UNIVERSITYS7*#**_4.¦^*»_NEW HOPE FOR APHASICSSPONDULICSwas an American word invented in 1856 — just 100years ago. It meant moola.William Rainey Harper was born in 1856 — just 100years ago. It meant Chicago's first president.The story of how Harper raised more and morespondulics to keep the new University afloat willbe told by University Historian Richard J. Storrat anAlumni Day Luncheon inHutchinson CommonsSaturday, June 2, at 11:45 A. M.MemorialThe eight-thirty mailNow and then our surveys have nuisance news value. Via double postal weasked the 1941 -ers if they are returningfor their fifteenth reunion. In the spacelabeled "News for the Magazine" RobertO. Evans wrote he couldn't make thereunion because it was exam time at theUniversity of Kentucky.By quick, clever deduction we reportedin the April news section: "Robert O.Evans is at the University of Kentucky."That did it for Bob, who fired back:Couldn't you do a little better . . . orforget the whole thing? Someone mightask as what, janitor?It happens I am a professor of English, still have the same wife (MargeryBrooks, '42), three children (14, 12, 8;boy, girl, boy), daughter Michele is the7th grade spelling champ of the county;in 15 years I have seen Dick Salzmann,'41, about three times; had a letter fromBob McNamee; been back on campusonce to work in the library (book wasout) . . .And from Louis C. Schaefer, '52, AM'55, in London:I recently received my back issues ofthe Magazine, which I thoroughly enjoyed. May I add my congratulations onthis really remarkable publication. 1know of no other magazine of its kindso catholic in content and artistic in layout. The spread on "The Crucible"(Witchcraft in Mandel-January) particularly received enthusiastic praise fromalumni in London.Best wishes for another successful reunion.And from the immediate past president of the Alumni Association, ThomasR. Mulroy, '26, JD '28:Speaking of amazing coincidences,when 1 was about to board a plane forMiami . . . I found Jay Berwanger ('36)waiting in line also. We expressed disappointment that we could not have arranged to sit together because we weregoing on a flight on which all seats areassigned in advance.After boarding the plane we found wehad been assigned adjoining seats on aplane accommodating 58 people! Needless to say . . . during the four-hour tripwe settled all the thorny problems involving the University.In the seat immediately in front of uswas President Miller of NorthwesternUniversity.Alumni directoriesOur questionnaire survey of a yearago proved there was not enough interestin a national alumni directory to makeit worth publishing at a heavy deficit.However, it was decided to publish foursectional directories which would listover 30,000 of the 52,000 alumni. William N. FloryTherefore, sometime in June, we hopeto have the following directories off thepress:1. Chicago and suburbs, 20,000 almuni2. Greater New York City, 4,0003. Greater Washington, D. C, 2,0004. California, 4,000Each directory will carry names, maiden names, degrees, occupations, addresses.These names will be listed alphabeticallyand also by suburbs or towns and cities.If you want one or more of these directories, use the coupon on this page.New Sing DirectorThere will be a brand new face at themicrophone directing the annual Interfraternity Sing Saturday night, June 2:William N. Flory, '54, manager of theBusiness Development Department ofHarris Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago,and member of Phi Delta Theta. Arthur Cody, veteran director, was forced toresign because of his expanding businessconflicts.Breakfast at 11:45This year's Alumnae Breakfast movesback to the center of activities on Reunion Day, Saturday, June 2nd: the maindining room of the Quadrangle Club at57th and University — across from MandelHall. And the hour: 11:45 instead of 12so no one will be rushed for the 3 P.M.Assembly in Mandel.Continuing the Breakfast's reputationfor top flight women speakers, HelenWells, Women's Editor of the ChicagoSun-Times and in charge of the Breakfast, will present her newspaper friend,Virginia Marmaduke, as speaker of theday.Virginia attracted national attentionwhen she was surprised on Ralph Edwards' TV program, "This is Your Life."At the time she was a top reporter on theSun-Times. Currently Virginia has twoChicago NBC radio programs: "Featuresin the News" and "Tell it to Marmaduke."Famous for getting the most out of life,Miss Marmaduke will talk about "GettingMore out of Life."Simultaneously, another popular luncheon will be held in Hutchinson Commons.This luncheon will commemorate thecentennial of the birth of our first president, William Rainey Harper, and thefiftieth anniversary of his death.Honored at this luncheon will be theClass of 1906, the last senior class beforethe death of Dr. Harper. The Class willbe celebrating its fiftieth anniversary.Also present will be the 33 alumni tobe cited for good citizenship in the afternoon Mandel Assembly and fifteen students to be cited for leadership in studentactivities. This luncheon also starts at11:45.The full program for Reunion Weekend is published in Tower Topics, whichwill be in your mailbox any day afteryou read this — if you read this pronto.H.W.M.The Alumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago 37, IllinoisEnclosed find $ for which please mail me, when published, the following alumni directories:? Chicago and Suburbs, 20,00 alumni $3.00? Greater New York City, 4,000 2.00? Greater Washington, D.C, 2,000 2.00? California State, 4,000 2.00I understand these will not be off the presses until sometime in June.Name Address.MAY, 1956 11934 What class were you in at college?In that year American issued the first travel credit card as a convenience tobusinessmen, an innovation used by all airlines today.1 OA A ^n tnat year American inaugurated the first scheduled airfreight service. Today1954 millions of tons a year are flown by airfreight.That was the year that American again made history with the first nonstop servicefrom coast to coast on its new DC* 7 Flagships.Over the years the college graduate, the leader in hisindustry and his community, has always been first toutilize the many opportunities created by air transportation. Today American Airlines, America's leadingairline, makes these advantages available to an evengreater degree than ever for business and vacation travel. * AMERICANAIRLINESC^/lmtricas -^Qatling (^/ftrlitufu7}tis [sssticWhrHEN an anthropologist observing a primitive culture feels the urgeto step in and help the people he's beenobserving, a great many problems arise.Anthropologist Fred O. Gearing, AB '50,AM '53, now a PhD candidate, has someinteresting things to say en the subject in"First, They Listen," on Page 4. He describes the work of a group of anthropologists with the Fox Indians of Iowa.The photos accompanying his text andcomprising the picture story which follows, "The Fox Find New Folkways,"(Pages 9-11), are the work of anthropology student Herbert S. Becker.JT ROM the pre-school nurseryto the adult evening class, Americanmethods of education are undergoing athorough mass examination. Parents,teachers, administrators and legislatorsmeet, discuss, write reports and makerecommendations on how to improve education. As part of the general discussionnow going on, we asked four experts inthe field to answer five questions for us(all we had room for). Their answersbegin on Page 12.Three of our experts are administrators and teachers. The fourth is an observer, cited by the Education Writers'Association as one of the country's topreporters on the problems of education.H<LOW speech therapists helpeda "stroke" victim regain her lost speechpatterns by re- teaching her to play bridgeis described in "New Hope For Aphasics,"Page 17. The story of Joseph Wepman'sresearch with aphasics in Billings' SpeechClinic is a fascinating one.J_ URNING out more and betterteachers is the University's aim, and stepstowards this goal are described in "Quality Revolution In Teacher Training," onPage 21. If you are a homemaker, interested in returning to work and thinkingof becoming a teacher, this is for you.E.IDITOR Mary Joan Spiegeltells us briefly about the revival of thecampus yearbook, Cap And Gown, in "AFamiliar Face Returns," Page 27.R,lEUNION classes will findplans for various events outlined on Page30. /^^^/" m^' UNIVERSITYCWcaqoMAGAZINE if MAY, 1956Volume 48, Number 8FEATURES4 First, They Listen Fred O. Gearing9 The Fox Find New Folkways — A Picture Story12 Four Education Leaders Answer Five Questions17 New Hope For Aphasics2i Quality Revolution In Teacher Training27 A Familiar Face Returns Mary Joan Spiegel28 Campaign News — Gala University ShowDEPARTMENTS1323293!40COVER Memo PadIn This IssueNews Of The QuadranglesLettersClass NewsMemorialsIn case you haven't yet figured it out, let us explain our trick cover.Speech therapist Doris Van Pelt is the willing model and thedrawings being projected on her face are mounted on a slide.The slide is part of the new test for aphasics developed by psychologist Joseph Wepman. For more details, turn to Page 17.(Photo by Archie Lieberman — Black Star.)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, IllinoisEditorFELICIA ANTHENELLI Associate EditorPALMER W. PINNEYTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive Secretary-EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORANProgrammingELIZABETH A. SHAW The Alumni FundWILLIAM H. SWANBERGORLANDO R. DAVIDSONStudent RecruitmentDONALD C. MOYERPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $4.00. Single copies,25 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois,under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.MAY, 1956 3When Chicago anthropologists prepare to study and helpa primitive societyFirst, They ListenTHE STORY OF IOWA'S FOX INDIANSHerbert S. BeckerA Fox woman makesreed mats to be usedin building a wikiyupBy Fred O. GearingResearch Associate in AnthropologyAssistant Director, Tama Indian ProgramTHE TRADITIONAL "hands off"policy of the anthropologist whileobserving a primitive society is undergoing some changes.At the University, a few anthropologists have discarded the "don't touch"rule with the communities they arestudying. Now, they not only observea people to learn about general rulesof human behavior — at the same timethey try to serve the immediate needsof the community, in some instancesby helping it to adjust to the largersociety which surrounds it and viceversa. Sol Tax, Chairman of the Department of Anthropology, the guiding hand behind this work, calls it"action anthropology."For example, Leonard Borman hasbeen working for the past few yearswith a group of Kalmuks, distant descendants of the Ghengis Khan andremnants of the Kalmuk Republic(deceased) of the U.S.S.R. The Kalmuks are now displaced persons whoemigrated to America after the warand settled in and around Philadelphia. There they are buying land,building temples, and trying to keepout of jail for following the ancientcustom of kidnapping each other'sdaughters for brides; Borman is trying to help them.When Indians of the Mandan, Hi-datsa, and Arikara reservation inNorth Dakota were forced to movemost of their homes and reorganizetheir communities in 1950 after thenew Garrison dam flooded their lands,Robert Rietz, working for the U.S.Indian Service, helped them.Since 1954, Rietz has been field director of a University of Chicagoanthropological program in a smallcommunity of Fox Indians in Iowa.Part of his job has been to help theFox to explore and test the idea ofa community factory.Rietz, with his wife and children,has been living among the Fox Indians for the past year. (The writer,with his family, lived among the Foxfor fifteen months, in 1952-53, and hasbeen back two summers since then.)The anthropologist in such a positionaccomplishes more by his behaviorthan by what he says. The Fox acceptthe anthropologists as students — theyalso have come to accept them ashelpers, willing to give advice andhelp them act on it, if they so wish. How do these anthropologists helpa community? Not by moving in andshowing the native population how wedo it. Their role of observer-helperis much more complex than that.First, they listen.Robert Redfield, Robert A. Hutchins Distinguished Service Professorof Anthropology, once said, "If youwant to get things done in underdeveloped areas, it is listening thatcounts."These anthropologists are discovering that listening well does indeedcount and that it is not easy. Theyhave relearned an old truth: Youcan be helpful only in terms of theaspirations of the community itself.Nor are they alone in their concernwith listening. Client-centered therapy has decided it is listening thatcounts. Sociologists are attemptingto devise workable methods of assisting communities which feel a need forbasic re-direction of efforts — such assouthern Illinois mining communitieswhere the mines have closed. In suchcases, sociologists watch very closelythe expressed wishes of sections of thecommunity and how such wishes getreconciled.Small-group theorists want to learnabout the same processes, as do theadult education people and others.The common feature of all these activities is permissiveness. Sensitive,perceptive listening is important because the attitude of listening sets upa good relationship between the scientist and the community. If you arepsychologically set to listen, you areless prone to act precipitously; andif you act less, the people themselvesare prone to act more.Most of the world now knows thatinnovations imposed on peoples byforeign powers have boomerang effects. Sometimes the people simplyreject the innovation at the first opportunity; more often the innovationgets established but with unexpectedand disastrous side-effects.Anthropologists have been accusedof being apologists for the status quoand often the accusation is warranted.They have been in a position to seemost often and most clearly the frequent bad effects of imposed innovations among the primitives of theworld. They have imagined that"don't touch!" can be a policy.MAY, 1956Herbert S. BeckerSuch anthropologists made theirmistake when they supposed that badeffects occurred because cultures bytheir nature were conservative. Therapid spread through Africa and Asiaof the idea of equality, and the drasticchanges which have followed that ideaare putting to rest the notion of inherent conservatism of cultures. Moreprobably, the forced imposition wasthe point at issue, not the innovationitself.The great difference lies in whodoes the innovating. Anthropologistshave advised colonial administrators:Don't abolish the bride-price becausethis, that, and such will come tumbling down. They would have donebetter to have said: Don't you changethe bride-price.Uncle -Nephew TalkTax, Rietz, and Borman have alsonoticed the frequent bad effects ofimposed innovation. But they do notsuppose the Kalmuks and Mandan andFox are averse to change — only thatthey are averse to changes out of linewith their own aspirations. Everyhuman being who isn't sick is, it mustbe supposed, 100% motivated. Thequestion is, to what ends? Theability of these anthropologists tolisten and learn about those aspirations is being put to a special test —they are all working across barriersof great cultural differences. Workingacross such barriers is full of surprises.An American sociologist working ina southern Illinois mining town cantake a lot for granted. If the towndecided it needed an industry and ifan average, reasonable humane industrialist was willing to establish afactory there, the sociologist would Big event of the year is the annualpow-wow in August. The Fox on theleft, dressed in special ceremonial costume, were snapped during one ofthese. Each Fox clan "owns" certainceremonies, and they take turns playing host to each other when observingthese. The little, fellow is an accomplished dancer,- too. Fox children learnto dance as soon as they can toddle.rightly feel secure. The reason is thathe, the townsmen, and the industrialist all share a number of basic ideasabout the virtue of work and abouthuman relations and those ideas fitwell with an industrial activity.An American Indian communitymight also decide they want an industry. But in this case, the anthropologist wanting to help the community has just begun. Consider apossible incident: An Indian gets intohis car to go to work; his uncle walksup. They talk about the weather. Theuncle mentions that he thought hemight go to a town forty miles awaythis morning, a man might be therewhom he wants to see. They get inthe car and go. The young Indian isnot a disorganized derelict. In thisinstance he has acted like the moralIndian should act. A non-Indianuncle would probably not make sucha request unless the circumstanceswere extreme. Certainly, where"work" was involved he would getlittle public support if he were refused. It is no accident that whitebums and Indian gentlemen both likeworking on railroad section gangswhere the freedom to lay off and hireback is practically unlimited.Their Own AspirationsThe major point is that the peoplethemselves often have to discoverwhat their aspirations are. And wherean item from one culture is being considered by another, the chances of error are great. The Indians might wanta "factory," a word not too meaningful to them. After experiencing a factory they might very well say, notthat. Or they might decide uncles andnephews will have to behave differently. So listening involves more than hearing words. For example, it mightinvolve creating opportunities fortesting a variety of occupations — creating learning experiences.One of the most interesting examples of "action anthropology" isthe work being done by University ofChicago anthropologists with the FoxIndians who live in the center ofIowa, two miles from Tama.Tax and his students decided to apply their "action" principle in the caseof the Fox after two field trips tothe Fox community in the summers of1948 and 1949. They originally visitedthe community to study changes whichthey presumed might have taken placein it since Tax did a study of Fox kinship system and social structure in the:30's.Tax's students during those twofield trips found themselves, under hisdirection, practicing anthropologyquite differently from the usual methods.A Danger SignalWhen they first entered the community, instead of asking the Indiansabout their kinship system or ritualcalendar or songs and dances, andinstead of finding informants withspecial knowledge about such matters,they indicated they were interested intalking to anyone about anything. TheIndians, being human, often preferredto talk about their "problems." Thestudents soon learned a lot about theirproblems, began to know Fox individuals very well, and knowing them,began to feel involved with them.For most social scientists, feelinginvolved is a danger signal. Theseanthropologists began to worry aboutobjectivity and whether they shouldhelp, and if so, how.All social scientists go throughperiods of soul-searching when theyfeel impulses to "do something." Oneanswer is to deny impulses on thefaith that complete attention to thesearch for general knowledge servesman best in the long run. A second,frequent resolution is connoted by thephrase "applied social science." Ascientist learns that a particular problem exists and he agrees to help; hedoes research to discover the facts andprocesses at issue and then makes thisknowledge available for men of affairsto apply. Such scientific effort leadsto propositions like the following: IfA occurs X will follow and if B occurs Y will follow, all other thingsbeing equal.Objections are many and wellknown. Foremost among them is thecontrariness of humankind whichcomes close to guaranteeing that all6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEother things will not be equal. Humans are gossips. Once the scientistssay "if A, then X," the AssociatedPress sends it coast-to-coast andpeople begin to take second looks atX and thence at Y and A and B.Humans also have wills. Men beginsorting themselves into camps favoring X against other camps favoring Y.Of course if the man of affairs causesA to occur, people immediately reactaccording to their feeling about X; theformula is now useless and the socialscientist has a new problem to study.Ideally, in large societies, and forissues where interest is low and wherethere is therefore little communication, the model comes close to working. But in small face-to-face communities, the swiftness of communicationis usually astonishing. The problemis further confounded if the smallcommunity happens also to share adifferent culture from that around it.Flight to KansasAfter listening to the problems ofthe Fox Indians, Tax and his studentsdecided they would try to help. Theirfirst plan followed the orthodox modelof applied social science: The Fox expressed to the anthropologists theirdesires for certain material goods;they have land which they do not useto fullest advantage. If certain adviceand assistance were provided, (if A),the Fox would organize themselvesinto a farm co-operative. This organization, it was hoped, would permitbetter farming operations, hence moremoney, hence the material goods theydesired, (then X).I shall digress for a moment for abrief look at the Fox and their history.There are a little over 600 Fox Indians in the world. About 500 of themhave their homes on the 3,300 acresthe tribe has purchased in Iowa.In the early 1700's the Fox livednear Green Bay, Wisconsin. Throughthe years they moved southward asfar as Rock Island, Illinois and thenwestward across the Mississippi Riverinto Iowa. They early established aclose political alliance with the Sacwhich lasted until the Blackhawk Warin 1832. During that war many of theSac fought; the Fox remained neutral.At its close the Sac were removed toa reservation in Kansas and the Foxwere forced to go with them. TheFox found the treeless plains of Kansas inhospitable and, after politicaldifferences with the Sac and theUnited States, went back to Iowa, rejoined some Fox families who hadnever left, and purchased 80 acres ofthe land they had so recently been forced to give up.In the following years they boughtmore land, piece by piece. The present 3,300 acres is adequate for home-sites for all the families. They rentone large plot, and with the income,pay taxes on the whole.Dancing is PrayingThe Fox still speak their own language, an Algonkian dialect; most Foxalso speak English but almost no childlearns English before he enters school.