said,"The Devil's Disciple is of no, greatimportance. What really matters isthat you must give up smoking. Mywife and I were perfectly horrified.We have been able to think of nothingelse ever since you smoked 180 cigarettes in two hours and you wouldhave smoked 181 if I had not stoppedyou. Where do you expect to go whenyou die? What you need is not TheDevil's Disciple but repentance andtotal abstinence from tobacco."Shaw's greatest love in life was notwomen, was not the theater, not fiction, was not essays, not socialism —none of those things — but music.Whenever he heard a false note hesuffered genuine nervous agonies.On my sixtieth birthday I gavea barbecue party at the Universityof North Carolina, and about 650people came! I had invited Mr. andMrs. Shaw to attend this barbecueparty, and here is Shaw's reply: "Ialmost fainted when I read yourbarbecue menu. Is this how the University of North Carolina teachesyoung Americans? I hope you arewell, but I do not see how you canpossibly be!"In a speech in 1913, Shaw utteredthese words which are his Credo:"I believe that my life belongs to thewhole community and so long as Ilive, I want to do for it whatsoeverI can. I want to be thoroughly usedup when I die because the harder Iwork, the more I live. Life to me isno 'brief candle' — I like to think of itas a splendid torch which I have gothold of for the moment. I want tomake this torch burn as brightly aspossible before passing it on to futuregenerations."19m' (I'llIjjJH 8R jm^i ^a.-*^-vH^ A i. _^ _?* i LN .____. _____,_» '.. «. _"»K__'w *f"~ ^ji _!^_L_\_«P^ai il .;HrAFor better or worse, a university and its graduates areinseparably linked to one another, Dr. Paul C. Hodges,Professor and Chairman of the Department of Radiology told graduates at the 273rd Convocation on March 15.Some 150 bachelor's and advanced degrees wereawarded by Chancellor Lawrence A. Kimpton at thisthird convocation of the academic year."If in the years ahead the University gains in wisdomand strength and influence, the degrees you are aboutto receive will grow in human value; but, if instead, wisdom and strength and influence decrease, the value ofyour degrees will decline," Hodges told the graduates."If you live your lives to the utmost of your ability youwill add luster to the reputation of the University thatsends you forth today; but if you fail to do so, some ofthe tarnish on your own records will stain her record.""You have come from the most diverse racial, socialand economic backgrounds and in accepting you theUniversity has discriminated only by selecting for intelligence, industry and character. You yourselves knowbest how good or how bad her selection has been. Inthe years to come you will serve your university bestand in doing so will serve yourselves best if you sendher new students whose qualifications are superior toour own," he said. "If the quality of the University'sapplicants declines or even remains static you lose; butif it rises, if succeeding graduates are abler than youyourselves, you profit by that fact.""Race, creed or political persuasion must not be allowedto stand in the way of prospective students, but all ofus must guard constantly against the temptation to allowone or more of these factors to compensate for deficiencies in intelligence, industry or character.""All of you will be able to help modestly in raisingthe funds which the University constantly needs andsome will be able to help lavishly as the years pass andyour affairs prosper. All of you can help in ways thatwill not tax your purses— by producing and rearing finechildren, by interpreting the University to your community, by serving as examples to the youth of this city,this nation and the world, and carrying the word farand wide that those who have character, a good gradeof natural intelligence and the industry to apply it willfind welcome and a congenial atmosphere here at yourAlma Mater," Hodges concluded.Socialist symposium meets skepticismUniversity students greeted featured speakers at adebate between two socialists and a communist withscoffing skepticism recently.Fred M. Fine, a Communist Party national committeeman; Mulford Sibley, national committeeman of theSocialist Party and a member of the University of Minnesota faculty; and Max Schactman, national chairman ofthe Independent Socialist League, were the speakers.They appeared in Mandel Hall on March 27.Following liberal uses of such phrases as "ruling class,""masses," and "bourgeois democracy," a question andanswer period was held.Archie Lieberman- Black StarHutchinson Commons at noon. The shields which borderthe dark wood panels were revealed after a cleaning.MAY, 1957 NEWS OF THEQUADRANGLESAN INFORMAL REPORTAsked one student: "Are you guysserious?" The speakers avowed theywere.Earlier, Chancellor Kimpton hadrejected an American Legion demandthat a communist be barred fromappearing on campus.The protest came from EdwardClamage, chairman of the anti- subversive committee of the AmericanLegion, Department of Illinois.Kimpton expressed confidence inthe * 'intelligence and competence ofthe student body" to "judge on theirreal worth the assertions the Communist representative makes."Many students asked about Russia'ssuppression of the Hungarian revolt,and after Sibley termed the Americanpeople "politically apathetic," a student wanted to know how an "apathetic" people could run the country.Sibley conceded that they couldn't,and blamed American labor for that.He said it was holding hands withcapitalism.Schactman blamed Communism formaking Socialism unattractive. "We'llget nowhere with the workers," hesaid, "unless we wash the Socialistmovement of the bloodstains of totalitarianism."Fine blamed all the bloodshed onFascists and Stalinists and concededthat Soviet Russia might have madesome errors in the past two decades.The meeting was sponsored by twostudent organizations, the SocialistClub and the Young Socialist League.The meeting, attended by about 400,was spiced by a stink bomb that wasreleased in Mandel corridor.Commented Lawrence Scott of theAmerican Friends Service Committee, moderator of the panel: "Somejuvenile patriot had this way of dispersing freedom."Medal to AstrophysicistSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar,Morton D. Hull Professor of Astrophysics at Yerkes Observatory, hasbeen awarded the Rumford Premiumof the American Academy of Arts andSciences at the Academy's meetingin Boston.The Premium, consisting of a goldand a silver medal, was presented forhis theories on radiative transfer ofenergy in the interior of stars.This is the third consecutive Rum-ford Premium to be awarded to aUniversity scientist. Presented every other year, the Premium was established by Count Rumford in 1796 tohonor outstanding discoveries in heator light.Previous University winners wereNobel Prize laureates James Franck(1955, photosynthesis), Enrico Fermi(1953, radiation theory and nuclearenergy), Arthur H. Compton (1927,proof that light is a form of matter)and A. A. Michelson (1888, measurement of the speed of light).Managing editor of the Astrophysi-cal Journal, Chandrasekhar has beenon the staff of Yerkes Observatoryin Williams Bay, Wis., and the EnricoFermi Institute for Nuclear Studiesin Chicago since 1952. He has beenwith the University since 1937.Chandrasekhar has been describedby his colleagues as the world's outstanding "pencil and paper astronomer" because of his attempts to explain the structure and dynamics ofstars by modern atomic theories, applying laws of the atom to the giantgalaxies of infinite space.His recent theories describe thehuge niagnetic fields of galaxies as asource 'of cosmic rays, and the massive interflow of stellar gases. He isauthor of three books on the theory ofstars.In 1953 Chandrasekhar received thegold medal of the Royal AstronomicalSociety, considered the Nobel prize ofthe field, for new mathematical toolswith which to study the universe.Other honors include a D.Sc. conferred upon him in 1942 by CambridgeUniversity (England), which laterawarded him the Adams prize in 1947.In 1952 he received the Bruce medalof the Astronomical Society of thePacific.Born in Lahore, India, in 1910, hereceived his A.B. in 1930 from Madras(India) University, and his Ph.D. in1933 from Cambridge University. Hewas appointed Research Associate atthe University in 1937 after completing a four-year fellowship at Cambridge's Trinity College.Festival of the ArtsA burst of bells, a blast of brass,and a peal of song will herald andsustain the University's third annualpaean to the muses, the Festival ofthe Arts.Formally opening on Thursday,April 25, with a special carillon concert by James R. Lawson, RockefellerChapel carilloneur, the festivities will continue until Sunday, April 28, whenFestival of Nations is staged by International House.Among the more important eventsplanned for the Festival are the William Vaughn Moody Lecture, thisyear featuring Leonie Adams, famousAmerican poet; a series of concertsand art exhibitions by students, faculty members, and prominent outsideartists; and the Beaux Arts Masquerade Ball.A change from preceding years,the Festival is now sponsored andrun entirely by students. Co-chairmen are Mary Jean Slabodnik andBarbara Quinn.Classic and modern, cubist and dripschool, opening day on Thursday willwitness the annual Student Art Exhibition.For the more mechanically orientedart-lover, Midway Studio will openits doors with a demonstration ofartists at work. This display willfeature weaving, printmaking, painting, and sculpture.Friday will be a noisy day. Butsounds pervading the air will be asvaried as those sounding off.Hutchinson Court will vibrate withblatant brass and sparkling counterpoint when the University's BrassChoir and Madrigal Singers get together for a jam session and jointconcert.A little less culturally ambitious,but nonetheless noisier than horns andmadrigals, will be Student Forum'sChicago Style Debate in Reynold'sClub. Informal to a fault, this typeof argument depends more on insultthan integrity and welcomes audienceparticipation.Bane to some, balm to others, "LeJazz Hot" will replace the Brass Choirand Madrigal Singers in HutchinsonCourt during the late afternoon.Friday's high point will be LeonieAdams' evening lecture on "Harmonics and the Image" at Mandel Hall.Supplementing the lecture, MissAdams will read selections of her ownpoetry.Saturday's events excite the pock-etbook, flex the muscles, and titillatethe imagination.A fancy name for fancy machinery,the "Concours d'Elegance" in theCircle will feature a display of expensive sportscars.Only a short joy ride from the Circleto the athletic field behind Burton22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEStephen LewellynMorton Grodzins, Professor and Chairman, Department of Political Science, has been named Ford Foundation Professor.Judson Courts, the athletic -mindedwill find a group of ivied savantsbattling their disciples in the annualfaculty-student baseball game.Culminating Saturday's activitieswill be Beaux Arts Ball. Held in IdaNoyes Hall this year, the Ball willcover the entire first floor of