APRIL 1957bw^W* ^ **• T5W.**'THEY WROTEON CLAY i_K_>>«___ >¦\rc*Wr5^§K*##il_«6-"_5'«=S^vS.»^ifl _p's^5'",^sriiV^!^:'^3,2?^''--^a>Jv- -?=_»/§a&>?ss^i-^rt»s \ n.**•\X, LService now available in 12 major citiesNEW YORK DALLASBOSTON FORT WORTHWASHINGTON PHOENIXCHICAGO TUCSONDETROIT LOS ANGELESCINCINNATI SAN FRANCISCOExceptionally comfortable reservedaccommodations . . . America's fastest airliner... a congenial lounge . . . superb cuisine . . .thoughtful personal service— you fly deluxeaboard the DC-7 Mercury, all at no extra fare! For reservations, see your travel agent or call American direct! LUXURY LEADER IN THE WOfllD OEEUGHTAMERICANAIRLINESMewojme were about to write aboutHarry 0. Gillet for the Memorial column in the back of the bookwhen a letter arrived from LouiseSmall, Director of the Department ofPublic Welfare, Dove Creek, Colorado.Louise writes an annual, newsy letter. This one arrived early and wrotemy Gillet story for me. Louise always starts her letter:Get your feet up on your desk andprepare for a visit.This letter is prompted by the deathof Harry O. Gillet ['01 \ February 5,1957. I don't know that he ever gota citation of merit such as you handout now by the dozens to illustriousalumni. [Harry was one of the firstto be cited, in 1942. ] But I do knowthat you never had a graduate whomerited such a citation any more.Those of us who knew him loved him,admired him, and enjoyed him.Along about 1904 or '05, Harrystarted his first boys' camp west ofthe Appalachians. My first year atcamp was in 1911. (What was I doingin a boys' camp? Well, I had to earnmy way through school, didn't I, andvohat could have been a nicer placethan in the parents' camp connected-with the boys' camp?)I believe it was about 1915 thatHarry sold the camp to Dr. W. J.Monilaw, and "Doc" still owns it.Harry Gillet was known as "Gis-ter." He had a way with boys and tohis camp went Jewish and Gentileboys who became better men for thesummers they spent under the guidance of Harry Gillet.He never lost his interest in boys,or in girls for that matter. Whateveryou put in the Magazine should havesomething about his work with youngpeople. [For years, Harry Gillet wasprincipal of our elementary Laboratory School. |He was also one of the organizersof the Senior Group of the Hyde ParkY.M.C.A. for 65-80 etc. year-olds. Ibelieve it was one of the pioneergroups working for the older citizens.You already know of his work atthe Museum of Science and Industry[after his retirement] under HarveyB. Lemon ['06, SM '11, PhD 12, Professor Emeritus of Physics] where Ithink he was in charge of displays aswell as other things especially ap pealing to children [his title: Supervisor of Education].By this time you probably know 1am one of the people who thought agreat deal of Harry Gillet.Louise SmallDove Creek, Colo.I marvel how Louise, eighteen yearson the job in the Colorado mountains,knows everything that is going on atChicago almost the day it happens.Of course she reads the Magazinefrom Memo Pad (!) to Memorialevery month.Clipped from the papersThe Chicago Sunday Tribune forMarch 10th carried a headline: "Tribune Editorials, Products of Five Writers . . . " Two of the five:"Leon Stolz [14], chief editorialwriter, has been a member of theeditorial board for 32 years and itshead since 1942. He joined the Tribune staff on leaving college.""George Morgenstern ['30] . . .made his debut as a metropolitannewspaperman while still in kneepants, covering a University of Chicago football game . . . Chicago won3 to 0 . . . [On another newspaper]he served as rewrite man, reporter,Sunday editor [etc.] before joiningthe Tribune in 1939. He became aneditorial writer in 1941 ..." He isalso the author of "Pearl Harbor, TheStory of the Secret War."Headline in the Chicago DailyNews: "U. of C. Wins Track Title."Friday, March 8, in the field housethe team won 94 1/5 points — nearlytwice as many as the nearest contender — and broke three meet recordsin the Midwest Conference TrackMeet. Among the other schools:Cornell, 50y2; Carleton, 37y2; Grinnell, 33; Ripon, 19 2/5; Monmouth,19 1/5.Irony of cancerOn March 5th the nation's presscarried the announcement of thedeath of Dr. Evarts A. Graham, thefamous chest surgeon who was thefirst to remove a human lung successfully. The man on whom he operated had lung cancer. Dr. Grahamdied of lung cancer.Dr. Graham took his undergraduatework at Princeton; came to Chicagofor his premedical work and on toRush for his M.D. in 1907. In additionto scores of honors and awards, Dr.Graham was awarded the Alumni Medal in 1955. He was one of thebest known and respected surgeons inthis country. He was 73 at the timeof his death.Jerry Lewis stand-inSuddenly John A. Wilson, Distinguished Service Professor at the Oriental Institute, became a stand-in forwild-eyed, boisterous comedian JerryLewis.John Wilson is an Egyptologist. Inan informal, intimate way he can laythe foundation for an understandingof many of America's Near East problems. He has done this for alumnifrom Louisville to the Loop. He isgenerous with his time and carriesa refreshing, dry humor to the speakers' table.The Executives' Club is one of theoutstanding luncheon groups in Chicago. The Club is noted for fillingChicago's largest hotel dining hallswith business men to hear nationaland international figures.Early in March, comedian JerryLewis was scheduled to fly in fromNew York's Palace Theatre to be thespeaker. The morning of the luncheon every wing in New York Citywas grounded and Jerry telephonedto promise a later date.At an emergency meeting of theClub's program committee someonevolunteered that he understoodEgyptologist Wilson tells an interesting Near East story.John Wilson was called out of classat 10: 30 A.M. Could he substitute forJerry Lewis at noon? The committeewas on the spot and surely would appreciate it.Why . . . yes, ... of course, if itwould help them out.John spoke before one of the Club'sbiggest overflow crowds.Many alumni are members of theExecutives' Club. They began callingme that afternoon to tell what a greatspeech our Dr. Wilson gave. Howvaluable to have such a professorrepresenting the University — publicrelations, and all that.At the Quadrangle Club luncheonround-table the next day some ofJohn's colleagues were kidding himabout pinch hitting for a comedian.John looked pensive. "You know,"he mused, "they seemed to be insuch a jam. I accepted before thinking twice. It didn't even occur to meto ask: 'Who is Jerry Lewis?'"H.W.M.APRIL, 1957 1FUTUREInPOWER The USS Nautilus prototype was the first successful applicationof nuclear power. In 1957 the nation's firstfull-scale commercial generating plant at Shippingport willhave its turbines powered by a Westinghouse reactor.The success of the nuclear power reactor is now an historicalmilestone ... but the application of nuclear power isstill in the pioneering stages. Much applied research remainsto be done before the vast potentialities of nuclearenergy can be utilized to the fullest extent.At Bettis Plant, operated by Westinghouse for the United StatesAtomic Energy Commission, nuclear power reactors arebeing designed and developed. Here scientists and engineersare continuing to investigate new areas for progressin all phases of reactor theory, design, and application. Hereopportunities for original work in a variety of fieldspresent a creative environment for your professional growth.Bettis Plant offers a challenge to physicists, mathematicians,metallurgists, and mechanical, chemical, or electricalengineers interested in a career with the leader in the nuclearpower industry. If you are an outstanding scientist orengineer interested in advanced degree study, send immediatelyfor a descriptive brochure which outlines the detailsof our unique doctoral fellowship program.Be sure to specify your specific field.Please address resumes to: Mr. M. J. Downey,WestinghouseBETTIS ° Pi. AlDept. AM-8, p.o. Box 1468, Pittsburgh 30, Pa.2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZI^fa jjftts jsssucIf we meet the teacher shortage withemergency measures now, what kindof teachers will it mean for our schoolsin the future? Edgar Z. Friedenberg concerns himself with the implications ofthis problem in " Mediocrity with Tenure," on Page 4.Friedenberg, Ph.D. '46, now an Assistant Professor of Education at BrooklynCollege, has appeared in these pages before as author of the article, "Are WeAfraid to Fail?" in March, 1955.^rriHEY Wrote on Clay" is the title of-I- a book by Edward Chiera, published by the University of ChicagoPress. We borrowed the title this monthfor an article on the Oriental Institute'sAssyrian Dictionary, which begins onPage 12.qchool spirit is an ephemeral thing at& Chicago. For its latest appearance,see "The Big Surprise" on Page 20.as an alumnus, you have been on the^¦receiving end of some delightful communiques from Earle Ludgin. He's nowmoved on from being a one-man dynamoin fund-raising for the Alumni Foundation to join the University's greatestfund-raising body, the Board of Trustees.From his new vantage point "inside" thataugust body, he reports to us lesser lightson what a trustee is really like. See"Money-Bearing Animals" on Page 14.TN spite of all the hours clocked at*¦ super-spyglasses, astronomers haveyet to spot any little green men on Marsor any other planet. But they have madesome pretty convincing observations thatlife does exist on other planets. CarlSagan, who is a National Science Foundation fellow at Yerkes Observatory inastronomy and physics, describes someof these findings in "Life on OtherPlanets?" Page 18.rp here's nothing nicer than closing onA a happy note. Alice Slezak, the Hungarian refugee student whose story appeared in these pages recently, phonedto say that she and her mother have hadnews from her father, and that he hasalso escaped from Hungary. Mr. Slezakmanaged to get to Italy. He had no ideawhere Alice and her mother were, buthe hoped it was America, and wrote tofriends in New York to ask if they hadheard from his wife and daughter. Theypassed the letter on to the Slezaks inChicago, who were, quite naturally, overjoyed. They are now trying to secureentry into the U.S. for him. /^^^ S iUw UNIVERSITY(JocaqoMAGAZINE M APRIL, 1957Volume 49, Number 7FEATURES41012141820 Mediocrity With TenureMany Thanks, Miss Shoesmith-They Wrote on ClayMoney-Bearing AnimalsLife on Other Planets? Edgar Z. Friedenberg-A Picture StoryStephen B. AppelEarle LudginCarl SaganThe Big Surprise — A Picture StoryDEPARTMENTSI Memo Pad3 In This Issue22 News of the Quadrangle29 Books32 Class News40 MemorialCOVERThe background for the cover this month is taken from a photographof the surface of a rock. The inscription on the left is copied froma clay tablet, and reads, "Ur, beloved of Ishtar, Prince of Eshnunna."(Cover design by Larry Klein)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, IllinoisEditor Editorial AssistantFELICIA ANTHENELLI STEPHEN B. APPELTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive Secretary-EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORANRegional DirectorsROBERT L BOTHWELLCLARENCE A. PETERS (Midwestern)(Eastern)WILLIAM H. SWANBERG (Western) The Alumni FundORLANDO R. DAVIDSONFLORENCE I. MEDOWStudent RecruitmentDONALD C. MOYERProgrammingELIZABETH A. SHAWPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price,_ $4.00. Single copies,25 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois,under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.APRIL, 1957 3w^W l^ceirv) — •THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWhat are the real implications of the teachershortage? A thoughtful educator suggests wereview our standards at once, or face the risk ofMediocrity With TenureThere cannot be any doubt that thepresent and growing shortage ofteachers in the United States is a realsocial problem, and a very complexone. It seems to be a matter of simplearithmetic. Because of smaller families and greater life expectancy theproportion of children in the totalpopulation has grown steadily smallerfor more than a century ; the distribution of persons of various ages in thepopulation of contemporary Americawould have been a shock to Malthus.Biit the absolute growth in populationtion of youngsters of all ages who attend school has overwhelmingly compensated for the relative decline inthe proportion of children. The absolute number of teachers has also increased greatly. But the protractedJepression of the thirties, by making marriage and family life forms ofprodigal extravagance left us with arelatively small number of young menand women to share all vocations, andthe proportion of these who chooseteaching is small enough to have ledto a kind of social crisis.This is about as far as simple arithmetic can take us by itself. It leavesus with the most difficult questionsto answer both about our policies and• our. assumptions. Why do so small ayjlpportion of young people choose toIBlcome teachers? Do we want moreto choose a teaching career? If so,what inducements ought our societyto offer, and how would one expectthem to work?It is evident that these questionscannot be answered without examining carefully our assumptions aboutthe purposes of education, and our knowledge of the functions whichschools actually serve in Americansociety. We must consider the waythe schools have become involved inthe life of our culture. This kind ofanalysis is not likely to make theproblem created by the teacher shortage disappear. But it may cause it toappear in a very different light.What makes the problem complexis the fact that the American schoolhas several disparate social functionswhich have become related in a verycomplicated way. Somewhere amongthese is found what is conventionallymeant by education, and often education of good quality. But there isenough diversity — indeed, inconsistency — of function to require a degreeof caution in attempting to understand just what kind of service ateacher shortage leaves us short of.If one were to approach a fairly-4 — >->->—»—>— ) — }— >I ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦By Edgar Z. Friedenberg, Ph.D. '46Assistant Professor, EducationBrooklyn CollegeAPRIL, 1957 5representative American school, likeGore Vidal's Visitor to a Small Planet,in a spirit of affectionate curiosityabout the way in which a likeable butbarbaric people conduct their peculiarinstitutions; and if one were to attempt to describe the several functions of the school in roughly descending order of* the influence theyseemed actually to exert on Americanlife as a whole, I believe one wouldcome out with something like this:First: the school is the scene ofthe indoctrination of young Americanswith a particular way of life conceivedmuch more as a process than as anideology. The principal agents of theindoctrination are the youngstersthemselves. The teachers play arather important role as manipulators of the mise en scene; but theyare not important as agents of directpropaganda, which, in fact, is seldomseriously attempted and is usuallyunsuccessful if it is.Second: the school is the hydraulicmechanism which provides a measureof social fluidity for a society whichis much more stratified and consciousof status than its values allow it toadmit. How a student handles himselfin school virtually determines his opportunity to get on in the world, ifthat is what he wishes; and whetheror not it is what he wishes virtuallydetermines what he will demand oreven accept from the school. Thestatus of his parents will be a majorfactor in determining which schoolshe may attend, and how he will betreated while there. In this the teachers function not only as manipulatorsof the mise en scene, but as agentsof their own social class, which isusually lower-middle, and of that immediately above it. They recruit forthe middle class and proselytize forits values. They are unlikely to reallytake the values of any other socialclass seriously, although they maytry to be tolerant of them.Third: The school processes, packages and merchandises some of theknowledge, concepts, and intellectualskills which have come to be valuedin the Western tradition of educatedcivility. The quality of this product,in my judgment, is usually underestimated. It is not as good as thatwhich a European secondary schoolof university -preparatory characteroffers its students. But it has been amajor factor in the recent growth of an educated middle-class which isintellectually alert, interested inmostof the arts, broadly liberal in point ofview and fairly well-informed. Thiseducated middle-class remains, however, too superficial in its education,and insufficiently confident of the authority of the mind, to use its culturalheritage as a source of meaning andsecurity in its own daily life.Fourth: The school serves as whatC. Wright Mills has called "a seed-bedof white collar skills." Also blue-collar, though with automation, theblue-collar is coming to be wornchiefly by individuals who areobliged to appear on old-fashionedblack-and-white television. It provides the minimum essentials of technical knowledge for a culture whichdevotes a good part of its technicalskill to developing apparatus whichis so nearly fool-proof as to demandvery little technique of most people.There is a certain minimum proficiency required to operate successfully even the kind of equipmentdesigned for our mass-market, whichis equally resistant to breakdown andto virtuosity. A huge reservoir ofthis sort of semi-skill is needed, andour schools turn it out. Teachersteach it. They also act as advisersto clubs— photographic, hot-rod, andthe like — which may demand a muchhigher level of performance , of students in the role of member thanthe teacher easily can in the classroom.Fifth: The school serves as anadministrative center for various services to young people: custodial, medical, vocational, psychological. It tendsto keep youngsters off the streets. Itgives them polio shots and chest X-rays and lunch. It helps them decidewhat they want to be, and sends letters of recommendation to prospectiveemployers and colleges. If a studenthas not been troublesome, it will officially assure various security officersthat he is probably a loyal American.It provides short-term psychotherapyto those who feel well enough to situp, and tries to locate a vacant couchfor those who feel that they probablyought to lie down. Most of these activities require the active participation of teachers as organizers and assources of information through innumerable personnel reports and referrals.Schools have other functions — such as providing athletic spectacles — thatmay be quite important as bases ofcommunity in small towns or neighborhoods — but these are the oneswhich a Visitor to a Small Planetwould be most likely to see as greatlyinvolved in the conduct of modernAmerican life. They are diverseenough that a teacher shortage mustclearly threaten a vital network ofrelated activity.But because these activities are related, and have worked out for themselves a kind of equilibrium on which,faulty as it is, we depend to someextent for normal life, we must beaware that we are dealing with anentire system and act accordingly. Wemust take into account how the measures we take against the shortage arelikely to alter this balance. The American school at best is a highly improbable kind of creature, adaptedthrough a peculiar evolutionary history to function in a country with anexceedingly tenuous moral and