FEBRUARY 1956____*MACii*ersary IssueYour invitation to theseSPECIAL EVENTSLOOP LUNCHEONSGeorgian RoomCarson Pirie Scott12:15 P.M.$2.00CAMPUS EVENTSSUBURBAN MEETINGSTELEPHONE Wednesday, February 8Asian report — Hans J. Morgenthau, Director of the Centerfor the Study of American Foreign Policy, returned in January from a trip that included Tokyo, Hong Kong, Saigon,Bangkok, Rangoon and Karachi.Wednesday, March 7dead sea scrolls. Ralph Marcus, Professor of ClassicalLanguages -and Literature, will discuss the importance toarchaeology and biblical scholarship of the discovery of theScrolls.Saturday, January 28 Field Housesports festival. Beginning with a track meet at 1:30, afencing match at 2:00, highlighted by a basketball game,Chicago vs. Alumni at 3:30, and ending with an evening ofgymnastics. Alumni still long on breath and accurate of shotare needed for the team; no tryouts for the cheering section.Dinner at the Quadrangle Club, $3. (Please make reservations).January 30-February 2 — 8:00 P. M. no chargeMandel HallWoodrow Wilson Centennial Lectures:"Freedom for Man — A World Safe for Mankind"Jan. 30 "Personal Recollections of Woodrow Wilson"Raymond FosdickJan. 31 "Wilson's Conception of the Presidency"Feb. 1 "Wilson, Politician and Statesman"Jonathan W. DanielsFeb. 2 "Wilson the Internationalist"Saturday, February 25open house on the Midway. Seventeen different tours of thehospitals, laboratories and research projects; exhibits ofstudent activities, faculty reception; dinner at the Quadrangle Club; and a student show in Mandel. Send immediately for reservations.FOX RIVER VALLEY— Wednesday, February 1,8:00 P.M., St. Charles Country ClubLA GRANGE— Wednesday, February 8, 8:15 P.M.,Edgewood Valley Country ClubDOWNERS GROVE— Friday, February 10, 8:00 P.M.,Avery Coonley SchoolBetsey Shaw, Program Director, Midway 3-0800,Ext. 3241.Miss Betsey Shaw, Alumni Association5733 University Ave., Chicago 37 Ml 3-0800 X324II wish to order ticket(s) @ $2 for the luncheon Feb. 8 ticket(s) @ $2 for the luncheon Mar. 7 ticket(s) @ $3 for the dinner Jan. 28I enclose my check in the amount of $ I plan to attend the following events Sports Festival Woodrow Wilson Lectures Open HouseI am interested in the suburban meeting in..Name Address Phone To avoid disappointment, if you wish to attend any of these events — even those at which there is no charge — pleasereturn the reservation blank so that you may be notified of last minute changes.Planning tours and exhibitions for February Open House, Alumni-StudentCouncil members fill Howard Mort'sliving room. They are (I. to r.) An-ShihCheng, Ruth Kopel, George Sorter,Chairman Dick Philbrick, Betsey Shaw,Margaret Beaudet, Ernest Moses, Robert Cunningham, John Womer, PalmerPinney, Earl Medlinsky, Kent Karohl,(standing), Howard Mort, John Kornblith, (standing), Don Miller, Larry Sherman, Lois Lewellyn, Melvin Tracht,Brina Jaffee and Rick Prairie.emoMTwelve Studentsand 12 alumni worktogether during the school year as acommittee called, of course, the Student-Alumni Committee. They will be yourhosts at the annual Midwinter OpenHouse on campus Saturday afternoon andevening, February 25.Alumni on the committee are appointedby the president of the College Divisionof the Alumni Association, Samuel Horwitz. The students represent the ten mostimportant student activities plus twoappointed by the dean of students.The committee met at our home, (seepicture), January 5 to make plans forOpen House and for other activities —which we'll tell you about later. Thepersonnal of this committee and the incidental facts about them are interestingenough to carry at the right.The Open House Programis carriedin eight pages of detail in your Januaryissue of Tower Topics. The program startsSaturday afternoon, February 25, with 17simultaneous tours at 3 P.M. These arefollowed by a student-faculty reception,student exhibits, dinner at the Quadrangle Club, a student program inMandel in the early evening and theWashington Prom in Hutchinson Commons carrying through midnight.Check the coupon on the back ofTower Topics and mail promptly so wecan make all the necessary reservationsfor you.H.W.M.An editor's duties are many andvaried. Editor Felicia Anthenelli (I.)pitches in and helps Walter Lippmannas he dons academic gown for theSocial Science Convocation. THE COMMITTEEStudents Representing Home TownMargaret BeaudetJoy BurbachDavid FarquharBrina JaffeeKent E. KarohlRuth KopelEarl MedlinskyErnesto MosesStephen OppenheimerPalmer W. PinneyRichard PrairieLawrence ShermanMiles WalburnAlumniRichard B. Philbrick, '43, The Chicago TribuneMrs. George W. Fleming, '29, (Annette Allen)Robert M. Cunningham, '31, Ed.-Director, Modern Hospital Pub. Co.John R. Womer, '35, V.P. Great Lakes Mortgage Corp.Charles F. Axelson, Jr., '37, U.S. Gypsum Co.Mrs. Richard A. Davis, '41, (Mary Hammel)Melvin T. Tracht, '41, Asst. Treas. Illinois Institute of TechnologyMrs. Stephen B. Lewellyn, '45, (Lois Arnett)John H. Kornblith, '47, V.P. Samuel Spitz & SonsMrs. Terry Lunsford, '52, (Molly Felker)George H. Sorter, '53, Lecturer, School of BusinessMiss An-Shih Cheng, '54 RepresentingInter-Dormitory Council (Pres.)The Maroon (Co-Editor)Student Government (Pres.)Inter-Club Council (Pres.)AthleticsDean's Appointment (At Large)Orientation Board (Pres.)International House Council (Pres.)Burton-Judson Council (Pres.)The Maroon (Co-Editor)Dean's Appointment (At Large)Inter-Fraternity Council (Pres.)Religion Dallas, TexasChicagoRockford, 111.ChicagoSt. LouisChicagoWorcester, Mass.ChicagoSan FranciscoUpper Montclair, N. J.Fort Wayne, Ind.N. Hollywood, Calif.ChicagoFEBRUARY, 1956/ // l^*"//__1//// L_. tlJf ^ iHow many years ago did you graduate from college?20 VR3TS That was the year that American introduced the DC»3, the plane that for morethan a decade, in peace and war was known as America's "Queen of Transport."1 5 V63TS That was the year American established the first "college" for airline crews atArdmore, Oklahoma, still the most important training school of its kind in the country.R Upjirc In these last five years alone, American Airlines, America's leading airline,has carried almost 30,000,000 passengers, more than in the previous 20 years combined.Throughout the years, college graduates have ledthe swing to modern air transportation because theyhave had the vision to see the countless opportunitiesand benefits that air travel makes possible.Today, in terms of both business and vacationtrips, these advantages are greater than ever onAmerican Airlines, America's leading airline. AMERICANAIRLINES2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfn ) jtos jsssttcIN HONOR of 1126's twenty-fifth birthday, we devote most of this issueto the social sciences.THE FOREWORD, "A Quarter-Century At 1126," on Page 5, was written especially for the magazine by Leonard White. Prof. White, dean of publicadministration research in this country,is currently editing the talks given during the three-day celebration of 1126'sbirthday, and they will appear soon inone volume, to be published by the University of Chicago Press.MANY interesting papers were readduring the three-day meeting. Dueto space limitations, we can bring youonly brief reports on some of them: "Social Sciences Conference," beginning onPage 6. For more complete reading, werefer you to the volume mentioned above.ACCOMPANYING the reports are aseries of pictures taken during theconference by Vories Fisher, PhB '22.We think you'll enjoy his candid shotsof leading scholars at work and duringinformal moments.In addition, we think you will especially enjoy our series of portraits of"The Grand Old Men" of the Social Sciences Division, beginning on Page 17.We were fortunate enough to secure theservices of three of Chicago's top photographers for this issue, and throughoutthe book you'll find not only the workof Mr. Fisher, but that of Stephen Lewellyn and Morton Shapiro as well.FRANK KNIGHT needs no introduction to alumni. He became emeritusfive years ago, but still teaches and remains active in research. The main partof his address, "Science and Society: TheModes of Law," given on the openingday of the conference, begins on Page13. We regret that space limitationsforced us to cut his charming introductory remarks. If you were in the listening audience, you know how delightfulthey were. The talk which appears herewill be included in the edition Mr. Whiteis working on, and will also appear as achapter in a book of Mr. Knight's, nowin preparation.FOR AN UP-TO-DATE account onthe University of Chicago Campaign, and details of an exciting bequestto the University, turn to Page 27.JUNE may still be a long way off, butreunion plans are in the making.Betsey Shaw reports on Page 32 aboutthe different plans afoot. jS^^^f "^ UNIVERSITYCfccaqoMAGAZINE ^J FEBRUARY, 1956FEATURES461317 Volume 48, Number 5Leonard D. WhiteA Quarter Century at I 126Social Sciences ConferenceScience and Society: The Modes of Law Frank H. KnightA Portfolio of Distinguished Social Scientists27 Campaign News — $22 Million in GiftsDEPARTMENTS1 ' Memo Pad3 In This Issue28 News Of The Quadrangles32 Alumni Clubs33 Class News40 MemorialCOVERWilliam T. Hutchinson, who has been named first holder of therecently established Preston and Sterling Morton Professorshipin American History. He has twice received the University'sannual prize for excellence in teaching of college students. (Photoby Morton Shapiro.)(Photo Credits: Page I, (bottom), 7-12, 17, (top), 24, (top), VoriesFisher; Cover, Pages 4, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, (bottom), 25, 27,Morton Shapiro; Pages I, (top), 5, 21, 26, Stephen Lewellyn.)