thebuilding and prizes will be awardedfor the most beautiful, handsome, andhumorous costumes.Sunday, and closing day, the guestswill repair to Rockefeller MemorialChapel for the University religiousservice. The sermon will be given bythe Reverend Paul Macy.Following the service, InternationalHouse will play host to visitors atan International Exhibition endingwith the Festival of Nations, a recitalof songs and dances from around theworld.A series of exhibitions on campuswill remain open during the four-dayspan of the Festival. Among these:a special display of motion-picturestills from the University's Collectionof American Drama, Harper Library;"The Crucifixion," a mural paintingby Rico Lebrun, Rockefeller Chapel;an exhibition by members of the artfaculties of the University, Goodspeed Hall; an exhibition by Maurice andLouise Dunn Yochim, Hillel Foundation, 5715 Woodlawn Ave., and anexhibition by Jean Chariot, Sr. Maryof the Compassion O.P., and others,De Sales House, 5735 University Ave.First Ford ProfessorMorton Grodzins has been namedto the University of Chicago's firstFord Foundation Research Professorship in Governmental Affairs.The professorship was establishedby a grant of $200,000 from the FordFoundation, one of six grants toAmerican universities made by theFoundation last year. Normally anannual rotating appointment, the professorship enables recognized authorities to devote full time to independent research. The grants were madeto broaden fundamental understanding of governmental processes in theUnited States, and to stimulate original research.Grodzins, Professor and Chairmanof the Department of Political Science, will study the changing natureof federalism in the government ofthe United States. He plans to deter mine the extent to which local, state,and federal governments operate asa unit, and the role of political parties in maintaining the balance ofpower in American political affairs.He will be assisted by a group of research assistants, training of whomis another objective of the Foundationgrant.Grodzins published a book early inhis academic career on State-LocalRelations, and was the principal author of the task force of the firstHoover Commission on Federal-StateRelations. He also is the author ofAmericans Betrayed, a study of WorldWar II evacuation of Japanese fromCalifornia, and of The Loyal and theDisloyal, an investigation into thenature of patriotism and treason. (Achapter from the latter appeared inthe magazine in June, 1956.)He has been at the University ofChicago since 1945, and has served asEditor of the University of ChicagoPress, Dean of the Division of theSocial Sciences, and special advisorto the chancellor. He took the Bachelor's degree at the University ofLouisville in 1940, the Master's in1941, and the Ph.D. from the University of California (Berkeley), 1945.MAY, 1957 23Kimpton Invadesthe NorthTogether with Dean of Students, Chancellor visitsNew York- State cities; Clubs have biggest yearFor the first time since becomingChancellor, Lawrence A. Kimpton, with Dean Robert M. Strozier,visited the alumni in Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse, New York. Ineach city the Kimpton-Strozier teamalso lunched with the high schoolprincipals and their college advisersto tell them the story of The Collegeand to answer questions about thecurriculum. This took place in thefirst week in March.The more effective servicing ofalumni clubs through the newly established regional offices (New York,San Francisco, and Chicago), hasmade this one of the most successfulclub years in the history of the Alumni Association.There have been over fifty majorclub meetings across the nation. Before June Reunion, over 15,000 alumnioutside of Chicago will have had oneor more opportunities to meet together at Chicago affairs in theirhome towns.This is in addition to the scores ofstudent enrolment parties sponsoredby alumni from Seattle to Atlantato which prospective students andtheir parents were invited.The two most active clubs this yearhave been Washington, D. C, whichwill have held eight Chicago meet ings, and Cleveland with six — whichwill end with a picnic in May.Some of the major meetings:Oct. 25 Washington, D. C. withMaynard C. Krueger(Economics) as dinnerguest and speaker.Oct. 26 Flossmoor, III. Reception tomeet Walter L. Hass, newDirector of Athletics.Oct. 29 Cleveland, O. with a prominent Democrat and a Republican senator speakingon voting responsibilitiesat a dinner.Nov. 12 Cleveland, O. A programon neighborhood redevelopment: "Remaking OurCommunity."Nov. 13 Rockford, III. with Dr. JamesW. J. Carpender (Radiology) as dinner guest andspeaker.Nov. 13 Lake County, III. Dr. BrunoBettelheim, Principal ofthe Orthogenic Schooldiscussing vandalism.Nov. 14 Pasadena, Cal. with VicePresident George H. Watkins (Development) asguest and speaker. Nov. 16 San Mateo, Cal. with guestsVice President Watkinsand W. Allen Wallis,Dean, School of Business.Nov. 27 Cincinnati, O. with John A.Wilson (Egyptology) at acoffee and dessert party.Nov. 28 New York City's famousafternoon and eveningConvention at the Shera-ton-Astor Hotel. Facultypanelists were Soia Mentschikoff (Law), HansMorgenthau (PoliticalScience), James Lorie(Business), Dr. GeorgeV. LeRoy (Medicine)Napier Wilt (Humanities). Dinner speakerswere the Chancellor andV. P. Watkins.Atlanta, Ga. with Mrs. Agnes Bonner (AdmissionsCounselor) as guest.Louisville, Ky. with SamuelJ. Beck (Psychology)and John P. Netherton(Assoc. Dean of Students) as dinner guests.Nov. 29 Washington, D. C. annualEmbassy visit (Indonesia).24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENov. 30 Kansas City, Mo. with Richard R. Wohl (Social Science) as dinner speaker.Dec. 3 Stamford, Conn, in the homeof Mr. and Mrs. JohnHowell with John P.Netherton as guest andspeaker.Dec. 4 Providence, R. I. Annual"Fall Roundup" with JohnP. Netherton and HaroldR. Metcalf (Dean of Students, School of Business) as guests.Dec. 27 St Louis, Mo. with DonaldF. Lach and Charles L.Mowat (both in History)as dinner speakers.Jan. 10 Washington, D. C. Eveningsocial hour with John W.Townsend, Jr., from theNaval Research Laboratories as guest and speaker.Jan. 16 Cleveland, O. Dinner atWestern Reserve University with a discussion onNuclear Energy.Jan. 20 Tampa - St. Petersburg-Clearwater. A meeting inFlorida with Dean ofStudents Robert M. Strozier.Feb. 1 San Francisco, Cal. A reception for Donald Mei-klejohn (Philosophy).Feb. 14 Cleveland, O. A visit to themodern laboratories ofNational Carbon Co.Feb. 18 Philadelphia, Pa. with Harold Haydon (Art) as dinner guest and speaker.Washington, D. C. Congressional Reception withSenator Paul Douglas asspeaker.Feb. 20 Louisville, Ky. Receptionfor Vice President GeorgeH. Watkins.Feb. 20 Lake County, III., suburbanalumni discussion; thetopic — problems of"Creeping Urbanization"with Philip Hauser(Chairman, Sociology).Feb. 21 Cincinnati, O. Reception atthe home of Alfred McCartney with Vice President George H. Watkinsas honored guest.Feb. 27 Phoenix, Ariz. An eveningreception for Vice President George H. Watkins. Mar. 1 Los Angeles, Cal. A socialevening at the Biltmore(with over 250 present).Former faculty memberMurray Gell-Mann,speaker.Mar. 5 Seattle, Wash, with HermanFiner (Political Science)as dinner guest and speaker.Mar. 6 Buffalo, N. Y. with Chancellor Kimpton and DeanStrozier as honoredguests.Mar. 7 Rochester, N. Y. with Chancellor Kimpton and DeanStrozier as honoredguests.Mar. 8 Syracuse, N. Y. Receptionat the home of Dr. andMrs. A. N. Charters honoring Chancellor Kimpton and Dean Strozier.Mar. 11 Seattle, Wash. Alumni invited to a series of lectures at the University ofWashington by MiltonFriedman (Economics).Mar. 13 Washington, D. C. Eveningreception honoring HarryKalven, Jr. (Law).Mar. 16 Portland, Ore. Evening reception honoring MiltonFriedman.Mar. 19 Manhattan, Kans. with Everett C. Hughes (Sociology) as dinner guest andspeaker.Mar. 20 Tacoma, Wash. Evening reception honoring MiltonFriedman.Mar. 23 Cleveland, O. Alumnae social luncheon.Mar. 25 Palo Alto, Cal. with BertF. Hoselitz (Social Sciences) as guest andspeaker.Mar. 28 Tucson, Ariz. Reception inthe home of Richard L.Bloch honoring Cyril O.Houle (Education).Mar. 29 Davenport, la. Reception inthe home of Mr. and Mrs.James Richard honoringMiss Lee Wilcox, Associate Director, Radio andTelevision Office, U. of C.Apr. 5 Washington, D. C. Socialevening at Pan AmericanUnion with discussion oneducation in Latin America.Apr. 7 Tampa-St. Petersburg- Clearwater reception forJames Parsons (Chemistry).Apr. 15 Indianapolis, Ind. Luncheonwith James L. Cate (History) as guest speaker.Apr. 26 Minneapolis- St Paul. Reception for Walter Hass(Director of Athletics) atthe Town & CountryClub.Apr. 29 Boston, Mass. Luncheonhonoring Mrs. EnricoFermi.Providence, R. I. with Mrs.Enrico Fermi as honoredguest and speaker.Apr. 30 New York City. Five-thirtyreception with Mrs. Enrico Fermi and MeyerLevin, '24, as guest speakers.May 1 Omaha, Neb. Dinner atOmaha Club with WalterJohnson (Chairman, History) as guest and speaker.May 1 Lake County final meetingof the year featuring NedRosenheim (Humanitiesand Director, Radio Office) on "Is College Becoming Our Birthright?"Baltimore, Md. Luncheonhonoring Mrs. EnricoFermi.May 2 Des Moines, la. with KermitEby (Social Sciences) asdinner speaker.Washington, D. C. Five-thirty reception honoringMrs. Enrico Fermi.May 3 Denver, Colo, with KermitEby as dinner speaker.Pittsburgh, Pa. with Mrs.Enrico Fermi as dinnerspeaker.May 12 Milwaukee, Wis. Afternoonreception honoring WalterJohnson (History) followed by his appearanceon television.May 22 Washington, D. C. Annualdinner with Meyer Kes-tenbaum as speaker.May 26 Cleveland, O. Annual Picnic at the home of Jamesand Ruth Nobel. Jim ispresident of the Club.As we go to press, other programsare in the process of being scheduled.They will be announced in the nextissue.MAY, 1957 25Bells To Ring as AlumniFoundation Drive BeginsLocal committees line up volunteerworkers; goal for 1957 is 13,000gifts and a half-million dollarsTy ells are ringing for alumni all•*-* over the country this month.Doorbells and telephone bells are thesignal that Alumni Foundation workers are calling to remind fellow-alumni how welcome their contributions are to the spring fund drive.About 3,000 gifts and $350,000 werein hand by press time. How well thecampaign will do from here will depend largely on the effectiveness oflocal committee activity during May.The national goal is 13,000 gifts and$500,000.The Chicago area drive, mannedby a city committee of 300 underHoward L. Willett, Jr., and membersof 45 suburban committees, will beopened by Chancellor Kimpton at aPalmer House reception on April 25.The drive in New York City isheaded by George S. Leisure, 14, asenior partner in the law firm ofDonovan, Leisure, Newton and Irvine.William P. MacCracken, Jr.Washington, D.C. Additional East Coast chairmenwho have been appointed recentlyare: Leonard Aries, '30, Falls Church,Virginia; Eleanor R. Bartholomew, '33,Wilmington, Delaware; Mary E. Boozer, '29, Richmond, Virginia; Aaron J.Brumbaugh, '18, Atlanta Georgia;Newell