intellectual climate.V_Jne of the most potent factors indetermining where the equilibriumpoint among the school's functionswill be established is the kind of« character and competence prevalentamong teachers and school administrators. It is they who carry out thefunctions. It is their values whichcolor them. It is the meaning whichthey are able to perceive in art or lifewhich is communicated to students,and only this meaning among otherswhich students may discover for themselves which receives the school'sendorsement. It is the things whichseem to them worth writing downwhich get into the record; and it istheir point of view which determineswhether these things go down as goodor bad.We are not going to be able to getenough teachers who are good enoughto do all these things as well as theyought to be done. What we can do islook rather carefully at what thekinds of people who go into teachingnow are like, ask why they are likethat, and try to decide how to goabout getting a larger number insuch a way that they will be betterrather than worse. If that is impossible, we can try to get a larger number who are better in the more important ways and worse in the less6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe author, Edgar Z. Friedenberg, in arelaxed moment in his Brooklyn officeWerner Wolff-Black Starimportant ways — important, that is inmaintaining the balance of school activity in favor of the functions mostvitally important to a good life inAmerica.There is variety among teachers,as among all social groups, of course;but there are some characteristicswhich tend to recur among them, andsome kinds of social behavior whichthey show more frequently thanothers. Teaching is probably thecheapest professional role to achievein our society, and the most commonly available. Every communityhas teaching positions to fill, and theteacher is regarded as respectable, ifnot impressive. It is true that thereis often not enough money to permitthe teacher even to dress the part ofa respectable member of society; itis also true that teachers have muchless power, security, and chance forsocial participation than might reasonably be expected to go with a respected position in society. They arenot invited to the best peoples' best parties, and are often excluded by theattitudes of their communities fromthe ordinary recreations of our common life. They are likely to lose theirposition if they use it to buck thecommunity power structure in thename of intellectual integrity. Therespectability of the teacher is comparable to the royalty of a chess king;he is about the weakest and mostvulnerable piece on the board andis rigidly restricted in his movements.Still, there is no other equally respectable role in our society whichcan be obtained on the basis of education alone with so little financialoutlay. The certification requirementsfor a teacher can be met in virtuallyany college, including the one nearesthome; one need not go to the expenseof attending even the state university.The master's degree, if ultimatelysought for professional advancement,can be obtained in three summers oreven at night school while in service.No contacts are needed, no large sumof capital is required. The teacher's career is, therefore,likely to appeal disproportionately toyoung people of comparatively lowsocial status who wish to consolidatea slightly higher position; whose personality is already so constricted byeither anxiety or a barren early lifethat they do not demand much freedom of response and cannot reallyconceive of a highly imaginative,independent, and colorful existence.Such persons often cover their anxious posture with certain stereo-typically emotionalized attitudes. Theyare likely to be enthusiastic supporters of causes and viewpoints whichseem liberal to them: the United Nations, or group psychotherapy, or Italian films. They try to be warm andjolly; they like to have their classrooms decorated with pictures ofchildren in foreign costumes as atoken of their lack of prejudice; theytake these down in December and replace them with "holiday" ornamentsfrom which any actual reference toeither Christmas or Chanukkah isAPRIL, 1957 7carefully deleted for fear of givingoffense. But they show no real interest in trying to understand theobjects of their enthusiasm, and iftheir status- anxieties are mobilizedby getting a D in a course in whichthey might have learned somethingabout them they respond with petulant hostility.J_ have described these studentssimply as I have seen them; but theyare beginning to crop up in morescientific observations also. A most interesting set of papers was publishedfour years ago, entitled Exploratory Studies in Teacher Personality, (by Robert M. W. Travers, MarthaH. Page, William Rabinowitz and Eli-nore Nemovicher. It was publishedby the College of the City of NewYork, Division of Teacher Education,Office of Research and Evaluation.)These authors were investigating thepossibilities of the Rorschach test asa means of predicting the supervisoryratings students would receive in theirpractice teaching. Had the Rorschachproved ah efficient predictor in thisstudy it might possibly have been usedto screen applicants for practice teaching in succeeding years, but it couldnot have been applied in this way tothe subjects participating in the research, to whom its confidential nature was stressed. In the openingpaper, authors Page and Travers asserted of the subjects:A majority of the subjects werefirst or second generation Americans from the less formally educated and less prosperous segments of the population and wereamong the first of their familiesto attend college. They were socially mobile, using teaching notonly as an outlet for their energies and as a means of earning aliving and obtaining security, butalso as a step upward in the social scale.The research group found that "theindividual Rorschach records of theeducation students were characterizedfor the most part by a great deal ofrestraint and lack of high-level organizational activity." They observedthat "the students expressed nervousness and made many commentsduring the course of the test, such as,'is this right' . . . 'are you supposed tosee more than one thing', 'do otherpeople see this'," and that the protocols showed "much color and shad ing shock." The authors attribute theseresponses:. . . not so much [to] an indication of a basic personality disturbance as of a rigidity in theface of the unexpected in a situation where they felt it importantnot to do anything "abnormal."Their responses were increasinglyvague, diffuse, and stereotyped onthe critical cards but only in afew instances bizarre.It is neither astonishing nor deplorable that in the American climateof the early nineteen-fifties studentsshould have been anxious about thepurposes to which even a bona-fideresearch study would be put. But theway in which these students expressedtheir anxiety was ignoble.Persons such as these and the onesI described, when abundantly presentin the corps of teachers and school administrators, affect the equilibriumamong the school's social functions byvirtually obliterating the third whileexaggerating most of the others. Theyuncritically — indeed, unconsciously —proceed to indoctrinate students withthe conception of democracy whichstresses compromise, co-operation,teamwork, and being inconspicuous.They almost instinctively sacrifice liberty and fraternity to equality whenever a choice must be made. Theyhave deep and persistent unresolvedanxieties about social status whichare likely to make them unduly responsive to the "niceness" of middle-class children and either hostile tolower-class children or benevolentlyanxious to sell them on middle-classbehavior. They are well aware ofthe power of a cumulative recordfile and develop some dexterity inusing it for administrative purposes.But they impede any use of educationfor liberal purposes; any use of thearts or literature to illuminate one'sown life and bind one deeply andsecurely to the rest of mankind; anyuse of scholarship and the intellect astools for exploring the meaning ofhuman dignity.I believe that their influence oncontemporary education lies at theroot of the condition about whichLionel Trilling has so thoughtfullyand movingly expressed concern inhis recent Mid-Century Essay on"Freud and the Crisis in our Culture:"We carefully dissociate ourselves from the reactionary elementsthat attack modern modes of education, and still we come moreand more to believe that the elaborate ideology of "integrationwith the group," of "cooperation," of "whole development,"or "social studies" and "communication arts" is in effect thehighly intellectualized rationalization of some deep-seated anti-intellectualism. We know thatthe conscious intention of thispedagogy is to foster equality anddemocracy and good will, but webegin to perceive that it is hostile to distinction, and to mind,and to accuracy of thought, andat a moment in our history whendistinction, and mind, and accuracy of thought were never moreneeded. Devoted as this pedagogyis to the ideal of integrating theself with society and culture, wecome increasingly to believe thatthe self it conceives is far frombeing what we hope the self maybe.It seems to me imperative that inour attempt to break the teachershortage, we attempt also to establisha basis for recruitment which willattract a larger proportion of personswho are intellectually precise, securein their conception of themselves, andaccustomed to participate withoutself-consciousness in the more generous aspects of our cultural heritage.This would certainly preclude anylowering of standards at this time. Itwould preclude any crash-programsdesigned to enlist individuals who aremarginal according to the criteriawhich are already operative. Theteaching profession makes short-runexpedients particularly perilous because of the way it operates. Mediocrity today means mediocrity -with-tenure tomorrow, which is a scourgeMoses would have hesitated to invokeon the Egyptians though they may yetinvoke it upon themselves.We have no choice then but to compete with other professions for moreof the best. How successfully thiscan be done is an open question. Butit is clear enough that there are several things we could do which oughtto be fairly effective.The most urgent measures seem tome to be those which would directly enhance the dignity of teaching.Teaching, it is well to remember, isthe one career which is never chosenblindly. Every young man or womanin a position to choose to become ateacher must be a college student.This means that he has been a par-8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEticipant observer of the teachingprofession in all its aspects for twelveyears. He knows quite definitely whatkinds of people he will spend his lifeamong and what his working conditions will be if he becomes a teacher.The most positive influence in gettingbetter teachers would be the kindsof schools in which the pupils themselves come to think of teachers asflourishing individuals whose* life itwould be pleasant to share.This means, among other things,that the growing belief that teachersmust be paid more is valid. We are aless materialistic people than we arereputed to be, and the values ofleisure and "togetherness" seem to ,be making us, superficially at least,even less so. But money and a decentstandard of living are to be takenseriously. I doubt if we want to drawinto teaching many young people whowould voluntarily choose to maintaintheir families on an income whichcould never be expected to exceed$5,000 per year. Their reasons for thechoice may be noble, but they mayalso be pretty frightening. And evenif the best possible teachers were willing to work for this, it seems a ratherdiscriminatory form of taxation whichwould take the costs of public education out of their hides.But higher salaries, though, necessary, will not be sufficient. We needalso to conduct the profession in sucha way that its very great satisfactionsmay be * more fully utilized by thekinds of people who would make thebest teachers; We need to make teaching most satisfying to these people,even at some expense of anxiety andloss of status to those who havemerely taken refuge in it.The deepest satisfaction whichteaching affords is the sense that oneis taking part in the growth of youngerindividuals. To this end all the resources of the school should be directed. These resources vary greatly;the most useful and familiar are cultural and intellectual. But equallyvalid are certain other resources,technical- and clinical, which the professional curriculum of educationstresses today. One cannot thrust acopy of King Lear into the hands ofan emotionally disturbed fifteen-yearold with third-grade reading ability;he will not know what to do with it.One cannot thrust a copy of Silas'Marner at a bright sixteen-year oldAPRIL, 1957 Red Falcon in a South Chicago highschool. He will know what to do withit, and will tell you. For these youngsters the instruments of growth, initially at least, must be different. Butfor the teacher the satisfaction stillcomes from participating in an increased awareness, from seeing theseand other young people become increasingly able to make sense oflarger and more complex chunks oftheir own experience.A correlative satisfaction of majorimportance is the sense that there iscommunication established betweenoneself as a teacher and the individualchildren or adolescents in one's class.The experience of childhood or adolescence is so different from that ofadulthood that this is both a majortechnical feat and a constant source ofrefreshment and renewal. To a goodteacher, spending six hours a day witha group of youngsters may be as fineas spending them in London — andbetter than spending them in Paris,now that Madison Avenue has beenextended directly into the Champs-Elysee. Some parts of London, I grant,are pretty rough, and others dull; butthen, well, there it is.J_ eaching is. craftsmanship. It canbe scamped in places where thereisn't too much stress and it doesn'tshow. But it must not be shabby-genteel, fussy, and constrained. Whenit is — there is your real shortage. Wecannot afford to have empty classrooms; and we certainly cannot affordto send into them teachers whosepresence will make them even emptierthan they were before. We need individuals of high fidelity over theentire range of human experience.In our present system there is a paradoxical tendency to twitter over thelow notes and to fail to reproduce thehigh notes at all.Can this be corrected as the systemis expanded? It can certainly bemuch improved. We already havebetter teachers than we have paid for,and I should think better than wedeserve, considering how we treatthem. To me, one of the most heartening signs is the frequency withwhich real conflict has developed andcontinues to exist within many schoolsbetween protagonists of the old andthe new education, despite the presence among the tenets of the new of an article which prescribes co-operation in virtually every situation thisside of the grave. The charges whichmay properly be leveled against modern modes of education with referenceto their hyperdemocracy and falsepersonalization are certainly mostserious. But I do not think there isa doubt that modern education, including progressive education andeven its pseudotypes, is based on anattitude toward pupils that is infinitelymore respectful and understandingof them than older school practices.This, basically, is what counts; andall the evidence we have been ableto gather indicates that it is beingachieved with some gain, rather thanloss, in academic achievement bycomparable group of pupils. In todays' schools, there is a real chancefor the kind of education which enhances individual growth and forrelationships between student andteacher which use both in a humancapacity. That this is true, to the extent that it is, is why the teaching profession already attracts a fair proportion of the kind of people whomI think will contribute most to it.But it would attract more, and theteacher shortage could therefore bereduced with less risk, if we couldabate some of the nuisances whichhave developed within the profession,though they are certainly not peculiarto it. Anti-intellectualism is rife. Itusually takes the form of an aggressive contempt for any sort of finenessof discrimination, based on a conviction that this is a snobbish adornmentwhich isolates one from colleaguesand students. It can rarely be reliedupon to do so, however, when a littleisolation would be welcome. There isan utter lack of confidence in theauthority — though not the validity—of any individual decision. Every action or policy must be ratified by acommittee. This committee will bedoomed, I am convinced, to sit in afterlife in the only room in Hell with anair-conditioning system. The thermostat will be calibrated in Centigradeunits, with which several of the members will be perfectly familiar. Andthey will all broil for eternity at70°C, because no one will risk definingthe problem in terms which his neighbor might not understand. Nevertheless, the committee will continue toperform in Hell the same functions it(Continued on Page 29)9Miss Beulah Shoesmith, 77, holds out arms to welcome a former studentMany Thanks, Miss Shoesmith"G1i IVE an Oscar to a Teacher,"wrote Bernard Baruch recently,in giving advice to citizens for uplifting morale in the undermanned teaching ranks.Inspired by his words, two fathersin Hyde Park's Ray School P.T.A. initiated a project which culminated ina university scholarship being namedfor Miss Beulah Shoesmith, SB '03,former mathematics teacher at HydePark High School. The scholarshipwill go to a student of her choice andmay be used at Chicago, I.I.T. orNorthwestern. It will be donated bythe university chosen.The two fathers, Vories Fisher, PhB'22, and Roger Hildebrand, AssociateProfessor of Physics, sought out a suc cessful citizen and asked him to nominate the teacher who had most influenced his life.Chester Laing, PhB '32, president ofJohn Nuveen & Co., was their choice,and he nominated Miss Shoesmith."Had she not encouraged me, I wouldnever have gone to college," he toldthe gathering.Dr. Joel Hildebrand, father of Roger,and Professor Emeritus of Chemistry atthe U. of California, flew in especiallyto speak at the event. He praised MissShoesmith and "all teachers who makemathematics an adventure" to theirstudents.Afterward, several hundred personsfiled across Ray School stage to bringgreetings to their former teacher.Old and young alike were greetedaffectionately by Miss Shoesmith"You haven't changed a bit!"she cries to beaming man A moment of deep emotion, asone beloved student returnsVories Fisher, (1.), ChesterLaing and their honor guestSome brought their children toshow off to their old teacher Photos by Archie Lieberman-Black StarWhen their civilization crumbled, the ancient Assyrians lefta magnificent written history, most of it on small clay tablets.With the publication of the first two volumes of its AssyrianDictionary, the Oriental Institute provides an important toolfor further understanding of this ancient culture.THEY WROTE ON CLAYBecause little stone existed intheir land, and papyrus was nonexistent, men of ancient Assyria usedclay from the banks of the Tigris andEuphrates Rivers for writing materials. It was a lucky choice. Clayis nearly indestructible, and fromthousands of small clay tablets foundin the Near East, Assyrologists todaycan spell out knowledge of civilizations which existed over 3,000 yearsago.A major step towards the understanding of the ancient cultures ofSumer, Babylonia and Assyria wastaken recently with the Oriental Institute's publication of the first twovolumes of the Assyrian Dictionary. The dictionary, which is entirely inEnglish, will eventually run to twentyvolumes. The first two volumes, published jointly with J. J. Augustin ofGluckstadt, Germany, cover the letters G and H.Why start publication with the letter H? This is not so strange as itseems, explain the editors, becausegood judgment suggested beginningwhere the linguistic and philologicalproblems were least complicated.Eventually expected to embracesome 30,000 words, the dictionary hasrequired the services of fifty scholars,cost $800,000 and been thirty-fiveyears in the making. When the lastof the twenty volumes is published, (probably not for another decade),this will be the most comprehensivedictionary of the largest of the Ian- -guages of the ancient world. It willsell for about $10 a volume.The editorial board for the dictionary is headed by A. Leo Oppen-heim, Professor of Assyriology.Working with him are ThorkildJacobsen, Professor of Social Institutions; Benno Landsberger, Professor Emeritus of Assyriology; EricaReiner, and Michael Rowton, Research Associates; and Richard T.Hallock, Editorial Secretary. Ignace(Jay) Gelb, Professor of Assyriology,who worked on the project for sometime, has now turned to other work.