To save a lifePortable packages of electricity help make our lives safer and more enjoyableThe BRIGHT BEAM of a flashlight in the hands of anairman down at sea . . . the untold comfort of an almostinvisible hearing aid . . . the pleasure of listening toyour favorite music over a portable radio.THESE INGENIOUS DEVICES have one thing in common—they all get their electric power from dry-cell batteries. Each day millions of us depend on these portable packages of power for greater safety, comfort, andpleasure.LARGE BATTERIES furnish power for signalling andcommunications systems. Hearing aid batteries are nowso tiny that they can hide under a dime. Other dry-cellssupply power to everything from toys to Geiger counters.OVER 60 YEARS AGO, the people of Union Carbideproduced the first commercial dry-cell. From this be ginning, they developed the great variety of EVEREADYbatteries that now serve dependably in so many applications.SCIENTISTS of Union Carbide are constantly working on new, improved methods of producing packagedpower. Their goal is to make dry-cell batteries do evenmore work for all of us.STUDENTS AND STUDENT ADVISERS: Learn more about careeropportunities with Union Carbide in ALLOYS, CARBONS, CHEMICALS,Gases, and PLASTICS. Write for "Products and Processes" booklet.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET 1 1 1 _| _< NEW YORK 17, N. Y.In Canada: Union Carbide Canada Limited, TorontoUCC's Trade-marked Products includeEVEREADY Flashlights and Batteries Dynel Textile Fibers SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS PREST-O-LlTE AcetylenePrestone Anti-Freeze ELECTROMET Alloys and Metals IlAYNES Stellite Alloys UNION Carbide LlNDE OxygenUnion Carbide Silicones Bakelite, Vinylite, and Krene Plastics National Carbons Acheson Electrodes Pyrofax GasAT THE OPERA HOUSEBACKSTAGE BREAK: College studentKen Nordin with Humanities Professor-Artist Joshua C. TaylorBALCONY BOX 8: William S. Gray,Professor Emeritus, Education, nowDirector, Reading Research; HarveyB. Lemon, Professor Emeritus, Physics,now Science and Education Director,Museum of Science and Industry; Arthur P. Scott, Professor Emeritus, History; Ernest W. Burgess, ProfessorEmeritus, Sociology; Chancellor Lawrence A. Kimpton"YOUR UNIVERSITY TODAY" was acarefully coordinated smooth - runninghodge podge of campus life transferredto the limited few acres of Chicago'sCivic Opera House stage on May 4th.One minute it was the student concert band, the next a twenty-minutecollege seminar demonstration; or a stagefull of acrobats and fencers; or a skitdemonstrating Lloyd Warner's study ofwives of successful executives.The picturesThey put the show together at anafternoon dress rehearsal which draggeddangerously near curtain time. As thespotlight faded on each skit, the members were released to far backstage anda loaded table of cold cuts and coffee.Joshua Taylor, the only art instructorwho ever taught me to understand — but Lewellynnot to appreciate — diagramatics, sits onthe stage floor with his potato salad,together with one of his student panelists from their skit on art appreciation.Meanwhile, in Box 8 on the mezzanine,four emeritus professors, guests for thisUniversity spectacular, were surprisedto have the Chancellor drop in on hisway back-stage. In the sudden shovingaround to get them grouped for a picture some one made a wise crack. (Idon't remember who but from the "I-swallowed - the - canary" look on ArtieScott's face, I'd risk a guess.) Anyway,this was exactly the unexpected breakSteve Lewellyn is always holding hisflash bulbs for, so we threw away theother four shots.The Chancellor presented the professors to the audience later in the program.(See Page 19 for more on the show.) MewojmTpHIS IS THE LAST issue of the Mag-azine until October. As we closethis 48th volume we are aware of onehuge boat missed this year: we failed tokeep news pace with the scores of clubmeetings across the nation. You can expect improvement in this department.The New York Club had its swankiestaffair in decades in the grand ball roomof the Hotel Pierre on Wednesday, May2. Nearly 200 were present to hearTrustee William Benton and MortonGrodzins, Chairman, Political Science.President of the Club, Alden R. Loosli.presided. Roswell F. Magill, to be citedfor good citizenship at the June Reunion.was an honored guest. George Leisurereported on the New York division ofthe Chicago Campaign. Ernest Quantrell introduc d fellow trustee Benton.who reported on his trip to Russia andthe study of their educational system:Today, Russian youngsters are learningfar more in ten years than ours doin twelve.Much of the smooth-running successof the dinner was due to the efficient andtireless work of the Club secretary, MaryElla Hopkins. Officers for the comingyear were elected:President, Jerry JontryV. P., John HovingSecretary, Mary Ella HopkinsTreasurer, Robert S. WhitlowConsulting Board: Noel Gerson, GeorgeS. Leisure, Alden R. Loosli, Ralph W.Nicholson, Ellmore Patterson, Ernest E.Quantrell, Henry T. Sulcer, Mrs. FredWilliams, (Marguerite McNall).Our State of Rhode Island Club underthe presidency of Beverly Glenn Longheld its annual meeting in Providence onMay 7th. Dr. Herman B. Chase, PhD '38,Professor of Biology at Brown University, was the speaker. Dr. Chase has justbeen granted a Guggenheim Fellowship to study the nature of the biologicaleffects of X-ray and other radiation asa member of a research unit in radio-biology in the British Empire Campaignat Mount Vernon Hospital near London.He spoke to the Club on the effect ofcosmic rays on skin pigments. At themeeting, John W. Lenz, '45, AM, '49, waselected local Foundation Chairman for1956-1957.T>EFORE THE END OF JUNE the di-rectory for Greater Chicago will beoff the presses. In addition to over 20,000alumni listed this directory will carry abrief history of the University. An interesting section will list the 63 majorbuildings in the order of their dedication— never before compiled in this order.The directory will also analyze theoccupations of our 52,000 alumni. Thissame information will be carried in theNew York, Washington, D. C, and California directories about to go to press.The Chicago directory is $3.00, theother three, $2.00 each.H.W.M.JUNE, 1956 1How long has it been since your Senior Prom?4 VP3T^ ^n ^952 American began using the "Magnetronic Reservisor," an electronic "brain"capable of handling over 1,000,000 passenger reservations per day.O yporc In 1948 American introduced the Family Half-Fare Plan to encourage family travel,a plan widely followed throughout the industry ever since.12 V63.S ^n 1944 American Airlines inaugurated the nation's first scheduled airfreight serviceand followed with many additional airfreight innovations.Over the years as modern air travel has creatednew opportunities for business and vacation trips,college graduates have usually been first to utilize thesebenefits. Today the advantages of air transportationloom larger than ever on American Airlines, America'sleading airline, and are available at both Flagshipand Aircoach fares. «AMERICANAIRLINESZ^/lmeruas ^Qadmg <_/___2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEftiJIus jsssueAll the arts were lively in thesecond annual Festival of the Arts,held April 25-29 this year. Mozart metjazz and ballet was included with theBeaux Arts Ball in a potpourri of eventsand people. An intermittent drizzlethrough the Festival did not dampen theevents themselves.Visual proof of Festival liveliness,photographed by Morton Shapiro, beginson Page 4. Proof of the drizzle is onthis month's cover.|URING World War II, there was ashortage of refrigerator space insome of the Billings Hospital laboratories. Materials for non-military equipment were scarce, so civilian scientistsmade out as well as they could withwhat was on hand. Because of this, Dr.J. Garrott Allen, surgeon, came across amomentous discovery — a safe method ofstoring liquid plasma. For the excitingdetails of his discovery, and what it maymean to future victims of large-scaledisaster, turn to "For Lack Of A Freezer" on Page 15.Morton grodzins, Prof essor and Chairman of the Department of PoliticalScience, has written a book concerningfreedom and national security called TheLoyal and The Disloyal. Edward Shils,Professor and Executive Secretary of theCommittee on Social Thought, treats thesame general topic in his recent TheTorment of Secrecy.This month the magazine reprints aportion of the final part of Grodzins'book,, accompanied with illustrations byMichael Maccoby, student in the Sociology Department.In the book review section, (Page 29),Malcolm Sharp, Professor in the LawSchool, reviews both books. Sharp isPresident of the National Lawyers Guild,and author of a book on the Rosenbergcase which is to appear soon.rHiLE the front pages of the nation'snewspapers have carried headlinesabout friction in the attempt to initiateracial integration in parts of the south,a small group of ministers in Georgiahave quietly carried out their own experiment — the first interracial summercamp for children in that area. C. Conrad Browne, DB '49, tells about theirexperience in "A Quiet Experiment inIntegration" on Page 17.A\ s contributors to the University'sbig campaign for $32.7 million, (andwe assume you all are), you're entitledto know how the money is being spent.In "Here's Where The Money Goes,"(Page 23), Chancellor Kimpton givesyou details on the disposition of the $17niillion received so far. J^^^^'/' "*"~ UNIVERSITYMAGAZINE i ! JUNE, 1956Volume 48, Number 9FEATURES410II1517192328 Festival of the Arts — A Picture StoryA Talk with Eudora WeltyThe Value of LoyaltyFor Lack of a FreezerA Quiet Experiment In IntegrationYour University Today — A Picture StoryHere's Where the Money Goes — Campaign NewsHappy Talk Morton GrodzinsC. Conrad BrowneDEPARTMENTS! Memo Pad3 In This Issue27 News of the Quadrangles29 Books35 Class News40 MemorialCOVERAor-Emmy Meyer, College student, examines one of the statues onexhibit in Hutchinson Court during the Festival of the Arts. Thesculpture, by Freeman Schoolcraft, Director of the Campus StudioGallery at Lexington Hall, is titled "Figure Dedicated to Peace."For more pictures of the festival, turn to Page 4. (Photo by Mcton Shapiro)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, IllinoisEditorFELSCSA ANTHENELLI Associate EditorPALMER W. PINNEYTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONThe Alumni FundWILLIAM H. SWANBERGORLANDO R. DAVIDSONExecutive Secretary-EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORANProgrammingELIZABETH A. SHAW Student RecruitmentDONALD C. MOYERPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $4.00. Single copies,25 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois,under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Aiumni Council, B. A Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.JUNE, 1956 3Morton ShapiroFalling rain adds to the charm oj this bronze nude by SylviaShaw Judson (wife of Clay Judson, JD '17), one of severalworks on display in' Hutchinson Court. The fresh flower wasplaced there by some whimsical student.4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFestival Of The ArtsA FEELING oj damp gaiety prevailed on the Midwayfrom April 25-29, as an intermittent drizzle lastedthrough most oj the second annual Festival oj the Arts.Midway residents witnessed dancing, music, theatre, artexhibits, lectures and athletic events, most oj them_indoors, during the Festival. The program was so richthat at times it was difficult to choose among conflictingevents on a campus covered, jor the most part, by a Londonlike mist.Some oj the artists were members oj the University,some were not. Eudora Welty, short story writer andnovelist talked about her craft; alumnus Andrew Foldi,bass, and Robert Lodine, piano, gave a concert; membersoj the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Universityoj Chicago Choir presented Mozart's Requiem andVesperae Solennes; University Theatre performed Strind-berg's The Ghost Sonata; and the Beaux Arts Ballprovided a chance jor all students, faculty members, andeven trustees to exhibit their costume creations.One oj the most unusual events was the MitchellTower Spring Ceremony, based on a venerable traditionat Magdalen College, Oxford. An all-male choir sang,accompanied by a brass choir, (both groups robed inblack), and The Societas Campanariorum on the MitchellTower chimes.Students examine "Congo,"a sculpture in wood byBunni SovetskiThe Festival Dancers gave a charmingrecital in Ida Noyes foyer, after rainforced them to abandon plans to danceoutdoors to Rockefeller Chapel carillonFuritsu Zumi, holding'shamisen, lends an oriental touch to the Festival oj the NationsMembers oj the band warm up jor ait concert in Hutchinson Courttwilight International House jete included flutemusic by Hassan Effendi oj Pakistan• "|t^ black-robed male choir, (above), directed by Denis Cowan, together withbrass choir, (right), directed by LouisLason, gives concert on roof of theC-Shop. They were accompanied bymembers of the Societas Campanariorumon Mitchell Tower chimes(Photos by Morton Shapiro)The Jazz Club sponsored a concert bythe Bud Powell Trio in Mandel Hall Israeli students sing of their homelandin Festival of the Nations at Int HousePrize-winners at Beaux Arts Ball, (I.),Barbara Culp and Bill Worrell take timeout jrom dancing jor a snack in C-ShopThe judges, (I. to r.), dancerRuth Page, artist Margo Hoff,trustee Charles Percy, Ab '41Can you figure out what they represent?¦ _F -Ronnie Graham,Maroon editor"Blackfriars"are back againIllinois Lt. Gov. John Chapman, PhB '15,JD '17, and his wife, (Eva Richolson,'28), lead the grand march at the ballDean John P. Netherton and his wife A cool floor and tired feet at the Ball's endA Talk With Eudora WeltyWHEN EUDORA WELTY camefrom her home in Jackson,Mississippi, to the University of Chicago in April to deliver the 198thWilliam Vaughn Moody lecture, shebecame a quiet center of one of themany commotions which were part ofthe second annual Festival of theArts. She lunched with the wives ofthe trustees, was taken for tours ofart exhibits and displays, met members of the English department — andwas photographed and interviewed.She would have been the center ofa commotion without the Festival,however. Her work as a story writerand novelist spans twenty years; ithas received critical recognition forsome time, and increased public recognition since the New Yorker devoted an entire issue to her novelette,The Ponder Heart, which has beentranslated -into a play now runningon Broadway. Her writing tends tobe conversational, and strongly basedin curious particulars of southern life.Sitting for the accompanying portrait on the day before her lecture,she spoke of her craft and her lifeas a writer. She received an ABfrom the University of Wisconsin, andthen went to New York City for ayear to take a business course at Columbia and find a job in advertising.It was a depression year; her jobhunting was unsuccessful and she returned to her home in Jackson, whereshe lives with her mother.Her characters are assimilations ofpeople, not imitations of any singleperson of her acquaintance althoughshe is sometimes asked, "How didyou know my Uncle George so well?"She prefers the short novel or storyform to those of greater length. Herwriting is done irregularly, when itfits into the events of life in Jackson.Thursday evening, April 26, she delivered her lecture, on "Place in Fiction," and read one of her short stories, The Petrified Man. A fullcrowd in Mandel Hall heard her illustrate the importance of place withquotations that ranged from Shakespeare to Laurence Sterne, and ref erences that included her fellowsouthern author, William Faulkner.Her reading, The Petrified Man, canbe found in A Curtain of Green, andOther Stories.Eudora Welty, novelist and short-story writerMorton Shapiro10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Value of Loyalty"No Man Is Wholly Patriot or WhollyTraitor, but Every Man Is a Little of Each"By MORTON GRODZINS,Professor and Chairman, Political ScienceAMERICA'S complexity is Ameri-J\. ca's strength. The crazy quilt ofethnic, economic, recreation, and religious groups; the clash of ideas andideals; the struggle for prestige andpower — these are the very marks ofdemocratic social order. They taketheir toll as individuals strive to reconcile sometimes irreconcilable claimsupon their energies and allegiances.But they also add immeasurably tothe mature pleasures of life. We maybe appalled by the picture of Americans1 who seem to vacillate betweendoing everything and doing nothing;but it would be far more appalling tobe caught in a society where wecould do only what we were told. Wemay be harried by choices so innumerable that they appear meaningless, and thus we may sympathizewith those who are weary of. freedom.But we would feel immeasurablymore impoverished if we had no freedom to fly from, no free choices tomake.Voluntary LoyaltiesThe bewildering variety of theAmerican social system is neither neatnor easy to understand. The socialreformer is tempted to simplify andto organize; he tries to bring orderout of apparent chaos by urging allmen to accept certain ideas and bymobilizing individuals into larger andlarger "action" groups. Even so passionate a democrat and so wise a reformer as Karl Mannheim traveled inthis direction.True wisdom dictates anothercourse. For both ideas and organizations, the prescription should be more,not fewer. The real ill is not that webecome confused because of the complexity of social organization or thecompetition of idea systems. Rather, the difficulty is that organizations andideas are not sufficiently numerousor diverse. The