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, IllinoisEditorFELICIA ANTHENELLI Associate EditorPALMER W. PINNEYTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive Secretary- EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORANProgrammingELIZABETH A. SHAW The Alumni FundWILLIAM H. SWANBERGORLANDO R. DAVIDSONStudent RecruitmentDONALD C. MOYERPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alamni Association,5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $4.00. Single copies,25 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois,under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.FEBRUARY, 1956 3A QUARTER CENTURY AT 1126Social Scientists Mark 25thAnniversary of Research BuildingBy Leonard D. WhiteProfessor, Political Scienceouw^- Familiar numerals markentrance to Social ScienceResearch Building at1126 E. 59th StreetTHE DIVISION of the Social Sciences celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of the SocialScience Research Building on November 10-12. A quarter century islong in the working life of a man, butrelatively brief in the evolution of anacademic discipline. Except for His-story, indeed, the whole social scienceconstellation is very young, in itsmodern garb. It might claim a halfcentury, but hardly more, since itemerged from the realm of moralphilosophy.These have been twenty-five yearsof intense effort on the part of themen and women who staffed the socialscience departments at the Universityof Chicago. Their most solid collective achievement was the so-calledLocal Community enterprise, studiesof the Chicago metropolitan areaspearheaded by sociology, economics,and political science, but stronglybuttressed by geography, history, social service administration, and thebusiness school. From 1930 to 1940the Social Sciences Division amasseda truly impressive body of data aboutthis metropolitan area, out of whichemerged new insights concerningsocial structures and trends in manyareas of public and private life.The Great OnesWhile these cooperative studieswere in progress, a host of privateindividual researches were also inmotion. It would be invidious tosingle out the work of any man ornumber of men for special mention,but their distinction may be recalledin the names of some of them whohave passed away: A. R. Radcliffe-Brown in anthropology whose attendance at the conference had beenexpected until shortly before its occurrence; Harry A. Millis in laboreconomics; Charles H. Judd, dynamicleader in education; three great figures in history, William E. Dodd,Andrew C. McLaughlin, and Ferdinand Schevill; Charles E. Merriam inpolitical science, to whose efforts thebuilding itself was largely due; LouisL. Thurstone in psychology; and threenoted names in sociology, Robert E.Park, Ellsworth Faris, and LouisWirth, whose untimely death was aheavy loss to the University. Thesewere outstanding men in their generation.The Social Science Research Building looks within on a lovely quadrangle, and without on the wide world, View of Social Science ResearchBuilding from inner quadranglethus typifying the dual role of thesocial scientist. Few, if any of them,belong exclusively to the ivory tower;most of them are occupied now withthe professional tasks of their disciplines, now with the application oftheir special knowledge to the affairsof the world. This dualism is notnew, but it was emphasized by thecrises of the Great Depression and ofWorld War II. Military and civilianappointments after Pearl Harbor drewmany members of the division out oftheir studies to Washington, to London, and to the fighting fronts on landand on sea. Consulting obligations tocivil and military authorities keptmany of them commuting from Chicago to Washington. Research andsystematic study suffered inevitably,but this crisis allowed no alternative.Postwar years gave little respite except as members of the Division wereadamant — and the choice of thegreater good in the struggle betweenresearch and its application was notalways easy. Now the demand forAmerican insight and knowledge inthe application of the social sciencesfor reconstruction and reconversionoverseas was beyond parallel. In response members of the Division haveliterally crossed the seven seas.A Chastening AffairThese experiences are valuable tous as well as to our friends abroad.The social sciences in America havebeen limited to some degree by theboundaries of American life andAmerican problems. To be forced tooperate in a consulting capacity in adifferent culture — to have to bridge the gap between a less developed ordifferently developed culture and ourown — is a chastening and an educative affair. The social scientists of theUniversity of Chicago have not onlyjoined in the academic life of theUniversity of Frankfort and the tribalceremonies of the American Indians;they have been in the Near East, inthe Philippines, in India, in the Indonesian Republic, in South America,in Burma. Our horizons are moredefinitely global, our experiencesmore nearly universal, our insightsmore fully humane.No Single DominationThe celebration of the twenty-fifthanniversary considered the socialsciences as sciences, their function asa part of the civic arts, and their interpretative role as humanistic studies. The emphasis in the contemporary scene at the University ofChicago is on the scientific rather thanthe humanistic or the prudential aspects of the subject matter. The center of the stage is now held by theso-called behavioral sciences; the newconstellation is anthropology, sociology, psychology, with strong links ineconomics and political science andwith an underwriting of statistics andmathematics. It would appear probable that notable advances will bemade in the next decade, or the nextquarter century from this fruitfuland powerful combination of forces.Older forms of inquiry will nevertheless persist, for wisdom and understanding come from other sources aswell as mathematical analysis.The social science faculty at theUniversity of Chicago enter the second quarter century in their tightlypacked building with courage andconfidence. They know that their rolein the evolving society of the futureis important, even as they refuse tooverestimate their capacity to controlthe events of the morrow. They aredominated by no single school ofthought, by no single methodology,and by no one of their sister disciplines. They are habituated to working together both within and amongthe several departments; they lendeach other strength. They have madea notable contribution to the lastquarter century, and they are prepared to make their talents usefulto the next — in scholarship, in thepractical affairs of the nation and theworld, and in the emerging science ofsociety.FEBRUARY, 1956 5Social Sciences ConferenceThree Days of Speeches InterpretA Quarter Century of ScholarshipTHE UNIVERSITY observed twenty-five years of achievement inthe social sciences in November. Forthree days distinguished Americanand European scholars attended addresses, round tables and conferencesmarking the silver anniversary of theopening of the Social Science Research Building (1126 East 59thStreet) , the first building on anAmerican university campus devotedexclusively to research in the socialsciences. The building was the giftof the Laura Spelman RockefellerMemorial Foundation.Distinguished European scholars onthe program included Arnold J. Toynbee, Research Professor of International History, University of London,and author of "A Study of History";Andre Siegfried, member of theFrench Academy and Professor Emeritus of the College de France; RogerGregoire, French political scientistand director of the European Production Agency; J. H. A. Watson, counselor of the British Embassy, Washington, D.C, and authority on centraland eastern Europe, and Sune Carlson, Swedish economist and directorof the Bureau of Economic Affairs ofthe United Nations.Walter Lippmann, journalist andcolumnist, spoke on "The ChangingTimes" at a special convocation onNovember 11 in Rockefeller MemorialChapel.Lippmann was one of seven distinguished social scientists upon whomwere conferred honorary doctor oflaw degrees at the convocation. Others included Fay-Cooper Cole, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology;Harold Hotelling, Professor of Statistics, University of North Carolina;William Fielding Ogburn, Sewell L.Avery Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Sociology; AndreSiegfried; Arnold JL Toynbee; andJacob Viner, Professor of Economics,Princeton University.In their addresses, round table dis cussions and conferences, the scholarsconsidered. current problems of thesocial sciences, and took an appraisinglook at the last twenty-five years ofresearch in the field.Brief reports on some of their remarks follow:"The Changing Times99SCHOLARS should be deeply involved in the coming crucial debates on vital national policies whichwill shape our future, Walter Lippmann, journalist and columnist, saidat a special convocation which wasthe central event of the three -daycelebration."I have long believed that in thesocial sciences the University of Chicago has achieved an eminence whichis second to none in the WesternWorld," Lippmann said."During this most difficult anddangerous quarter of a century, Chicago has been an example of thefreedom of the mind, of originality inthe pursuit of knowledge, and offaithfulness to the great tradition ofwisdom.""At this turning point in history,the sovereign question to come maybe: when the democracies are notchallenged and compelled from theoutside, are they able to form andcarry out national policies which theirvital interests in the long run, but notin the short run, require?" Lippmannsaid."When war is not the issue, theobjectives of public policy are unclearand controversial. Our public purposes will now have to be hammeredout on the anvil of public debate."Though decisions of government ina free democratic society are madewith the consent of the governed,Lippmann said, this consent is notmanufactured but reached by continuing rational debate. Members of thisdemocratic society must believe that they can hammer out a common understanding of what is true and rightfor their democracy."The scholar, whose work in lifeit is to inquire, and to submit hisfindings to his peers, can by his exertions and by his example promote,defend, purify and enrich this debate.For the sovereign principle of thescholar's calling is the active principleof a free society," he said.All the great powers, in the pastyear, have realized and publicly recognized that none of them can facethe risk of a modern nuclear war,Lippmann said. The revolution in thetechnology of war is having enormousconsequences upon the balance andstructure of power throughout theworld. The result is a military stalemate, in which war and the threat ofwar have become unuseable instruments for the promotion of the national purposes of the great powers."This