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe dictionary sums up what isknown of the language written^ intiny marks on clay by the inhabitantsof what is today Iraq.Thousands upon thousands of claytablets (plus inscriptions on stoneand metal) have been decipheredto gather the two million referencecards that are being used to makethe dictionary. Text sources comenot only from the Oriental Institute,but from institutes and museums allover the world which have collectedthe tablets. Many scholarly publications have furnished transliterationsand translations from the tablets.The oldest tablets used date backbefore 2,000 B.C., the latest onesfrom about 100 A.D. The tablets camefrom many sites in the Near East,from Iran to Egypt.Included in the original texts are40,000 private letters and businessdocuments, as well as literary, governmental, religious and scientifictexts.The definitions are extensive inmany cases, citing several knownuses of words.Although named the Assyrian Dictionary, it is actually a dictionary ofAkkadian, the dominant and oldestknown Semitic language. Akkadianis a collective term, including boththe Assyrian arid Babylonian dialects.Akkadian cuneiform developedfrom earlier Sumerian picture writing. The rise of the Akkadian syllabic system also mirrored the riseof abstract concepts in writing.By picturing an object the Sumerian writer was at the disadvantage of not always being able to communicate the right idea. A picture ofa foot might mean both a portion ofthe anatomy and the idea "to walk."This method left too much to theimagination to assure the exactnessthat all writing should have.Gradually, however, each picturewas associated with the sounds ofthe name of the object represented.If the Sumerian word 'for mountainwas pronounced "/cur", so the signfor mountain suggested the samesounds. ("Kur" is actually threesounds.) In this way different soundscame to be associated with the pictures of things they indicated.Scholars of antiquity must haverealized that, if they could representsounds instead of ideas, messagescould be transmitted with precision and greater abstraction of ideaswould result. This phonetic form ofwriting was most effective in the caseof verbs, where past, present, andfuture could be represented.Originally all pictograms were ascomplete and beautiful as the scribedesired. But it was obvious thatsome stereotyping had to be done toprevent the confusion of one signwith another. Thus, gradually thedifferent pictures lost a good partof their beauty, retaining just enoughof the essential features to be clearlyidentified.The type of writing called cuneiform resulted from the use of clayfor writing material. It was foundthat one could make a picture in theclay much more effectively by impressing than by scratching. A styluswith a triangular end was used toimpress these pictures. Because thestylus could best produce only shortstraight lines, all curving lines had togo. A circle was represented not bya sweeping curve, but by the impression of the stylus which left a triangular mark.The peculiar demands of the stylusand clay led to greater and greaterstandardization in writing. If a plowcould be represented in six wedges,why use twelve? Why extra flourishes when the sign was recognizable?Pictures as such were entirelygiven up. Now the scribes wrote almost entirely in signs, each signpossessing a particular sound value.The dictionary is essential for thestudy of ancient history because Akkadian was the language used in thediplomacy of the ancient world. Fragments of clay tablets found in Egypt indicate that, as early as 1500 B.C.,diplomatic correspondence betweenthe Pharoahs of Egypt and rulers ofother nations was carried on in theAkkadian language.The history of the Near East isthe story of continual upheaval andquest for power. Ancient Sumer wasconquered by Babylon; Babylon,flourishing; for centuries, was defeated by the armies of Assyria whoestablished their rule from the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf. Eachcivilization brought something newto the area.The words in the dictionary are amajor clue to the nature of thesecivilizations. The beginnings of science are recorded in the many chemical, mathematical, astronomical, andpharmaceutical terms listed by thedictionary compilers.By 2000 B.C. the Babylonians hadalready formulated the fundamentallaws of mathematics— laws whichwere not rediscovered by the Greeksuntil fifteen hundred years later. Unlike the primitive method of countingby the fingers, which gave rise toour present decimal system, theBabylonians had evolved the sexagesimal system in which the unit wasnot ten, but sixty.In many cases the sexagesimal system may have been superior to thedecimal system. For while the decimal system permits exact factoringby only 2, 5, and 10, sixty can befactored evenly by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12,and 15.Actually the system was so effective that we still follow it in somecases. The circle is still divided into360 degrees, the hour into 60 minutes,and the minute into 60 seconds.Again, the Near East gave riseto the first algebra as well as geometry. The concepts of logarithms andzero were also established.The livelihood of an ancient peopleis reflected in the many specific termsfor cattle and sheep breeding, a farmore detailed vocabulary than theone used by modern cowboys andsheepherders.The extent of ancient metallurgyis indicated in the words showingthat iron, copper, bronze, gold, andsilver were all worked by long-deadAssyrian craftsmen.The ancient Babylonians, who contributed the first unified legal code(Continued on page 29)APRIL, 1957 13One who has been initiated into the ranksdescribes that mythical creature, the trustee Trustees are a species of men notlisted in the categories of the anthropologists, nor yet discovered bythe social scientists. They may beroughly, though inadequately, described as money-bearing animals,who may be found in the vicinity oftheir sheepskin-covered associates.. ^'^^__l^_I_________i^ %MONEY-BEARINGANIMALSW^\ Ku*i/<r— In the only thoughtful study oftrustees which I have seen, a trusteeof the Institute of Advanced Studyand a Fellow of Yale University, Wil-marth S. Lewis, has this to say aboutthe species:"Considering how much time isgiven to talking about trustees it isremarkable that people should be somuddled about them. They are regarded with esteem, , envy and suspicion; they are honored, and caricatured. ... So far as the faculty isconcerned, trustees are all but mythical. The average scholar knows littleabout what they do; he may nevermeet one."Perhaps that's true at Yale or theInstitute for Advanced Study. Certainly the purpose of this dinner mustbe to prove that trustees are notmythical and that it is extraordinarilyeasy to meet one.It is a matter of confession that myown attitude toward trustees untilI became one was compounded equallyof ignorance and indifference. TheAlumni Foundation, on which Iserved for some years, used the Trustees' Board Room for our meetings.But who peopled it or why, when wewere not there, I neither knew norinquired. Then one day a trusteefriend (I knew him as a friend, notas a trustee) told me in advance ofany official notice that my name hadcome before the Board, and I was tobe invited to serve as a trustee. This,said he, was a working board, onethat got things done, one to be proud14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof. Instead of being proud, I wasconsterned. Heaven and I both knewthat I was too busy to take on anotherassignment! So I took the messagehome with some perplexity to mywife.Now I am indebted to the University for my wife, as I am indebted toher for so many things. She took herdegree here, then taught Freshmanand Sophomore English until I persuaded her to concentrate on a smallerclass. With our five children we ultimately raised enrollment to six, butaccording to agreement I remainedher principal preoccupation. As youcan see by this composition, we arestill slogging away at SophomoreEnglish. Now it is a great gift ofhers that she always knows what Ithink before I do. This is generous,timesaving and reduces wear andtear on my mental equipment. Atthe University, Mary had been anAide, a Nu Pi Sigma and Phi BetaKappa, and she has an abiding affection for this great institution. Herreply to my plaint was simple: "Nogreater honor will ever be paid you."I realized instantly that that waswhat I thought all along, and like thenervous bridegroom I'm sure I said"yes" to Mr. Ryerson and Mr. Donnelley before they even asked thequestion. That is how I became atrustee. A Daniel come to judgment.But curiously enough all this gaveme no background whatever aboutthe other members of the Board. Whatdid their wives tell them? Of the 35Active Trustees only 14 studied atthe University of Chicago. The otherswere less kindly dealt with by Fate,coming from Harvard (8 in all), Yale(there are 6), Princeton (2) — as wellas Carleton, California, Williams,Florida, Iowa State, Maryville, Wooster and other outposts of learning.Our university has become their University, not through an earlier attachment, but because of the greatthings the University does, what itrepresents, and the hope it offers forthe future.I mentioned Active Trustees a moment ago. There are also 18 Honorary Trustees who deserve a wordof explanation. The only differencethat I have discovered is that themembers of the second group havecome to the period when all theirother work is expected to be honorary, so they can devote their entire energies to the University. Namingno names, though I should like to, Ican confide to you that the HonoraryTrustees by their vigor, their devotion and their driving power put mostof the Active Trustees to the blush.J_ he Yale trustee whom I quotedearlier reminds me that graduateshave their own point of view abouttrustees. Let me quote: "If you walkinto any university club at the endof an afternoon you will find groupsof graduates talking about some aspect of university affairs that theywould like to see altered. The subject of these colloquies may be theuniversity's lack of a cosmotron ora Gutenberg Bible; the subject couldbe the desirability of hiring a football coach who could win games instead of losing them. ... At lengthsomeone will ask, whatever the subject may be, 'Why don't the trusteesdo something?' Heads shake sadly;the last glass is put down; the groupgoes silently home to dinner; it is alltoo clear that the trustees will donothing whatever."Indeed, the prerogative of everygraduate is the privilege of complaining. Sins of commission seem moreheavily inveighed against than sinsof omission. The graduate wishes theuniversity to remain as he remembers it. The same buildings, the samecourses, the same professors are tobe timeless and unchanged. Underthese circumstances, it is understandable that we here have given them agood deal to be uneasy about. TheUniversity has not remained unaltered. The football decision was, ofcourse, the shrewdest blow of all, andon the Alumni Foundation we heardabout it endlessly. Then came theother innovations, in curricula, acceleration, the change in the B.A. —which were only half-heard by thealumni and even less understood.They were all resented. The University had changed. And now, paradoxically, we meet a generation ofgraduates, brought up under theseinnovations, who scold about anychange in them.This article is adapted from atalk given by Earle Ludgin atthe annual dinner held by theBoard of Trustees in honor ofthe faculty. What part does a trustee play insuch decisions?The function of the trustee at theUniversity of Chicago was made cogently clear by President Harper. Hesaid: "It is clearly recognized thatthe Trustees are responsible for thefinancial administration of the University, but that to the Faculties belongs in the fullest extent the care ofthe educational administration."That dictum has not been changedor shaded in all the intervening years.However, what comes as an unexpected revelation to a freshman trustee is the importance of the financialadministration — the bald fact thatmoney and education are inseparable.Too little of one means too little ofthe other. The fathers of Oxford in1426 found this out, to use a modernand inelegant phrase, the hard way.In a letter to the Duke of Gloucesterthey used these blandishments: "Whataim can be more noble than the advancement of learning, which raisesman above the beasts and lifts himtoward a higher life? It was a divineinspiration that suggested a foundation of lectures, and we hope the intention will be fully carried out. Letnot poverty, that cursed stepmotherof learning, disappoint us of ourhopes."The next surprise is in the amountof money required to thwart poverty,that cursed stepmother of learning.Perhaps you saw the newspaper reports recently on the financial statusof the University. One paragraphread: "The University of Chicago inthe fiscal year ended June 30, 1956,spent $37,343,381 and had in its investment portfolio endowment fundswith a market value of 165 milliondollars. . . . Not included in these expenditures was $24,779,815 disbursedby the University in its role as manager of the Argonne National Laboratory for the Atomic Energy Commission." Thus the total expendituresby and through the University for asingle year reached the figure of morethan 60 millions of dollars. In theseterms, the University represents ahuge business enterprise in itself.There is something acerb in theremark that we all have heard thatthe Board of Trustees consists onlyof business men, and I should like todeal with it for a moment. "Merebusiness men" is the usual phrase.What is meant is that the BoardAPRIL, 1957 15Author and Trustee EarleLudgin is also famous asa collector of modern art Arnold Newmanboasts no philosophers, scholars, experimental physicists or ruminants.Designations like these, however, arenot to be trusted. Remember, CharlesDarwin, when he lived in the villageof Down in Kent, was listed in thelocal register as "Charles Darwin,farmer." We do have a distinguishedscientist on the Board, but in generalwe can agree that the Schweitzers,the Toynbees, the Andre Malrauxes, the Ortegas, the Fermis and the Ein-steins belong on your side of the dividing line. They belong to the Faculties.On our side belong the businessmen. But they are business men whoare not "mere business men." Thepresident of one of the world's greatbanks, the vice presidents of twoothers, heads of great industrial organizations, financiers, real estate specialists, insurance executives, lawyers — men with notable careers inbusiness — are not "mere" by anystandard. If they choose to be philosophers on the side, as WallaceStevens managed to be a poet as wellas an executive, they are free to beboth, so long as their avocation doesnot interfere with their financialjudgment. But they must be businessmen first, philosophers second, or we16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEshould have to yield them to you.It has been somewhat the fashionto denigrate business as a whole, soit was with interest and some pleasure that I read Herbert J. Muller's"The Uses of the Past" published byOxford University Press. Some ofyou would have to attest to his scholarship; I can only present his pointof view. In a section called "The Material Basis of Civilization" he says:"It would seem obvious that material wealth and power are the essential basis of civilization, and that theyare essentially only the basis, themeans to other ends. No high civilization, no golden age, has beenpoor and weak. The creation andtransmission of the spiritual achievements of a society depend upon itsmaterial achievements; its monuments testify to both its artists andits technological power, its ideals andits wealth. . . . Arrested commerceis one of the surest signs of a civilization in decay."If it is the work of the Board tolook after the financial well-being ofthe University, it may be said thatthat well-being is predicated on the"material wealth and power" thatMuller speaks of.Xou all know the electric chargethat went through the Universitywhen it was decided by the Boardthat the funds they administeredwere insufficient for the needs of thisgreat university. Those needs, as outlined by you and your colleagues,were vital, and sobering. In the efforts that followed you have generously shared.Now I do not wish to dwell on theCampaign except to point out someof its less familiar aspects. Committees were formed by the Board ofTrustees whose names indicate theirfunction: Campaign Steering Committee, Committee on the Law School,Committee on Corporations, ProspectRating and General Gift Committee,and others. The names of thousandsof prospective donors were "screened"in meetings that were held three daysa week for interminable weeks. Thenspecific names were assigned to trustees and campaign workers, with adossier of all available informationon each prospect. The Alumni wereorganized in 252 cities. The Citizens' Board of Chicago business men entered the Campaign.Every trustee, honorary or active,could look back on his leisure as ifit were dated B.C. — before the Campaign. Calls were to be made on individuals of wealth, on corporationsand on the great foundations. Meanwhile, the trustees themselves pledged$4,000,000 to the Campaign. In addition they go all ways, preaching thegospel. Perhaps they remember thatPresident Harper was once introduced as the greatest beggar in theworld, to which he replied: "I havenever begged a dollar in my life —but I have given a lot of people greatopportunities of usefulness."This reminds me that I am oftenasked if all trustees are wealthy. Ihave two answers. The first is thatif one has to be wealthy to be a trustee, I represent a typographical error.The other answer is that they aren'tas wealthy as they were. No onecould give four* million dollars andnot feel it.The Yale trustee whom I quotedearlier has this to