•There is a grade school in the community; many children go on to thepublic high school nearby. RecentlyFox young people have begun entering colleges. Each weekend duringthe warm months, there are religiousceremonies. Each Fox clan "owns"ceremonies and they take turns beinghosts to the rest of the people. Theysing and dance and, in doing so, pray.Fox men commute, daily or weekly,to jobs as far away as Des Moines andDavenport. Families still keep gardens; the major crop is the multicolored "Indian corn" which has beenhanded down through the generations.They live in small, frame houses setin large grassy clearings. Every able-bodied Fox goes to Tama, an Iowatown, only two miles away, two orthree times a week. On Thursdayafternoon they go in to buy the localweekly; on Saturday night they go into stand around and gossip. Once ortwice a week they go in to buy groceries.The Fox do a lot of non-ceremonialIndian dancing — most Sunday evenings people gather at the Fox warveteran's club, some beat the drumand sing, others dance, others justwatch.A Vital CommunityOn the whole, the Fox are a vitalcommunity. The population is growing rather rapidly.These, then, are the people whomTax's group set out to help, with thesuggestion that they set up a cooperative farm.The plan proved useless except asa springboard for learning. Fortunately, the plan was not turned overThe annual pow-wow of theFox Indians will be held thisyear from August 16-19, and theauthor extends an invitation toalumni to come and bring theirfriends. Ceremonies and exhibits are open to the public. TheFox community is' two milesfrom Tama, Iowa. to be administered, by the IndianService, for instance — the groupstayed around to learn from it. In theensuing years three shortcomings inthe plan became visible.For instance, the Fox actually donot care for farming. They talk approvingly of farming in the abstract,but given the choice between farmingand wage labor, they apparentlywould choose the latter. In spite ofgreat efforts by the Indian Serviceover the last generation and in spiteof being in the center of the mostprosperous farming area on earth, theyhave never acted very enthusiasticallyabout farming. Iowans are prone tosay disapprovingly of them: "Threethousand acres and not a cow!" TheFox have had gardens of corn, beans,and squash since before the whitemen came, but little cash farming.Among the reasons why the planfailed, is a Fox idea which, not familiar to us, went little-noticed. Theidea was "harmony." Indians elevateharmony to a major principle. TheFox embody in the word an ideaabout the relation between man andnature which is the polar opposite ofours. We set out to conquer nature,subdue it, wring energy from it, andturn the energy back upon it. TheFox live with nature. They imagine auniverse of reciprocal rights and duties — a balanced harmony among parts.The Fox are but one part. All theparts must maintain that harmony ifthe universe is to persist.No Majority RuleThe 3,300 acres which are home tothe Fox present some remarkablecontrasts to the lands which surroundthem. A geographer once looked atan aerial photograph of that sectionof Iowa and to his trained eye, theboundaries of the Fox settlement wereeasily visible. Years ago Indian service workers cleared and fenced muchof the Fox land according to thesharply geometric patterns of Iowafarms. Many of these acres are nowcovered with brush and trees. Buteven the sections of Fox land whichhave remained under cultivation weredistinguishable from surroundingfarms — through the years fence lineshad become wider, corners moreround. Fox farmers seem less intentin keeping nature in check. The Foxhave not become prosperous Iowafarmers.The plan for a farming co-operativeproved impractical for a second reason. The Fox do not really want aco-operative; at least, they do notwant a co-operative such as the oneenvisaged by the plan. Co-operatives,MAY, 1956 7as we think of them, are too authoritarian for the Fox. The Indians talkabout co-operatives quite favorablyand often they do co-operate — undercertain conditions they co-operate atextreme lengths. What they will notpermit is majority rule.Walter B. Miller was a member ofTax' first field party in 1948. He became interested in the ways the Foxhandle authority. In 1950 he returnedand completed his analysis. Grosslysummarized, Miller discovered thatthe Fox consider the exercise of authority indecent. In the 1700's the Foxmade decisions unanimously or notat all; group co-ordination occurredthrough voluntary co-operation ornot at all. People were nudged intoagreement and co-operation throughgossip and other diffuse sanctions.But central loci of authority did notexist. The same rules still apply in1956.For Money or Nature?It is not enough to say that theplan for a co-op farm was drawn before sufficient analysis had occurred.The Fox all thought they wanted aco-op farm. That in itself is a relevant fact. It would have been nobetter had the field party said, "Afterstudying you, we discover you cannothave a co-operative farm."The fact is that the Fox must themselves discover what the alternativesare and make the choice. The choicein this instance was not only betweenhaving money and not having it, (andof course there are many other thinkable ways the Fox could make moremoney). The choice was betweenmaking money and being indecenttoward man and toward nature. Andneither of the sides of the choice pointcan be taken, by the outsiders, as"given." It may be highly probablethat the Fox will choose to retain theirdefinitions of decency; but they couldchoose to alter those definitions andbecome co-operative farmers.The Elusive HierarchiesI spoke of the spurious Fox aspirations for a co-op farm. In discussingthat desire I spoke of Fox ideas aboutdecent relations among men and between man and nature; those Foxideas are values. Values are notspurious. They tend to be very clearto the people and very stable overtime. The only trouble is, in everysociety, including Jndian societies,values conflict and compete among themselves. To date, the values of asociety have defied adequate characterization. It has been obvious thatvalues of a society stand in competition, even conflict with one another,so many anthropologists have supposed that each society has a hierarchy of values, a rank ordering ofprecedence. But such value hierarchies have proven very elusive.That Valuable GrapevineThe writer is willing to assume sucha hierarchy does not exist. The Foxvalue material goods;* they also valuenon-authoritarian inter-personal relations. When the anthropologistsdrew up their plans, the Fox becamepublicly aware of the possibility ofco-operative farming. A co-op farmcoincided with the first value and conflicted with the second. But those twovalues were not already ranked. Theywere not items in a hierarchical system of values waiting to be applied bythe Fox to this new activity. The Foxcould have selected either one. TheIndians had to make a choice.In an imperfect sense, the Fox havedecided that the rules about properpersonal relations take precedence inthis instance. The decision is imperfect and might still go the other way.Robert Rietz reports that, since November of last year, the Fox havebeen feeling their way into the production of such things as greetingcards and decorative tiles, using designs by Fox artists. The Fox idea,again, is that this work will be organized as some form of co-operative.But the details of interpersonal relations will work themselves out slowly. It is very likely that, with success,the Fox will come to consider certainkinds of delegated authority as perfectly proper. They did so before, intheir war parties.So the decision for or against a coop was a true choice, not some latentcultural fact waiting to express itself.As a choice it has that degree ofarbitrariness and that great degreeof unpredictability of all humanchoices.But why is it that the choice needbe made by them? Anthropologistshave long asserted (intending variousmeanings) that cultures are integratedwholes. Small face-to-face communities usually rely heavily on gossipand other diffuse methods to maintaina necessary conformity. If gossip andthe like is to be a sufficient control,there must be a broad base of publicconsensus. For that reason suchchoices among values must be public.The decisions need not occur at town- meetings. But the need is for thoroughpublic airing of the question. In effectthe people decide that one value isto apply and another is not to apply.The result is that everyone knows,then, how their shared values apply inthis instance. The process has to occurfor each new instance and it has tooccur publicly.The result is an integrated culture— not integrated in the sense that allthe activities mesh in assembly -linefashion or that all the values are harmonious. But integrated in the sensethat everyone knows how the competing values apply for every important life activity. Having such publicknowledge of right and wrong, in allthe particulars, small societies canmaintain public order through gossipand the like.Yet More GossipIt is just that crucial process ofpublic decision-making which getscircumvented when innovations areforcefully imposed by outsiders. Inits place stand very different considerations. A faction usually appearswhich is for the outsider or for"progress," or some other abstraction.A second faction is against. The imposed innovation itself is seldom seriously discussed in its own right — it isgood or bad, depending upon whetheryou are of the faction that co-operates,as general policy, or of the otherfaction. In many Indian communitiesthe two factions are literally calledthe "yeses" and the "noes." Once aninnovation gets established withoutthe public airing and without the public agreement as to how the values areto be assigned, the group is henceforthunable to provide its own co-ordination. Now there is gossip in at leasttwo directions.Why Listen?One value of listening well is thatit enables you to hear what to do.More importantly, it forestalls theforced imposition of both good andbad innovations. Both, if imposed,are likely to boomerang. If listeningwell reduces the possibility of precipitate actions which impose innovations, then it does count. But paradoxically, in order to listen best, theanthropologist must also talk andeven create possibilities for newlearning experience. In that way,new ideas occur to societies and newideas are the raw materials of thebehavior we are really trying to hear.8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Fox Find New FolkwaysOn the Iowa plains a small group of America s oldest inhabitants clingto their centuries -old customs. But slowly, bit by bit, they findthey are incorporating patterns from the western culture about them.The entire community turns out jor a meeting of the general councilin the former schoolhouse. Women occasionally speak up now,an unheard of event in councils of former days.Young Fox boys learn theirtribal dances as soon as theycan walk. This youngster isperforming at the annualpow-wow, held in mid-August. From the ritual of thedance to the seat of hisuncle's tractor involvesmore complexities thanare readily apparent.MAY, 1956Some of America's oldest citizens practice what is for them a relativelynew custom — the young man is auctioning off box suppers to raisefunds for the veterans' club. Several anthropologists are scatteredin the crowd, among them Fred Gearing (man with glasses in doorway).(Photos by Herbert S. Becker)For the annual pow-wow, the Fox builda Wikiyup. Made of reed mats placedon saplings, it used to serve as awinter home. Note blanket doorway.10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Fox Find New FoHis taste in apparel is like thatof any young American — pilot'scap, toy gun and holster.Women wear rural clothes,too, but it is rather old-fashioned, from the early partof the century. This woman,dressed for the pow-wow,is one of the oldest members. A religious leader dressed upfor the pow-wow. Ordinaryrural clothes are his everydaydress. These are for ceremonies.Could you tell her from anyother American girl eatingcorn in her dungarees?MAY, 1956 11FOUREDUCATIONSAre high schools meeting everyone's needs?Should federal aid ignore segregation?How can we develop more scientists?Are we providing for the gifted?Should everyone go to college?Goodrich C. White, PresidentEmory Universityj_ S the high school curriculum meeting the needs of students, both thoseplanning to go on to college andthose who are not? What do youthink could be done to give new lifeto the high school curriculum?Dr. White: Any generalized answerto this question would be dogmaticand dubious. Probably the highschools are doing as well in "meetingthe needs of students" as could beexpected in view of the mountingnumbers of students in the last several decades and the many new responsibilities forced upon or assumedby them. There is probably enough"life" in the curriculum, if not alwaysin the teaching. From the standpointof preparation for college, certainly,there is need for a new emphasis onthoroughness, on mastery of basicskills, and on understanding. This willrequire certain kinds of drill and in terpretation which seems not to begenerally favored in current theoryand practice. The needed mastery,accuracy, and understanding cannotbe acquired incidentally or accidentally.Dr. Chase: The form in which thisquestion is stated does not permit acategorical answer. No high schoolclaims to meet all needs of all pupils.The better high schools meet satisfactorily the basic educational needsof most students; some high schoolsfail to meet the educational needs ofthe specially gifted; some others doa relatively poor job for the slowlearners and the handicapped students; some small high schools aretoo poorly staffed to provide much inthe way of intellectual sustenance forany students.The upward and outward extensionof American education is an amazing achievement, not elsewhere equalled.When one considers that within threedecades the proportion of the population completing high school increasedfrom about two per hundred to nearlysixty per hundred, the wonder is thatthe quality of the product has beenso high. In retrospect, it is clear thatthis upward extension of educationalopportunity has provided the basis forour present abundance and ouramazing scientific and technologicalprogress. No schools in the historyof civilization have ever achievedsuch a wide range of desirable objectives for such a large proportionof the population as have the highschools of the United States. On theother hand, the attempt to achievesuch a wide range of somewhat hazilydefined social objectives has led insome cases to a neglect of the highschool's primary responsibility for theintellectual development of its pupils.12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEADERS ANSWER FIVE QUESTIONSPaul J. MisnerSuperintendent of Schools,Glencoe, Illinois Francis S. Chase, ChairmanDepartment of Education,University of Chicago Ruth Dunbar, ReporterChicago Sun-TimesIn a large high school last springI witnessed a program on which sixable and articulate seniors expressedtheir criticisms of their own experiences in high school. Their majorcomplaint was that they had been unable to obtain as great a breadthof experience as they desired. Thosewho majored in science had had toreduce the number of courses in suchfields as foreign language, history,art, or music; those who concentrated in the humanities or socialstudies had found it necessary to limitthe courses in science and mathematics. Apparently, what these brightyoungsters wanted for themselves(with some variations) was four yearseach of mathematics, science, English,history and modern language, withliberal side helpings of music and art.By the students' own estimates, theireducational needs had been well metin general; they merely wished they had been allowed to take five or morecourses at a time, so that at the endof high school they would have fewergaps in their preparation. In this highschool there is no lack of intellectualstimulation. Its success in preparingfor college is attested by the recordsof its graduates in leading collegesthroughout the country. While theemphasis is on college preparation,there is no evidence that the educational needs of those who do not attend college are being neglected.Certainly, it is possible for a highlymotivated student in our better highschools to prepare himself adequatelyfor college and for constructive performance of his duties as a worker,citizen, and member of a family. Inmany of our high schools, it is alsopossible for the less highly motivatedstudent "to get by" without developing himself to anything like hisfull capacity. In some of our smaller schools, the educational diet providedis too meager to sustain vigorousintellectual activity; in other schoolsthere are too few teachers who havethe ability to create an intellectuallyinvigorating climate.To meet the constantly growing demand for highly literate and technically competent workers and othereven more exacting demands uponcitizens of a free nation in the lasthalf of the twentieth century, we needboth to step up our efforts for thefull development of the especiallygifted and to find ways of releasingthe potential of those whose talentsare not so evident. More particularly, we must learn how to giveadequate grounding in mathematicsfor the large numbers needed inscientific and technical occupations;and how to develop needed skills inthe use of the written language. Inaddition, we must seek more effectiveMAY, 1956 13means of teaching analytical thinkingand the ability to choose wiselyamong competing values. For thefuture our goal should be to providefor all American youth the qualityelements so important to individualdevelopment and to national welfare.The redesigning of education forpresent and emerging needs will require attention to four general aspects:1. A thorough- going reexaminationand revision of the sequences of learning experiences provided in ourschools. Special attention needs to begiven to the development of strongprograms in mathematics, sciences,written English, and other phases ofthe curriculum where weaknesses arenow apparent.2. The preparation of teachers whocombine sound scholarship in theirteaching fields with an understandingof the processes of human development and learning, and with skill inmotivating learners for high achievement. A substantial part of the faculty and other resources of all of *ourhigher institutions should be involvedin the urgent task of relieving theacute shortage of qualified teachersfor elementary schools and for mathe matics and science positions in secondary schools, as well as in providing the teachers who will soon berequired to meet the upsurge in highschool and college enrollments.3. Research in methods of instruction and experimental try-outs ofpromising ideas. There is a greatneed to learn more about what constitutes effective teaching so that wemay improve our selection of teachers, as well as our training programs.And there is also need for a carefultesting of promising practices andprocedures in laboratoxy situationsbefore they are widely introducedinto the schools.4. Redesigning the administrativestructure and. upgrading administrative practices. We need extensive development in the theory and practiceof school administration in order tomake better use of the good teachersavailable and to focus the efforts ofall school personnel on essential educational objectives.Miss Dunbar: I believe the highschool program is due for a thoroughcheck-up and overhauling. In itspresent form, it apparently meets theneeds neither of the college -bound nor of the student with no plans forfurther education.Evidence that it fails the would-becollege student is found in (1) complaints of colleges about the productof the high schools, (2) the numberof remedial classes provided for college freshmen in such fields as English and math, and, (3) the fact thatmany applicants to professionalschools cannot meet entrance requirements.Evidence that high schools are notadequately serving those who don'tplan on college is found in the factthat about 40 per cent drop out ofhigh school before earning diplomas.They haven't found school worth theirwhile.To develop a sound program for theyouth who will go to college, I believe high school teachers and collegeprofessors in each basic subject needto get together and pool their ideason what the student needs to learn.I think college professors must sharethe blame for what's wrong with thehigh schools — they have been tooaloof, too unconcerned about theproblems with which the secondaryschools have been struggling.A different high school program isMEET THE EXPERTSGoodrich Cook White, is President of Emory University, Oxford, Ga., a post he has heldsince 1942.Dr. White holds an AB fromEmory, AM from Columbia University and PhD from the University of Chicago. He also holdshonorary degrees from severaluniversities.He had been in succession aprofessor of English and psychology, Dean of the College ofArts and Sciences, Dean of theGraduate School, and VicePresident at Emory before assuming his present position. Heis a member of Phi Beta Kappaand serves on the Presidents'Commission on Higher Education.Dr. Francis S. Chase is Chairman of the Department ofEducation and Professor of Educational Administration at theUniversity. He is also Directorof the Center for Teacher Education and Director of the Midwest Administration Center, andpresident of Education Communications Service.Dr. Chase received his BS and MS degrees from the Universityof Virginia and PhD at theUniversity of Chicago. He spentseventeen years in educationaladministration in Virginia beforecoming back to his Alma Mater.He has also taught at the Universities of Richmond and Virginia and Madison College, andat one time was editor of theVirginia Journal of Education.Ruth Dunbar is a formerteacher, having taught at Whitman College, Walla Walla,Wash.; Wayne University, Detroit; Western Reserve, Cleveland; and at a college in PuertoRico. She holds an AB from theUniversity of Illinois and AMand PhD degrees from Northwestern University.Miss Dunbar joined the staffof the Chicago SUN-TIMES in1950, and has been covering education since 1952. She hastwice been cited by the Education Writers' Association. Lastyear she won the association'stop award for the most outstanding series on an educational topic of national interestfor her series on "Can Johnny Read?", in which she disputedthe contention of RudolphFlesch that current methods ofteaching reading are inadequate.Dr. Paul J. Misner is Superintendent of Schools in Glencoe, Illinois and president of theAmerican Association of SchoolAdministrators. Under his leadership the Glencoe schools haveachieved nation - wide recognition for the quality of democracy that has been achieved inthe operation of the schools.Dr. Misner holds an AB fromMichigan State Normal College,and AM and PhD degrees fromthe University of Michigan. Forseven years he was Director ofthe Laboratory iSchools at Michigan State Normal College. Hehas served as a special lecturerin education at NorthwesternUniversity and has taught in thesummer sessions at several universities, including the University of Michigan and TeachersCollege, Columbia University.He is an educational consultantfor the White House ConferenceCommittee.