range of choice shouldbe wide enough that all Americans —with all their differences of character,culture, interest, and intelligence —can associate themselves successfullywith others in pursuit of their owngoals. These goals may appear selfish,petty, and unrelated to the nationalinterest. Yet we have seen, in fact,that members of such groups relatethemselves positively to the nation invaried and complex ways. There isalways some risk that these groupswill pursue antisocial or antidemocratic programs. This is a risk democracy must take, protecting itselflargely through informal social procedures and through law when that isessential. With rare exceptions, thevoluntary groups build democraticloyalties and strengthen the democratic state.The unregimented character of thissociety leaves room for loneliness; andthe free organization of groups allowsfor snobbishness in membership policy and despotism in internal organization. These again are strains thatthe system generates by its virtuesand bears because of its strength. Andthey are ills which can be self- cured.Loneliness, when it is not enjoyed,is overcome by multiplying opportunities for meeting others. Exclusionfrom one group can be an invitationto join, or form, another; and thesame courses of action are availablewhen leaders of voluntary organizations operate dictator ially. The danger of such groups is less than thedanger of the totalitarian state because the former have less power todirect a person's whole life and lesspower to discourage competitors.They are consequently more amenableto control by their members. Indi viduals can rarely separate themselves from their state, but they canalmost always join another voluntarygroup or find new friends. The tendency of American Legion posts anddepartments toward control from thetop by cliques would be more alarming if there did not also exist theAmerican Veterans Committee, theVeterans of Foreign Wars, the Disabled American Veterans, Jewish andCatholic veterans groups, and variousassociations based upon prior membership in military units, as well asgovernment facilities which overlapthe services of all these groups.Cultural DiversityMany urbanites do not attend theformal weekly meetings of social orpolitical organizations. To concludefrom this evidence, as some observersdo, that urban life provides no opportunity for satisfying group activityis to miss much of the richness andfreedom of our culture. The most important and most enjoyable aspectsof life are largely unorganized: friendsor acquaintances who come togetherto play bridge, to trade stamps, tobowl, to fly model airplanes, to lookat museum pictures, to sing in barbershop quartets, or to drink beer whilecomplaining about television commercials. The list is unending becausethe opportunities for such activity inthe industrial culture are beyondcount.The diversity of the industrial system lends it strength. It provides opportunities for life-satisfactions to allindividuals and all groups. It supplies, within the system, channels forprotest and disaffection that underless fluid conditions would showthemselves in repression or revolt. Itgives resiliency to society as it ties,Reprinted from "The Loyal and The Disloyal" by Morton Grodzins. Copyright 1956 by The University of Chicago. This chapter appearshere by permission of The University of Chicago innumerable crosshatching lines ofstrength and subtlety, individuals andgroups of individuals to the nation-state.In the United States today, mostelections attract only a minority ofthe voters. Even in national elections, well over one-third of thoseeligible usually do not participate.Most of those who do go to the pollscast their votes not on the basis ofprinciple or interest but as a consequence of family, class, and ethnicpressures. Voters cannot distinguishimportant issues, and they are in largepart influenced by the personalitiesof the candidates. Reason, rationality,and calculation are less important indetermining votes than sentiment andtradition. These facts encouragebreast-beating on national holidays.They serve other democratic purposes throughout the rest of the year.Political apathy in a democracy is agood thing.The uninterested and the apatheticsoften the bitterness of political warfare. Those least interested in politics are those who change their mindsmost frequently. This makes it easierto resolve conflicts and allows forflexibility in political policy. The un interested also make the two-partysystem more universally acceptable,since they can more readily compromise their differences within a largeparty.On the other hand, those who holdextreme political beliefs become extreme partisans. Partisanship is alsoemphasized when the politically uninterested are brought to politics. Political newcomers are the politicalnaive. They seek easy and quick solutions and move to political extremes.The largest electoral gains of the Naziparty during the cruciaL 1928-30 period came from votes of more thanfour million people who had previously been non-voters. "It was theradicalization .of people who had not[previously] participated actively inparty politics and who had been tooyoung to vote which gave a majorimpetus to the rise of fascism."The Nazi experience indicates thatthe apathetic can be exploited bydemagogues. But demagoguery alonecannot produce the mass political participation of former non-participants.The basic additional ingredient iswidespread social and economic distress. Under democratic conditions,such distress almost invariably leadsto political participation. PoliticalThe ballot box beneath apathy and interest groups. apathy, to be sure, may also be a reaction to defeat and despair. But onlyin the short run if politics are free.For large numbers over longer timespans, apathy in politics often indicates satisfaction and preoccupationwith affairs outside politics. This sortof apathetic response also indicatesapproval of existing political institutions.Non-participation not only positively serves the democratic systemas a leavener of controversy. It mayalso be evidence of that system's political stability and of social strengthand activity outside politics.Democratic ParticipationOne must conclude that citizen participation in politics is not the hallmark of democracy. On the contrary,no populations have been more completely mobilized in programs ofdirect political action than the populations of Nazi Germany and SovietRussia. Participation is always present in dictatorships. Apathy and non-participation are never evidence oftotalitarianism, but only of democracy.The baldness of such a conclusionmust be immediately qualified. Apathyis far preferable to participation thatis manipulated; but informed, interested, and rational participation iseven more to be desired. This idealis never completely realized, but ithas been approximated in someAmerican communities, in the Scandinavian countries, in Switzerland andthe United Kingdom, and in otherplaces.Under any circumstances, all democratic societies need political interestand political wisdom. Apathy canserve democracy negatively by making change easier; but change needsto be initiated, and it needs to be directed at strengthening the democratic order. Apathy in some peoplemust in all cases be balanced by political interest in others. Democracycannot exist if some of its citizens donot believe that politics is important.They must support that belief by devoting time and energy to politicalproblems. The apathetic constitutefollowers. The system must also produce leaders of political opinion andpolitical action.Of equal importance, the apathywe have described may be more apparent than real. It is characterizedby a disinclination to do anythingdirectly about political problems. Butthis may hide very deep beliefs concerning the proper role of government. It may also hide a kind of political participation which is very12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELeaders must look back to see if the people are still following.genuine, even though not always recognized as such.Beneath the surface of individualapathy there lies the tremendousactivity of interest groups. Thesegroups play decisive political roles.Organized on the basis of professionor work, ethnic or religious affiliation,regional or other special interest,they represent their constituents inpolitics at all levels of governmentand throughout the entire institutional structure of American life. Thepersons who lead such groups areoften also active in the political arena.But many individuals, apathetic onthe scene usually labeled "political,"play decisive political roles withinthese groups. They do so by formulating and supporting policies that arecontinuously represented to legislative members and administrative officers as the group's policies. This kindof political activity leads to an effectiveness that is far beyond the capacity of an individual working alone inpolitics.A decisive power of rejection isheld by the organizations of these"apathetic" people. It is not far fromthe truth that "the only leaders ofnational scope left in the UnitedStates today are those who can placate the veto groups." Yet the vetopower of those already organized isnot so significant as the affirmativepower of the potentially organized.Their freedom includes the basic freedom to capture existing groups aswell as to form new ones, to initiateprograms as well as defeat them. Thelatent power of populations to enterpolitics and to exercise decisive powerlies behind surface apathy. Politicalpower is real and important evenwhen it is not activated.Public CompetenceThe affirming and vetoing functionof interest groups, expressing the political choices of their memberships,represents one proper democratic relationship between leaders and followers. Leaders must have independence to carve out great programs ofgovernment. The public is competenton many issues to give only thebroadest guidance, in the form of"Aye" and "Nay" votes. This guidance can be recorded directly at the!Dolls. More typically, it is expressedthrough the continuous pressures ofgroups on all links of the governmental decision-making chain.The necessary factor is that theleaders must always look back overtheir shoulders to be certain that thefollowers still follow. And it is the distinction of democratic popula lionsthat, through existing groups andgroups to be formed, they may choosenot to follow and still remain aliveand outside barbed-wire fences. Thisis a far more significant mark of political participation than massesmarching in lock step to political rallies, more significant than large numbers flocking to the polls.All this does not minimize the greattasks still to be solved by democraticpopulations: tasks ranging from conquest of neighborhood slums to liberation from threats of atomic annihilation. One cannot look evencasually at the American scene without discovering at every hand deficiencies in the sensitivity of population groups, wide areas of politicalignorance, shadows of political corruption, and institutional arrangements that seem designed to thwartthe popular will, even if it were expressible and expressed. No glossneed be applied to these conditions,and to stress the values of politicalnon-participation constitutes no argument in favor of do-nothing government. Democracy needs strongand active government for survival.The collapse of democracy follows thecollapse of democratic leadership,when civic crisis is allowed to festerand popular needs are unfulfilled.Civic reform is accomplished inpart by direct citizen action, in partby leaders leading and citizen groupswielding their decisive power of approval or disapproval. Large numbers of citizens can play their politicalroles most effectively by being activein voluntary groups which themselvesare active in politics. An importantobjective is to create conditions underwhich groups can be formed and reformed easily. An equally importantand more delicate job is to achievedemocracy within such groups, making them more effective as exchangepoints of information and opinion andas proving grounds for the politics offreedom. Just as the national loyaltyof democratic citizens is in largestpart established indirectly throughvoluntary groups, so the political participation of these citizens, even asvoters, may be secured.The alternative, often suggested, isto stimulate widespread political participation by the organization of action groups, by the enlistment of citizens in programs of reform, bypropaganda or education leading tothe mass acceptance of goals and beliefs. Such programs, carried to enthusiastic points of great effectiveness, are characteristic of totalitarianstates. To whip up, certainly to enforce, participation is to endangerdemocracy. Those who enforce participation must in the end dictate tothe participants.Apathy — the neglect of political institutions — is an acceptable politicalposture of a democratic citizen. Incontrast to the apathetic, there arecitizens preoccupied with politics, butin a spirit of critical inquiry. TheyJUNE, 1956 13compare what exists with what mightbe; and they labor to improve thestate according to their image of theideal. Their perspective and activitycontribute to the welfare of the nation.Critical appraisal, including criticism that contemplates an alternativenational loyalty, is often turned tosocially creative ends, to new programs of government, new accommodations of society, new definitions ofthe good and the possible. It is easyto trace how this process has workedin the past: to take an extreme example, the call to the terrible newloyalty of 1848 — the Communist Manifesto — has affected the Westernworld in many ways, not least of allbecause a large part of its programhas long been legislated and acceptedas commonplace. Criticism challengesthe authoritarianism of majorities. Itbrings strengthening change to society. It prepares the way for accommodation to new situations. Withoutit, nations would become complacentand stagnant. They would be weakbefore forces of the changing years.Leftist AssociationsAdvantages of critical appraisal alsoaccrue to the individual. One type ofdesirable democratic citizen has experienced other ways of life or thechallenge of other political systems.He works effectively on behalf of thepublic welfare because he knows thepromise and the delivery rate of otherloyalties. The knowledge need notcome from actual personal commitment. (It is a fool's argument thatonly the victims of tuberculosis understand it and can fight it.) Yet theconstructive effect of a temporarycommitment to an alternative nationalallegiance, if it is too easily overrated, can also be too easily dismissed.The trip into and out of the Communist party, for example, can produce highly desirable attributes ofcharacter and democratic allegiance:of character because joining andbreaking may provide choice pointswhich test and establish courage andindependence; of allegiance becausean intimate view of communism isoften a great impetus to labor on behalf of democracy. The larger pointis not the special virtue or extraordinary value of ex- Communists todemocracy. It is that wisdom, including political wisdom, comes from inquiry. The point has been stated bestby Socrates, who himself was accusedof criticizing the customs and gods:"The unexamined life is not worthliving."All this has immediate practical rel evance. For one thing, it argues infavor of the inalienable right of allAmericans to youthful radicalism. Wehave seen that social processes encourage this radicalism. We can nowadd that it is proper and desirable forthe democratic community. For,plainly, allegiance to nation, once subjected to the heat of critical appraisalis stronger, more meaningful, andmore socially useful than allegianceaccepted on the basis of tradition, orignorance, or faith, or fear. This hasbeen completely unheeded in theloyalty - security investigations thathave followed World* War II. Thosecharged with youthful radicalism haveapologized for it and excused theiractions as follies of immaturity. Onthe evidence, it would be far moreproper to praise such radicalism. Itis likely to make desirable democraticcitizens.The point extends further than considerations of youth and immaturity.In baldest terms the democratic system of limited government presupposes that national loyalty will be alimited loyalty.One meaning of this limitation hasbeen explored in preceding chapters:a democratic citizen has many otherloyalties on which the strength ofnational loyalty depends. It followsthat the democratic state must be cautious in creating demands that conflict with those of other groups towhich loyalty is given. The stateshould promote social diversity andpreserve the ambiguities in the meaning of national loyalty; it should makeharmony among loyalties easy andconflict difficult.Congressional committees investigating the "leftist associations" of uni versity professors and patriotic groupsreading history textbooks with a waryeye for the word "revolution" narrowthe definition of what may be regarded as loyalty to the nation. So doloyalty boards which find it culpablethat a scientist aims to keep faith simultaneously with friends, profession,and nation. Wise leadership wouldmove in the opposite direction: toward encouraging the reconciliationof multiple loyalties.The Little PlatoonThese are not radical views. Indeed, the great conservative spokesman of the eighteenth century, Edmund Burke, gave them classicexpression when inveighing againstthe extremes of the French Revolution:To be attached to the subdivision,to love the little platoon we belongto in society, is the first principle... of public affections. It is thefirst link in the series by which weproceed towards a love to our country, and to mankind . . . [and later]We begin our public affections inour families . . . We pass on to ourneighborhoods, and our habitualprovincial connexions . . . Such divisions of our country [are] somany little images of the greatcountry in which the heart foundsomething which it could fill. Thelove to the whole is not extinguished by this subordinate partiality.A final step must be taken. Burke'sstatement assumes an easy convergence of loyalties that, in bleak fact,often does not exist. In most cases(Continued on Page 33)Today's fashion in loyalty leads in the direction of totalitarianism.