say about one otherphase of the responsibilities of trustees: "Today trustees have a stillfurther duty, and that is to bridgethe gulf of ignorance that divides theprofessionals (the scholars) and thelaity (the graduates" and friends ofthe institution whose continuing giftsare necessary to its welfare)."As part of this function at theUniversity there are nine VisitingCommittees on: Medical and Biological Research, Student Interests, theSchool of Business, the Humanities,the Social Sciences, the Law School,the Oriental Institute, Social ServiceAdministration and Social Thought.Through these committees an appreciable number of sympathetic peopleare brought into more intensive contact with the University.My own opinion is that the Visiting Committees serve also to informand train the trustees. So vast a complex as the University cannot begrasped or studied fully by each trustee. By concentrating on one or twofractions of the whole, he can buildup a useful and workable body ofinformation.As yet I have not even referred tothe Area effort. In many ways thetask of saving the University community, of rebuilding and revivifyingit, is one of the most imaginative and important programs undertaken bythe University. The besetting problems are not easy, and no other university, though some have similarproblems, has set out to solve themin so bold and forthright a manner.The Chancellor was among the firstto see the corroding effect in the area,and to feel the compulsion to find asolution. He was closely followed bythe trustees. The pattern set heremay influence the growth and welfare of American cities for the nextseveral generations..T___nd now as I pause for breath, myconscience overtakes me. It was notthe intention of the trustees to inviteyou here, and then belabor you withtheir virtues. You have only myselfto blame. You have been a captiveaudience indeed.But what I hope I have indicatedis that the trustees are men who,like yourselves, are devoted to Education and to this great University.Perhaps the difference is that yourdedication came early and led youright into education. Theirs camelater, after they had gone into theworld first. Let me remind you thatthey had for precedents gentle Francis of Assisi and the great GautamaBuddha.What they would have accomplished if they had reversed the procedure, no man can guess. I thinkthey would have been as formidablein the world of the mind as they havebeen in the world of money. Winston Churchill phrased a somewhatparallel case most aptly, as is hiswont, when he addressed both Housesof Congress and reminded them thatalthough his father was British, hismother had been an American. Hadit been the other way 'round, he said,standing sturdily in our counterpartof the House of Commons, he ratherfancied "he might have made it thereon his own." So I think, had thingsbeen the other way 'round, many ofthe trustees might have made it toyour side "on their own."As it is, I can say for them thatthey are proud to help you in yourown dedicated work of teaching,healing, searching — pushing the frontiers of knowledge outward, everoutward.And I am inexpressibly proud tobe of their number.APRIL, 1957 17The Great Galaxy M.-31 in the Constellation Andromeda. This is thenearest galaxy to our own, and resembles it in many ways. The darkrifts are enormous cosmic dust cloudsjrom which stars are thought to form.In each galaxy there may be 100 million planets on which life exists.Yerkes Observatory PhotosLife On Other Planets?Two important chemical discoveries add weight to astronomers' theory that primitive life exists on other worldsBy Carl Sagan, AB '54, SB '55, SM '56National Science Foundation FellowIs there life on other worlds? Ifother planets can support lifechemically as we know it here onearth, how does this relate to theorigin of life itself?Scientists have long speculated onthe theory that life in its most primitive form may be the next step incosmic evolution after the formationof planets. While this is still only atheory, new ideas on planetary originand recent discoveries in chemistry have given it support.For example, forty million milesfrom Earth, at this writing, is Mars,a planet colder than the earth, withno oxygen in its atmosphere, andlittle water on its surface. A mantransported to Mars would gasp anddie — and most other familiar organisms would also perish.Yet, for over half a century astronomers have observed slight seasonalcolor variations on the planet; vari-18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEations apparently coinciding with theavailability of water. These havebeen interpreted as evidence for plantlife on Mars, life specifically adaptedto the rigors of the Martian environment. If the reported color changesare real, there seems to be no otherreasonable interpretation.Further, recent marginal spectroscopic observations by W. M. Sintonof Harvard suggest that there may bemolecules with C-H bonds on thesurface of Mars. Carbon and hydrogen are fundamental elements forall terrestrial organisms, and thechemical bond combining them is essential for the structure of proteins,nucleic acids, and other biologicalbuilding blocks. Is it possible, then,that the same sort of life, similarin its basic chemical makeup, hasoriginated twice in the same solarsystem? While speculative in someof its details, the general pattern ofcosmic evolution is fairly well established.Cosmic evolution begins with anenormous cosmic dust cloud, such asexists today between the stars. Sucha cloud has a "cosmic" abundance ofthe elements, being composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, withonly a small admixture of heavier elements. Here and there matter will besomewhat more dense than in nearbyregions. The more diffuse regions willbe gravitationally attracted to thedenser region, which, in consequence,will grow in size and mass. As matter streams in towards the condensing central nucleus, conservation ofangular momentum will cause thewhole region, nucleus and streamingmatter, to rotate faster and faster.In addition, as large amounts ofmatter continue to collide with thenucleus, its temperature will steadilyrise. After perhaps a hundred mil-APRIL, 1957 lion years, the temperature at thecenter of the cloud will have risento about fifteen million degrees. Thisis the ignition temperature for thermonuclear reactions, (such as theconversion of hydrogen to helium inthe hydrogen bomb). At this timethe nucleus of the cloud will becomea star, "turning on" and radiatinglight and heat into nearby space. Ifthe rotation is sufficiently fast, theforming star will separate under certain conditions into smaller parts,producing a double or multiple starsystem.Now as the star forms, there stillis a large dust cloud surrounding thestar and rotating with it. In thiscloud, the solar nebula, small, denserregions begin attracting nearby matter, as in star formation. However,the protoplanets that grow from theseregions, (in the gravitational field ofthe nearby star), never rise by col-lisional heating to the thermonuclearignition temperature, and so becomeplanets and not stars.How planets are formed in thismanner has been described in recentyears by Gerard P. Kuiper, Professorof Astronomy at Yerkes Observatory.In the forming protoplanets, therewould be a tendency for the heavierelements to sink to the center, leaving the much more abundant hydrogen and helium as the principalconstituents of the atmosphere surrounding the new planets. When thenewly formed star "turns on," radiation pressure will tend to blow awaythis atmosphere.However, if the protoplanet is verymassive, or very far from the sun,the gravitational attraction of theprotoplanet for a gas molecule maybe greater than the force of radiation trying to blow it away, and theJupiter, (left), is the largest planet inour system. We see only the enormoushydrogen and helium atmosphere.Mars, (right), showing the polar cap,composed of ice. Melting of the iceeach year releases water for the darkareas, which are thought to be vegetation, similar chemically to earth's. protoplanet may retain an atmosphere. This atmosphere can be residual from the proto-atmosphere, ormay be due to gaseous exhalationsfrom the planetary interior. For example, the earth's present atmosphereis due to exhalations; Jupiter's present atmosphere is residual.In such a way, one can understand,generally, the atmospheres of theplanets in this solar system:(1) Mercury — not massive, close tothe sun, retains negligible atmosphere.(2) Venus — more massive thanMercury, further from the sun,retains only the heavy gas,carbon dioxide.(3) Earth — retains the lightergases, nitrogen, oxygen, andwater vapor, but has lost almost all hydrogen and helium.(4) Mars — although further fromthe sun, is less massive than"Earth or Venus, and so retainsprincipally only the heavy gas,carbon dioxide.(5) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune — much further from thesun, and very massive, theyretain much hydrogen and helium, while the other planetshave lost theirs.One fact about our solar systemwhich has rung the death knell ofmany cosmogonies is the fact thatalthough over 99 per cent of the massof the solar system is in the sun, over98 per cent of the angular momentum of the system is in the planets.It is as if the rotational inertia hasbeen transferred from the sun to theplanets. This has been explained byH. Alfven of the Royal Institute ofTechnology in Stockholm as a magnetic braking of the sun's rotation,(Continued on Page 28) Yerkes Observatory PhotosIDTHE BIG SURPRISETVfOBODY paid much attention to a rumor that swept campus on Feb-ruary 28, saying that a rally would be held that night to honor retiringCoach Nels Norgren and Team Captain Billy Lester, both taking part intheir final basketball game with the Maroons. At 4:55 the rumor becamefact, as a startled dean of students gave permission for a bonfire in front ofthe Administration Building. Sans uniforms, (see right), a 23-piece bandturned out, cheerleaders (who knew we had any?) shook mothballs out ofmaroon-and-white outfits, and the rally was on. A parade formed at thefraternity houses, snaked its way to the C-Group and Burton-Judson, pausedto sing on the Chancellor's steps, and went on to Bartlett Gym, torches blazing, to cheer itself hoarse for a somewhat surprised team. Afterwards students snake-danced around a bonfire at the circle. No one seemed at all putout by the final score, University of Illinois (Navy Pier) 65, Chicago 62.Morton Shapiro PhotosB1W ___r^^^Vl__22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEaster Sunday service at Rockefeller Memorial Chapelwill be televised by a Chicago television station,WGN-TV, Channel 9. The program will start at 11 A.M.on Sunday, April 21, and will run for ninety minutes.Richard E. Vikstrom will direct the Rockefeller ChapelChoir, and Heinrich Fleischer will be at the organ.John B. Thompson, Dean of Rockefeller Chapel, willgive the sermon.On Palm Sunday, April 14, the Chapel Choir andmembers of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra will givetheir bi-annual presentation of the St. Matthew Passionby J. S. Bach. The performance will begin at 3 P.M.Admission will cost $2 a ticket, $1 for students.Soloists will include Denis Cowan as the evangelist;Marian Davis, Roger Pillet, Henry Noel, and AndrewFoldi.Grant for Foreign Policy CenterThe Carnegie Corporation has awarded a grant of$142,500 to the Center for the Study of American ForeignPolicy.The new Carnegie grant continues work done underprevious grants and will be used over a five-year periodto continue the Center's research.Directed by Hans J. Morgenthau, Professor of PoliticalScience, the Center conducts a program of research inAmerican foreign policy. Research projects are beingcarried out in three areas: foreign policies of Americanstatesmen, development and principles of United Statesforeign policy, and contemporary problems of. UnitedStates foreign policy.Visiting AuthorsFour contemporary authors will teach a special courseon "The Writing of Fiction and Poetry" at the Universityduring the spring quarter, which opened March 25.Saul Bellow, author of "The Adventures of AugieMarch" and two other novels, "Dangling Man" and "TheVictim," and of a recently published book of shorter fiction, "Seize the Day" will be one of the four visitinginstructors. Bellow is a former student at the University,and "Augie March" has a Chicago background.Another of the writers, John Berryman, who has published three volumes of poetry, the latest being "Homageto Mistress Anne Bradstreet" and a biography of StephenCrane, is also a prize winning short story writer.Howard Nemerov, poet and novelist, and Peter Taylor,short story writer and novelist, are the two other members of the teaching group.Nemerov's most recent book of poems is "The SaltGarden." Known as a satirical and witty writer, he haspublished two novels, "The Melodramatists" and "Fedrigo,Stephen Lewellyn PhotoThe "C" bench in front of Cobb Hall makes a charming spot in which to study or relax on a spring day.APRIL, 1957 NEWS OF THEQUADRANGLESAN INFORMAL REPORTof the Power of Love." Taylor is awidely recognized short story writer,who has published two collections,"A Long Fourth, and Other Stories,"and "The Widows of Thornton," anda novel, "A Woman of Means."Richard G. Stern, Assistant Professor of English, will direct the course,which is intended to encourage original writing by students.Blackfriars ShowBlackfriars, revived last year afterseveral years of inactivity, will present"Gamma Delta Iota," a musical review on April 12 and 13 in MandelHall.Astronomy Lecture Series"The Creation of Life and the Universe" will be topic of nine lecturesto be presented Spring Quarter at theDowntown College. Carl Sagan, Lecturer in University College, is arranging the series. Beginning on March 29,they will be held on successive Fridays.George Gamow, Professor of Theoretical Physics, University of Colorado, will open the series with alecture on "The Creation of the Universe." Among the others to be heardin the series are George McVittie,Head of the Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois; BengtStromgren, Director of Yerkes Observatory; Gerald P. Kuiper, Professor of Astronomy; and Dr. H. J.Mark Reinsberg Muller, Nobel Laureate and Professorof Zoology at the University of Indiana.Downtown Promotion DirectorMark Reinsberg, PhB '47, is thenew Director of Promotion and Public Relations at University College.He assumes responsibility for advertising, publications, and publicityfor the Downtown Center of the University of Chicago.Reinsberg formerly taught in theHumanities Division of the University of Illinois, Navy Pier, and engaged in free-lance writing.He resides in Highland Park, 111.,with his wife, the former Diane Senor,AB '46, and their two children.Downs Named TrusteeJames C. Downs, Jr., has beenelected a trustee.An authority on real estate andurban housing problems, Downs hasheaded several agencies of the Cityof Chicago concerned with housingand slum clearance. He is consultantto the Mayor on housing matters, andwas Housing and Redevelopment Coordinator of the City, 1952-56.Previously he had been appointedby Mayor Edward J. Kelly as chairman of the Emergency Housing Committee and in 1947 Mayor Martin H.Kennelly appointed him a member ofthe Committee for Housing Action.He also is a trustee of Hull House,C. Dc Jr. and of the Community Hospital, Geneva, 111., and a member of the executive committee of the Chicago CrimeCommission.Downs is chairman of the board ofthe Real Estate Research Corporation; senior partner of the management firm of Downs, Mohl & Co.,which was organized in 1938; chairman of the executive committee ofthe Republic Realty Mortgage Corp.,economic counselors; a director ofChicago Title and Trust Co., GoldblattBrothers, Inc., and Patrick CudahyFamily Co., and a past president ofthe Institute of Real Estate Management.Everybody BitThe Columbia University Spectatorreacted by burning their single issueof the Maroon; newspapers from Wisconsin to New Hampshire fell hook,line, and sinker; and some whimsicalChicago students double-crossed thedouble-cross.Headlines in a special issue ofthe Maroon, Tuesday, February 12,blared:SEIZE MAROON 'GAG' ISSUE !"University police confiscate, destroy entire press run."Blasting the administration's "Gestapo-like tactics," the Maroon explained that their promised "gagissue" had been stolen and burnedthe day before. They expressed deepconcern for the legality of the moveand for the rights of the students.Organizing a protest meeting, thestaff promised to continue publication,even on a sub rosa basis.College papers across the nationtook it up from there. The Dartmouthtermed the University's actions "underhanded"; the Florida Flambeaustated that "the authorities acted ina manner that will tax . . . the highopinion held by the nation of thisonce proud and liberal institution."What these papers didn't know wasthat the Maroon had hoaxed everyone.The edition was a fake and so was theseizure. At least 150 persons hadshown up for the protest meeting atMandel Hall, a meeting that had beencancelled by order of the Dean ofStudents (and the Maroon stafferswho wrote the sign cancelling themeeting). Even the cloistered confines of the Quadrangle Club rangwith debate.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEStephen LewellynTwo Associate Justices of the U. S. Supreme Court recently visited the LawSchool. The honorable Tom Clark was presiding Judge at the School's annual moot court competition. He is pictured above, center, with John Biggs,Chief Judge of the 3rd Circuit U. S. Court of Appeals, and WatermanSterry, Judge of the 2nd Circuit U. S. Court of Appeals. Harold Burton,below, lunching with students, lectured and visited campus for two days.