MARPROFESSOR IN THE PARLORPage 16". . . definitely the most personable comptroller I have run across."1 HE problems of balancing the University's budgetsaren't killingly funny. But Comptroller Kirkpatrickis not about to let them spoil his evenings or his weekends.It was at the first 1956 dinner meeting of the Senateof the College Division of the Association. Comptroller and Mrs. John Kirkpatrick were guests at thisQuadrangle Club Dinner. One purpose of the Senateis to keep members informed about the University.So — after a short business meeting — the tables werecleared away and the Senators settled back to hearabout the University finances from the Comptroller."Kirk" juggles budgets like he plays the piano:with ease and informality. His informative speech,with charts, turned out to be funnier than Benny,with violin (see picture) . The president of a company,who has dealt with long-faced auditors all his life,said: ". . . definitely the most personable comptrollerI have run across."Actually, Kirkpatrick illustrates the spirit of today's University administration: young, ambitious,The Comptrollerhas aSense of Humoroptimistic, with a time table for accomplishments.The University is on schedule and green lights areflashing far ahead.Alumni are experiencing a new lift as they arebrought into University confidences on future plans. The Senate is currently studying methods for improving alumni programming and broadening participation among the members of the Association.The next big campus event, following the FebruaryOpen House, is the annual reunion June 1-2.H. W. M.The Senate of the College DivisionPresident Samuel J. Horwitz, '321st V. P., John R. Womer, '352nd V. P., Helen Wells, '24Sec.-Treas. Howard W. MortClass Year1920 Joseph R. Thomas, Vice President, Pullman Couch Co.Charles G. Higgins, Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner &Beane1921 Mrs. John P. Jensen, (Katherine Sisson)Keith W. Kindred, municipal bonds1922 Allen D. Holloway, attorneyKarl F. Seyfarth, Seyfarth & Atwood, attorneys1923 Harry R. Adler, attorneyJohn M. Wenner, Daniel F. Rice & Co., Mgr. InvestmentDept.1924 Helen C. Wells, Women's Editor, Chicago Sun TimesNewton E. Turney, President, Naylor Pipe Co.1925 Mrs. Edward L. Compere, (Virginia Odell)Vacant1926 M. Lester Reinwald, Ringer, Reinwald & Sostrin,attorneysVera L. Smith, Field Enterprises, Head, Sales Dept.,Educ. Div.1927 Milton H. Kreines, printing brokerJames J. Cusack, Jr., Cusack & Cusack, attorneys1928 Mrs. William Saphir, (Carol Hess)Paul O. Lewis, Connecticut Mutual Life, underwriter1929 Mrs. Joseph K. Roberts, (Marion Robb)Mrs. George W. Fleming, (Annette Allen)1930 Dr. Robert B. Lewy, otolaryngologistJohn McNeil, Vice President, Northern Trust Co.1931 Rob art M. Cunningham, Jr., Editorial Director, ModernHospital Pub. Co.Mrs. Dorothy Carr Smith1932 Samuel J. Horwitz, attorneyRuth E. Schoneman, librarian, Art Institute1933 Mrs. Dana J. Roberts, (Genevieve Beaty)Mrs. J. L. Wenk, (Geraldine Manaster)1934 Vincent E. Newman, Vice President, Allan Blair & Co.,Investment BankingRobert Zolla, owner, Davis & Kreeger, painting & decorating1935 Clifford G. Massoth, Public Relations Officer, IllinoisCentral RRJohn R. Womer, Vice President, Great/Lakes MortgageCo. (1936 William C. Norby, Vice President, Harris Trust & Savings BankElsie Margaret Johnson, teacher- advisor, Hyde ParkHigh School1937 Charles F. Axelson, Jr., Comptroller, U. S. Gypsum Co.Edward S. Stern, Aaron, Aaron, Schimberg & Hess,attorneys1938 Bruce A. Young, Jr., editor, American Publication Inc.Mrs. Gordon Henry, (Aileen Wilson)1939 Emmett Dedmon, Chicago Sun TimesDorothy L. Dallman, secretary, Stein, Roe & Farnham,investment counsellors1940 Mrs. Lowell C. Doak, (Katherine Bethke)Robert M. Boyer, lawyer, Leo Burnett Co., advertising1941 Mrs. Emil F. Jarz, (Elizabeth McElvain)Mrs. Richard A. Davis, (Mary Hammel)1942 Morton S. Postelnek, chemist, Richlife Mfg. Co.Courtney D. Shanken, Adv. & Sales Mgr., Linens-of-theWeek 1943 Mrs. Dominic G. Parisi, (Helen Tyler)Richard B. Philbrick, Chicago Tribune1944 Mrs. Eric V. Lovgren, (Phyllis Johnson)Robert S. Fiffer, Cohen, Cohen & Fijfer, attorneys1945 Mrs. Richard E. Petersen, (Dorothy Granquist)Mrs. Donald A. Anderson, (Ann Steel)1946 Mrs. Wilson E. McDermut, (Annette Sherman)Mrs. C. Gregg Geiger, (Dorothy Ann Freeh)1947 John H. Kornblith, President, Samuel Spitz & Sons,clothing manufacturersRex J. Bates, Stein, Roe & Farnham, security analysts:1I|4_ C. Harker Rhodes, Jr., Sonnenschein, Berkson Lautmann,Levinson & Morse, attorneysWilliam S. Gray III, Harris Trust and Savings Bank1949 Joseph P. Brett, Equitable Life Assurance SocietyMary M. Gleason, Midway Music Co., publishers1950 Richard S. Brody, Gettleman & Gettleman, attorneysRaymond C. Ellis, Jr., Marshall Field & Co.,safety engineer1951 Mrs, James J. Cizek, (Dolores Miller)Barbara T. Gans, Chicago Plan Commission,associate planner1952 George B. StoneMrs. Terry F. Lunsford, (Molly Felker)1953 George H. Sorter, faculty, School of BusinessDavid G. Utley,1954 Bruce D. LarkinMiss An Shih Cheng1955 Audrey J. RubovitsMrs. J. L. BurbachAt Large1909 Louis S. Berlin, co-owner Webb-Linn Printing Co.1910 Mrs. Jessie Heckman Hirschl1913 Mrs. Ermin F. Plumb, (Alma Ogden)1914 Sarle A. Shilton, real estate1916 Walter H. Hart1916 Olive Greensfelder, teacher, Horace Mann H. S.,Gary, Ind.1916 Mrs. Robert E. Lanestrem, (Ethel Callerman)1916 Denton Sparks, President, A. C. McClurg & Co.1917 Franklyn K. Chandler1918 Morton B. Weiss, Sec.-Treas., Midway Chevrolet Co.advertising1919 Charles C. Greene, Vice President, Doremus & Co.,1920 Richard A. Rubovits, Photopress, Inc., printing1927 Burton Smith, Smith-Wendt, Des Plaines1927 Irene E. Wilson1927 John C. Benette, Harvey-Howe Inc., advertising sales1928 John C. Kennan, Vice President, Society for VisualEducation, Inc.1933 Robert B. Shapiro, President, Associated BusinessConsultants1934 Burton H. Young, attorney1935 Mrs. Frank D. Carr, (Virginia Eyssell)1937 Helen Ann Hagedorn1939 Richard E. Worthington, Worthington Associates1939 Arthur J. Clauter, Jr., Wm. Wrigley, Jr., sales dept.1941 Melvin T. Tracht, Asst. Treas., Illinois Institute of Technology1944 Mrs. Joseph Skerpan, (Barbara Rossman)1944 Dr. Jack Berger, physician1945 Mrs. Stephen Lewellyn, (Lois Arnett)1947 Carl W. Anderson, Ford Motor Co., auditor1948 Ralph J. Wood, Jr., Sun Life Assurance Co.MARCH, 1956 1How long has it been since your Senior Prom?A liporc In 1952 American began using the "Magnetronic Reservisor," an electronic "brain"" capable of handling over 1,000,000 passenger reservations per day.0 yparc ^n 1948 American introduced the Family Half-Fare Plan to encourage family travel,a plan widely followed throughout the industry ever since.1 1 VP„r^ 1° 1944 American Airlines inaugurated the nation's first scheduled airfreight service' and followed with many additional airfreight innovations.Over the years as modern air travel has creatednew opportunities for business and vacation trips,college graduates have usually been first to utilize thesebenefits. Today the advantages of air transportationloom larger than ever on American Airlines, America'sleading airline, and are available at both Flagshipand Aircoach fares. «"AMERICANAIRLINESTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfuTftis jsssueA report on one of the Law School'smost ambitious undertakings, itsvast study of the American jury system,starts off the book this month, "HowJurors Think," Page 5. A minor aspectof the project came in for some publicityrecently. It's an impressive study, as youwill discover on reading Project DirectorHarry Kalven's remarks.No date has been set for starting thenew Law School building, butwhen it does go up the south side of theMidway will be handsome indeed. Fora preview of how it will look, turn toPages 20-21. You'll find details of theFord Foundation's recent grant to theschool on Page 19, along with other newsof the campaign.How mobile is American society? Doour business leaders come from thesocial register or labor union rolls? In"By Birth or Bootstrap?" starting onPage 12, W. Lloyd Warner and JamesAbegglen attempt to answer these andother questions. Some of the results oftheir survey of 8,000 business leadersmay surprise you. For example, if yourfather is a laborer, the chances that you'llbecome president of General Motors aregreajter than if he's a farmer.If you're among the many who wouldlike to own original art works butfind the prices prohibitive, the Renaissance Society has an exhibit just for you.Photographer Morton Shapiro attendedopening night of the Society's annual"Contemporary Art for Young Collectors"show. For views of the crowd and someof the offerings, see Pages 9-11.You can learn all about Channel 11,Chicago's educational television station, by watching a show on anotherchannel."Channel 11 Calling" is a Saturdaymorning show on Channel 7. Principalsare Dr. John W. Taylor, executive director of Channel 11 and Joan Kohn, PhB'46, publicity director. They answer questions about educational tv and Channel11.One morning, on the heels of a womanasking about programs for pre-schoolersand some teen-agers inquiring about programs for them, the phone rang and asmall voice asked, "What are you goingto have for middle-aged children?"For the story of Channel 11 and theUniversity, see "Professor In The Parlor/' Page 16.IT used to be that T-formation tacticswere the most complex thing aboutfootball. But at Chicago the game hasassumed the intricacies of a moral (Is itgood or evil?) and metaphysical (Whatis football?) problem. For the most recent fate of football, good or evil, sportor shibboleth, see Page 24. /^^^f "^ UNIVERSITYCfacaqoMAGAZINE ^J MARCH, 1956Volume 48, Number 6FEATURES591216192024 How Jurors Think Harry Kalven, Jr.Art For Young Collectors— A Picture StoryBy Birth Or Bootstrap? W. Lloyd Warner andJames AbegglenProfessor In The Parlor Joan KohnCampaign Reaches Half-Way Mark ,The New Law SchoolFootball Loses, 24-14DEPARTMENTSIFC322263140COVER Memo PadIn This IssueNews Of The QuadranglesLettersClass NewsMemorialDr. Eugene M. K. Geiling, Chairman of the Pharmacology Department, and his assistant, Research Chemist Leon Clark, test a toadfor radioactivity on a recent Channel I I show. For more on Channel II, see "Professor In The Parlor," Page 16. (Photo by Lewel-lyn.)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, llinoisEditorFELICIA ANTHENELLI Associate EditorPALMER W. PINNEYTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive Secretary-EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORANProgrammingELIZABETH A. SHAW The Alumni FundWILLIAM H. SWANBERGORLANDO R. DAVIDSONStudent RecruitmentDONALD C. MOYERPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $4.00. Single copies,25 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at' the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois,under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.MARCH, 1956 3The TrialJack Levine, American artist, began to composea painting called The Trial in 1953. Obsessedby political-legal trends of today, he mademany drawings and three oil studies in preparation for the large composite canvas. The workwas finished in 1954 and shown in the 61stAmerican Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture.When the Art Institute of Chicago acquired thepainting for its Permanent Collection, the artistgenerously made a gift of the drawings to themuseum. The painting and two of the sketchesare shown here, courtesy of the Art Institute.A REPORT ON THE JURY PROJECT OF THE LAW SCHOOLHow Jurors ThinkOnce he has served on a jury, the average Americanfinds it a rewarding and significant experienceBy Harry Kalven, Jr.Professor of LawProject DirectorTHE JURY PROJECT of the University of Chicago Law School isone of three studies the school is currently undertaking in the field of lawand behavioral science. The other twostudies involve commercial arbitrationand public attitudes toward taxation.The program has been viewed sinceits inception as a partnership betweenlaw and social science in the sensethat it would, if successful, enrichboth areas.From the outset the problem hasbeen viewed as involving much morethan the literal application of existingsocial science generalizations to specific legal phenomena. For the lawdoes not state its problems in thelanguage and concepts of the socialsciences and the social sciences do nothave ready at hand propositions abouthuman behavior that are directly applicable to law. What was involvedprimarily, therefore, was not the collation of existing scientific literaturebut the collection of new data whichwas to be sought and to be analyzedby a staff sensitized to its relevanceboth to law and to behavioral science.For the law school then the program was a major experiment in theadministration of large scale collectiveresearch as well as an intellectual experiment.Our work is at various stages ofmaturity from tentative suggestionsfor future studies to units in the process of write-up for final publication.In the process of formulating common problems and developing techniques of inquiry, the jury projecthas moved in many different direc tions and moved at uneven pace andwith uneven success. I cannot hope todo justice to the particular sub-projects I shall comment on here. Theywill be and deserve to be fully reported in their own right at a latertime.I can, however, hope to conveysome sense of the scope of the undertaking, of the rich variety of themethods it employs, and of the implications it holds for the study of thesocial sciences, the study of law, andthe administration of justice.Perhaps the place to begin is withthe relationship of legal research aswe conventionally know it to theproject. Candidly, our views andemphasis on this have undergonechange from time to time. It was atone stage contemplated that a parallel restatement of jury law in fullwould accompany the social scienceresearch. This, however, soon provedto be a legal research job of almostinsuperable magnitude, and one whichdid not urgently need doing becauseof the abundance of excellent legalscholarship on various aspects of thejury already published. As we nowsee it therefore, the primary emphasisis avowedly on the basic research —on, that is, the systematic collectionand analysis of. new data about juryThe accompanying article isa condensed version of a talk onthe Law School's jury projectwhich was given at a recent AlumniLoop Luncheon by Law ProfessorHarry Kalven, Jr., AB '35, JD '38. behavior. Conflicting assumptions asto the role and behavior of the juryhave shaped much of our substantiveand procedural law. The study of thejury is, therefore, also the study ofthe meaning of wide segments of substantive law.There is one aspect of the law,however, I would like to mentionbriefly, which will receive specialemphasis in the career of the projectas a whole. There is good reason tobelieve that although we inherited thejury from England it has developed inmany respects as an indigenousAmerican institution. The Americanjury appears to offer an unusuallyrich opportunity for work in American legal history. The jury in itsrelation to the judge can be viewedas a system of checks and balances.The changes in the various rules defining the respective spheres of judgeand jury can be traced against otherdevelopments in American politicsover the past century and a half. Apromising start on this sort of legalhistory has been made and furtherresearch leading to substantial publication is now contemplated . . .A convenient starting point is afforded by considering first the detailed observation of the individualjury trial. This has been chieflythe work of Dale Broeder. Themethod has been to have an observer present at all stages of thetrial, to have him interview the judgeand counsel, and most important tohave him interview upon the completion of the trial each of the jurorsindividually and at some length. ThisMARCH, 1956 5MM___ P^ — r— — ' \\\|J__R '»~f Wl 1^m ¦ ^H_i _f vi^J7v\ r^*t-*^^^P____ltiiStj '¦¦¦ ¦_"-!¦_*" ^^J___________ -~ — _______l/ShapiroProject Director Harry Kalven, Jr. (standing), and some of the staff of the jury project share a joke during aconference. Staff includes (I. to r.) Saul Mendlovitz, Mrs. Elaine Moar and Hans Zeisel.has been done with the consent of allconcerned including judge and juror,and with the understanding that appropriate safeguards to preserve anonymity will be used . . .The full portrait of the single casedrawn from juror interviews is richin the human quality of the jury endeavor. There is perhaps a point herewhere the law touches the humanitiesas well as the social sciences. Theindividual case study has a literarymerit and a dramatic impact andevokes the imagination in much thesame way as the good novel. And wehave found this true even of whatappears to be the routine negligencecase. There may well be in such materials an important source for supplementing the conventional materialsof law-teaching and an importantway of giving the student a vividsense of the lively reality behind thelaw he reads.The material of juror interviewserves further to provide instances ofjury behavior — a kind of superioranecdote, if you will — which aresources of important insight. On manyissues our prior knowledge aboutjury administration can be enrichedby illustrations of actual behaviorwithout our knowing how frequentlysuch instances occur.The material from juror interviewshas proved to be of extraordinaryrichness and interest. But it has longbeen apparent that the effort to makesuch complete observations on a scale that would have significance statistically would be prohibitively expensive in time and money and perhapsimpossible in any event because ofthe differences between any twotrials when compared in their entirety.A second method of approach hasbeen to use relatively short interviews with jurors after service andhas not been so tied to detailed information about the cases on whichthey served. The effort here has beento sample a much larger number ofcases for certain types of jury behavior and attitude. One such surveyby Professor Hans Zeisel is beingcompleted and gives us informationon several points.You will, I think, be interested insome of the preliminary findings fromthese interviews. We have been concerned, in our own thinking about thejury, with the process by which unanimity is reached, in the degree towhich the deliberation produces realchanges in position, in the differentialopportunities for adjustment and compromise that different types of casesafford the jury, and in what the consequences of relaxing the unanimityrequirement are likely to be.The study discloses — and here comethe first of the numbers — that in some71% of the cases the jury was notunanimous on the first ballot and thatin some 36% the split was at least8 to 4. What then is the ultimatefate of the minority view? Does it ever prevail? Does it hang the jury?or does it always slowly yield?In 90% of the cases in which amajority voted guilty on the first ballot, the verdict was guilty; in 97% ofthe cases in which the majority votednot guilty on the first ballot, the verdict was not guilty. In the few casesin which the jury was evenly split onthe first ballot the final verdicts wereguilty in 60% of the instances and notguilty in 40%.A second preliminary result fromthe interviews is that the only instances of hung juries were in caseswhere the initial vote showed a substantial minority. There were no hungjuries where the minority originallywas one or two. Hung juries, as youperhaps know, are relatively infrequent. It has been surmised that theyresult chiefly from the personality ofthe "hanging juror" and would beeliminated by relaxing the unanimityrule. The figures suggest the competing hypothesis that the hung jury isa function of the closeness of the caseitself and perhaps of the moral support that a man feels when his minority view has at least