A. Clapp, '34, Arlington, Virginia; Mrs. Margaret Clark, '37, Ft.Lauderdale, Florida; Henry H. Dennison, '20, Boston, Massachusetts; Dr.Geouge Dykhuizen, '25, Burlington,Vermont; Harry Finestone, '42,Greensboro, North Carolina; Dr.Harry T. French, '21, Hanover, NewHampshire; Almeda J. Garland, '34,Lynchburg, Virginia; Dr. Lyndon M.Hill, '42, Long Island, New York; TomKarsten, '37, Baltimore, Maryland;Dr. J. Paul Leagans, '49, Ithaca, NewYork; Dr. Maurice W. Lee, '39, ChapelHill, North Carolina; William P. MacCracken, Jr., '09, District of Columbia; Lawrence J. MacGregor, '16,George S. LeisureNew York City Northern New Jersey; John S. Masek,'23, Winter Park-Orlando, Florida;'Richard P. Matthews, '42, Princeton'New Jersey; Dr. Sidney N. Miller, '38,Poughkeepsie, New York; John Mills,Jr., '32, Rochester, New York; AlfredH. Norling, '42, Alexandria, Virginia;Fred Sass, '30, Chevy Chase, Maryland; Barbara J. Whitmore, '47, Hartford, Connecticut; Mrs. C. TaylorWhittier, '34, St. Petersburg, Florida;Dr. Constantine A. Yeracaris, '50,Buffalo, New York.West CoastAmong chairmen on the West Coastare: Dr. Wesley C. Ballaine, '40, andDr. Kenneth S. Ghent, '33, Eugene,Oregon; Richard L. Bloch, '49, Tucson,Arizona; Dr. Wesley P. Clark, '28,Missoula, Montana; Dr. James H.Coon, '42, Los Alamos, New Mexico;Dr. George M. Fister, '16, Ogden,Utah; Dr. Minna M. Hansen, '42,Santa Barbara, California; GeorgeHayduke, '53, Phoenix, Arizona; Dr.Charles G. Higgins, '46, Davis, California; Howard G. Hawkins, Jr., '39,San Francisco, California; FrederickA. Morgan, Jr., '50, Salem, Oregon;Mrs. Richard Rosenfels, '27, Richland,Washington; Dr. Richard E. Worth-ington, '51, San Diego (co-cvairman).Central StatesNewly-announced chairmen in thecentral states include: William H.Abbott, '26, St. Paul, Minnesota; JohnC. Angle, '44, Lincoln, Nebraska;Marvin K. Bailin, '47, Sioux Falls,South Dakota; Dr. Norbert C. Bar-wasser, '34, Moline, Illinois; Dr.Charles E. Black, '36, Lansing, Michigan; Rosamund L. Burgi, '27, Yankton,South Dakota; Mrs. Ingemann Clausen, '33, Rock Island, Illinois; Dr.Jacob Cohen, '49, Bowling Green,Ohio; Ira G Corn, Jr., '47, Dallas,Texas; Seward A. Covert, '26, Cleveland Ohio; George De Dakis, '30,La Crosse, Wisconsin; John F. Dille,Jr '35, Elkhart, Indiana.Carl A. Dragstedt, Jr., '49, SiouxCity, Iowa; Mary Droke, '17, Fayette-ville, Arkansas; Cecil R. Fetters, '40,Toledo, Ohio; Dr. John C. Frazier,'39, Manhattan, Kansas; Richard Garrison, '27, Anderson, Indiana; Dr. andMrs. Ralph W. Gerard, '19 and '20,Ann Arbor, Michigan; Frank Harlow,'43, Midland, Michigan.Helen Haughton, '43, Oxford, Ohio;Mrs. Edna Hirsohn, '45, Akron, Ohio;26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGeorge C. Hoffmann, '25, Springfield,Illinois; Donald Holway, '37, Tulsa,Oklahoma; Elizabeth Hood, '18, Racine, Wisconsin.Mrs. William C. Hoppes, '30, Marquette, Michigan; Stanton E. Hyer, '25,Rockford, Illinois; Miles Jaffe, '46,Detroit, Michigan; Lloyd P. Johnson,'23, Minneapolis, Minnesota; NeilJohnston, '42, Wausau, Wisconsin; Dr.Harry W. Kingham, '39, Burlington,Iowa; Florine M. Krantz, '33, Dubuque, Iowa; Arthur J. Lauff, '27,Jacksonville, Illinois; John R. Lynch,'36, Lafayette, Indiana; Helen C. Marquis, '25, Sterling, Illinois; Mary Martin, '30, Ypsilanti, Michigan; DuncanE. McBride, '37, Mt. Carroll, Illinois.Alfred McCartney, '21, Cincinnati,Ohio; Philip D. McManus, '43, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Laura A. Miller,'23, Norman, Oklahoma; StanfordMiller, '38, Kansas City, Missouri;Dr. K. Dexter Nelson, '43, Princeton,Illinois; Madlyn H. Newell, '32, Oshkosh, Wisconsin; Mrs. Roy L. Pierce,'41, Valparaiso, Indiana; Dr. and Mrs.D. E. Ralston, '38 and '38, Rochester,Minnesota.Phillip D. Raymond, '44, FortWorth, Texas; Dr. Henry J. Rehn, '30,Carbondale, 111.; Mrs. James Richard,'43, Davenport, Iowa; Dr. John Rowe,'38, Flint, Michigan; Jerome WesleySandweiss, '46, St. Louis, Missouri;Dr. F. James Schrag, '45, Springfield,Ohio; Hugh C. Sebastian, '31, Albion,Michigan; Seth W. Slaughter, '18,Columbia, Missouri; Irving M.Strauch, '34, Memphis, Tennessee;William A. Thomas, '36, St. Joseph,Michigan.Dr. Kirby Walker, '34, Jackson,Mississippi: Lisle T. Ware, '28, Boulder, Colorado; Standau Weinbrecht,'55, Terre Haute, Indiana; Carl D.Werner, '21, Dayton, Ohio; Joseph E.West, '32, Galesburg, Illinois; Dr.Jonathan J. Westfall, '38, Athens,Georgia; Frederick G. White, '51,Waterloo, Iowa; Leland H. White, '37,Topeka, Kansas; Mrs. G. EdwardWillis, '38, Fort Wayne, Indiana.Chicago AreaWith 22,a000 alumni living in theChicago-area, the suburbs are particularly important in contributing tothe success of any gifts campaign.Among the recently appointed chairmen are:A. F. Allen, '36, Batavia, Illinois;Kenneth S. Axelson, '44, Lake Forest,Illinois; Mrs. Maurice B. Beem, '13, Hinsdale (co-chairman); Cecil L.Bothwell, Jr., '38, River Forest, Illinois; James A. Boula, '49, May wood,Illinois; Bernard S. Chizewer, '35,Highland Park, Illinois; Eugene R.Cohn, '12, Gary, Indiana; Dr. Llewellyn E. Copeland, '41, Des Plaines;Mrs. George T. Drake, '46, Kenil-worth, 111.; Graham Fairbank, '38,and Alan D. Whitney, '13, Winnetka,Illinois; James E. Fasules, '49, GlenEllyn, Illinois; Mrs. Stephen I. Finney, '47, and Mrs. Richard L. Mandel,'45, Northfield, Illinois.Samuel Fox, '24, Park Ridge, Illinois; Mrs. Ethel T. Freel, '52, Hammond, Indiana; Mrs. Zalmon S. Goldsmith, '38, Aurora, Illinois; Mrs. BenH. Gray, '32, Glenview, Illinois; William S. Gray, III, '48, Elmhurst, Illinois; Mrs. Helen S. Harshbarger, '37,Plainfield, Illinois; Mrs. Robert ClarkeHetherington, '28, Geneva, Illinois;A. J. Jablonsky, '54, Evergreen Park,Illinois; John M. Jackson, '29, Bar-rington, Illinois; Rhys M. Jones, '40,Liberty ville, Illinois; Helen C. Kava-nagh, '23, Lombard, Illinois.Everett F. Kerr, '36, Blue Island,Illinois; Mrs. Earl G. Kunz, '37, PalosPark and Palos Heights, Illinois; Mrs.George Maher, '51, Skokie, Illinois;Herman R. Mathesius, '44, Elgin, Illinois; Dr. and Mrs. Richard W. Mat-toon, '38 and '45, Waukegan, Illinois;Agnes M. Montgomerie, '23, Wheaton,Illinois; Dr. Bernard Mortimer, '22,and Pompey J. Toigo, '33, Joliet, Illinois; Glenn L. Pierre, '41, ArlingtonHeights, Illinois; Mrs. J. K. Roberts,'29, Flossmoor, Illinois.Mrs. Martin A. Salmon, '44, Clarendon Hills, Illinois; Mrs. David M.Saxe, '39, Downers Grove, Illinois;Richard K. Seyfarth, '54, Deerfield,Illinois; Richard J. Smith '37, Chesterton, Indiana; Melvin H. Specter,'28, East Chicago, Indiana; FrederickH. Stitt, '49, Park Forest, Illinois;Robert J. Straker, '39, Berwyn, Illinois; Mrs. Robert L. Woolridge, '45,Lake Bluff, Illinois.RAZE ROBIE HOUSE?(Continued from Page 17)C.T.S. has offered the building tovarious educational institutions withthe provision that it be moved fromits present site. So far, the offer hasnot been accepted.Wright built the house on a slabof concrete and, like most of his buildings, it is extremely sturdy andwell-grounded. It would be difficultto move it to another site.The house was built in 1906 forFrederick Robie, a motorcycle manufacturer, at a cost of $35 thousand.It is estimated that replacement todaywould run about $100,000.When told of the building's presentvalue, Wright commented, "Not badafter fifty -one years."The house contains many ofWright's trade -marks that have beenincorporated into almost every homethat has gone up in America in thelast twenty years.Picture windows, split levels, indirect lighting, living-dining area combinations, all were initiated by Wrightin the Robie House. The Robie Housewas one of Wright's first low-slung"prairie" houses. He said he createdthem so America could have an architecture of its own, without importingfrom 'Europe.But the horizontal lines of hishouses were adopted in Europe somethirty years before America finallybegan to copy them.Some European architects hailWright's designs for being as typicalof the 20th century as Gothic was ofthe 14th.Wright did not break with tradition merely for decorative effect, norjust for the sake of being different.He«felt that European- styled houseswere not particularly suited for theAmerican climate, and that an accenton horizontal lines was more in tunewith the sweep of the prairies thanbox-like houses.He included an abundance of stripwindows and corner windows for hishouses, so people could feast theireyes on outdoor scenery. Over thesewindows he placed hanging eaves,designed to shade the rooms duringcertain times of the day and yet letin enough light.The eaves helped to eliminate theneed for blinds, and the windowswere arranged to move in and out insuch a way so that even if they wereopen, rain would not blow in.A believer that people in citiesshould be nourished by nature,Wright took away superfluous decoration from homes, but beautifiedthem with natural wood, stone andplanters.He felt box-like rooms were tooconfining, so he planned free -flowingMAY, 1957 27rooms with only a suggestion of wallsin between.Although little repair work hasbeen done in the seven-bedroomhouse during the last thirty years,the floors and walls appear to be remarkably firm.During the thirty years that RobieHouse has been owned by C.T.S., ithas never been used as a residence.It has been used at different times asa classroom building, dining-hall,dormitory and conference center. Itis called Conference House by C.T.S.Disposition of the famous house,which has attracted thousands of persons from all over the world, remainsin doubt at this writing.Unless some drastic plan is broughtforth to save it, C.T.S. officials willgo ahead with their announced plansto demolish it.Snapped Wright, on his visit toRobie House," I've done my damndest.Angels can do no more."S.B.A.CONCERN FOR THE GIFTED(Continued from Page 10)develop quite unevenly, coming insome areas to achievements far beyond those of most of their age group,or perhaps in other areas falling behind them.I recognize that one of the difficulties with proposals for such programsis the students' presumed lack of interest in exceptional achievement.One of the fears of the people whodevised the program for gifted children in the Portland (Oregon) publicschools, which the Fund, for the Advancement of Education has supported, was that students would fearto be labeled as "brains" if they attempted to go beyond the ordinarylevel of achievement of their fellows.These fears proved wholly ungrounded. Although it is unsound togeneralize from the experience of asingle school system, one is temptedto conclude that the present climateof opinion among youngsters is notunfavorable, as I suspect it mighthave been two or three decades ago,to exceptional achievement.In any case, the problem of studentmotivation is ultimately a problem ofcommunity and the home. With respect to the attitude about adequateeducational provision for the gifted,it would seem that schools are in a vicious circle. They cannot go far beyond community opinion on the subject. On the other hand, communityopinion is, in large part at least, ultimately affected by the education thatmembers of the community havethemselves received in the