fundamental change began in1949 when the Soviet governmentshowed that it had developed nuclearweapons. The change came to a climax in 1954 when the hydrogen bombhad been tested and its awful consequences had been realized in London, in Washington, and in Moscow,"Lippmann said.There has been no disarmament, hepointed out, but the armaments ofthe great powers have been neutralized for the time being. Entering anew era, our minds have been conditioned by experiences of the pastto reacting rather than acting, andto making great decisions only whenwe have been provoked by events beyond our immediate control, in Lipp-mann's analysis."Each spring in Washington, forexample, the battle has to be foughtin Congress to obtain appropriationsfor foreign aid."In the old days the Administrationused to wait for good old Joe to helpit out by doing something outrageousenough to provoke Congress into6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE.f-«__P J3^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^jtf^~ _J_i^^^l_yv_^^^^^i ^_____H^ _______ ___i^_-_----H -__-HP ____ii5 _b- ^^ ' _¦W' **&¦ __ _ —^^^ ______ ^^S LiClyde K. M. Kluckhohn (I.), Professor of Anthropology,Harvard, listens pensively to Sol Tax, V. of Canthropologist. Kluckhohn later used blackboardbehind him to illustrate talk on "Toward A Comparison ofValue-Emphases In Different Cultures."voting the appropriations. And yearafter year, good old Joe would playhis part and commit some kind of infuriating outrage," Lippmann said.But in the times ahead, the bigchallenges will probably not look asthough they came from the outside,and may not come from there, Lippmann said. They are more likely toappear as domestic issues, althoughthe world will not be at peace, andrivalry for power and influence between the Western powers and theSoviets and China will continue."In this kind of time we are enter-mg, we shall find it harder to agreeon what needs to be done, harder toform national policies," Lippmannsaid.We have had a good preview ofwhat is coming in the way Congress has been devaluing the foreign economic policies of the Administration.Measures to promote the developmentof backward countries do not appearas imperatives of national policy.Honest men can differ about theirwisdom or practicality and nothingspectacular happens immediately ifsuch measures are postponed."By debate among scholars of equallearning, with equal obligation toseek the truth disinterestedly, suchpublic issues can best be defined,analyzed and put into terms that willhelp to make popular debate orderlyand productive, Lippmann said."I would not shrink from the notionthat the debates of scholars are abovethe battle," he said."It is necessary to the outcome ofthe battle that there should always be men who have earned the right to belistened to and who are above thebattle where they can see the wholefield and both sides."I urge you to think of yourselves,not only as teachers, but as theguardians of the rules of the argument, with which the debates bywhich freedom lives, are carried on."The Historian's ObligationEVER SINCE Thucydides wroteabout the Peloponnesian wars,past history has been viewed as ameans of predicting the future. Although many modern historians havegreat reservations about this view,Louis Gottschalk, Professor of History, discussed the importance of thediscovery of broad historical patterns.FEBRUARY, 1956 7Ralph W. Gerard, (I.), Professor of Neurophysiology at V. of Michigan,and Harold Hotelling, Professor of Statistics, U. of N.C, in round table'Models in the Social Sciences: Their Uses and Limitations."session onHarold D. Lasswell, (I. to r.J, Professor of Lawand Political Science at Yale, Senator Paul Douglas and Hans J. Morgenthau, Professor of PoliticalScience, chat between sessions in Ida Noyes Hall Gottschalk claimed that a historianis no less a scholar for stepping out ofhis role as recorder of the past togeneralize about the future. Reasons:history contained in the raw recordsof the past is a far remove from whatactually happened; the historian alsogeneralizes when he attempts to understand the past; the historian'sunderstanding is derived from his ownexperience and place in history; theassumption of the essential samenessof human character permits presentunderstanding of past testimony.For all these reasons, the historianwho specializes in the history ofWorld War II has an obligation toprevent World War III, Gottschalksaid. Similarly, the historian whospecializes in the study of the Leagueof Nations has an obligation to applyhis knowledge to efforts to avoid thecollapse of the United Nations."Guilt by Association"Often A Violation of LawCONFLICT between anti-subversive programs and principles ofAmerican law make much of the former counter to American tradition,said Professor of Government RobertE. Cushman of Cornell University."We have three principles of American law for dealing with presumptions of guilt," Cushman said. "Guiltis personal. A presumption of guiltmust always be rebuttable. Theremust be a rational relationship between facts and the presumptions ofguilt derived from them ... In carrying out our program against Communism and subversion, we haveviolated certainly the last two ofthese principles."Cushman noted that refusal to disclose sources of information, and theciting of long lists of individuals asmembers of subversive organizations,allow investigating committees to violate the right of rebuttal."Guilt by association" often violates the second principle, creatingpresumptions of disloyalty whichhave no logical connection with thefacts, Cushman stated. He suggestedthat "guilt by coincidence" would bea better term.Is Political ScienceWithering Away?POLITICAL SCIENCE is the onebranch of the social sciences thatmay be withering away while theothers flourish, said David Riesman,Professor of Social Sciences."Political scientists, once favoritesof fashion, and still finding customersfor public administration and interna-8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtional relations, must feel toward thenew social sciences much the wayFred Allen feels about TV." Riesmansaid.Decline of political science resultsfrom the fact that the study of thestate in isolation is no longer a fertilefield of research, he said. As powerrelations are found in both businessand voluntary social organizations,and as the state takes control of morehuman activities, a new type of specialist is developing.Such scholars, students of politicalbehavior rather than of institutions,take their methods from psychologyand sociology, Reisman said.No Revolution In SizeOf Industrial FirmsTHERE won't be any revolution inthe size of industrial firms becauseof the growing importance of scientific research in industry, George A.Stigler, Professor of Economics at Columbia University, said.Small businesses which have fearedextinction because of this, need haveno cause to fear, he said. With thegrowth of research, new firms willemerge to provide specialized facilities for small firms, he predicted."We may expect the rapid expansion of the specialized research laboratory, selling its services generally," he said.The crucial task of industrial research has not been to produce newideas, he said. The basic task of theforward looking businessman hasbeen to select from the large array ofpossibilities the few ideas that wereworth putting into commercial practice.Freely Flexible ExchangeRates Not LikelyFREELY flexible exchange ratesfor their currencies in international trade are not likely to beadopted by any country, said JacobViner, Professor of Economics atPrinceton University and world authority on international finance andtrade.Free exchanges of currencies aresometimes advocated because theywould free countries of the necessityfor direct controls of internationaltrade.'But no country, as far as I know,has as yet adopted highly flexible exchanges in order to get rid of directcontrols," he said.Most countries have a strong aversion to depreciation of their exchangerates in international trade. In manycountries, national commitment to Typical round table session. Bernard Berelson, Director of BehaviorialSciences Program of the Ford Foundation, is shown speakingin this discussion of "The Study of Public Opinion"(Photos by Vories Fisher)Talcott Parsons (I. to r.), Chairman of Harvard'sDept. of Social Relations; Fred Eggan, U. of CProfessor of Anthropology ; and W. Lloyd Warner,U. of C Professor of Anthropology and Sociologyin panel session on "Analysis of Social Structure."FEBRUARY, 1956 9Bruno Bettelheim, (I.), head of the Orthogenic School, chats with Frank H. Knight,Professor Emeritus of Social SciencesLOOK'S Rosten and HistoryChairman Walter Johnsonin an informal momentEverett C Hughes, Sociology Chairman, reads« paper. Other panel members are Amos H.Haivley (I.), sociologist from U. of Michigan,and Philip Hauser, U. of C sociologist flexibility of exchanges would removethe only restraint of any strengthagainst marked inflation, namely, thewidespread official and public dislikeof exchange depreciation, he said.One peculiarity of the foreign exchange market is that it is adapted toand invites speculative activity morethan any other market except theracetrack. But unlike commoditymarkets, the foreign exchange marketis the only one in which the actionsof the speculators affect the basic conditions of future supply and demandof money."Exchange rates act on relative national price levels as well as beingacted upon by them, and speculators'make' future exchange rates as wellas forecasting them and thus causetheir forecasts to be correct," he said.This is one reason why free exchange of currencies between nationswill not work in the world today,Viner believes.Public Opinion's Crucial TestTHE STUDY of public opinionsurvived its greatest crisis in thefailure of the polls in the presidentialelection in 1948, said Bernard Berelson, Director of the Behavioral Science Program of the Ford Foundation,(formerly on the faculty here.)Since then, the study of polling andsampling methods has cut in half thechances of error in all opinion surveys, which have become the fastestgrowing of all social science tools, hesaid.The emergence of a mass society,with more people, more education,and faster transportation and