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEneeded for the student who has nointerest in college. Here, I believe,curriculum planners should study thestudent, his interests and needs moreclosely. They might even try consulting him. In general, what's neededas I see it is an up-dated, streamlined program, which has more relevance for the student in terms of hispresent interests and future plans.Courses should be built around what'sgoing on in the world today andshould capitalize on the teen-ager'sconcern for such things as his jobfuture and marriage.Dr. Misner: Across the countrythere are a few secondary schoolsin which the curriculum programdoes meet the needs both of thosestudents who plan to attend collegeand those who do not. In generalthese schools enroll relatively largenumbers of students and are locatedin favored economic areas wherefinancial resources are adequate tosupport a comprehensive program ofsecondary education.At least four things must be doneto give new life to the high schoolcurriculum. High schools with fewerthan 300 pupils enrolled should beeliminated and become part of aconsolidated secondary school unitwith, wherever possible, a minimumenrollment of 700 students.The high school should provideadequate guidance and counsellingservices to the end that the curriculum program is geared effectively tothe needs, interests, and capacities ofindividual students.The content of the curriculumshould be directed to the futurerather than the past. Students nowenrolled in secondary schools willassume new and increased responsibilities of citizenship between nowand 2000 A.D. They will receive littlechallenge from a curriculum that doesnot anticipate this exciting future.A changed attitude toward vocational education is urgently needed.In the years that lie ahead the nation will have increased need of technical and vocational skills and competencies. Vocational education canbe rich in purpose and content. Itshould be given a significant and respectable place in secondary education.J-lOW do you propose we meet theproblems of the shortage of scientistsand engineers?Br. White: I have no suggestions.It seems to me that there is now beingprovided fully adequate publicity, as well as incentive, relative to theseneeds. Only a few years ago we werebeing told that the engineering schoolswere turning out more engineers thanthe economy could find place for.Science, in schools and colleges, iscertainly in excellent competitive position with other subjects for studentinterest. One might assume that, as amatter of course, science and technology would enlist, of the increasingnumber of students, a sufficient proportion to meet all the needs — unlesssuch needs become so great that allother interests and needs must beignored or subordinated. I hope thisdoes not happen.Dr. Chase: Perhaps the most fundamental need is to improve theteaching of mathematics and sciencein our elementary and secondaryschools. At present the critical shortage of teachers in these fields constitutes the biggest stumbling block toan effective program. Temporarilythe situation may be alleviated byusing, as members of teaching teams,qualified persons in the communitywho are able to give part or full timeto teaching mathematics or sciencewith some guidance from professionally qualified teachers in adaptingtheir instruction to the needs oflearners. For a long-run solution away must be found to make theteaching of science and mathematicsin our high schools more attractiveto able young people who have majored in these fields.The universities should moveswiftly in collaboration with the highschools to improve the preparation ofthose who are now teaching scienceand mathematics. In order to facilitate this development substantial fellowships should be provided fromsome source. Systematic efforts shouldalso be made to identify those with atalent for teaching and a capacity forscience and mathematics, so that theymay be directed toward teaching careers in these fields. Programs forthe preparation of such teachersshould be a joint responsibility ofuniversity departments of mathematics or science and schools of education, so that the necessary marriageof content and method may take place.Miss Dunbar: Although emergencymeasures may be necessary temporarily, any long-term solution mustbegin in grade school, where Johnnylearns to figure. The biggest stumbling block for the future scientistor engineer is a shaky foundation inmath. And if Johnny doesn't understand and like his elementary arithmetic, he isn't going to be interested in a technological future.The know-how is available. Theproblem is getting it applied in theclassroom. In teaching math, practice lags about a generation behindtheory. In the upper grades and inhigh school, the best math classes Ihave seen used a laboratory approach,which made numbers come to life.Dr. Misner: The shortage of scientists and engineers can be met throughan enriched curriculum program atboth the elementary and secondaryschool levels. Science education hasbeen neglected quite seriously in theelementary schools. It is at this levelthat the interests of pupils in scienceand mathematics should be discovered and appropriate provisions madefor their developmentAt the secondary level conventional programs in science and mathematics should be extended and enriched to challenge the interests ofthose students who have the capacityto do creative and experimental work.A word of caution is indicated. Allstudents do not have the aptitudesnor the capacity for successfulachievement in the areas of scienceand mathematics. It would be as unwise to force scientific education uponall students as it would be to expectall of them to become skilled artistsor musicians.RE we doing right by the gifted?Do you have any suggestions onwhat can or should be done about it?Dr. White: I doubt that we are asyet providing sufficient challenge oropportunity for the "gifted"; and inthis answer I would put first emphasison the word "challenge". I wouldwant, also, to interpret "gifted" toinclude not only the "quiz kid" andthe "straight A" student. We failgrievously, I think, to arouse andnurture the intellectual interests ofstudents of less pedantic or submissive minds, who easily make "gentleman's grade" and get their degrees,but whose energies and interestsreally focus on "extra-curricular"activities. I hope that in time wayswill be found — not to make "scholars"out of these students — but to givethem a better education, with moreenduring outcome, than they nowseem to get.Dr. Chase: There is a big waste ofmanpower in our society because offailure to develop to the fullest capacities of the gifted. In a recentmonograph by Robert J. HavighurstMAY, 1956 15and others, it was suggested that agood program for gifted children:Aims to develop a variety of talents:Has a systematic program for thediscovery of a wide variety of talents;Seeks to motivate gifted childrento make use of and to develop theirtalent;Makes use of a variety of community resources in the development of talent, in addition to theschools;Uses effective methods of teaching, curriculum materials, and administrative procedures in theschools.Nearly all schools today recognizethat the established facts regardingindividual differences require different types of learning experiencesfor different groups of learners, evenwhere the goals are common goals.They recognize further that differingtalents and interests make the goalswhich are appropriate for one person inappropriate for another. Yetmost schools continue to move learners along through standardized experiences at uniform rates. We needto organize our staffs and schools sothat each child may have an opportunity for continuous developmentthrough sequential learning experiences — instead of being shoved alongon a kind of conveyor belt regardlessof his own readiness for the next experience. To provide for maximumdevelopment of the gifted it is necessary to provide both rich learningexperiences and teachers with the intellectual and scholarly qualificationsto motivate bright youngsters andhold them to their best efforts."Miss Dunbar: We will never doright by the gifted, I fear, as long aseducators hold to the outmoded theory that it's "undemocratic" to provide special classes for them. Evenwhen they are supposedly given an"enriched" program within the regular classroom, they are not sufficientlychallenged.Their time and talents are wasted.It is no wonder they frequently become bored and develop poor workhabits when they are held back witha group that is several years belowtheir achievement level.I believe schools must make moreeffort to identify their bright studentsearly; then provide special classes forthem and also permit them to accelerate.Dr. Misner: The gifted are undoubtedly the most neglected seg ment of our student population.Proper attention to the needs of thesestudents will require smaller classes,better trained teachers, and an enriched curriculum program. The proposals, that are frequently made thatthe progress of these youngsters beaccelerated and that they completeelementary and secondary school atan earlier age are unfortunate andshort-sighted solutions.Gifted students should be providedwith many and varied opportunitiesfor enriched learning experiences inthose areas of the curriculum in whichthey show unusual interest* and talent.The arts, sciences, foreign languages,mathematics, and literature are allareas in which gifted students underthe direction of skillful teachers canbe challenged effectively.O HOULD everyone have a collegeeducation? Many state schools, bylaw, must accept all who apply. Doyou think this is a good policy, orshould we set up some sort of academic requirements and restrict thenumber?Dr. White: Not "everyone" cantake a college education, if the termsare to mean anything. I think, however, that there will continue to bedemand for prolonged schooling ofsome kind for "all who apply". I havelong thought that the basic problemof American education is the reconciliation, in theory and in practice,without the sacrifice of either, of thedemocratic ideal of schooling for allwith the ideal of excellence for thosecapable of attaining it. There must,then, be differentiation, selection, andguidance of a kind that is providednow only in limited measure. Theremust not be too great rigidity andinflexibility in the selective process, orthe forcing of irrevocable choices attoo early an age, with resultant fixingof "class" distinctions. Snobbishnessand aloofness from the common lifeon the part of the "gifted" must beguarded against. And, whatever thenature of the schooling provided,thoroughness as against slovenlinessand carelessness should be emphasized. The problems here are complex and difficult. Dogmatism is outof place., There must be decades yetof thought and experimentation before any reasonably satisfactory solutions can be found. And even then no"system" will ever eliminate the "trialand error" involved in education asin human living.Dr. Chase: The demands for professional and skilled workers in oursociety now appear well nigh insa tiable. No informed person today canquestion that we need not only toprovide a high school education forall who can profit by it, but that weneed to give further encouragementto the trend for larger and largerproportions of the population to extend education through college andgraduate or professional schools. Ifthe higher institutions are to meetthe needs for educated and skilledmanpower they must improve theselection of those with whom theywill work as well as increasing thenumbers. Graduation from highschool is not sufficient assurance ofability to profit by higher education.The universities and colleges shouldassume their own proper responsibility for the selection of those whoare equipped to profit by the education experiences they provide.Miss Dunbar: Perhaps everyonewho so wishes has a right to somekind of higher education. But thisdoes not mean everyone should go tothe traditional college or university.I do not think it is a kindness to thestudent — and it is certainly an extravagance for the taxpayer — to permitany high school graduate to enroll ina state university when he has nochance for success. The number offreshmen dropped for poor scholarship from tax-supported institutionswould indicate that some standards ofadmission are needed.Possibly students who look like badrisks should be denied admission until they have demonstrated their ability in evening school courses.Dr. Misner: All students shouldnot be provided with a college oruniversity education. All studentsshould, however, have an opportunityfor at least two years of educationbeyond the conventional high school.To meet the needs of these studentsjunior or community colleges shouldbe established throughout the country in which students may enroll for aperiod of at least two years.It would seem desirable that theprograms of these junior colleges bedeveloped in cooperation with business and industry and that work-study provisions be made an integralpart of the curriculum.President Eisenhower hasrequested $250 million a year forfive years for aid in school construction. It has been suggested that nofederal aid be given to states thathave not complied with the U.S. Supreme Court's order desegregating theschools. Do you feel such a restrio-(Continued on Page 30)16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEArchie Lieberman-Black StarMrs. Roy St. Aubin, recovered from a stroke, can write the word "hand" butshe cannot say it — a typical example of a transmission defect in aphasiaNew Hope For AphasicsAt Billings' Speech Clinic, Therapists UseA Dynamic Approach to Help PatientsRegain Lost Patterns of SpeechEVERY TUESDAY afternoon forseveral weeks a woman patientarrived at the Billings Hospital SpeechClinic and sat down for a bridgegame with a friend and two therapists.The bridge game was part of herprescribed treatment. Its purpose wasto stimulate her to recall the manyordinary words in her vocabularywhich she had "forgotten" as the result of a stroke. Her hearing hasbeen unimpaired, and she is perfectlycapable of talking, but her ability tosay the names of things is now extremely limited.The woman is an aphasia victim,and the therapy she is undergoingtypifies the dynamic approach used atthe Speech Clinic in the treatment ofsuch patients.MAY, 1956 What is aphasia? How many peoplehave it? What can be done about it?are the most frequent questions askedat the Speech Clinic. Aphasia is thelanguage problem which may followany damage to the human brain whereit is thought symbols for language areformulated. It may take many forms— one person may have difficulty understanding words seen or heard,others may have trouble speaking orreading or writing. Almost any function of the reception, the integrationor the expression of language may beaffected. In some people all the language function may be destroyed — inothers only a single isolated part. Howmany people have the problem? Thisis a question no one can answer accurately. We know that about one ofevery four people who suffer strokes probably will show some kind ofaphasia. This means that each year —since it has been estimated that 600,-000 people suffer strokes yearly —about 150,000 new aphasics come intobeing. With the mounting tide ofautomobile accidents and subsequentbrain injury an increasing amount ofaphasia is created. In addition, thosepeople who have had brain tumorsremoved or other alterations in theircentral nervous system may show thedisorder. In all it has been estimatedthat at any given time somewhere between a half million and a millionpeople show some degree of the problem.Surprisingly, although neurologistshad traced patterns of brain damageand developed precise diagnostic techniques, little was done until the last17decade to retrain the victims of braindamage and bring them back to normal living. During World War II,when head injuries resulted in a greatmany cases of aphasia, a start wasmade in retraining such cases resulting from military service. Among thepioneers in this work were JosephWepman, Assistant Professor of Psychology and Surgery at Billings Hospital; John Eisenson, now at QueensCollege, N. Y.; Ollie Backus now atthe University of Alabama; and Mildred Schuell of Minneapolis.A Problem Of RecallAs a result of his war experiencewith aphasics, Wepman, who has beenconcerned with the entire problem ofspeech for some twenty years, becameparticularly interested in this phaseof speech difficulty. He is now conducting at Billings an intensivecourse of treatment and research onaphasia (as well as being interestedin other problems of speech). TheSpeech Clinic is in the Department ofEar, Nose and Throat Diseases, and isheaded by Dr. John Lindsay.At the Speech Clinic the patientwith aphasia is given a thorough diagnostic evaluation of his language deficiency. From this is developed thespecific technique pattern which isbelieved to be most suitable for him —in the light of his retained language,his personality and the milieu inwhich he lives and must recover. Itis held by Wepman that the presenceof aphasia indicates no necessary lossof intelligence, rather what seems lostis the ability to utilize for the formation of symbols the retained intelligence. The basic problem seemsinextricably related to recall — to disruption of function, not loss of ability. Archie Lieberman-Black StarPsychologist Joseph Wepman, holdingmodel of the brain in speech clinic.Wepman uses a schematic drawingto describe his theory of languagefunction in the cortex, (below, left.)He pictures the symbolic functiongoing on in "a little black box," thecontents of which are known, but theoperating procedure quite unknown.Following the pattern set down in themodel, two basic types of languagedisturbance are pictured — one resultsfrom disturbances affecting the transmission of nervous impulses — theother from defects in the integrative,symbol-forming activity. The transmission problems may occur either onthe input or the output side. For example, a patient may look at a pencil and name it but if you say the word"pencil" to him he may not understand you. Something has happenedto his ability to receive the auditorystimulus, indicating a transmissiondisruption on the input side. On theother hand, he may be able to understand the word "pencil" when he hearsit or reads it, and he may be able topoint to it and call it by name, but beunable to write the word. This wouldindicate a graphic transmission defecton the output side."The Little Black Box"Wepman cites the specific case ofa patient who suffered brain damageand a widespread aphasia which apparently was spontaneously overcome,except for a remaining inability toread. At first glance, this seemed tobe a damage to the integrating areasof the brain. Tests showed, however,that the patient was able to differentiate between symbols (crosses, triangles, etc.) when they were eightinches high but was unable to discriminate among smaller symbols.