¦ Stephen LewellynIt took a sharp-eyed reader to findthe key to the hoax. The carefullyplanned and executed edition had onepurposeful flaw, the superfine typeused for the masthead. Had anyonetaken the trouble to read the mast-bead he would have found that:"The Chicago Maroon . . . takespleasure in announcing that youare reading its annual gag issue.No issue appeared yesterday, nopapers were confiscated, and thisissue hasn't one word of truth init (except for the ads)."Not about to submit to this hoaxwithout a fight, some unknown campus pranksters actually confiscatedthe next edition of the Maroon, someeight thousand copies. Frantic Maroonstaff members finally found the newspapers, neatly wrapped in brown paper, six hours later on a freight elevator in the Administration Building.Of course reaction to this hoax wasnot so refined on other campuses. Aneditorial in the Columbia Spectatormight be typical:"The wind blowing off the HudsonRiver these days is mighty strong,but it isn't quite strong enoughto dispel a rather strange stenchhovering over the Columbia University campus — the stench of onecopy of a Chicago student newspaper going up in smoke."Hilberry Heads ArgonneDr. Norman Hilberry, PhD '41,has been named Director of ArgonneNational Laboratory.Deputy Director of Argonne since itwas established July 1, 1946, by theManhattan District of the U. S. Armyas successor to the wartime Metallurgical Project at the University ofChicago, Dr. Hilberry succeeds Dr.Walter Zinn, who resigned last June30.Dr. Hilberry has been associatedwith both the war and peacetime development of nuclear energy. He became assistant to Dr. Arthur H.Compton at the University in December, 1941, with the organizationof the Metallurgical Project thatproduced, a year later, the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. Hewas among the group of 41 who werepresent in the squash court on StaggField when the nuclear pile, designedby the late Enrico Fermi, becamecritical on December 2, 1942.A scientific investigator whose early specialization was in cosmic rays, andwith extensive experience in engineering physics, Dr. Hilberry has hadfifteen years of administrative experience in the development of nuclearenergy. He participated in the designand construction of the first pilot plutonium producing reactor at OakRidge, Tenn., in 1942 and the buildingof the vast plutonium producing plantat Hanford, Washington.At Argonne National Laboratory hehas been directly associated administratively with its activities, whichcover all phases of basic and appliedresearch and development of nuclearenergy, except weapons.A graduate of Oberlin College in1921, Dr. Hilberry took his Ph.D. de gree in physics at the University in1941. He became a member of thephysics faculty at New York University in 1925, specializing in cosmicrays and in applied physics and engineering until his appointment to theMetallurgical Laboratory.He participated in two expeditionsto the Mt. Evans High-Altitude Laboratory in Colorado, 1939 and 1940,to study cosmic rays, and was a colleague of Dr. Bruno Rossi in the firststudies on the life of the mesotron.Subsequently in 1941 he was a member of the University of Chicago cosmic ray expedition to Peru and Brazil. He is a member of the AmericanPhysical Society and the New YorkAcademy of Sciences.APRIL, 1957 25Geiling Retires;Roth Heads PharmacologyRetirement of Dr. Eugene M. K.Geiling as Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology and the appointment of Dr. Lloyd J. Roth as hissuccessor has been announced.Dr. Geiling, 65, has been the FrankP. Hixon Distinguished Service Professor since 1941, and Professor andChairman of Pharmacology since 1936.Holder of four degrees, Dr. Geilingis an authority in many phases ofdrugs and their action. He developedat the University the first "atomicfarm" for the production of radioactive plant drugs, such as digitalis andmorphine. He is widely known forhis studies of the pituitary glands,and early in his career participated inthe research with Dr. John J. Abel ofJohns Hopkins University which ledto the crystallization of insulin.Dr. Roth, 45, an M. D., as is Dr.Geiling, has been a member of thedepartment since 1952. He is best-known for his work on synthesis ofradioactive drugs and their action. Hehas done extensive studies of the action, in animals and man, of taggedanti-tubercular drugs such as PAS(para-aminosalicylic acid) and ISO-NIAZID.In the atomic farm, Dr. Geilinggrew such drug producing plants asfoxglove (digitalis) and poppies (morphine) in sealed containers into whichradidactive Carbon-14 was introduced. The plants incorporated theradioactivity through respiration intotheir cells. The method, now generally followed, also produced the firsttagged animal hormones. A speciesof Jamaican toad which secretes theheart stimulant bugafin, was fedslugs which ate radioactive lettuce,thus transferring the radioactivity tothe toads and the secretion.Dr. Geiling, now Professor Emeritus, will follow his long-cherishedambition of writing the biography ofhis famed teacher, Dr. John JacobAbel, often called the father of modern experimental pharmacology inthe U. S.During the 1930's Dr. Geiling led ateam of scientists that worked at Canadian whaling stations obtaining thepituitary glands from freshly captured whales. This research provedthat oxytocic, pressor and antidiuretichormones came from the neural lobeof that gland and not the intermediary Roland FinstonWith long-stemmed roses, gleamingtrophy, crown and happy smile, PattiDick, Miss U. of C. for 1957 danceswith Dean Robert Streeter at Washington Promenade, held at Ida Noyes.lobe as was believed.During World War II, Dr. Geilingled his department at Chicago inprojects^ on the study of war gasesand malaria drugs.Eugene Maximilian Karl Geilingwas born of German parents inBrandfort, Orange Free State, SouthAfrica on May 13, 1891. He receivedhis B.A. in 1911 from the Universityof South Africa; his graduate studywas at the University of Illinois,which awarded him an M.S. in 1915and a Ph.D. in 1917.He returned in 1918 to South Africato lecture at the Potchefstroom Agricultural College and the Universityof Capetown College of Medicine. Hecame to the U. S. again in 1920 totake a Seesel Research Fellowship inphysiological chemistry at Yale. Heworked with Dr. Abel at Johns Hopkins University from 1921 to 1936,taking his M. D. (1923) there and advancing from assistant to associateprofessor in pharmacology.On January 1, 1936, Dr. Geiling wasappointed full professor and chairman of the newly-created Department of Pharmacology at the University of Chicago.Among the awards he has receivedare the Oscar B. Hunter MemorialAward, presented to him in June(1956) by the American TherapeuticSociety, and the Villanova College'sMendel Gold Medal in 1936- for outstanding research in endocrines ofaquatic mammals. In 1940 he was elected president ofthe American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics; in 1948 he was elected presidentof the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine; in 1928 he was appointed chairman of the Section onExperimental Medicine and Therapeutics of the American Medical Association; in January, 1956, he waselected president of the AlbertusMagnus Guild of Catholic Scientists.He is presently a member of theCouncil on Therapeutics of the American Medical Association, a consultantto the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, and a member of the National Board of Examiners.Dr. Roth attended Emmetsburg,Iowa, Junior College and received hisB. S. in pharmacy from the State University of Iowa in 1935. From 1936 to1938 he was a research chemist withthe Wyeth laboratories in Chicago.Following this he studied chemistryat Columbia University, where hetook his S.M. in 1940 and his Ph.D.in 1942.During World War II, Dr. Rothconducted research for the ChemicalWarfare Service on incendiary bombsand jellied gasoline, and for the Manhattan Engineering District on thefirst atomic bomb. In 1946 he becameAssistant Professor at State University of Iowa. In 1947 he rejoined theLos Alamos, N. M., Scientific Laboratories to conduct biological research.He left in 1948 to study for his medical degree at the University of Chicago. Upon receiving his M. D. in1952, he was appointed Assistant Professor of Pharmacology at Chicago.He became Associate Professor in1956.Willett Gives FellowshipDr. Kurt Aterman, Senior Lecturerin the Department of Anatomy at theMedical School of Birmingham, England, has been appointed the first MayCave Willett research post-doctoralfellow in Lying-in Hospital.The appointment, supported througha grant of $100,000 by Howard Willett, Sr., '06, in honor of his wife, isone of the first made to initiate Lying-in Hospital's new type research program in the physiology of reproduction. Achievements of medicalscience in reducing infant and maternal mortality have been so notablethat the hospital is now able to turn26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto fundamental biological problems.Dr. Aterman is undertaking a studyof histological and chemical changesin the cells of the endometrium, thelining of the ovaries, using electron-microscopy. It is suspected thatdefects in the mechanism of the endometrium are responsible for miscarriage and his research is a basicapproach to the problem.Differences In TeethThe chances are less than one in abillion that any two persons haveidentical sets of teeth.Dr. Albert A. Dahlberg, ResearchAssociate of the University's ZoiierMemorial Dental Clinic and Department of Anthropology, reported in asymposium on "Human Dentition andForensic Medicine" at the AmericanAssociation for the Advancement ofScience's annual meeting in New Yorkrecently."The form and markings on teethreflect the sum total of a variety ofpossible conditions in experience andhistory of the tooth or dentition," Dr.Dahlberg said. Identifying persons byteeth is statistically dependable because of their permanence and of thebiological laws and concepts involvedin tooth development.The teeth of large groups of peoplesuch as races makes identification ofone of its members quite certain. Asan example Dr. Dahlberg cited theshovel-shaped incisor or front bitingtooth that is found in all AmericanIndians. Only two per cent of Caucasians (whites) have the same type oftooth. When anthropologists uncovera skull which has a shovel-shapedincisor, the chances therefore are 50to 1 it belonged to an Indian.Another method of identification isin the rings found on cross sectionsof teeth, which show a rhythmic deposit of tissue on each tooth whichcan be read like the rings on a tree.Dr. Dahlberg explained that duringabnormal periods such as poor nutrition or illness, the character of thering deposits changes. It is highlyimprobable that the same change inring structure would occur identicallyin two persons.Teeth uncovered by anthropologistsare clues to the age of the person theybelonged to. This is determined bywear on the surface of the tooth andthe kind of tooth it is, since certaintypes — such as wisdom teeth — occurat different ages. Dr. Dahlberg listed these otheridentifying factors:— anatomical form and structure ofthe tooth;— artificial markings or changes suchas fillings, injuries, and deliberatemutilating or decorating unique tocertain cultures;— effect of environment and use. Theteeth of certain Indians, for instance, are used to work leather andtherefore have characteristic markings; people who drink well watermay have hard teeth coatings fromthe fluorides.All of these combinations of factorsDr. Dahlberg said, give a probabilityof one in a million that any two persons will have an identical tooth; multiplied by the number of teeth eachindividual possesses, the probabilitydrops to less than one in a billion.Virus Research GrantInvestigations which may help reveal how a tiny virus particle entersa living cell and then converts thatcell to a factory for producing swarmsof new virus particles will be continued at the University under a grantof $82,586 from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis.The March of Dimes -supportedproject will also study the chemicalmake-up of the HeLa cell used forcultivating polio viruses, according toEarl A. Evans, Professor and chairman of the Department of Biochemistry, who is directing the research.HeLa cells are derived from humantissue and are widely used for thestudy of viruses.Investigations made by the University of Chicago research group usingbacteriophages (virus -particles thatattack bacteria) have shown that thephage, manufactured in a host celland released by that cell's destruction, proceeds in turn to affect othercells. As a result, in what may becalled a biological chain reaction,there is the widespread destructionof host cells.Each phage, or virus particle, hasa protein coating with nucleic acidinside it. An important charactertisticof this virus particle is that it canonly reproduce itself inside a livingcell. This is probably because itneeds the special chemical compoundsthat are found only inside certaincells.Studies made by Evans and hisassociates have shown that a phage attaches itself to the cell by its tail.Then a zinc protein in the cell wallbreaks down a sulphur compoundof food.Evans' co-workers on the researchproject are Professor Lloyd M. Kozloff, Assistant Professor; Ray Kop-pelman, Assistant Professor; Roy P.Mackal, Research Associate; HowardGoldfine, James F. O'Donnell, Research Associate; and Peter Dukes,Research Associate.Federal Economist NamedProfessorMrs. Dorothy S. Brady, who developed the cost-of-living index forthe Federal government, has been appointed Professor of Economics.Mrs. Brady will head a researchgroup studying the economics of consumption. Financed through a grantfrom the Rockefeller Foundation, thegroup will study trends in and factorsdetermining consumption levels, andthe distribution of income in theUnited States and in other countries.Mrs. Brady is on leave from herpost in the Department of Labor astechnical consultant to the Commission of Labor Statistics on the cost ofliving. In that position she developedand maintained the cost-of-living index which affects the wages of themany workers who have cost-of-living agreements with their employers.She also has served the government as chief of the Division of Pricesand Cost of Living, as special consultant on problems arising from wartime and postwar changes in the costof living and American standards ofliving, and as senior statistician inthe Bureau of Human Nutrition andHome Economics.In 1948 Mrs. Brady received theWomen's National Press Clubachievement award for her outstanding work in connection with the Bureau of Labor Statistics' publication,"City Worker's Family Budget."A graduate of Reed College, Portland, Oregon, Mrs. Brady receivedher master's degree from Cornell University and her doctor's degree fromthe University of California, Berkeley.In addition to her work for theFederal government, Mrs. Brady hasalso been an instructor of mathematics at New York University, and aprofessor of statistics in the Bureauof Economic and Business Researchof the University of Illinois.APRIL, 1957 27LIFE ON OTHER PLANETS?(Continued from Page 18)due to the interaction of its magneticfield with the ionized solar nebula.On this basis, the existence of a solarnebula from which planetary systemsform will cause the central star torotate more and more slowly.Now the origin of planets must bedependent on the temperature of thecentral star. If it is too cold, theatmosphere of the protoplanets willnot be blown away, resulting perhaps in the formation of a systemof planets similar to Jupiter, but evenlarger and more massive. On theother hand, if the star is too hot,radiation pressure will disperse thesolar nebula rapidly, leaving, if anything, small atmosphereless planets,or a system of millions of tiny asteroids. For planets to be formed, thetemperature of the star must be between these extremes.There is another reason to believethat hot stars do not have planets. Ifthe formation of planetary systemsand the slowing down of stellar rotation both arise from the existence ofsolar nebulae, then we should expectthe hot stars which dissipate theirsolar nebulae and do not form planets to rotate faster. This is exactlywhat is observed! The hotter thestar, the faster the rotation. Coolerstars rotate more slowly than wouldotherwise be expected.At a temperature of about 7,000degrees, characteristic of what arecalled F stars, there is a suddenlarge decrease in average rotationalvelocities, and it is possible, perhaps,that below this temperature all starsretain enough of their solar nebulaeto form planets, (provided they havenot used up their solar nebulae informing double or multiple sun systems) .The number of such stars is between one and ten per cent of thetotal number of stars, suggesting thatthere are as many as ten billion solarsystems in our galaxy alone. Of these,perhaps one per cent, or 100 millionhave planets like the earth. What isthe probability of life on these worlds?Since the most abundant element,cosmically, is hydrogen, the atmosphere of the early protoplanets of anysystem must contain much hydrogenand hydrogen compounds. The hy drogen compounds of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are probably themost abundant hydrogen compoundsin the proto- atmosphere. They are,respectively, methane, CH4, ammonia,NH3, and water vapor, H20.In 1953, Stanley Miller, (PhD '54),then a graduate student workingunder Harold C. Urey, Martin A. Ryerson Distinguished Service Professorof Chemistry, showed that when hydrogen, methane, ammonia, andwater vapor are mixed together, andsupplied with energy, some fundamental organic compounds, are produced. (The energy source in proto -atmospheres is probably ultravioletlight from the sun about which theprotoplanet revolves.)These compounds are almost allamino acids, the biochemical buildingblocks from which protein is constructed. There is also some reasonto believe that amino acids lead tothe formation of purines and py-rimidines, which are in turn buildingblocks for nucleic acids. Proteins andnucleic acids are the two fundamental constituents of life as we know iton earth; hereditary materials suchas genes and chromosomes are composed perhaps exclusively of nucleicacids and proteins. In addition, enzymes, which catalyze slow chemicalreactions and thereby make complexlife-forms possible, are always proteins.Experiments of comparable importance to those of Miller have beenperformed by S. W. Fox of FloridaState University. Fox applied heat,in the range between 100 and 200degrees Centigrade, to simple molecules, such as those synthesized byMiller. This simple procedure produced small amounts of complexorganic molecules which happen tobe widely distributed in all terrestrialorganisms. In particular, Fox hasproduced ureidosuccinic acid, a keyintermediary in the synthesis of nucleic acids. The temperatures required by Fox can easily be suppliedby radioactive heating of the crustof the planet. There is evidence thatsuch radioactive heating is a normalpart of the early evolution of allplanets.Now it is really striking that themolecules produced by Miller andFox are precisely the molecules necessary to form life as we know it.Almost no molecules were produced which are not fundamentally involved %in modern terrestrial organisms.The processes described by Millerand Fox would probably occur onat least one planet of each star ofmoderate temperature. All that isrequired is a way of collecting themolecules produced by these processes into one place where they caninteract. A liquid medium on thesurface of the planet serves this purpose admirably. Molecules producedin the atmosphere would fall intothese bodies of liquid, and moleculesproduced on land by the applicationof heat would also be washed intothem. Although seas of liquid ammonia or hydrofluoric acid wouldserve, it can be shown that seas ofwater would be most efficient in collecting and preserving the bio-molecules.The one planet in each system thatwe are considering probably possessed liquid water seas early in itshistory, and therefore on such planetsthe production of proteins and nucleic acids may be expected.Now proteins and nucleic acidshave some unusual properties; so faras we know, ones not found in anyother molecules. They can form anew molecule which not only canconstruct other identical moleculesfrom the matter floating in the seaaround it, but which if changed insome way can also construct copiesof its changed structure. Such amutating, self-reproducing moleculeor collection of molecules must undergo natural selection. For thesereasons, it must be identified as thefirst living being on the planet inquestion.Thus, there may be 100 millionplanets in this galaxy alone on whichflourish organisms at least biochemically akin to ourselves. On the otherhand, due to natural selection, theseorganisms must be well-adapted, eachto its own environment. Since evenslight differences in the environmenteventually cause extreme differencesin the structure of organisms, weshould not except extraterrestrial life-forms to resemble anything familiar.But there is reason to believe theyare out there.