communication, brought the problem ofpublic opinion to the attention of responsible scholars."Public opinion mattered and henceneeded to be examined," said Berelson.Thanks to years of study, a vastvariety of polling data now exists,showing such diverse facts as thatthe Americans most dislike the English for their superior attitudes, thatthe husband and wife (as of 1946)divided equally the responsibility formanaging household money, and thathalf the people in 1940 were worryingmore than usual about their future."In fact," Berelson said, "there arethose who believe that our society isnow able to collect systematically awide variety of data by means of thesample survey — data on attitudes,values, patterns of morality, modes ofchild-rearing, religious observances,family practices, leisure-time activities, and the levels of 'happiness'."10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHonorary degree recipients (1. to r.), Hutchinson, Siegfried, Lippmann, and Toynbee, havingdonned academic robes, visit with Quincy Wright and Honorary Trustee Harold H. SwiftVisitor Toynbee discussesmerits of a cigar with hostQuincy Wright in latter's home Waiting for procession to start,Lippmann goes over speech, Ogburnenjoys the Chancellors storyFEBRUARY, 1956 11Jacob Viner, Professor of Economics,Princeton, and Theodore Schultz,Economics Chairman, between sessionsClyde W. Hart, Director of the National OpinionResearch Center, is the speaker. Gabriel Almond,(l.J, Professor of Public and InternationalAffairs, Princeton, and Leo Rosten, (r.J,special editorial advisor to LOOK Magazine The year 1936 marked a decisivechange in techniques of conductingpolls and sample surveys, even thoughsuch polls previously existed. Todaythere are special techniques for interviewing in problems connected withsuch diverse fields as law, social casework, personnel administration, andin opinion and attitude research.Overpopidated FieldTOO MANY people enter the fieldof social sciences with a ready-made conclusion, obtained from theirinherited personal prejudices ratherthan their laboratories, and proceedto gather facts and footnotes to substantiate it, said Chancellor Kimptonat a dinner in Hutchinson Commonsfor 200 social scientists Friday evening, November 11. Kimpton spokeon "The Social Sciences Today.""The largest single problem of thesocial sciences comes from the factthat the field is overpopulated withpropounders of partisan theses disguised as theories, collectors of inadequately tested statistics presented,presumably, as significant facts, andelaborators of methodologies designedto cure bias and secure significance.This is the reason, I believe, why itis so hard for administrators, and perhaps even for experts, to identify thesound workers in the social sciences."A field of study becomes a sciencewhen theory is formulated on thebasis of fact and facts are sought andinterpreted upon the basis of theory,Kimpton concluded.". . . it is to be hoped that the building honored today will still be standing when this problem is solved."No Decrease InFederal ResponsibilityPEOPLE have made up their mindsthey won't tolerate any more depressions, and as a result the government can take action that helps prevent depression, but they haven'tclearly decided that they won't tolerate any more inflation, Roy Blough,Professor of Economics at ColumbiaUniversity, said.Most people, he said, feel that theii*interests as producers are more realand important to them than their interests as consumers. As a result.government measures to check inflation, such as tightening credit, orraising taxes, bring cries of anguishfrom those affected.The federal government is notlikely to relinquish any of the responsibility it has assumed for pre(Continued on Page 32)12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"Order Is A Necessity ¦, Freedom A Comparative Luxury. . ."A Distinguished Professor Discusses Some Of TheFeatures And Problems Of A Free SocietyScience ^4nd Society:The Modes Of LawBy Frank H. KnightProfessor Emeritus,Social Sciences and PhilosophyThese paragraphs should not go intoprint without some apology. Theywere prepared as a "speech" and donot purport to present a balancedtreatment of the issues touched upon.That would run to many times theirscope. In particular, they stress chieflythe limitations of natural sciencemethod in dealing with social problems. The careful reader will see thatthere is no intention to say or implythat those methods have no application, or that the approach advocatedas more in point — the criticism ofvalues — has nothing in common withthe methods of the physical and biological sciences. — F.H.K.WHAT I shall attempt in this houris to point out some features offree society and its problems whichseem to me to need more attentionthan they get — problems that oftenhave no solution but yet must and willbe solved, for better or worse. Sincethe essence of society is order, legaland moral, the argument will centeron law, its meanings and roles andtheir changes through past time. Tobe stressed is the unique problem offree society — to combine freedom withorder. It is soluble only through somecompromise.Order, or law, is of course universalin nature — until man appears, with hismysterious freedom, the capacity tobreak the social law, and turn thevery laws of nature to his own purposes. Finally, I shall come to the evenmore remarkable capacity of makinglaw — of a particular kind. As devotees of freedom, we must accept thefact that order is a necessity, freedoma comparative luxury. And as regardsthe legal order, it is unanimity that isimperative; if free agreement is notreached, it must be imposed, or chaoswill ensue. A free society must agreeon the maximum of freedom to behad with the needful minimum oforder.Democracy could be defined as thesocialization of the problem of law,and it is only democracy which confronts social problems^ properlyspeaking. They must be solved byfree agreement of the citizens in balancing among degrees and kinds oforderliness, and balancing stable legalorder itself against more literally freeassociation. Human nature being as itis, freedom and order reciprocallylimit one another, although there is noeffective freedom without order.Order is also a condition of security;the degree of freedom for each individual implies a corresponding insecurity for all others. This is thecrucial conflict of values, amongothers which cannot be ignored. Compromise is inevitable; complete freedom would be chaos, and the limit oforder would be the condition of ice.But in fact a perfect crystal is impossible — and perfection is a romanticillusion where values are involved;at higher levels, as in works of art, formal imperfections of right kindcontribute to the value.The long history of science itself,with what it replaced, reveals thenature of man as a romantic and superstitious animal. As all studentsknow, the attitude toward nature,primitively and through the ages, was"animistic." Events were explainedby "spirits" in things — by acts of will;and prediction and control weresought, and supposedly achieved, byperforming rites and the arts of magic.Myth and ritual took the place heldin our thinking by both science andhistory. Of course these went with thepractice of the techniques, more orless effective, by which people reallylived; and strangely, they were notallowed to interfere — too much or toooften — with really effective action.But the latter procedures were routine, a matter of course (like the language spoken, which will come uplater); it was myth and dramatizationwhich were the active concern. Norhas this attitude been outgrown, butonly in part overgrown, in our day.Man is a religious animal; he nowtypically thinks, as the savage did not,that the religion into which he hashappened to be born is "true" and allothers "false." And these, be it noted,are the "beliefs" men will fight about.Montaigne observed that men assertmost confidently where they have theleast grounds. In fact especially wherethey have none, but believe arbitrarily, "by faith." Bacon neatly statedFEBRUARY, 1956 13the principle: "The more absurd andincredible any divine mystery is, thegreater honor we do to God in believing it."A little attention to the history ofwords could be illuminating here.Most if not all the terms we use withan impersonally objective meaninghad only the opposite import beforemodern times; and they still have it,with their new meaning — one sourceof the ambiguity we must contendwith. Truth meant fidelity or loyalty,and false the opposite. How can wethink straight, using the same wordfor a true statement of fact and atrue friend, not to mention a truereligion or philosophy? . . . Even inmechanics, the simplest and most empirically objective of sciences — themodel for those who spell "science"with capitals — European man believedfor two thousand years in the metaphysical physics of Aristotle, contraryto all experience . . . Still, as I havenoted, we have had the recent growthof an objective attitude toward physical reality, even including the hunianbody as physical and organic. On theside of mind and social relations,where morals and politics come intoquestion, the rampant theorizing anddisputing over the rudiments testifythat the objective or critical attitudecontinues subordinate to other motives. In our field, interest centerslargely in the discovery of effectivetechniques of propaganda— for each touse on all the rest, one must infer,since the results are published.Behaviorism's AbsurdityRather the worst, to my mind — stillharping on human romanticism as requiring a skeptical attitude — is that,man having at a very long last recognized that inert natural objects arenot like men, beings of mind and will,moved by exhortation, persuasion anddeception, many of the best headsdraw the strange conclusion that menare like inert objects, mechanismsresponding to situations strictly interms of cause -and- effect.A social scientist of distinction inhis field, once said to me in a matter-of-fact tone — you know, I think thereis no such thing as thinking (I thinkthere is no such thing as thinking.)And much that is currently publishedin psychology and sociology advocatesor rests upon the absurdity of behaviorism. One may ask: is it for thatthat society