schools.The readiness of school systems tospend, as they do, much more uponthe education of the handicapped thanhas been spent on the education ofsuperior talents is, I suppose, a reflection of the general humanitarian acceptance of responsibility for thehandicapped and some general,though vague, feeling that special attention to the gifted is undemocratic.I am convinced, however, that thesame reasons which have moved educators to a new, or at least a sharplyincreased, concern about adequateeducation of the gifted are also affecting the views of parents and of thecommunity as a whole. We stand agood chance of making in the nearfuture great advancements in education by providing adequately forgifted students.Oui\ great problem is to make surethat the provisions are sound in principle or, to put it negatively (whichis perhaps all I have succeeded indoing), that we do not fall into themistake of viewing young human beings as merely means to social or national strength or of setting up arrangements which produce a newartificial stratification of our youth.If we can avoid these pitfalls, weshall do more than merely strengthenour society in general by making themost of its human resources; we shallcorrect grievous weaknesses and inadequacies in our present educationalsystem. Above all, We shall take somelong strides forward in providing thekind of education appropriate for, andindeed required by, a democraticsociety, an education in which thebest possible conditions are providedfor the fullest flowering of the wide and promising range of individualhuman capacities and the unrealizedand undreamed of creative possibili-ties of individual human beings.EMOTION AND MEANINGIN MUSIC(Continued from Page 7)through blame, so too the composition of the audience and its attitudetoward the performers and the compositions to be heard can play an important part in coloring belief. Ahalf- empty concert hall with an un-enthusiastic audience or even a fullhall with an inattentive audience willtend to minimize belief and probablythe responses of a good many members of the audience, while a fullhouse with a devoted audience willtend to enhance belief.Obviously fashions, 'right opinions," as set by the social group whichconstitutes a particular segment ofthe total audience, also influence belief in important ways. And it wouldseem that such socially determinedbeliefs and tastes are becoming increasingly effective in conditioningthe responses of what David Riesmanhas called the "other directed" manof our society. . .Connotation, Mood andAesthetic TheoryReacting against the strong emphasis placed upon mood designation and connotation in nineteenth-century music, many critics, theorists,and psychologists have in recentyears questioned the relevance andpertinence of the connotative andmood responses made to music.The attack upon such referentialmusical experience has focused (1)upon the causal connection betweenthe musical stimulus and the referential response, (2) upon the apparentdisparity between the responses ofdifferent listeners, and (3) upon thelack of specificity in the responsesmade. The difficulty, writes Hanslick,is that "there is no causal nexusbetween a musical composition andthe feelings it may excite, as the lattervary with our experience and impressibility."These objections are, however,without merit. In the first place, allsignificant responses to music, theaffective and aesthetic as well as thedesignative and connotative, varywith our experience and impressibil-28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEity. The response to style is a learnedresponse, and both the appreciationof style and the ability to learn require intelligence and musical sensitivity. In the second place, thoughthe causal nexus between music andreferential experience is a necessarynot a sufficient one, there is a causalnexus, as is evidenced not only bythe practice of composers within agiven style but also by the responsesof listeners who have learned tounderstand the style.While Hanslick's attack is directedlargely against the belief that musiccommunicates feelings, C. C. Pratt denies the possibility of connotation.The shaping of these [tonal]mosaics may receive impetus fromall sorts of objects and ideas andthe composer, in his innocence,may believe that he has embodiedhis non-musical idea in sound.And a goodly number of stillmore innocent listeners may persuade themselves that they comprehend the composer's ideas. Itrequires, however, only the simplest sort of experiment to demonstrate the utter lack of correspondence between the ideawhich the composer may think hehas represented and the interpretations which an unselected groupof listeners, if asked to do so, willfurnish ....The first difficulty with this argument lies in the phrase "unselectedgroup of listeners." Of course, if theyare unselected, if they have notlearned the style, they will give verydifferent responses. And this will alsobe true of their responses to embodiedmeaning. But connotations will varyeven among those who do have thesame cultural background and whoare acquainted with the modes ofassociation established within thestyle. However, this variation, thoughsignificant, is often not as wide as itseems at first glance. Because themodes of experience are continuouswith one another and because experience itself can be expressed in awide variety of metaphors, a connotative complex which has the same potential meaning for all listeners may beactualized differently in the experience of each. In other words, whileit is true that on one level (that ofspecific meaning) the ideas enter tained by various listeners are patently different, on another level (thelevel of symbolic and metaphoricalmeaning) the concepts entertained bythe various listeners are very similar.The difficulty with an aesthetic ofmusic based upon connotative andmood responses is not that the associations between music and referential experience are fortuitous or thatthere is no causal connection betweenmusic and feelings. The difficulty isthat, in the absence of a specificreferential framework, there is nocausal nexus between successive connotations or moods. In literature orin life, successive experiences areapparently causally connected by thesequence of events which take placebetween them. A depressing experience is followed by a joyful one, andthe change is understood in the lightof the events connecting them. Butthough music can present the experiences themselves, if only metaphorically, it cannot stipulate the causalconnection between them. There is nological reason, either musical orextramusical, for any particular succession of connotations or moods.Confirmation for this argument canbe found in the practice of composersof instrumental music who, realizingthat the difficulty with referentialmusic lies in the lack of a causal connection between successive moods orconnotations, have sought to correctthis weakness by using descriptiveprograms. Although a program doesserve to specify connotation, its mainfunction is not to designate mood orarouse connotation. Music can as arule accomplish this more effectivelythan a program can. What the program does is to provide the causalconnection between the successivemoods or connotations presented inthe music.Seen in this light, the program isnot the mere whim of the composer,an unnecessary and superfluous addition to meanings already inherent inthe music, nor is it an attempt todepict moods and connotations. Itsfunction is to connect them. The greatdisadvantage of a program lies in thefact that it is a powerful temptationtoward extramusical diversion. quotesloudspeaker logicfor the newcomerto high fidelityPART Iadvantages of a system madewith components"High Fidelity" is aphrase invented bysound lovers whowere determined tofind a better way ofreproducing music intheir homes. Theyfound equipmentwhich would accomplish this in the smallestablishments ofsound specialists whowere making preci- gg^llli^"'The very best loud'speaker system —The Hartsfleldsion reproduction equipment primarily tor themotion picture and broadcasting industries.Today there are two kinds of high fidelity.The first kind is the music system assembledfrom specialist-built components. The secondis the ordinary, packaged, complete radio-phonograph to which the term "high fidelity"is indiscriminately attached as a merchandising slogan. Since the second kind appropriatesthe words from the first, we shall call the original, component type, "true high fidelity".The components in a true high fidelity system will consist of a loudspeaker system,power amplifier, preamplifier-control unit,and sound sources. The source componentsmay be of any of the following: FM and AMradio tuners, record changer or player, tapemachine, television chassis.The advantages to owning a music systemmade up of components are: 1. You get betterquality sound for less money. 2. You can balance the quality of components. 3. You cancontinue to improve upon your system. 4. Thesystem you select will exactly match your individual needs.JBL Signature loudspeakers are true highfidelity components made by James B. Lansing Sound, Inc., a manufacturing concernwhich devotes all of its energy and resourcesto making the very best loudspeakers possible.JBL Signature speakers are made with thecare and precision usually associated onlywith the manufacture of scientific instruments.Components of this quality are only availablefor use with true high fidelity systems. Theyare demonstrated and sold by dealers whospecialize in audio components. There is aJBL Signature speaker for every purpose.They range from the beautiful, small, ModelD208 eight-inch extended range unit to themighty Hartsfield, a complete speaker systembuilt around JBL Signature Theater Speakers.Write for your free catalog and the name ofthe audio specialist in your community.