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFor Lack Of A FreezerAn observing surgeon turns a shortcoming to advantage, and finds a solution to the problemof the jaundice virus in plasmaTHE LACK OF refrigerator spaceat Billings Hospital because ofwartime shortages has led to a discovery which may save thousands oflives.A University of Chicago surgeon,Dr. J. Garrott Allen, has discovereda safe method of storing liquid plasma, which promises to restore thislife-saving fluid to the importantplace it once held in medicine.Plasma became a household wordduring World War II, when it waswidely used on the battlefront as astand-by fluid for the treatment ofhemorrhagic shock, until the victimscould be given whole blood.Doctors at the University of Chicago also know it as a rich source ofproteins for victims of stomach cancer and other diseases which harmthe digestive system and prevent apatient from taking in food throughnormal means.The use of plasma was discontinuedjust after World War II, when it wasestablished that the fluid was a carrier of hepatitis, (also known asjaundice). It was then estimated thatsome ten to twenty-five per cent ofthose given plasma developed hepatitis, and some lost their lives becauseof it. Since then, substitutes forplasma have been tried, but none hasproven entirely satisfactory.Dr. Allen's method of storing liquid plasma makes it completely safeand free of the hepatitis virus, andwidespread use of this life-savingfluid is once more imminent.Hepatitis means liver inflammation,and is caused by a virus which canbe acquired either orally or throughtransfusion. When the virus is ingested, (acquired orally), it is knownas infectious hepatitis. When transmitted in transfusion, it is calledplasma or serum hepatitis, and assuch has several unusual features,Dr. Allen explains.It is transmitted almost always by a donor who never knows he carriesit, and doctors estimate that possiblyone in every 200 ordinary personscarry the virus."Perfectly healthy people are carriers of the virus, making it difficultto spot," explains Dr. Allen. "As faras we know, they will always remainperfectly healthy. When their bloodor plasma is transfused, the patientdevelops hepatitis. What threw us offfor a long time is the fact that thepatient usually is perfectly well fora while. The hepatitis victim neverdevelops symptoms until at least amonth after he's infected with theLife-giving plasmaLewellyn virus, and sometimes not for three orfour months. Consequently, by thetime the patient comes down withjaundice, neither he nor the doctorthinks to connect the transfusion withthe new illness."Thus, establishment of how a patient contracted jaundice was difficult to pin down, although this virusdisease had been recognized as earlyas 1883. In comparison, the polio incubation period is much shorter, andthe victim shows symptoms within afew days or two or three weeks afterexposure.Furthermore, explains Dr. Allen,many viruses produce anti-bodies,which make it possible through a laboratory test to recognize if the patient is carrying any of them. Thisis not true of the hepatitis virus; ifit produces an anti-body this has notyet been discovered."Hence there is no way to protectourselves from it in transfusion, ifthe donor is a carrier," says Dr. Allen.Blood is made up of two components, cellular and liquid. There arefive million red blood cells and fivethousand white cells per unit, andthese are suspended in a fluid, whichis plasma. Blood consists of fifty-fiveper cent plasma and forty-five percent cellular elements. Plasma is thefluid medium in which almost all metabolism elements of the body aretransferred, excepting oxygen.Blood cells can be preserved foronly three weeks, by adding a littleglucose and an anti-coagulant. Plasma, however, can be preserved forat least ten years, possibly longer.There are types in plasma, the reciprocals of the four types in blood.If plasma is administered from oneperson to another, on a one-to-onebasis, it must be typed. When pooled,for some reason the various types inplasma tend to neutralize each other,making it unnecessary to type plasmawhen it is prepared in bulk form.JUNE, 1956 15Dr. J. Garrott AllenFor these reasons, plasma is important from the standpoint of defense, for use as a stand-by fluid tobe used in emergencies until bloodcan be typed.From the surgeon's viewpoint, plasma is even more important as asource of proteins.Patients with cancer (as well asother types of disease) often developsevere malnutrition. Many patientswith cancer of the stomach or intestines are unable to eat because theircancer obstructs the normal passageor absorption of food. In still others,starvation develops because the nutritive demands of the rapidly growing cancer appear to take precedenceover those of the rest of the body.Starvation, from whatever cause,greatly increases the risk from surgical operations and increases thelikelihood of subsequent complications. For one thing, wounds do notheal readily. Second, because theprotein concentration of the circulating blood is reduced in states ofstarvation, water is not held withinthe circulatory system, and fluid tendsto accumulate in the tissue spaceswhere it produces a condition knownas edema or dropsy. This, in turn,can interfere with important bodyfunctions. Also, in protein depletion frequently there is a disturbance inthe metabolism of certain importantmineral constituents of the body.Some of these, such as calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium,are in part held in the body becausethey form a union with body protein. When the normal quantity ofprotein is reduced, the ability of thebody to hold on to these minerals alsomay be lessened, with the result thatvarious mineral deficiencies may develop. A depletion of proteins andminerals can interfere with enzymesystems essential to life.Some patients who might be curedof cancer or other diseases by surgical procedures cannot be operatedupon because of their poor surgicalcondition. Obviously, the best wayto correct poor nutrition is by oralfeedings. This requires time — oftenseveral weeks — and assumes that nomechanical obstacle to food intake ispresent. Since the most serious malnourished patients usually are thosewith cancer blocking the digestivetract, oral feedings become impossible. Unless the general nutritivecondition of these patients can beimproved, surgery will carry an increased risk or, indeed, may not bepossible at all.Seven years ago, Dr. Allen proved that plasma transfusions will successfully combat protein deficiencies insuch patients. Generally, no morethan three to five days of plasmatransfusion are required.At the time this procedure wasgaining general acceptance as a method of correcting malnutrition, theaforementioned serious complicationsin plasma therapy were being reported. Plasma therapy was thereforediscontinued by most doctors, becauseno known safe means had been developed to overcome this seriousthreat.Substitutes for plasma as a standby fluid have been developed, suchas dextran and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone). These agents can be prepared with the same osmotic potential as plasma and are effective as"expanders" of plasma volume. As"stand-by" fluids to assist in treatmentof shock until blood or plasma canbe made available, they serve a usefulpurpose. Unfortunately, they haveturned out to be useful only in verylimited quantities. Dextran has beenfound to cause hemorrhage in somepatients. PVP, it turns out, is storedindefinitely in the body, and producesdeposits of unknown character in almost all organs of the body. Scientists do not yet know what this willlead to, and are wary of it.Consequently, it was a serious blowwhen it was decided that the use ofplasma should be abandoned, exceptin emergencies, because of its jaundice-carrying qualities.At Billings Hospital, Dr. Allen,working with the late Dr. Dallas B.Phemister, had been trying to solveproblems of nutrition for cancer patients by using protein-rich plasma.When plasma was condemned, theywere puzzled, since not one of thepatients to whom they had administered it had contracted jaundice.They began to make careful observations, and came up with a solutionso simple as to be almost unbelievable.In checking with other doctors,hospitals and laboratories, theylearned that the difference lay inBillings' method of storing plasma.Whereas others preserved it by drying, freezing or refrigerating it, theyhad stored liquid plasma at roomtemperature, (85 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit)."This was done for expediency,not by design," explains Dr. Allen."During the war it was impossible toget refrigeration- equipment, so wesimply kept plasma at room temperature in a liquid state. Naturally wedetermined beforehand that the pro-( Continued on Page 27)16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA Quiet ExperimentIn IntegrationBy C. Conrad Browne, DB '49NEGRO-WHITE relations in thesouth are very much in the newsthese days. Here in Americus, Georgia, no national news spotlight hasbeen turned upon us, no out-of-townreporters have descended upon us.Yet Americus was the site of a successful experiment in interracial relations last summer, right on theheels of the Supreme Court's historicdecision.At Koinonia (pronounced coin-o-nee-ah) Farm, a religious communityof nine families just outside Americus, we conducted our first integratedsummer camp for children. Twenty-nine children attended camp, ten ofthem negro.A few minor reprovalsThe people of Americus, (population, 11,390), are no different fromthose of Montgomery, Alabama, (146miles away), where the bus boycotthas been going on, nor from those ofTuscaloosa, Alabama, (250 milesaway), where Autherine Lucy wasexpelled from the University of Alabama. Swimming pools, rest rooms,drinking fountains and other publicfacilities are segregated. Yet we hadno "incidents" other than a few minorreprovals, and in several instancesthe townspeople aided the campers.What made it possible for integration to work last summer in Americus? A combination of things, webelieve., Koinonia was founded thirteenyears ago by Clarence Jordan andMartin England. They desired to wit ness to the brotherhood of many asthey felt Jesus' message demanded,and so they broke with positions inthe organized church. Inspired by thestory of the early church, they dedicated themselves to a common purse,to love, and to brotherhood, the threeideals underlying Koinonia.Land for the Farm (at present 1100acres) was chosen because it wasaverage for the area. Some of it wasbadly eroded, some in good condition.The population in Sumter County ishalf white, half negro, about averagefor the area. A lynching had occurred on the Farm property a fewyears before we purchased it.One of the original and continuingaims of Koinonia has been to improveagricultural practices in the area, andto encourage the spread of these improvements among neighboring farmers. (Farm income is low — in 1954 itwas exactly one half the per capitaaverage of non-farm population —$918 for farmers, compared to $1,836for non- farmers, and the Negro farmer, whether owner or sharecropper,is well below the national farm average.) The Farm worked with theDepartment of Agriculture to demonstrate plowing back organic materials, terracing, irrigation, and croprotation. Koinonia's laying flock, thefirst commercial flock of white leghorns in Southern Georgia, openedthe way for poultry expansionthroughout the territory. Similarly,peanut yield and dairy stock in thearea have been improved by Farmefforts.Great strides have been made inother directions. The younger negro generation no longer hesitate to eatat the table with whites in contrastto the seldom older person who isopen to that close association. Classesin mechanics, first aid, food preparation, Bible study and varied recreation activities have tended to breakdown the reserve of the negro brethren. Produce, milk and eggs areshared with neighbors in need andwith those who will work in returnfor their "furnish."Already ex-communicatedUndoubtedly, some of these effortshelped condition the townspeoples'attitude toward us last summer.Certainly there was disapproval. Koinonia members had already been excommunicated from the local Christian congregation because of eatingand worshipping "too much" with negroes. Pessimistic comments fromtownspeople during preparations forthe camp came to our ears. But theimportant fact is that no one actedagainst us, aside from a few minorincidents which occurred, and in lightof current race relations in the South,these were to be expected.The criticisms of our preparationsmerely strengthened our outlook. Theonly chances Koinonia children havefor integrated activity during theschool year are 'made' chances likethe Junior Council, a group sponsored by the Farm which meets twiceweekly, made up of both negro andwhite children. Under criticism, howto be "in the world but not of it"gained meaning, and how to "witnessJUNE, 1956 17to brotherhood" drew on creative resources.Chief of these resources was theexisting Indian program of the JuniorCouncil. Indian artifacts — arrowheads, axe heads, flints, and the like —abound on the Farm land. The themeof Indian life had been chosen for theweekly meetings of white and negroneighborhood children because of itscommunal character. Indian givingis the white man's misundertandingof community sharing. To the Indian,nothing was one person's monopolybeyond the point of use.Recruited at randomThe camp was organized into smallgroup outposts. The camp staff wasfilled by several Koinonia members,two white counselors from Louisiana,one from Ohio, and one negro counselor from Alabama. Each counselorfollowed the five children in his outpost in every phase of camp activities,from washing dishes to bicycle hikes.The children themselves had beenrecruited by random personal contact with Koinonians — children offriends of friends of friends. Theywere all from middle income bracketfamilies, and several families sacrificed a good bit to make the experience a reality for their children. Costwas $25 a week for each camper, andsustained in some cases for eightweeks, it was a substantial amount.The campers participated in theusual summer camp activities: Theyswam together, had campfires, sang,staged stunt nights, took bicyclehikes, etc.Beside the usual recreation, thecampers took special trips to stateparks or neighborhood camp sites ineach two week period. The farm alsoprovided recreation. The camperswatched the farrowing of pigs duringthe summer, and the silent blinkingof a great horned owl that had beencaught killing pullets. They alsoworked on the farm. They fought forthe privilege of caring for animals orlearning to drive tractors and helpwith the field work. Garden workand preparing vegetables was lesspopular.The camp was both part of theKoinonia community and separatefrom it. The children ate with Farmresidents, shared chores, worked inthe field and worshipped with them.An Indian village consisting of fiveunits in Indian long houses was builtto house the campers, and here mostof their activities took place. Eachunit was assigned to one of the Koinonia homes for showers, relaxation, (a home-away-from-home idea), anda mother and father were responsiblefor their physical, social and psychological welfare and adjustment.Some camp relations with theneighborhood and Americus werefriendly, some were not. Swimmingwith a mixed group in southernGeorgia was a major problem. Acreek which runs through Koinoniaproperty proved unsatisfactory. Thenegro swimming area in the statepark nearby was solid with weedsand bushes. Facilities were "as equalas possible" according to the park attendant. The white pool with threelife guards and a bath house wasstrong contrast to the weedy, unguarded river swim area for negroes.At the dock two boats out of twelvewere "reserved" for negroes, butthese were often unavailable becauseof the white crowds. There was agood recreation building in the negroarea and adequate picnic grounds.A little pressure worksA third possibility was "colored"swimming pools. There were no localfacilities, so a pool in a nearby townwas contacted by a negro familiarwith Koinonia. The campers were invited to the pool, and swam for nearlyhalf an hour before a motor- cyclepoliceman stopped briefly on thestreet in front of the pool. A fewminutes later another policeman ina squad car stopped for a short time.Not long after the motor-cycle policeman drew up again, this time behind a car containing, (we learnedlater), one of the negro stockholdersof the pool.When the officer suggested thewhite children go to the "other" pool,the campers decided to leave ratherthan separate. (We also learned laterthat the stockholder was much relieved at their choice, since pressurewas being put upon him to orderthem away.)Mixed folk games at the camp became the subject of shocking storiesin Americus. One of the spreadersof these stories, a white man of middle age from a long-lined southernfamily, was asked, "Why do youspread such lies when you have notbeen out to see what goes on?" Thechallenge was accepted, the man cameto see the camp, and came back again.At the end of the summer he said,"My ideas about the place sure havechanged."I imagine his changed attitudecame about when he found we werenot promoting communism, except inits Christian essence — the love and concern of each brother for everyother brother — anxious only to helpovercome the problems of ignorance,tenancy, social debilitation, hyper-emotional religiosity, lack of recreation facilities and needs, and the like.Such problems breed unconcernfor property, soil, and woodlands.They also lead to high incidences ofvenereal disease and non- development of creative thinking and aggressive personalities. They lead to a veryout-moded structure of the familyand a flippant unconcern about thevalue of children except for economicassistance.Travel outside the camp causedother incidents. A car conspicuouslyfollowed the camp car once, presumably because it was carrying amixed load of children. A stationagent tapped negro children on theshoulder trying to separate themfrom the group once, until the whitesobjected. And although it is probable that most of the campers do notknow the meaning of the words "boycott" and '"voluntary," they voluntarily boycotted segregated fountainsand toilet facilities.But to counter-balance theseevents, there were good ones to chalkup. A white farmer loaned the campers a horse for the summer — a gorgeous animal, careful with children,yet as rugged as a rider could makehim. A negro neighbor opened hiswoodland as a camping site. A negrosharecropper carried an injured childto a location where help could besecured. A white businessman loanedhis canoe for camp use, and a negroteacher loaned his car. A white artteacher, a sculptress, gave her timeto teach weaving and pottery making.Ostracism is difficultKoinonia Farm's summer camp wasan experiment in sustained interracial living. It was successful. Ostracism and criticism are difficult to livewith, in whatever form. Anyone whowould further the cause of integration could be ostracized, criticized,perhaps even lynched. Every one ofthe people involved with us last summer took that chance. Koinoniacould promise no security against afanatic or a racist gang move. Thewhole projection was on the basisthat it would not happen, and theywere willing to risk it to live "thetruth of the Good News."The camp will operate again thisyear despite increased racial tension.We of Koinonia hope to make Americus a continuing location of amiablenegro-white relations.