several othersupporters.A second aspect of this survey hasbeen to give information relevant toone of the central questions about thejury: What difference to the resultdoes it make who serves on thejury? How much, that is, do jurorsdiffer from each other as decisionmakers? The question poses the famil-6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEiar issue of whether the ideal is arepresentative jury randomly chosenfrom the population as a whole, or ajury that is in some sense speciallyqualified.I shall pause for only one illustration here. The interview asked threeof the questions used in New Yorkto qualify blue ribbon juries, namely,whether they had scruples against thedeath penalty, whether they wouldconvict on circumstantial evidence,and whether they would draw a negative inference if the defendant failedto take the stand. One by-productwas the discovery of how few jurorsunderstood what circumstantial evidence was.But the main point was to comparethe first ballot votes of the jurors who"qualified" under these three questions with the jurors who did not. Thefirst ballot votes were weighted bygiving them the weight of the opposing vote. For example, if the originalvote was 11 to 1, the lone dissenterreceived a score of 11 and each ofthe majority received scores of 1. Thetentative finding is most accuratelystated in terms of the probability of ajuror voting guilty on the first ballotif the first ballot vote is split 6 to 6.In these terms it appears that whereasthe odds are 48 in 100 that the ordinary juror will vote guilty, the oddson the "specifically qualified" jurorare 55 in 100. If these tentative conclusions stand after further testingthey will make a contribution to, al though they will not decide, the difficult policy questions raised by theblue ribbon jury.A third segment of this study isconcerned with attitudes toward juryservice. Briefly, the results show thatof the jurors who actually sat on acase and did not suffer an economicloss, some 80% would like to serveagain; whereas, if they did not get toserve on a case and did lose money asa result of service only some 48%would like to serve again. Further,if they lost money but did sit, thepercentage rose to 62%. If the jurorsdid not sit but did not lose moneythe percentage was 73%. When askedwhat suggestions they had for improving the system, 32% of thosemaking suggestions favored elimination of waste of time and 21% favoredmore pay for jurors.These figures then indicate generally an affirmative response to juryservice but point up the two wellknown burdens of such service: Thewaste of the time of the juror who iscalled but rejected repeatedly onvoir dire, and the economic loss thatjury service may entail for some ofthe people called.We have several other lines of information on the general question ofattitudes toward jury service, one ortwo of which I would like to mention.One source has been an intensivepublic opinion survey by ProfessorAllen Barton and Saul Mendlovitzof attitudes toward the court, jury and administration of justice generally in a moderately sized city in themidwest. A sample of those who hadjury service in the last year and asample of the general population wereinterviewed. The results of the survey are now being analyzed.The survey discloses for examplethat some 6% of the general population has had jury service at sometime during their life and that for 3%this was their only direct contact withthe court system. However, some 50%had been in court in some capacity,including 23% who had been a partyto litigation and 21% who had beenwitnesses. Again, some 55% of thegeneral public had known someonehad been a juror. If you put this together you come out with a conclusionlike this: It is estimated that some1,000,000 Americans serve on jurieseach year; but it would appear thatjury service is no longer, if it everwas, the dominant avenue for directcitizen contact with the court system,but it does remain an importantsource of indirect contact.The study contains some strikingdata on the impact of jury service.Among those who had never served,only 36% said they would like toserve, 16% were undecided, and some48% said they would not like toserve. However, among those whohad served within the last year 94%said they would like to serve again,3% were willing to serve again as aduty, and 3% were not willing.Fred Strodtbeck (sitting on table), director of one segment of the jury project, discusses survey results withfellow staff members (I. to r.) Dale Broeder, Allen Barton and Marvin Stender.ShapiroMARCH, 1956These figures are a little morestartling than they should be becauseyou cannot read these figures as indicating that 46% changed their viewof jury service after serving. Becauseof the opportunities for avoiding service those who do serve in effect chooseto do so and are very probably morefavorable to the jury at the outset.Making this adjustment, it does appear however that some 15% did shiftfrom an unfavorable to a favorableview as a result of serving.And what I find very interesting arethe reasons people gave for their reluctance to serve. These reasons golargely to the person's uneasinessabout judging others, about undergoing a strange new experience, and tohis diffidence about his competence.These are reasons which might understandably be dispelled by theactual experience and by its compensating opportunities for excitementand participation in something serious and important. They corroborateour overall impression that mostjurors are exceedingly serious abouttheir job. A tentative conclusiontherefore is that although in manycommunities people notoriously seemto avoid jury service, once theyare required to submit to it they findit a rewarding and significant experience.Why Or When Avoid A Jury?Before turning to the experimentaljury work I should like to say a fewwords about five other projects. Thefirst of these is a study of jury waiverwhich we plan to put into the fieldsoon. As some of you may know, oneof the great changes in the jury system over the past century has beenthe granting of permission to theparties to waive a jury. This is true inall civil cases and with certain qualifications about when the consent of thegovernment is required in criminalcases as well. As Judge Curtis Bokhas observed, the jury thus rests today on the voluntary choice of thelitigants and we continue to use itbecause the litigants continue to wantit used.Our interest in waiver is of twosorts. We should like to draw as accurate a profile as possible of the actual use of jury trial today. This islargely a matter of refining existingcourt statistics and some useful datahas already been published by others.But more important, we should liketo find out why in the particular casethe lawyers elect to have or not tohave a jury trial. The study proposesthe intensive interviewing of lawyersas to their specific choices. Although it is anticipated that many considerations of overall strategy enter intosuch choices, it is hoped to gainadditional insight into the lawyer'simage of the competing advantagesof jury and bench trial and his viewof the precise functions of the contemporary jury.On Choosing A JuryTwo of the other studies concernjury selection itself. In each the objective has been to find out how infact the various steps in %he selectionmachinery operate and how the finalpopulation which gets to serve compares with the population as a whole.I will not pause for the details ofthese. They do indicate that a remarkable attrition process occurs fromthe original sample of people called forjury service to the actual samplethat does serve. The great factors thatenter into this are discretionary ones;the discretion exercised by the jurycommissioner, by the court in grantingexcuses, and by the lawyers on voirdire.Another study, still somewhat atthe blue print stage, is contemplatedof the voir dire process and of thelawyer's reasons for exercising hisperemptory challenges in particularinstances.I would like to mention a little morein detail a fifth study in the sequence.This is one which is designed to getmore systematic knowledge about theregional variations in jury awardsthroughout the United States. It is,of course, well known that there arehigh and low award areas but theproblem has been to get more precisemeasurement of the variations. Wetried at one time to use some 1,500appellate cases of the last decade inwhich the appellate court reviewedcases of personal injury damages.They turned out to be so dissimilarthat no statistical findings could bemade from them.The current studies utilize a ratheringenious method. The study utilizesthe estimates of liability insurance adjusters as circumstantial evidence ofthe level of jury awards in their immediate areas. Six brief written summaries of cases have been submittedto the adjusters who are asked to indicate the top figure they would settlefor rather than risk a jury trial. Thus,in effect, the same six cases are "tried"or in fact appraised all over the U.S.Of course, we are depending on thehunch, which I think is a good one,that no one is more likely to be moresensitive to the awards than the manwhose job it is to settle cases on behalf of the insurance company, with therisk of a jury trial as the alternative.We have had some 600 adjustersin three insurance companies withnational coverage cooperate thus farand some preliminary results of considerable interest are emerging. Letme indicate one of these. If you tabulate the average award by region andby city size this shows that awardsare higher in the east and west thanin the south and central states by adifference of 10% to 20%. In each ofthe four regions the award is highestin cities with populations of over500,000 and lowest in cities below25,000, again by a difference of approximately 20%. If you take theextreme difference that this data affords, there is a 50% difference between the award in an eastern city ofover 500,000 and a central state city ofunder 25,000. Some of you may befamiliar with the lawyer's hunch thatSan Francisco gives higher awardsthan Los Angeles. Brooklyn giveshigher awards than Queens. Bothof these seem to be corroborated bythe preliminary data because wefound an approximate difference of20% in each instance. This study isbeing made by Professor Zeisel.Recording Mock TrialsI would now like to turn to thework with the experimental jurywhich has been a major facet of theproject as a whole and which hasbeen directed by Fred Strodtbeck.Recordings of mock trials based onactual trials have been prepared andwith the consent of the courthave been played to jurors whoare invited to participate in theexperimental deliberation by thecourt. By means of this experimentaltechnique we have been enabled bothto repeat the same moot trial beforeseveral juries, and by the comparisonof the verdicts and deliberations ofgroups which have heard differentversions of the same trial, to test theeffects of a given change. As a resulta powerful technique for exploringthe impact of substantive and procedural rules of law on jury behaviorunder conditions reasonably like actual trials, but with the rigorous controls of experimentation, is emerging.In addition the experimental routinehas made possible with the consent ofthe jurors the full recording of themoot deliberations and has given usthe unique opportunity to watch thedifferences in the deliberation processes of different moot juries decidingthe same case.(Continued on Page 27)8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEArt For Young CollectorsYoung collectors of modest means were offered a choice ofover five-hundred works of art by contemporary artists in December. "Contemporary Art For Young Collectors," staged bythe Renaissance Society in their Goodspeed Hall galleries, offeredpaintings, drawings, prints, and sculptures at prices from $2 to$50. Some of the paintings and the people who bought them arepictured on the following pages.MARCH, 1956 9The Paintings"Contemporary Art For Young Collectors" contained art works in a widevariety of media. Shown above (left toright) are an oil, "Departure" by NeilBarrett; a casein, "Midwest Autumn" byJean M arkin; another oil, "Color Armor"by Ralph Thomas; and an aquatint from"The Miserere" by modern French masterGeorges Rouault.Mrs. Barrett, Miss Markin, and Mr.Thomas are midwest artists. Europeanartists exhibited at the show includeFrench masters Pablo Picasso, Joan Miro,and Jules Pascin, and German artistsErich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff , andMax Beckman.Some midwest artists not representedabove include Warrington Colescott, Rainey Bennett, Martyl, Frances Foy, V . M .S. Hannell, Harold Haydon, Gustaf Dal-strom, and Alice Mason.(Photos by Morton Shapiro)The PeopleStudents, Renaissance Society members, University faculty, and professionalsin the arts competed for purchases fromthe opening night of the show, November25, until its close, December 23.Choosing with a professional eye, theybought 136 works in that period. The exhibit was replenished and rehung as workswere purchased, ensuring a full selection.How Mobile Is Our Society? WhereDo Our Business Leaders Come FromAnd How Do They Get To The Top?BY BIRTH OR BOOTSTRAP?By W. Lloyd Warner,Professor of Anthropology and Sociologyand *James Abegglen,Instructor, Com. on Human DevelopmentThe arrival of most of the men in theirpresent high positions represents theculmination of several generations ofsocial movement. THE ORIGINS and careers of themen who direct American business bear directly on issues of profound importance to American society.Events of the past two decades havegiven rise to increasing concern onthe part of Americans over their nation's well-being. In the face of ominous developments outside our country, reassuring comfort has beenfound in the vigor and resiliency ofour domestic institutions and faiths,the belief in the right to obtain agood standard of living, to acquirestature in the community, and to accomplish this by individual determination and skill, with every man'schances what he alone makes them.These and companion beliefs havebeen called the American Dream, atthe heart of which are two seeminglycontradictory principles, apparentlyantithetical yet necessary to eachother.The first of these principles is thebelief in equal opportunity — that every man, if he abides by the rulesand is endowed with sufficient skilland determination, may aspire to thehighest positions of the society. Thesecond principle basic to our system,although less explicit in statement,is of unequal rank and status — thatthere is a social ladder, a ranking ofthe society's members. It is this ranking which defines the goals of equalopportunity, and this is the seemingparadox.These beliefs constitute the realityof American democracy. Each is anecessary balance to the other. Theprinciple of rank and status provides the motives for the maximal use ofour energies, for the orderly functioning of institutions, and for responsible leadership hierarchies.The creed of equal opportunity isthe indispensable opposing forceagainst the powrer of social ranking,for rank and status orderings arenecessary to the functioning of ourcomplex society, but unrestrained development of them would reduce oursociety to a fixed order and destroythe present system of open classeswith a chance for every man toachieve social movement upward. Itis this opportunity for social mobilitywhich gives meaning to the AmericanDream.What is the present strength ofthese principles? If the belief inequal opportunity is indeed the central force in our democratic practices,the maintenance of these practicesdepends upon open classes and opportunities for social movementthrough individual effort and skill.When the man who equips himselfwith the requisite skills finds thathis individual effort is no longer rewarded by movement, that the systemis closing to him, and his is a futileendeavor, then other than democraticways and beliefs may be sought toattain positions he expects access to.It is the responsibility of our democracy to examine itself and the forcesthat affect it, and, if necessary, formulate social policy that will reaffirm its doctrines and revitalize itsprinciples.In our system of rank and status,no group is more important than theReprinted from "Big Business Leaders In America" by W. Lloyd Warner and James Abegglen, copyright, 1955, by Harper & Brothers. This isa condensed version of Chapter II, "Leaders of Big Business: A Birth And Mobile Class "12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmen who direct the vast economicenterprises that shape our lives. Froma study of the origins of these men,it is possible to test in this criticalarea the reality now underlying theAmerican Dream, the extent to whichour society allows its members toshape their social destinies, and thedegree to which the beliefs in equalopportunity are being supported. Executive positions in giant companiesare the top for most men in oursociety; to what extent do men fromall levels achieve these positions andis this opportunity increasing or decreasing?To apply this critical test, thecareers and backgrounds of more thaneight thousand American businessleaders were examined in this study.This group, as we said earlier, ismade up of the men who lead thelargest business firms in the country,selected to represent the wide rangeof types of business and industry inour economy. Not all American business leaders were included in thestudy, but all men included are business leaders, and they represent thehighest positions in the largest companies in all types of Americanenterprise.By studying the backgrounds andcareers of these men, it is possibleto see the social movement and lifechances in this important area of oursociety. To the extent that the menwho direct American business are thesons and grandsons of business leaders, our social system may be saidto be closed, for to that extent thehigher positions in our economic system are available only to those whosefamilies have power and prestige. Tothe extent that the leaders of American business are men who have comefrom factory, farm, shop, and officebackgrounds, the American Dream ofequal opportunity for all men fromall ranks is being realized.THE MEN who hold the top positions in American business todayare in most cases from the higherlevels of American society. Slightlyover half are sons of owners or executives of business firms, and 14 percent are the sons of professional men—sons of doctors, engineers, ministers, lawyers, teachers, or men inother professional occupations. Thustwo of every three leaders of American business come from familieswhose economic and social positionswere well above the average for thenation.The remaining third of the businesselite are primarily from white-collar and laboring backgrounds, a smallerproportion from farm backgrounds,and only a few from other occupations — military service, political andgovernmental careers, and so forth.Whatever our national hopes, thebusiness leaders of America are aselect group, drawn for the most partfrom the upper ranks. Only to alimited extent may it be said thatevery man's chances are as good asthe next man's, for birth in the higheroccupational levels improves theselife chances considerably. If equalopportunity were realized in practice,the business elite and the nation asa whole would share a common background, whereas the composition ofthe business elite is clearly weightedtoward the higher occupational levelsof our society.For a more precise measure of opportunity for men from different occupational origins, the business elitewas compared with the whole population for proportions of men fromeach type of background. If "equalopportunity" were a reality, and social background had no relation tothe position a man occupies at theculmination of his career, the proportion of sons of laborers or of white-collar workers in the business elitewould be the same as in the nationas a whole, and so on for all occupations. In other words, if men'scareers were not shaped by their so cial backgrounds and if they couldadvance in business without beinginfluenced by their fathers' positions,the social backgrounds of men at alllevels (including the business elite)would approximate the general population. An exact measurement of themobility chances for men from eachtype of background can be made bycomparing the occupations of theirfathers with the occupations of theadult male population in 1920.The occupations of the fathers ofthe business leaders studied weregiven on the questionnaires for thetime the business leaders becameself-supporting, which was, on theaverage, at about twenty. Since theiraverage present age is fifty-three, theinformation on the occupations oftheir fathers is given for about thirty-three years ago, or around the timeof the 1920 census.This measure takes account of thegreat changes in occupations — the reduction in number of farmers, theincrease in white-collar and professional occupations — that our economy has witnessed in the past halfcentury.As an example of how this methodof measuring our democratic practiceworks, since 47 per cent of all adultmales in 1920 were laborers, it wouldbe expected that, given equal movement into top business positions,about 47 per cent of the businessChart I. From What Economic Levels Did They Come?BORN TO BUSINESS (52%)Their fathers were: MOVED INTO BUSINESS (48%)Their fathers were:Professional Men14%White Collar8%Farmers9%Laborers15%All Other 2%MARCH, 1956 13American Dream: Part IEqual Opportunity American Dream: Part IIUnequal Rankelite would be sons of laborers. Themobility rate in this case would be100 — 100 sons of laborers in the business elite for every 100 expected onthe basis of population figures. Ifmore than 47 per cent of the businesselite were sons of laborers, then laboring backgrounds would be over-represented in the business elite andthe mobility rate would be more than100. In actual fact, only 15 per centof the present-day business leadersare sons of laborers; only 32 sons oflaborers become business leaders outof every 100 expected from the proportion in the general population.Chart II. What Occupations Get TheirShare of Business Leadership? Thechart below shows how various occupations are represented among theorigins of the business leaders. For example, If an occupation has 10 percent in the general population and thesame percentage of business leaders itscores 100; if less among the leadersunder 100; if more, over.ABOVETHEIRSHAREMEN WHOSE FATHERS WERE:Business Executive or OwnerLarge Business 775Owner Small Business 360Professional 350 133100 = Neither above nor below their shareMEN WHOSE FATHERS WERE:Clerk or Salesman 80Skilled Laborer 63Farm Tenant or Owner, 40Unskilled or Semi-skilled Laborer... . 