^^m every note a perfect quotefiBJJ "JBL" meansJAMES B. LANSING SOUND, INC.2439 FLETCHER DRIVE, LOS ANGELES 39, CALIF.MAY, 1957p°°6___^c_r>d y^.l—Ljrv^rNllGeorge Bernard Shaw: Man of theCentury. By Archibald Henderson,PhD '15, Appleton Century Crofts,New York, N.Y., 1956. Pp. 969. $12.00.This is the third, presumably thelast, biography of Shaw byArchibald Henderson. Hendersonbegan his biographical labors in 1904when he was 27 and Shaw 48. Hebrought them to a conclusion in 1956when Shaw had been dead for 6years and he himself was 79. This isa record for interest and fidelity whichmay be further gauged by the factthat Henderson refers in his footnotesto some fifty or so articles he haswritten on Shaw. Both the volume ofhis labors and the fact that Henderson was friend, correspondent, and"Official Biographer" of Shaw haveled some people to compare the present biography to Boswell's Life ofJohnson. This is a profoundly misleading comparison. And yet to saythat Shaw and Henderson will not godown through the ages linked together as Johnson and Boswell are isnot to say very much.This is a rare and unusual biography because Shaw was perfectly conscious that it was being written. It isthe summation of fifty years work,and for forty-five of those years Shawguided Henderson, supplied him withmaterials and answered questions. Infact Shaw took an almost terrifyinginterest in what Henderson was doing— the story is amusingly told in thepreface to this volume.The fact that Shaw in a sense collaborated in the production of thisbiography raises some interestingquestions. I don't know how I wouldwrite and talk to my "official biographer" but I do know that I wouldpity him if he took my word for thelast truth, especially in importantmatters. And how is he to know whatmatters are really important to me?I do not say that Henderson'sbiography is uncritical, it is far fromthat, at least in such matters asShaw's expressed admiration for Stalin, or his criticisms of Shakespeare.But it is not critical in another sensethat is important. It does not placeShaw in a firm historical perspective; we do not learn precisely what degreeof importance Shaw had in the development of the Labour movementin general or the Fabian Society inparticular. We do not get a realjudgment of Shaw's place in themodern theater, either at the presentmoment or when he first began towrite plays in the '90's. In otherwords, despite its dimensions, thisbook really undertakes too little. Idon't know what Henderson wouldsay to this criticism, but he has oblig-, ingly provided Shaw's opinion. Writing in 1905 when Henderson was firstthinking of producing a biography,Shaw told him:<:I want you to do something thatwill be useful to yourself and tothe world, and that is, to make mea mere peg on which to hang astudy of the last half of the XIXcentury, especially as to the Col-lectivist movement in politics,ethics and sociology; the reaction, against the materialism of Marxand Darwin . . . the Wagnerianmovement in music, the anti-romantic movement (includingwhat people call realism, naturalism, and impressionism) in literature and art ... I am treatingyou as a possible Gibbon; and Iurge you to treat yourself so, andplay the great game all through."These are obviously pretty largeaims, and Henderson cannot beblamed for not having produced awork worthy of Gibbon. Yet he seemsto have taken these brave words ashis guide; the result is a work inwhich Shaw is not the peg but thepivot.Shaw was very fond of explaininghimself and since he was a master oflucid, persuasive exposition, it istempting to fall in with" his views.Henderson accepts Shaw as the greatest expert on Shaw, an engagingpoint of view which occasionally leadshim into the error of assuming thatShaw is also the greatest expert onShaw's importance and influence. Thislatter, it seems to me, is a non-sequi-tur which shows up particularlyclearly when Henderson concludes achapter on the Fabian Society byquoting a letter which Shaw wrotehim in the 1940's."Nobody . . . has dealt with myshare in the foundation of the Fabian society as the constructor ofits fundamental theory and framesof reference (often deduced froma single observation or personalexperience) ... It is always as sumed that Webb was the theoristand doctrinaire, and I the unsystematic, unsynthetic irresponsible.The truth was the reverse."Henderson seems to endorse Shaw'sclaims, but where is the evidenceaside from Shaw's say-so?Henderson occasionally advancesindependent claims for Shaw's overwhelming influence and importance.Discussing Shaw's "Open Letter toPresident Wilson" he writes: "It isnoteworthy, and not possibly coincidental, that Shaw in many of hispublic pronouncements anticipatedWilson on many points of policy."Perhaps Henderson meant to write"possibly not," but in any case theclaim is grandiose and requires awider and more thoroughly historicalperspective to be advanced persuasively.One finds the same historical andcritical weakness in Henderson'schapters on Shaw as artist. For instance in his chapter "Major Influences: Bunyan, Dickens, Moliere,"Henderson accepts Shaw's own enumeration of influences and evenShaw's formulation of what helearned from each. This is extremelyinteresting, particularly Shaw'slengthy contrast of his dramatic technique with Moliere's, yet I cannothelp but think that it is tacticallyadvantageous to have such safe masters as Bunyan, Dickens and Moliere.It is at least perfectly obvious thatShaw was aware of this advantage andused it continually. "My art is simplythe art of Bunyan, Shakespeare andMoliere."Granting that Shaw loved and evenlearned from these writers, it wouldbe interesting to know the extent ofhis use of contemporary figures. Indefending himself from the charge ofhaving stolen the plot of Pygmalionfrom Smollett's Peregrine Pickle,Shaw denies having ever read thebook but goes on to say that he hasborrowed from Shakespeare, Dickens,Conan Doyle, Oscar Wilde and Gran-ville-Barker. The ethics of borrowingare not in question, but the actualdetails are. One would like to knowwhat he borrowed from Conan Doyleand Granville -Barker. There is roomfor a study of Shaw's plays in whichthe critic instead of going back toBunyan would make the more revealing comparison with Pinero, Wing,Wilde and the less readable dramatists of the nineties.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAnd Henderson is really lamentablewhen he comes to Shaw's present influence. We find that Shaw's effectin the world of letters amounts, specifically, to a molding influence onSt. John Hankin, Stanley Houghton,Somerset Maugham, John Galsworthy,Olive Schreiner, Sarah Grand, andBrieux among others. This is perhaps a small point, but I think itindicates a failure of critical perspective on Henderson's part. Shaw issurely a more living force than thosenames would indicate. And if his influence really is moribund, then Henderson ought to make that pointrather than cloud the air with nameslike Hankin, Houghton, Schreiner andGrand. Who are they?Yet in spite of the historical andcritical weaknesses of this biography,it is an enormous conspectus ofShaw's life and it contains much newinformation about Shaw. Henderson'sinterest is really an interest in Shaw'spersonality, and on this subject he hasmuch to say that is both illuminatingnot only of the man but of the plays.The chapters in which he describesthe puppet-like characteristics ofShaw's dramatis personae seem particularly good to me.Shaw emerges from this biographyas a supremely attractive figure, "upto his chin" in the life of his times,titanically exaggerative, endlesslyenergetic. In both big and small affairs Henderson shows that Shaw'sresponses were keen, and extremelyhuman, and he demonstrates thatShaw's many careers were all shotthrough with the same instinctivelove of the good and hatred of thebad. The diabolical pose covered aconsistent love of those things thatmake life freer, bigger, and better,and hatred of those things that makelife less free, smaller and worse.From reading this biography onecan catch again the exhilarating sensethat Shaw conveys of being in the"fastest forefront" of his time, wittily and audaciously fighting the goodfight. Yet that is not quite all thepicture. The good fight has to befought on specific issues, and hereShaw betrays baffling contradictions.In the nineties he championed Wagner in art and equal incomes in economics. By 1920 he was turning offhis radio when Wagner was playedand by 1931 he had endorsed the elaborately hierarchical pay scales in theSoviet Union. One can defend this apparent contradiction by saying,"Very well, the case for Wagner hasbeen won, and the revolution hastriumphed; the situation is differentnow and new formulations are demanded." Yet what, after all, was theuse of fighting for Wagner, if whenyou can finally hear his music wellplayed, you can find that you don'treally want to listen to it?The trouble seems to have beenthat Shaw defined his opinions andeven his tastes in terms of what wastactically necessary. If you are amasterly tactician, as Shaw was, thedanger seems to be that though yourheart is ultimately on the right side,you begin to let your sense of tacticsgovern your actions too exclusively.Tactics are dramatic, and that wasShaw's real medium.This is brilliantly illustrated by anincident that occurred in 1916 duringShaw's efforts to save the Irish revolutionary, Roger Casement. BeatriceWebb notes in her diary:"But G. B. S. as usual had hisown plan. Casement was to defend his own case; he was to makea great oration of defiance whichwould 'bring down the house.'To this Mrs. Green retorted tearfully that the man was desperately ill; that he was quite incapable of handling a court fullof lawyers; that the most he coulddo was the speech after the verdict. 'Then we had better get oursuit of mourning,' Shaw remarked with an almost gay laugh.T will write him a speech whichwill thunder down the ages.' 'Buthis friends want to get him re-« prieved,' indignantly replied thedistracted woman friend'."The full irony is that Shaw's tacticswere right; the speech was deliveredafter the verdict shook the jurors andmight have saved Casement if delivered before the verdict.Later in life, as he dried up a bit,Shaw's dramatic-tactical brilliancebegan to run riot in a much moreunfeeling way than in the Casementaffair. Broadcasting to a depressionstricken United States in 1931 he said:"Hello America! Hello all myfriends in America! How are allyou dear old boobs who havebeen telling one another for amonth that I have gone dottyabout Russia? . . . Russia has thelaugh on us. She has us fooled,beaten, shamed, . shown up, outpointed, and all but knocked out.. . . We had rebuked her ungodli ness and now the sun shines inRussia as on a country with whichGod is well pleased, while Hiswrath is heavy on us and we don'tknow where to turn for comfortor approval."Shaw's work may last, as Henderson thinks, but his philosophy of lifewithered during his own lifetime. Itwas a philosophy that so rigorouslyexcluded the sense of tragedy thatwhen confronted by a tragic discrepancy between what ought to be doneand what can be done, Shaw becameembarrassed and finally unfeeling.Thomas H. Rogers,Instructor in English,The College.PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Book ReproductionCongress St. Expressway andGardner RoadCOIumbus 1-1420CHICAGO ADDRESSING .PRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING—LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters • Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addressing • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Dearborn . Chicago 5 • W A 2-4561MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica - Exacta - Rolleiflex - Polaroid1342 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259NSA Discounts2 Day Color DevelopingHO Trains and Model SuppliesSARGENT'S DRUG STOREestablished 1852Chicago's most completeprescription and chemical stockphone RAndolph 6-477023 N. Wabash AvenueChicagoSHERRY HOTEL53rd Street At The LakeComplete Facilities ForTraining Groups — Sales MeetingsBANQUETS— DancesCall Catering FAirfax 4-1000MAY, 1957 31HolidayMagazinepresents theFabulousFordFamilyBeginning; an intimate series on one of themost remarkable families in U. 