(Author's note: All material coveredin this article will be discussed ingreater detail in the lecture series,"The Creation of Life and the Universe," at the Downtown College.)28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMEDIOCRITY WITH TENURE(Continued from Page 9)performs here on earth. If it didn'tit wouldn't be Hell.Education is an individual function.Only an individual can learn; andonly an individual can teach. A greatdeal of what an individual must learn,in order to live effectively today, pertains to his skill in group relationships: a great deal of what individualsdo today they must, if it is to be successful, do in groups. But this is analtogether different matter from attributing to the group a primary significance.There is a great deal of confusionabout this in the teaching professiontoday; and it tends to discouragemany persons from becoming teachers. They fear that if they do theywill never be permitted to becomesufficiently characterized, even tothemselves. But it is precisely peoplewho are strongly characterized, whoare vividly aware of the meaning oftheir own lives and of their relationto others, who are most sorely neededin the modern school. It is they whohave most to communicate, and whoare freest to receive communicationfrom their students with minimalneed for distortion. It is they whoare likely to derive the deepest satisfactions — though perhaps also thefrustrations — from teaching. In tryingto break the teacher shortage, weshould, in my judgment, address ourselves primarily to their recruitment.THEY WROTE ON CLAY(Continued from Page 13)to society — its most widely knownadaptation, the Code of Hammurabi,1600 B.C. — had extraordinarily developed legal concepts. The courtprocedures of the ancient inhabitantsof the area were also highly organized with legal terms preciselydifferentiated.In 2000 B.C. the law required thatall business transactions be made inwriting, with both participants andwitnesses signing the contract. Inscribed on clay, the contract was placed in a sealed clay envelope toprevent changing its content. Thecontract was again inscribed on theenvelope and the participants required to sign again.A document inclosed in an envelope was absolutely safe from beingmolested. If disagreement occurredthe parties involved would go beforea judge and he would settle the caseby simply tearing off the envelope.Since both the outside and the insidecontracts were supposed to be exactcopies, any tampering with the envelope would immediately be discovered by looking at the original.The language of medicine in thedictionary reflects the prevalence ofeye diseases, which are still widespread in the Middle East. The ancient doctors operated for cataracts,but only under strict legal restrictions. They faced special punishmentif their operation cost the patient thesight of an eye. However it seemsunlikely that this punishment wasoften exacted.The deciphering of cuneiform inscriptions was a long process whichtook the better part of a century.During the early 19th century travelers in Persia noticed a number ofinscriptions sculptured on rocks. Eachinscription was repeated three timesin what we now know to be threeseparate languages: Old Persian,Babylonian, and Elamite. In eachcase the writing was cuneiform andthe combination of wedges was different. In one inscription the combination was much simpler; it appearedless varied and the same groupsoccurred more often than in the otherversions. Scholars assumed that thissystem was written alphabetically.It had been well known that thewritings of the Persian kings alwaysbegan with "X, the great king, kingof kings, son of Y". A German high-school teacher observed that in thesimpler version of one of the inscriptions, groups of signs occurredin the expected order. The net resultwas the first cuneiform translation:"Darius, the great king, king of kings,son of Hystaspes."This simple cuneiform system waswritten in Old Persian. By understanding this language, scholars hadthe key to the other two systems.Clues to the pronunciation of ancient words are obtained from thetransliteration of known Assyrian names into other languages. Thus,if the Greek word "Babylon" and theHebrew word "Babilu" both referredto the same city, it is possible toguess at the Assyrian pronunciationby use of these cognates.Although it is impossible to set thepronunciation of Akkadian absolutely, University of Chicago As-syriologists believe they know asmuch about the sounds of this Ian-guage and its dialects as Englishscholars know about the pronunciation of English in the time of Chaucerand Shakespeare.S. B. A.]?00ls!o___The Paradoxes of Democracy. ByKermit Eby and June Greenlief. Association Press, 1956. 219 pp. $3.50.In contemporary life the simplerformulas of democracy and theidealism underlying American politicaland social experience have been subjected to great strain and placed underthe necessity of restatement. Naivelymany have assumed that the contentsof the American Dream have but tobe stated to guarantee their continuance and validity.Those who have known of KermitEby's part in any one or more of themovements or causes here used toillustrate democracy's dilemma willrecognize that this is more than armchair theorizing. His efforts to achievedemocratic participation constitute anhonorable and thrilling record.Whether it was the Chicago TeachersUnion, the Autoworkers and the CIO,or his experience with the Un-American Activities Committee — all serveto give vivid illustration of the philosophy and theory on which his activity has been based. Many willespecially welcome Eby's descriptionof his encounter with the latter committee both for the account itself andfor what it reveals about the committee's tactics and its violation ofAmerican standards of justice.The authors have related the contents of the American Dream to ourheritage from many periods and nations — Greek, Italian, English Puritanism, and American Deism. Theemergence of a class society and theimminence of a new order symbolizedAPRIL, 1957 29by automation demand immediate reconsideration of our national heritageand spiritual resources.The political liberal, the socialidealist, and the champion of justicecannot but be perplexed in thesetimes. Such a portrayal as Eby andGreenlief give of the basis for theconfusion facing all honest men is reassuring. The authors have not attempted to probe the full depth ofman's political and moral dilemma.They have, however, indicated someof the highly realistic difficulties andhave dared to suggest that there is noguaranteed solution. Their own conclusion has a genuine and marked religious overtone — that tragedy is inevitable. Whoever seeks to avoid itbecomes the more tragic. A democratic society offers no panacea, butit is the only available option for decency.Victor Obenhaus,Associate Professor,Federated Theological FacultyUnderstanding human behavior. ByDr. James L. McCartney, SB '21, MD'23. New York, Vantage Press, 1956.258 pp. $3.50.This book is addressed to the "intelligent layman" and is "an attempt to bring together what is knownabout human behavior and what canbe done to help maladjusted individuals gain a healthier state of mind."In the opinion of this reviewer, theattempt fails.The layman will feel at times thathe is attending a dry lecture, at othertimes that he is in church. He will beoccasionally enlightened, intermittently confused, not a little anxiousand frustrated, and most of the timejust bored.He will question the idea that beingborn is a "terrible crisis"; in the bookthe so-called birth trauma and congenital defects are overplayed. He willbe overwhelmed with all sorts ofclassifications, enumerations, diagrammatic representations, and the like. Isee very little sense in bombarding thelayman with abstruse explanationsconcerning electroencephalography,with a technical, stereotyped listingof the official psychiatric diagnosticnomenclature, or with a presentationof the rules of the American Psychiatric Association. I doubt that manyrelish a discussion of "possible theories" regarding electroshock orwhether 10 volts or 140 hit the brainin 0.1 second, or what the "absolutecontraindications" may be.The real substance of the book includes many banalities, some contradictions, and a few false concepts.I believe it is misleading to say thata person's "intelligence is fixed at thetime of conception." On one page theauthor points out that normally, thedestructive forces of mind and bodygradually tend to overshadow the constructive ones, but some time later hesuggests that progress usually keepsahead of decay. The chapter on diagnosis is especially poor. It begins byquestioning the use of the term "insanity" but drops the discussion toosoon without adequate reassurance tothe lay public. It is a reference chapter, lifted practically word for wordfrom the official APA book on diagnosis, and presented in an obtusefashion. The author makes some gross,sweeping statements such as "theproblems of alcohol are essentiallydue to sexual deviation" or "numerouscases^ of frigidity are based on latenthomosexuality," statements which canlead to easy misinterpretation or distortion on the part of the nonprofessional. He is often too offhand andglib. He should remember his ownremark — "the printed word has anuncanny way of being accepted asauthoritative."I am alarmed that electroshocktreatment is used for conversion hysteria. I am curious that the authorspends eight pages on hypnosis, onlysix and one -half on psychoanalysis.I doubt that his jibe at the lay analystgroup serves any useful purpose. Iquestion the value of the analysandspending a couple of hours a daywriting his autobiography, and I amirritated by all the pollyanna advicefreely given, culminating in a tritefinal chapter entitled "A Philosophy of Living." I quote: "There must besanity in personality formation and aproper balance between pain andpleasure." Precisely correct but awfully dull. "What is good for mankindat large is good for the individual" —not only dull but terribly wrong. Theauthor apparently believes in one God,the unity of the world, and the unityof mankind. This is admirable butwhether it is a necessary concomitantto "being emotionally well-adjusted"is another question.The book is not all bad. The authorpresents a lucid description of thecentral nervous system, including avery satisfactory explanation of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. Thechapter on dreams is interesting andclearly outlined. His definition ofsexual deviation is adequate andthought-provoking.Dr. Philip M. Margolis,Assistant Professor, PsychiatryBriefly NotedThe Saxon Poet's Life of Charlesthe Great , translated by Mary E.McKinney, PhD '31. New York, Pageant Press. 118 pp., $2.50.Seventy-four years after the death(814 A.D.) of Charlemagne, King ofthe Franks, an unknown Saxon poetbegan writing, in latin verse, an engrossing account of the great ruler'slife and conquests. Now, eleven centuries later, the poem has been translated into English by Mary E. McKinney, Professor Emeritus ofClassics at Albion College, Michigan.Here, as told by the poet, is theepic story of the building of a mightyChristian empire extending from theAtlantic to the eastern boundaries ofHungary; heroic battle campaigns andmarches which took the Frankishtroops across the treacherous Pyrenees and Alps; court intrigues andmarriages for reasons of state; andthe high point of Charlemagne's career, his coronation as Emperor of theHoly Roman Empire by Pope Leo IIIon Christmas Day, 800 A. D., in St.Peter's Cathedral, Rome.To the poem, which she describesas "unique, sincere, and deserving ofsome attention as a piece of Medieval literature," Professor McKinneyhas annexed a series of illuminatingnotes and a scholarly speculative essay attempting to identify the Saxonpoet.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESo Fell the Angels, by Thomas Graham Belden, PhD '52, and MarvaRobins Belden, AM '52. Boston, Little,Brown and Co., 1956. 401 pp. $5.00.This is the biography of three leading Civil War personalities. Theywere: Salmon P. Chase, a man obsessed with ambition to become President; his daughter Kate, equally ambitious to become First Lady andwilling to go to any extreme toachieve this goal; and Kate's husband, William Sprague^ Senator fromRhode Island, whose business interests led in the path of treason.Bitterly disappointed when the Republican Party nominated Lincolnfor the Presidency in 1860, Chase wasdetermined that 1864 would not seehim unsuccessful again. Secretary ofthe Treasury and later Chief Justiceof the Supreme Court, Chase wasone of the most powerful spokesmenof the uncompromising Radical wingof the Republican Party.Kate Chase, also driven by ambition, married Sprague as a means ofseeing her father in the White House.Yet, at the same time, she allegedlymaintained a scandalous affair withSenator Roscoe P. Conkling of NewYork.William Sprague, young andwealthy, who reportedly dabbled inthe treasonous prospect of exchanging Northern guns for Southern cotton, endured an unhappy marriage,bankruptcy, and national disgrace.At the pinnacle of power and promise stood these three: a great manwarped by exaggerated self-esteem;a Senator whose business activitiescreated a national scandal; a giftedwoman who lusted for power. Thedrama of pride, ambition, and eventual retribution they enacted on thestage of Civil War Washington is recreated by the Beldens in scenes sovivid that the reader actually feelshimself a participant. So Fell theAngels is a fine portrait of a nationin crisis.Man Being Revealed, by James E.Davis, SB '26, AM '28, PhD '32, andHelen Newcastle. New York, Exposition Press, 1956. Ill pp. $3.50.Man Being Revealed is the work oftwo leading members of the Spiritualist movement in America who havecollaborated to write an expositionof the nature and power of Spirit.Dr. Davis contributes scientificAPRIL, 1957 data to underscore his profound belief in religion and its basis on thescience of Spirit. Mrs. Newcastle,teacher and trance medium, presentsher personal experiences of medium-istic phenomena.The authors believe that prayer attracts spirit friends who advise, help,and strengthen a person, enablinghim to reach his goal, "not the business of making a living — but thebusiness of life."The objective of the authors is tohelp men who are struggling to keeptheir spiritual development in stepwith the modern world.The State of the Social Sciences.Edited by Leonard D. White, PhD'21, Ernest D. Burton DistinguishedService Professor Emeritus of Political Science. Chicago: University ofChicago Press, 1956. 504 & xiv pp.$6.00.Commemorating the 25th anniversary of the University's Social ScienceResearch Building, this volume represents the diversity of themes andapproaches used by social scientistsallied in the study of man in society.It represents the continuing effortto define and clarify the appropriatemeans for such study and, as such,summarizes the state of the socialsciences today.Written by thirty -two eminentAmerican social scientists, the selections reveal three basic areas of concern: social science as a science,social science in relation to civic arts,and social science in relation to thehumanities.Encompassing the fields of anthropology, economics, education, geography, history, political science, psychology, and sociology, The State ofthe Social Sciences indicates thetremendous range of modern researchand inquiry.Among the particular topics discussed are urban research, the studyof public opinion, the arts of administration and diplomatic negotiation,and the relation between psychoanalytic thought and the social sciences.Half Horse Half Alligator. Editedby Walter Blair, AM '26, PhD '31,Professor and Chairman of the English Department, and Franklin J.Meine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956. 289 & ix pp. $5.00. I'm a regular tornado, tough ashickory and long winded as anor'wester. I can strike a blowlike a falling tree, and every lickmakes a gap in a crowd that letsin an acre of sunshine.Like many of Mike Fink's boasts,this vigorous speech catches the spirit of his picturesque frontier life —heroic, comic, and in the end tragic.Half Horse Half Alligator followsthe amazing exploits of this nineteenth century folk hero and givesthe reader insight into the life ofwhich Mike Fink was a part.During the fierce struggle for thePennsylvania frontier Fink served asa scout, making solitary forays intothe Indian territories. Here "Mikeacquired a reputation for boldnessand cunning far beyond his companions."When the Pennsylvania frontierwas made safe for the settlers, Mikeleft the scouts and became a keel-boatman on the Ohio and Mississippi.On these routes of the westwardmovement he frolicked, wenched, andtoiled prodigiously as King of thekeelboatmen.With a trapping expedition he followed the Missouri to its headwaters.And finally, as a mountain man inthe Rockies, his life came to an appropriately violent end.In each role Mike stirred men'simaginations. Pioneers everywheretold stories about him, some true,some based on fact, some wildly extravagant — tall tales which topped hisfantastic boasts. In time writers published these tales and invented newones.Eventually Mike Fink emerged asa legendary figure, a cultural hero,and a symbol of the frontier way oflife.flere collected for the first timeare the Fink narratives as they originally appeared. After a quarter century of research, the editors have setdown a unique and lively account ofthe waxing and waning of this greatAmerican legend. The stories themselves — mixing history with legendand humor — reveal a great deal aboutour nation's romantic past.Friend Alice. By Mary Ellis Lott-mann, PhB '13, AM '40. New York:Pageant Press, 1956. 52 pp. $2.50.A charming little book for teenagers, Friend Alice pictures life on31a nineteenth century Quaker farm inOhio.Friend Alice takes a happy lookat the Kindred family of Penn'sGrove Farm. Alice Kindred is a delightful sixteen year old who manages to be both Mother and Big Sister to a whole family; that is, untilher father decides to marry again.Here is the basic problem of familyrelations — competition for love, prestige, acceptance, and emotional maturity—handled gently and kindly.The atmosphere of the book is one .of friendliness and cheer. The descriptions of bygone life in QuakerOhio are delightful.Maturity in Reading, by William S.Gray, '13, PhD '16, and Bernice Rogers. Chicago, University of ChicagoPress. 213 pp. $5.00.In this volume the authors attemptto define the characteristics of themature reader and establish a scalefor the appraisal of reading maturity.Beginning with a carefully wroughtconcept of maturity, they examinethe reading behavior of adults as anintegral part of total personality.Their reading maturity scale is developed from a mass of validatingdata; methods for its use are fullyexplained, and its limitations discussed.Selected cases, representing varying levels of reading maturity in across -sectional study, reveal the widerange of adult reading behavior fromthe apathetic incompetence of a nonverbal receiving clerk to the masterful skill of a news analyst.These studies show the great complexity of cultural and environmentalfactors which influence reading today.S.BA.LOWIR YOUR COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATION'- PERSONNEL PROCEDURES;: &&m&w^^ mm aass iNietusAlumni committees planning reunions for the classes of sevens andtwos next spring are at work thesemonths and would welcome helpfrom classmates.1902 will celebrate its 55th reunion; 1907, its 50th; 1932 will bethe 25th year class. If you are ina reunion class— '02, '07, '12, '17,'22, '27, '32, '37, '42, '47 and '52—plan to be on the quadrangles theweekend of June 8.