16Farm Laborer .... 00 BELOWTHEIRSHARE Three occupations make up a largershare of business leadership thantheir share of the population wouldindicate. The mobility rate for sonsof owners of small business is 360,of professional men, 350, of foremen,133.The men whose fathers were laborers, white-collar workers, or farmersall appear in the business elite insmaller proportions than their shareof the population.The mobility rate for sons of unskilled or semi-skilled laborers is 16to 100; for sons of farmers, 40 to 100;sons of skilled laborers, 63; white-collar workers most nearly approachequal and proportionate representation with a ratio of 80. These groupsmake up about 85 per cent of thepopulation but only a third of thenation's business leaders.These comparisons of the businesselite with the population are the testof the extent to which it may be saidthat all men, regardless of their origins, move into all levels of the business system. The disparities areenormous. The sons of farm laborersat one extreme are almost entirelyabsent from the business elite, contrasted with sons of big business whooccupy nearly eight times their proportionate share of elite positions.(See Chart II.)Even these measures underestimatethe great differences in occupationalmobility. The occupational groupsare broad, and each includes manylevels of occupational positions. Forexample, farm backgrounds includea range of social positions from smalltenant farmers to owners of greatranches and agricultural empires.Most of the business elite who comefrom farm backgrounds are sons ofthe owners and managers of large farms. The majority of businessleaders from laboring families aresons of skilled laborers. Most of thesons of white-collar workers are sonsof salesmen rather than clerks. Themajority of fathers who were businessexecutives held top-level executivepositions. If it were possible to examine each of the occupations in greaterdetail, the advantages and disadvantages would appear even more pronounced.A more detailed examination of thedifferences in mobility rates for thedifferent professions is made possibleby census data. The four well-defined,highly ranked professions of medicine, engineering, law, and the ministry produced more business leadersthan all other professions together.Law outranked the others with a mobility rate of 800, the ministry followed with 548, then engineering 480,and medicine 478. All other professions combined have a rate of 148.What does this examination of theprofessions tell us about businessleaders? To find that the backgroundof lawyer outranked all other business or professional groups does notmean necessarily that law ranksabove all other occupations in America as a source of business leaders.For example, if it were possible toexamine the fathers who were business executives and owners in sufficient detail to distinguish those inthe highest positions and in the largest firms, undoubtedly they would befound to produce a still higher proportion of business leaders than dolawyers. This high mobility of lawyers' sons into the highest levels ofbusiness means that within each ofthe general types of occupations thereare further extremes of advantageand disadvantage in business mobility.In addition, the practice of theseprofessions, and law in particular,confers on their members a substantial place in the community. Thosefathers in the more solid professionsachieve in most cases a high level ofprestige, income, and style of life.Their sons are trained as desirablemembers of society. Their familiesmeet and know the other communityleaders. The sons of professional menexpect to attend and complete college, and in most cases take advanced training; they marry thedaughters of important men in thecommunity. These and the manyother advantages held by the sonsof professional men are all reflected intheir high proportion in the businesselite. Moreover, the close relationsbetween the great law firms andlarge corporations, and between legal14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand business training, all add to theadvantage held by sons of lawyersin moving into the highest levels ofAmerican business.THE CENTRAL question for thisstudy is, what is the present reality underlying the American Dreamof equal opportunity? From the evidence presented, the answer wouldbe largely negative and pessimistic.Before attempting such a reckoning,however, the business leaders andtheir backgrounds must be seen ina larger social view. The problemhas been approached, up to this point,by comparing the positions of themen of the business elite with thoseof their fathers, and comparing thisin turn with the nation as a whole.In this approach, social mobilityis measured by the changes takingplace from the position of the fatherto the position of the son. This isonly part of the meaning of socialmobility, for the movement of meninto the business elite does not alwaystake place in a single generation. Themen we have seen moving into highpositions from laboring and clericalbackgrounds do indeed make thelong jump in their own careers, butthe arrival of most of the men intheir present high and powerful positions represents the culmination ofseveral generations of social movement.Our study shows that while half ofthe fathers of the present businessleaders were business men — ownersor executives — only a third of thegrandfathers were business men.While nearly seven out of ten of thegrandfathers were professional orbusiness men, only four out of tenwere in these higher-level occupations and more were laborers. Underlying these changes is the fact thatless than one in ten of the fatherswere farmers, compared with over athird of the grandfathers.The question of opportunity andsocial movement is complex. Mobilityinto the business elite is a continuing process, one which occurs overseveral generations and cannot beseen merely as the change in occupation from father to son. When itis seen in this broader context, thegreat currents of movement in ournation show up in sharp profile. Fewof the business leaders were sonsof farmers, but over a third were thegrandsons of farmers — the movementfrom the barn to the business leadership spans a social distance not usually traversed in one generation.A further look at the broader sweepof social mobility shows not only these men on the move, but theirfamilies as well. The movement between the generations is not onlyfrom the farm to the city but upwardon the social ladder.The changes in occupation fromgrandfather to father to son takeplace in broad patterns traced withchannels of movement. Thus, movement from the farm to business leadership is almost entirely a three-generational process, taking placethrough the entire occupational system.Small businesses and white-collaroccupations seem to be pivot pointsin the systems of movement. Thereis a good deal of interchange betweenthese groups from one generation tothe next, as the fathers of businessleaders from each of these backgrounds moved into the other inlarge numbers, along with men fromlaboring and farm backgrounds. Justas these occupations generally occupy lower-middle-class rank in thesocial-class system, so they appear tobe a middle ground in the inter-generational mobility of families tobusiness leadership . . .Is opportunity a reality in American business? The evidence does notallow a simple answer. Some menfrom all levels of the occupationalsystem achieve top ranking positionsin the largest American businesses.Business leaders include sons of laborers, sons of farmers, and sons ofwhite-collar workers. The Americansystem of rank is not a closed system, with its highest positions available only to the well-born, for itallows men from all backgrounds toenter its elite.This is the first answer to thequestion of opportunity in America.It is only a small part of the answer. Overriding these facts of freedom of social movement are the facts of privilege and advantage. Thegreat majority of business leaders aresons of men who were in the higheroccupational levels. The proportionof men from these backgrounds in thebusiness elite exceeds many-fold theirproportion in the total population.Great disparities in social movementexist, for the proportion of men inbusiness leadership from each of theoccupational groups increases withthe rank of that group. The American system of rank is by no meansan open one, and movement upwardis closely related to birth positionand family prestige.However, when social movement inAmerican business is seen in itslarger context, taking place over several generations, the tremendoussweep of change in social position isrevealed over the entire nation. Fewbusiness leaders represent severalgenerations of elite position. The social movement into business leadership does not usually take place ina single generation. But when seenin this larger span of social time,change not stability, flexibility notrigidity are the underlying reality.TJjTE HAVE compared the amountT? of opportunity represented inbusiness today with an "ideal" standard, and measured the system as itis actually working against the "ideal"conditions of a completely free andopen society ... A less arduous measure of the effectiveness of our system is a comparison of today withthe past. In 1928 F. W. Taussig andC. S. Joslyn, in American BusinessLeaders, surveyed the social originsof the business leaders of that time,and their study is a landmark in itsfield.(Continued on Page 30)Present day leadership includes more men from lower level occupations.MARCH, 1956 15By Joan Kohn, Ph B '46PROFESSOR IN THE PARLORHomer Goldberg uses blackboard during Humanities One talk on Chekhov.Lewellyn SHORTLY after it began full-timetelecasts in December, WTTW,the Chicago area's new educationaltelevision station on Channel 11,opened a letter from a woman whohad just watched the University's firstprogram in a course on the Humanities."Thank you," the note read, "formaking TV what it should be."The University is one of severaleducational and cultural institutionswhich are participating members ofthe new station. WTTW operates fromhandsome new studios provided by aparticipating member, The Museumof Science and Industry. The station,in the east wing of the museum, isarranged so that museum visitors mayview activity in its master controlroom and the larger of its two studios.The Humanities, a thirteen-weeknon-credit course which is presentedon Thursday nights from 9:30-10, isthe University's major weekly effort.The Humanities first appeared aspart of WTTW's test runs, and response of the critics, professional andamateur, was so encouraging that itwas immediately scheduled for partof WTTW's regular presentations.The program introduced the viewerto the idea that perhaps he knewmore than he thought he did aboutart, literature and music, and suggested that he apply his every-dayfund of knowledge to these subjects.An Original CommercialIn the test run, Joshua Taylor, Assistant Professor of Art, got his pointacross by hanging a picture; HomerGoldberg, Assistant Professor of English, led off a discussion of poetrywith a political slogan; and GrosvenorCooper, Associate Professor of Musicand Humanities and Chairman of theMusic Department, offered the ideathat the average man can apply someof the same analyses to a sonata thathe applies subconsciously to a singing commercial. Cooper, sitting at thepiano, played an original "commercial" he had made up for the occasion,to make his point. All three of theoriginal participants, and several oth-16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEers, have appeared since on the regular series.Why was Humanities selected? Edward W. Rosenheim, Jr., AssistantProfessor of Humanities and the University's Director of Radio and Television, views the program as anexperiment.First, he points out, "We are teachers, and we must produce on televisionwhat the University is uniquely qualified to produce."It seemed to me," he explains,"that a first-year course in the College was designed for students whohave a good deal in common with thetype of person likely to look at Channel 11 — people who are educable andinterested but who either haven't hadmuch higher education or have forgotten a great deal of what they didhave."Rosenheim selected Humanities because it is a staff course which enablesa number of people to work togetherin a single integrated teaching program. He felt the television seriescould be conducted without any singleperson assuming the heavy burden ofdelivering all the lectures, "or turning what should be an educationalseries into a one-man show."Incidentally, professors who give uptheir time to appear on television —and this usually includes severalhours of preparation and rehearsalbefore the actual show — do so withno additional pay.They Liked ItViewer reaction to this program —and to many others on WTTW — hasindicated that learning in one's, livingroom can be an exciting and rewarding experience, and that there is aneager audience for this type of fare.The audience may not be large bycommercial standards, but it is to aneducator. Several thousand peoplemake a mighty big classroom."Our success," Rosenheim says,"will be in making it possible for theviewer to say T learned something.'If there is anything to the declarationthat general education is for all theresponsible citizens of a democracy,then programs reflecting the aims andpractices of general education areremarkably appropriate for educational television."For alumni in other cities witheducational TV stations there is apossibility of seeing The Humanitiesseries later if the Educational Television and Radio Center at AnnArbor, Mich., decides to put it onkinescope for exchange purposes. ,Joan KohnJoshua Taylor hangs a picture for tv audience while discussing principles of art.Faculty members have appeared ona host of other WTTW shows.On a recent Channel 11 Showcase, aprogram presenting the unusual fromChicago's educational institutions, Dr.Eugene M. K. Geiling, Frank P.Hixon Distinguished Service Professor and Chairman of the Departmentof Pharmacology, gave a graphicdemonstration of the development ofradioactive digitalis, as part of thestory of research in atomic medicine.Sharing star billing with him and hisassistant, Research Chemist LeonClark, were two Jamaican toads anda Geiger counter.World Spotlight, a weekly news-in-depth presentation by the ChicagoCouncil on Foreign Relations, drawsoften on such experts as HermanFiner, Professor of Political Scienceand an authority on comparative government, and Robert I. Crane, Assistant Professor of History, whosefield of specialization is modern Asia.Searchlights on Delinquency is astudy of the causes and cures ofjuvenile delinquency, presented byCook County Sheriff Joseph Lohman,Lecturer in Sociology. Sheriff Lohman has called upon a number of theUniversity's staff — most recently Dr.Bruno Bettelheim, Director of theSonia Shankman Orthogenic School —to indicate to the community whatits role should be in dealing withthese problems. Dr. Jerald C. Brauer, Dean of theFederated Theological Faculty, is hosteach Sunday on The Chicago SundayEvening Club Presents, a discussionof the problems of religion today.Along with other institutions in thearea, the University played a leadingrole in bringing WTTW into existence.When the Federal CommunicationsCommission first reserved 242 (now252) stations for non-commercial use,Chicago universities, museums, libraries and other leading culturalinstitutions banded together to bringeducational TV to the city. ChancellorKimpton headed the committee at thestart, but illness made it necessaryfor him to turn the chairmanshipover to John T. Rettaliata, Presidentof Illinois Institute of Technology.One of WTTW's staunchest backersand hardest workers has been theUniversity's own Trustee BoardChairman, Edward L. Ryerson. Aspresident of the Chicago EducationalTelevision Association, he has beenthe leader in fund-raising for thestation.The Standard SettersLong before WTTW became an on-the-air reality, faculty members wereconsidering the problems to be facedwhen educational TV arrived. A faculty committee headed by Cyril O.MARCH, 1956 17Houle, Professor of Education, explored the possibilities of educationaltelevision and published a report onits conclusions in The School Review.Channel 11, they concluded, couldpreserve knowledge "in the sense ofgiving it currency among people outside of universities." The stationcould eventually provide an improvedand broadened student body by "taking ideas out into the community,"helping parents to raise their childrenmore intelligently, giving teachers abetter idea of how to teach and stimulating the imagination of able youngpeople. Television could be a greatforce in the education of "those mature members of our society who wishto continue to learn.""In the long run," they asserted,"an educational station may raise thequality of all television."