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE!A. ' i> 'rNDPEPMCM- yvlHYour University TodayON MAY 4, some 2,000 alumni from the Chicago area were guestsof the University at a unique stage presentation in the Civic OperaHouse. Titled "Your University Today," the show revealed in film, dramatic sketches and illustrated lectures various aspects of life on theMidway. Carol Horning and Alex Hassilev, students, were narrators,and the cast was made up of faculty and students. Music was providedby the Concert Band. Three films were shown, one a documentary typemade up of old film clips, showing early scenes on the Midway ; the others,informal shots taken at this year's Washington Promenade and the BeauxArts Ball. Some highlights of the evening appear on the next few pages,JUNE, 1956 19Your UniversiContinued dtyStudents from The College, led by Joshua C. Taylor, Assistant Professorof Art, carry on a class in Humanities. While they discuss a painting,another slide of the same picture is projected on a larger screen,(right), so the audience can follow the discussion.Jeanine Johnson, Queen of the WashingtonProm, together with her court, makes abrief appearance. That's the University'sown concert band in the pit.Dr. M. Edward Davis, Chairman of the Departmentof Obstetrics and Gynecology, uses a chartto illustrate his talk on advances in maternitycare at Lying-In Hospital during the last 25 years.jdavStudent narrators Carol Horning and Alex Hassilevdouble as pantomimists, to enact situationsnarrated by W. Lloyd Warner, Professor of Anthropology and Sociology, as he describes characteristics of wives of successful businessmen. That's a Chinese poem projected on the screen,and Herrlee G. Creel, Chairman of the Department of Oriental Languages and Literature, isexplaining the origins of each separate character.Knowledge of such details, he explained, isessential if one wishes to understandihe Chinese people.(Photos by Stephen Lewellyn)Fencing coach Alvar B. Hermanson and student Herbert Zipperian spoof some of thescreen's dashing heroes in a take-off on "Hollywood" style fencing. Earlier,fencing student Chick Ahlgren (second from right) and the coach gave amore serious demonstration of fencing techniques. Other students gave a gymnasticexhibition, including some fancy bouncing on the trampoline.Your University TodayContinuedPreceding the Opera House show, Chicago areavolunteer fund raisers meet at a dessert rally.Above, (1. to r.), are Richard Davis, SM '55, hiswife, Mary Hammel Davis, AB '41, Susan Meyer,MBA '47, and her guest, Eunice Sitter.Ernest Stern, MBA '48, all butgot cut out by camera, (right). Othersare Aubrey Sykes, AB '47, Mrs. EthelCallerman Lanestrem, PhB '16,and her husband, Robert.Channing Lushbough, AB '48,AM '52, his wife, Eloise TurnerLushbough, PhB '48, AM '50,William G. Parsch, AB '49,MBA '54, and Warren E.Thompson, PhB '33.22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECampaign NewsHere's Where The Money GoesNew Faculty, Merit Raises, A New Women's Dormitory AreAmong The Benefits Already Reaped From The CampaignWITH MONEY obtained so far inthe campaign, the Universityhas been able to start neighborhoodrehabilitation, give merit raises to thefaculty, make thirty new faculty appointments, and schedule the groundbreaking for a new women's dormitory. <,Chancellor Kimpton reported onaction made possible by the progressof the campaign at a recent meetingof the Citizens' Campaign Committeein the Prudential Building. The rallyis considered to be unique in thehistory of university fund-raising-some three hundred non-alumni,prominent businessmen from Chicago,have volunteered to help raise fundsfor the campaign because they feelthe growth of the University is significant to the growth and leadershipof the city of Chicago.To date, more than $17 million hasbeen raised, Chancellor Kimpton reported. Goal of the campaign, whichopened last June and will run for athree-year period, is $32.7 million.The chancellor's remarks to theCitizens' Campaign Committee follow:"It is not the least of Mr. EdwardRyerson's many virtues that he isruggedly honest. This led him intoa bold invitation to you today to signup for a money-raising job for theUniversity of Chicago. I am amazedat the number of you who are here,and I am deeply grateful . . ."There is a difference between agood university and a great university — in fact, all the difference in theworld. The University of Chicago hasmade its mistakes, goodness knows,and I cannot guarantee that it willnot make mistakes in the future. Butit is a great university. I really don'tbelieve I say this out of naive immodesty. "If it is to remain great, it mustkeep and obtain great men for its faculty, it must draw the very best students from this country and evenMorton ShapiroDr. Robert E. Wilson, Chairman ofthe Board, Standard Oil Co. (Ind.),addresses businessmen at rallyfrom abroad, and it must exist in acommunity which is safe, wholesomeand even attractive. To accomplishthese objectives requires money."By the end of 1953 we had placedour affairs in sufficient order throughbalancing our budget, revising ourcurriculum, and attacking the problems of threatened blight and deterioration in our neighborhood so thatwe could turn with a clear conscienceto our city of Chicago and ask forhelp. We said we wanted money topay our faculty better, to build newstudent residences, to buy and rehabilitate or demolish some World'sFair walkups that were threateningto become slums in the very middleof Hyde Park. We announced our campaign on June 2, 1955, and lessthan a year later, as Mr. Ryerson toldyou, we are doing reasonably well."Now, let me tell you how we areusing the money already given us andhow we plan to use what we hope toraise. We started at the two pointswhere we need strengthening themost: rehabilitating our neighborhoodand increasing faculty salaries."As to the University Neighborhood:"What has happened has been exciting; what is still to happen will beeven more exciting, if all our plansare carried out — and I am not justhoping when I say that they will becarried out."Here are some of the things thathave already happened."We have spent $4 million in buying buildings in our own neighborhood. Where the buildings requiredrehabilitation, we did that; whereCharles W. D. Hanson, (1. to r.),Western manager of LIFE Magazine,Robert E. Meyer, of Illinois Bell Telephone Co., and Eric W. Stubbs, formerly with the same firm, chat at Citizens' Campaign meetingMorton ShapiroJUNE, 1956 23I J\ < 1_*' i ipii'-i!fe11„***-* S _l__.J,___C__tT^%u hi ***MS <' .V- £n_V3„c !1Hm#!. -j^ v_Sr _.*95Artist's sketch of new. $3.5 million women's dormitories, which will house 516 students. Ground will be brokenin June. Residence halls face into the court. Separate building in front will house a large reception room andcentral administration offices on the first floor, dining room and kitchen on the second floor,storage and housekeeping rooms in basement.Sketch of utility room with small kitchen, one ofseveral which will be in the dormitory basement. Residence halls will include single and doublerooms. Sketch below shows typical double room.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE__t. a. ** Ulllllt¦*«____•____ «_*«* SiiiW,ii'lll'J 1 lip-^IIH1'" nl||i^'"!jjR_L'ir^iJ,«iiiii| , H.^ -___¦»» _>w---- - *Wf"" , ' _*¦!•*_ N">' ' %r__'«-— "vyw- •*The new Law School building, designed by Eero Saarinen and Associates, will consist of a five-story central structureof library, faculty offices, student lounge, and public rooms, and a two-story classroom wing, connecting the mainbuilding with a third unit providing a 600-seat assembly hall (sketch above, left) and a moot court room, (right)their useful life was at an end werazed them. We expect to continuethis same process."On the strength of doing thesethings ourselves, and of our successin organizing our own communityunder the South East Chicago Commission, we have available from federal, state and city governments notless than $10,250,000 to clear out some48 acres of slum and blight that istoo near the University for comfort.That work, under the jurisdiction andthe supervision of the Chicago LandClearance Commission, has started.Most of the area is along 55th Street,west of the Illinois Central tracks.More than half the property has beenacquired, a lot of buildings have already been torn down, and negotiations are under way to select the teamof businessmen who will rebuild thearea. Several groups already haveexpressed an interest in putting asmuch as $25 million into new construction. This shows considerablefaith in the future of our community."There is an area where the University itself must spend money, because we need the space for our ownuse. In general it is to the north andwest of the present campus. Therewe hope to provide housing for ourmarried students. Further, we neednew dormitories, and I am happy toannounce that in June we plan tobreak ground for a new women's dormitory in the block bounded by Kimbark and Woodlawn Avenues and58th and 59th Streets. It will costabout $3.5 million. This is the firstattack on our problem of adequatehousing for women students."Nor are we concerned entirelywith our immediate neighborhood.We have extended our interest tosome 900 acres around what we call the University community proper.This is land in the area bounded by47th Street on the north, the Lake onthe east, Cottage Grove Avenue onthe west, and 59th Street on thesouth. At the instance of the University and the South East ChicagoCommission a program of improvement has been started under theHousing Act of 1954 and the UrbanRenewal Housing Act. The University is completing a community conservation plan for this area under acontract with the Community Conservation Board."There are other exciting projectsin the planning stage. We plan tobuild a new Law School across theMidway adjacent to the AmericanBar Center. I feel confident we aregoing to get the money to do it. Wewant new dormitories for men. Allof these things will improve ourneighborhood and help to make theuniversity community an even moredesirable place to live. We foreseeit as becoming again Chicago's finestresidential area."All of this points to the fact thatThe University of Chicago has takenthe initiative in the serious problemof neighborhood conservation thatconfronts almost every university located in a large city. The classicalpattern of city neighborhoods hasbeen to decay to the point that theyeventually become slums. That hasnot happened yet in our immediateneighborhood, and we don't intendthat it shall. And where it has happened, in adjoining neighborhoods,we are doing something about it, and,with your help, we are going to doa great deal more. If the Universityof Chicago were running a campaignfor this purpose alone, it would be adefinite contribution to the city of Chicago."Now, as to our faculty, we havemade several new appointments atboth ends of the scale: new top professors and outstanding young men.Among the former is Professor Gilbert F. White, for nine years President of Haverford College and a greatscientist specializing in water resources. He was an advisor to theHoover Commission. He is now Professor of Geography and Chairmanof the Department of Geography. Wehave recently brought to our Federated Theological Faculty ProfessorMarkus Bart, who has an outstandingreputation as a New Testament scholar. On July 1 we are bringing to ourLaw School from Harvard, ProfessorFrancis Allen, a leading authority oncriminal and constitutional law. Wehave brought in about twenty new,young, promising members of theFaculty."This is only a start, for we needmany young teachers in all areas."We have, on the basis of our campaign gifts, made merit increases insalaries all along the line."I need hardly tell you that, so faras the faculty is concerned, this campaign has been a 'shot in the arm.'For several years we were forced tomaintain an austerity program. Youcan imagine what our success so farin this campaign has accomplishedfor their morale."You will be interested to knowthat our undergraduate enrollmentwith superior young men and womenhas increased 28 per cent in the lasttwo years, and our women's residences are completely filled."In conclusion, we have raisedsome money and I think we havehave spent it wisely. We need to raisesome more money, and to do that weJUNE, 1956 25Rus ArnoldTHE CHANGING FACE OF HYDE PARK — The photos represent the"before" and "after" stages as urban rehabilitation plans are carried out inthe University neighborhood. Above, workmen tear down "Misery Mansions," a rundown apartment building at 54th and Dorchester. Below, boysplay ball on lot where building previously stood. A new shopping center willeventually be built on the site, as soon as other deteriorated buildings go.Rus Arnoldneed your help. Now, you are busymen and women, concerned alreadywith innumerable demands upon yourtime and energies. Why should youhelp us?"The University of Chicago bearsthe name of our city and it sharesthe quality of this city. The city ofChicago is great because it has alwaysdreamed great dreams. In its restless, progressive spirit, it has neverbeen satisfied with little plans andlittle accomplishments. It is truly thecity of the broad shoulders. It is morethan a good city; it is a great city.And its university must not be merelygood; it also must be great."We are a part of this city, withan enormous potential for good orevil. If our influence is to be good,we must be as strong, as great as thecity of which we are a part. As youare citizens of Chicago, devoted to itswelfare and to its progress, so you area part of the University of Chicago,devoted to its welfare and to its progress. We turn to you naturally forassistance, because our interests areidentical. It is our total obligation tomake our great city even greater andour great university even stronger."In addition to Chancellor Kimpton,speakers at the meeting were EdwinA. Locke, Jr., president of UnionTank Car Co., chairman of the Citizens' Campaign Committee; Dr.Robert E. Wilson, chairman of theboard, Standard Oil Co., (Ind.); Edward L. Ryerson, chairman of theBoard of Trustees; and Charles W. D.Hanson, western advertising managerof LIFE Magazine, who is a vice-chairman of the Citizens' CampaignCommittee.Other vice-chairmen are CamillusA. Conway, carrier representative,National Railroad Adjustment Board;Charles W. Lake, Jr., vice-president,R. R. Donnelley & Sons; Robert E.Meyer, district superintendent, Illinois Bell Telephone Co.; Calvin P.Sawyier, partner in the law firm ofWinston, Strawn, Smith and Patterson; and John E. Stipp, president,Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago.Law School BuildingFund at $2.2 MillionThe Law School has raised $2.2million toward its goal of $3.5 millionfor a new building, Glen A. Lloyd,Trustee and chairman of the committee planning the building, told LawSchool alumni at a dinner meetingin the Palmer House April 25. Over500 alumni of the Law School attended the dinner, given by the trustees and the law faculty. Expanded legal research is necessary if the legal profession is to meetthe sharp challenges of the yearsahead, E. Smythe