selects the brightestminds (repeat, minds) and spendshard-earned money of tax-payers, orpublic trust funds, to give them anexpensive education! Perhaps we should drop modern education and goback to ancestral lore, nursery jingles,proverbs, and the sort of reasoningused against Galileo — and renounceprogress to tread the beaten pathsunder threat of hell-fire, as the sumof human wisdom. If, that is, we cannot leave one absurd extreme withoutgoing whole -hog for the opposite one,as bad or worse. But if men must bestrictly scientific, in the sense of thenatural sciences, these people areright; the way is to deny or ignore themost patent relevant and vital facts.After all, the myth and magic, divinations and incantations of savageswere fairly harmless, * while the opposite is true of natural science, ifmisapplied.A Logical ImpossibilityThat can easily destroy civilization, or the race itself, if men donot reach a working agreement onproblems of the laws of values, whichhave to be treated in quite differentterms. Up to a point, on both sides;for of course there is a place forscience in the study of man, and, asI have no time to argue here, scienceitself is not empirical or its laws rigorous in the naive sense that positiv-ists, pragmatists, scientificists, assume;its problems are finally value problems also.It is true that we inquirers allconfront in a sense the same practicaltasks, prediction and control. But asshould be self-evident, self -predictionand self-control, individual or especially collective, is a categoricallydifferent matter from the relations ofpurposive man to inert objects. Manlooks at nature from the outside, thestandpoint from which alone scientificprediction is possible. He looks athimself and his society from the inside, which makes nonsense of thesimple instrumental approach. I havelittle faith in a-priori truth, or anyabsolutes, notably generalizationsabout impossibility. But I think Iknow that no one will ever find outhow to lift himself by his own bootstraps; nor — more pertinent to the social situation — will two persons beable to lift one another at the sametime. Similarly a scientist cannot byscientific method predict his own behavior in investigation. To do so, hewould have to know the answers inadvance, and then the questions wouldnot be questions, or the problemsproblems.Further, prediction of the behaviorcalls for predicting the predictions andruns into the familiar logical impasse of the infinite regress. And socially, ifeven two people predict one another'sbehavior and re-direct their own accordingly both will be falsified, or atleast one must be. To the claim thatsocial changes are scientifically predictable, by a member of the society,a fair answer is the challenge to predict the stock market and make a fortune — enough times to show that itwas not by chance. It is a logicalimpossibility, not merely the matterof accurate observation and measurement. Nor does probability theoryimprove matters much; on that itshould suffice to observe that one cannot get insurance on a contingencywhere there is a substantial moralhazard, which practically meanswhere any human choice is involved.(As will be noted later, there areeconomic laws, of the market, whichare valid and useful, for predictionand control.)Modern physics has proved whatanyone should have seen, that thenotion of absolute laws of causalitywas a logical-metaphysical prejudiceall along. If it were true, we couldnever know it. Physical causality isnow conceived statistically, recognizing the fact of contingency in theworld. In biology, of course, the caseis more extreme. To talk sense inthat realm, we must use teleologicalterms like function, a will or urge tolife, competition and adaptation; andin the higher species we recognizehesitation, effort and error, whichdistinguish their nature from meremechanisms.Man the Law-BreakerHuman conduct manifests stillhigher categories of activity, in sharper contrast with passive process —explicit desires, critical evaluation,will and choice. Man not only errsbut "sins," and shows bad taste; heis the pretender, trickster, hypocrite, and liar of the known world, andequally unique for cruelty and obscenity. Absurdly we call peoplebrutal or beastly for deeds and traitsforeign to animal nature. In short,man is subject to laws of a prescriptive kind, contrasting sharplywith the descriptive laws which hefinds in and figuratively says "govern,"natural phenomena, and by which hepartly understands and predicts anduses natural events. These other lawshe makes, in part, as well as breaks —no one can say how far or how theyare made or found, or indeed, howlaws are broken. At least they arechosen by decision, an activity of mind14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE_— in part by each person for himself,jn part collectively, by groups, inemotional and intellectual intercommunication in cultural life, whichchanges and is changed through historical time.Man the RomanticThus, what man, the romantic,wants from social science he certainlywill not get, not in a society with anyfreedom whatever. Prediction andcontrol cannot be mutual; but whateach naturally wants is to predict andcontrol the rest, and wants socialscience to tell him now. For instrumental intelligence — and intelligenceis basically instrumental — it is a realdilemma. To act intelligently in thatsense in relations with others, eachneeds first to know how the otherswill act. Social life is possible for intelligent beings because of three facts.The first is law, a legal-moral-customary order sharply restricting freedom and narrowing the range of conduct to be expected; the second iscollusion or preconcerting of activitiesinvolving mutuality. In free societylegal action is ideally a generalizedform of preconcerting; but of coursemuch law, of which language is thetype, "just grows" without raising anyquestions. Thirdly, men as more trulyrational, do not expect or want to liveso very intelligently, in the instrumental sense; our days would be dullindeed without a large element of uncertainty and surprise. About collusion, either agreement ad hoc or onenduring rules, scientific method hasvirtually nothing to say, beyond information on what is possible; it cannot tell what should be done, asdesired or as a matter of duty. If companions get separated in a crowd,neither can find the other by scientific prediction; they must agree inadvance on a course of action.A note: one-sided control, with prediction — the only correct use of theword — has a place in a democracy.It applies in the relations betweenadults and children, and between theagents of society and criminals or defectives — cases involving individualswho are not responsible members ofthe community. The fields of medicineand education present special casesof power relations, needing extendedconsideration impossible here. Control is also meaningful for a dictator,up to a point, in contrast with thecitizen of a free society. But the factof his subjects having minds — opinion,feeling and will — would still set the dictator's methods off sharply fromthose used to control inert objects.Even our relations with the higheranimals are in part persuasive, evenmutual, and not purely mechanistic.The great source of difficulty in interpreting man and society is thatscientific laws apply, but are limitedby the prescriptive kind, with severalsub-species, to which man is alsosubject. Science itself as a humanand social activity works under atleast two kinds of law that fall in thenormative class. First are the laws ofclear and valid thinking, of logic andcriticism; about these I cannot saymore in this lecture, (nor about esthetic norms, also very important.)More to be emphasized is the scientist's subjection to moral laws. Hemust be honest, have intellectual integrity, be "devoted" to truth. Sciencehas a high and austere code, borderingon the religious. Verification presupposes valid intercommunication, inwhich the moral factor bulks as largeas the intellectual (and the estheticis never absent).On History and LawMore or less apart from the maindichotomy, a third general type of lawcalls for notice — the historical. Clearand undisputed historical laws arefew; but such law undoubtedly pervades both the phenomena of natureand those of man. In the naturaldomain, sciences like cosmology andgeology find order in the continuingsequence of events — largely exemplifying the great law of the degradationof energy — and they yield some literalprediction, of the future, by projectionor extrapolation. The ordinary laboratory sciences, of course, predictonly hypothetically — "if A, then B,"or ideally they go on to measure covariation. It is chiefly such laws thatare directly useful to man; the process of discovery shows how to interfere in their working by acts that man"can" do, and so to "control" a courseof events. For conduct, these becomehypothetical imperatives: "if you wantresult B, you must perform act A."Such laws are not wholly wanting insociety; if an enactment or order is tobe obeyed, it must carry some penaltyfor infraction; the most conspicuouscase is the laws of the market or of"demand and supply," (civilizationand skepticism of punishment). Butthe whole matter of the instrumentalview of compulsory rules-making bygroups needs consideration at a lengthimpossible here. Historical laws are closely dependent on the generalizingsort, but I must pass over that too,and over the reasons why the historical laws of nature are of little use.In biology, we have evolution, a historical law which illuminates the pastbut does not enable prediction, stillless control, though the opposite istrue of the underlying general lawsof heredity, adaptation and survival.In fact, the use of strictly historicallaw is solely to tell us what willhappen 'regardless' what we cannotdo, hence first the given conditions ofaction. But the first would be true ofphysical laws if they held rigorouslyfor man- himself. Absolute laws ofmatter would be of no use, and no onewould know them; ideas of knowingand using would be non-existent in auniverse of process, devoid of meaning as well as of rights or values.In considering history and its laws,we must remember that history asdiscourse also has its history; likescience, it developed along