(This thought has been ruefullyseconded by station executives whopoint out that WTTW is going to bethe best audition center Chicago'scommercial stations ever have had.In other cities top shows already havedeparted the halls of educational TVfor the networks — and this is as itshould be.)No Vaudevillians, PleaseThen the committee turned introspective. Television, they reasoned,could have a salutary effect on theteacher, as well as the community."By subjecting themselves throughthe use of television to the examination and judgment of their communities," the committee proposed, "university faculties may grow in wisdomas well as in practical influence. Noother medium offers to faculties soimmediate a communication with thepublic, together with so little compromise of their essential independence."That this independence would besafeguarded was brought out later ina statement of production policy byWTTW's production manager, ColbyLewis, a man with varied experiencein both education and television.Channel 11 would respect the performer, he emphasized, as a professional man and an educator. "Weshall not expect him to become avaudevillian." At the same time,however, Lewis stressed the importance of showmanship in makingChannel ll's programs as attractiveas possible.This idea had been expressed by arepresentative of the University.Writing in the American Associationof University Professors Bulletin, F. J.Van Bortel had advanced the notion that it was necessary to change thepopular concept of a professor as a"dowdy milksop" or a "ravening radical" if educators and scientists wereto assume any leadership."This change could be accomplished," he suggested, "when education isbrought to the general public witha small part of the vigor and salesmanship that took chlorophyll out ofbiology and put it into everything inthe drug stores."A Big BoostChannel 11 is supported by fundsraised by community subscription. Abig boost in getting started came fromthe Ford Foundation's Fund for AdultEducation, which donated $150,000 toward building costs. The Fund givesadditional support in the form of theEducational Television and RadioCenter, an independent organizationset up in Ann Arbor, Mich., whichsupplies outstanding films to educational stations, and enables them toexchange their best shows with oneanother via kinescopes (film recordings.)Director of Channel 11 is Dr. JohnW. Taylor, former President of theUniversity of Louisville and formerDeputy Director General of theUnited Nations Educational, Scientificand Cultural Organization.The Sunday evening series mentioned above is Channel ll's onlyweek-end venture. Currently the station operates from 4 P.M. to 10 P.M.Monday through Friday; a schedulearranged to best fill the needs of itsviewers and fit into its limited budgetat the same time.Within this budget, which has noprovision for talent fees, WTTW istrying its best to provide a well-rounded program. Its first course forcredit, Introduction to Psychologyfrom De Paul University, is goingwell.Somebody Is WatchingLanguage is another great area ofinterest. The station hasn't quite recovered yet from the response to EinsZwei Drei, an elementary Germancourse on kinescope from Iowa StateCollege. WTTW scheduled it withsome reservations, simply because itwas the only language course available from the Center. After all, howmany people would want to learnGerman?Almost 6,000 people, ranging in agefrom seven to 79, wanted to learnGerman, and sent in fifty cents forthe accompanying study guide. As thestaff frantically combed the country for the existing supply of guides androunded up volunteers to send themout they reflected that at least thisproved that somebody out there waswatching.Musical InnovationIn the area of music WTTW hasdone some innovating. One of itspopular programs is Window to theWorld of Music, which really isn't atelevision show at all. Only the coverof the album, or a photo or bust of thecomposer or performer, is flashed onthe screen, providing the "viewer"with an hour- and- a-half of pleasantdinner music with no necessity forlooking at the set; and providing station staff with a chance to eat and toset up the evening shows.The success of this venture confirmsanother opinion of the Houle committee back in the days when Channel11 was still in pre-telecast days — thatit need not be assumed that the screenmust always be viewed.Another show, Chicago SymphonyScrapbook, gains from TV. Here aprogram that was good on radio — theinterview of a member of the orchestra and a demonstration of his instrument — is much better with the visualaid of television.WTTW '60?Perhaps Channel ll's greatest assetis that it can afford to experiment ata time when over-crowded classroomsand a shortage of teachers — with theprospect of greater shortages in yearsto come — cry for new methods ofteaching.Under consideration now, in cooperation with local boards of education, are in- school programs designedto relieve this shortage and enablethe youngster to get more out of hislimited classroom time.By 1963, when the post-war babyboom hits the college campus, theanswer may lie in early collegecourses over TV.It's not inconceivable that youngpeople of the next generation may beasking one another: "What TV station did you graduate from?"There are still many problems tobe worked out. But the outlook isencouraging. As WTTW prepares fora new community drive for funds onSunday, March 11, its viewers arerallying to help. A recent plea forworkers brought a host of answers,including:"I want to help keep Channel 11on the air. I am 12 years old."18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECampaign ReachesHalf -Way Mark Campaign NewsTHE CAMPAIGN has reached thehalf-way mark of its $32.7 milliongoal, Edward L. Ryerson, Chairmanof the Board of Trustees, announcedrecently.Funds pledged or received towardthe campaign objectives now amountto $16,149,228, Mr. Ryerson said.In the twelve months of 1955, theUniversity also received, $5,153,000 ingifts, grants, and bequests in its annual continuing development program. This sum is not included in thecampaign total, and is not for campaign objectives.Sources of the campaign gifts asannounced by Ryerson were in sixcategories. Trustees of the Universityhave made personal gifts of $4,365,700.Since the alumni opened their part ofthe campaign in September they havegiven $695,759. Individuals who arenot alumni have contributed $2,134,-970. The faculty has given $57,672.Corporations have provided $1,426,-322 of the campaign funds, and theirgifts, Ryerson noted, are of especialvalue because they have been largelyunrestricted and so may be applied inthe University's judgment to areas ofmost urgent need.Foundations have been the largestsingle source of campaign support,with $7,468,800.Not included in the campaign totalis a bequest, estimated at $15,000,000,to the University for support of basicresearch and advanced study in thephysical and biological sciences.These areas were not included in thecampaign objectives.Law School GrantTHE LAW SCHOOL will receivea grant of $1,275,000 from the FordFoundation to aid in the constructionof a new building and provide fundsfor law fellowships and for expandedinstruction in legislative drafting.The grant provides $800,000 towardthe estimated $3.5 million constructioncost of the new Law School building,which is an objective campaign. Eero Saarinen has designed thebuilding, which is modern in style. Acentral structure five stories in heightwill house the library and stacks, faculty offices, student lounges and public rooms. A classroom and seminarroom wing will be two stories high,and a shorter wing provides administrative and legal aid office space. Aseparate structure provides a 600-capacity auditorium, and a large courtroom for moot trials. (For photo, seenext page.)The need for a new building hasbecome urgent because of the expansion of the Law School in the last decade. The faculty has been enlarged,with a series of new appointments oflegal scholars, the most recent beingthat of Francis Allen, Professor at theHarvard Law School.Increase in the student body, andthe development of individualized andseminar types of instruction, as wellas inauguration of extensive researchprojects, have contributed to the inadequacy of the present building,which was opened in 1904.In its new location, Dean EdwardH. Levi of the Law School said, theschool will be able to cooperate moreeffectively with the organizations inthe American Bar Center, includingthe American Bar Association, andwith the technical and professionalgovernmental groups such as theConference of Chief Justices, and thePublic Administration Clearing Housein the "1313" building at that addresson 60th street.Fellowship funds of approximately$35,000 annually for ten years will-provide for a year's graduate trainingin the Law School of the Universityof Chicago, and a year of studyabroad, for American students whohave graduated from law schools.The fellowships also will bring lawgraduates of British Commonwealthschools for a year's study in the University's Law School. This opportunity is restricted to Commonwealthlawyers because they have sufficient(Continued on Page 29) Happy ValentineA much appreciated valentinewas presented February 14 toEdward L. Ryerson, TrusteeBoard Chairman, by Arthur R.Cahill, '31, on behalf of the Advance Gifts Committee of theChicago area alumni. At a meeting at the University Club Cahillannounced that the AdvanceGifts Drive, of which he is chairman, had exceeded its $450,000quota by its Valentine Daydeadline with pledges in handtotalling $466,940.12 from 484gifts.The Chicago Advance GiftsDrive began in late November,earlier than similar efforts elsewhere in the country due to thegreat number of alumni in theChicago region.Ryerson congratulated theworkers present on their "amazing success." Said he: "I wishto restate a point I have maderepeatedly since we initiated thisgreat undertaking: Trustee andalumni gifts are the two areas ofgreatest significance in terms ofthe potential we can expect fromother donors. We hear the samequestion from corporations,foundations, and non-alumni individuals. 'What are your trustees and alumni doing?' Todaywe have brilliant proof that theyare doing an astonishing job."George Watkins, '36, VicePresident in Charge of Development, referring to the ChicagoAdvance Gifts Drive as the"trigger for the alumni campaigneverywhere" described the halfway point that has been reached,saying: "It is as if we werestarting today on a campaignfor $16 million. We are welllaunched with the half-milliondollar contribution just announced."MARCH, 1956The New Law SchoolrpHE SOUTH SIDE of the MidwayJ- will be the site of one of thecountry's leading law research centerswhen the new law school is built.The school will be adjacent to therecently opened American Bar Centerand Burton-Judson Court, mensresidence hall. The latter will be used- ¦to house law students. A few blocksaway is the Public AdministrationClearing House.The law school will occupy the blockbounded by 60th and 61st streets andUniversity and Greenwood avenues.In the accompanying photo, architect's models are shown of the following: Top, left, in the row of buildings facing 60th street is the AmericanBar Center. The hexagonal shaped"pill-box," to contain an auditoriumand moot court wing, is the first ofthe proposed law school group.Next to it, the long, narrow rectangular building will contain classrooms ;the tall, central building behind thepool will house the law library andresearch offices; to the right of that,the low rectangular building willinclude administrative offices and thelegal aid wing. Burton-Judson Courtis also shown in model form, to theright of the law center.20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEResidence And Research — ArchitectPortrays Midway's New Law CenterMARCH, 1956 21NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESWhy The CommunistsAre Ahead In AsiaCOMMUNISM is winning the coldwar in Asia because it offers, orseems to offer, remedies for specificgrievances, Hans J. Morgenthau, Professor of Political Science, told Chicago-area alumni at a Loop Luncheonrecently."The Communist offensive tries tomeet the actual concerns of the peoples of Asia. All Asians, as are allmen, are afraid of atomic war; thusthe Soviet Union poses as the defender of peace. All Asians are opposed to colonialism; thus the SovietUnion poses as the enemy of colonialism."The educated classes throughoutAsia seek technological development;thus the Soviet Union poses as thechampion of that, too," he said.Morgenthau, Director of the Centerfor the Study of American ForeignPolicy at the University, returned inDecember from an extensive tripthrough the Far East. He reportedon conditions he observed in Asia andon the effectiveness of American foreign policy.It is through this practical approach, rather than its ability to attract the masses to its ideologicalphilosophy that Communism in theFar East has achieved its measure ofsuccess. Thus attempts at infiltrationin Hongkong, Cambodia and Thailandhave met with little success becauseof the relative lack of grievanceswhich Communism could exploit,Morgenthau said."Deterioration of the American foreign policy in Asia is due primarilynot to our intrinsic weakness, but toour identification with political, military and economic policies which areforedoomed to failure," Morgenthauasserted.The United States seems to haveconvinced itself that Thailand andPakistan are definite military assetson the mainland of Asia, an attitudewhich the facts do not justify."We give military and economic aidto anybody in Asia who declares 'tobe on our side,' and we don't seemto care about either the intrinsicmerits of such aid or about its political consequences. "Since we have not chosen ourallies, but they have chosen us, weare receiving the uncertain supportof the weak while, alienating thestrong," Morgenthau added."In the long run, such a policy canneither be improved nor reformed noreven continued as it is. If catastropheis to be averted, it must be abolished,"he concluded.Woodrow Wilson CentennialWOODROW WILSON is oftenthought of as the presidentwith a great dream that failed, butwithout him there probably wouldbe no United Nations today, statedFrancis B. Sayre, former High Commissioner to the Philippines and Wilson's son-in-law. He spoke at a recent five-day program of lectures andseminars which commemorated thecentennial of Wilson's birth.Theme of the centennial, sponsoredby the University in cooperation withthe Woodrow Wilson Foundation, was"Freedom for Man: A World Safefor Mankind." The event ran fromJanuary 30-February 3, and includedfour public lectures and six seminars.Participants included RaymondFosdick, former president of theRockefeller Foundation, who was astudent at Princeton University whileWilson was its president, and later aclose friend of Wilson's; Jonathan W.Daniels, editor of the News and Observer, Raleigh, N. C, whose fatherwas secretary of the Navy in Wilson'scabinet; and Louis Brownlow, whowas president of the Board of Commissioners of Washington, D. C, during World War I.Sayre, who gave one of the lectures,spoke on "The World Vision of Wood-row Wilson.""It has cost us stupendous tragedyto understand that Woodrow Wilsonwas not a man of impractical visionbut a prophet of a new era," Sayresaid."He was the first American statesman who caught the new sweep ofworld events, the need for worldunity, and the part which Americamust henceforth play." r- iyre declared the refusal of theUnited States to join the League ofNations was one of the heart-breaking tragedies of history which possibly resulted in America fighting inthe Second World War. By its end,convinced of its costly blunder,America led the way to the organization of a new association of nations,built on the foundations WoodrowWilson fought and died for, Sayresaid."Few men in history have left toa people such a splendid heritage,"Sayre asserted.More of permanent value to soundbusiness - government relationshipswas accomplished during Wilson's twoterms as president than by any otheradministration in American history,said Marshall E. Dimock, Professor ofPolitical Science at New York University and a student of Wilson's legislative reforms.Solutions to most of our basic politico-economic problems, even today,are found in the programs initiatedduring his administration, he said.If the most important duty of government in a free enterprise systemis to help maintain necessary equilibriums, Wilson inaugurated more ofthese stabilizers than any other president, Dimock said.The Wilson administration createdthe Federal Reserve system, the basisof credit and monetary stability; theClayton Act and the Federal TradeCommission, which come nearest toputting teeth into the enforced competition basic to free enterprise; anda moderate tariff policy which controlled the ability to fight monopolyat home and international economicanarchy, he pointed out.Other significant economic legislation attributed by Dimock to Wilson'sleadership includes the extension ofagricultural credit through the FarmLoan Bank Act, regulation of speculation in "futures," the eight-hour daylaw for railroads, and the enactmentof the Federal Water Power Act.The only important regulation ofbusiness when Wilson became president was through the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Sherman22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEi rust Acts, Dimock said. Gov-i .nent policy had been to give considerable assistance to business enterprises, with little outright governmentownership. Wilson continued andstrengthened this policy, which, withremarkably little change, is still thebalance of private-public power today."That we have succeeded in maintaining this method of public controlis due not only to the vigor and individualism of the United States butalso to the economic statesmanshipthe Wilsonian era," Dimock asserted."Wilson protected the Big Three ofcapital, labor and agriculture. Beingindependent, he tried to treat all ofthem fairly, singling out no one forspecial favor or attack. This cannotbe said of every president who hasoccupied the White House."Duke Ellington To PlayDUKE ELLINGTON, famous bandleader and jazz composer, willgive a concert in conjunction with thesecond annual Festival of the Arts.The festival will be held April 27-29.Ellington's concert will be given inMandel Hall, as a benefit for the Nursery School. Final date for the concert has not yet been set.Jan Metros, The College, was chosenstudent co-chairman of the BeauxArts ball committee. Serving with heras faculty co-chairman will be Mrs.Christine McGuire Masserman.New Chemistry ChairmanHENRY TAUBE has been namedChairman of the Department ofChemistry.Taube, a member of the Chicagofaculty since 1946, with the rank ofprofessor since 1953, succeeds WarrenC. Johnson, named Dean of the Division of the Physical Sciences lastOctober.An authority in the field of physical organic chemistry, Taube was thefirst recipient, in April 1955, of theAmerican Chemical Society Awardfor nuclear applications in chemistry,established by the Nuclear Instrument and Chemical Corporation. Hehas won two Guggenheim fellowships.Broadcast Verse PlayTHE HARRIET MONROE ModernPoetry Library gave the first ofa series of concert broadcasts of verseplays in Weiboldt Commons on February 15. The first selection in theseries was a tape recording of V. R.Lang's verse play, I Too Have Livedin Arcadia. The recording, made by Morgenthau Tours the OrientaJILWrtjiiHans Morgenthau, Professor of Political Science, famed for his studies of foreignpolicy, toured Asia in December gathering political information. Above, hewalks to Waseda University, largest institution of higher learning in Japan, tolecture. Below, he sits to the right of Vietnam's Foreign Minister, Vu-van-Mau,at a dinner given in his honor. He returned to Chicago in January.the Poets' Theatre in Cambridge,Mass., was introduced by Henry Rago,editor of POETRY magazine and aformer assistant professor of Humanities at the University.The author, Violet Lang Phillips,AB '48, was one of the founders ofPoets' Theatre, and is this