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"Thehome of the bean and the cod"has been pampering epicureanappetites for many years, asyou'll discover on this tour ofthe city's most notable restaurants.PLUS: the PERFECT SOUTHSEA ISLAND; LOUISVILLE,KY.; HOLIDAY HANDBOOKFOR THE ROADSIDE GOURMET; THE JOHNSTOWNFLOOD; a fascinating studyof THE WORLD'S OLDESTGAME, chess; THE FRENCHFOR MURDER; and more!ON SALE MAY 16•JUNEHOLIDAY. . . magazine of thenew SUjtlVe leisure !A CURTIS MAGAZINE a Nass \ietijsAlumni committees planning reunions for the classes of sevens andtwos next spring are at work thesemonths and would welcome helpfrom classmates.1902 will celebrate its 55th reunion; 1907, its 50th; 1932 will bethe 25th year class. If you are ina reunion class— '02, '07, '12, '17,'22, '27, '32, '37, '42, '47 and '52—plan to be ori the quadrangles theweekend of June 8.Indicates person will attend JuneReunion.07-11Helen E. Hendricks, '07, and Alta BeeCundy Shoop, (Mrs. Arnold C), '26, areboth active members of the Women'sUniversity Club in New York.Cola-.G. Parker, PhB '11, JD '12, chairman of the board of the National Association of Manufacturers, has been appointed by President Eisenhower to represent the U.S. at the annual conferenceof the International Labor Organizationin Geneva this June. A joint announcement of Parker's designation was madeby the NAM and the U.S. Chamber ofCommerce. Parker, who was presidentof the NAM last year, is a director of theKimberly-Clark Corp., Neenah, Wis.23-28George V. Deal, PhB '23, of Akron, O.,is director of training for Roadway Express, Inc. His wife is the former EmilyL. Sedlacek, AB '26, AM '40.Ralph H. Oakes, PhB '25, MBA '38, isdirector of the marketing managementprogram at the University's IndustrialRelations Center.Dr. John A. Larson, MD '28, nationallyknown psychiatrist and criminologist, hasbeen appointed superintendent of theTennessee maximum security mentalhospital. Larson, a co-inventor of theclinical polygraph, now known as the"lie detector," author of textbooks on fingerprints, has served as staff psychiatristto law enforcement agencies in Detroit,Chicago, and other cities.32-37Lillian M. Johnson, SM '32, PhD '38,Dean of Women at the University ofCincinnati, has been elected treasurer ofthe National Association of WomenDeans and Counselors. She recently attended the association's five-day annualmeeting in San Francisco. Look ExecutiveHarold H. Webber, AB '38, formerlyexecutive vice president and a director ofthe Foote, Cone & Belding advertisingagency, Chicago, joins Look Magazine asa vice president.Associated with FC&B since 1941, Webber was named national director ofmedia and research and vice presidentin 1945. In 1948 he left New York toreturn to the agency's Chicago office,and became general manager of thatoffice in 1953. He was elected executivevice president and a director in 1956 andserved in that capacity until his resignation.Webber heads the Alumni Associationof the University's School of Business. Heis also a director of Junior Achievement,and is a former chairman of the CentralCouncil of the American Association ofAdvertising Agencies.William H. Bessey, SB '34, has beenhead of the Department of Physics atButler University, Indianapolis, Ind.,since September.Allen Sinsheimer, Jr., '35, JD '37, hasreturned to the practice of law in Miami,Florida, after having spent almost 15years with the National Labor RelationsBoard as an attorney and chief law officer. Allen originally practiced law inIllinois.Dr. H. H. Young, MD '35, Chairman ofthe Sections of Orthopedic Surgery atthe Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., andProfessor of Orthopedic Surgery in theMayo Foundation, Graduate School, University of Minnesota, is a member of the32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE$ 12,490 a yearThe 1956 average income of the 562 salesmen with ourCompany five years or longer was $12,490. These 562 represent 44% of the total number of our full-time salesmen.Here are some of the reasons for these high earnings:1. Only top-grade men, selected carefully for aptitude andability, are chosen for the Massachusetts Mutual field force._?. They receive complete and thorough initial training andearn while they learn.3. They receive continuing specialized assistance from theexperienced home office and field staff of one of the oldest andstrongest life insurance companies in the United States.4. Their product — life insurance protection for all its varieduses — has firmly established public acceptance. Their marketis constantly growing.5. They sell life insurance that is liberal, flexible, easily adaptedto individual, family, and business needs.6. They receive immediate income on each sale, and cumulative earnings over a period of years based on continuing service.? Massachusetts Mutual offers a lifetime career withstable income, group insurance, and retirement benefits.? If you would like to know more about this opportunity,write for a free copy of "A Selling Career".LIFE INSURANCE COMPANYSPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTSThe Policyholders' CompanySome of the Chicago U. alumni in Massachusetts Mutual service:Mrs. Jeanette T. Phillips '14, Chicago Morris Landwirth '28, Peoria Jesse J. Simoson '43, BuffaloChester A. Schipplock '27, Chicago Petro L. Patras '40, Chicago J. E. Way '49, ChicagoTheodore E. Knock '41, ChicagoIn each of our general agencies, coast to coast, there is a valuable lifetime career opportunity for men suited to our business.MAY, 1957 33Our ingenious technique formaking your H&D corrugatedbox so remarkably light in weightis a closely guarded trade secret.0'But we can be tempted.HINDE & DAUCHSubsidiary of West Virginia Pulp and Paper CompanyAUTHORITY ON PACKAGINGSANDUSKY, OHIO14 Factories42 Sales Officesboard of associate editors of The Journalof Bone and Joint Surgery.William H. Stapleton, '36, was appointed to the newly created positionof general manager of purchases at Inland Steel Co. He was formerly purchasing agent at the Indiana HarborWorks.?After minor cryptanalysis we havedeciphered a recent note from RileySunderland, '37, to read: "After writingthe U.S. Army's 3-volume history of theChina-Burma-India Theater I got a jobdoing operations research for Continental Army Command at Fort Monroe, Va. I still can't type! Or get married!"40Katherine A. Frederic, PhD '40, ispresident of the Washington, D.C branchof the American Association of University Women. During the past summershe attended the triennial conference ofthe International Federation of University Women in Paris. Miss Frederic hasalso served two terms as president ofthe University's Alumni Club in Washington. Personnel DirectorRobert F. Pearse, AM '47, PhD '50, hasbeen appointed director of personneldevelopment for Mead Johnson & Co.,Evansville, Ind., nutritional and pharmaceutical products manufacturers.A native of Detroit, Pearse joinedMead Johnson from the position of executive vice-president of Worthington Associates, Inc., Chicago psychological consulting firm.He is a fellow of the Division of Industrial and Business Psychology of theAmerican Psychology Association and islisted in American Men of Science. Heis also a member of the American Economic Association and the AmericanAdvertising Agencies.42-45*Louise Cummins Matchett, (Mrs.David F.), '42, of Northfield, 111., in addition to raising two-year old Mary Louise,church work, and local politics is working towards a Master's degree at theNational College of Education.Melvin Gerstein, SB '42, PhD '45, assistant chief of the fuels and combustion division of the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratories, was given a juniortechnical achievement award by theCleveland Technical Societies Council.Gerstein is recognized internationally,the council said, "as one of the mostpromising young scientists in the field ofcombustion research." His wife is theformer Blanche Lerner, SB '44.The Rev. Malcolm McAfee, AB '44, Associate Professor of Sociology at Davidson College, Davidson, N.C, has beennamed Presbyterian University Pastorat Stanford University. Before comingto Davidson he was a member of thefaculties of Emory University and theGeorgia Institute of Technology. In 1946and 1947 he was a lecturer at Yenching34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFor Forty YearS our name has beenUnion Carbide and Carbon Corporation . . . more generallycalled "Union Carbide."Now our company name will be Union Carbide Corporation.The change is in name only. The people of Union Carbide willcontinue to pioneer in developing and producing carbons andgases, chemicals, plastics, alloys and nuclear energy. UCC's principal divisionsand subsidiaries includeBakelite CompanyElectro Metallurgical CompanyHaynes Stellite CompanyKemet CompanyLinde CompanyNational Carbon Company .Pyrofax Gas CorporationSilicones DivisionUnion Carbide Canada LimitedUnion Carbide Chemicals CompanyUnion Carbide DevelopmentCompanyUnion Carbide InternationalCompanyUnion Carbide Nuclear CompanyUnion Carbide Ore CompanyUnion Carbide Realty CompanyViskinc CompanyWrite for free bookletand learn how UCC research can helpyou. Ask for "Products and Processes."Union Carbide Corporation, Dept. E,30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N.YMAY, 1957 35GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186Webb-Linn Printing Co.Catalogs, PublicationsAdvertising Literature?Printers of theUniversity of ChicagoMagazine?Louis S. Berlin, B.A. '09MOnroe 6-2900YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S ,y MADI WITHSwffitV. ^glceCrcam,A product A Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400T. A. BEHNQU1SI CO SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433Give ToTHE MARCH OF DIMES Vice President at WayneWilliam M. Birenbaum, JD '49, Deanof Students and Director of Promotionand Development at University College,has been appointed Assistant Vice President of Wayne State University, Detroit,Mich.His new position will focus on university ojevelopment, with concentration onnational foundations and governmentunits.During the past ten years, in additionto his faculty and administrative work atChicago, Birenbaum has worked extensively with the Ford Foundation andHazen Foundation and with various governmental and educational agencies.University, China. He is a fellow of theNational Council of Religion in HigherEducation and is an active member ofthe American and Southern sociologicalsocieties.Walter E. Stiefel, PhD '45, professorof Romance Languages at the Universityof Tennessee in Knoxville, is establishing a reputation for having one of thefinest practical language laboratories inthe country. From a university windfallhe installed a total of 36 dual tape recorders. On half the tape the instructorrecords; on the other half the studentworks, listens, and erases until he canwalk off the campus conversing freelyin his chosen Romance language — well,more or less freely. In any event Dr.Stiefel's modern laboratory is adding tothe reputation of the University ofTennessee.47-48Marvin L. Shapiro, SB '47, SM '49, isa geologist for the Pan American Petroleum Corp., Lubbock, Tex., and fatherof Douglas Alan, born in October.George