Gambrell, president of the American Bar Association,emphasized to alumni at the dinner."Legal research is needed in many fields," he said. "The numerous problems of law arising from atomic development constitute one example.Court congestion is another."It is up to the legal profession andthe law schools to do the basic research that will point the way to in-26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtelligent solution of these problems,"Gambrell said.The American Bar Center's new$2 million building, adjacent to thesite of the new Law School Building,is now engaged in a growing program of study in legal fields, hepointed out."Together with the famed PublicAdministration Clearing House andrelated technical and professional organizations at 1313 East 60th Street,the Law School and the Bar Centerconstitute the nucleus of a great center of legal research whose influencecan well become national and worldwide," he said.Nicholas de Belleville Katzenbach,presently Professor at the Yale LawSchool, whose special field is international law, has been appointedProfessor of Law. This appointmentis in addition to that of Francis Allen,Professor at Harvard Law School, announced recently.For Lack Of A FreezerContinued from page 16teins of the plasma were stable anduseful under these conditions."We had just turned the tables toour advantage and used what otherscientists feared. No virus of anysort will stand at room temperaturein a liquid state without undergoingserious change — usually death — within twenty-four hours to a few weeks.A man wanting to study a viruswishes to preserve it, so he dries,freezes or refrigerates it. By beingforced to store it in this manner, wehad, unwittingly, been killing off thehepatitis virus."Not content with this simple conclusion, Dr. Allen carried out experiments on his findings, and in 1950published a report on it. Prior to publication he sent this off to twenty ofthe leading virologists in the world,for their opinions, and received encouraging replies.While Dr. Allen's findings provedinteresting to many, some seasonedobservers would not accept so simplean explanation. However, it did stimulate many other blood banks in thiscountry to try this method of plasmapreparation.The University Clinics conducteda survey of 124 blood banks throughout the country which were using thisprocedure and found their experienceto be the same: there had been nocases of homologous serum jaundicewhen liquid plasma stored at roomtemperature was used, but they continued to experience difficulty from the use of dried or frozen plasma. Inall, these various blood banks hadadministered 214,000 transfusions ofpooled plasma during the precedingthree years. Of this number, 23,000,or 13 per cent of the total, had beenadministered as dried or frozen plasma, with 259 cases of the jaundiceknown to have developed among patients receiving it. One hundred andninety- one thousand, or 87 per centof the total plasma given, was administered by these same blood banks asliquid plasma after six months' storage at room temperature. From thismuch larger number, no cases of thedisease developed.The original observation was alsoconfirmed in a study conducted bythe National Health Institutes. In avolunteer experiment, 52 per cent ofthe subjects developed jaundice whenthey were given plasma that had beenstored in the dried or frozen state.However, after it was stored for sixmonths at room temperature in a liquid state, the attack rate was reducedessentially to zero.In spite of this evidence, someskeptics still hold out. Many of themprefer a plasma substitute, calledserum albumen, which is producedfrom plasma by a process called fractionation. This was developed byEdwin J. Cohen of Harvard, whoused this method to produce gammaglobulin. Gamma globulin is a fraction of plasma in which the virusdoes not reside, and it can be givenwithout fear of producing hepatitis.When fractionating plasma to producegamma globulin, one of the productsis serum albumen. However, thereare serious drawbacks to its use. Itis an expensive process. Furthermore,two -thirds of all transfusible proteinin the plasma is lost in fractionation.Therefore, it would take three donors to produce the amount onewould give before fractionation.To date, says Dr. Allen, no one hascome up with any evidence to refutethe safety of plasma prepared in themanner used at the University Clinics when stored at temperatures inexcess of 85° F.Eventually, Dr. Allen feels, someone may come up with a faster method of destroying the hepatitis virusin plasma, possibly by raising thetemperature used. The six monthsstorage time now needed could be aserious stumbling block in time ofnational emergency. But to date, itis the best method which has beenproposed, and Dr. Allen feels it willbe merely a matter of time, usual toany abandoned procedure, until it iscompletely accepted.F.A. NEWSOF THE QUADRANGLESRussian Student ExchangeA student- exchange program between the University of Chicago andthe University of Moscow, proposedby Chicago's Student Government,has received uncertain acceptancefrom Moscow. No official reply hasbeen made, although Radio Moscowhas said that the proposal has beenapproved.Should definite acceptance come,the exchange program would providefor tuition and living expenses eachyear for a Chicago student in Moscow, and a Moscow student on theMidway. Transportation expenses,according to Mary Ann Chacerestos,chairman of the Student GovernmentCommittee which proposed the exchange, will be met by Student Government if possible.At present, the University has organized exchange programs with theUniversity of Frankfurt, and an Israelschool.Metcalf RetiresT. Nelson Metcalf, director of athletics at Chicago for the past 23 years,will remember 1956 for at least tworeasons: it is the year he reachescompulsory retirement age, and it isan Olympic year.Metcalf came from Iowa State University in the spring of 1933 to succeed Amos Alonzo Stagg, director ofathletics for forty years. Metcalf willbe succeeded by Walter Hass, athletic director at Carleton College,Northfield, Minnesota.Before he retires on July 1, he willtravel to California to look for a newhome and to watch the three trackmeets which serve for Olympic trials—the NCAA meet in Berkeley, theNAAU meet in Bakersfield, and theArmed Forces meet near Los Angeles,all in June. After attending a meeting of the National Collegiate Olympic Committee in Los Angeles, he willreturn to Chicago to retire, and thengo on to New York City to servewithout pay in the U. S. Olympicoffice for three or four months.Then he will go on to the Olympicsin Melbourne, Australia (to be heldthe last week in November and thefirst week in December) as Chairmanof Administration for the U. S. teams,the same post he held for the pastOlympics in London and Helsinki."Logistics of this trip are quitecomplicated," he said. "When you'vegot three or four hundred people tohouse, transport, and feed, it's quitea problem."JUNE, 1956 27Doing Debating,Chicago-StyleHAPPY TALKLewellynDebaters Don McClintock andJoel RosenthalFOR members of Student Forum,the University's debating group,talk is not cheap.In formal tournament debates, it isthe result of research into such topicsas the recognition of Red China, anduniversal military training. In informal "Chicago-style" debates, itcomes from creative thinking on topics like "Resolved, that Groucho hasdone more good for mankind thanKarl." For Don McClintock, directorof the Forum, it is almost a way oflife.Talk is a source of prestige for Forum members, as well. Under McClintock, the Forum has continued tomake creative departures from orthodox debate practices. These are inaddition to ordinary intercollegiatedebates. Some of them, particularly"Chicago -style" debating, have beeninfluential in the midwest, makingMcClintock, his contemporaries andpredecessors into something of forensic revolutionaries."Chicago-style" debate is, in fact,a, spoof of orthodox debate practices.It allows the audience-heckling associated with English debates, and addswhimsical topics and illogical arguments. Every Thursday afternoon forthe greater part of the past year students gathered in the south loungeof Reynolds club to hear disputesover "Resolved, that this house prefers philosophy to philandering;""Resolved, that love is a many splen-dored thing," "Resolved, that Staggfield should be a game preserve;" etc.In orthodox midwest debate, a single topic will be disputed by all theschools in the Western Conference("Big Ten") and Chicago, with thefinal winners pitted against each otheron the same topic. All too often, theteam making the rebuttal in a debatewill reach into a briefcase and pullout one of a number of stereotypedreplies, since their opponents' arguments have probably been repeated many times over in previous debates.In "Chicago-style" a topic is debated only once, and there is notlikely to be a stereotyped reply to aquestion like, "Do you mean to contend that Stagg field is for the birds?"The Forum's revolutionary statusbegan in the spring of 1947. BillBirenbaum, JD '49, now Dean of Students at University College, was thenForum director. His organization hadnearly been excluded from debatescheduling with "Big Ten" schoolsthat year, partly because its directorwas a 21 year old student. Biren-baum's entrance into the conferencewas not noteworthy, but his exit was.During an amiable discussion of debate practices in general he rose andtold his elders that midwestern debating was, at best, stuffy and unimaginative. Then he left.Forum success the following yearrankled opponents for other reasons.All of Chicago's rivals had at leastten full time professors of speech.Chicago had Birenbaum. And threeof the schools had more students intheir speech departments than Chicago had in its entire undergraduatebody. In addition, Chicago debaterscarried clip boards instead of filecases, and occasionally quoted Aristotle rather than Newsweek..At the end of the Birenbaum reign,tension eased a bit. Under DavidLadd, AB '49, JD '53, now a patentlawyer; Terry Lunsford, AB '51, nowresident head of Linn house and astudent in the Law School; andTerry Sandalow, AB '54, also a lawstudent; the Forum continued to enjoy success in tournament debating.Nevertheless, its members gave occasional reminders of their forensicnonconformity by appearing in lightbrown suits instead of charcoal gray,and making humorous remarks inotherwise straight-faced arguments.Marvin Phillips, director of University Theatre, assumed Forum com mand in the fall of 1954. With hisassistant, Roger Bowen, he conceivedand presented the first debate "Chicago-style." Students enticed byfree coffee stayed to listen to argument that was consciously paralogis-tic, inverted, circular, and witty.For years debaters had been resigned to speaking to other debatersand a judge. Their arguments hadbeen judged as formal exercises, notas part of a search for truth. Theseand "canned" rebuttals had givenformal debate a barren, sanitary air.Informal debate, "Chicago-style,"was a lot livelier and just as intellectually taxing. Invitations to otherschools to visit the University for informal disputes was the first step.Acceptance grew, and recently OhioState invited Student Forum to visitin order to start an informal debateprogram fashioned after the one atChicago.This year, under McClintock, asample spoofing of forensic practiceswas presented to alumni at the February Open House, and at the May 4Opera House spectacle. McClintock,who has run about 120 debate eventsduring the year, has also spread thegospel of livelier debate in seriousways. Next year the University willhold a debate tournament for Chicagohigh school students, the winner toreceive a scholarship.This spring he originated a newdebate form. In a meet with IowaState and the University of Michiganhe had one member of each schoolprepare a written argument thatwould take about ten minutes to deliver. Members of opposing teams,provided with copies of this argument, were each given five minutesfor questioning the speaker. In thisway there was more direct interaction between teams, and an altogethergreater need for quick thinking anddelivery.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPOOKS ^The Loyal and The Disloyal. ByMorton Grodzins, Professor andChairman, Department of PoliticalScience. University of Chicago Press,1956. Pp. X, 320. $4.The Torment of Secrecy. Edward A.Shils, ex '31, Professor and ExecutiveSecretary, Committee on SocialThought. The Free Press, Glencoe,Illinois, 1956. Pp. 238. $3. through them — but not too consciously— to the nation. Yet as we have beenused to observe throughout Americanhistory, some of these groups mustreally be kept in hand. Some businessleaders are now aware of the disadvantages of high prices and hightariffs. Farmers' organizations, morethan their political representatives, areawakening to the dangers of over-stimulated production. Labor leadershave perhaps not yet progressed as faras business men and farm organizationleaders in learning to discount whatlook like the advantages of some immediate monetary rewards.A sound diagnosis serious national disloyalty. Besidestheir simple threat to science and thepublic service, and their corruption oftraditional standards of justice, Mr.Grodzins makes, with telling effect,the point that loyalty proceedings areideally calculated to promote disaffection or even disloyalty of a more serious sort in important groups in oursociety.Mr. Shils' book is in part (underthe heading of "Consequences") anaccount of loyalty proceeding riddenparts of our society and the agencieswhich do the riding. The ill effects ofthe drive for maximum compulsoryloyalty on science, public service, thecharacter of political discourse, andprivate life are brilliantly described.Mr. Shils' values and solutions are inthe same tradition as Mr. Grodzins'.A specific suggestion is an alignmentof all the parties which have as acommon feature a belief in the kind of"pluralism" which Mr. Grodzins describes as the democratic ideal.Mr. Shils is particularly interestedin analysis of the reasons for thewidespread and pathological concernfor the paradoxical publicity aboutsecrecy. There is an American regardfor privacy which is not inconsistentwith our sociability, and which goeswith outbursts of passion for showingvillians up, and unmasking secrecy.Mr. Shils describes suggestively theinterplay between privacy, publicity,and secrecy in America's emotionallife. He suggests that these homelywords, like other such homely wordsas property, have not only a healthyaspect but also a capacity for servingas symbols or centers of pathologicaldisturbance.A serious difficultyMr. Shils' treatment of this aspectof his diagnosis is suggestive but farfrom exhaustive. The most closely organized and elaborate portion of hisbook deals with simpler and moreovert factors in the loyalty proceedingrage. Here indeed is where the reviewer, in spite of his admiration forthe argument, begins to find his oneserious difficulty with either of thesetwo admirable books. Mr. Shils hasan excellent psychological account ofthe part played by the chauvinisticfeatures of our tradition and by "Fundamentalism" and "Fear of Revolution." He has a brilliant chapter onthe insecurity of the Congressman inhis relations with the bureaucrat andthe intellectual.But the principal and most pervasive item in Mr. Shils' explanation ofour recent eccentricities is "Populism."Mr. Grodzins' book is an account ofthe meaning and sources of loyaltyand a diagnosis of disloyalty. The idealform of loyalty is the democratic form,in which appreciation of the goods ofsocial living leads to attachment tomany groups and through them to thegreat group of the nation. It is consistent with, and indeed thrives upon,a lack of preoccupation with nationaland governmental affairs. In this respect it is contrasted with totalitarianloyalty, which depends on the destruction or subordination of all ties exceptthose to the nation, and of which acharacteristic feature is preoccupationwith national and public affairs. Intheme and variation, whose close design may escape the reader unless hewatches the progression indicated bythe table of contents, Mr. Grodzins develops his account of affirmative loyalty, particularly democratic loyalty.The work is, as he says, a kind ofscientific analysis. At the same time,as he seems to sense, it is a literary,that is a poetical, achievement.A single doubtThe one doubt that might be expressed about the aspect of the bookjust described has to do with one feature of its optimism. Generally itsoptimism is well founded and with acritical sense of its possible limits. Mr.Grodzins, for example, enumeratesthose great students who have beenpreoccupied with signs of illness anddisintegration in modern societies, andputs them to their proof. His challenge is an effective one. It is on aless important matter that he mighthave guarded himself more carefully.There are groups of considerable importance whose members have thekind of loyalty that Mr. Grodzins describes, loyalty to family, church,neighbors, working group, and Mr. Grodzins would doubtless recognize this perennial problem of democratic life. In general his account ofloyalty is as heartening and sound ashis diagnosis of disloyalty is sane. Fordiagnosis, he uses two principal setsof materials without, of course, pretending that they have statistical significance. One is the observations ofJapanese after the relocation duringthe last war in which he himself participated as one member of a studyproject. The other is a study of Chicago night club and banquet waiters.In this group "alienation" is describedas having gone to an extreme. Thejoys of normal association were reduced