* Indicates' person will attend JuneReunion.02It is now Dr. Hazle Buck Ewing, '02,since she received an honorary Doctorof Laws from Principia College forfounding and maintaining in that collegefor ^more than 31 years a School of Nations. Another source of pride: 5 grandchildren, including twins.Mary Heap, '08, retired physical education teacher living in Los Angeles,joined her high school classmates atHollywood High in January for a reunion and got her picture in the LosAngeles Times with other members ofthe alumni committee.Dr. Ralph H. Kuhns, SB '11, MD '13,of the Veterans Administration, is planning to visit Switzerland during thesummer. While overseas he will attendboth the International Congress of Psychiatry and the meetings of the International Chess Federation.Ward C. Allee, PhD '12, Professor ofZoology at Chicago from 1921 to 1950,donated 180 acres of Indiana woodlandto Wabash College on the condition thatit remain untouched for 99 years, duringwhich time records are to be kept ofchanges in plant and animal life.William J. Donald, PhD '14, has justreturned to New York after fifteen monthswith the International Cooperation Association as a consultant to commercialand industrial associations in Lebanonand Turkey. Donald had retired in 1955after 21 years as managing director ofthe National Electrical ManufacturersAssn.George B. Riggs, PhD '14, retired Professor of Botany at the University ofWashington, received the Ecological Society's award as eminent ecologist for1957. He is 85. 19-27Dr. Waltman Walters, MD '19, head ofa section of surgery in the Mayo Clinicand Professor of Surgery in the MayoFoundation Graduate School, Universityof Minnesota, was a participant in the"Medical Horizons" program which wastelecast from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester,Minn., on January 13.Dr. Harald G. O. Hoick, SB '21, PhD'28, became Professor Emeritus of Pharmacology after 20 years of service at theUniversity of Nebraska. Hoick is presently acting as Research Associate andConsultant in Pharmacology at Nebraska's Institute for Cellular research. Theresearch program is devoted to studyof the influence of "smog" upon thegrowth of tissue cultures.Margaret D. Cleary, PhB '24, AM '32,is an adjustment teacher at Waller HighSchool in Chicago.Dr. Victor Johnson, PhB '26, PhD '30,MD '39, director of the Mayo Foundationfor Medical Education and Research,Rochester, Minn., and Professor of Physiology in the Mayo Foundation GraduateSchool, University of Minnesota at Rochester, presided over sessions of the 53rdannual Congress on Medical Educationand Licensure in Chicago.Stanley A. Cain, SB '27, PhD '30, Professor of Conservation at the Universityof Michigan is the president-elect of theEcological Society of America.Lewis S. C. Smythe, AM '27, PhD '28,has accepted the position of Assistant tothe President of Silliman University, located at Dumaguete on Negros Island inthe southern Philippines. He will leavehis present position as Professor of Christian Community at The College of theBible, Lexington, Ky., on June I. Priorto his work at The College of the Bible,Smythe had spent 23 years in China asProfessor of Sociology at the Universityof Nanking. Present during the Japaneseinvasion of China, he returned to theUnited States toward the end of WorldWar II and returned to China after hostilities ended. In 1951 he was forced toleave his work there by the Communistgovernment. Smythe will be accompaniedto the Philippines by his wife, Dr. Margaret Garrett Smythe, AB '22, MD '25,who is presently on the medical staff atBerea College.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE28-34Alvah E. Staley, PhD '28, senior economist at the Stanford Research Institutein Menlo Park, Calif., is currently in NewDelhi, India, as senior international economist for the Ford Foundation.William A. Dreyer, PhD '31, Professorof Zoology at the University of Cincinnati, is president of the EcologicalSociety of America.Morris Cooperman, PhB, '31, is a director of Ekco Products Co., in Chicago.Francis M. Parker, PhD '32, is Director of marketing for American ViscoseCorp., Philadelphia.P. Newton Todhunter, '32, JD '37, isoff to Australia for a business trip duringthe months of February and March.Muriel Freeman Hopp, (Mrs. HarveyM.), '33, is a patient at the Lake County,111., Tuberculosis Sanitorium.Elizabeth McBroom, AM '34, has beenmade Associate Professor of Casework atthe University of Southern California.Roger M. Bloomfield, PhB '34, is aninsurance salesman in St. Louis. Bloomfield is married to the former RhodaWilliams.Robert C. Lee, PhB '34, MBA '51, waselected a vice president of Chicago Titleand Trust Co. Lee joined the companyin 1934 following graduation from theUniversity.35-37Dr. Lucian A. Smith, MD '35, is Associate Professor of Medicine in theMayo Foundation Graduate School, University of Minnesota at Rochester.Dr. John R. Tambone, SB '35, has beenelected president of the McHenry County (111.) Medical Society. He has practiced medicine in Woodstock, 111. for thepast ten years.Howard P. Hudson, AB '35, of Washington, D. C.| has been elected to membership in the British Institute of PublicRelations.Herman Kogan, AB '36, is the neweditor of the Chicago Sun-Times' artsand amusement seetion. Kogan will direct the new Sunday features sectionwhich will carry stories and special articles in the field of arts and amusementsand reviews of books of major importance.Kogan is widely known as a Chicagonewspaperman and author. He has collaborated on a number of best-sellingbooks on Chicago history with LloydWendt. These include Lords of the Levee;Bet A Million!; Give The Lady What SheWants, a centennial history of MarshallField and Co.; and Big Bill of Chicago, the biography of famed Mayor "BigBill" Thompson. Currently he is completing a popular history of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Kogan was appointedbook and drama critic of the Sun-Timesearly in 1951, after a decade on thatnewspaper's editorial staff, during whichtime he covered major stories. He hasalso served as columnist and editorialwriter. A contributor to varied magazines, Kogan has taught writing at Northwestern University's Medill School ofJournalism and is active as a lecturer onliterature and the theater.O. K. Krueger, AM '37, chief of thesocial service unit at the Seattle Veterans Administration Regional Office, hasbeen named chairman of the conferencecommittee in methods of social action bythe National Conference of Social Welfare. He is one of few western socialworkers ever named to head a nationalcommittee of the Conference.Philip R. Clarke, Jr., '37, of ClarendonHills, 111., has joined the Chicago officeof Lehman Brothers after ten years withthe City National Bank and Trust Co.,cf which he had been vice president since 1951. A Navy lieutenant commander inWorld War II, he joined City National in1946.38-40Edward B. Butler, SB '38, PhD '51, isa senior research engineer for the PanAmerican Petroleum Corp., of Tulsa,Okla.David Dolnick, AB '38, AM '39, aneconomist and industrial relations specialist, has recently opened a labor-management counseling service in Chicago. Formerly research director forthe Amalgamated Meat Cutters andButcher Workmen of North America,Dolnick is also on the panel of arbitersof the Federal Mediation and ConciliationService. He has taught labor relationscourses at both the University of Illinoisand Illinois Institute of Technology.Dr. E. W. Haertig, MD '39, is practicing psychiatry in Honolulu, Hawaii.Myron R. Kirsch, SB '39, SM '41, wasrecently elected chairman of the California Press Advisory Committee of theCalifornia Teachers Association, South-Steel SuperintendentJoseph H. Myers, MBA '53, of Hinsdale,111., is general superintendent of AcmeSteel's Riverdale (111.) Plant.Associated with Acme since 1946 Myerswas appointed assistant general superintendent in 1954 and held that positionuntil his present appointment.Myers is vice president and a directorof the Executive Program Club of theUniversity of Chicago. He is a memberof the Economic Club of Chicago andthe Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. He is active as a troop committeeman in the Boy Scouts and has participated in Red Cross and CommunityFund activities. NYU Social Service HeadEdward E. Schwartz, PhD '55, has beenappointed director of the social serviceprogram at New York University's Graduate School of Public Administration andSocial Service.Previously chief of the program analysis branch in the children's departmentof the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Schwartz enters hisnew position as Professor of Social Welfare Administration.He is a member of the National Association of Social Workers, the American Public Health Association, and theAmerican Statistical Association.APRIL, 1957 33GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186Webb-Linn Printing Co*Catalogs, PublicationsAdvertising Literature?Printers of theUniversity of ChicagoMagazine?Louis S. Berlin, B.A. '09MOnroe 6-2900YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S_* >^Smfife1-{ Swift & CompanyA product of 41 7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400r. a. rehuquist co Sidewalks07 Factory Floors'MachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433Give ToTHE MARCH OF DIMES News Service AdvisorJules D. Porsche, SB '30, PhD '33, staffassistant to the vice president of Armour and Co.'s research division, hasbeen appointed to the advisory board ofthe American Chemical Society NewsService.Porsche has carried out important research .in organic chemistry and haswritten numerous scientific articles. Aftertwo years as a research chemist at theMunicipal Tuberculosis Sanitarium inChicago, he joined the staff of Armourand Co.Before assuming his present positionhe was head of the company's biologicaldepartment; assistant director of chemical research and development; directorof research and development of the chemical and by-product department; andmanager of the central research department.His wife is the former Mary EllenMalloy, PhB '31.era Section. Kirsch is director of welfareservices and special education for theGarden Grove Union High School district, Garden Grove, Calif. He resides innearby Santa Ana with his wife, Geral-dine, and son, Paul.Charles B. Huelsman, AM '39, PhD '49,Associate Professor of Education in theSchool of Education, Miami University,Oxford, Ohio, has been made a fellow ofthe American Academy of Optometry,partly in recognition of his research andteaching in the field of visual problemsof school children.Jeanne Jewett, AM '40, was recentlymade Administrator of the State PublicWelfare Department of Oregon, a multi-million dollar operation.William Salkind, MBA '40, has beenappointed supervisor of experimental research at Kenyon & Eckhardt, Inc., inNew York City. PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Book ReproductionCongress St. Expressway andGardner RoadCOIumbus 1-1420CHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING— LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters . Copy Preparation •Typewriting . Addressing Imprinting• MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. 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BUZZELL, '13, Director,Delavan, Wis.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAppointed AttacheCarl Bode, '33, Professor of Englishand head of the American Civilizationprogram at the University of Maryland,has been appointed cultural attache tothe American Embassy in London.Scheduled to depart in April for a twoyear tour of duty, he will be responsiblefor selecting students for the internationalexchange program, will deliver a seriesof lectures on American culture, andwill attempt to stimulate British interestin American fine arts.Kermit Wiltse, AM '40, has been promoted to Associate Professor at the University of California, Berkeley.Jeanne Jewett, AM '40, has been namedadministrator of the Oregon Public Welfare Commission. She was formerly assistant administrator.John F. Culp, SB '40, has been appointed production superintendent at theCorning Glass Works plant at Charleroi,Penn.41-45Joseph E. Sheeks, AB '41, JD '48, hasjoined Industrial Indemnity Co.'s homeoffice legal staff in San Francisco as anattorney. He was formerly an attorneyfor the Pacific Gas and Electric Co.Abram W. VanderMeer, AM '41, PhD'43, is Assistant to the Dean of the College of Education at Pennsylvania StateUniversity. He will continue in the capacity of Professor of Education, a posthe has held since 1952. VanderMeer isa specialist in the use of audio-visualaids in education.The Rev. Eric L. Titus, PhD '42, isProfessor of New Testament Literatureat the University of Southern CaliforniaSchool of Religion, Los Angeles. Titusis author of The Message of the FourthGospel, published by the Abingdon Press,Nashville, Tenn. Herbert N. Friedlander, SB '42, PhD'47, is a group leader at the Whiting, Ind.,,laboratories of Standard Oil Co., (Ind.).Robert A. Miller, AB '42, is the manager of the Cryovac Co., a division ofW. R. Grace & Co.A device straight out of science fictionwas proposed by George R. Price, SB'43, PhD '46, in "How to Speed Up Invention," published in the Novemberissue of Fortune. Utilizing the computerand automatic-control techniques available today, Price advocates the buildingof a "design machine" which would beable to create in a matter of seconds,pictures of machine parts that now takea draftsman many hours to draw. As it"drew" the picture, the machine wouldsimultaneously create a mathematicalmodel of the part in its internal memory, by transferring the image onto magnetic tape. By projecting a stereoscopicpair of images displayed on separate picture tubes onto a screen, the imagewould appear in 3-D when viewedthrough polarizing glasses.Robert S. Burgess, AM '43, executivedirector of the Rhode Island Heart Association, will leave this position on May 1to become executive director of the Family and Child Welfare Division of theHealth and Welfare Federation of Alle gheny County, Pennsylvania, with headquarters in Pittsburgh. Bob has beenpublicity chairman for our Rhode IslandAlumni Club.Beverly Hill Hayter, '45, former member of the Senate of the College Divisionof the Alumni Association, while reporting a change of address to Lansing, Illinois, a south side suburb, also reportsthe arrival of Janet, just ahead of lastChristmas, on December 23.Franz Schulze, '45, is studying in Munich this year.46-50Arthur A. Cohen, AB '46, AM '48, isexecutive director of Noonday Press andpublishes Meridian Books in New York.He married the former Elaine Lustig inNovember.Gertrude Buss Couch, AM '46, is an Associate Professor of Public Health at theUniversity of Illinois.Robert Hemenway, AB '46, AM '51, formerly of the Great Books Foundationof Chicago, has been named director ofpublic programs for the new WorldAffairs Center for the United States,which is scheduled to open this springin New York. Hemenway will also serveas associate director. For the past yearIN 5 YEARS -WHAT?A life policy which guarantees you immediate insurancecoverage but which gives youfive years to consider just whattype of protection will suit youbest — that, in brief, is the Adjustable Policy of the Sun LifeAssurance Company of Canada. Just consider for a moment a few of the advantages.You know you need insurancecoverage but you're not surewhat the immediate futureholds. Well, this policy allowsyou five full years to decidewhich one of four types ofcontract would be best for you.A change in marital status, a different income bracket, animproved or worsened state ofhealth can all make a greatdifference in your insurancethinking. As one or all of thesechanges could easily occur atany time in your life, this five-year breathing spell is boundto be a help to you.Can you honestly afford topass up an opportunity likethis? Think it over carefullyand then give me a call. I cangive you the full details of thiswonderful policy which theSun Life has designed specifically to safeguard your future.RALPH J. WOOD, JR.Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada1 N. La Salle St. FR. 2-2390APRIL, 1957he has been with John Wiley and Sonspublishing house. From 1951 to 1955he worked with the Great Books Foundation as their west coast regional director, academic director, and easternregional director. He has held positionswith the Great Books Index and Edit,Inc., in Chicago and for two years wasan English Instructor at the New YorkJulliard School of Music. During WorldWar II he served as a cryptanalytictechnician with the air corps and civilcensorship units in Europe and Africa.Enoch I. Swain, SB '47, AM '48, PhD'51, has been named Professor of Education at the Air University, Maxwell AirForce Base, Ala.Elizabeth A. Skinsnes, PhB '47, SB '47,and her husband Dr. Olaf K. Skinsnes,SM '46, MD '47, PhP '47, have returnedto Hongkong after a year's leave in theStates. Olaf teaches at the University ofHongkong and serves as pathologist forthe Hongkong leprosarium. Elizabethlooks after daughters Rikki and Anwei,teaches history at a nearby middle school,studies Chinese and helps in the publicityand money raising work of the Mission- to the Lepers, Hongkong Auxiliary.R. Barclay McGhee, PhD '48, is head ofthe Department of Zoology at the University of Georgia.Jared B. Shlaes, AB '48, MBA '50, isengaged to Nancy D. Shiman, of Maple -wood, N. J. Plans have been made fora September wedding Shlaes is withthe George S. Lurie Co., Chicago realestate firm.William G. Dixon, AM '48, has beenacting director of the University of British Columbia's School of Social Worksince the death of the director, MarjorieSmith, in October.Leonora Rubinow, AM' 48, has been appointed assistant executive secretary forthe Medical Social work section of theNational Association of Social Workers.Ruth Werner, AM '48, has been appointed Assistant Professor of SocialWork in the School of Applied SocialSciences at Western Reserve University.Ruth will concentrate in caseworkteaching.Roy Mackal, '49, PhD '53, has beenappointed Research Associate and Assistant Professor in the University's Depart-\ ment of Biochemistry.Lola G. Selby, AM '49, has been appointed Visiting Associate Professor ofCasework, Field work Unit in Child Guidance, at the University of SouthernCalifornia.