(On the present classification thiswould be called a "visual agnosia" —a transmission defect on the inputside.) Treatment began by startingwith eight-inch symbols and graduallydecreasing their size. Within threemonths the patient was able to goback to his work as a chemist, usinga magnifying glass for reading. Within six months he was able to discardthe glass and read normally.In the case of the true aphasia patient, something has gone wrong withthe symbolic process inside the "littleblack box" and he is unable to formsymbols. In such cases, probably allkinds of input and output are affectedto some degree.For example, the patient may havetrouble formulating verbal symbols —in relating specific words to specificmeanings. Wepman cites the case ofa patient who was a practicing attorney prior to his "stroke." Following the injury, he could speak, buthe could not use specific words relating directly to any visual or auditorystimulus. The perception "pencil", forinstance, did not evoke the word"pencil" even though he knew whatthe object was and how to use it. Bystimulating him through picture andword association, he redeveloped hisprevious "naming" vocabulary andwas again able to practice.Wepman's approach to the treatment of such patients is unique inthat he believes in stimulating thepatient to recall, rather than spendingtime re-teaching him a vocabulary.-CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM -ENDORGANS TRANSMISSION - INTEGRATION - TRANSMISSIONSYKAUDITORY 1BOLIC FORMULA! "IONVERBAL_3:-___Ki:.:::•r:-." :::-Mr2a9m:•(¦"•hisDOKWrW"VISUAL 'W-'-sXpW'-'- GRAPHICi| Jf$|$$|TACTUAL 1?3::4ye¥5ir™:' GESTURALRECALLAGNOSIA APHASIA APRAXIA ENDORGANSHAND. ETC.MODEL TO AID APHASIA DIAGNOSIS18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe role of the therapist, as Wepman sees it, is to stimulate the patient. Stimulation is the active therapy involved in a triad of recovery— stimulation, facilitation, and motivation. The latter two are the patient's part of the recovery process.An injured brain is only capable ofso much facilitation; that is, it canwork only to the degree that theinjury to it permits. Motivation isthe internal drive of the patient towork for his recovery.As for the motivation of the patient,this can be aroused by appealing tothe past interests of the individualrather than by using standardized material — anoher departure from theusual treatment.Wepman bases his theory of stimulation on the belief that a patient haslost use of his facilities only temporarily."When the patient recognizes thefutility of his attempts at smoothcommunication, he is instantly frustrated," explains Wepman. "It looksas though things are much worsethan they are. His self-concept isdisturbed when he cannot see himself functioning in society. You haveto help him dig out what he hastemporarily lost. The additive methodtrains the patient at the level of hispresent capacity. This doesn't do himany good, because the training iswithin his functional level. We allof us can perform on a better levelthan we do. The aphasic however hasa lag between potential and presentbehavior which is infinitely greaterbecause the best of his ability to communicate is not rewarded."A Difference in Breadth"The greatest difference in ourmethod is in the breadth of our approach," Wepman says. "We don't dealspecifically with 'Can you read thisword?' We let the patient go on tillhe finds a word he can read. We tryto stimulate him at the language level;ethers try to re-build his vocabularyby showing him so many words eachday, and having him try to memorizethem."Under Wepman's direction, therapists at the Speech Clinic continually experiment in their efforts tostimulate each patient; there is noset form to the therapy. At an earlylevel, for example, a therapist willshow the patient a set of picturesnext to a list of words, and ask thepatient to match them up. Or thetherapist may ask the patient to writeor say a word that goes with thepicture. Later on, the therapist maydictate simple sentences for the pa tient to write, such as "I wear shoeson my feet." Or a patient, still later,may be asked to make up a crosswordpuzzle. Occasionally the patient isgiven homework to do, perhaps givena picture to take home and asked towrite a story about it, or to prepare aseries of cognate words to express athought. Having the patient work athome, by himself or with his familyis an essential part of the therapywhich can be labelled as "self-help.""Patients resolve their own problems,we only guide the process" could wellbe the motto of the Speech Clinic.A Thrilling RewardOne of the kinds of real rewardboth patients and therapists get inworking with aphasics was experienced recently when one therapisthelped a patient regain her ability toplay bridge. This was seen as both anexcellent therapy technique and as areal stimulator because it fit right intothe patient's motivation pattern. Always a bridge player prior to her'stroke' she needed the social rewardsgained through card playing. Thetherapist, Mrs. Doris Van Pelt, utilizedthe bridge game as a direct approachto the patient's needs. "I would hold out the deck andhave her pull cards out and namethem," explains Mrs. Van Pelt. "Shehad difficulty naming the cards at firstbut in six weeks she could bid ahand. After several weeks of playing bridge with us in the clinic, wesent her back to her own bridgeclub."Because of the relatively great expenditure of time involved in thetreatment of aphasia, Wepman believes that some use of family members trained as therapists is of greathelp. He encourages family membersto visit the clinic, to observe how thetherapists work with the patient, sothey can then try some of thesemethods at home.Some recovery from aphasia israpid. A patient may show a greatdeal of progress within the first sixmonths. Complete therapy however isoften very slow — even successful casesmay take years of work. Wepman hastried hypnosis and drugs in the treatment of aphasics, but has abandonedboth as unsatisfactory.Wepman carries on a regular training course in speech and languagetherapy for students, most of whomare PhD candidates in psychology,human development or education.Under guidance of speech therapist Doris Van Pelt, (I.), Mrs. St. Aubintries out new test for aphasics. Wepman, who developed it, supervisesArchie Lieberman-Black StarMAY, 1956 19Archie Lieberman-Black StarWepman, (second from right, holding model), conducts training class for speech therapists at Billings HospitStudents are all PhD candidates, some will teach, others will give therapy. X-rays show patients' case histories.Wepman and his class meet around aconference table and carry on an all-afternoon seminar, during which theydiscuss the specific problems of patients as they come in for treatment.A therapist may discuss the patienthe is about to see, go off for a shorttreatment period, then return and'discuss the patient's responses withthe rest of the class.How to Teach Math?Wepman is always willing to experiment, or to allow his therapiststo try new experiments, in the interest of gaining new knowledge. Ayoung mathematics instructor fromUniversity College, Stanley Tannenbaum, came to him recently, to asksome questions about aphasics. Itseems that Tannenbaum has his owntheory about how to teach the theoryof numbers, and became intrigued atthe possibilities of experimenting withhis method on a "blank" mind — themind of someone who had lost theability to recall any of the arithmetiche had ever been taught. With thepermission of Wepman and the patient involved, he is now testing outhis theory."We feel that whatever he learnsabout teaching mathematics may teach us something about helpingaphasics," says Wepman.A New TestAbout one patient in five of thosetreated all over the country benefitsenough from therapy to return to acompletely useful life. This successfultreatment has been achieved with engineers, chemists, lawyers, and teachers 'whose work depends upon intellectual skill. Two of the three remaining patients benefit enough so that lifecan again become meaningful to them.They are able, to some degree, toresume an active, useful life. Theremaining two patients may be benefitted but do not achieve sufficientlanguage return to resume their placein society.Damage to the areas of the braininvolved in formulation of verbalsymbols extends far beyond the language process. The effect upon thetotal personality, the social and economic interaction patterns of the individual, the use made of the potentialintelligence — all may be affected. Eachphase must be considered in therapy.By a closer study of the languageprocesses lost as well as those retainedand by understanding the stages ofrecovery through which aphasics go, it is expected that some real light maybe shed on many important problems,such as the development of languagein children, as well as the relationshipbetween language and intelligence.To gain further knowledge aboutlanguage processes, Wepman, in association with Lyle Jones, acting director of the Psychometric Laboratoryof the Department of Psychology, hasset out on an extensive research project. Through this research, supportedby a grant made by the U. S. PublicHealth Services and the University, itis hoped to establish the differentialrelationship between stimulus — response mechanisms in aphasia. A testhas been devised, filmed, and is nowbeing given to some 200 aphasic patients all over the country.Down New PathsA second phase of the research hasalready established some differencesbetween aphasic types which previously had been considered as one.From this research it is hoped thatbetter defined diagnosis and therapycan be developed, more aphasicshelped, more patients rehabilitated,more known about people and howthey function, work and adjust.F.A._0 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEChicago's Attempt To EaseThe Nation's Teacher Shortage:Quality RevolutionIn Teacher TrainingONE OF THE chief problems ofAmerican education is the problem of numbers: How can enoughyoung men and women be attractedto the teaching profession? Any solution to this problem must rest, inpart, on the solution to the problemof quality: How can future elementary and high school teachers bemade into good teachers, and howcan those who are already workingin the profession be made into betterteachers?The University has attempted tosolve these problems by a series ofmajor changes in teacher training.The tone of these changes was forecast by Francis S. Chase, Chairman ofthe Department of Education, at hisinaugural dinner June 8, 1954: "Ithink that we are on the verge of akind of quality revolution in American education. Now that may seema curious thing to say in the midstof all the talk about an educationalcrisis, but I really believe that agreat forward surge to lift the quality of American education to a newhigh is long overdue, and that it isnow on the way."First of the changes was establishment of a Center for Teacher Education to coordinate various programsof teacher education. The center doesjust that: At Chicago many departments share in the education of teachers and prospective teachers; theestablishment of the center in 1954provided a brain center for all theprograms. The center brings problems and issues before the Councilon Teacher Education, advises it, andmobilizes the physical resources of theUniversity to meet the programs'needs.At the same time three membersof the Department of Education, Associate Professor Jacob W. Getzels,Associate Professor Kenneth J. Rehage, and Professor Herbert A. The len, inaugurated an intensive, one-year pilot course in elementary schoolteacher training. They hoped to determine what experience and knowledge would be most valuable to prospective teachers.Their course probably would havepleased John Dewey, who founded theUniversity's Department of Educationin 1896. The pilot group consisted ofeleven women, all with bachelor's degrees. They began their training withdirect experience by observing elementary classes in the University'sLaboratory School, also founded byDewey. In the following weeks theirexperience in the complex teacher-pupil-subject matter relationship wasmixed with discussion of what theyhad done.Between viewing films on variousaspects of the elementary school program, the group discussed the purposes of teaching. They interspersedinterviews and tests with children byattempting to define child development. They selected their own programs of reading. And they themselves began to accept the career roleof a teacher.While the pilot group was learningto teach, Professors Getzels, Rehage,and Thelen were learning more abouttraining teachers. They studied theparticipants' knowledge of and attitude toward classroom learning andchild development, their interactionsas a group, and their self-knowledge.Their early direct experience withclassrooms and teaching proved itsvalue. Getzels observed, "The firsttime they went into a kindergartenclass, the questions they raised wereprojections of their own feelings. Oneof them watched a child dancing infront of his fellows and asked, Isn'the embarrassed to be doing this sincehe is doing it so awkwardly?' eventhough the child was obviously enjoy ?-ing himself, and probably would have felt hurt if he had not been askedto dance."The optional reading also proved asuccess. "I would guess that thesepeople read as much meaningfully asthey would have done in a course ofstudy centered around reading,"Getzels stated.This year the Department of; Education again offered an integratedprogram of preparation for elementary-school teaching. Twelve; students are making inquiry into thefactors which: influence teaching byconstant appraisal of their directclassroom experience and their reading. All of them hold bachelor's ', degrees: some have the old style; Chicago degree, arid are working towardthe new and Illinois teacher certification at the same time. Next yearthe program will be open to stlideritsin the final year of a four year college program.There has been talk of a similarintegrated program for high- schoolteacher training. At present, \ prospective high-school teachers takespecialized studies in the departrhentor division offering courses in tneirteaching subjects. They take professional courses along with specializedstudies. In an integrated program,mastery of content would still be ofprimary importance. The possibilityof such a program has been discussedonce by the council, and will be discussed again.The University has made its boldest changes in education for thosealready engaged in teaching. One ofthe changes was stated by Robert L.McCaul, Assistant Director of theCenter for Teacher Education: "TheUniversity of Chicago appreciates thefinancial problem that faces a teacherwho is genuinely interested in hisfield and eager to take courses whichwill improve his professional competence. The University, therefore, of-MAY, 1956 21fers a half-tuition rate to teachers."Not eligible for the half tuition rateare nursery -school teachers, administrative officers not teaching, collegeteachers, and teachers from foreigncountries. Students who are admittedto prepare for elementary-schoolteaching in the Department of Education and who hold a bachelor's degreeare eligible for the special rate for amaximum of nine courses beyond theBachelor's degree.Another part of education for teachers that the University has undertaken is the annual summer sessionof conferences, workshops, specialprograms and special courses. Offeredto teachers at half-tuition rates, thesession helps solve both quantitativeand qualitative problems of education.This year they will include a workshop in reading (July 2-27), the nineteenth annual conference on reading(June 26-29), and a workshop in language arts (July 30-August 17), inaddition to a seminar on implicationsof social change for the schools (June25-July 27), open to all teachers.The most interesting summer program will probably be the fourthschool and college program for teachers (June 25-July 27). Begun in 1953by McCaul, Dean of Students in theCollege John P. Netherton, and Assistant Dean Margaret E. Perry witha grant from the Fund for the Advancement of Education, the program continues financed by the University. It is sponsored jointly by theCenter for Teacher Education, theCollege, and the Chicago publicschools. Approximately ninety students from the eleventh and twelfthgrades of Chicago schools will takedemonstration courses in Englishcomposition, and in aspects of mathematical reasoning this summer. Theywill have volunteered for the courses,and will be subject to the scrutiny ofall participating teachers. Besidesteaching teachers to teach and addingto the education of some Chicagohigh-school students, the „ programhelps improve relations between theUniversity and the Chicago publicschool system.In a number , of other ways, theUniversity has strengthened its pedagogical relations to its community.Superintendent of Schools BenjaminC. Willis will be teaching a courseon the administration of city schoolsystems this summer, after teachinga similar course last year. The University's adult education program hasbeen expanded at University Collegein the Loop. And the center's widerepresentation of educators and administrators has been active in publicrelations throughout the midwest.A sample of the current public relations in teacher training is a green-covered brochure recently releasedcalled, "To Become a Good Teacher."It describes the opportunities in train ing and career open to prospectiveteachers at the University. And itnotes the increased utilization of theLaboratory School through a numberof teaching assistantships in the kindergarten and elementary grades ofthe school, open to qualified graduates of liberal arts colleges.Current public relations help theUniversity attract more young menand women to the teaching profession,but the University has not stoppedimproving the quality of the trainingthese young people will receive. Theexperimental nature of the integratedcourse in elementary-school trainingis apparent, and the programs forhigh-school teacher training and forthose already in the profession willcontinue to change.The most recent attempt to improve teacher training is indirect; agroup of friends of the late WilliamC. Reavis hope to establish the William Claude Reavis Professorship inEducational Administration at theUniversity. They are now acceptingcontributions for the memorial forProfessor Reavis, faculty memberfrom 1921 to 1947. Their statement ofProfessor Reavis' belief is probablyapplicable to the view of the entireDepartment of Education: "a University should co-operate in everyway possible in finding valid solutionsto significant educational problems."P.W.P.Mrs. Sue Oxley, a teacher trainee, takes over the fourth grade at the Lab School under the guidance of regularteacher Robert D. Boyd, (r. rear). Bobby Factor explains the workings of an anemometer in discussion of weatherStephen Lewellyn22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENews Of The QuadranglesARTS FESTIVALPLANS COMPLETEPLANS for the second annual Festival of the Arts (page 16 of theApril magazine) are now in their finalform. Several events reported as tentative in April now are definite.Others have been added to the program.On Wednesday, April 25, first day ofthe Festival, a ballet-play will be performed at 8:30 p.m. in Leon MandelHall, the same time University Theatre will begin their five night run ofStrindberg's The Ghost Sonata.On Thursday the faculty will engagethe students in a Softball game, at2:30 p.m. on the field behind Burton-Judson courts. Additions to Friday'sevents include Jazz in Mandel by theJazz Club; The Florence JamesAdams Poetry Reading Contest; TheMadrigal Singers; Miss Julie, a Swedish film adapted from Strindberg'splay, shown by the Documentary FilmSociety; and a Folklore Society WingDing.On Saturday an aquatic exhibition;an auto show; a varsity baseballgame; a varsity tennis meet; and achoral recital by the Apollonian Society have been scheduled with eventsleading up to the Beaux Arts Masquerade Ball.And on Sunday, April 29, last dayof the Festival, the Musical Societywill perform works composed bymembers of the University, at 8:30p.m. in Ida Noyes Hall.Salute For Academic FreedomThe University has been saluted forstanding by academic freedom whilethe recent wave of government investigations questioned the loyalty ofU. S. college faculties.Chicago was among six educationalinstitutions praised recently in a report by the American Association ofUniversity Professors.For upholding the rights of facultymembers, the report commended Chicago, Cornell, Harvard, Johns Hop kins, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Sarah Lawrence.It recommended that five collegesand universities be placed on theassociation's "list of censured administrations." The recommendation followed review of cases where facultymembers were dismissed on chargesinvolving subversive activity.Although the 107-page report doesnot name names, the case for whichthe University is praised is undoubtedly that of Val R. Lorwin, AssistantProfessor of Industrial Relations.Cleared earlier by the State Department of charges that he was oncea Communist, Lorwin was indicted inDecember, 1953, by the federal government and charged with perjuryduring his earlier hearing. The casewas dismissed by U. S. District Courtin Washington and Lorwin was completely vindicated.Meanwhile, the University had kepthim on the payroll, while giving hima leave to prepare his defense.Ann LandersAnn Landers, witty "advice to thelove-lorn" columnist for the ChicagoSun-Times, revealed her methods andidentity to a crowd of Burton-Judsonresidents and their friends April 4,as the guest of Vincent House.Of her sharp, unambiguous advice("Pre-marital relations are one kindof familiarity that breeds contempt,and sometimes just plain breeds") shesaid that she is more interested inhelping people than in being entertaining, although she strives for thelatter too.Her real name is Mrs. Jules Led-erer. She is in her late thirties, looksmuch younger, and feels qualified forher job more because of her commonsense than her three and a half yearsof college, (majoring in