year therecipient of a playwright-in-residencegrant there, from funds provided bythe Rockefeller Foundation. She wasawarded the Vachel Lindsay Prizefrom POETRY magazine for thosepassages of her verse play which ap peared in the April, 1955, issue.Judith Bond, curator of the ModernPoetry Library, hopes to presentother recordings in such fashion fromthe library's extensive collection.Heads Math SocietyA ADRIAN ALBERT, Professor• of Mathematics and actingChairman of the Department ofMathematics, has been elected vice-president of the American Mathematical Society for 1956-57.MARCH, 1956 23Football Loses, 24-14Faculty Senate Votes "No" "Buy AFootball Team" Suggests McNeillFOOTBALL will not return toChicago.The Council of the Faculty Senateturned down a proposal that Chicagoplay football on a non-conferencebasis, 24-14.Although the trustees could rescindtheir 1939 decision against footballwithout faculty approval, the Councilvote is considered an effective blockto return of the game. The Council isa 51-member body elected by theFaculty Senate.Events leading to the Council's action began last May. ChancellorKimpton at that time appointed aspecial faculty "Committee on Student Recreational Activities" to report on the advisability of football'sreturn. The Chancellor may havebeen prompted by the formation of"UC Students for Football," a groupthat circulated pro -football petitionsamong the student body. Opposinggroups circulated mocking counter-petitions for intercollegiate king- of -the-mountain and intercollegiate post-office.Committee Said "Yes"In December, almost exactly sixteenyears after the last Chicago elevenwalked off the field, the six-memberCommittee delivered its report: "Webelieve that the University of Chicagoshould be able to play football on atruly amateur basis, without overemphasis and its attendant problems."Return of football was the Committee's only recommendation.Said Committee member EdwardM. Haydon, Assistant Professor ofPhysical Education, "This (the Council vote) is not a negative action inany sense. It just means that theCouncil did not, at this time, agreewith the Committee proposal."Haydon, who is track coach, wasthe sole Athletic Department representative on the Committee. The oth ers: Kermit Eby, Professor of SocialSciences; Chairman Earl A. Long, ofthe Institute for the Study of Metals;Clayton G. Loosli, Professor of Medicine; Charles W. Wegener, AssistantProfessor of Humanities; and WarnerA. Wick, Associate Professor of Philosophy.The Council's decision does notmean the elimination of footballclasses, or the possibility of intramural tackle ball. Football classesheld this fall drew a registration ofabout fifty, and a steady attendanceof about thirty.J. Kyle Anderson, Associate Professor and Assistant Director of Physical Education, Chicago halfback in1925, '26 and '27, coached the class.ON THE DAY of the Council vote,the Maroon appeared, SupremeCourt fashion, with two opinions; amajority editorial and a dissentingeditors' column.The editorial, "Game— Not PoliticalFootball," read:"Originally the fight for footballwas presented as one might assumeit would be presented;' it was arguedthat an intercollegiate football teamshould be established if there is sufficient interest among prospective participants. This has always been theposition of the athletic departmenttoward sports, but football became aspecial case from the day that it wasdropped in 1939. Ever since thenfootball has become a 'political football' over completely dissociated issues such as Chancellor Kimpton, thesearch for 'unity,' and the HutchinsBA."Since then football has entered anarea outside sports where it wasnever meant to be. Its opponents always felt there was no place for afootball team here. Few of its supporters would be in favor of 'kingfootball' throwing his weight aroundon campus, as is done at too manyother colleges. We have been prom ised that football will not become big-time here, and we will be watchingthat it is not."If the proposal to reestablish football passes, we should remember thatthe proper objective of football is enjoyment by participants, and secondarily, enjoyment by spectators. Broader campus issues should be fought onmore appropriate battlegrounds."If the proposal fails, those whoopposed it will be only fooling themselves if they believe that a greatblow has been struck for Hutchins,'the good old days, etc' If it fails,those who supported it should remember that the student body andthe University can get along verywell without it. At any rate, the University will just keep right on rollingalong."The dissenting editors' column, titled "Football Is More Than A Game"and signed by Palmer W. Pinney, co-editor-in-chief, and Diane Pollock,managing editor, stated:"We dissent. Football on this campus at this time cannot be a disassociated issue, and if it is approved,the University will be rolling in anew direction.Not Just Another Sport"Football cannot be considered justanother sport since the expense ofcoaching and equipment is too greatto justify it as a service to the approximately 35 students who attendedfootball class this fall. Hence it mustbe judged by its relevance to aneducational system ('the Hutchins'BA') or a body of students ('unity')or both."Football and education are notincompatible. We don't quite agreewith Hutchins' oft quoted advice thatevery time one feels the urge to exercise, one should lie down until thefeeling has passed. If students wishto play football, they should have aright to do so . . .24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"The relevance of football to abody of students is asserted in oneof the strongly emphasized pro-football arguments. According to thisargument, football will be good publicrelations, bringing to UC a whole newcrop of students who would not otherwise consider entering. It is this issuewhich threatens to set the Universityrolling in a new direction.Beware of King Football"Students who value an education,UC style, and who also like to playfootball, would be most welcome. Weare quite a little less enthusiasticabout the values introduced by thetype of individual (of the 'new crop')who considers football the determining factor in his choice of a university— to the extent that the educationalopportunities offered by UC could notcompensate for the lack of bigtimefootball . . ."The current trend at the University of Chicago gives us no real assurance that 'king football' will behampered in his development as apowerful force. And it is this samedevelopment that has, on other campuses, led to the undesirable 'throwing around of weight' cited in theabove editorial."Granted, the return of football toUC might not strike a blow to presenteducational standards. But, why runthe risk? That which might be gainedcan in no way balance that which ischerished — and which might be lost."The Maroon also ran two opposingfaculty views. William H. McNeill,AB '38, AM '39, Associate Professorof History and a former Maroon editor, said:"I cannot feel that it is wise to tryto re-establish intercollegiate footballat Chicago. Only if we fielded a teammore or less commensurate with ourreputation as an educational institution could football become a satisfactory center of school loyalty and prideamong students and alumni alike; butsuch a team cannot be had on anamateur basis, nor is it easy to seehow football players" could both playgood football and get a good education at the same time. Since, unfortunately, the public at large tends tojudge a college by its football team —this due to the absurd proportionswhich football publicity receives inthe daily newspapers — we would become a laughing stock of the MiddleWest with a genuinely amateur teamrecruited from among students whocame to the University for its educational advantages and nothing else. We could not compete on even termseven with very small schools."I wish the University administration would seriously consider buyingone of the professional teams of thiscity. There might be problems I donot forsee; but I do believe that withsuch a team we could enjoy thebenefits of publicity, develop a centerof school pride and loyalty, and reapthe other very real advantages whicha good football team can provide. Byinviting the players to make what usethey chose of our graduate facilitieswe could make some of them into parttime students. Freshman (and potential freshmen) could then enjoy thesight of brawn juxtaposed with thebrain we already have."Only in this way, so far as I cansee, can we have a good team anda good conscience at the same time.Both would be good to have. The onlyalternative, a ridiculously ineffectualteam of amateurs, would be worsethan no team at all."Some Are DisappointedBut J. Kyle Anderson, SB '28, Assistant Director of Physical Education, feels differently. Said he:' The main reason the 50 studentsreported for the class in football during the autumn quarter of 1955 wasto show the University there was sufficient interest in intercollegiate football to again field a team. The boyswere apprehensive at first at the remote possibility of the return of bigtime football to the campus. The staffreassured them that there was noplace for big time football and itsattendant problems at the Universityof Chicago."The only sound program whichcould be offered to the students herewould be one in which institutions ofsimilar enrollment, academic and athletic standards would be met. Theboys and the staff agreed that the firstconsideration of all students shouldbe a sound education for later lifebut that athletics, including footballfor those who would want it, shouldbe included in that education."This general idea plus the opportunity to play football developed thegreatest 'in-group' response that hasbeen seen on this campus in fifteenyears. The youthful enthusiasmmounted to a peak in the scrimmageheld at North Park College, November 1. Everyone on the squad participated in the affair. It seems unfortunate that the efforts and hopesof this group should have been terminated for the time being by therecent vote." atomic* power'DEVELOPMENTatomic po w\ holds thegreatest' promise ofcareersuccess.Take this opportunity to pioneerwith the leaders. Participate withWESTINGHOUSE in the research anddevelopment of nuclear reactors forcommercial power plants, and for thepropulsion of naval vessels.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERSCHEMICAL ENGINEERSMECHANICAL ENGINEERSPHYSICISTSMATHEMATICIANSMETALLURGISTSNUCLEAR ENGINEERSNew! WestinghouseFellowship Program... in conjunction with theUniversity of Pittsburgh. Thisnew Westinghouse program enables qualified candidates toattain their M.S. and Ph.D. degrees WHILE ON FULL PAY.Salaries OpenAmple housing available inmodern suburban community15 minutes from our new plant.Ideal working conditions. Excellent pension plan. Education program. Health & Life Insurance.Send for your copy of"TOMORROW'S OPPORTUNITY TODAY"State whether you are an engineer,mathematician, Physicist or Metallurgist.Send complete resume toMR. A. M. JOHNSTON,J9MOd diujcv*Westinghouse Bettis PlantP.O. Box 1468Pittsburgh 30, Penna.WfestindiouseMARCH, 1956 25{lettersWho Will They Pick?Am just in receipt of my January copyof UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE. It looks fine. But I want to bebrought up to date.I remember the little red back Reed& Kellogg Grammar that I studied at theMilford High School sixty-five years ago;my English professor at Morgan Parkin 1892 — who did not like me; my dailytheme course with Dr. Lovett at the University in 1899. And as of 1900, I knowwhat they one and all would have said,had I ever submitted a sentence to themwhich read: They Will Pick Who.I also remember my first year in chemistry at Morgan Park, when my profmarked my examination paper at theend of my first quarter correct. AndI note how much I must now forget ofwhat was taught me then about theatom.And now comes your January tissueof the MAGAZINE, with your lead articleby a PhD of 1951, headed: Who WillThey Pick In '56? Looks as if I havesome more things to learn over again,besides about the atom. I am chairmanof the Campaign work here in Columbus; will probably be on the campusbefore it is all over. I do not want theyoung people to consider me too queer,the way I talk; or wonder why the University ever gave me a Phi Beta KappaKey. Can you give me a few pointers?Cordially,William S. Harman, PhB, '00Columbus, OhioThis is really shocking; how far mustilliteracy spread its ugly scum over theEnglish language? Must it be even touniversity publications? As heirs of themost flexible, expressive language in theworld, must we see its flexibility and accuracy destroyed by such flagrant error?The public press one excuses, if therebe any excuse for such things; a university publication, never. I am ashamedof my university for the first time in mylife.Rosalind Keating Shaffer, '17North Hollywood, Calif.They will pick he? Pick like theywould a chicken? Could be! I learnedEnglish at the University of Chicago.Who "learned" Dr. G. his? All of "we"grads don't agree, it seems. Tsk! Tsk!Ruth M. Whitfield, 'USt. Louis, Mo.About three years ago my wife wrotean article for the California Teachers'Association Journal discussing the kindof students that were fit and fitted forcollege education, which she titled, grammatically, "Who Shall Be Educated?"She was somewhat amazed, (an understatement), when she found the article headlined, "Who Shall We Educate?" Sowas the editor of the Journal, who sentabject apologies to her.So was the editor of The New Yorker,who made this caustic comment:" 'Who Shall We Educate?' title of anarticle in the California Teachers' Association Journal."Don't ask little we."That was three years ago, time enoughindeed for my wife to have regained herequanimity. I think she would havemaintained said equanimity except foryou — and, I must add, me. I carelesslyleft the January UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE on my desk. Shefound it and read "Who ..Will They Pickin '56?"Don't ask what she* said.What I am trying to say is, keep yourmagazine out of the hands of the editorof The New'' Yorker.I won't sign this, but I wish to say Istill love my Alma Mater. If you reallywant to know who wrote this, ask DonMoyer or Charles O'Connell.[We suspect]:Wilbur A. Hamman, AB '15, JD '15San Diego 2, Calif.Your Editor Picks "Who"First, let's take Dr. Goldman off thehook. He wrote the article, the editorwrote the headline.Second, our defense. We quote fromThe Development of Modern English, byStuart Robertson, revised by FredericG. Cassidy, Prentice-Hall, N. Y., 195 Jf.See Page 297 on syntax and usage:". . . the drift, then, is not really atendency for our accusatives to replacenominatives in all positions, but ratherfor the separate forms to be interpretedand used in a new way, one dictated byword-order."Who and Whom The principle appliestoo to other than personal pronouns, especially to the interrogative who. Whatwe notice here is a strong tendency touse the traditionally nominative formwho, rather than the accusative whom,whenever the word comes first in thesentence, no matter whether it is subjector object. The inverted order used in aquestion will therefore result, in natural,unpedantic speech, in sentences likethese: Who did you see? Who is themessage from? Who did you call on?Thus there is no real incongruity between the drift to me in It is me, andthat to who in Who did you see?"And, ivhoever said we were pedantic?F.A.On Religious ConcernI received the Chicago magazine a fewdays ago and have read your* article... I think perhaps I would have to sayhonestly that there are spots which Imight question, but many parts of it Icould heartily endorse and perhaps ifI knew exactly what you meant I mightagree with most of it.*Kermit Eby's article, "Campus of theConcerned" in the December issue. The one thing on which I could scarcely agree with you is what are really thefactors that are essential in any definition of religion. I doubt if social concern is comprehensive enough. I thinkany religion which lacks that is, ofcourse, deficient, but I would not agreethat social concern is equivalent to religion. I think I could go with you inagreeing that often times the agnosticsand the so-called atheists are nearerthe kingdom than some who are so surethat they have arrived. I believe thatin all church history it could be truethat genuine revival of religion resultsin social concern. Certainly the churchof today which simply goes to meetingon Sunday and sings, prays and preachesand goes home and is indifferent to human welfare is wholly inadequate. Iam not sure that the revival of religionis so wholly without significance in ourtime. Much of it is undoubtedly verysuperficial and has not much meaning.I appreciated the article and I thinkyou ought to congratulate the Universityof Chicago for giving you so many pagesfor this spendid article in the magazine.Sincerely yours,V. F. Schwalm, AM '16, PhD '26President, Manchester CollegeNorth Manchester, Ind.I was shocked to read the article inthe December issue of your magazinewritten by Kermit Eby entitled "Campusof the Concerned," in which the authoradmires the atheist and ridicules thesatisfaction that all church people takein the resurgence of religious interestand faith which is taking place in ourday. His sarcastic comments on President Eisenhower's religious expressionand worship are disgusting. From hissmug eminence, he derides with greatsatisfaction the millions of church-goers.His quotations from Dean John Thompson make me wonder if intellectualismhas gone too far.It is unfortunate that this article appeared at the time of the drive by alumnito raise money.Sincerely,Helen Miller Brown, '07Chicago, III.HYLAND A. NOLANCONTRACTORPLASTERINGREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. LAKE PARK AYE.