with mindand culture. We contrast "scientific"history with the romantic, animistic,supernaturalistic myths of the agesdown to yesterday — for critically authentic history is also a recent innovation. (A note: here and at otherpoints, some exception should bemade for the Greeks, but all theiradvances and more were lost in thesucceeding Dark Age — Gibbon's "triumph of barbarism and religion.")A Sad FactAs to method, we learn historylargely by prediction; but for the past,this is valid, since we are on the outside of the people and events we study.The absence of intercommunicationlimits the data (and of course there isno possibility of control) but predictions backward are not affected bypeople being told what they are goingto do. That limitation of social scienceis commonly an intention of the predictor — to exhort or warn or deceive— making prediction a technique ofcontrol. History is of the essence inthe study of society. All direct knowledge, by observation or report, is ofcourse of the past; the future is onlyinferred; and the present is a mereimaginary line bet wen the two. Further, while everything has a history,and is the product of history, this istrue in a quite special sense of manand human society. The late Ortegay Gasset said (paraphrasing Dilthey)that "man has no nature; what he hasis . . . history." But it has been ahistory of seeking a nature, a progressively creating humanity, in andFEBRUARY, 1956 15along with cultures. Finally, the taskof our society is historical — to intelligently direct the future course of history.An honest view of that problemmust face up to how little anyoneknows about history, especially itscausality or laws, or about how tolearn from it or aply it. We recallHegel's sad witticism that we learnfrom history that men do not learnfrom history. Here again, a majorobstacle is the romantic character ofhuman interest. Apart from beingstill in varying degree makers or purveyors of myth — for reasons good orbad — historians naturally write mostlyabout what they and their readersare most interested in. That is, theneeds of the great, glorious victoriesand tragic defeats, in war or politicalstruggle.An Incomplete PictureMan, we must note, is a socialanimal, but in contrast with othersocial species he is also antisocial,a law-breaker and a gangster; asspectator or participant, he likes agood fight, and a good war may redeem a bad cause. Further, it is aboutspectacular happenings that recordsare most available. These features ofhistory are unfortunate for the student of social process, in quest of historical law. We are more concernedwith the commonplaces of past situations, activities of which the contemporaries were not aware or only dimlyand passviely aware. It is things likelanguage that, because they arehardly affected by purposive action,yield the most definite laws, eitherscientific or historical. What studentsof society need from history is a descriptive portrayal of human development in the large: how beings wecould call human emerged out of someanimal species and gradually becamecivilized; and civilization's fitful advance until it produced societies moreor less intelligently committed toideals of truth, freedom and progress.What to my mind is most importantin the long sweep of change is therecurring emergence of novelty, withthe new generally not relacing the oldbut superimposed upon it, giving riseto ever increasing complexity. Mostnotably, man requires a pluralisticinterpretation, as his nature is fullof contradiction and paradox. He is aphysical mechanism and an organism,subject to the laws of both these kinds,while somehow joined to them is amental or spiritual nature with uniqueattributes and s u b j e*c t to different laws. Not much will ever be knownabout human beginnings, the transition from the merely animal to thehuman.And we must look back beyondman, at least to the appearance ofconsciousness and the mental faculties we find in some degree in thehigher animals. Consciousness cannever be "explained," in terms eitherof physical or of biological utility.There is no discoverable reason ofeither sort why men should not liveand behave exactly as we do, as unconscious mechanisms — which thebehaviorist pretends to "think" weare. Conscious is "epiphenomenal";we only know it is there, and seemsto be active, notably in the scienti-ficist's act of denying it.Another revolutionary change wasthe shift from a biological to a cultural basis of continuity and development. The inheritance of behaviorpatterns like other traits, and including social behavior, as "instincts,"through the gene mechanism, somehow gave place in large part to transmission through imitation of themature by the young. This process,culture or custom, could have been atfirst as mechanical and unconscious asthe older method, a matter of psychological conditioning. If so, it presentlyturned into the activity of learning,joined by teaching. The new systemcould be bioligically useful, in enabling transmission of learned behavior, thus affording more flexibilityand rapid adaptation than the accidents of favorable gene mutation.The Wayward LanguageThe advent of culture gives rise tohistorical laws in the broad humanmeaning — description laws of culturechange — without voluntary action, asin the case of language, mentionedbefore. Acquisition of speech was thegreat advance, providing a tool ofthought — fantasy and emotion as wellas reasoning — and the main vehicle ofcultural continuity and change, ofwhich it is now the most prominentexample. Language illustrates culture's large degree of independenceof physical and biological conditionsor laws. The people who carry a culture pattern play much the role of thesoil which supports many forms ofplant life indifferently. Purely historical laws of culture change arehard to isolate and do not yet amountto very much, outside of linguistics.But they show up with a vengeance,negatively, in limiting our ability tomake changes. Language itself goes its own way;our society is helpless even to getabsurd anachronisms out of Englishspelling — not to speak of establishinga common medium of communicationbetween peoples, so much needed inscience and scholarship and for worldorganization. In other fields we havein varying degree more freedom inlaw-making. But I shall come to thatafter touching on another revolutionary emergence.At some time, far back in prehistory, developing homo becameaware of the customary law to whichhe had previously conformed automatically. When he realized that hewas bound by laws, being human,he resented it; he found it interferedwith various private urges, and beganhis unique career as a law-breaker;it was then he became anti-social.When custom ceases to be mere historical process and becomes compulsory, as mores, we cross the greatdivide into the new age of prescriptive law, as morality. (I can onlymention the development of felt desires opposed to customary requirements, and of prescriptive laws,notably of logic and of taste.) In afamiliar way of putting the change,man "fell" from innocence into sin.I will not raise the great questionof life, whether it was really a fallor a rise, and will be reversed inHeaven. As I picture the primitiveattitude, it would have been a blendof feeling the law — moral law — as initself compulsory, like, say, wearingclothes, with viewing it as a commandto be obeyed, subject to infliction ofpenalties. In accord with their animistic world-view, primitive menthought of law as command by supernatural powers which (or who?)would punish not only the individualculprit but also the society whichtolerated him in its midst — at leastwithout retributive treatment andrites of reconciliation and purification.Laws A NecessitySuch feelings and fears, however,were not enough to prevent law-breaking. And since man had becomesocial, of biological necessity, andsince a society must have laws inorder to exist, laws which are consciously obeyed if they do not function automatically, evolution, so tospeak, "had to" produce means forenforcing the most necessary rules.Thus arose religion and politics, thebeginnings of church and state; and(Continued on Page 30)16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWILLIAM FIELDING OGBURNSewell L. Avery Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of SociologyA Portfolio OfDistinguished Social ScientistsCT'HE MAGAZINE presents portraits of some of the University'sleading social scientists, men whose contributions throughthe past quarter-century have helped make Chicago great.Several, though emeriti, are still actively engaged in teachingand research, here and at other universities.FEBRUARY, 1956 17Ill" • ¦. - <mjW^ffJMfcfi ..^rAtFRANK H. KNIGHTMorton D. Hull Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Social Sciences and Philosophy18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHERMAN FINERProfessor of Political SciencekQUINCY WRIGHTProfessor of Political Science20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEoLEONARD D. WHITEErnest D. Burton Distinguished Service Professor of Political ScienceFEBRUARY, 1956 21ERNEST W. BURGESSProfessor Emeritus of Sociology22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJOHN U. NEFProfessor of Economics and History,Chairman of The Committee On Social ThoughtFAY -COOPER COLEProfessor Emeritus of AnthropologyLOUIS GOTTSCHALKProfessor of HistoryREX FORD G. TUGWELLProfessor of Political ScienceCHARLES C. COLBYProfessor Emeritus of GeographyFEBRUARY, 1956 25RUt^ * ff gROBERT REDFIELDRobert M. Hutchins Distinguished Service Professor of Anthropology26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECampaign NewsUNIVERSITY RECEIVES$22 MILLION IN GIFTSITHIN ONE week in Decemberthe University received $22 million dollars in three separate gifts. Oneof these, from the estate of the lateLouis Block, totaled over $16 millionas quoted in Chicago newspapers. Thetwo others, from the Ford Foundationand the Sealantic Fund, were $4,324,-000 and $1.7 million respectively.All of these are in addition to the$8 million so far collected in the University's fund campaign.The Block bequest, filed in theJoliet Probate court December 19,specifies establishment of the LouisBlock Fund for Basic Research andAdvanced Study in the biological andphysical