psychology).Mrs. Landers opined that collegestudents are no worse than they everwere. "The younger generation is not going to hell in a hand-basket,"she told her BJ audience.Extend Radio ProgramsThe University of Chicago Choir,directed by Richard Vikstrom, can beheard on three additional radio stations, WKAR, AM and FM, of EastLansing, Mich., and KXA in Seattle,Wash, which recently joined the sixteen other stations regularly broadcasting "The Sacred Note."This distinctive new idea in cross -denominational religious radio isproduced each week by NorbertHruby of the University's Development Office and is heard in Chicagoon WBBM. After the first broadcastat 10: 15 P. M. on Saturday, programsof "The Sacred Note" are sent to anetwork of educational and commercial stations that includes two suburban stations, eight stations in Wisconsin, and other outlets heard inIllinois, Indiana, and Michigan.The great sacred music heard onthis program is drawn largely fromthe repertory of the University Choir.The past 20 programs offered a widerange of motets and anthems, including significant work by Byrl, Bach,Palestrina, Thomas Victoria; andHenry Purcell. The Choir has sungrecent compositions by RalphVaughan Williams and choral selections from the work of Handel andMendelssohn. Recent and traditionalJewish music is contributed by theTemple Isaiah Israel choral group,directed by Andrew Foldi, and theBoston Madrigal Society, directed byHerbert Fromm. Byzantine music ofunusual interest is supplied by thechoir of the St. Constantine GreekOrthodox church, directed by GeorgeDimopoulos.These selections are heard with remarkable clarity and brilliancethrough high-fidelity recordings madeeach week at the Chapel by StanleyW. Salter. Others who assist with theMAY, 1956 23program are Dr. Heinrich Fleischer,organist; Dean John B. Thompson,theological consultant; Edward Rosenheim, narrator; and Burton Moore,writer.To Expand Lab SchoolsThe University will undertake a$3,700,000 program for major development and expansion of the LaboratorySchools.The Chicago architectural firm ofPerkins and Will, specialists in schooldesign, has been retained to drawplans for the development. EeroSaarinen and Associates, generalarchitectural consultants to the University, also will participate in thedesign.The first stage of the program, requiring $700,000, will be put in effectbeginning this year, after workingdrawings for extensive adaptation ofpresent buildings are completed.Particular emphasis in the expansion will be put on the four-year highschool, but the lower school fromkindergarten through the seventhgrade also will be enlarged.The enlarged schools will serve thegrowing needs of the University community and as a means of resolvingproblems of secondary educationwhich have become increasinglyurgent in the teaching of mathematics,science, and English, ChancellorKimpton said in making the announcement."In part, we have been encouragedto add the Laboratory Schools to ourplan of general University development because of the progress whichis being made in our immediate area,"Mr. Kimpton said."The redevelopment program underthe Land Clearance Commission ismoving toward the construction stage.We want to be prepared to take careof the school demand this reconstruction will produce."A University high school with athousand students will take part ofthe pressure off the city schools. Also,I believe a case can be made for aprivate school of quality, for thoseparents and children who want acurriculum that is designed to insurea sound preparation for college study."The interest in such a school isnot limited to our own Universityfamilies, or to the general neighborhood. We have been unable to meetvarious requests for special arrangements to accommodate students fromresidence areas of Chicago and thesouthern suburbs. With a biggerschool, we can accept these groups, toour own and their advantage."Benefits of the bigger schools to the community are considerable, but secondary to the basic educational interest of the University- in improvinghigh school education, Kimpton said."The University of Chicago had anotable tradition in pre-collegiateeducation under such men as Col.Francis Parker, John Dewey, andCharles H., Judd, whose work was ofexceptional value and influence."We have tended to slight this areain more recent times, but with thegravity of the problems, particularlyat the secondary level, it becomes theresponsibility of this and all universities to renew their interest in aneffective way."The great threat to American education today is posed not by numbersof students as such, but in the deterioration of the quality of learning.This is the latest crisis in a long seriesthe country has met successfully inproviding universal education."We think the resources of the University in the department of education and the particular fields of specialknowledge can help in providing theanswers. The new approach we havedeveloped in the teaching of mathematics in our College, for example,proves that the means for betterteaching and greater knowledge canbe provided."The immediate increase in the University high school this autumn willbe limited to approximately 125 additional students because provision ofnew facilities must await the completion of the architectural studies. Remodelling and alteration of Blaineand Belfield halls, two of the Laboratory School buildings, is beingplanned to fit into the broad overallarchitectural plan now being developed.Honor Retiring ProfessorsErnst W. Puttkammer and KennethC. Sears, Professors of Law who willretire this year, were honored by thefaculty of the Law School at a dinnerMarch 6 at the Quadrangle Club.Both Puttkammer and Sears willretire effective September 30, 1956,having achieved the University's compulsory retirement age of sixty-five.Alumni and friends of the lawschool attended the dinner.Puttkammer, a member of the LawSchool faculty since 1920, is a specialist in the field of criminal law andhas made important contributions toimprovement of police procedures. Hehas been a director of the ChicagoCrime Commission and chairman ofits committee on police, sheriff andcoroner, and a member of the Citizens' Police Committee. He is the author of "A Manual of CriminalProcedure for Police" and "Administration of Criminal Law."Sears, an expert on public law, hasbeen a member of the law facultysince 1926. He is author of "Cases andMaterials on Administrative Law" andof many articles in legal journals. Hewas a member of the Illinois CodeCommission from 1938-41.Dead Sea ScrollsThe Pharisees of the Bible have areputation for legalism and self -righteousness, but they were the liberalsof their day — "rather like the NewDeal Democrats," — New Testamentspecialist Ralph Marcus, Professor ofClassical Languages and Literature,told Chicago alumni at their luncheonmeeting last month. In the ancientJewish state, he explained, the Pharisees were a political and religious majority party, representing small farmers and workmen.Professor Marcus, who teaches bothin the Divinity School and the Oriental Institute, cited the Pharisees as oneof the Jewish groups who had a stronginfluence on Christianity. The optimism and concern for humanity foundin the three Gospels describing thelife of Christ stems from the Pharisaictradition, he said.The other major influence he citedwas that of the Essenes, an ascetic,other-worldly Jewish sect whosepessimistic view of the world has apresent-day counterpart in Existentialism. In the Bible, their Messianicbeliefs are reflected in writings likethe mystic Gospel of John and theBook of Revelations.Although they are less well-knownthan the Pharisees, there has beenwidespread interest in the Essenessince the discovery a few years agoof the famous Dead Sea Scrolls. Someof them were probably written bymembers of this ancient sect, theBible scholar said. The Scrolls themselves were found not far from theruins of the chief Essene religiouscenter, and one of the texts is a"Manual of Discipline" for their community, which may have been a forerunner of Christian monastic orders.Another Scroll contains psalms orhymns in which the believers referto themselves as the "New Covenant"— a phrase used by many Christiangroups even today to refer to the NewTestament. Testament, in the Bible,Professor Marcus noted, comes froma Greek word that can mean either awill, in the modern sense, or a covenant or contract.A third scroll is a commentary onthe Book of Habbakuk, in which the24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcommentator uses the ancient storyof the Babylonian invasion to referto events of his own time — about thefirst century before Christ. Thefourth scroll attributed to the Essenesis the curious "War of the Sons ofLight and the Sons of Darkness", ahandbook of military strategy whichuses some details of Hellenistic warfare, but seems to be a description ofsome final, apocalyptic struggle ratherthan any real battle.In addition to these, scholars havedeciphered two other important scrollswhich are texts of the Book of Isaiah.They are probably a thousand yearsolder than oldest hitherto known Hebrew manuscripts, on which most versions of this part of the Bible arebased, and they agree with the latermanuscripts except for some details.The whole group of scrolls has beendated by radio-active carbon tests asmaterial written within two centuriesbefore or after the death of Christ,and historical and archaeological evidence indicates that they were hidden, probably by the Essenes themselves, about 70 A.D. when theRomans burned the Temple in Jerusalem.Unlike the majority in ancientJudaism, which was "strongly monotheistic and optimistic," ProfessorMarcus said, the Essenes believed in adualism of good and evil, despairedof the world they knew, and triedto create a more ideal world inside thewalls of their own monastic community.The Pharisees tried to suppressthem, and the Romans probably wipedout their religious center, but theirway of life. and beliefs have been preserved in what is probably the mostancient collection of Biblical religiousmanuscripts ever found.High School TestsToday's high school graduates arebetter educated than the graduates of a dozen years ago, a nationwide series of tests administered bythe University shows. At the sametime, the variations in educationalachievement from state to state are sogreat that students in many areas arebeing short-changed educationally.The results come from new teststandards for educational achievementdesigned by Benjamin S. Bloom, Professor of Education and Examiner forthe University.These tests, developed under contract for the Office of Armed ForcesInformation and Education of the U.S.Department of Defense are described in an article by Bloom in the currentissue of the School Review.The tests were divided into fivemain sections, English, Social Studies,Natural Sciences, Literary Materials,and Mathematics. The most improvement between 1943 and 1955 was notedin mathematics, the least in socialstudies. In 1955, the average seniortested in mathematics did better thanfifty -eight per cent of the seniorstested in 1943. In social studies, theaverage senior of 1955 did better thanfifty -two per cent of those tested in1943. The scale has shifted on theaverage upwards by above five pointsout of one hundred.The new tests were given to some39,000 high school seniors in their lasttwo months of school. This is a statistically arrived at sample of five percent of the nation's high school students. More than 814 high schools inevery state participated. The testswere not given to evening, vocational,two-year, or Negro high schools.The tests are intended to provide anew set of standards to replace thosedeveloped in 1943 in the Test of General Educational Development of theArmed Forces Institute, also developed at the University. These GEDtests had been satisfactorily givento several million persons, particularlyto appraise the educational abilities ofchose who had not achieved formalhigh school graduation. The GEDtests are also widely used by variousstates to grant the equivalent of highschool diplomas to those who scoredabove set levels.The need to replace these older testscame because it was suspected thatthe older standards were somewhattoo low.The differences between the stateswere extremely marked. While allstudents had been exposed to twelveyears of formal education, eighty percent of the students in the best stateranked better than the average student in the worst. This provides anindex of the effectiveness of eachstate's educational system.In English, for example, if studentswere admitted to college only if theyranked in the upper half of the national score, sixty-five per cent of students in the best state would be admitted, and only thirty-three per centof the students in the worst.If the bottom thirty per cent of thestudents in English, based on nationalaverages, were to be failed, onlyeighteen per cent of the students inthe best state would fail to pass, whileforty-three per cent of the students inthe worst state would be failed.In* the ability to interpret literarymaterials, about eighty per cent of the students in the best state made betterscores than the average student in theworst.The states ranked lowest in the testsare on the whole those which spendless than $200 per pupil on education.All eleven of the states at the bottomof the rankings spent less than thisfigure.About one quarter of the highschool graduates on a national average go on to college. In the top thirdof the states on the tests, eighty -eightper cent had more than the nationalaverage. In the bottom third of thestates, only nineteen per cent had thenational average of students going onto college.The educational differences revealed by the tests also show relationships with Selective Service rejections based on the Armed ForcesQualification tests. These rejectionsvary from one to fifty-six per cent ofall the men registered for the draft,and average nationally some 16.4 percent.Of the twelve lowest states according to Bloom's ratings, only one hadless than the national average of draftrejections. This means that states withthe least effective educational systemsare providing less than their proportionate share of men for the armedforces.The states ranked at the bottom ofthe scale also tended to have morepeople moving out of them than moving in, which indicates lessened opportunities for the citizens of the state.Citizens in the states ranked low alsotended to vote less in presidentialelections, spend less money on libraries, and possess populations thatspend fewer years in school attendance.The social consequences of thesevariations between the states aredamaging to pupils in the states whichranked low. Such graduates are hampered in obtaining admission to topranking colleges and universities.If they do enter a college or university, these graduates may requireremedial work on the part of the college or university. Such graduates arealso handicapped in their competitionfor jobs if they must compete withstudents from states with better educational systems. They are also handicapped socially and in their culturalopportunities.The identity and rankings of individual states are not revealed in thesefindings, because the main purpose ofthe tests was to establish standardsof educational achievement, ratherthan survey the educational differences between the states.MAY, 1956 25Dyer-Bennet To SingRichard Dyer-Bennet will presenttwo programs of the world's greattraditional songs in Mandel Hall onMay 25 and 26 at 8:30 P.M.Dyer-Bennet's only appearance inChicago this season is under the auspices of the Nursery School ParentsAssociation. Proceeds will be usedfor scholarships and special equipment for the school. Tickets are $1.25and $1.50, and may be ordered bywriting Box 2, Faculty Exchange,University of Chicago.New Coach's ViewsWalter L. Haas, making his secondtrip to the campus since his appoint ment as athletic director effective July1, said he wanted to spend considerable time becoming acquainted withthe University's athletic system beforeplanning any changes in it.Haas will replace T. Nelson Metcalf, athletic director since 1933, whohas reached compulsory retirementage."I'm very impressed with it (theathletic system) myself," he said April6. He added that it was more extensive than he had realized while heading athletics at Carleton College,Northfield, Minnesota, the position hewill leave July 1.Would he like to see the Universityjoin an athletic conference? "I haveno definite plans. At Carleton theMidwest Conference simplified things a lot. It made them much easier tocontrol. In general, a conference isgood for a school."Will the football class be continued?"As far as I know, the football classwill be continued next year."Will he do any coaching? "If theUniversity faculty and administrationever see fit to start football again, I'dlove to coach it. . . . This will be thefirst time in thirty-two years that Ihaven't played or coached football."Haas said that a large percentageof Carleton football players went intoprofessional work. He strove for fullparticipation there, ruling that no student could compete for more than oneteam at a time. "Sixty-nine per centof the male students won varsity letters," he said.How You Can Help Reduce the Teacher ShortageA message to college alumnae from Mrs. Alice K. Leopold,Assistant to the Secretary of Labor for Women's AffairsALL of you have read and heard. so much about the nationalteacher shortage that you may feelyou want to hear no more unless youcan do something about it. I shouldlike to outline briefly what you, as acollege graduate, can do by participating in an action program recommended by the Committee on NewTeachers for the Nation's Classrooms.The program resulted from a jointconference of educators and citizenscalled by the Office of Education andthe ^omen's Bureau of the Department of Labor a year ago.The idea is simple: to recruit andgive special intensive training forteaching to college graduates, possibly including you, if you are personally qualified for teaching, if youlive in a community where there is ashortage or will be one, and if youare available for employment, perhapsbecause your own children are inschool.Yet for this program to succeed,community action will be needed inthe many localities where there is ashortage. Action will be required:1. On the part of the local schoolauthorities, to estimate the size andnature of the local shortage now andfor the next few years and to assessthe supply of qualified teachers thatwill be available from the usual sources — the young men and womengraduating from teachers colleges andschools of education. We know thatthis supply will not be adequate inmost communities because our newyoung teachers for the next five yearsmust be drawn from those who wereborn some 18 to 23 years ago whenthe birthrate was very low. The children needing teachers, on the otherhand, have been born since WorldWar II, during a period of high birthrate. Do you know what the outlookfor your community is? How manychildren will need teaching? Howmany teachers from the usual sourceswill be available to teach them?2. On the part of local teachertraining institutions to work out intensive training programs that prepare you and your fellow collegealumnae for the standard State certificate for teaching by completingstudy and supervised teaching requirements. Do you know if anythingis being done along these lines inyour community, as it is being done,for instance, in Detroit, San Diegoand a number of communities in Connecticut?3. On the part of college graduatesnot now working but available forwork. Have you checked to see if teachers are needed locally? To learnwhat teaching today is like? To seeif you have the basic qualificationsfor making a successful teacher andif you can complete the training forteaching on a standard certificate?4. On the part of teachers alreadyat work, whose only hope to relievethe increased pressure on them is tohelp recruit and train other collegewomen who would make successfulteachers. Those of you who are teachers can inform others about yourwork, and offer to take on supervisory responsibilities in training newteachers in cooperation with localschool authorities and teacher training institutions.If you want to know more aboutthe idea and the program, I shall beglad to send you a leaflet entitled"New Teachers for the Nation's Children." It was published by the Women's Bureau of the Department ofLabor (Washington 25, D.C.) in cooperation with the Office of Education.Meanwhile, if you find your community does have a successful program along these lines, let us know.We should like to share the information with other women college graduates interested in doing their shareto relieve the teacher shortage, oneof the critical hazards to our Nation'sfuture.