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579 (ImnTTTTfllrTTTTTTTJT]PARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-252526 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHow Jurors Think(Continued from Page 8)Finally the experimental set up haspermitted us to interview the jurorsextensively and at various stages ofthe case. Thus they have been askedfor their individual decisions at theend of the moot trial and just beforecommencing deliberation, and againupon completion of the deliberationthey have been asked to give the decision they would now prefer. Thecombined resources of the experimental technique have given us, we believe, unusual access to the meaningin operation of rules of trial practice.Three moot cases have been developed thus far and have been played toover 50 moot juries. We are proceeding at the rate of approximately tworuns per week and we will shortlyhave the responses of more than 1,000such jurors to the experimental routine.How A Jury HangsYou may be interested in the question, and I think you are, of how realthese deliberations are. The reactionsof the jurors afterwards and theirbehaviors in the moot deliberationsindicate that in the vast majority ofinstances they become fully involvedin the enterprise. We had one jurydeliberate for four hours and go hometo return the following morning foranother three hours. We have hadhung juries. We have had a case inwhich a juror to reduce the intensityof argument between fellow jurorsfeels obliged to remind them: "Ofcourse, actually we are not trying thecase. It's already been decided."The transcribed mock trials running for 60 to 90 minutes with a dozenor so witnesses prove to be remarkably complex. They are long enoughto introduce some degree of loss ofattention and the testimony cannot bequickly and totally recalled. Becausethe transcribed case does not permitthe many recesses and lulls of theactual trial, it is more concentratedthan the time suggests and is probablythe equivalent in coverage of a triallasting three to five hours.I should like to quote briefly fromthe deliberation in a case where thejury finally hung. I am sure you willunderstand this is a quotation froman experimental jury and the point isto show how real the experimentaljury is. I am sorry we cannot play this recording to you. I have heardit many times and the voices wonderfully convey the sense of excitementof the various participants. At thepoint we come in this jury has beendeliberating for over an hour and theforeman is addressing the hold -outwoman juror.FOREMAN: If we brought in forthe plaintiff a figure under 65 andabove 50 would you sign it?WOMAN: The others wouldn't wantto agree to that because . . .FOREMAN: That's not the point.THIRD JUROR: That's not thepoint. He's asking you . . .WOMAN: No, I don't feel that's theproper attitude to take. Nothing willchange my mind if I do not, if I feelthat the case isn't . . . You can bringup a point . . .FOREMAN: That's all I want todetermine now; whether we call thisgentleman in and tell him we're ahung jury or whether we are goingto reach a verdict in . . uh . . a fairamount. Now if you feel that anymore discussion might change you toraise your figure from $50,000.WOMAN: If you bring out morefacts that I overlooked . . .FOREMAN: I can't bring out anymore facts, M'am, than you heard inthe evidence presented . . .WOMAN: I mean those.FOREMAN: That's right. Now eleven of us heard the evidence and wefigure that $65,000 would be fair. Doyou think that in discussing this anyfurther you might raise your figureor do we call the gentleman in andtell him that we cannot reach a figure. . uh . . a fair figure and that youwill not . . . because you won't signit. Do we tell him that or don't we?"The Case Of The StenographerI shall attempt here only a fewillustrations out of the data from thefirst experimental moot case. The caseinvolved an auto accident in whichthe plaintiff, a 40 -year- old stenographer, was injured when the car inwhich she was riding as a passengercollided at an intersection with theauto driven by the defendant. Thefacts were strongly suggestive thatthe defendant had been negligent ingoing through a stop sign at highspeed. The testimony shows furtherthat the plaintiff suffered a fracturedleg and other injuries and had accruedmedical expenses and loss of wagesat the time of trial. The chief pointof controversy, however, was thedegree to which she was permanentlydisabled, and on this there wassharply conflicting medical testimony. The experimental design of themoot case permitted us to test theeffect of several variables at the sametime. In three of the treatments, liability was very clear; in three it wasmade somewhat ambiguous by introducing some change in the factsto make liability somewhat less clear.We then combine these two versions,the clear liability version and thenot so clear liability version, withthree kinds of disclosures of the defendant's insurance. In the first, thedefendant on cross examination reveals he has no insurance, but thereis no objection or further attentionpaid to this in the case. In the second,the defendant reveals on cross examination that he has liability insurance.The defendant's counsel objects, andthe court directs the jury to disregardthis testimony. In the third treatment,the defendant again discloses insurance on cross examination, but thereis no objection and no further noticeis taken and no further attention ispaid to it in the trial.Insured? Means More MoneyBy combining these two variationsof liability and these three variationsof insurance disclosure, you cancan get a checkerboard that gives yousix different kinds of cases. Now thesix different kinds of cases — and thisis important — are different only in respect to these small variations and theyare otherwise identical. We then wereable to play these versions to juriesor sets of juries operating under theunanimity rule and to sets of juriesoperating under a three-quarter majority rule. In all, the experiment wasgiven to 30 moot juries, giving us 30verdicts to score and 360 individualjuror pre -deliberation and post-deliberation awards as well.I should like to indicate very brieflysome of the results of this first trialrun. First of the 30 verdicts, 28 verdicts were in favor of the plaintiff;one jury hung on the damage issue;and one jury found for the defendant,which is hardly a surprising resultsince we had loaded this one in favorof liability anyway.Second, the mean award of all verdicts where liability was clear was$41,000. The mean award of all verdicts where liability was somewhatambiguous was $34,000. This seemsto us to support the conclusion thatthe jury tends to combine the liabilityand damage issues and confirms a longheld suspicion of the bar that theamount of damages awarded is avariable of the clarity of proof of lia-MARCH, 1956 27bility as well as of the clarity of proofof damages. As far as we can tell,the process by which this is done is acomplicated one and it affects boththe compromise adjustment in the deliberation and the individual juror'sown judgment about the quantum ofdamages.A third result indicates there wasno significant difference in awardlevel resulting between juries operating under the unanimity rule andjuries operating under three-quartermajority rule.Fourth, and perhaps most interesting, were the results of the threeinsurance treatments. Where the defendant discloses he had no insurance the mean award of all verdictswas $33,000. Where he disclosed hehad insurance but no further noticewas paid to it by court or counsel themean award rose to $37,000. Andwhere the defendant had insuranceand the jury was explicitly told bythe court to disregard it, the meanaward rose to $46,000.We have two other pieces of information about this. The post-deliberation awards of the 360 individualjurors — that is the award the jurorwas asked to give after he had finished deliberating — once again showedthe highest award where the courthad explicitly instructed the jury todisregard insurance.Don't Talk To the JuryBut perhaps the most interestingthing is that the deliberations in thesecases were inspected and scored forthe frequency of mentions of insurance under the three treatments. Inthe 10 deliberations in which insurance was disclosed but no notice takenof it there were a total of 61 insurancementions, 46% of which carried animplication for raising damages. Inthe 10 deliberations where the courtexplicitly ordered insurance to be disregarded there were only 36 mentionsof insurance, 19% of which carried animplication for increasing damages.We are tempted to conclude, therefore, that instructing the jury aboutinsurance will tend to keep them talking about it, but will also tend to increase the frequency with which theydo something affirmative about it.The insurance data throws, I think,some light on a familiar policy dilemma in the administration of tort lawthrough the jury. There are a seriesof points on which the law is clearsuch as insurance, counsel fees, non-taxibility of personal injury damages,and so forth, but on w,hich it is mostdifficult to say whether it would be better policy to explicitly instruct thejury to disregard or, as is generallythe practice today, to be silent on thepoint. Our experimental jury datadoes suggest that the instruction onthe forbidden practice tends to aggravate the consequence the instruction is intended to prevent . . .When Do Judge And Jury Agree?It has been repeatedly indicated inthe discussion that a central questionabout the jury is the degree to whichjudges would decide cases differentlythan juries. I think this might be anappropriate point on which to conclude ...Now the major line of comuarisonof judge and jury decision making hasbeen the questionnaires on whichsome 500 state and federal trial judgesthrough the United States have cooperated throughout the year. Thejudge is asked to enter on the ques-tionniare the decision he would havemade in the case had there been nojury trial and to give certain additional information about the issues inthe case, the procedures used, and hisexplanation when there is a divergence between his decision and thatof the jury. It is understood that theinformation will be used for statisticalpurposes only.At present some 5,000 questionnaires have been returned by thejudges covering some 3,000 civil andsome 2,000 criminal cases decidedduring the past year. The data iscurrently being analyzed and admitsof considerable refinement but someDreliminary results are now availablefor the 1,428 personal injury casesinvolved in the 5,000 cases that I cangive you now. The studv is beingcarried out by Professor Zeisel.In 41% of these cases the -fudge andjury agreed fully. In 23% the judgewould have awarded somewhat lessthan the jury. And in 17% the judgewould have awarded somewhat morethan the jury. Finally, in 10% of thecases the judge would have found forthe defendant where the iurv foundfor the plaintiff, while in 8% of thecases the judge would have found forthe plaintiff where the jury found forthe defendant. Thus in all, the judgefavored the defendant more than thejury in 33% of the cases, which isperhaps close to our expectation.But it seems to me the quite striking and unexpected result is that thejudge would have favored the plaintiff more than the jury in some 25%of the cases. I would say, therefore,that the very widely held view thatjuries in personal injury cases are more plaintiff prone than judges isthus shown to be a considerable oversimplification.We have not worked through themany possibilities for refinement thatthe questionnaires permit. We willundoubtedly have a more completepicture about this reasonably soon.Another interesting aspect is thatthe data has been correlated with thelength of the jury deliberation andshows that the percentage of judge-jury agreement is highest when thedeliberation is shortest and declinesmarkedly as the deliberation increases.This I again find very striking. Theresult is that the amount of agreementis highest when the deliberation isshortest, which I suppose you mightexpect: but it drops very radically asthe deliberation continues. The ratiosas I recall them are something like60% of agreement in deliberationsunder an hour, dropping to 20% ofagreement where the deliberationgoes on past ten or twelve hours. Thepoint, I think, is to suggest that onefrequent area of judge-jury differencehas something to do with the intrinsic ^difficulty of the case they are deciding,and in turn is reflected by the lengthof the deliberation process. Here againwe will know more about this whenwe have had a chance to break downthe figures further.Long Trial Separates Judge -JuryYou might be interested in knowingthat a similar correlation, althoughnot so marked, was found betweenthe length of the trial and the frequency of judge-jury difference. Thelonger the trial the less likely the juryis to agree with the judge. That mightbe a point of information for thelawyers.The data was run separately forstate and federal judges and shows nosignificant difference at all in the incidence of agreement and divergence.It seems to say that federal judges getalong with their juries as frequentlyas state judges, or conversely.One final illustration will suffice.It is a point, I think, of great importance to the study of legal procedure,and I am saying it quietly, although Ithink it contains within it a finding ofconsiderable impact. We had askedthe judge to indicate whether or notwritten instructions were given to thejury, whether or not the judge summarized the evidence, and whether ornot he commented on credibility or onthe weight of the evidence. Many ofyou will recognize that these arethree controversial points of legal discussion today as possible reforms for28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe jury system. As I understand it,the United States is about evenlysplit between those who favor thesereforms and those who do not.Judge and Jury AgreeThe striking finding from this material was that there was no difference, literally no difference betweenthe amount of judge -jury agreementwhether the case was tried with written instructions or not, whether thejudge summarized the evidence ornot, whether the judge commentedon credibility or on the weight of theevidence or not. This again is an inference on our part, and I think apremature one, but I would hazardthe statement that the data is stronglysuggestive of the conclusion that atleast in personal injury cases theseprocedural controls make the juryneither more nor less like the judge,and have little or no effect on theactual behavior of the jury.I have attempted to review with yousome illustrations of the work nowin process in the jury project. I have,of course, been reporting the work ofother men. I have tried to samplerather generously the range of workand I am aware that in the spaceavailable I have not done justice toany unit. Much of the work commented on will be reaching soon thepublication stage and can be moreproperly appraised at that time. I will,however, have achieved my principalpurpose if I have succeeded in con-YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERC Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400MARCH, 1956 veying in some measure the magnitude of the project, the rich variety ofits methodology, the wide-rangingquality of its questions, the promiseof its contributions to the study oflaw, the study of the behavioralsciences, and the administration ofjustice, and above all our sense ofintellectual excitement about it.Campaign News(Continued from Page 19)training in the common law to studyAmerican law, and because they haveno language impediments.International scope of Americanbusiness and industry, and the needof the government for officials withknowledge of foreign law has createda demand for lawyers with training inlegal systems of other countries, DeanLevi said in commenting on the fellowship program to be financed by thegrant. The fellowships also will trainlaw teachers for the field of foreignlaw."The fellowships are of particularinterest /to the Law School because ofits pioneering in this field of law,"Dean Levi said. "The late ErnestFreund established thirty years agothe first courses in comparative lawin any American law school, and thisarea has been the special interest ofMax Rheinstein, who holds the MaxPam professorship."The third part of the grant, $100,000,will be used to extend the LawSchool's present training of studentsin legislative drafting, and makingpossible an expansion of the tutorialmethod, an innovation of the Chicagoschool, which provides individual instruction and supervision in legalwriting.Local Chairmen NamedOrganization of the Alumni Campaign continues apace with no sign ofwinter doldrums. Nearly 500 American and Canadian communities haveten or more alumni totalling some36,000 out of the 53,000-strong University of Chicago alumni body. Withthe local chairmen named here, morethan 30,000 alumni have been "organized" with local committees soon tobe formed or already operating:Laurence H. Bowen, '22, Greenville,S.C.; Dr. Charles E. Black, '36, Lansing, Mich.; David F. Burton, '40,Mankato, Minn.; Dr. Jacob Cohen, '49,Bowling Green, Ohio; C. W. Dawson, '47, Pine Bluff, Ark.; J. Albert Dear,Jr., '19, Jersey City, N.J.; Dr. T. O.Dorrance, '36, Bluffton, Ind.; RichardH. Eagleton, '35, Robinson, 111.Sherwood B. Eek, '47, Kalamazoo,Mich.; Mrs. Margaret Elmer, '27, Flint,Mich.; L. R. Felker, '20, St. Louis,Mo.; Elmer E. Flack '23, Springfield,Ohio; Forrest H. Froberg, '30, Chippewa Falls, Wis.; Mrs. GertrudeGardiner, '27, Anderson, Ind.; R. B.Giffen, '36, Atlanta, Ga.; George A.Gray '15, San Jose, Calif.; I. FrankHarlow, '43, Midland, Mich.; Dr. W.Richard Hearne, '42, Pocatello, Idaho;Paul B. Heflin, '10, Streator, 111.Dr. Lyndon M. Hill, '42, Jamaica,N.Y.; Mrs. W. C. Hoppes, '30, Marquette, Mich.; Mrs. Van W. Hunt, '30,Mason City, Iowa; Richard H. Jung^'47, Sheboygan, Wis.; Dr. Earl Klein,'38, Baton Rouge, La.; John H. Kliwer,'50, Kansas City, Kans.; Dr. GeorgeW. Koivum, '38, Moline, 111.; Dr. Horace Koessler, '30, Missoula, Mont.;E. E. Langer, '40, Hollywood, 111.; Mrs.Beverly G Long, '44, Providence, R.I.;W. M. Lundberg, '50, Macon, Ga.;Emil Lucki, '37, Salt Lake City, Utah.Gordon H. Mac Kenzie, '49, Bay-side, N.Y.; Mrs. Helen C. Marquis, '25,Sterling, 111.; Mrs. Jessie B. Marsh,'14, Helena, Mont.; Herbert F. Mayer,'27, Grand Is., Neb.; Dr. Morris S.McKeehan, '50, Charlottesville, Va.;Miss Alyce McWilliams, '28, Beaumont, Tex.; Marvin Mitchell, '42,Michigan City, Ind; Paul Nelson, '38,University, Ala.; Mr. John G Neukom, '34, San Francisco, Calif.; Dr.Ralph S. Newcomb, '25, OklahomaCity, Okla.; Ellis H. Newsome, '47,Iowa City, la.; Mrs. M. E. Olen, '45,Mobile, Ala.Dr. R. W. Peltz, '46, Fresno, Calif.;Miss Frances Pendley, '14, San Angelo,Tex.; Hart Perry, '40, Silver Spring,Md.; Mrs. Jayne Pheiffer, '49, Saginaw, Mich.; Mrs. Casper Piatt, '17,Danville, 111.; Dr. Nathan C. Plimpton,'34, Minneapolis, Minn.; Mrs. HughRendleman, '41, Santa Fe, N. M.; Dr.William B. Reynolds, '36, Bartlesville,Okla.; Miss Louise E. Scheidt, '23,Kokomo, Ind.; Hugh Sebastian, '31,Albion, Mich.; Seth W. Slaughter, '18,Columbia, Mo.Dr. Glen T. Smith, '37, Swarthmore,Pa.; Dr. John B. Smith, '31, Abilene,Tex.; Mrs. Ruth T. Spurgin, '16, Richmond, Ind.; Mrs. Elizabeth R. Strawn,'32, DeLand, Fla.; M. H. Tennis, Jr.,'49, Norfolk, Va.; Albert Tezla, '41,Duluth, Minn.; Henry J. Tomasek,'42, Grand Forks, N.D.; K. P. Walker,'34, Jackson, Miss.; Mrs. Ruth S.Ward, '30, Amarillo, Tex.; Frederick J.White, '51, Waterloo, Iowa; Mrs. Pauline Witzleben, '20, Quincy, 111.; B. T.Woodruff, '32, Charleston, W. Va.29By Birth Or Bootstrap?(Continued from Page 15)To make the comparison of the twoperiods accurate, the methods andtechniques of the study of the present-day business leaders were madecomparable in every way possiblewith those of the earlier study . . .The overall difference is clear. Thepresent-day business leadership includes more men from lower-leveloccupations. While both in 1928 and1952 most business leaders are sonsof business men, the proportion issmaller now than a generation ago.Whereas 58 per cent of the businessleaders in 1928 were sons of executives or owners of businesses, in 1952only 52 per cent were. In 1952, fiveper cent of the business leaders weresons of unskilled or semi-skilled laborers, compared with two per centin 1928.IS THERE more or less opportunitytoday? Our studies show thai menfrom factory, office, shop, and farmbackgrounds are now able in greaternumbers to achieve top-level positions in American business than ageneration ago . . .Both today and a generation ago,many fewer sons of laborers reachthe top of American business thanwould be expected on the basis oftheir proportions in the total population, but the trend is definitely inthe direction of more realized opportunity for men from laboring backgrounds . . . Sons of white - collarworkers more nearly achieve theirproportionate share of top businesspositions today than a generation ago. . . Unlike the case of the white-collargroup, the sons of professional menhave not kept pace in terms of upperechelon business positions with theirincrease in the population.The crux of the problem of inheritance and mobility, of course, is themobility rate for sons of businessmen today and a generation ago; itis here that the greatest change hastaken place. The population changefrom 1900 to 1920 in the proportionof business executives and ownerswas toward greater numbers, fromabout 1 in 20 to about 1 in 10. However, the share of the business eliteheld by sons of business men reversed this population trend, as theirproportions decreased from 58 percent in 1928 to 52 per cent in 1952.Expressed in terms of mobility rate,this was a decline from 967, or nearlyten times their population proportion,to 473, or less than five times their population proportion . . . Only in thecase of sons of farmers has therebeen little or no change in mobilityinto the business elite . . .There is no doubt that both inthe 1920's and in the 1950's birth conferred great advantages on businesscareers. In both periods, the proportions of sons of professional andbusiness men in the elite greatly exceed their proportions in the population. During both periods, some menfrom all levels achieve business leadership, but relatively few sons offarmers, laborers, clerks or salesmenactually climb to the top of our business system. The Dream is far fromreality, both yesterday and today.However, it is no less true, andfar more important, that the systemis increasingly open to men from thelower occupational ranks. Not onlyis there no evidence that opportunity for sons of farmers, laborers,and white-collar workers is decreasing, but movement from these backgrounds into the business elite takesplace in greater degree today thana generation ago. The system is notclosing and becoming more rigid — infact, it is more flexible and increasingly recruits its leaders from allparts of our society.There is additional evidence fromthe study that freedom and flexibility of social position are increasingin American business. The extremeof social inheritance in business isfound in those cases where the sonof a business leader not only becomesa business leader himself but alsoholds his position in the same firmthat the father directed . . . This extreme type of rigidity and socialinheritance took place in 14 per centof the 1928 cases and in only 9 percent in 1952 . . . The important difference between the two generationspreceding the elite groups of 1928 and1952 is that the fathers of the 1952group, like their sons, more oftencame from lower-status occupationalbackgrounds, and moved in largernumbers to higher occupational levels than did the fathers of 1928 group.Increased mobility has taken placenot only in the lifetimes of present-day business leaders but in the careers of their fathers as well . . .In the longest view possible, allevidence indicates that in Americansociety opportunity continues to berealized, and increasngly so. Ratherthan closing in on men of low birth,holding them to the positions intowhich they were born, our social system continues to make it possible formen from all levels to move intoelite positions in commerce and industry. 