sciences. Purpose: "to stimulate an independent, inspired, andcontinuing program of basic researchand advanced study for the furtheringof human knowledge."Two other recent gifts, $500,000from the Commonwealth Fund "to institute or maintain a creative programin medical education," and $13,000from E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.for science fellowships, made the biological and physical sciences by farthe greatest beneficiary of the gifts.The Ford money, announced December 12, is to be used for increasingfaculty salaries, or for other pressingacademic needs. It is the third largestgift in Ford's half-billion dollar grantto privately supported colleges, universities, and hospitals.The $1.7 million from the SealanticFund goes to the Federated Theological Faculty. The money will be usedto launch a ten -year developmentprogram, said F.T.F. Dean Jerald C.Brauer when the gift was announcedDecember 19. The aim of the programwill be to close the distance betweencultural and religious activities.Kreines Named Vice- ChairmanMilton H. Kreines, '27, of Winnetka,owner of Milton H. Kreines Co., lithographers, has been appointedChicago area vice-chairman of theUniversity of Chicago Alumni Campaign in charge of general solicitation.Kreines was Graphic Arts Chair man of the Combined Jewish Appealin 1951 and 1953. He has long beenactive in alumni affairs and is a member of the Alumni Foundation Board.Kreines is also partner in the WorthyLithographing Co.As a student, Kreines was on thestaff of the Maroon, and a member ofBlackfriars', men's dramatic group.He was active in Iron Mask and Owland Serpent, men's honor societies. Heis a member of Pi Lambda Phi fraternity.Tacoma ScholarshipSeveral alumni in the Tacoma,Washington area, many of them members of the Student Enrollment Committee there, have establishd a scholarship fund which totals to date about$600. Their contributions have beencredited to them individually as wellas to the Alumni Campaign Fund;however their money at their requesthas been earmarked for the creationof a local scholarship fund. Thesescholarships will be in addition tothose already being offered by theUniversity on the basis of nation-widecompetition. This group believes theseadditional scholarships especially designated for their county will serve asa means of introducing publicity aboutthe University's undergraduate program to educators and high schoolstudents in the area.More Local ChairmenOrganization for the alumni part ofthe campaign continues. Recentlynamed as local chairmen in theircities (includes towns with ten ormore alumni), are the following:Robert Baird, '12, Coronado, California; Prof. Wesley C. Ballaine, PhD'40, Eugene, Oregon; Dr. Owen C.Berg, '36, MD '41, Wichita Falls,Texas; Dr. Harold E. Bernhard, PhD'45, Cedar Falls, Iowa; Mrs. John D.Bradley, AM '38, Topeka, Kansas.Dr. Frank E. Brown, '13, PhD '18,Ames, Iowa; Franklin G. Butler, '31,Barrington, R. I.; Dr. Isee L. Connell,MD '30, Jacksonville, Florida; Dr. H.C. Darlington, PhD '42, Huntington, West Virginia; Mrs. George V. Deal,'26, AM '40, State College, Pa.N. George DeDakis, '30, JD '31,La Crosse, Wisconsin; Prof. Clara A.Dyer, AM '26, Nashville 12, Tennessee; Julius L. Eberle, '12, JD '13,Boise, Idaho; Dr. Kenneth S. Ghent,SM '33, PhD '35, Eugene, Oregon;Miss Mary Harvey, '41, La Jolla, California; Mrs. Donald M. Hawkins, '43,Toledo, Ohio; Miss Sidney Holmes,Am '47, Greensboro, North Carolina;Dr. Nicholas Hotton, III, '47, PhD '50,Lawrence, Kansas.Dr. Israel S. Jacobs, SM '51, PhD'53, Schenectady, New York; Mrs.Margaret W. Jordan, AM '33, Montgomery, Alabama; Miss Florence M.Krantz, '33, Dubuque, Iowa; CharlesE. Lee, '22, Springfield, Massachusetts;Ray W. MacDonald, '35, Birmingham,Michigan; Jack H. Mankin, JD '48,Terre Haute, Indiana; Matthew Margolis, '25, Albany, New York; Lor enMarsh, '42, Muncie, Indiana; Mr. JohnC. McLean, '48, JD '51, Salem, Oregon; Mrs. Stuart P. Miller, Jr., '42,Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Robert S. Miner, Jr. '40, Westfield,New Jersey; John H. Mitchell, '28,Appleton, Wisconsin; Miss ElizabethH. Nicol, AM '47, Syracuse, NewYork; O. Donald Olson, '41, MBA '48,Colorado Springs, Colorado; Dr.Floyd A. Osterman, '41, Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Russell L. Palm, '31,AM '38, La Porte, Indiana; Dr. AliceE. Palmer, '32, SM '37, Grosse PointePark, Michigan.Mrs. Roy L. Pierce, '41, Valparaiso,Indiana; Dr. Henry J. Rehn, PhD '30,Carbondale, Illinois; Charles A. Ro-vetta, '30, MBA '37, Tallahassee, Florida; C. Earl Short, MBA '54, La Jolla,California; Henry C. Shull, '14, JD '16,Sioux City, Iowa; Daniel C. Smith, '37,JD '40, Tacoma, Washington; DouglasStewart, Jr. '47, Los Alamos, NewMexico.Dr. James M. Stickney, '29, MD '34,Rochester, Minnesota; Mrs. William O.Suiter, AM '32, Raleigh, North Carolina; Dr. William F. Wagner, SM '40,Lexington, Kentucky; Mrs. C. TaylorWhittier, '34, AM '46, St. Petersburg,Florida.FEBRUARY, 1956 27NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESCoggeshall NamedTo Welfare PostLOWELL T. COGGESHALL, Deanof the Division of Biological Sciences, has been named special assistant to Secretary of Welfare Fol-som, by President Eisenhower.Dean Coggeshall has been granteda leave of absence from the University. In his new position, he will assist the secretary of welfare in healthand medical affairs.Until July 1, 1955 he was chairmanof the committee on medical sciencesof the Department of Defense. He isalso chairman of the medical and scientific committee of the AmericanCancer Society.He is a member of the NationalAcademy of Sciences, and served aschairman of the Department of Medicine from 1946 until his appointmentas dean of the division in 1947.During the war years Dr. Coggeshall directed the establishment ofmedical services for the air routesthrough Africa and the Near and FarEast for the Army Air Forces. Healso served as special consultant tothe secretary of war and was commissioned a captain in the U. S. NavalReserve medical corps.While with the Navy he directed astudy of filariasis and malaria forwhich he received the Gorgas Medical award in 1945 from the Association of Military Surgeons.Dr. Coggeshall received his AB,AM and MD degrees from IndianaUniversity, which also conferred thehonorary LLD degree on him in 1948.He served his interneship at the University Clinics, and was appointed an instructor in medicine in 1932. In 1935he became a staff member of theRockefeller Foundation.Enter Phoenix BooksUNIVERSITY PRESS enters thelow-cost paper-back book market February 28 with the publication of six newly- designed paperback volumes. They will be the firstin the Press' series of Phoenix Books,later books also to be published ingroups of six.Phoenix books will have a nationwide distribution. The first six: TheRenaissance Philosophy of Man, annotated selection of Renaissance writing, $1.75; They Wrote on Clay, byEdward Chiera, $1; The Child and theCurriculum and The School and Society, by John Dewey, $1.25; Man andthe State, by Jacques Maritain, $1.25;The Road to Serfdom, by FrederichA. Hayek, $1; and The Social Psychology of George Herbert Mead,$1.50. All of these are drawn fromthe Press' list of clothbound volumes.Covers of the six are in orange,chartreuse, black and white. Coverdesigns are different on all volumes,but the four colors are used consistently to unify the series and makeit easily identifiable.Special Maroon BookletNINETEEN front pages from theChicago Maroon, chronicling theeducational and athletic history ofthe University, will be reproducedand bound by the Maroon for salelater this month. The booklet will describe the decline and fall of football and fraternities, the academic changes of Harperand Hutchins, and will include several gag issue front pages. Startingwith the first issue of a Universitynews publication in the 1890's, thebooklet will show important news upto and including the present decade.Humanities On TVTHE HUMANITIES, a televisionprogram run by the University'sRadio office and staffed by Universityfaculty members, is now near its midpoint on Chicago's educational TVstation, WTTW, Channel 11.For seven weeks since December15 the non- credit show has surveyedmusic, literature, and the visual artsevery Thursday evening from 9:30to 10. It will continue for six moreweeks. Moderated by Edward W.Rosenheim, Jr., Assistant Professorof Humanities in The College, it ispatterned after the College Humanities One course.Joshua C. Taylor, Assistant Professor of Art in the College, gave thefirst program: the visual arts — thelanguage of line. The second: literature — the shaping of language, waspresented by Assistant Professor ofEnglish Homer B. Goldberg. Music —the language of style, was discussedin the third by Music DepartmentChairman Grosvenor W. Cooper.Following the scheme of the Humanities One course, the next programs dealt, two apiece, with the visual arts, music and literature. These28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwill be followed this month by oneprogram on each of the three, and afinal, integrating show.F. C. Woodward DiesFREDERIC CAMPBELL WOODWARD, former vice president andlaw professor at the University, diedJanuary 17 in Lansing, Mich., at theage of eighty-one.In August, 1939, Professor Woodward ended forty-two years of distinguished service to American education by retiring at the age ofsixty-five. He had spent twenty-three years on the Midway, joiningthe faculty as a law professor. Hewas elected vice president and deanof faculties in 1926 when Max Masonwas president.For a time, in 1928 and 1929, Professor Woodward was acting presidentof the University. He served in thatcapacity until Robert M. Hutchins assumed the presidency in the fall of1929.While in office, Professor Woodwardtightened up the university's financial administration so that the numberof budgets submitted to the president's office was reduced from severalscore to four.Prominent as a legal scholar, Professor Woodward was the author of atext on The Law of Quasi-Contracts.He was considered an authority in thefields of sales, quasi-contracts andtrusts.In 1931, he took a leave of absenceto become vice chairman of the Laymen's Foreign Missions Inquiry whichstudied medical and religious missionsin India, China and