L. Arnold, JD '48, is currentlyadministrative assistant to Senator M. M.Neely in Washington. PARKER-HOI^MANl' uiiimimiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiinniiHni ; 'C O M P *._ *_ Y-iTFaTTo'Ir'sVReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525BEST BOILER REPAIR. WELDING CO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoRICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERSince 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Wasson - PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesBOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71 ST ST.36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDr. Lloyd P. Smithpresident, Avco Research and Advanced Development Divisionspeaks out about AVCO . . .AND THE RACE AMERICA MUST NOT LOSEOur greatest aim is to make truly significant scientific discoveries and technical developments. Discoveries which addto our scientific knowledge. Discoveries and developmentswhich lead to new products which can be produced for thegood of mankind and insure our continued economic prosperity. Discoveries and developments which will maintain thenation's defenses strong. Most of all, to make discoveries andtechnical "breakthroughs" which will give our country thescientific and technical leadership and prestige which are so essential for maintaining the peace of the world. We fully realizethat to attain these objectives we must win out in a greatscientific game against a competent and ambitious adversary.The Avco Research and Advanced Development Division,with its team of creative scientists and engineers, is expendinggreat effort to reach these goals. Significant accomplishmentshave already been made in the physics, chemistry and gasdynamics associated with the high-altitude, hypersonic flight ofmissiles; the intercontinental ballistic missile re-entrance problem; missile stability; and electronics as applied to advancedradar, computers and air navigation.New fields are under investigation and the division hopes tomake technical "breakthroughs" in magnetohydrodynamics,controlled thermonuclear fusion, conversion of chemical andnuclear energy into useful work, the creation of new materials,the manned satellite, and many other areas. Some of thesefields are so new that our laboratories must also be teachingcenters so that young scientists and engineers who join us canlearn the science and technology basic to these new fields whilecontributing their own creative investigations.Pictured below is our new Research Center now under construction inWilmington, Massachusetts. Scheduled for completion in early 1958, thisultra-modern laboratory will house the scientific and technical staff of theAvco Research and Advanced Development Division. Dr. Lloyd P. SmithA new idea is nourished by exposure to men representing manydifferent scientific specialities — a characteristic operating method atAvco Research and Advanced Development Division.Avco's new research division is now offering unusual and excitingcareer opportunities for exceptionally qualified and forward-lookingscientists and engineers in such fields as:SCIENCE: Aerodynamics • Electronics • Mathematics • MetallurgyPhysical Chemistry • Physics • ThermodynamicsENGINEERING: Aeronautical • Applied Mechanics • Chemical • ElectricalHeat Transfer • Mechanical • Reliability • Flight TestWrite to Dr. R. W. Johnston, Scientific and Technical Relations,Avco Research and Advanced Development Division, 20 SouthUnion Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts.research andadvanced developmentdivisionMartin Paltzer, '48, public relationsmanager of the Chicago Federal Savingsand Loan Assn., has been named chairman of "Great Decisions . . . 1957," community-wide discussion groups on U.S.foreign policy. "Great Decisions" is ajoint non-partisan, non-profit project ofthe Chicago Council on Foreign Relations and the Chicago Junior Associationof Commerce and Industry. Paltzer, wholives in Riverside, 111., is membershipchairman of the Chicago Financial Advertisers, publicity chairman of the Chicago Chapter, American Savings andLoan Institute, a director and publicrelations chairman cf the Public Relations Society of Savings Institutions.50-52Francis D. Logan, AB '50, a member ofthe New York law firm of Milbank,Tweed, Hope, and Hadley, is engaged toMile. Claude J. Riviere of Paris.Jay M. Sawilowsky, AB '50, graduatedcum laude last December from the University of Georgia Law School. He isnow practicing law in his own office inAugusta, Ga.Barry D. Karl, AM '51, currently- ateaching fellow at Harvard and a candidate for a PhD in American Civilization,is engaged to Alice H. Woodard of Tokyo.Patricia J. Cross, AB '51, was marriedto George Sanford Becker in July. Sheis a research specialist for EncyclopaediaBrittanica in Chicago.Walter J. Smalakis, AB '52, AM '54,has been appointed Coordinator of Student Affairs and Assistant to the Deanof Administration at the University ofVermont.Thomas G. Belden, PhD '52, and hiswife Marva Robins Belden, AM '52, coauthors of So Fell the Angels (brieflynoted in the April issue) received theAmerican Writers' annual $1,000 award. The Beldens met on campus where Tomwas working on his PhD thesis — a studyof Salmon P. Chase, Lincoln's Secretaryof the Treasury. The two decided towrite a full-length biography of theChase family. The Beldens and theirnine-month-old daughter now live inWashington, D.C.53-56Samuel C. Adams Jr., PhD '53, receivedan Arthur S. Fleming Award in Washington, D. C, on February 14. Tenyoung men in the federal governmentwere given such awards for outstandingpublic service.Richard W. Houck, AB '54, on King ofPrussia, Pa., has embarked on a twenty-year conditioning program for his firstborn, Richard "Geoffrey, born February27. Houk has high hopes that Geoff willrespond to this conditioning and attendthe University.Marjorie C. Burkhardt, AB '56, of LakeForest, 111., is on the editorial staff ofReynard Publications, Chicago.MewonafEdward M. Baker, AB '98, of Cleveland,died February 19, 1957.Elizabeth F. Avery, PhB '99, died February 27, 1957 at the home of her sister,Marie Avery Buchanan, (Mrs. Milton),'09, Toronto, Ont. Prior to her retirement, Miss Avery had taught Englishand history for forty years at WendellPhillips and Lakeview high schools inChicago.Dr. Robert A. Bachman, MD '00, ofNew York, died January 5, 1957.Dr. Jesse R. Gerstley, SB '07, MD '09, aChicago pediatrician who pioneered in the study of infant feeding, died of aheart attack March 16, 1957. Chairmanof the Michael Reese Pediatrics Department, he had been associated with thathospital for 45 years since his internship there. Gerstley was a governor ofthe Institute of Medicine of Chicago,president of the Chicago Pediatric Societyand of the Michael Reese Interns' AlumniAssociation, a director of the Community Child Guidance Centers, and anhonorary director of the Infant WelfareSociety.Lloyd H. Brown, '07, of Sterling, 111.,died in February, 1957.Dr. Evarts A. Graham, MD '07, internationally noted surgeon, died on March4, 1957. Dr. Graham had been associatedwith the Washington University Schoolof Medicine, St. Louis, Mo., as BixbyProfessor of Surgery since 1919. Longregarded as the dean of American surgeons, he was noted for his pioneer workin chest surgery and his development ofan X-ray test for gall bladder disease.In recent years he was widely acclaimedfor studies on the relationship betweencigarette smoking and lung cancer.Graham retired in 1951 after 32 yearsas chief surgeon at Barnes Hospital, St.Louis and head of the Department of Surgery, Washington University. He remained active, however, in research asFrofessor Emeritus until shortly beforehis death.Dr. Robert L. Benson, MD '10, of Portland, Ore., died January 20, 1957.Howard S. Johnson, '10, retired assistant to the president of the AmericanHoist and Derrick Co., died March 21,1957 in Carmel, Calif.Judson Lee, PhD '13, died at his homein Ottawa, Kans., on February 15, 1957.Lee was a trustee of the Baptist Theological Union from 1930 until 1947. Hewas Professor of Economics at IllinoisInstitute cf Technology for 40 years.J. Emory Hollingsworth, PhD '13, ofTopeka, Kans., was killed in an auto ac-MAKE UFE WORTH LIVING...The Sun Life of Canada, one of the world's great life insurance companies, offers men ofambition and integrity an outstanding professional career in its expanding United States fieldforce. If you feel that there is room for improvement in your business life, and if you areinterested in a dignified career where you are limited only by your own efforts and ability,then Sun Life might provide the answer. There are excellent opportunities for advancementto supervisory and managerial rank.EXPERT TRAINING • IMMEDIATE INCOME WITH COMMISSION AND BONUSESHOSPITALIZATION AND RETIREMENT PLANSTo learn more about the advantages of a Sun Life sales career, write to J. A. McALLISTER,Vice-President and Director of Agencies, who will be glad to direct you to the branch nearestyour home. Sun Life maintains 45 branches in the United States from coast to coast.SUN LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY OF CANADAHead Office: Sun Life Building, Dominion Square, Montreal.38 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEACTION SHOT OF ANEW ENGLAND LIFEAGENTBig moment for "Buck" Hubbard and Eriezas insured pension plan is launchedThe Eriez Manufacturing Company of Erie, Pennsylvania, world-wide suppliers of magnetic equipment, now has a top-notch retirement program. It isone of New England Life's insured pension planswhich provide liberal benefits at low net cost.Buckley Hubbard (Pennsylvania, '46) developedthe plan and sold its advantages to Eriez executives.The moment pictured above typifies the year-roundsatisfaction any New England Life agent gets fromhelping people make a better life for themselves.He meets top-level people like President Robert F.Merwin and Controller James K. Brydon of Eriez(/. to r. above) . His service and ideas have recognizedvalue to his clients. He is rewarded by a steadilygrowing business. This company's pension plan, forexample, is expected to expand considerably.These Chicago University men are New England Life representatives:There's room in the New England Life picture forother ambitious college men who meet our requirements. You get comprehensive training. You get income while you're learning. You can work almostanywhere in the U. S. A. Your future is full of sizable rewards.You can get more information about this careeropportunity by writing Vice President L. M.Huppeler, 501 Boylston Street, Boston 17, Mass.A BETTER LIFE FOR YOUNEW ENGLANDr~M,7u/>^ I IFF cSuUKi&iimi{^y((MAA//Jy M-i X M. J_ boston. MassachusettsTHE COMPANY THAT FOUNDED MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE IN AMERICA 1035Harry Benner, '12, ChicagoGeorge Marselos, '34, Chicago Paul C. Lippold, '38, ChicagoRobert P. Saalbach, '39, OmahaJames M. Banghart, '41, Adv. Mgr., St. Paul John R. Downs, C.L.U., '46, ChicagoHerbert W. Siegal, '46, San AntonioAsk one of these competent men to tell you about the advantages of insuring in the New