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'09 L. S. Berlin, B.A. '09A. J. Falick, M.B.A. '51MOnroe 6-290030 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa Nass \etus03Dr. Charles Hugh Neilson, PhD '03, washonored by the staff of St. John's Hospital, St. Louis, at their annual Christmasdinner. He was presented an engravedgold wristwatch and an illuminated citation, in recognition of his 31 year association with the hospital.Easter Seal ChairmanHoward L. Willett, Sr., '06 forthe 16th consecutive year is servingas chairman of the Easter SealCampaign for the Chicago Metropolitan Unit, Illinois Associationfor the Crippled.Willett is president of The WillettCo., contract trucking and truckleasing firm. He has long beenactive in civic and philanthropicwork, and in 1955 was named the"Chicago Citizen of the Year" bythe International Civitan Organization. He has pioneered traffic safety programs in Chicago. The Chicago area Easter Seal Societymaintains a program of direct services to the crippled, supported inlarge part by the annual sale ofEaster Seals. 12Maynard E. Simond has become a partner in F. Eberstadt & Co., New York. Hewas formerly chairman of the board ofdirectors of Pfizer International Inc.13Lorry R. Northrup is executive vicepresident and secretary of Erwin, Wasey& Co., New York.14Colonel W. Lane Rehm, has been appointed executive director of the Washington, D. C, Home Rule Committee. Hewill direct the organization's campaign tosecure House approval on the bill (whichhas already passed the Senate) to giveWashington local suffrage.John A. Greene, president of the OhioBell Telephone Co., received the HumanRelations Award of the National Conference of Christians and Jews at a dinner held recently in Cleveland. Greene'scommunity service has centered chieflyaround the Welfare Federation and theCommunity Fund in Cleveland. Dr.Everett R. Clinchy, president of the Conference, said, "John Greene embodies theprinciple that people who are unlike culturally can join in accomplishing common objectives spiritually." George B.McKibbin, JD '13, a Chicago attorney andvice president of the Conference, alsoparticipated in the ceremony.16Charles T. Holman, DB, is minister ofthe Underwood Memorial Baptist churchin Milwaukee. Dr. Holman taught theology at the University for 25 years, andwas Dean of the Baptist Divinity House.After his retirement in 1947, he servedfor five years as pastor of the EnglishSpeaking Union Protestant church inGuatemala. He is author of The Religionof a Healthy Mind and Religion forEveryday Living.18Averry V. Wolfrum, AM '38, retiredJanuary 27 as principal of Ravenswoodschool in Chicago, just 42V2 years afterhe began teaching in a one room schoolnear Elgin. He and his wife plan to tourEurope, and then perhaps return to educational work. New DeanS. Stewart Gordon, AM '35, PhD'48, is new dean of Harpur College,the liberal arts college of the StateUniversity of New York at Endi-cott. As the college administrativeofficer second to the president, heassumed responsibilities for curriculum, faculty, and studentaffairs September 14.Dean Gordon served as instructor of English at Chicago from 1937to 1940. After war service in China,he joined the State Universitystaff. He was Assistant to the Executive Dean for Four Year andProfessional Colleges before hisrecent appointment.19Mervin J. Kelly, PhD, of Short Hills,N.J., president of Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., has been elected a ForeignMember of the Swedish Royal Academyof Sciences. The Academy was foundedin 1739 by Carl Linnaeus and others forthe encouragement of the natural sciencesand mathematics.20Emil D. Ries, formerly general managerof Du Pont's Polychemicals Department,is now retired and living in Wilmington,Del.22Edward A. H. Fuchs, PhD '33, andCharles E. Lee, '22, conducted a GreatBooks Course in Springfield, Mass., forthe YMCA.MARCH, 1956 31SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 1 00 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoBIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380TheHOTEL SHERRY53rd and the Lake — FAirfax 4-1000BANQUETS — DANCESOur Specialtyalumni are alwayswelcome at theHotel Del PradoFifty-Third Street andHyde Park BoulevardHYde Park 3-9600LOWER YOUR COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOS EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURES Jean Blach Adams (Mrs. Melvin J.),writes that she is now secretary in theJulian J. Jackson Agency, Chicago. Herdaughter is married and has three boys;her son, also married, works for theHousing Administration in Washington,D.C.23Walter Laves, PhD '27, Professor ofPolitical Science at the University ofIndiana, has been elected vice chairmanof the American Council of Learned Societies. Nan J. Nelson is now retired afterteaching English for 27 years in Logansport, Ind., High School. She wrote usof her travel plans: Alaska, Cuba, andEurope with a summer course at Cambridge.Seven articles in the 1956 EncyclopediaBritannica were written in whole or inpart by John W. Coulter, PhD, who iscurrently Professor of Geography at theUniversity of Cincinnati. He completelyreorganized the encyclopedia's articles onthe Pacific and Marquesas Islands, andwrote in collaboration the articles onJava and the Philippines.26 27Milton Gerwin, JD '28 and DorothyCrosby Gerwin, '26, Chicago, write newsof their children: Richard, 22, expects toreceive a B.S. at the University in June;Robert, 17, graduates from Hyde ParkHigh in June.Rhea Brennwasser, JD '27 is nowworking with Callaghan & Co. in Chicago. Her sister Miriam, AM '26, SM '39,teaches biology at Hyde Park HighSchool.Charles F. Jespersen and his wife arenow living on the bluff overlooking theMississippi in Burlington, Iowa. He expects to welcome a fifth grand childabout reunion time this June.Natalie Combs Lydon writes that herson Bill will graduate in June from Cornell with a degree in civil engineering. Lilyan M. Alspaugh, PhB '27, has beenappointed Director of Community Relations at Radio Cincinnati, Inc.28Kenneth A. Rouse, vice president ofA. B. Dick Co., has been elected to theboard of Chicago Federal Savings andLoan Association. Helen King Rouse isalso a member of the class of '28.29George A. Percy is advertising manager for Bauer and Black in Chicago.mmm 8» SHmio, *z% vpumw %ftits time he talked things overwith a Sun Life man/". . time to have a Sun Life man make your home reallyyours with a Sun Life of Canada Mortgage Protectionpolicy. The Sun Life man in your community isRalph J. Wood, Jr., '481 NORTH LA SALLE STREET, CHICAGO 2, ILLINOISFR 2-2390 • RE 1-085532 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE30George R. Kernodle, AM, Professor ofSpeech and Dramatic Art at the University of Arkansas, is spending sevenmonths of travel and study in Englandand continental Europe. Among his stopswill be the Shakespeare Institute atStratford-on-Avon, where he will deliver four lectures; the University ofUtrecht, for another lecture; London,Paris, Athens, and several parts of Italy.His principal activity while abroad willbe research on his coming book, a comprehensive history of the theatre.Herbert C. Jenkins, Cleveland, hasbeen named a member of the Soldiers'Relief Commission, marking the firsttime that a Negro has ever held the post.W. James Lyons is chief of the FiberProperties Section of the QuartermasterResearch and Development Center inNatick, Mass.Leland L. Tolman. JD '33, is deputyadministrator of the Appellate DivisionCourt House in New York City.32Randall S. Hilton, AM, Chicago, isexecutive secretary of the Western Unitarian Conference. He spoke recently inSt. John's church, Cincinnati, on "Progress, Problems and Prospects."Harry Shernoff writes about his children: Roberta Ellen will graduate from the University of Wisconsin this comingJune and be married the same month toJerome H. Lederman. William is afreshman at the University of Miami.Corinne Fitzpatrick, who is a researchanalyst in electronics at Stanford University, writes us that Donald Bean, '17,lives right next door to the lab and islooking "well and chipper after his longordeal with ill health."34Edwin S. Ciesiak, PhD '44, is AssociateProfessor of Biology in the University ofMinnesota's general college. He has beeninterested in Polish cultural affairs andin problems of foreign students for sometime and is past president of InternationalHouse Associations in Chicago and theTwin cities. He has traveled widely inconnection with his field, collecting andstudying biological specimens in theMediterranean sea, Atlantic and PacificOceans and Hudson Bay.35Henry B. Fairman is pastor of EastView Congregational Church in ShakerHeights, Ohio.36Rita E. Epstein, Chicago, has been anassistant state's attorney for the pastthree years. Army InternArmy 1st Lieutenant Edward A.Lichter, AB '47, is taking his internship in medicine in the army.The lieutenant received his MDfrom the University of Illinois inJune; in June he entered the army.His wife, Charlotte, is with him atFitzsimmons Army Hospital, Denver. He is a member of Phi SigmaDelta fraternity.Your invitation to theseSPECIAL EVENTSLOOP LUNCHEONSGeorgian RoomCarson Pirie Scott12:15 P.M.$2.00CAMPUSSUBURBAN Wednesday, March 7THE dead sea SCROLLS — Ralph Marcus, Professor of Classical Languages and Literatures.Wednesday, April 4THE PLACE OF PSYCHIATRY IN MEDICAL EDUCATION AT CHICAGO — Dr. C. Knight Aldrich, Chairman of the Departmentof Psychiatry.April 25-29festival of the arts: a week of drama, literature, poetry,music and art, ending with the Beaux Arts Ball.flossmoor-homewood — Elder Olson, Professor of English,Friday, March 16 at the home of Neal Duncan, Sylvan Court,Homewood.Miss Betsey Shaw, Alumni Association5733 University Ave., Chicago 37 Ml 3-0800 X324II wish to order ticket(s) @ $2 for the luncheon Mar. 7 ticket(s) (a) $2 for the luncheon April 4I enclose my check in the amount of $ .1 am interested in the Festival of the Arts.1 am .interested in the suburban meeting inFlossmoorNcAddress.Phone To avoid disappointment, if you wish to attend any of these events — even those at which there is no charge — pleasereturn the reservation blank so that you may be notified of last minute changes.MARCH, 1956 33'i'mmrn**\OUR OWN MAKE TROPICAL WORSTEDSof our exclusive English worstedsor lightweight Dacron and woolBrooks Brothers tropical worsted suits have an individuality and distinctiveness that is recognized ata glance. They are made in our own workrooms . . .of fine materials woven especially for us in our owndesigns and colorings. Lightweight and most comfortable, they are excellent for wear in Spring andright into Summer. In blues, browns, greys andfancys, $95 and $105.Also our rr346" tropical worsteds, $7032 page Spring Catalogue sent upon requestESTABLISHED 1818yen'* f urnistnncj*, Hats ^jfhoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N.Y.Ill BROADWAY, NEW YORK 6, N.Y.BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO Dr. Robert H. Ebert, MD '42, Professorof Medicine at the University, will go toWestern Reserve University July 1 asProfessor of Medicine and head of theDepartment of Medicine of the MedicalSchool and University Hospital. He isa Rhodes scholar and a Phi Beta Kappa,Martin F. Young is in the mechanicaland structural engineering field.37James R. Ware is assistant secretary inthe trust department of the NorthernTrust Co., Chicago.38Eugene T. Mapp, formerly of ArgonneNational Laboratory, is now at GeneralAmerican Transportation CorporationResearch and Testing Laboratory in EastChicago, Ind. as senior scientist.40Jack J. Carlson has been appointed avice president of Kaiser Steel Corporation and general manager of the Monte-bello, Calif, fabricating division plant.Marion G. Katzmann, AM '41, is teaching music in the Des Moines, la. schoolsystem.On his Christmas card, Philip R.Lawrence, JD '42, San Francisco attorney and president of the Bay Area Chicago Club, announced the arrival ofChristopher Alan Lawrence on December 6, 1955.46Harold C. Bauer is Superintendent ofSchools in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.47Paul A. Demkovich, SM '48, has beenappointed leader of an analytical development group in Standard Oil's Whiting,Ind. research laboratories.1st Lt. Ariel G. Schrodt, SM '49, PhD'54, graduated recently from the military medical orientation course at theMedical Field Service School, Fort SamHouston, Texas.John R. Cameron has been appointedAssistant Professor of Physics at theUniversity of Pittsburgh. He is also associated with the Radiation Laboratory.The holiday greeting card from theMike Weinbergs included the names ofMichael Alan and Wendy, the latter "bornat 10:26 A.M. December 11; 6 pounds."Babette V. Casper, SB '49, was married to Sydney Block November 13, 1955.Babs, who has been doing free lancemarket research in San Francisco, willcontinue her business. Sydney is abroker in San Francisco. Their home isat 244 Laurel, San Francisco.Mary Ella Hopkins, New York City,is now writer-researcher for the UnitedStates committee for the United NationsChildren's Fund.a a a as I® ® ®"6" R. X O N S5487 LAKE PARK AVE.CHICAGO, ILLINOIS0or JveservaiLons Gall:BUtterfield 8-4960LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERUNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit InsuranceCorporationT. A. REHNQU1ST COvoy SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433Z>heexclusive Cleaner AWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Parle Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608 Robert Gemmer, DB, former pastor ofFirst Church of the Brethren, ClevelandHeights, is now assistant to the directorof student activities and guidance atFenn College, Cleveland. Bob is servinghis second year as president of thealumni club of Greater Cleveland.Capt. David S. Dennis married ArloneM. Dempsey last October. David is stationed at the Rome, N. Y. Air ForceDepot where he is doing staff work inthe Directorate of Procurement and Production.Robert S. Meyer has joined the staffcf the Technical Information and LibraryPlanning Group of the Atlantic ResearchCorporation, Alexandria, Va. as a technical information specialist. Among hisduties will be that of research and consultation in the planning of special libraries and the systematizing of information on storage and retrievals. Meyerreceived his library education at theUniversity and was librarian of EckhartLibrary.47Marian V. Rolen, AM '47, Chicago, is aneditor for the National Safety Council.Benjamin C. Korschot, MBA, of GlenEllyn, 111., is now Second Vice Presidentin the trust investment division of theNorthern Trust Co., Chicago.Ralph M. Lerner, AM '49, PhD '53, andCarol Drath Lerner, '50, AM '54, arestudying at the University of Cambridge,England. They expect to return to thiscountry in 1957.Mary Wheeler is engaged to Peter S.Heller of New York. Mary is the daughter of LeRoy Coe Wheeler, '18, of Sterling, 111.Emery A. Beres, MBA, San Pedro,Calif., is treasurer of South Coast Fisheries, Inc.John F. Kornblith, MBA '48, has beenelected president of Samuel Spitz & Sons,Chicago clothing manufacturers. John isthe first person outside the Spitz familyto hold this position in the firm's 80-yearhistory. The Kornbliths live in HighlandPark. Mrs. Kornblith was Ina JeanRussakov, '44. John is also a member ofthe Senate of the College Division of theAlumni Association.48Arnold W. F. Langner, Jr. is an assistant U.S. attorney for the eastern district of Wisconsin. He recently returnedfrom the University of Heidelberg, wherehe lectured on modern American politicalhistory. Arnold is also the author ofseveral articles, and of a public affairspamphlet.John Holsen, MA '52, Miriam DubinHolsen, '48, who are the parents of Matthew, Rebecca, Ruth and Esther announcethe birth of Martha January 15. TheHolsens live in Chicago.Kirk Fox, AM '51, is a productioneconomist with the U.S. Atomic EnergyCommission in Washington, D.C. PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEAJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, LA 2-8354BESTBOILERREPAIR&WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoWasson -PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesSince 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Producersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton H. Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4MARCH, 1956 35BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71ST ST.