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA FAMILIAR FACE RETURNSThe Family Photograph Album Cap And GownBy Mary Joan SpiegelONE OF THE oldest and neweststudent activities on campus isCap and Gown, the annual yearbook.Cap and Gown disappeared fromcampus during the war years, and didnot return until 1953 after a ten-yearlapse. Actually the yearbook's returncame about indirectly because of theresignation of Robert Maynard Hutchins as chancellor. The end of histwenty years in this post brought anend to an era. Students responded bypublishing Echo-Midway as a tributeto the era and the man. It also contained a journal of events of 1951. Thesuccess of this digest prompted 1953's yearbook revival under its originalname, Cap and Gown.This Cap and Gown was warmly received despite difficulties aroused bythe new appearance of an "annual."Graduates were leery of being photographed, would-be advertisers preferred to wait until the yearbook wasbefore their eyes, and cynical students believed it never would appear.The book, however, did appear. Layout was radical and gadgety, but thebook did offer a post-war history ofthe University. The overworked staffproduced a faithful account of studentactivities, the changes in The Col lege, and another year at the "University of Utopia." Cap and Gownwas back on the Quadrangles.The 1954 Cap and Gown progressed,layout improved, content was broadened, typography and picture reproductions were polished up and graduates were more willing to bephotographed. Unfortunately, the staffhad started late, and the book sufferedfrom shortage of time. Sales had agigantic setback. Because of printingdifficulties, the book was not published until June. This fretted students, lowered sales and made advertisers dubious once more.Cap And Gown '56 staff members in their new Ida Noyes office. They are, (left to right), Brad Burnett, Ken Nordine,Pete Langrock, Editor Mary Joan Spiegel, Bob Dalton and Gil Dahlberg. Stephen LewellynMAY, 1956 27Gala University ShowMay 4 In Opera HouseWith all this behind it, the 1955Cap and Gown sold out. The photographic quality of the book had greatly improved in its return to the use ofengravings, instead of the offset process. Contributing greatly to its saleswas an article by editor Paul Hoffmanon the changes wrought on campus bythe Kimpton administration. Therewere mixed reactions to Hoffman'sessay, and it became one of the mostcontroversial pieces of literature oncampus last year.The 1956 yearbook staff set out withfour objectives: We hoped to presenta wider coverage of campus, improvethe quality of writing, improve photography and solve the never-endingproblem of not enough money.As the deadline approaches, wethink we have managed to meet thefirst three problems, to some degree.We're still feverishly trying to find asolution to problems of time and finance. Like all student organizations,Cap and Gown's growing pains seembigger than its growth.This year finds the Cap and Goiynwith a campus in casual anticipationand overwhelming financial problemsabove all others. Although the number of individual student photographshas surpassed all previous years, advertising seems impossible to acquire.No further financial aid can be expected from the already over-taxedDean of Students office. And if a proposed Student Activities fee is notpassed by Student Government, the1957 book will have to economizedrastically on the number of pictures and pages. Difficulties of thiskind were not apparent in the pre-World War -II years of Cap and Gown.The main core of the staff consistedof the editor-in-chief, a business manager and a student publisher. Costsof producing the book were muchlower at this time, and the yearbookeven succeeded in making a sizeableprofit at times.Yearbook personnel was more orless stable at this period also, due tothe fact that the staff consisted for along time of an executive board composed of members of the junior classand the Iron Mask Honor Society.But after much "ado" and debatingthe yearbook was handed back to thesenior class which made it a tradition.Recent staffs have been composed ofa mixture of undergraduates andgraduates.Cap and Gown is traditionally thefamily photograph album of the University. It is a memory book — ofnames, faces, events. But it servesmore than this memorial function oftraditional yearbooks. T^he 1956 Capand Gown attempts to highlight those CAMPAIGN NEWSSTUDENTS and faculty will takeover the stage of the Civic OperaHouse on May 4 to present a specialproduction, "Your University Today,"for Chicago area alumni.Invitations have gone out to 22,000alumni in the city and suburbs.Campus activities will be portrayedin a series of sketches. Included onthe program will be a College classin Humanities, sports activities, anexperiment in biological research anda film of newsreel clippings depictingMidway life back to 1904.Other items include film coverageof the 1956 Washington Prom, theBeta Theta Pi 1955 Inter-fraternitySing Winners, and a film on howweather is made. A demonstration ofinstruction in Chinese, a dramatization of America's changing social fabric, (to be narrated by W. LloydWarner, Professor of Anthropologyand Sociology), and a ' Chicago Style"debate will also be presented.Among those participating in theprogram will be Chancellor Kimpton, Professor Herrlee G. Creel,Chairman of the Department of Oriental Languages and Literature andof the Committee on Far EasternCivilizations; and Associate Professorof Meteorology Roscoe R. Braham,Jr. (In the event your invitation hasnot reached you, you may obtain aticket by calling Andover 3-5022, orby writing to the University of Chicago Development Office, 8 SouthDearborn Street. Admission is free,but by invitation only.)events which set apart this year fromall others. The theme of the book isthe newly proposed neighborhood redevelopment program, and the $32million campaign. These developmentsare carefully scrutinized and evaluated. In its present campaign theUniversity is striving to "make thefuture as great as the past"; in the1956 yearbook we attempt to showhow this is to be accomplished. Theevents included in this volume alsoportray University life as it is today,and what may be expected to followfrom them in future years. Appeal to CitizensAn unusual phase of the Campaignwas launched April 9 at a specialmeeting of the Citizens' Committee inthe Assembly Hall of Chicago's newest skyscraper, the Prudential Building.The Citizens' Committee, headed byEdwin A. Locke, Jr., president ofUnion Tank Car Co., hopes to enlistthe support and participation of somesix thousand leading citizens in theaffairs of the University and its Campaign. Attending the meeting weremany prominent Chicagoans, whomLocke and his six vice-chairmen haveenlisted as volunteers to work on thisphase of the campaign. Many of thesevolunteers have no formal connectionwith the University. They will present the University's case for financialsupport to the six thousand prospects.At the meeting, Chancellor Kimpton; Trustee Board Chairman EdwardL. Ryerson; Trustee Robert E. Wilson,chairman of Standard Oil Co. of Indiana; Charles W. D. Hanson, westernmanager for LIFE magazine; andLocke presented the University'splans.Over The TopMore than three hundred cities andtowns have been organized for theCampaign with chairmen and committees functioning. As some of thelate arrivals get aboard, their early -bird counterparts elsewhere are turning in "one hundred percent of quota"reports. This kind of good news arrives in nearly every mail, so by thetime you read this we may be farbehind the record, but among thealumni chairmen with full quotas attime of writing were: John Masek,'23, Orlando- Winter Park, Fla.;George C. Hoffmann, '25, Springfield,111.; Dr. Isee Connell, '30, Jacksonville, Fla.; Dr. George W. Koivun,'38, Moline, 111.; John H. Kliwer, '50,Kansas City, Kan.; Gerald H. West-by, '20, Tulsa, Okla.; Henry C. Shull,'14, Sioux City, la.; Mrs. Helen C.Marquis, '25, Sterling, 111.; Dr. William B. Reynolds, '36, Bartlesville,Okla.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfettersSome MisunderstandingsIn reading the April issue of myU. of C. magazine, I was quite impressed by the article "Toward Understanding Nature." The material onfuel from algae, however, had someserious misconceptions. Because thesemisconceptions are so commonly current, I thought they deserved correction.For instance the writer of thearticle — though I hope not ProfessorMeier — seems to equate the reservesof coal and oil as equal. This, ofcourse, is totally untrue. In 1953 theU.S. Bureau of Mines estimated thatthere were in the U.S. 1.9 trillion tonsof coal reserves. Approximately 50%of this is recoverable, or about 1900times the bituminous coal productionof 1955. Approximately one quarterof this reserve is recoverable at ornear present recovery costs; or, inother words, there is a minimum ofapproximately 480 years of cheap reserves of coal. In addition to this thereare many hundreds of years of coalthat may be recovered at costs beyondthose of the present day. On the otherhand the U.S. Geological Survey for1950 puts petroleum reserves at only34 times the yearly average consumption for the decade of 1940-50, andnatural gas reserves at only 59 timesthe average annual, production for thesame decade. (Authoritative sourcestoday place these reserves substantially lower.) As you can see, thereare far vaster reserves of coal thanof either oil or natural gas, and certainly no one with the facts can sayseriously that the exploitation of bothcoal and oil will reach their peaks infrom thirty to eighty yearsYou — and also Professor Meier —might also be interested to know thatoil is economically recoverable fromcoal. Much of the vast war machineof Hitler was run upon oil that wasrecovered from coal, and various experiments in America have producedoil from coal at somewhat higherprices than oil now brings on the openmarket. In the forefront of these experimenters are the U.S. Bureau ofMines, Pittsburgh Consolidation CoalCorp. and Koppers Co. Because suchrecovery of oil from coal is not competitive with present oil prices, littlehas been done to produce this oil invast quantities. The potentiality is,however, there, and such oil would be produced at a far, far lower pricethan that envisioned as the minimumcost of fuel from algae. Again, then,no one with the facts can hold seriously that "the need for additionalliquid fuel is expected to becomeserious," at least not so serious inthe next thousand years as to requiresuch uneconomical fuel as oil fromalgae.This is not to say that ProfessorMeier's research is not of worth anddoes not deserve support. I am sureit does. It is doubtful, however, ifits justification should be made by thefalse assertion of a serious shortageof fuel in the near future.I might add that I feel the U. of C.magazine is one of the best — if notthe best — alumni publications beingprinted. I get a great deal of pleasure•and profit from it. Especially, in thelast issue, I enjoyed the report on"Shoestring Literature."Sincerely,Dr. James F. Light, AB '45, AM '47,Assistant Educational DirectorNational Coal AssociationWashington 5, D.C.I am particularly interested thistime in your article "Toward Understanding Nature", where you say:"Scientific research at the Universityfollows distinct paths. (What paths?)In laboratories on Ellis Avenue andthe main quadrangle, Chicago scientists inquire into subjects as diverseas the measurement of cosmic rays,the musical capacity of cats, and thefuel potential of algae." etc.My reaction to this statement isone of futility in that we are not yetmeasuring the electrical potential inminds, but must focus rather on themusical capacity of cats.Surely, such a gadget as the liedetector amply demonstrates thatthere is an electrical potential inminds. Moreover, can we doubt theimportance in this item, since mindscan now break up atoms and toss thepieces to the winds; and if we do notwatch out, we are actually in dangerof destroying ourselves with the electrical force in minds, while we dallyaround studying cats..My own sense of futility is heightened by a belief that we could studythis electrical potential in minds witha perfectly valid scientific means ifwe would only work over and brushup a method already offered to us bythe philosopher Georg Hegel. Unfortunately, Hegel's method included aseries of assumptions which he neverbothered to justify, but I myself amnot at all sure that the justificationcannot be produced. Among these assumptions, there were the following: 1) He assumed a "substantive"mind, and we now know that the''substance" is electrical in character.2) He assumed a basic two directionsfor thinking, namely to the "left" andto the "right" which happen to bethe same as the Confucian "yin" versus "yang' . 3) He (Hegel) assumedthat "distance" for thinking could bemeasured by counting ideas on apolling basis within a legislaturewhich could serve as a sampling forthe society from which the legislaturewas elected. 4) He assumed that thevarying forcefulness of various people could be ignored so that the voteof one person per subject could beused as a unit for measurement. And5) He assumed that the "total" mentalforce for any group could be measured by adding the voting on a limited sample of issues of major interestto the group.Making use of this measurementmethod, brought up to date with modern polling theory, I am myself quitesure that we can demonstrate forsocial forces an identical interactionand relativity to the interaction andrelativity that we have measured forphysical forces. If so, it may now bepossible to check some of our physical theory with social measurements.But no, we must fiddle with cats!Sincerely,Merlin M. Paine, SB '161760 W. LewisSan Diego 3, Calif.No Final WordWho has said the final word on theelusive entity called religion whichhundreds of philosophers and theologians have tried to define?Granted — Professor Kermit Ebyhasn't exhausted its meaning whenhe stresses "social concern". But hehas revived the Judeo- Christian prophetic temper. The forthright Amos,I recall, says some uncomplimentarythings about the ceremonialism of hisday. From its beginning the University of Chicago has stoutly championed the Jeffersonian principle offreedom of expression.Forgetting the idea of the university, a respondent wrote in the recentissue that it is unfortunate that Professor Eby's article appeared whilethe Campaign is on. My guess is thatthe piece elevated the standing of theuniversity and opened the pocket-books of its admiring friends — whether they assented or dissented.Sincerely yours,Ernest L. Talbert, PhD '09Department of SociologyUniversity of CincinnatiMAY, 1956 29FourEDUCATIONALLeaders AskFive Questions(Continued from Page 16)tion should be placed on federal aidto public school construction?Dr. White: I do not think that thesegregation- integration issue shouldbe in any way involved with the issueof Federal aid to schools. They areseparate issues, both controversial andbeset with difficulty. They shouldbe kept separate.Dr. Chase: In making appropriations for the support of school construction, I believe the Congressshould attach no restrictions, otherthan to make the grants available forpublic schools, under a reasonableequalization formula. In other words,I think that Congress should not usegrants as a means of legislating policyregarding schools. Moreover, the Supreme Court has already spoken withregard to the denial of equal opportunity in the maintenance of segregated schools. If any state disestablishes its public school system in orderto evade compliance with this ruling,it would automatically deprive itselfof funds provided for the constructionof public schools. The attachment tothe bill of an amendment such as thatsuggested by Representative AdamClayton" Powell would insure the defeat of the legislation without accomplishing any useful purpose.Miss Dunbar: I feel such a restriction would be a mistake, because itwould almost certainly defeat thewhole urgently needed program offederal aid.Dr. Misner: I do not believe thatany amendments restricting the distribution of funds should be attachedto the bills now before Congress foraid in school building construction.No matter how good the motivesof the proponents of these amendments may be their position is whollyunrealistic. Integration in schools inmany parts of the country will require considerable time. The currentlack of school building facilities results in the denial of appropriateeducational opportunities to millionsof children across the country. Tocontinue this situation while we awaitcomplete integration in the schools ofthe nation cannot sensibly be justified. Reunion PlansMay 23 Owl and Serpent AnnualConventionMay 24 School of Business Annual DinnerMay 31 Alumni-Varsity BaseballGameOrder of the C DinnerWomen's Athletic Association DinnerJune 1 Publications DinnerQuadrangle- Club Revels June 2 Alumnae BreakfastHarper CentennialLuncheonAlumni AssemblyNu Pi Sigma TeaVeterans Vintage AlumniReunionInterfraternity SingJune 6 Phi Beta Kappa DinnerJune 7 Medical Alumni BanquetThe Reunion Classes1901— The date isn't set, but theenthusiasm is sufficient to guarantee a 55th reunion either Junefirst or second.1906 — The Emeritus Club welcomesthis year's 50th reunion class on aspecial occasion: the Harper Centennial luncheon on Saturday, June2. Professor Richard Storr, who iswriting a history of the University,will tell some of what he haslearned from official and unofficialrecords and from reminiscences ofmany who were at Chicago in theearly days about the founding ofthe University and the Harper administration. This year's EmeritusClass members were seniors theyear President Harper died.1916-1917— So many in this jointreunion class will want to attendthe Harper Centennial luncheonthat the '16-'17 Reunion will beheld at the Congress Hotel Fridaynight.1918 — This class has such successfulreunions, its members get togetherevery year instead of every five.The plans call for dinner at theQuadrangle Club Friday, June 1.1921 — Katherine Sisson Jensen hasbeen playing the role of theatricalproducer for the 35th reunion dinner at the Windermere Friday,June 1. If she and Keith Kindredand Perry Segal can locate thewords, the music, the pianist, thesoloists and even some of thechorus from the Blackfriars Showof 1920 and 1921, then at least theentertainment will be familiar to21ers.1926 — Reunion chairmen Helen andGraham Hagey, Bob Carr, GraemeStewart and Sidney Bloomenthalsigned up the (air-conditioned)Breakers at the Hotel Sherry fortheir class dinner. Advance reservations indicate over 100 will betogether on June 1st.1931— Errett Van Nice, Art Cahill,and Bill Friedeman have takenturns hosting the committee meet ings at the University Club whileHayden Wingate (chairman), Barbara Cook Dunbar, Betty KuhnsPlant and Jane Blocki Trude dothe work for their 25th reunionwhich will be at the QuadrangleClub (also on June 1st). They aredelighted there will be such alarge out-of-town attendance andhope Congress can function without Sid Yates and CBS withoutLou Cowan over the reunionweekend.1936 — 20th reunion plans are bringing alumni back from New York,Iowa, Washington D.C, RhodeIsland, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma,and Maryland as well as the surrounding Middle Western states.Friday night class festivities willbe followed by a full day of activity ending with the InterfraternitySing on Saturday.1941— Dum-Dum Wilson is temptedto include among reunion expensesthe traffic ticket he got hurrying into the Alumni Office one Saturdayto work on reunion plans. Theprompt action last fall of MaryHammel Davis and Mel Tracht inreserving a hotel room is the reason 41ers will gather on a balconyoverlooking the lake in the DelPrado Hotel for their class reunionFriday, June 1.1946 — Joan Kohn, Annette ShermanMcDermut, Grace Olsen Gilbertand Lois Kanne Warshaw decidedto gather the class at a cocktailparty Saturday, June 2. Humanities Professor Ned Rosenheim, whodirects the University's radio andtv programs, will be a special guestwilling and able to bring 46ers upto date on the College.1951 — Matt Dillon remembered asuccessful Student Governmentdinner back in 1951 when oversixty were entertained at his apartment. Hopefully some of the classwill still be in the Army or overseas on a Fulbright, because Mattis inviting reuning 51ers to hisHyde Park home Saturday, June2nd.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEClass(indicates person will05Grace Trumbull Reed, (Mrs. C. W.),who writes as "Trumbull Reed", reportsthat her novel "Bright Midnighf hasbeen translated into Braille, put on talking books for the blind, and publishedin several foreign languages. She andher daughter, Rachel, live on a farmnear Chico, Calif.13V. O. Tansey, PhD '21, retires this coming June from the University of Arkansas, after serving 31 years. He will beProfessor Emeritus of Geology.George B. McKibbin, JD, is a candidatefor the Republican nomination for Congress from the 2nd Congressional District,Illinois.15Raymond D. Berry, River Forest, 111.,served on the sponsoring committee forthe Easter Seal campaign. He is vicepresident of Gallagher & Speck, Inc.21Mrs. Annie Laurie Wilson Tilson, LosAngeles, has retired from the Los Angeles City school system.Harry V. Hume, Rosemont, Pa., is stillwith the Atlantic Refining Co. His twosons have MD's from the University ofPennsylvania; his daughter has an SBfrom Cornell.*Anna L. Unzicker, Evanston, 111., ownsand manages the Blue Parrot, a gift andchina shop.Donald J. Munroe, Tallahassee, Florida,writes, "Still accumulating grandchildren."Merle P. Lyon, JD, has been recentlyappointed Hearing Examiner of the Appeals Council in Washington, D. C, forthe Social Security Administration. Hewill have charge of all of the appealscases in the states of Georgia, Florida,South Carolina and part of Tennessee.Dorothy Lyons Rogers, (Mrs. ThomasS.), Washington, D.C, writes that herdaughter received an AM in English fromWashington University; two sons areAnnapolis men. Newsbe at June Reunion)*Lionel Ruby, Glencoe* 111., has published two books in the past few years:Logic: An Introduction, and The Art ofMaking Sense.Norman C. Meier, AM '22, Professor ofPsychology at the University of Iowa,is beginning a study of creative processesin artists under a grant from the American Philosophical Society.*Walter E. Landt, Hartford, Wisconsin,is Fox River Valley representative forPaine, Webber, Jackson and Curtis, stockbrokers.Esther C. M. Johnson, Chicago, has retired from teaching after 44 years. Shehas been studying at the Art Institute.Last year she had an animal pictureexhibited at the Museum of Natural History.Wilma Mentzer Fargo, Evanston, 111., isdelving into politics now that her familyis grown.