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. MOnroe 6-3192BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71 ST ST. George J. Fulkerson, AB '49, is practicing law in Pontiac, Mich.Herbert Spielman, PhD '49, has received a State Department assignment toParis. Leon M. Atlas, SM '49, PhD '50, is asenior scientist at the Armour ResearchFoundation of Illinois Institute of Technology. Atlas, who joined the Foundation in 1950, has contributed to the development of a gas mantle-type infraredlantern and did considerable work inthe * improvement of magnesium oxideramming refractories. He has applied fora patent on his development of catalyticsintering of magnesium oxide.Edward L. "Pat" Patullo, '49, formerlyassistant to George Watkins, Vice President, Development, has accepted theposition of Assistant Dean of the Facultyof Arts and Sciences at Harvard University.Stuart Hamilton, MBA '50, is managerof the loans operations division in theoperating department of the NorthernTrust Co., Chicago. Hamilton has beenwith Northern Trust since 1946.Since 7885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for University,College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.VkeLxcluHve CleaneiiWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal- 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMUseum 4-1200Phones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenuePARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525BESTBOILERREPAIR&WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoRICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. MOnroe 6-3192LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERSince 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Wasson - PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson Does36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMiriam Hellman Meyers, (Mrs. NormanB.), PhB '50, is mother of Melissa Lee,born November 12. in the theoretical division of the University of California's Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.51-53Ornella Calabi, SM '51, was awardeda Doctor of Science degree in Microbiology from Harvard University and isnow an Instructor in Microbiology incharge of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology at Yale University School ofMedicine.Frank W. Springer, AB '51, is assistantpurchasing agent for the Ajax ElectricCo., Philadelphia, Pa.Charles D. Garvin, AM '51, marriedJanet Tuft of Philadelphia on January 27.First Lieutenant Martin M. Arlook, AB.'52, has been assigned to the Judge Advocate Section, Headquarters, ThirdArmy, Fort McPherson, Ga.Elizabeth Govan, PhD '51, is Professorof Social Work at the University, ofToronto and will act as coordinator ofcurriculum development. She was formerly secretary of special projects andservices, Canadian Welfare Council.Three alumni have recently been employed by the Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich. They are: Norman Bilow,SM '52, PhD '56, management section,poly-chemicals; Robert E. Perry, MBA'56, production coordination; and JosephW. Van Wyk, SB '47, SM '48, technical-service and development department.Robert T. Mack, Jr., PhD '52, and wifeDoris, of Millbrae Highland, Calif., announce the birth of Robert TandlerMack, III, on January 25.William I. Moore, AB '52, was commissioned an ensign in the U. S. NavalReserve on February 28 after graduatingfrom the Naval Officer Candidate Schoolat Newport, R. I. He is currently assigned to the Naval Security Station inWashington, D. C.Sara Ann Ivie Davis, AB '52, will bein Yuma, Ariz, for 13 months with hersoldier-husband, Robert E. Davis. Saraand Bob were married on December 29.Robert E. McRae, AB '53, SM '56, ofBeverly Hills, Calif., is a mathematicianProducersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton H- Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4 55-56Richard D. Wittrup, MBA '55, formerlyadministrative assistant of the UniversityClinics, has been appointed hospital administrator of the new University ofKentucky Hospital in Lexington.Maridell Conners, '55, is Assistant Professor and field work supervisor in the child guidance clinic unit at Florida StateUniversity.Masuo Kino, AM '55, recently informedus of the birth of a daughter, Caroline,in November. He is a child welfareworker in Hawaii.David G. Roberts, '55, is Lecturer andsupervisor of Medical Social Work at theUniversity of Utah.Edward E. Schwartz, PhD '55, has beenappointed Dean of New York University's School of Social Work. He wasformerly chief of the program researchbranch of the Children's Bureau. ,APRIL, 1957 37To Assistant ProfessorMichael J. Brennan, Jr., AM '54, PhD'56, an Instructor of Economics at BrownUniversity, Providence, R. I., has beenpromoted to Assistant Professor.Brennan specializes in price theoryand mathematical economics.He is currently a Danforth Foundation Teaching Fellow at Brown and hastaught at DePaul University, the University of Indiana, and Xavier College.He is a member of the American Economic Association.William N. Georgeson, MBA '56, wasnamed assistant vice-president and assistant manager of the bond division ofMutual Trust Life Insurance Co. inChicago.Morton L. Monson, Jr., MBA '56, issecond vice-president in the banking division of the Northern Trust Co., Chicago.The Rev. Gordon A. Christensen, DB'56, and his wife, Mirium Hansen, wereamong 83 persons commissioned for missionary service in the Methodist church,at the annual meeting of the MethodistBoard of Missions, January 18 at BuckHill Falls, Penn. Christensen will begoing to Japan for educational andevangelistic work. No stranger to overseas duty, Christensen spent a year inJapan with the U.S. Army, two yearswith the federal government in Alaska,and two years at the Philippines' Christian College in Manila. During his twoyears in the Philippines, he took part inseveral work camps in the jungles,clearing sites for churches and socialcenters.Polly C. Bartholomew, AB '56, SB '56,of Minneapolis, is engaged to Eric Feigl.Both are attending the University of Minnesota where Eric is a senior in the Medical School.Keeping water out in the rainMasonry WALLS made of brick, stone, or concrete havelong stood the test of time. But today, they can be madeeven better with a coating of silicone water repellents.These amazing materials prevent damaging rainwaterfrom entering the countless tiny pores or openings inmasonry structures.When the water freezes after penetrating, it cancause spalling— cracks off small pieces. And, if it seepsall the way through to the inside of a building, paintpeels . . . woodwork warps . . . plaster stains and cracks.Now, silicone water repellents provide the answer. Brushed or sprayed on the surface, they line—not seal— the pores in masonry. Even heavy rain drivenby hurricane winds cannot break through this invisible raincoat . . . yet, because the pores are not sealed, moisture from within can evaporate freely.The people of Union Carbide produce siliconesfor other uses, too . . . automobile and furniture polishes,lubricants, electrical insulation, and new rubber-likeproducts ... all of which help bring more and betterthings for all of us.STUDENTS AND STUDENT ADVISERS: Learn more about careeropportunities with Union Carbide in Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals,Gases, and Plastics. Write for" Products and Processes" booklet C-2.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET [JOB NEW YORK 17, N. Y.In Canada : Union Carbide Canada Limited, TorontoUCCs Trade-marked Products include Union CARBIDE Silicones CRAC Agricultural Chemicals EVEREADY Flashlights and Batteries ELECTROMET Alloys and MetalsLlNDE Oxygen SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS PRESTONE Anti-Freeze HAYNES STELLITE Alloys Dynel Textile FibersPyrofax Gas Bakelite, Vinylite, and Krene Plastics National Carbons Union Calcium Carbide Prest-O-Lite AcetyleneAPRIL, 1957 39Up oWikafctoNew England LifeFor 14 consecutive years theMid-West Magazines havebeen chosen to carry New England Life advertising. Most ofthese ads have sought to interest college graduates in life insurance selling as a career.Here, in the words of Mr.David W. Tibbott, New England Life Director of Information Services, is a testimonialto their success."It's hardly an accident thatnearly 70% of our field men. . . are college alumni, withthe Mid-West heavily represented. Men of real calibre areneeded in our type of business.Thanks to our college alumniadvertising, and to an unusually comprehensive training program, we have developed a field organizationsecond to none in reputationand professional competence."MIDWESTALUMNI MAGAZINESThe Ohio State MonthlyThe Michigan AlumnusThe MinnesotaThe Wisconsin AlumnusThe Purdue AlumnusThe Indiana Alumni MagazineUniversity of Chicago MagazineTotal Combined CirculationOver 94,000For full information write orphone Birge Kinne, 22 WashingtonSq. North, New York, N. Y.GRamercy 5-2039 MemorialHarry O. Gillet, SB '01, retired principalof the University of Chicago Laboratory School, died February 7 in St.Luke's Hospital, Chicago. He was appointed to the faculty of the LaboratorySchool in 1900 as a seventh grade teacherby famed educator John Dewey, thenDirector of the University's School ofEducation. Gillet retired in 1944. He hadbeen supervisor of education at the Museum of Science and Industry for thelast 12 years and was editor-in-chiefof United Educators, Inc.Nellie Lovering Hosic, (Mrs. James F.),SB '02, PhM '04, died February 14, inWinter Park, Fla., after a brief illness.Mildred Faville Laun, (Mrs. A. A.),PhB '05, died December 11 in Milwaukee.Harry Dale Morgan, '08, prominentPeoria attorney and civic leader, diedsuddenly in his office on July 25 at theage of 71. Two of his four sons, Robertand Donald, are graduates of the LawSchool and were associated with him inthe practice of law. Robert is mayor ofPeoria. Harry Dale Morgan not onlyserved the University of Chicago wellin his home town, but was also a lifemember of the Board of Trustees ofBradley University.John V. Balch, PhB '08, AM '12, diedMay 11 in Follansbee, W. Va. He wasdirector of the Citizen's Bank of Follansbee.George R. Johnson, PhM '10, died November 24 in St. Louis, Mo. At onetime he was director of tests and measurements for the St. Louis Board ofEducation.Ellsworth Bryce, PhB '13, died in Doctor's Hospital, New York, on January 22.For the past twenty years Bryce was afood broker in New York.Oakley K. Morton, '14, died at the ageof 65 in his home in Riverside, Californialast December, from a heart ailment. Hewas senior judge of the Riverside CountySuperior Court.Maurice A. Barancik, PhB '15, JD '17,collapsed and died in his Chicago lawoffice, February 22. While at the University Barancik held the Big Ten college championship for the 220 -yard run.During World War I he served in Franceas an aviation officer. After the war hebecame one of the founders and chartermembers of the 52 Assn., Inc., of Illinois,a veteran's philanthropic group.H. Binga Dismond, '17, MD '20, ofGreat Neck, New York, died in December.In 1938 he was awarded the Insignia ofChevalier by the Haitian government andin 1946 he helped organize the departmentof physical therapy in the New YorkHarlem Hospital. John H. Hoskins, SM '20, PhD '24,Chairman of the Department of Botanyand Bacteriology at the University ofCincinnati College of Arts and Sciences,and nationally-known paleobotanist, diedFebruary 8 at the age of 61. A memberof the Cincinnati faculty since 1925 andChairman of the Department since 1931,Hoskins specialized in the study of fossilplants. In 1956 he was re-elected for thesecond time head of the paleobotanicalsection of the Botanical Society of America. He had been elected to membershipin the Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana Academies of Science for his achievements.He was associate editor and editor forthe American Midland Naturalist, and assistant editor and co-founder ofLloydia,quarterly journal of biological sciencespublished by the Lloyd Library of Cincinnati.Homer F. Slesman, PhB '23, died January 28. He is survived by his wife, theformer Florence M. Dodge, SB '28, anda daughter, Dorothy Jean of Glen Ellyn,111.Joseph L. Bufiot, AM '29, died February 20, in Houston, Tex. Duflot hadbeen head of the Department of Sociology and Philosophy at West TexasState College, Canyon, Tex., from 1918until 1951.Helen M. Dart, '30, died January 3, inChicago.Dr. Townsend B. Friedman, MD '33,director of the allergy department atMichael Reese Hospital, Chicago, diedFebruary 27, of a heart ailment.Helen Edith Reis, PhB '36, died November 27 in Chicago.Donald S. Hartzell, AM '37, died January 9 in Monterey Park, Calif.Ernestine S. Heilenian MacPhail, (Mrs.John), AM '38, died January 19, in Chicago.Dr. George Goniori, PhD '43, pathologistat the Palo Alto (Calif.) Clinic, formerProfessor of Medicine at the University's Medical School, and recognized asone of the world's authorities in thefield of pathology, died February 28, inPalo Alto, Calif. Born in Hungary anda graduate of the University of Budapest, Gomori was an American citizen.His texts and research reports on thestudy of cellular chemistry are considered the leading authoritative works inthat field. According to his associatesat the Palo Alto Clinic, he was responsible for the preponderance of modernresearchers in cytochemistry, of whichhe was a pioneer. Gomori was the president of the American Histochemical Society. He belonged to numerous medical organizations and was a member ofthe editorial board of the AmericanSociety of Clinical Pathologists. He wasthe winner of the Ward Burdick awardof the American Society of ClinicalPathologists.40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFirst of all, what's it all about? Whatdoes a fellow like John Jackson doall day? In his own words, "I keepin touch with the executives of manydifferent companies— advising themon the use of their IBM electronicdata processing computers. I personally consult with these customers,and analyze their scientific and technical problems for solution by IBM.Occasionally, I'm asked to writepapers, and give talks and demonstrations on electronic computing.All in all, it's pretty fascinating . . .something new pops up every day."In other words, John is a full-fledgedcomputing expert, a consultant . . .and a very important person in thisage of automation through electronics.Calling on a customerSince the IBM laboratories arealways devising easier and faster waysto solve the problems of science, government, and industry, an AppliedScience Representative can never sayhe's learned his job and that's theend of it. At least once every twomonths, he attends seminars to beupdated on the latest developments inengineering and operations research.Introduces new methodsDuring the two years that Johnhas spent with IBM in Applied Science, he has shown innumerable customers new and better ways to dothings electronically. For example:about a year ago, an aircraft manufacturer wanted to experiment with aradically different design for a nuclear What a MATHEMATICIANcan do at IBMMathematics is an ancient but ever-advancing science that contains manyforms. It shouldn't surprise you then that it took some time before JohnJackson discovered the one brand of mathematics that seemed custom-tailored to his ability and temperament. John is an Applied Science Representative, working out of the IBM office at 122 East 42nd Street, N. Y. C.reactor. The basic format had beenestablished, but the project still required months of toil with mathematical equations. The aircraft peoplecouldn't afford to wait that long, sothey called in IBM. After discussionMapping out a computer programwith top executives, John helped tomap out a computer program thatsaved the organization over 100 daysof pencil-chewing arithmetic. Later,for this same company, John organized the establishment of computersystems for aircraft performance predictions ... for data reduction ofwind tunnel tests . . . and for wingstress analysis. At the same time, heworked with this company's own employees, training them in the use ofIBM equipment. John still dropsaround to see that everything is running smoothly.Another service that John performsis the constant reappraisal of eachcustomer's IBM operation. Occasionally, a customer may tie himself inknots over a procedural "stickler."Periodically, in fact, John bringsIBM customers together . . . just totalk over what's happening in eachother's business— how everybody elsehandled that old bugaboo . . . details.New field for MathematiciansJohn is exercising his mathematicalknow-how in a field that was practically unheard of ten years ago. Evennow, this kind of work may be newsto you. It was to John Jackson a few years back when he was an undergraduate at the University of Colorado. At that time, he was consideringactuarial work or mathematical research. But John liked the excitementand diversification of science and industry and he wanted to use hismathematical background. It was notuntil he was interviewed by IBMthat field computing whetted his scientific appetite. A few months later,John launched his own IBM careeras an Applied Science trainee.Promotionwise, John has come along way since then. He's now anApplied Science Representative inone of the biggest offices in the IBMorganization ... mid-town Manhattan.Discussing a problem with colleaguesWith his wife, Katherine, anddaughter, Lisa, 20 months, and John,Jr., 6 weeks, he enjoys his suburbanPort Washington home. He's happyand he's satisfied. And then, too, Johnknows a few vital statistics aboutIBM . . . such as the fact that theApplied Science Division has quadrupled during the past three years,and that in 1956 alone, over 70 promotions were conferred. If ever afuture held promise, here is one.• • •Equally challenging opportunities exist forexperienced engineers and scientists in allof IBM's many divisions across the country. For details, write P. H. Bradley,Room 870k, IBM Corp., 590 Madison Ave.,New York 22, N. Y.IBM INTERNATIONALBUSINESS MACHINESCORPORATIONData processing ELECTRIC TYPEWRITERS TIME EQUIPMENT MILITARY PRODUCTShave you chosen over theyears to give so generously of your time, effortand money to The University of Chicago? Weasked that question ofHarold H. Swift, whoserved the University asChairman of the Board ofTrustees from 1922 to1949. Here is his reply:Harold. H. Swift, '07,was elected a Trustee ofthe University in 1914and since 1955 has beenan Honorary Trustee.He is a former Chairman of the Board ofSwift and Company,which he now serves asHonorary Chairman. To me the University of Chicago has always been"Something Special" which made it an important factor in my life. I grew up in its shadow, attended itsclasses, and for 42 years have sat with its Board.But it is also "Something Special" to the wholeMiddle West and, indeed, to all of higher education.The reasons are innumerable but consider merely someof the educational mileposts which resulted from theapplication of Harper's vision to Rockefeller's millions.The very concept of a great university springing fromnothing was revolutionary, and Harper's policies wereequally revolutionary — unheard of salaries for teachers, utilization of facilities four quarters a year, auniversity press, the placing of religion and dogmaon an educational plane, and many others.Thus, the University became a bulwark of highereducation when the great Middle West state universities were developing. I am convinced that the stateuniversities now are appreciably more effectivethrough having had the pattern of the University ofChicago to which, in their quest for quality work, theycould refer their political authorities.My life has been chiefly spent in the business established by my father and in working for the Universityof Chicago as well as devotion to my family andfriends. If I were given the opportunity to changethis, I would not do so. These activities have satisfied me emotionally and intellectually.THE 1957 DRIVE Of THE ALUMNI FOUNDATION IS NOW UNSEND YOUR CHECK TODTHE ALUMNI FUND5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUECHICAGO 37, ILLINOIS