to what must be their limit.There was little pride in work. Herewas the loss of satisfaction in humanrelationships which is the ultimateform of other disloyalties. In the caseof the Japanese the other principalsource of disloyalty appeared alongwith serious alienation. The source isan alternative loyalty inconsistentwith the one which has thus far prevailed. The more or less alienatedamong the displaced Japanese hadalternatives to national loyalty infamily or group loyalties as well as inthe more remote loyalty to the Japanwhich many of them hardly knew.The book is largely concerned withsensitive and philosophical generalization, as well as careful scientific statements, on these broad themes. Thereis just one chapter in fourteen on thecurrent loyalty program, including thework of legislative committees andloyalty agencies alike. It is as an incident in a broad study that one observes naturally that one effect offamiliar defects in the loyalty programis a threat of alienation to the scientists, teachers, and public servantsaffected by it. It is an alienation,which if it coincides with the attraction of some alternative loyalty, maybe a factor in some yet undiscoveredJUNE, 1956 29Here is where the one time WisconsinProgressive begins to have trouble.For it is an agrarian Populism thatMr. Shils generally has in mind, inspite of his footnote observation thatPopulism may be urban as well asrural. "There is a straight line," hesays, "from Bryan and LaFollette to. . . Senator McCarthy . . . . " Populism is defined by a belief in the willof the people as the supreme powerand ultimate standard in political life.By this test President Roosevelt mayseem to some the perfect Populist, forexample in his reference to "wilful"minorities, but Mr. Shils' one characterization of President Roosevelt isby a reference (on page 133) to "greatupper class personalities like FranklinRoosevelt." One who recalls that Senator LaFollette was defeated by Senator McCarthy in an election whichcan be explained by Senator La-Follette's much earlier opposition tothe embargo against Republican Spain,an embargo imposed by PresidentRoosevelt under pressure from hismetropolitan machine leaders, findsthe straight line somewhat crooked,and one among a considerable numberof others.These observations suggest a criticism which affects more seriously Mr.Shils' diagnosis of our troubles. However deep and unconscious (and warinspired) motivation for loyalty proceedings may have been, it seems tome that at one point the passionswhich they created were deliberatelyused by a group which had its ownpurposes in view. Mr. Roy Cohn, originally a product of New York City'sDemocratic, organization politics (moreexplicitly, through his father, of theBronx machine of the late Mr. EdwardFlynn) had his first major triumph,as a junior associate of Mr. (nowJustice) Saypol in the prosecution ofthe Rosenberg-Sobell cases. It wasnot an accident that he later becameassociated with Senator McCarthy,and attempted to use techniques whichhave a close relation to some of thoseemployed in the Rosenberg case, inplaying up the Fort Monmouth spyscare. In this attempt he also had theservices of David Greenglass, who wasthe principal witness for the prosecution in the Rosenberg-Sobell cases.The Fort Monmouth spy scare collapsed, largely as a result of the phenomenally good reporting of Mr. Murrey Marder of the Washington Post.The collapse left Mr. Cohn and Senator McCarthy with Mrs. Moss andGeneral Zwicker as the only excusesfor their attempted rebellion againstthe Army, the Senate' and PresidentEisenhower. The conspiracy of the right at this point was a failure. Buttimes of stress may come again, andit is important to consider the evidence that there was a conspiracy ofthe right, conducted let us say bythe Friends of Franco, a group as hardto define but quite as real as theHouse of Morgan. It has for example,strong constituents in both the Polishlobby and its cousin the China lobby.One must remember that by Mr.Grodzins' test hardly anyone is whollyfree of disloyalty; but the signs ofalienation, and the strong alternativeloyalties, in the lives of Mr_ Cohn andSenator McCarthy, and others likethem, are an interesting reminder ofMr. Grodzins' theme.It seems to me a serious defect ofMr. Shils' otherwise brilliant diagnosis, to omit a consideration of thisfeature of our society It is moreoverperhaps only part of a still moreserious defect in his presentation. Mr.Shils, perhaps because he believes ita necessary feature of our life, takesin his stride the Truman administration's policy in relation to Russia. TheEnglish indeed have been less affectedin their internal politics than we bythe international tensions of the time.But in view of the truth in Mr. Shils'account of some of the other factorsin our experience which precipitateexcitement about loyalty, it is hard tosee how we can expect to remainaltogether rational if internationaltensions again become acute. What isperhaps even more serious is the effectof exaggerated excitement about domestic perils supposedly related toforeign perils, that may easily contribute in turn to excessive excitements about, and exaggerations of, theforeign perils. Not only is PresidentEisenhower's careful attempt at negotiation with the Russians indispensable in the long run for the development of sanity at home, but sanityat home may be a great help, if notan indispensable one, for his sane andperhaps epoch making foreign policy.Malcolm P. SharpProfessor of LawA "review" of Harry HansenThe Story of Illinois by Harry Hansen, PhB '09. Garden City, $2.50. Illustrated by John H. Barron.Harry Hansen, one of the country'sbest known newspapermen, has takenyoung readers by the hand and toldthem "The Story of Illinois" in wordswhich are simple enough for eightyear olds but not too juvenile forgrown men and women of fourteen tofind interesting. He has shorn thestory of non-essentials, but made it alluring with such colorful facts asthat Indians once whirled down thestreets of Chicago in a war dance — butone of triumph not of menace, whenthey thought their future had beensecured at a big conclave; and thatGeorge M. Pullman, whose sleepingcars every child knows about, was theman who literally raised Chicago outof the mud by hoisting up buildingsand sidewalks, some as much as 15feet, in an engineering feat which preceded the railway car comfort-creation. And children all over, evensome who may never have heard ofthe great Chicago fire in 1871, willbe interested to know that Fire Prevention Day is observed by the wholecountry because Chicago lay in ashesthat year. The beginnings of the University of Chicago on land donated bySenator Stephen A. Douglas for thesmall, original Chicago University arealso recorded but almost as briefly asyou see it re-told here.Harry Hansen has written more ofan outline of the history of Illinoisthan a long detailed life story and theresult is a book which will stimulateyoung readers to find out more andmore. Like thex writing in (eThe Storyof Illinois" the illustrations are sophisticated enough to please teen agers,(who will never be so old again asthey are now, probably), but storytelling enough to intrigue franklyyoung eyes.It is a foregone conclusion thatevery reader of this magazine willrush down to a bookshop and buy"The Story of Illinois" so that, likethe author we will let these few wordssuggest rather than completely revealthe story of "The Story of Illinois."But a review of Harry Hansen is irresistible. Those who have never knownhim as a person have missed one oflife's great pleasures. Behind his quiet,sometimes even "Great Stone" facereserve, is a heart as warm as a Junesun on campus, a mind as ordered asa file cabinet in the State Department,and filled with memories which include men's most courageous deeds ofmind and body. Most of you are tooyoung to remember that he was onceeditor of the University of ChicagoMagazine and that he was alumnisecretary from the year he graduated,1909, until 1911.He was born in Davenport, Iowa,and it was there that he started hisnewspaper career. While he was stillin high school he had been writing forthe Davenport Republican. He spenthis college vacations working there,« and the day after he graduated he became its telegraph editor, (very nicework, his ambitious friends declared).That he was good at his job was30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEplain when two years later he hadboosted himself into the job of editor.It was in Davenport that he startedhis first book column, and it was therethat he found the material for hisnovel "Your Life Lies Before You,"(published in 1935). What was to liebefore him he couldn't have guessed(nor could anyone else) when he wassent to Berlin as foreign correspondent by the Chicago Daily News —where has was then a reporter. Itwas the first world war which happened, and just before its declarationhe was ordered to Belgium where hecovered the tragic retreat of the gallant Belgians, joined the conqueringGermans as a reporter and marchedwith them into France. When theUnited States entered the war he wasrecalled from his roving assignments,which included Austria, Italy and theScandinavian countries, and put incharge of the foreign desk at theChicago Daily News — and who betterequipped? For the same reason hewas sent as the Daily News correspondent to the Peace Conference inParis in 1919, about which he wrotethe book "The Adventures of theFourteen Points" the same year.After his years of arduous foreignservice he was made literary editorof the Chicago Daily News and thusbegan his distinguished career as acritic. His "Midwest Portraits" (1923)and "Carl Sandburg, the Man and HisPoetry" (1924) were the direct resultof his association with the excitingmembers of the old "Schlogel crowd"of brilliant Chicago writers of the 20's— the group which led the late H. L.Mencken to label Chicago "the literarycapital of the United States."Harry Hansen left Chicago in 1926never to return except as a huzzahedvisitor when he took over LaurenceStallings' column "The First Reader"for the New York World. He made ita daily column, the first in the country.For years he kept up the gruelingpace of reviewing at least three andmore often four or five books a week.He did other writing, too, and editing.For sixteen years he was the book reviewer also for Harpers Magazine, forten for the Redbook and for twelve forthe Survey. He lectured on book reviewing at Columbia University; hewas a member of the distinguishededitorial board for the Armed Serviceseditions which sent millions of pocket-sized paper-covered books, new andclassic, free to the men in combat andwere, I have always been firmly convinced, responsible for the upsurge ofinterest in reading in this country.He wrote a delightful as well as informative book about "The Chicago" in the Rivers of America Series. Hetranslated German books which became the best sellers — Jacob Wasser-mann's "Faber" for instance, and HansHabe's "Kathrine." He edited the annual anthology, "O. Henry MemorialPrize Stories" from 1933-40. Since1948 he has been the editor of "TheWorld Almanac and Book of Facts" avolume without which nobody cancomfortably keep house if he or sheneeds to be sure of facts. He is alsoauthor of two delightful regional booksabout his eastern home neighborhood,North of Manhattan, 1950, and Scarsdale, 1954.Harry Hansen once declared that heis wedded to the West because heunderstands it and has faith in theultimate emergence of its artists. Noone has done more to further thatemergence than our fellow 'alumnus,the author of "The Story of Illinois."Fanny A. Butcher, AB '10(Mrs. R. D. Bokum)Literary EditorChicago TribuneEarly Adult EducationThe American Lyceum; Town Meeting of the Mind. By Carl Bode, PhB'33. New York, Oxford UniversityPress, 1956. pp. xii-275. $5.Prof. Bode has earned our admiration for his painstaking history ofthat quaint ancestor to the Chautauqua Circuit and latter-day platformperformers: the Lyceum and the sundry other "Societies for MutualImprovement" which mushroomedthroughout the Republic betweenJackson's first term and the outbreakof the Civil War. He deals with hissubject from almost every conceivableperspective. The geographical distribution of the Lycea, the place theyoccupied in the social life of the community, thumbnail portraits of itspromoters and of its stars, the economics of their operation are spreadbefore us in lavish detail, the wholething larded with such enlighteningasides as that the Southern plantationowners' preference for hunting to themore cerebral forms of self- improvement had a nefarious effect on theflowering of "adult education"throughout the slave -holding states.With a fine feel for subtle distinctions,Prof. Bode even isolated three periodsof Lyceum activity within his chosenthirty year span.The Lyceum shares nothing but itsname with Aristotle's Academy. Itstarted in this country as more or lessindependent grass-root centers for thedissemination of "useful knowledge" in the widest acceptance of that term.The major manifesto of the movement, written by its most energeticchampion, one Josiah Holbrook, in1826, bore the title American Lyceumof Science and the Arts, Composed ofAssociations for Mutual Instructionand Designed for the General Diffusion of Useful and Practical Knowledge. Here are spelled out the majorplans for providing popular education, scientific and technical information as well as modest moral enlightenment to the public at large. Verysoon a vast number of such instituteshad become organized throughout theland. In Illinois, a Lyceum got underway as early as 1831 in the then capital of the state, despite that town'sforbidding name of Vandalia.Many regional museums, collectionsof geological, botanical and zoologicalspecimens, many municipal and private libraries were originally collected under the impetus of the Lyceum movement. To complementthese collections, lectures were set upto meet the wide demand for "scientific" knowledge, i.e. for mechanicalskills and know-how as well as forpopular science. We can readilyimagine, for example, on the basisof the contemporary market value ofanything with the word psychology inits title, what a resounding successthe itinerant phrenologists of a century ago must have enjoyed.It is one of Prof. Bode's major thesesthat the interest in practical sciencesoon waned. As the slavery issue becomes increasingly acute, moral andpolitical discussions tend to crowd outthe earlier concern with labeled sticksand stones and bones. In 1849, on De-*-cember 21 to be exact, the New Orleans Picayune declared its liking for"courses in . . . natural science — mereliterary lectures are not to our taste. . . We have no objection to a reasonable quantity of metaphysics, but wehighly approve the decision of thecommittee to make the Lyceum themeans of popularizing science". According to Prof. Bode, the Picayune,in expressing these views "... soundedlike a voice from the past." Not thatthe Lycea were ever to look favorably upon outspoken discussions ofactual political issues or of religion.But under the pressure of politicalevents as well as with the increasingvirtuosity and reputation of somespeakers, the public taste changedfrom a desire for acquiring knowledge to one for listening to someoneelse's. The lectures thus apparentlycame to resemble more and morethose edifying bromides which at alltimes seem to find favor in the pub-JUNE, 1956 31WeUpaWtJia'tTOUNION CARBIDEAND CARBONCORPORATIONBecause wherever you turn,the hand of Union Carbideis there . . . transforming theelements of nature for thebenefit of all of us.Because Union Carbide haspioneered in the field of public service advertising . . .telling a dramatic story ofhow its multitude of products and processes are vitalto nearly everything youhave and use today.And because Union Carbidehas selected the MidwestGroup as an effective medium to bring its story to you.MIDWESTALUMNI MAGAZINESThe Ohio State MonthlyThe Michigan AlumnusThe MinnesotaThe Wisconsin AlumnusThe Purdue AlumnusThe Indiana Alumni MagazineUniversity of Chicago MagazineTotal Combined CirculationOver 94,000For full information write orphone Birge Kinne, 22 WashingtonSq. North, New York, N. Y.GRamercy 5-2039 lie imagination. As Prof. Bode describes them, the years preceding theCivil War witnessed a proliferation ofculture -vultur ing unparalleled untilour own day.Yet, Thackeray and Poe, Emersonand Daniel Webster, Horace Mannand Oliver Wendell Holmes venturedfar into the wilds of Ohio and evenIllinois to appear before what the localpapers described as "distinguished audiences". Hawthorne was the corresponding secretary of the Salem Lyceum, Thoreau was Concord's. Prof.Bode provides us with extraordinarilydetailed information about the datesof various lectures, the hardships suffered by the speakers in reachingthese far-flung- outposts, the fees theyearned, and sometimes he even tellsus the titles of their talks. But as towhat they actually did say, he hardlytells us anything at all. And yet thevery titles of some of these addresses,be it Thackeray on English Humorists, or Webster on the AmericanConstitution, indicate that much ofwhat is best in our heritage wasoriginally delivered from Lyceumplatforms. One misses a judgmentabout the comparative value of thesespeeches. Is it really sufficient to sayof a Melville lecture on "Statuary inRome" that it was a "hack" performance? Might not the living presence of a great personality outweighby far the roaring rhetoric of a third-rater whose memory is exhumed onlythrough Prof. Bode's diligent scholarship? One would, in fact, like alsoto know what impact these talks hadin forming the temper and the sensibilities of the audiences which faithfully came to listen. Was even onesingle vocation sparked by hearingor meeting the great of the age inthose remote outposts? Prof. Bodeimplies that he thinks so, and heexpresses his regret at the substitution of the live lecture by the radio,the movies and TV. Even supposingthat he is right, and that the lectureas it existed a century ago has disappeared, it would be more important still to know what its impact usedto be.One thing has not changed, howthe lecturer feels about his performance. This is best summarized in apoem which Prof. Bode, quotes, written by Bayard Taylor, a major provincial lion of the times, of a rainynight in Niles, Michigan:"Thicker than the delugePouring out-of-doors,Comes a rain of questionsFrom the crowd of bores;'Where's your lady staying?''What's your baby's name?' 