*E. A. Dygert is athletic director forCalumet High School, Chicago. Hisdaughter Barbara hopes to enter the 1960Olympics as a diver.Ernest Smith, La Canada, Calif., hasretired, but is active as Civilian administrator of the Air Defense Filter Centerin Pasadena, part of the Ground Observer Corps of the Air Force.22Frederika Blankner, AM '23, is Poet inResidence and Professor and Chairmanof the Department of Classical Languagesand Literatures, Adelphi College, GardenCity, N.Y. She was named Poet of theYear for 1955-56. Her book of verse,All My Youth, received an award in theTenth Annual Competition of the Composers Press.Dr. Thomas A. Baird, MD '24, Chicago,recently married Edith M. Trask ofHinsdale.24Edwin H. Forkel was recently electeda member of the board and appointedpresident and chief executive officer ofthe National Fire Insurance Co. of Hartford, Conn.25William D. Kerr is president of theBond Club of Chicago. A partner inBacon, Whipple & Co., he is also governor of the Investment Bankers' Association of America. 26Rachel Beiser, Des Moines, Iowa, isteaching arts and crafts in the SmouseOpportunity School for Physically Handicapped Children.*A. Adrian Albert, SM '27, PhD '28, isProfessor and Chairman of Mathematicsat the University.Mayme V. Smith is Professor Emeritusof Speech from Central Michigan College, Mt. Pleasant, Mich.Natalie Combs Lydon and Eugene K.'Lydon, '25, live in Chicago. Their sonBill graduates from Cornell this June.Ada Polkinghorne, AM '29, has retiredafter many years at the LaboratorySchool and is living in Houghton, Mich.Dr. Abraham Schultz, MD '30, is practicing ophthalmology in Chicago.27Mrs. Florence Grauman Murdoch addressed the Cleveland chapter of theAmerican Marketing Association lastFebruary on "Meanwhile, at the Typewriter". She is copy supervisor for EarleLudgin & Co.Mary R. Ruble, Newport, Tennessee,teaches vocational home economics atCooke County High School. She is alsoresident teacher for the student-teachertraining center of the University ofTennessee.Grace Lindquist Ragle, (Mrs. F. S.),Huntington, N. Y., who is now owner ofa graphic reproduction lettership, writesthat she is a member of a loyal family:her father graduated from Rush MedicalSchool in the 1890's, and her son-in-lawis now at Chicago Theological Seminary.Joseph J. Karlin, LLB, Chicago, writesthat his son, Richard, '55, is doing advanced work in physics at the University.His wife, is Ruthe Rieger, '53. Anotherson, Robert, is a student at BabsonInstitute.28New correspondent for the ChicagoTribune in Moscow is William Moore. Hehad been covering the U.S. Senate forthe Tribune for the past thirteen years.Among his first assignments when hebegan newspaper work were the gangland assassinations in Chicago during theprohibition period.30Rosalind Hamm Harman, Chicago, isa dress buyer. Her son John graduatesfrom the University of Missouri thisJune.MAY, 1956 31CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 100 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoTheHOTEL SHERRY53rd and the Lake — FAirfax 4-1000BANQUETS — DANCESOur SpecialtyBIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380POND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing * 'Addressograph Service..Highest Quality Service AddressingMailingMinimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisLOWER YOUR COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURESROBERT B. SHAPIRO, '33, FOUNDERHHBHiMa^aaB________________________________a Two alumni and one alumna's husbandattended the sixth annual SouthernConference on Gerontology, January 19-20. Isec L. Connell, MD, was there; RuthE. Albrecht, AM '46, PhD '51, ResearchProfessor of Family Life at AlabamaPolytechnic Institute, presented a paperon "Personal Adjustment in Later Maturity;" Clark Tibbitts, (married toHelen Griffin, AM '30), presented one on"Aging, Where We Are and Where We'reGoing."31George L. Hecker, JD '33,_is practicinglaw in Los Angeles.Harry P. Gordon is in the real estatebrokerage business in Los Angeles.Marian Garbe is assistant principal ofthe elementary schools in Chappaqua,N.Y., and treasurer of the N.Y. Metropolitan Chapter of Pi Lambda Theta.Esther V. Zumdahl, Chicago, is a medical social worker at the University ofIllinois research and Educational Hospital.*Mary Clark Hering, (Mrs. William),Indianapolis, has a son in high school,and a daughter who is youngest in herclass at Denison University. Kathleen Bordner, (Mrs. Franklin), AM'37, resigned from teaching at HirschHigh School, Chicago, in 1952 after 33years, and is enjoying new experiencesin community affairs and in free lancewriting.Ruth Budd Benin, (Mrs. Zolmon),Scottsville, N.Y., writes that she's raising presidents: her three children arepresidents of the Senior 12th, 9th, and 5thgrade, respectively. They have taken a16 -year- old German girl into their homethis year under the Teen Aged Diplomatprogram.Michael B. Dunn, Wayne, Pa., is Coordinator of Professional Services forDevereux Schools, Devon, Pa. He has adaughter at Swarthmore.Juliette M. Eliscu, MD '36, is a pediatrician in Joplin, Mo.Theresa Jaffe Goldblatt, Mill Valley,Calif., has three daughters: Ann, in highschool; Lee, in junior high; and Liz, inelementary school.James H. Fitzbutler, San Diego, Calif.,is a child welfare worker with the SanDiego department of public welfare.Richard O. Lang, AM '32, Racine, Wise,leaves May 1st for a three month tripto Europe as regional director for theEurope, Near East and Africa divisions ofJohnson's Wax Co.FRESH AND FASCINATING THEMESIN JUNE HOLIDAY MAGAZINE18 fascinating features, richly illustrated with Holiday'sunique photographic reporting! Pages of features like . . .THE WORLD'S ROUGHEST SPORTIt's rodeo — the bucking, bouncing cowboy show that offerswealth to champs, bruises and sometimes death to losers,top thrills to spectators!HARVARD'S HOME TOWNA very special town is Cambridge . . . and it's not onlyHarvard that makes it so! A penetrating report that coversboth town and gown.SAN FRANCISCO GOURMET TOURYou'll agree with bon vivant Lucius Beebe that SanFrancisco restaurants are among the world's best as hesuggests where and what to eat in the Golden Gate area.A GREAT SOUTHERN STATE - GEORGIANative son Calder Willingham's up-to-the-minute portrait. Here's all of Georgia — from bygone glories tomodern boom times.BEAUTY AND THE BATHING SUITWhat's happened to the gals' bathing suits will be welcomenews to most men! A dazzling Holiday photo gallery ofinternational beauties.In all: 18 exciting features!ON YOUR NEWSSTAND MAY 17!32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELucile Pfaender Hulbert, (Mrs. JamesR.), AM '38, expects to receive an MSSfrom Smith this summer. She has a sonat Eaglebrook School, a daughter at theUniversity of Rochester.Sarah Porter Goodman, (Mrs. CharlesA.), Glasgow, Ky., has two sons, Robert,a freshman at Vanderbilt University, andCharles. She operates a fire insuranceagency.Robert W. McEwen, AM, PhD '33, delivered the annual Dana lecture at theCarleton College convocation last February. Now president of Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., he was formerlyChairman of the Philosophy Departmentat Carleton. While doing graduate workhere he was director of the WestminsterFoundation and Assistant to the Dean atthe University chapel.Mrs. Lilyan M. Alspaugh, PhB '27, recently appointed director of communityrelations for Radio Cincinnati, has beenactive in volunteer work for sixteenyears. A resident of Cincinnati since1939, she received a Chicago AlumniCitation in 1952.Boyd B. Burnside, AM '47, is Dean ofMen at the University of Tampa, Tampa,Fla. His son, William, is three years old.*Grace Walker Williams, Plymouth,Mich., has three children, John 16; Donald, 14; and Susan, 9. Her husband isan osteopathic physician.*Eloise Webster Baker, (Mrs. JamesE.), SM '32, is teacher and administrativeassistant at South Shore High School,Chicago. James is Dean of Greer Technical Institute.*A. Arthur Charous is business analystfor Sears, Roebuck & Co. and has beenactive in the Chicago chapter of theAmerican Statistical Association. RaeBribram Charous was in the class of '36. John Stevenson, Manitowoc, Wisconsin,has taught creative writing and Germanin Lincoln Senior High School for 24years. He also coached the tennis team,which had fifty consecutive victories inthe last eight years. He is president-electof the Wisconsin English Teachers' Association.*Betty Blair Herlihy and Frank Herli-hy, '31, are back in Chicago, where heis president of Herlihy Mid -ContinentalCo. Their oldest daughter is married.Joseph F. Hurt, Riverside, 111., is alabor market economist for the Department of Labor. His son, Thomas, is eightyears old.Leone Kramp is married to Bruno H.Krueger, Appleton, Wis.David Rappoport, Hollywood, Calif.,plans to return to the campus next yearto study in Social Service Administrationwhile on sabbatical leave from Los Angeles School system.Arline Feltham McChesney, (Mrs.Evan), Delmar, N. Y., writes about herchildren: Richard graduates from UnionCollege in June, Ruth from high school,Margaret finishes fifth grade.*Simon Pollack, MD '36, is a radiologistin Tulsa, Oklahoma. His fourth and fifthchildren are identical twin boys.Lawrence B. Smith, Cross River. N. Y.,painted the portraits of Robert M. Hutchins and Harold H. Swift, which arenow hanging in Hutchinson Commons.His oldest son is a sophomore at PutneySchool, Vt.Lillian Durnion Sistrunk, (Mrs. Henry),has two children. Her husband is assistant general secretary for the YMCA'sof Chicago.Charles H. Sevin, MBA '41, is nowwith Alderson & Sessions, Marketing andManagement Counsellors, Philadelphia.Sinah Kitzing Beames, (Mrs. Stephen),Oakland, Calif., writes of her daughters:Miriam is magna cum laude in her firstyear at Bryn Mawr; Ruth plans to enterMills College in September.Aerol Arnold, AM '33, PhD '37, is Associate Professor of English at the University of Southern California. His articleshave appeared in the Shakespeare Quarterly.Mamie Custer Adams, (Mrs. Charles),Deer River, Minn., teaches first grade.She has three children, Charles, 17; Jane,13; and Peggy, 8.E. L. Borkon, PhD '36, MD '37, Carbondale, 111., is busy practicing medicine andbeing a father to a nine-year-old and afive-year-old.*David C. Bogert, JD '33, Palo Alto,Calif., is with a San Francisco law firm.He has a son, William, 3%, and daughter,Barbara, 1%. PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEAJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, LA 2-8354BESTBOILERREPAIR&WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoWasson -PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesSince 1878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Producersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton H< Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4MAY, 1956 33>1Mkmillightweight, comifortable, crease-resistantOUR BROOKSWEAVE SUITS AND SPORTWEARthat launder easily, require no pressingBrooksweave is our remarkable blend of Dacrontand Egyptian cotton that wears well, is most attractive and comfortable, and requires no pressing afterlaundering. In many attractive colors (swatchesupon request)SUITS: Medium or charcoal grey> medium brown, navy,bamboo. Coat and trousers^ $47.50ODD jackets : Charcoal grey} navy> bamboo y tanylight bluey maize y $35ODD trousers : Charcoal greyy bamboo ,light blue} maize } tan} $15BERMUDA LENGTH shorts: Light or navy blue,charcoal greyy bamboo } maize } tan} $12.50^Brooks Brothers registered trade-mark tDu Pont's fiberESTABLISHED 1818i^to f urntstungss, Hats ^r If hoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N. Y.1 1 1 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 6, N. Y.BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO Sarah Gorrell Stewart is in Troy, N. Y.where her husband H. Wellington Stewart, is Assistant Professor of Music atRussell Sage College. Their son, Henry,is two.Grace White, AM '34, Syracuse, N. Y.,is Professor of Social work, College ofMedicine, State University of New York.*Eleanora M. Wickstrom is farming inWalworth, Wisconsin.Edmund N. Walsh, MD '36, is a dermatologist in Fort Worth, Texas.Marjorie Eiger Brand, (Mrs. RobertF.), San Francisco, is working hard inreal estate. Her oldest daughter graduated from Wellesley last June and is nowmarried.George W. Rust, PhD '35, Kentfield,Calif., and Alice Ann Clark Rust, '33,have two children, Katherine Ann, 13,and George, 17. George is senior geologist for the Bear Creek Mining Co.33Four Years in Red Hell, by Rev. HaroldRigney, '33, SM '33, PhD '37, the storyof his experiences in a Communist prisonin China, is now on the market. He is aformer Air Force chaplain and missionary in China.Esther Feuchtwanger Tamm, (Mrs.Emil), is in Elyria, Ohio where Emil ischief engineer for General Industries.34* Laura H. Kahler is director of promotion for the Silver Burditt Co., Chicago.Arthur F. Goeing, MBA '48, Dearborn,Mich., is vice president of the Kales-Kramer Investment Co.Louis E. Hosch is technical director forthe U. N. Institute of Public Administration. He has set up institutes to train administrators in Rome, Rio de Janeiro, andEgypt, and is now on his way to Panama.His wife is Florence Isbel Hosch, '38, AM'40.35Jack Logan is president of the NationalAssociation of Food Chains.Budd Gore has left Halle Bros., Cleveland, to become retail advertising manager for the Chicago Daily News.Helen May Harrison, Chicago, marriedNed W. Calkins last October.Harold L. Hitchens, AM '36, is in theDepartment of History, USAF Academy,Denver, Colo.Charleton F. Chute, PhD, is assistantdirector of the Institute of Public Administration, New York City.36G. Helen Campbell, AM '38, Mt. Carroll, 111., is teaching English and dramatics at Mt. Carrol High School.Irene Cleve Brenne, (Mrs. Fred W.),Chicago, is teaching home economics atSenn High School. Her son Richard is ahigh school sophomore.William Koenig, North Hollywood,Calif., is story editor and script supervisor for Du Pont's Cavalcade TheaterTV program.Jeanne Stolte Humburg, (Mrs. RichardJ.), is doing newspaper work and freelance writing in Prescott, Arizona.John E. Cornyn, MBA, Winnetka, 111.,and his wife recently returned from atrip to France, Switzerland, Italy, andSpain. He is a senior partner in John E.Cornyn & Co., CP.A.'s.If William A. McCormack Jr., AB '40,ever gets a job retailing bacon and eggs,he will have completed a career cyclein breakfast foods. He recently was appointed product manager for the MinuteMaid Corporation, famous for frozenfruit juices. The job he held previouslywas in Nashville, Tennessee, with theBelle Meade Biscuit Company.Louise Weil Goodman, (Mrs. Joseph I.),has two children, Carol, 14, and Andy,9. She is active in volunteer groups.Her husband is president of the Cleveland section of the American DiabetesAssociation.Henry F. Kelley, AM '36, is a publicistfor 20th Century Fox International FilmCorp.Omega Lutes teaches third grade inLouisville, Ky. She is a member of theNEA Commission on Safety Education,and is secretary of the Kentucky Department of Classroom Teachers. Mildred Rantz Steele, (Mrs. David),Pasadena, Calif., writes, "I see RobertHutchins often in the lobby of the Hun-tington-Sheraton Hotel where I am travelagent."Dorothy Ulrich Troubetzkoy, (Mrs.Serge), is the new information and research officer in the City of Richmond,(Va.), Budget Bureau.George V. Myers has been appointedgeneral manager of production for Standard Oil Co. of Indiana. He was previously financial vice president and a director of Stanolind Oil and Gas Co. atTulsa, Okla.37Morris L. Goldman, Los Angeles, ispresident of Buckingham Laboratory.Ralph E. Ellsworth, PhD, Director ofLibraries at the State University of Iowa,was awarded an honorary doctor of lawsdegree at Western Reserve Universitylast February. President Millis, in awarding the degree, said "because you havepioneered in the functional design of university library buildings; because youhave seized the opportunity to make theuniversity library a direct and vital toolof teaching and scholarship . . ."James A. Miller, PhD, Professor ofAnatomy at Emory University, has beenawarded a government grant from theNational Science Foundation. He will doresearch in low temperatures at the National Institute for Medical Research,London. James is well known for hisresearch with Dr. Faith Miller, his wife,on preventing asphyxiation of the newborn.38Recipient of one of the 16 RockefellerPublic Service Awards for outstandingpublic service is Willis H. Shapley,Budget Examiner of the Military Division of the Bureau of the Budget. Heplans, with this grant, to conduct a studyof some of the basic factors which control or influence the size and nature ofthe military programs and the militarybudget. Virginia Bishop Willis is a '41grad.39Robert J. Sedlak, Westchester, 111. married Nancy Woodward last November.He is vice president of the Mid-StatesCorp., one of the world's largest manufacturer of trailer homes.Home after ten years' service in Korea,Marcus W. Scherbacher, AM '39, is visiting his mother in Los Angeles. Forthree years he was director of social welfare in the Department of Public Healthand Welfare, then became technical ilpowihattoBrooks BrothersBecause, in a world of uncertainly, fluctuation and oftenhasty experimentation theyhave never deviated from thestandards of quality, workmanship and good taste theyestablished in 1818.Because it is so refreshing —in an era when high pressureand hurry are the rule — tofind quiet, courteous service. . . and a genuine interest inthe customer.And because Brooks Brothers,whose natural look, button-down collar shirts and greyflannel suits are becoming increasingly popular with the BigTen, are continuing to reachthe many friends they madein college through theMIDWESTALUMNI MAGAZINESThe Ohio State MonthlyThe Michigan AlumnusThe MinnesotaThe Wisconsin AlumnusThe Purdue AlumnusThe Indiana Alumni MagazineUniversity of Chicago MagazineTotal Combined CirculationOver 94,000For full information write orphone Birge Kinne, 22 WashingtonSq. North, New York, N. Y.GRamercy 5-2039MAY, 1956 35atomicpowerDEVELOPMENTatomic pot*, holds thegreatest' promise ofcareersuccess.Take this opportunity to pioneerwith the leaders. Participate withWESTINGHOUSE in the research anddevelopment of nuclear reactors forcommercial power plants, and for thepropulsion of naval vessels.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERSCHEMICAL ENGINEERSMECHANICAL ENGINEERSPHYSICISTSMATHEMATICIANSMETALLURGISTSNUCLEAR ENGINEERSNew! WestinghouseFellowship Program j... in conjunction with the IUniversity of Pittsburgh. This Inew Westinghouse program en- Iables qualified candidates to Iattain their M.S. and Ph.D. de- Igrees WHILE ON FULL PAY. ISalaries Open jAmple housing available inmodern suburban community15 minutes from our new plant, iIdeal working conditions. Excel- ilent pension plan. Education pro- igram. Health & Life Insurance.Send for your copy of"TOMORROW'S OPPORTUNITY TODAY"Staie whether you are an engineer,mathematician, Physicist or Metallurgist.Send complete resume toMR. A. M. JOHNSTON,Dept. A.M.43MOCJ OIUlO'*Westinghouse Bettis PlantP.O. Box 1468Pittsburgh 30, Penna.Westinghouse education consultant for the EconomicCo-operation Administration, and in1949 became a U.S. Information Agencycultural affairs officer. Two citationswere awarded him last October, one fromthe President of Seoul National University for his long service in and interest inKorea, the other from the Minister ofEducation of Korea for his efficiency indeveloping an exchange of persons program and for assisting in the rehabilitation of Korean education and culture.40Herbert A. Crosman is teaching at theUniversity of Maryland*41John R. Castles, Evanston, 111., is assistant secretary of the State Bank andTrust Company. Elizabeth WashburnCastles is also a '41 grad.*James Brodsky, Jr., Cicero, 111., iscurrently with the statistical quality control division of Hawthorne Works, Western Electric Co. He has three children.* Caroline Grabo Moyer, (Mrs. RobertR.), Longmeadow, Mass., has four children, Cynthia, ll1/.; Stephen, 10; Nancy,5; and Michael, 2. Bob is manager oftechnical service for styrene molding materials, Monsanto Chemical Plastics divi-Sarah Gordon Rubin is in Los Angeles.Robert R. Bigelow, MD '43, writes thatthe arrival of his fifth child may keephim away from reunion this June. He isa surgeon in Oak Ridge, Tenn.Mrs. Elizabeth Czoniczer, AM, has beenpromoted to the rank of Assistant Professor of Italian, Barnard College. She isa graduate of the University of Budapest.*Richard Massell, AM '47, and JeanLevitan Massell, '41, are in Akron, Ohiowhere Richard is an associate city planner and Jean part-time social worker andmother of two.Jean Welch Doan, (Mrs. O. C), is inBeaconsfield, Bucks, England, with hertwo children, John and Colling. Her husband is a colonel in the Strategic AirCommand.Albino Marchello, MD '44, Billings,Montana, is a physician and surgeon. Hehas two children, Beni, 8, and Bobbi, 5.Mary E. Harvey is executive secretaryof the Municipal Employees' Association,San Diego, Calif. She is also attendinglaw school at thet University of SanDiego.