England Lifecident in September, 1956. His wife Leedasuffered bruises and a broken hip.E. A. Sigler, PhB '14, AM '18, diedAugust 20, 1956. He was 75.Alice Hayward, PhB '14, of Allentown,Pa., died on December 20, 1956. She was84.Oscar L. Olson, PhD '14, retired President of Luther College, Decorah, la., diedNovember 19, 1956. Olson had taughtand served at Luther College for fortyyears.Dr. Wesley H. Acker, SB '15, MD '17,died February 3, 1957. Acker lived inWaterloo, la.Mildred N. Appel, PhB '15, of HighlandPark, 111., died February 18, 1957.Oliver S. Hamer, AM '15, of NorthManchester, Ind., died November 30,1956.Burton Rascoe, '15, editor and critic,died in New York, March 19, 1957. Forthe past three years Rascoe hactfbeenwriting a syndicated column on television for the Newhouse publications.Known as a discoverer of new and important writers, he was among the firstto review the works of the then-unknownRing Lardner, Sherwood Anerson, H. L.Menken, Carl Sandburg, Ben Hecht,and Willa Cather. Rascoe began his career in journalism and writing on theChicago Tribune, where he started as areporter and became assistant city editor,music critic, literary editor, and dramaeditor and critic. Later he moved toNew York where he was an editor ofMcCalVs magazine. Rascoe next joinedthe staff of the New York Tribune asliterary editor. His daily newspaper column was syndicated to more than 400newspapers throughout the country. Rascoe has been described as an idealist,a romanticist, and "probably the mostsympathetic critic of the Americanscene."Eloise Blaine Cram, SB '16, one of theworld's foremost authorities on diseasescaused by worm parasites, died February 9, 1957, at the home of her sisterin San Diego, Calif. A resident ofBethesda, Md., Miss Cram retired lastOctober from the National Institute ofHealth after more than 35 years as agovernment scientist. Her most signifi-LOWER YOUR COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOS EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURES.f^j^^^UMO, *&, POMNBER cant contribution was research that hashelped to curb schistosomiasis, one ofthe most serious health problems inmany tropical areas. Aided by her studies of certain species of snails thattransmit the disease, scientists have developed measures to control the snails.At the time of her retirement Miss Cramwas with the NIH laboratory of tropicaldisease and had written more than 160papers and monographs. In 1945 theUniversity awarded her a public servicecitation. She entered government service in 1920 as an Agricultural Department zoologist and became noted as aworld authority in parasites of poultry.Miss Cram joined the NIH in 1936 whereher studies added to scientific knowledgeof pinworm, an infection that particularly affects children. The only womanever to serve as president of the American Society of *Parisitologists, she was amember of Sigma Xi, the American Society of Tropical Medicine, Society forExperimental Biology and Medicine, andthe Helminthological Society of Washington.Dr. William W. Robinson, SB '21, MD'24, of Spokane, Wash., died February 5,1957.Edith M. Bell, AM '22, died of a heartattack on February 12, 1957, in Milton, la.John W. Riley, '22, died in St. Joseph'sHospital, Bloomington, 111., February 16,1957. /Minnie J. Langwill, AM '23, died August 10, 1956.William F. Arndt, AM '23, of St. Louis,Mo., died February 25, 1957.Nicholas Hyma, SM '24, of Buckhannon,W. Va., died November 13, 1956.Arthur Cassman, PhB '26, of Chicago,died December 14, 1956.Leander S. Harrington, AM '27, ofCisne, 111., died March 12, 1957.Dr. Coyne Campbell, MD '28, of Oklahoma City, Okla., died January 23, 1957.Pliny del Valle, PhB '28, died February 27, 1957, in Houston, Tex.Christian Miller, PhB '28, AM '29, ofTacoma, Wash., died January 7, 1957.Clara E. Ramskill, PhB '29, of La Jolla,Calif., died last year.Harry E. Blaine, AM '29, died February20, 1957, in Springfield Baptist Hospital,Springfield, Mo.Dr. Stanley S. Bruechert, MD '30, ofPasadena, Calif., died February 2, 1957.Katherine T. Summers, (Mrs. L. C),'33, of Blanchard, Okla., died January 16,1957.William W. Burke, PhD '34, of Clayton, Mo., died in March, 1957.Ruth Brinkman David, (Mrs. J. Philip),PhB '35, died January 23, 1957. She wasa resident of Dallas, Tex.Joseph W. Charlton, PhD '38, diedJanuary 31, 1957 at Grinnell, la., of anacute coronary thrombosis. He was Professor of Economics at Grinnell College,Grinnell, la., and Chairman of the Department at the time of his death. Hewas also the college faculty representative of the Midwest Athletic Association.Samuel T. Emory, PhD '39, of ChapelHill, N. C, died March 6, 1957. POND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddrcssograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisSince 7885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for UCollege, Secondary and Elementary.wide patronage. Call or write us at niversity,Nation-25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.ZJkeCxcluHve CleanedWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Parle Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMUseum 4-1200Phones OAlcland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueProducersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton H. Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-440 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"What really sold me," says Jerry,"was the way they conducted engineering. I'd expected rooms full ofengineers at desks. Instead, I foundall the informal friendliness of mycollege lab."Gerald, an E.E., came directly toIBM from the University of Buffalo,in 1953. Starting as a Technical Engineer, he was immediately assignedto work, with two others, on designing a small calculator. The supervisorof this project was Dr. R. K. Richards,author of "Arithmetic Operation inDigital Computers." Jerry learned agreat deal about computers in a veryshort time. Incidentally, his particular machine is now going into pro-Assigns problems to his groupduction. As Jerry says, "It makes anengineer feel good to see his projectreach the production stage— and tobe able to follow it through."Promoted to Associate Engineerafter 16 months, Jerry is now thaleader of a nine-man team. He assigns problems to his group for solution, approves their block diagramsand the models they build. Perhapsan hour a day goes into paper worksuch as requisitioning equipment forhis group and reviewing technicalpublications, in counseling membersof his team and preparing for trips totechnical society meetings. Apart fromhis regular responsibilities, he teachesat night in the IBM school.Why Jerry chose IBMOf course, there were other reasonsDATA PROCESSING • ELECTRIC "What's it like to beA PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTENGINEER AT IBM?"Three years ago, college senior Gerald Maley asked himself this question.Today, an Associate Engineer and leader of a nine-man team, Jerry reviews his experience at IBM and gives some pointers that may be helpfulto you in taking the most important step in your engineering career.why Jerry selected IBM. He was interest." Gerald distinguishes be-vitally interested in computers, and tween two kinds of engineers— thoseIBM was obviously a leader in the who like to work on components, suchfield. He comes from a scientific family as circuit designs, and those who areinterested in the part the componentplays. The latter is his own interest,which is why he is in advanced machine design. He points out that IBMis careful to take these factors intoconsideration— another reason, perhaps, why turnover at IBM is lessthan one-sixth the national average.What about promotions?When asked about advancementopportunities at IBM, Jerry says,"You can hardly miss in this field andThis field is so new(his brother is a mathematician) andis fascinated by these mathematicalmarvels which are revolutionizingman's ways of doing things in so manyfields. He enjoys working on largeequipment . . . and on "pulses." "It'smore logical," he says. "In computerwork, you can actually see thingshappening, which is not the case withall electronic equipment today. Andit's not all solid math, either. What'smore, this field is so new, that prettysoon you're up with everybody else."Gerald has done recruiting workhimself for IBM and believes he un-Reviewing technical publicationsderstands some of the college alumni'sproblems. "I usually begin an interview by determining a man's interest," he reports. "JEhen the diversityof work at IBM^nables me to offerhim a job which Iwilf challenge that Promotion almost axiomaticin this company. They tell me salesabout double every five years — whichin itself makes promotion almcfet axiomatic." He endorses the IBM policyof promoting from within, with meritthe sole criterion. The salary factor,he remembers, was not his first consideration. While excellent, the tremendous advancement potential wasof far greater importance.• • •Equally challenging opportunities exist forexperienced engineers and scientists in allof IBM's many divisions across the country. For details, write P. H. Bradley,Room 12005, IBMCorp.,590MadisonAve.,New York 22, N. Y.IBM INTERNATIONALBUSINESS MACHINESCORPORATIONTYPEWRITERS TIME EQUIPMENT MILITARY PRODUCTShave you chosen over theyears to give so generously of your time, effortand money to The University of Chicago? Weasked that question ofLaird Bell, who servedthe University as Chairman of the Board of Trustees from 1949 to 1953.Here is his reply:Laird Bell, JD '07, became a Trustee in 1929and now has honorarystatus. Mr. Bell, whodid his undergraduateivork at Harvard, is apartner in the Chicagolaw firm of Bell, Boyd,Marshall and Lloyd andwas formerly Chairmanof the Board of Weyerhaeuser Timber Company. Almost any educational activity seems worth while.But at the University of Chicago it is also exciting.Before it opened its doors the University was adventuring into new fields, and it has been doing it eversince. There is seldom a dull moment, nothing isroutine, some innovation is always under consideration.The University is never downcast when some new planfails; it simply begins over again. It is not discouragedby opposition v/ithin or without. This very atmospherehas brought to the University a continuous supply ofgreat teachers and research men. The grand men ofthe first law school faculty drew me there in the firstinstance, and there has never been a time when inmost fields there have not been truly great scholars.Above all the University has had courage. It hashad courage not only to experiment and try the unpopular thing, but also to stand up for freedom ofthought and action when the temper of the times hasbeen hostile. It has not suppressed the advocates ofunpopular causes. It has recognized, as has been said,that "the heresy of one age becomes the orthodoxyof another. * * * * To think at all is to risk error."I have been drawn to a place where the authoritiesapprove of thinking.THE 1957 DRIVE OF THE ALUMNI FOUNDATION IS NOW UNSEND YOUR CHECK TODTHE ALUMNI FUND5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUECHICAGO 37, ILLINOIS