'Do you find SocietyEverywhere the same?''Where are you going to travel?''What's your future plan?''Do you think you'll everBe a settled man?''Ain't you now the greatestTraveler alive?''What's the land where turnipsSeem the best to thrive? . . .'Oh, I want to beWhere, for information,No one comes to me.I'd be a bloody whalerAmong the Kurile Isles,A tearing, swearing sailorWhom the Captain riles,Anything but TaylorLecturing in Niles!"Victor Gourevitch, Director,Basic Program In LiberalEducation for Adults,University College.BRIEFLY NOTEDJesus, Pilate and Paul. By G. GeorgeFox, PhB '04, AM '15. Isaacs & Company, 1955. Pp. 159. $2.75.This book is an expansion of TheJews, Jesus and Christ, reviewed hereby Professor Amos N. Wilder of theHarvard Divinity School, May, 1954.The new book is an elucidation of topics treated in the old: At what pointsdid the Jews disagree with Jesus'teaching?; What was the relation between Paul's formulation of the Gospel and Judaism?; Why was Christcrucified?Jesus, Pilate and Paul gives a fullerdescription of the extensive commonground between Judaism and Christianity treated in Rabbi Fox' 1953 book.And like it, the new book is advancedin the hope of greater harmony between those with opposed religiousviews.Behind the Birches. By Mattie M.Dykes, AM '22. Northwest MissouriState College, 1956. Pp 296.In Behind the Birches Mattie M.Dykes has recorded the developmentand traditions of a school she attendedas an undergraduate, and has servedas a faculty member in English since1922. Published on the school's goldenanniversary, the book blends a personal sense of its spirit with an historical record based on much research.It is written in a popular rather thana scholarly style. Miss Dykes ownspirit ("I know who had a midnightpicnic on top of the administrationbuilding; but I have not told.") enlivens the volume.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Value of LoyaltyContinued from Page 14the individual can reconcile thestrains and cross -pressures of hismany loyalties. But this is not alwayspossible. And there may come a timewhen fundamental human values tipa person away from the nation andtoward another cause.A doctrine of limited loyalty to nation must recognize that other loyalties may be given precedence. Criticism may be followed by action — thewithdrawal of support from the nationor the support of groups antagonisticto it. Prudence dictates that long- established governments should not bechanged for light and transient causes.But a long train of abuses and repeated injuries and usurpations maybecome destructive to the good society and intolerable to individuals. Thepeople may find that neither life norliberty nor the pursuit of happinessis possible. Under such extreme circumstances, individuals and groupsfind it a right and a duty to disobey —or to discard — their government andto provide new guards for their futuresecurity.A theory of limited loyalty to limited government must recognize thesometime value of national disloyalty.The "diversity of American life, thereal and imagined political apathy ofAmericans, and the limited loyaltypaid to the limited American government combine to give the impressionof disunity and mass alienation. Theymake it appear that Americans haveno beliefs in common, that loyalty tonation is non-existent or so unstablethat a militant antidemocratic movement could readily capture the support of large masses of Americans.Negative IdealsAmericans speak easily of their discontents and find it difficult to talkabout abstract beliefs. This does notmean that they hold no beliefs incommon. Their ease in voicing dissatisfaction may indicate that theirmost widely shared ideals are negatives: that the state should not intrude into the sphere of intimate human relations; that speech, education,and religion are not to be regimented;that associations are not to becontrolled from outside. Justice Brandeis precisely defined these beliefswhen he said that the most valuedand comprehensive right of civilized men was "the right to be left alone."The obverse of these negatives isa belief in liberty. Americans shyaway from loosely using the word,yet "no one who reads our nationalliterature, who listens to our dailyspeech, who mingles in the commoncourse of our living, can fail to hearthat note rising above all others inwhich we express ourselves." However the tenets of liberty may fromtime to time be violated, the ideal isa strong and continuous one, the mostimportant commitment of the largestnumber of Americans. And from theirbelief in liberty, Americans deriveother values held in common: " thedignity of each individual's personality, the importance of family life, thenecessity for equal opportunity, theneed for impartial courts of justice.These values, identified- with thenation and widely held by the citizens,are a direct linkage between individuals and the nation, an element in thereligious quality of patriotism. Yetthe importance to Americans of suchvalues does not spring from theirmystical, cement-like qualities thatare said to bind a nation together.Democratic values play a dual role —as ideas held in common and as definitions for life that can be realized.They ultimately establish the individual — not the leader, not the bloodprinciple, not the state — as the highest value.Indirect LoyaltySo there exists a crucial relationship . between what we have calledthe direct and the indirect strands ofloyalty. Americans do hold beliefs incommon, and these beliefs are an important ingredient of American national loyalty. But the larger significance of commonly held values liesin the expectations they establish forthe ordinary routines of life, wherethe indirect tie between person andnation is nurtured. Freedom of religion is important as a belief, but it ismore important as an activity in acommunity church. Equality of opportunity is inspiring as an idealshared by all citizens, but it is mostmeaningful in the experience of aperson and his friends scaling economic, social, and professional ladders.Today's stylish patriot sings songsof xenophobia and conformity. It isunfashionable to praise democracy forits diversity of social and moral systems, to find virtue in the politicaluninterest of democratic citizens, orto suggest that the democratic state must share the loyalty of its peoplewith many other groups and institutions. Fads, styles, and fashions areno more reliable in defining patriotism than they are in establishingstandards of beauty. Today's fashionin patriotism leads in the directionof the totalitarian model of loyalties.For all its chaotic appearance and apparent frailties, the democratic modelis the patriotism to be preferred.It reflects a more stable socialstructure. If it encourages more skeptical loyalties, it also makes themmore durable. Such loyalties, not thetotalitarian pattern, have a betterchance of maintaining the nationalorder through time. This is to saythat democratic loyalties are moreefficient. But the preservation ofworthless institutions has no value,and efficiency is not the only criterionfor evaluating loyalties. A more important test is that democratic loyalties more appropriately fulfil humanneeds. And they are more difficult, intheir diversity and decentralization,to misuse for the perversion of humanlife, for subverting human loyalty toinhuman ends.Human potentials of personality,inclination, and talent are endlesslyvaried. These potentials can be realized fully and freely under conditions of democracy, and to the greatest extent within urban, industrializeddemocracy. The human personalityneeds the free society for its full development. The free society includesthe distastes that freedom spawns; itprovides no neatness of social structure and suffers gaps which may befilled by the joys of self-pity and self-destruction and the terrors of surfeitand loneliness. But it also providesinfinite and infinitely varied life-ways that fulfil the self or serve thecommunity and frequently do both.Democratic FreedomThis is a culture of social maturity.It needs and develops mature individuals. The unified village community is the bored community. Thecommunity always attended by thefather- substitute is the community ofchildren or patients. The communitymobilized for the achievement ofgrandiose state purposes is the totalitarian community, and its citizens areciphers. All are unpalatable alternatives to democratic industrial society.Democracy is both product andproducers. It is at once achievement,achievers, and a method of achievement. If democracy promises freedom, it need not immediately deliverfreedom, but it must then demonstrateto its citizens that freedom is beingJUNE, 1956 33\>*-\BROOKS BROTHERS SPORTWEARmade in our distinctive styles in colorfulpatterns and lightweight materialsWhether it's washable Orlont and Dacronf , colorful India Madras, Brooksweave*, all cotton orhandsome natural silk jackets... our well-tailoredlightweight Odd Trousers ... Bermuda shorts, orsport shirts of imported materials . . . our selectionof Summer sportwear is individual, attractive andin good taste.Our Good-looking Odd Jackets, jrom $20.50Our Lightweight Odd Trousers, jrom $ 1 5Sport Shirts oj Imported Materials, jrom $ 1 0.50Bermuda Shorts, jrom $ 1 1Bathing Trunks, jrom $ 1 0* Dacron and Egyptian cotton^ tDu Pont's fibersESTABLISHED 1818ten* fta %% hoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N.Y., 111 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 6, N. Y.BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO sought. If democracy promises equalopportunity for education and for advances in real income and status, itneed not make those opportunitiesimmediately real, but its citizens mustbelieve that realization will eventually come. If democracy promisesthat men's homes are inviolate andtheir lives safe from official harassment, it may smash doors and capriciously slander, but only as a temporary aberration and only if thecitizens believe that the promises willin the end be fulfilled. The achievement may be postponed, but theachievers must always be able to proceed with the method of achievement.This is the method of protest, of taking organized action to redresswrongs, of reanimating institutionstoward desired ends. The method allows the governed to change the governors, the critics of programs to become program masters.Totalitarian systems promise greatthings and in many ways fulfil popular desires. They remain totalitarianbecause the individual remains subordinate to the state and becausethere are no methods for popular protest or for securing the peacefulchange of political leaders. The system produces fanatic loyalties, butloyalties that wilt when the stiffeningof terror is no longer available.Totalitarian AllureYet the allure of totalitarian systems is great. Universal literacy hasproduced universal sensitivity to alternate social systems. Populationsbecome easily impatient and disenchanted with democracy when it falters and does not provide what itpromises.To sustain the loyalty of its citizens,democracy must work for the achievement of the promises held forth bydemocratic beliefs and made practicalby the diversity and productivity ofthe industrial economy. The producersof democracy — varied in color, creed,interest, and profession — must knowthe products of democracy. The danger is not that individual persons willbecome disenchanted and turn totreason. The danger is not that industrial democracy will fail because it isinherently unable to supply the satisfactions that, indirectly but certainly, lead to strong national loyalty.The danger is not that democracywill fail on its merits. The danger isthat democracy will fail because itfails to be democratic.Qass(indicates person will be at JuneReunion)06Howard L. Willett, Sr. has been elected chairman of the Willett Co. in Chicago. Howard Willett, Jr., '30, will stepup into his father's former position aspresident of the firm.Dudley K. French, Winnetka, 111., aconsulting chemist, was honored as afifty-year member of the AmericanChemical Society in Dallas, Texas, recently. He has held many offices inA.C.S.'s Chicago section.Dr. Herbert H. Bunzell, SB, PhD '09,director of Bunzell Laboratories, NewYork City, was also among thirty- eightoutstanding chemists honored as fifty-year members of the American ChemicalSociety in Dallas, Texas, recently. Dr.Bunzell is author of "Every Day WithChemistry" and about one hundred scientific and popular articles.13Ralph H. Kuhns, MD, has been transferred to the Veterans Administrationregional office in Chicago.Mordecai Johnson, President of Howard University, is a member of the admissions and allocations committee ofthe United Givers Fund.15Raymond D. Berry of River Forest,111., served on the sponsoring committee for the Easter Seal campaign thisspring.17Dr. Enrique E. Ecker, PhD, roundsout a quarter-century with the University Hospitals in Cleveland thisspring. Recently, he has been • doingresearch in leukemia.Clarence F. Jones, PhD '23, was elected president of the Association ofAmerican Geographers at their annualmeeting last April. He is now at Northwestern University.20Donald W. Riddle, PhD '23, Chairman,Department of Social Sciences, the University of Illinois in Chicago, has movedfrom Hinsdale to Naperville, Illmois. Heis currently on leave from his duties tofinish another book on Abraham Lincoln. News21George B. Cressey, SM '21, was elected honorary president of the Associationof American Geographers at their annual meeting last April. He is now atSyracuse University.Frances D'andrea Crage, Sarasota, Fla.,is working in the office with her husband, who is an ophthalmologist. Herdaughter, Jeanne, '44 is married toRichard Doyle '53. Daughter Carolyn isnow married; son Paul is a freshman atEmory University Medical School.24George P. Guibor, MD '28, and hisfamily attended the Pan American Congress in Santiago, Chile last January.He is an ophthalmologist and otolaryngologist in Chicago.26W. W. Atwood, was elected treasurerof the Association of American Geographers at their annual meeting lastApril. He is now with the National Research Council, Washington, D.C.Richard N. DeMerell has moved hisoffice with Anchor Hocking Glass New York City.Daniel C. Rich, director of the ArtInstitute, received the Officer of theLegion of Honor award last March fromthe French government for his servicein furthering cultural relations betweenthe United States and France throughexhibitions of French art.*Eleanor Rice Long (Mrs. Newell),Bloomington, Ind., and her husband areat Indiana University. Last winter theywrote script, lyrics and music for "NeverUnderestimate the Power of a Woman,"a faculty show similar to this University's "Revels".28Helen King Rouse, (Mrs. Kenneth A.),Winnetka, 111., was re-elected presidentof the Chicago Young Women's Christian Association recently.31*Elise Chauvet Megyery (Mrs. ZoltonW.), Oak Park, 111., who has five children, writes, "I do a little substituteteaching occasionally because I feel Icontributed five-fold to the cause forthe teacher shortage." Priscilla Bishop Pritchard (Mrs. LyleT.), Coral Gables, Fla., is PTA presidentat Coral Gables Senior High School.Her son, Pete, is a junior there.*J. A. Hynek, PhD '35, Cambridge,Mass., is associate director of the Satellite Tracking Program for artificial satellites to be launched next year. He hasthree children, Scott, 12, Roxane, 11,and Joel, 6.* Alfred W. Israelstam, Chicago, writesthat his son, David, is an undergraduatehere at the University.Edith Hausler Rigby and George A.Righy, '36, are in Los Angeles. Theyhave two children, aged 7 and 11.Marjorie Marcy Irvine, (Mrs. Fergus),SM '32, Glencoe, 111., and her family areplanning to tour Europe this summer.Dr. Russell H. Seibert, AM, has beenappointed Vice President for AcademicAffairs at Western Michigan College,Kalamazoo, Mich.