*Shirley Shapiro Barsky, (Mrs. Mor-rey), Aurora, 111., was married January1, 1955. Robert Morgan was born February 5, 1956. Edith Davis Sylander, (Mrs. Gordon),Astoria, N. Y., writes that she can't cometo reunion because she expects her second child on that date. Gordon headspublic relations for Westinghouse International Co. Her son is four years old.Herbert K. Livingston, PhD, has beenappointed assistant director of researchfor the electrochemicals department, DuPont.Vincent J. Burke and Velma Whit-grove Burke, '43, have four children.Vincent works for the United Press onCapitol Hill, Washington, D. C.42Bertram Beck, AM, associate secretaryof the National Association of SocialWorkers, spoke recently at a Clevelandconference on "Developing a Better Community for Youth," sponsored by theCleveland Heights Council of Parents andTeachers. He has been director of thespecial delinquency project of the UnitedStates Children's Bureau and assistantdirector of the Bureau of Public Affairsof the Community Service Society ofNew York.43Richard R. Carlson, '45, SM '48, PhD'51, is a physicist for the University ofCalifornia's Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.45Young Man of the Year in NiagaraFalls, N. Y. is Dr. Lester H. Schiff, apediatrician. He is presently associatedwith both Memorial and Mount St.Mary's Hospitals and is Assistant Instructor of Pediatrics at the Children'sHospital and the Buffalo Medical School.The first woman librarian to be appointed at Oberlin College is EileenThornton, AM '45, who will assume herduties on January 1, 1957.46Richard Boyajian, SM '49, marriedMary Gildersleve December 26. He isteaching in Chicago; Mary is studying atthe School of Social Service Administration.Craig Leman, Brookline, Mass., is asurgical resident at Brigham Hospital.He and Nancy Farwell Leman, '44, AM'48, have three children.William Korey has been appointed director of the Washington office of theAnti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith.Margery Sickels Bloom and John H.Bloom, AM '50, Lansdowne, Pa., havestarted a type composition service forphoto offset printing. Marcia is now sixyears old.36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWilliam Sacksteder, AM '49, PhD '53,is Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Colorado.Janet Ekdahl Mitchell, (Mrs. Thomas),Boston, is teaching kindergarten.June Bonner Mullins, '48, is taking careof the children while William Mullins,'47, SM '51, PhD '55, does full time research for the Westinghouse ResearchLaboratory, Pittsburgh, Pa.William W. Savage, AM, PhD '55, isnow Dean of the School of Educationof the University of South Carolina.Arlene DeAno Hawkins, and ByronHawkins, JD '50, and their three daughters are in Toledo, Ohio. They are bothactive in alumni work there.Leslie A. Gross, JD '49, is assistant cityattorney for Denver, Colo., and presidentof the Denver Alumni Club.47Genevieve E. Nih, AM '53, is a librarianId the Naval Medical School Library,National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda,Md.Seymour P. Keller, SM '48, PhD '51, isassociate staff chemist at the IBM Research Laboratory, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.Earl J. Leland, Los Angeles, Calif., isproduction control-man for Michael FlynManufacturing Co. Virginia JohnsonLeland is a '47 grad.Tavia Morgan Pottenger and John L.Pottenger are in Clarendon Hills, 111.UkeCxcluHve Cleaner AWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 Ea.t 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROST'ED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVER where he is a sales engineer with theWestinghouse Electric Corp. They havefour children, Jay, 6; Martha, 4; Lynn, 2;and Carol, 1.48F. Charles Woodruff was awarded anMFA degree from Columbia Universitylast January. During his study there,his work was exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, the Audubon Artists Exhibition, and at a one manshow in New York. He is now in Europefor travel and study, and plans to returnto New York in June.Padraic Burns goes to Yale in July tobe a first year resident in psychiatry.Muriel Abrams Levin, PhB, and Richard Levin, AB '43, AM '47, became theparents of a second son, Daniel, on March4. Their first, David, is 21 months old.Dick is Assistant Professor of Englishand an Adviser in The College.Sidney Rudner is rehabilitation assistant and counselor for the Brooklyn Tuberculosis & Health Association.Charles Harker Rhodes, Jr., JD '51,and Mae Svoboda Rhodes, Jr., '48, AM '51,have a new son, James, born February22. Their oldest son, Charles, was bornNovember 20, 1954. Webb-Linn Printing Co.Catalogs, PublicationsAdvertising Literature?Printers of the Universityof Chicago Magazine?A. L. Weber, J.D. '09 _. S. Berlin, B.A. '09A. J. Falick, M.B.A. '51MOnroe 6-2900T. A. REHNQU1ST CO SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433?????????????????????????.???J MORE THAN 4.???? $22,000 for YOUAT AGE 65ONE OF THE MOST FAR-SIGHTED PLANS ever devised fotthe wise use of savings is offered for your earnest consideration bythe SUN LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY OF CANADA, a leadingworld organization in its field, with branches from coast to coastthroughout North America. By means of the plan, regular amountsof savings can be applied to provide, at age 65, a lump sum o£more than $22,000 plus accumulated dividends . • •or AN INCOME OF$150 MonthlyJF O R LIFE according to your choice.IF YOU DO NOT LIVE TO AGE 65, THEN ANAMOUNT OF AT LEAST $22,000 WILL BECOMEIMMEDIATELY PAYABLE TO YOUR FAMILYOR YOUR ESTATEBy the way, the plan can be easily tailored to the amount orregular savings you can afford, with corresponding adjustmentsin the sums payable.Details are yours without obligation by just mailing the coupon below.SUN LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY OF CANADABox 5102, Southfield Stn., P.O. Box 2406,Detroit 35, Michigan or San Francisco 26, Calif.I should like to know more about your SpecialIncome Plan, without incurring any obligation.NAME_ADDRESS,Date of Birth_ Amounts quoted above are for men.~A similar plan is available for women. ?????????????????????????????????MAY, 1956 37Since 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best In placement service for University,College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.HYLAND A. NOLANCONTRACTORPLASTERINGREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. LAKE PARK AVE.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579PARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-252S 49Robert H. Cardew, PhD, Associate Professor of Romance Languages and Literatures at the University of Cincinnati, isdoing research in the nineteenth centuryFrench novel at the Bibliotheque Na-tionale in Paris. He is under a grant fromthe Charles Phelps Taft Memorial Fund.Jack Friedman, AM '51, has been appointed vice-consul and secretary in thediplomatic service. He joined the StateDepartment in 1951.James W. Wilt, SM '53, PhD '54, hasbeen appointed Instructor in OrganicChemistry at Loyola University, Chicago.He is married and has two daughters,l)onna, 2; and Susan, 1.Robert W. Parsons is a resident in general surgery at Fitzsimmons Army hospital, Denver. He was recently made acaptain.50Joanne E. Gomberg married Dr. DanielNathans March 4. They are living inBethesda, Md.Ian G. Barbour, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Religion at Carleton College. Phones OAkland 4-0690-4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueCHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING-LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters • Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addressing • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Dearborn • Chicago 5 • WA 2-4561MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica - Exacta - Bolex- Rollei -Stereo1329 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259"Neighborhood Servicewith Downtown Selection"GENERAL MOTORS INVITES.....„,,,,¦ ALL GRADUATE ENGINEERSVmmmd ftoh Oppmtmilm Ifor ambitious, creative men.AVIONICSINERTIAL SYSTEMS ETCG.M. ELECTRONICS DIVISIONoffers challenging, pioneering opportunities to ambitious men. We extend a cordial invitation to everydeserving Engineer and Designer towrite us their wants. We may beable to supply the square hole forthe square peg! CREATIVE OPPORTUNITIESin the following fields : Missile Guidance Systems; Jet and Turbo PropEngine Controls; Bombing andNavigational Computer Systems;Airborne Fire Control; U.H.F. Communications,r™ ® YOUR FUTUREdepends on your making theright connection with the rightfirm as quickly as possible. Whynot send full facts about youreducation, work background,etc. We will do all we can foryou and treat your applicationwith the fullest confidence."""r " " 7 "' * '" """ " '" " 1AC SPARK PLUG • THE ELECTRONICS DIVISIONGENERAL MOTORS CORPORATIOMilwaukee 2, Wis. Flint 2, Mich.38 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE51Mary Lawrence Stillings and Edwin J.Stillings, PhD '52, their two daughtersand new son, are in Springfield, Missouriwhere Edwin is Dean of Men and Headof the Political Science and EconomicsDepartment. Mary is busy with community activities.Harriet Harvey, PhD, Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, is doing research on salivary glandsunder a $12,000 U.S. Public Health grant.In October, 1954 she received a $750award for excellence in teaching andcounseling.53Lloyd B. Urdal, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Education at State College ofWashington. He is chairman of the departmental graduate committee and represented the College on a researchcommittee of the Washington State Superintendents' Association.Pvt. Joseph P. Josephson recently graduated from the Military Police TrainingCenter at Camp Gordon, Ga. He completed basic training at Fort Dix, N. J. Carl F. Brauweiler, MBA, is an accountant for Sears, Roebuck & Co., Chicago.54Lawrence Lichtenstein enters ChicagoMedical School in September.Carl N. Pehlke, MBA, is a marketingassistant for Motorola, Inc., Brookfield,111.Emanuel M. Amir, PhD, has been promoted to senior research chemist in theresearch and development division atHumble Oil & Refining Company's Bay-town, Texas, refinery.Pvt. Kenyan R. Stapley is in trainingat the Armored Replacement TrainingCenter, Fort Knox, Ky.Stephen B. Appel is in Korea andwould like to hear from classmates. Hisaddress is:Pfc. Stephen B. AppelUS 51 332 701 Japan Central ExchangeInchon Depot 8043rd Army UnitAPO 971, San Francisco, Calif.55Jesse M. Shaver, Jr., MBA, is engagedto Louise Lyman. They will be marriedin June. YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S . . .MAD! WITHSwifts^^l|tocCircamiA product -I Swift & Company7409 So. Stale StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400"He escaped from the concrete vault!Now, the severest test of all:He'll be sealed in an H&D box!" JYour product stays putin an H&D box, foo.HINDE & DAUCHSubsidiary of West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company13 FACTORIES AND 42 SALES OFFICES IN THE EAST, MIDWEST AND SOUTHMAY, 1956 39AAemoriafDr. Charles S. Hayman, MD '95, diedlast August 11 at 83.Othella Castleberry Cook, (Mrs.Charles), '99, died March 9, 1955 in Chicago. Born in Alabama, she was activein the affairs of the United Daughtersof the Confederacy and directed establishment by this organization of severalscholarships at the University. Herdaughter, Catherine Evalyn, is a '22grad.Albert E. Hill, '99, died December 30in Palto Alto, Calif.The Rev. Dr. Elim A. E. Palmquist, '00,DB '05, pastor of Woodland BaptistChurch in Philadelphia for the past fiveyears, died February 6 in Narberth, Pa.,at 82. Founder of the Philadelphia Federation of Churches, he served as secretary of the group from 1920 to 1945.In 1938 Dr. Palmquist was appointed tothe Mayor's Crime Commission and from1944-47 he served on the Mayor's Committee on Race Relations. Prior to goingto Philadelphia, he was director of theNew England Area Interchurch WorldMovement.William L. Tower, '02, member of thezoology faculty from 1901-18 and astarred scientist, died in January at 84.Dr. Brady H. Foreman, MD '03, diedFebruary 20 in Tacoma, Wash.Dr. John Harger, '04, MD '06, a formerpresident of the Chicago Medical Societyand a physician in Chicago for 40 years,died March 20 in Alliance, Ohjfco. Staffmember of Garfield Park Hospital, CookCounty and Illinois Masonic Hospitals,Professor of Surgery at Chicago MedicalSchool during his period in Chicago, Dr.Harger left in 1950 to become a countrydoctor in his home town of St. Edward,Neb.Warren Stone Gordis, PhD '04, diedJanuary 14 in DeLand, Florida at 93. Hecame to Stetson University in 1888 as oneof a quartet of scholars assembled byPresident Forbes shortly after the founding of the school. Professor Emeritus ofGreek at the time of his death, Dr.Gordis was still corresponding withalmost 200 of his former students.Minerva F. Fonda, '08, Gloversville,N.Y., died November 26.Charles C. Adams, PhD '08, died lastApril in Albany, N.Y. at 82. One of theworld's foremost ecologists and formerpresident of the Ecological Society ofAmerica, he was founder and director ofthe Roosevelt Wildlife Experiment Station and, later, director of the New YorkState Museum. The book on humanecology which he completed shortly before his death will soon be released.Aaron A. Gates, '08, died November 17in Stafford, Conn. Mary R. Appeldoorn, '08, Kalamazoo,Mich., died February 8.Dr. John D. Ellis, '09, MD '11, diedMarch 9 in Denver at 69. He was formerly senior surgeon at St. Luke's Hospital,Chicago.Edith Love Elwood, (Mrs. Franklin G.),'11, died October 15 in Mooseheart, 111.Her sister, Jean Love Johnson is a member of the '13 class.Josiah J. Pegues, '11, general managerof the Goes Lithographing Co., Chicago,died March 26, at 67. Captain of thebaseball team and a star track man hereat the University, he later became a pilotin World War I, andv was awarded theDistinguished Service Cross.Mattie P. Porter, '12, St. Joseph, Mo.,died August 10.H. Glenn Kinsley, JD '12, Sheridan,Wyoming, died March 4.Gladys Earle Dooley, (Mrs. Harry A.),'12, DeLand, Florida, died September 13.Cora M. Bain, '14, died January 16 atCrystal Beach, Florida.Ellen Laughlin Williams, '14, AM 15,died February 26 at 78. She had taughtEnglish at Indiana University.Charles Firth, '14, former Dean at theGrand Island Baptist College, died inMarch at 81. During World War I hewas student advisor at Texas A&M College and did national YMCA work withthe army.Dr. Jacob Meyer, '14, SM '16, MD '16,died December 17 in Chicago.Dr. Harold A. Ramser, MD '16, an eye,ear, nose and throat specialist, diedMarch 14 in Mexico City, while on vacation. He was 65.Charles E. Skinner, AM '16, died May29, 1955 in Evansville, Ind.Edith E. Shepard, '18, SM '20, diedFebruary 1 in Los Angeles. She left abequest of $500 to the Alumni Association to be used for research.Rev. Walter C. Bihler, '18, AM '19, whoserved for 26 years as rector of ChristEpiscopal Church, Chicago, died February 4. After attending Western Theological Seminary in Chicago, he spent several years in New York, returning toChicago in 1921 and to Christ Churchwhere he had once been choir boy, in1930. Past president of the AssociatedClubs of Woodlawn, a director of UnitedWoodlawn Conference, and a member ofthe advisory board of the WoodlawnChicago Boys' Club, he also was activein Woodlawn's campaign for moreschools.Last March he was honored by anevensong of Thanksgiving and a reception commemorating his 25th anniversaryin Woodlawn.Ella M. C. Flynn, '19, died February 26in Chicago. William L. Ray, PhD '23, died July gin Lockhart, Texas.Thomas D. Brooks, AM '20, PhD '21,died in Bryan, Texas, January 11. ^former mayor of Waco, Texas, he wasDean Emeritus of the College of Artsand Sciences and of the Graduate Schoolof Texas A&M College. He founded theTexas Association of Junior Colleges.Henrietta M. Bolks, '20, died February22 in Kalamazoo, Mich. She had beena journalist for the Buffalo, Mich., newspapers.Viola E. Moore, '20, died February 26.Henry G. Schmidt, '20, died October 26in Belleville, 111. He was the first principal-superintendent of the BellevilleTownship high school, and held thisposition for thirty years. Notable amonghis accomplishments was the chairmanship of a special committee that drewup the plans for consolidation of schooldistricts in St. Clair County. In 1935he retired, but continued his work as acivic leader, serving as a board memberof the St. Clair County Chapter, American Red Cross, until his death.Beulah J. Chamberlain, '21, Brookfield,111., died January 25.Julia E. Norris, '21, died February 13in Hillsdale, Mich.Dr. William Stuart, AM '21, died February 13 in Fort Worth, Texas.Eulalia E. Roseberry, AM '21, diedJanuary 24.Robert J. Eldridge, SM '22, died December 9 in Kalamazoo, Mich. He hadtaught chemistry at Western MichiganCollege.Eugene E. Gardner, AM '23, Professorand Head of the Department of ModernLanguages at Furman University, Greenville, S.C., died December 17. Dr. Gardner also served Furman as registrar foreight years and tennis coach for fifteenyears.Martha Smart Hartman, (Mrs. GeorgeH.), '23, died in Highland Park last Marchat 52.Dr. Oscar A. Marti, PhD '24, Warrens-burg, Mo., died June 27.Prentiss D. Moore, '26, died September5 in Midland, Texas.Richmond D. Thomason, LLB '27, diedMarch 11 in Chicago at 53. He was amember of the law firm of Campbell,Clithero & Fisher for more than 25years. He was also a member of theDu Page County, Chicago, and Illinoisbar associations.I. Philip Chapman, JD '29, Chicago,died at 51. He was a director of Congregation B'nai Zion and a member of theDecalogue Society of Lawyers.Charles S. Newcomb, AM '30, died February 17 in La Grange. Ruth GustafsonNewcomb received an AM in '29.40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWilliam F. Christians, SM '32, PhD '38,Instructor and Professor of Geographyat the University of Pennsylvania since1934, died March 14. He was 52.IBI !¦¦a el fia ma " "la a a aaj | ® ® ®-'i'O RTON S"^£=________5487 LAKE PARK AVE.CHICAGO, ILLINOIS_7br ^Reservations Oall:BUtterfield 8-4960PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Book ReproductionCongress St. Expressway andGardner RoadCOIumbus 1-1420 Louise A. Turpeau, '34, died July 18,1955 in Chicago.Faraday Benedict Davies, (Mrs. RobertS.), '39, died February 21 in Scarsdale,N.Y. Her mother, Sally Ford Benedict,is a member of the '16 class.James F. Olsen, MBA '48, died February 27 in Highland Park, 111. He wasassistant to the vice president for theGeneral American Transportation Corp.Charlie Brown, DB '54, was killed inan auto accident January 12, in BuckeyeCove, N.C. At the time of his death hewas pastor of the Bee Tree ChristianChurch and social worker for the Buncombe County Welfare Dept. He hadmarried Shirley Aldridge in August,1955. Charlie was an active supporterof the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen, and had spent two summers doingconstruction work at their conferencecenter in Swannanoa, N.C. A memorialis being built for him there by the Fellowship.UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMUseum 4-1200 BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71ST ST.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186KEEP UP WITH YOUR UNIVERSITYIf you have been away from our campus for some time, you've probably forgotten many things thatwere once dear to you. We would like to refresh your memory. We would like to return you to thescenes of the campus: the buildings, students, faculty, special events, accomplishments, scenes fromeveryday campus life. The school yearbook, Cap & Gown, is prepared to refresh your memory.Cap & Gown will bring to you a complete coverage of the University today; all this, without losingthe charm and warmth that endears our school to us.CAP & GOWNSubscription Cost:(including packaging and mailing)$5.00CAP & GOWN1212 E. 59th StreetChicago 37, Illinois Please send me copies of the 1956 editionof Cap & Gown..Enclosed is $ for the above number ofcopies. ($5.00 per copy.)Name .— — Address .— City Zone State Send check or money order to:CAP & GOWN, 1212 E. 59th StreetChicago 37, Illinois'Look,this is what I mean by opportunity •• ."A BETTER LIFE FOR YOU says New England Life General AgentTHOMAS H. GILLAUGH (Dartmouth College '46)What part has "opportunity" played in your career?"Although I'd had several years of successful experience, itwas a big stepjbr me when, at 27, I was made manager of anestablished -New England Life general agency in my homecity of Dayton. Three years later I was named general agent.But most significant we — myself and my agents — are freeto profit by our own initiative day by day, with constant andpositive support from the company. I look forward to an increasingly rewarding future."How about future opportunities?"Opportunity is a continuing thing with New England Life.We build our clientele on a professional basis. Remunerationis cumulative, part coming from maintenance of policies inforce, part from repeat sales to established clients and partin developing business from new sources. You might saythat the agent sets his own pace for advancement."What is the promise for a man about to enter thebusiness?"Actually, there never was a better time to go to work forNew England Life. Our dynamic growth in recent years —28% gain in new business in 1955 — our District AgencyDevelopment Plan, our superlative policy contract are threeof several factors which should be interesting to the manconsidering a new career. I would suggest that such a manwrite directly to Vice President L. M. Huppeler, 501 BoylstonStreet, Boston, Massachusetts for further details."NEW ENGLANDc>#S/LIFE^BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTSTHE COMPANY THAT POUNDED MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE IN AMERICA — 1635These Chicago University men are New England Life representatives:Harry Benner, '12/ ChicagoGeorge Marselos, '34, ChicagoRichard M. Rohn, '37, Grp. Mgr., Chicago Paul C. Lippold, '38, ChicagoRobert P. Saalbach, '39, Des MoinesJames M. Banghart, '41, Adv. Mgr., St. Paul John R. Downs, C.L.U., '46, ChicagoEugene Freemen, '37, ChicagoAsk one of these competent men to tell you about the advantages of insuring in the New England Life.