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating-3123Lake Street -Wood FinishingPhoneKEdzie 3-3186 Robert L. Kealy, JD, and Mollie AbbottKealy, PhB '45, JD '48, of Oconomowac,Wis., announce the birth of their thirdchild, Abby, in December. The other twomembers of the family are Erin, 4, andJared, l1/..Richard Greenwood is a civil engineerat the Elmendorf Air Force Base inAnchorage, Alaska.Kenneth F. Hoffmaster is second vicepresident in the pension division of thetrust department of the Northern TrustCo., Chicago.Robert R. Bidwell, MBA, '50, writesthat he has had two major changes in hislife this year. First, he married a girlfrom Canton, Ohio last June; second, hemoved from the internal auditing department to the general accounting department in Proctor & Gamble.Laurin Lr Henry, AM, Alexandria, Va.,is doing governmental research for theBrookings Institution in Washington, D.C.Gerald Somers married Gloria AnnGraeszel November 26 in Milwaukee.M. Glenn Walker caught us up on hisactivities after graduation: he receivedan AB and AM in sociology from Stanford University and is now stationed atRock Island, 111., as a research technician on the Ordnance Supervision Selection Research Project. He expects to continue his graduate work when he leavesthe service in August. PROGRESSIVEPAINT & HARDWARE COMPANYPaints • Wallpaper • HardwareHousewares • Janitor Supplies1158 East 55th StreetHYde Park 3-3840N.S.A. AND FACULTY DISCOUNTSCLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSince 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for UCollege, Secondary and Elementary.wide patronage. Call or write us at diversity,Nation-25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.Blast it! I might have knownPeter Pan would take refuge inthat H&D box!"llSf ..VHQ':Smart move. Everybodyknows things staybetter protectedin H&D corrugated boxes,HIM & DAUCH. ©@ Subsidiary of West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company13 FACTORIES AND 42 SALES OFFICES IN THE EAST, MIDWEST AND SOUTH36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPublic Relations OfficerClifford G. Massoth started the newyear in a new position with the IllinoisCentral Railroad: Public Relations Officer, in charge of the public relationsoffice. Clifford started in the freight department of the Illinois Central in 1936;became traffic agent in Sioux City, Iowaand Omaha; returned to Chicago on thepublic relations staff and eventuallyeditor of the Illinois Central Magazine.Last year, Clifford was also elected tomembership on the Senate of the CollegeDivision of the Alumni Association. Hehas provided alumni leadership for Harvey, Illinois, his home community.Lorie D. Jerrell (Mrs. Robert E.), isteaching school in Tucson, Arizona.Joseph C. Borzenski is an optometristin Waukesha, Wisconsin.49Bernard Farber, AM, PhD '53, is aresearch sociologist for the University ofIllinois.Ralph T. Jans, AM '49, PhD '50, is inItaly as Vice Consul and Secretary inthe Diplomatic Service.1st Lt. Robert W. Parsons took partin Exercise Sage Brush in Louisiana, thelargest Army-Air Force maneuver sinceWorld War II.Steve A. Johnson, MBA, was recentlyelected to membership in the ChicagoChapter of the National Association ofCost Accountants. He is assistant to thegeneral manager of Solo Cup Company.50Kenneth D. MacKenzie and Ruth Lun-deen MacKenzie, '48, AM '52, are now inNew York, where he is an investmentanalyst for Jesup and Lamont. Theyhave two children — Max, 3, and Abigail,born October 19. George Okamura, MBA, and his wife(the former Nori Kenmotsu) live in FortLee, N. J. He is in the import-exportbusiness in New York.Dick, SM, and Mary, AM '52, Crumleyare enjoying life in Columbia, S. C,where Dick is Assistant Professor ofEducation. Last fall he moved into abrand new air-conditioned office in thenew School of Education wing. Dickand his department have been workingwith our School of Education facultyin establishing a Ph.D. program in education at U.S.C.Richard Wisowaty and Suzanne NicholsWisowaty, '52, and their two children,David, 2, and Carol, 10 months, are enjoying their new house in Concord, Calif.Corinne Katz, AM, was married Christmas Day to Rolf Hoexter. The couplelives in Coytesville, Fort Lee, N.J.Ralph H. Perkins, SM, was recentlyemployed by the University of California's Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory asa chemist in K Division.Helen Graves, AM, has been appointeddirector of nursing in the Emory University hospital. She was previously anInstructor here in Nursing Service Administration.Heinz Seltmann, SM, PhD '53, is Assistant Professor of Botany at BarnardCollege.51Dr. Erwin N. Whitman, SM, MD '54, ispracticing in Elglewood, N.J.Harold D. Buck, DB '51, has been appointed assistant to Wells D. Burnette,'37, Vice President of Roosevelt University.Dieter Gruen, PhD, and Dolores ColenGruen, PhD '52, and their children Ericaand Karen, are completing a year's stayin Berkeley, Calif., where Dieter wasinvited to do a year's research in theradiation laboratory. After vacationingin Florida Dieter will return to his position in the chemistry department atArgonne Laboratory in Lemont, 111.Vladimir Reisky-Dubnic, AM, has beenappointed Instructor in Political Scienceat Washington College, Chesterton, Md.Vladimir fought in the Czech underground during the war, has been assistant director of the Institute of WorldAffairs, foreign correspondent and scriptwriter at BBC in London, and for thepast half-year has been a political andeconomic free lance writer in Brazil.John H. Ferguson, MBA '51, has beenappointed assistant manager of credits atJones & Laughlin Steel Corp.Hector Alvarez-Silva, AM, is now Assistant to the Dean at the College ofGeneral Studies, University of PortoRico. His wife, Elba Burges, received anAM in '49.William B. Macomber, Jr., Rochester,N. Y., has been appointed special assistant to the Secretary of State. William R. Sincock, AM, is an Instructor in the College of Education atWayne University in Detroit.John H. Ferguson, MBA, Ben Avon,Pittsburgh, has been appointed assistantmanager of credits for Jones & LaughlinSteel Corp.Maurice F. Groat married June HuntJanuary 15, 1955. They live in SanFrancisco, where Maurice is employed bythe General Metals Corp.52Albert A. Aasen, MBA, is a management consultant with Robert Heller& Associates, Inc. in Cleveland.Andrew D. Suttle, Jr. has been promoted to the rank of senior researchchemist in the Humble Oil & RefiningCompany, Baytown, Texas. In his newposition, Suttle will continue his work inthe field of radiation chemistry.Paul W. Cook, Jr., PhD, has beennamed Assistant Professor of BusinessAdministration at Harvard's School ofBusiness Administration.Theodore A. Snyder, Jr. graduated withhonors from Duke University Law Schoollast June. He was commissioned firstlieutenant in the Judge Advocate General's School in October and is studyingat the University of Virginia division ofthat school. His brother, John, is amember of the senior class at the University.George W. Dashnau, AM, Philadelphia,has been appointed advertising managerof the Ajax Eletcric Co.. He has beenwith Ajax for five years, and was previously assistant production manager.New EnsignEns. John J. B. Miller, AM '55,was commissioned November 10 atthe U.S. Navy Officer's CandidateSchool in Newport, R.I. He hadcompleted four months of trainingwith 684 other college graduates.March, 1956 37I miss you>d^° \s#& <jcv# MoVce'Welcome Home"Ahese simple, friendly words are said many, many times over thetelephone each day.It is just such simple, friendly words from one person to anotherthat make the telephone such an important part of our lives.Surely it is indispensable in emergencies. But its greater valuemay be in carrying friendship and love and happiness across the miles.For without the telephone, time and space would rush between us.And many of us would be so much alone.BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM38 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts. Silverware.Golden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)FLATWARE & HOLLOW WAREWhole sets and open stockCOMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, III. 53Michael E. Krauss, '53, has continuedhis studies at Western Reserve University, where he received the BrookesFriebolin Award in French and the GoldMedal in Italian and Linguistics; andColumbia University, where he receivedthe French Government Scholarship. Heis now in Paris at the Sorbonne.Henry Wojtyla, AM, and his wife Eugenia, '55, live in Chicago where he isan economist for Standard Oil.Miss Leokadya J. Kozlowski, AM, recently purchased a new home in theWest San Fernando Valley of SouthernCalifornia and "would be delighted tomeet any lonely alums who come thisway." Her address: 7911 N. McNultyAve., Canoga Park, California.Van R. Gathany, MBA, of Lake Forest,111., is assistant secretary in the trust department of the Northern Trust Co.,Chicago.William T. Davies, AM, is director ofthe United Community Services membership department for the District of Columbia. He was formerly field directorfor a Chicago juvenile protective association.54Karl Schauwecker, MBA, servicemetallurgist for U.S. Steel, spoke Janu ary 17 at a meeting of the Milwaukeeclub of the American Society for Metals.Lucy Brundrett, '55, married Alfred C.Jefferson recently. Lucy expects to receive an AM in social sciences from theUniversity in June. She has held scholarships since 1951. Alfred holds the CleoHearon Fellowship in History at theUniversity, where he is working towarda PhD.Robert J. Ross married Catharine Clements of Wrens, Ga. December 18. Uponcompletion of his army service next September Robert expects to enter theSchool of Theology at Drew.Jay K. Buck, MBA, is now assistantcashier in the banking department of theNorthern Trust Co., Chicago.55Kiyoshi (Kenneth) Ishida, MBA, hasreturned to Japan and is now workingin the export section of the Japan SteelTube Corporation.Ronald J. Walrath, DB, is assistantminister of Unity Church, St. Paul,Minn.James R. Allison, JD, is training withthe 1st Infantry Division at Fort Riley,Kansas.John A. Meardon, DB, is now assistantminister of the First Unitarian Church,Providence, R. I.GENERAL MOTORS INVITES....,„,,,.¦ ALL GRADUATE ENGINEERS ^VVmmmd $oh O^fl^ttuHUifid !for ambitious, creative men.AVIONICSINERTIAL SYSTEMS ETC •G.M. ELECTRONICS DIVISIONoffers challenging, pioneering opportunities to ambitious men. We extend a cordial invitation to everydeserving Engineer and Designer towrite us their wants. We may beable to supply the square hole forthe square peg! CREATIVE OPPORTUNITIESin the following fields: Missile Guidance Systems; Jet and Turbo PropEngine Controls; Bombing andNavigational Computer Systems;Airborne Fire Control; U.H.F. Communications, YOUR FUTUREdepends on your making theright connection with the rightfirm as quickly as possible. Whynot send full facts about youreducation, work background,etc. We will do all we can foryou and treat your applicationwith the fullest confidence.© ¦¦"IAC SPARK PLUG • THE ELECTRONICS DIVISIONGENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION jMilwaukee % Wis. Flint % Mich.march, 1956 39MeroorwfDr. John B. Jack, MD '95, died in Auburn, Nebraska, November 5.Dr. Charles E. Kreml, MD '96, died inChicago. He had been a Navy medicalofficer, and after his retirement hadserved as ship doctor for a steamshipcompany.Cora M. Gettys, '96, AM '15, died December 19.Dr. Alonzo M. Wheeler, MD '97, BerrienSpring, Mich., was killed in an autoaccident on November 24.Roy C. Griswold, '97, died in Chicagolast December. He was chairman of theBoard and co-founder of Calumet HarborTerminals, Inc.Dr. James W. Lehan, MD '97, died November 3 in Greeley, Colo.John F. Boeye, DB '01, died September1 in the Pacific Home, Los Angeles, California.Edwin G. Pierce, '02, died December 1at 76. He had been a staff member of theU.S. Reclamation Service and consultingchemist for the U.S. Public Service Reserve, was at one time science editor* ofthe Cleveland Plain Dealer and was theoriginator of Isotopics Magazine. He wasa charter member of the Cleveland chapter of the American Society of Metallurgists and chairman of the Clevelandsection of the American Chemical Society.Dr. Ralph P. Reairs, MD '03, died December 18 in Normal, 111.Daniel B. Miller, MD '03, Terre Haute,Ind., died October 19.Dr. Edward H. Ochsner, MD '04, diedin Chicago January 22 at 88. Veteransurgeon and past president of the IllinoisMedical Society and the Illinois StateCharities Commission, he was attending^surgeon at Augustana and St. Mary ofNazareth Hospitals before his retirement.Frank M. McKey, '04, died January 21in Chicago. He had been an appraiserand receiver for over 50 years, handlinggovernment bankruptcy suits as a courtappointed receiver.Dr. James G. Omelvena, MD '06, diedDecember 7 in San Diego, Calif.Dr. James A. Britton, MD '07, diedJanuary 7 in Altadena, Calif. He wasa staff member at St. Luke's Hospitaland Professor of Medicine at Northwestern University. For 20 years he hadbeen medical director of the InternationalHarvester Co. in Chicago. He was 79.Jabez W. Burns, '07, died August 20.Florence Compton Rathke (Mrs. WalterR.), '08, died October 22 in Chicago.Dr. Paul A. White, '08, died ChristmasDay in Davenport, Iowa at 71. He playedfootball here under Alonzo Stagg, andfollowing his graduation spent 10 yearsteaching and coaching a championshiphigh school football team, while finishinga full medical course and internship.His first emergency call was to performa major abdominal operation by lamplight in a cottage on a JVLississippi Riverisland. In 1925 he was installed as a Fellow ofthe American College of Surgeons.Ida Perlstein Levinson (Mrs. Abraham), '09, died July 6 in Chicago.Clara L. Stiles, '10, died November 29in Long Beach, California.John W. MacNeish, '11, died in Chicagolast December. He was Chicago representative of Allyn & Bacon, Inc., textbook publishers.John C. Morrison, '14, died January 17at 64. He was associated with Horn-blower & Weeks, investment firm.Orville D. Miller, '15, Hinsdale, 111.,died in October.William R. Meeker, '16,, died July 22 inMobile, Alabama. *•Dr. Harold O. Jones, ]\JD '17, ProfessorEmeritus of Obstetrics and Gynecology atNorthwestern JVEedical School, died inPottsboro, Texas. He was at one timehead of St. Luke's Hospital medical boardand Chairman of the Department ofObstetrics and Gynecology, and was alsoa former president of the Chicago Gynecological Society.Clarence G. McClean, AM '18, diedJune 22 in Los Angeles, Calif.James H. Hance, PhD '18, died November 16 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Dr.Hance was head of the Department ofGeology at Texas A&M, later Dean ofthe School of Mines at the Universityof Alaska. During World War II heserved as consultant to the War Production Board. He retired in 1949.William J. Beatty, '19, AM '20, diedin Vienna last July, while on a teachers'tour of Europe. He was a history teacherat Sumner High School in St. Louis for32 years. In his will Mr. Beatty set upa $10,000 trust fund for an annual college scholarship for Sumner graduates.Dr. Henry Duiker, MD '19, died in LaPorte, Minn, on June 24.The late Lillian A. White, PhB '19, whodied September 7, 1955, provided in herwill for a William Henry White memorialfund for scholarships in the School ofBusiness for any worthy student whosechief interest is in salesmanship. MissWhite had been a French teacher.Mary Rinehart Lamb (Mrs. ThomasA.), '20, died October 30 in Myrtle Point,Oregon.Lawrence C. Austin, '21, died December 11 in Atchison, Kansas.Willis A. Weld, '21, died November 27in Oak Park. From 1924 until 1933 hehad operated his own advertising agency,and at the time of his death he was vicepresident of the Fensholt AdvertisingAgency * in Chicago. His wife, MarionMoate Weld, was a member of the classof '18.Dr. Robert J. Bowman, MD '22, diedAugust 19 in Beverly Hills, Calif.Herbert W. Stewart, '23, died October28 in Highland, Kansas.Clara L. Rathfon, '23, died October 20in Logansport, Indiana. She had taughtin the Logansport schools for forty-eightyears, was president of the Indiana StateTeachers Association in 1932 and president of the Indiana Retired Teachers Association from the time of its organiza tion in 1950 until she resigned in 1955.An active lobbyist at many sessions ofthe Indiana General Assembly, shesought to include teachers in new retirement laws passed by the Legislature.She was selected as "Pioneer WomanTeacher" in 1953. She had been campaign chairman for the alumni in Logansport since 1942.George ttuling, '23, died December 3in Hackensack, N. J.Ransome O. Jackson, '24, died June 12in Savannah, N.Y.Kate Daum, PhD '25, Director of Nutrition at the University of Iowa hospitalssince 1926, died December 31 in IowaCity.Author of many articles in professionaljournals and recipient of several awardsfor her contributions to the study ofnutrition, she was Associate Professor ofTheory and Practice of Medicine.Stewart F. Clark, '27, died July 31 inMuncie, Ind.Marion Hathway (Mrs. TheodoreParker), AM '27, PhD '33, died November 20. She was Head of the Department of Social Economy at Bryn MawrCollege.Malcolm J. Proudfoot, '28, SM '30, PhD'36, died in England last November at 48.At the time of his death he was Associate Professor of Geography at Northwestern University. Previously he hadbeen assistant director of the censusbureau in Washington, D. C, and hadtaught at George Washington and American Universities.Dr. Clarice L. McDougall, '28, MD '39,died at 50. She was a psychiatrist inChicago.John R. Creek, '29, died August 25 inKnoxville, Tenn. He had been superintendent of schools in Herrin, 111.George Kare Fisher, AM '29, died June4 in Chicago. He was director of theveterans institute for Traverse City highschool.C<$a Eckhoff, '34, died October 23 inChicago.Dr. Kathleen W. MacArthur, AM '34,PhD '36, died in Lake Forest, 111. onNovember 14. Dr. MacArthur was bornin Scotland and later lived in Canadabut did much of her academic work inthis country. She taught religion at aCanadian Mission school in Tokyo andat the New School for Social Researchin New York. She had lived in LakeForest since 1952.Robert A. Dougherty, AM '38, diedNovember 6. He had been principal ofWhiting South Side School for 26 years.Egbert Lubbers, AM '40, PhD '46, minister of the First Presbyterian church inSherman, Texas, died November 21 frombulbar polio. His congregation is building a Lubbers Memorial Chapel in hishonor.Lillian H. Adler, '41, died August 15 inChicago.Dr. William E. Chase, MD '44, died inNovember in Detroit. He had been inthe Urology division at Henry FordHospital.40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESteels are like a family. . each with its own personality, its own special talentsMUCH OF YOUR KITCIIENWARE is made of steel. So arethe hundreds of thousands of miles of railroad rails thatcriss-cross the nation. And so is practically all of yourautomobile.THEY'RE ALL STEEL, but that's where the similarityends. In your kitchen, it's shining, rust-resistant stainless steel. In rails, it's carbon steel — strong and toughto endure years of hard service. And there are morethan 160 different kinds of automobile steels.What makes the difference among steels? The mostimportant influence is alloying metals — chromium,manganese, tungsten, vanadium, and others.ADDING ALLOYING METALS to molten steel changesthe composition of the steel and gives it special characteristics. It's chromium, for example, that makes steelstainless. Tungsten, on the other hand, makes steel so hard that it is used in machine tools to shape 'softer'steel into things to serve you.FROM MINES throughout the world, the people ofUnion Carbide gather ores and refine them into morethan 50 different alloying metals that are vital to making more and better steel.STUDENTS AND STUDENT ADVISERS: Learn more about careeropportunities with Union Carbide in Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals,Cases, and Plastics. Write for "Products and Processes" booklet.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET \\\AA NEW YORK 17. N. Y.In Canada: UNION CARBIDE CANADA LIMITED, Toronto-JJCCs Trade-marked Products include-Electromet Alloys and Metals National Carbons Acheson Electrodes Synthetic Organic CHEMICALSHaynes Stellite Alloys Eveready Flashlights and Batteries Dynel Textile Fibers PRESTONE Anti-Freeze UNION CarbideUnion Carbide Silicones Prest-O-Lite Acetylene Pyrofax Gas Bakelite, Vinylite, and Krene Plastics Linde OxygenGET ON THE BAND WAGON!Nothing succeeds like success — and the time has come to get on theband wagon.The University of Chicago CAMPAIGN for $32,779,000 passed the halfway mark just six months after it was announced. That spells the beginning ofsuccess in any language you may have learned at the University.A band wagon, bedecked with the green currency of the realm, is waitingat your door. Get aboard — and make it greener!*We have a winning candidate for top honors infinancing higher educationlALUMNI COMMITTEES, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO*What we mean is— make your contribution now to—ALUMNI DIVISIONThe University of Chicago Campaign8 South Dearborn StreetChicago 3, Illinois