*Ernest Larson, AM '32, PhD '45,Wheaton, 111., is Professor of History atWheaton College. One son is in businessin Philadelphia, the other is a lieutenantin the army. His daughter recentlygraduated from Wheaton College Academy.32Eileen Fitzpatrick Ronan, (Mrs. C. T.),Detroit, writes news of her children.Ann recently won a scholarship to Im-maculata High School, John is in theUniversity of Detroit High School, Pauland Nora are in grade school.Solomon J. Klapman, PhD '40, hasjoined the technical staff of the WeaponSystems Development Laboratory,Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif.He was formerly with Lockheed Aircraft Corp.36Phyllis G. Carter, Arlington, Va., isassistant editor of the Hispanic Yearbook, Hispanic Foundation, Library ofCongress.David M. Saxe has been appointeddeputy manager of the Chicago Operations Office, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. He has been with AEC since1947 as a budget director and as contract administrator for the governmentin the management of University's Argonne National Laboratory. He andAdele Rose Saxe, '39, have four children.Lillian Malpe, (Mrs. J. M.), Chicago,is teaching at the Eberhart School.Rayburn W. Johnson, PhD, was elected to the nominating committee of theAssociation of American Geographers attheir annual meeting last April. He isnow at Memphis State College.JUNE, 1956 35Phone- OAkland 4-0690-4-069 1 —4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove Avenue 37CHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING-LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters • Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addressing • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Dearborn • Chicago 5 • WA 2-4561MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica-Exacta-Bolex-Rollei-Stereo1329 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259"Neighborhood Servicewith Downtown Selection" E. Donald Elliott, '37, has been namedvice president in charge of personnelby Mead Johnson & Co., Evansville,Ind. He joined Mead Johnson in 1953,leaving his post as personnel director ofthe Chicago Printed String Co. DuringWorld War II he was a Regimental Personnel Officer with the Third ArmoredDivision.Alden R. Loosli, president of our NewYork alumni club, was recently advanced in American Cyanamid Co. fromassistant general manager of the FineChemicals Division to assistant generalmanager of the Industrial- ChemicalsDivision. The Loosli family lives inPlainfield, New Jersey.39Earl E. G. Linden, AM, pastor of theEdgewood Congregational Church inCranston, Rhode Island, will leave inthe fall to become pastor of the FirstCongregational Church of Williamantic,Conn.Chauncy D. Harris, PhD, was electedvice president of the Association ofAmerican Geographers at their annualmeeting last April. He is Dean of SocialSciences here at the University. DeWITT WORCESTERLiberty 8-5026BAY NURSERYQuality, Murdery, Qoodd485 E. 17th Street, Costa Mesa, Calif.Since 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for UniversityCollege, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMUseum 4-1200"Naturally she's wearing a Corabrite dress.Everybody knows Cora Gated is a packaging major."36 Subsidiary of West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company13 FACTORIES AND 40 SALES OFFICES IN THE EAST, MIDWEST AND SOUTHTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525ZJkeCxclu*ive Cleaner _fWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVER5487 LAKE PARK AVE.CHICAGO, ILLINOISZjor JveiervaHons Call:BUtterfield 8-4960PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Book ReproductionCongress St. Expressway andGardner RoadCOIombus 1-1420 Janet Geiger, AM '49, was married toDr. Robert M. Kohrman, child psychiatrist, last December 26. Janet is continuing her work at Michael Reese Hospital on a part-time basis, supervisingstudents training in psychiatric fieldwork from our Social Service Administration.Robert S. Miner, Jr., received a PhDin organic chemistry from PrincetonUniversity last March. He is a manufacturing chemist at CIBA Pharmaceutical Products, Inc. in Summit, N.J.Robert Lee Yancey, SM '41, is a grainbuyer in Paxton, 111.Randolph Snively and his wife arethe parents of a son, John Peter, bornApril 18.41Anita Sallo Miller, (Mrs. Judd), Chicago, has two boys, Bob, 9, and Larry,5. Judd is assistant manager of the HydePark Co-op.Luis Leal, AM, PhD '50, will becomeAssociate Professor of Romance Languages at Emory University, Emory,Georgia, in the fall. He has taught atthe Universities of Chicago, Mississippi,and Arizona.42Courtney O. Shanken, who has beenadvertising and sales manager for theCrib Diaper Service in Chicago, recentlypurchased the Germ Proof Diaper Service. Courtney is a member of the Senateof the College Division of the AlumniAssociation.David C. Kogen, New York, is a rabbi.46Alezah Dworkin Weinberg, (Mrs. Julius), Ann Arbor, Mich., is married to arabbi, and has two daughters.Ethel Siss Kortage, (Mrs. Lorenz E.),Dallas, Texas, teaches mathematics atHockaday Prep School. She has a three-year-old daughter.William S. Dix, PhD, spoke on "TheRole of the College Library at Mid-Century and Beyond," at the FoundersDay program at Douglass College, Rutgers University, last April 17. Librarianat Princeton University, he is chairmanof the Committee on Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association and of its International RelationsBoard.The Rev. George D. Alley is ministerof the Suffolk Christian Church, Suffolk,Va.*Lennox Ransom, Evanston, is marriedto Bettiegene Corcoran. He is with theMail Advertising Corp. The Ransomsexpect a baby early in September. CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 100 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoTheHOTEL SHERRY53rd and the Lake — FAirfax 4-1000BANQUETS — DANCESOur SpecialtyBIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers <200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380POND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphingAddressograph ServiceHighest Quality Service AddressingMailingMinimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, Illinoisiowif YOUR COSTS^ IMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWA9E INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURESJUNE, 1956 37BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS- 1708 E. 71ST ST.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. Telephone .MOnroe 6-3192GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186 47Galen E. Sargent is at Kyoto University, Japan on a Fulbright scholarship, studying oriental philosophy. Hereceived his PhD from the Sorbonnein Paris in 1954.James R. Morris, MBA, has beenawarded a fellowship by the Third Institute on Freedom and Competitive Enterprise at Claremont Men's College,Claremont, Calif., to be held June 10-24.Instructor of Economics in the Collegeof Commerce and Business Administration at the University of Illinois, he isone of thirty economists and other social scientists selected from various partsof the country to receive fellowships.48La Var Moon Kilpatrick, (Mrs. Thomas L.), Kirkland, Wash., writes that shehas a new daughter, Kathy, born lastAugust.Roy A. Berg, SM '50, is a physicistwith Lockheed Aircraft Corp.Paul C. Hodges, Jr., who has his AMfrom Wisconsin and his MD from JohnsHopkins, has accepted a position as assistant resident in surgery at the University of Minnesota. YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S ,A product -[ Swift & Company7409 So. 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Flint 2, Mich.38 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEatomicpowerDEVELOPMENTatomic poivholds thegreatestpromise ofcareersuccess.Take this opportunity to pioneerwith the leaders. Participate withWESTINGHOUSE in the research anddevelopment of nuclear reactors forcommercial power plants, and for thepropulsion of naval vessels.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERSCHEMICAL ENGINEERSMECHANICAL ENGINEERSPHYSICISTSMATHEMATICIANSMETALLURGISTSNUCLEAR ENGINEERSINew! WestinghouseFellowship Program j... in conjunction with the IUniversity of Pittsburgh. This Inew Westinghouse program enables qualified candidates toattain their M.S. and Ph.D. degrees WHILE ON FULL PAY.Salaries OpenAmple housing available inmodern suburban community15 minutes from our new plant.Ideal working conditions. Excellent pension plan. Education program. Health & Life Insurance.Send for your copy of"TOMORROW'S OPPORTUNITY TODAY"State whether you ore an engineer,mathematician, Physicist or Metallurgist.Send complete resume toMR. A. M. JOHNSTON,Dept. A.M. 51jaMod oniicr*Westinghouse Bettis PlantP.O. Box 1468Pittsburgh 30, Penna.Westinghouse Edward F. Wente is studying at theUniversity of Cairo, Egypt, and the Oriental Institute, Luxor, on a Fulbrightgrant.*Nils Swanson, SM '53, is doing applied physics research for the Air Forceat Chicago Midway Laboratories.,*David A. Johnson, Chicago, is ajunior at Northwestern Medical School.54Harold L. Coltman, MBA, Helen Kinsman Coltman, '39, and their three sons,John, 13, Bob, 10, and Chip, 5, are nowin La Canada, Calif., where Hal has entered the management consulting profession as an associate in the Los Angelesoffice of McKinsey and Co.55Sybil Fishman, AM, and Joseph Fain-berg, AB '50, SB '51, SM '53, were married January 29 and are living in HydePark. Sybil is a psychiatric socialworker. Webb-Linn Printing Co.Catalogs, PublicationsAdvertising Literature?Printers of the Universityof Chicago Magazine?A. L. Weber, J.D. '09 L. S. Berlin, B.A. '09A. J. 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Box 2406,San Francisco 26, Calif.I should like to know more about your SpecialIncome Plan, without incurring any obligation.NAME.ADDRESS.????????«????????????????????Date of Birth_ Amounts quoted above are for men.-A similar plan is available for women.JUNE, 1956 39PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEAJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Sliedroff, LA 2-8354BESTBOILERREPAIR&WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoWasson -PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesSince 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Producersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton H. Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4 mzmorxafDr. Edward C. G. Franing, MD '99,died last March in Galesburg, 111.Frank Daniel Fogle, '01, Naperville,111., died April 24 at home. A newspaperreporter for more than forty years, hebegan his career on the staff of the Chicago Maroon and retired after servingas City Hall reporter for the ChicagoDaily News for ten years. Dan was thefather of three University graduates:Dorothea Fogle Ewers, PhD '50, VioletFogle Uretz, '39, and Captain GeorgeDan Fogle, '39, who was killed in Chinain 1944.Frederick Fischel, JD '01, died April 4in Chicago at the age of 74. He was amember of the first law class at the University, and at one time was a memberof the board of managers of the ChicagoBar Association. He was senior partnerof the law firm of Fischel, Kahn, Heartand Weinberg and had practiced law inChicago for more than fifty years.Robert McBurney Mitchell, 03, diedlast April in Seattle, Wash. Joining thefaculty of Brown University in 1907, hetaught Germanic languages and literatures there until his retirement in 1947,becoming a full professor in 1938.Dr. Brady H. Foreman, MD '01, diedFebruary 20 in Tacoma, Wash. Born inWhitehall, 111., he attended Cooper Institute in San Francisco and practiced forsome years in California, and in 1900enrolled in Rush Medical School. In1906 he returned to Tacoma and practiced there until his retirement. His son-in-law, Erroll W. Rawson, is a memberof the '25 Class at Rush Medical School.Willard S. Bass, '05, died February 10in Wilton, Maine.Theodate Nowell Reid, (Mrs. GeorgeC), '06, died December 20 in Rome, N. Y.Dr. Charles W. Lamme, '07, MD 10,died December 12 in Mehoopany, Pa. Hehad been a physician in Tunkhannock,Pa.Leo Spitz, '08, JD, '10, died April 15in Hollywood, California. General counsel for Balaban & Katz in the 1920's, hejoined Paramount Pictures as an executive in 1932. In 1935 he became president of R-K-O Radio Pictures. Duringthis period he maintained offices in Chicago, and in 1934 he was appointed amember of the Illinois Racing Commission, serving until 1939, the last twoyears as chairman. He organized International Pictures, Inc., in 1943, and whenit was consolidated with Universal Pictures in 1946 he became executive headof production. He retired in 1953.William H. Kuh, SB '11, SM '14, diedApril 2 in Des Plaines, Illinois. He wasthe recipient of an Alumni Citation in1944. Mrs. Edith R. Johnson Blanc (Mrs.Marcel), SB '12, of San Diego, Calif.,died February 1.Howard C. Storm, AM '15, died February 1 in Glendale, California.Mary Koll Heiner, '15, died March 15in Ithaca, N. Y. Associate Professor Emeritus in the Department of Economicsof the State College of Home Economicsat Cornell, she was widely known forher contributions to the field of worksimplification in the home.Jesse S. Engle, AM '22, died March 29in his home in Westerville, Ohio. Hehad been Professor of Religion at Otter -bein College since 1923, and was alsoChairman of the Department of Religion and Philosophy and the Divisionof Social Studies. Otterbein granted himthe degree of L.H D in 1951.Frank H. Street, '23, died February 11in Cicero, 111.Dr. Frederick R. Bennett, MD '29, diedin x Chicago on April 12. He was pasthead of the staff of Little Company ofMary Hospital and past president of theCalumet branch of the Chicago MedicalSociety.Ellis C. Persing, SM '28, died April 3in Cleveland, Ohio. For two decades hehad been a science teacher at WestTechnical High School, and was from1921-36 Assistant Professor of NaturalScience at the former Cleveland Schoolof Education.J. Burton Smith, SB '27, of Winnetka,111 , died January 3.Carl V. Miles, AM '31, died March 16in Eldon, Mo.MacHenry Schafer, '32, AM '34, diedApril 21 in Washington. He was directorof personnel for the Department of Agriculture and a former Chicago banker.His wife, Gertrude Herriek Schafer, received an AM in '36.Etta C. L. Deffler, '33, died in Holland,Mich., on February 21.Dr. Frank E. Treharne, MD '35, diedat the age of 47 at the Independence,Missouri, Hospital, February 22, 1956.Virgil A. La Fleur, MD '37, died October 27 in Lorain, Ohio.Audrey Dykeman Van Valzah (Mrs.Robert W.), AM '39, died February 22in Riverside, 111.Dr. William A. Karraker, PhD '40,died February 28 in Hinsdale, 111.Ethel Gilligan Tatham (Mrs. WalterC), AM '44, died last February.George E. Crawford, PhD '48, diedlast March.Byron P. Rainey, '55, died April 22 inChicago.40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEINDEX TO 1955-56 ARTICLES^ Month Year PageArt for Young Collectors — A Picture Story March 56 9Before Moby Dick, GORDON ROPER October 55 4But Is It Math? January 56 19BROWNE, C. CONRAD, A Quiet Experiment in Integration June 56 17By Birth Or Bootstrap? March 56 12Campus of the Concerned, KERMIT EBY, JUNE GREENLIEF ....December 55 5Corn and Commissars, D. GALE JOHNSON December 55 16CRANE, ROBERT I., Modern India: A Background November 55 10EBY, KERMIT, and GREENLIEF, JUNE, Campus of the Concerned. December 55 5Familiar Face Returns, A, MARY JOAN SPIEGEL (Cap & Gown) May 56 27Festival of the Arts — A Picture Story June 56 4First, They Listen, FRED O. GEARING May 56 4Football Loses, 24-14 March 56 24For Lack of a Freezer June 56 15Four Educational Leaders Answer Five Questions May 56 12Fox Find New Folkways, The— A Picture Story . : May 56 9GEARING, FRED O., First, They Listen May 56 4GOLDMAN, RALPH M., Who Will They Pick in '56? January 56 4GRODZINS, MORTON, The Value of Loyalty June 56 11Happy Talk (Student Forum) June 56 28Her First Step, FRANCES PRINDLE, LORRAINE WALLACH ....December 55 10Her First Step— A Picture Story December 55 13Here's Where the Money Goes June 56 23Handsome Mausoleum, The, ROBERT M. STROZIER Decembir 55 29How Jurors Think, HARRY KALVEN, JR March 56 5Improvised Theatre in Hyde Park (The Compass) — A Picture Stary. December 55 9JOHNSON, D. GALE, Corn and Commissars December 55 16KALVEN, HARRY, JR., How Jurors Think March 56 5KNIGHT, FRANK H., Science and Society: The Modes of Law ....February 56 13KOHN, JOAN, Professor in the Parlor March 56 16Lady Editor at LOOK — A Picture Story (Laura Bergquist) April 56 20Law School, The New March 56 20Lighthearted Coach (Ted Haydon) November 55 15MAC DONALD, LACHLAN, Shoestring, Literature April 56 11MAYER, MILTON, What Would You Have Done? November 55 4Mid- Year Open House (Alumni) April 56 14Modern India: A Background, ROBERT I. CRANE November 55 10New Hope for Aphasics May 56 17Oldest Living Dean, ROBERT M. STROZIER April 56 8"Operation Candor" Misfires October 55 16PRINDLE, FRANCES, and WALLACH, LORRAINE, Her First Step . December 55 10Professor in the Parlor, JOAN KOHN March 56 16Publishers on the Square (Noon Day Press) January 56 17PUTTKAMMER, MORGENSTERN— F. C. Woodward, A Memorial April 56 18Quality Revolution in Teacher Training May 56 21Quarter Century at 1126, A, LEONARD D. WHITE February 56 4Quiet Experiment in Integration, A, C. CONRAD BROWNE June 56 17ROPER, GORDON, Before Moby Dick '. October 55 4Science and Society: The Modes of Law, FRANK H. KNIGHT February 56 13Shoestring Literature, LACHLAN MAC DONALD April 56 11Social Sciences Conference February 56 6Social Scientists, A Portfolio of Distinguished February 56 17SPIEGEL, MARY JOAN, A Familiar Face Returns (Cap and Gown) . . . .May 56 27STROZIER, ROBERT M., The Handsome Mausoleum December 55 29STROZIER, ROBERT M., Oldest Living Dean April 56 8Talk with Eudora Welty, A June 56 10Ten Years in the Cracker Box (WUCB) January 56 26These Are the Russians — A Picture Story December 55 19To Help Them Breathe (Morch Piston Respirator) January 56 14Toward Understanding Nature April 56 5Value of Loyalty, The, MORTON GRODZINS June 56 11WALLACH, LORRAINE, and PRINDLE. FRANCES, Her First Step . December 55 10WARNER, W. LLOYD, and ABEGGLEN, JAMES, By Birth Or Bootstrap? . March 56 12What Would You Have Done? MILTON MAYER November 55 4WHITE, LEONARD D., A Quarter Century at 1126 February 56 4Who Will They Pick in '56? RALPH M. GOLDMAN January 56 4Witchcraft in Mandel? — A Picture Story January 56 11Woodard, F. C, A Memorial— PUTTKAMMER, MORGENSTERN April 56 18Young TV Director (Roger Englander) October 55 10Your University Today — A Picture Story June 56 19DON'TLEAVEUS INTHE AIRALLSUMMERIf your membership expire(d)s inMay or June - send your renewal now.There's a statement in that windowenvelope on your mail table.Your membership is more than a magazine subscription.THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUECHICAGO 37, ILLINOIS