Japan.He directed the University's semicentennial celebration in 1941.Despite his age, he had been relatively active recently, studying American history and other subjects.Restore Ancient SlabA 5,000-year-old slab from an Egyptian tomb has been restored andput on display in the Oriental Instituteby University archeologists. The slabportrays Nefermaat, a high official inEgypt's fourth dynasty, his wife andsons. The entire slab weighs about aton and a half, and stands ten feethigh by three feet wide.Nefermaat's tomb was discoveredby British archeologist Sir FlindersPetrie in the 1890's. Petrie sent theslab to the University, where OrientalInstitute members restored it, working from Petrie's instructions handwritten in green ink on the slab's The Restored Slabpieces. Over 400 fragments were sentfrom Nefermaat's tomb at Abydos,Egypt."He is the one who made his imagesin a writing which cannot be erased,"declares an inscription on the slab,boasting of Nefermaat's invention ofa rare type of coloring. The rich reds,browns and greens on the slab aresunk into the surface of the stone;most ancient Egyptian panels arecarved in relief or incised into thestone.Missing pieces were replaced withmodern restorations resembling theoriginal full panel. They can be removed to show the slab as it was whenunrestored.Biggest Track MeetFOR THE THIRD YEAR, the University Track Club-sponsored holiday meet attracted more good trackand field men than any other Chicagoindoor meet besides the Daily NewsRelays. Six meet records were broken out of twelve events, better than parfor the third year the meet has beenrun.Phil Coleman of the Track Club setone of them. He stepped of! two milesin 9:13.8, nearly a second faster thanFred Wilt had run the year before.Other record setters: Peter Bensinger,Yale, 22 feet five inches in the broadjump; Bill Bangert, Ozark A.C., 53feet 11 inches in the shot put; JoeGaffney, Villanova, 50.2 in the 440yard dash; Len Truex, unattached,4:10.3 in the mile; and Jerry Wel-bourne, Ohio State, 14 feet 4 inchesin the pole vault.Chicago hurdler Frank Loomos wonboth the high and low hurdles over70 yards, although he did not breakhis own meet records in either event.Challenges Cancer FindingsK ALEXANDER BROWNLEE,• Assistant Profesor and Research Associate on the Committeeon Statistics, has challenged the results of a survey by the AmericanCancer Society which attempted toestablish a relationship between lungcancer and cigaret smoking.Speaking before a luncheon of theAmerican Statistical Association's Chicago chapter, he said that the A.C.S.report indicates it may have beenunintentionally biased by includingtoo many non-smokers in the studysample groups.The A.C.S. survey involved investigation of the smoking habits of118,000 men in nine states, includingIllinois. Some 20,000 women volunteers were employed in the survey.The study began in 1951 and resultedin reports implicating cigarets as lungcancer producing agents.Brownlee said he suspected manynonsmokers participated in the survey because they probably felt "virtuous" over the fact that they didnot use tobacco.Another reason he gave for objecting to the survey was because hefelt those participating in the studydid not represent a true ratio of thestate populations where the investigations were made.Brownlee said that better diagnosisin discovering lung cancer is alsoresponsible for the reported steadyincrease since 1900. He indicated thatit is probable that the same amountof lung cancer was prevalent priorto 1900, but was missed by the inferior diagnosis of those days.Theme of the luncheon was: "TheLung Cancer-Cigaret Controversy:a Problem in Statistical Inference."FEBRUARY, 1956 29(Continued from Page 16)the relations between the two, especially their conflicts, with men's loveand hatred for both, rather than technology, have been the red thread running through history ever since. Theinstitutions have been supported byaspects of men's highly ambiguous attitudes — they love order as such, aswell as hate it, and in particular resent law-breaking by other people,though this may also be admired. Ifmen had in fact been rational, if theyhad had "common gumption," theywould have seen that laws are necessary, hence those that exist must beobeyed until others, supposedly better, are proposed and accepted. Butthat is not "human nature." Onethinks of Marx, the arch-romantic,who denounced religion as the opiumof the people — descriptively enough,but without asking how its necessaryfunction would be performed withoutit — for men cannot be ruled or keptin order by force alone. With the riseof agencies for enforcement, jurallaw is differentiated from that whichis moral only; but that difference isone of social mechanics rather thanof categories. Liberals, too, have beenromantic, in imagining an impossibleamount of freedom to change thelaws; men can- never be "liberated"from custom or convention, law mustbe predominantly a matter of habit,use and wont. And it must also be inconsiderable part formally enforced.Needed: Study of EmotionWe may now take a backwardglance at some features of the transition which seem to be somewhatneglected. The development of mindtends to be considered too much interms of intelligence, itself treated asa biological function; and with thebiologizing of man goes the mechanizing of biology. Changes in the lifeof feeling need more emphasis. Nearly a century ago, Darwin made a goodbeginning of studying emotion in animals, but it seems to have been littlefollowed up. Man is strikingly uniqueas the animal that laughs and weeps.More remarkably, people will payothers to make them laugh, and payeven more to be made to cry, if donein some proper way. Emotionalchanges, some of which had a physiological and even an anatomical basis,underly our moral and esthetic values,as well as individual desires and aversions. Somewhere and somehow occurred a remarkable inversion of theinstrumental relation between "mind" and body. There must have been atime, an epoch, when the brain andnervous system were in fact instrumental to the life of the organism andthe species. In civilized men, this isreversed; the mind thinks of the bodyas a means to its own life of "experience". Indeed it often seems ashamedof having a body at all; this is calledthe coffin of the spirit and is "mortified" for the latter 's well-being, or"salvation." The mental life is lessa matter of reasoning than of feelings,wishes and value-judgments, whichprovide the ends of reasoning, such asit is. Hume's dictum, that the intellectis the slave of the passions, is in general true, though I have reservationswhen he adds that it has no right toany other role. That also I must passover, and of course I cannot go intothe confused romantic and paradoxical character of human passions; likesand dislikes couldn't be listed. Iwould stress that neither our desiresnor our higher values, which, largelyopposed as they are, together definewhat we mean by the "useful," showany consistent relation to biologicaladvantage, of the individual or thespecies. They seem about as oftento be anti-biological. Man is the animal who "works," virtually meaningthat he has an aversion to usefulactivity as such; and it is most trueof civilized man. He is the slave-maker, and then the builder of machines to replace the slaves — aftercivilization has made him soft-hearted.I puzzle especially over many of ourhigher values, as I would say that onthe whole idealists do more harmthan the criminals. The soft heartproverbially needs the hard head; butthis has little romantic or sentimentalappeal.I must hurry on, to say a littleabout the most important topic, thelast and rather the greatest revolutionin the modes of law — the coming ofdemocracy. That was just beginningto be talked about when Hume wrote,a short two centuries ago, though amajor turning-point in its directionhad occurred a century before, in thevictory of Parliament over Stuart absolutism. Hume disliked democracy,and did not live to see it; he died afew days after another high-point,the adoption of our Declaration of Independence, in a war which was aprelude to the French Revolution. Astill earlier turning-point was theProtestant Revolt. This destroyed theunitary ecclesiastical absolutism ofWestern Europe, but it did not destroyeither authoritarianism or its supernatural foundation; both were trans ferred to nation- states, under autocrats ruling by the grace of God.Nor did the Age of Reason with itspolitical revolutions introduce democracy, which came gradually in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Ourown founding fathers were afraid ofit — the famous Declaration was written by and for slave- owners. Just so,none of the protagonists in the terrible"religious" wars following the "Reformation" wanted even toleration, notto mention the general liberationwhich finally resulted. History, likenature, moves in mysterious ways itswonders to perform. None of the thirteen states adopting our Constitutionin 1787 had universal male suffrage;and no one then thought of free secular, non- dogmatic, education, evenfor literacy, as a requirement for citizenship in a free state, or as a humanright.Inverted Human ValuesIt is hard to realize the historicalsuddenness and vast sweep of thechange, in a few generations, fromthe medieval system — surpassing themost extreme totalitarianism known,at least in the western world beforeHitler and Stalin — to our libertarianand equalitarian democracy of today.The accepted human values werelargely inverted — an Umwertung allerWerte, in the Nietschean phrase. Culturally and spiritually, the basic factwas the freeing of the mind, fromdogma, for the progressive pursuit oftruth and well-being, material andideal. Everyone should know Professor Bury's two books — at least theearlier chapters — History of Freedomof Thought, and The Idea of Progress.I mention them, as I cannot go intodetail. The two great drives back ofthe whole movement (not the immediate motivation of the hereticalreligious revolts) were the development of science and the economic interest in trade and production, bothof which seem to be naturally individualistic. Modern science is unique inlooking toward applications — aspreached by Bacon and inauguratedas a movement by his younger contemporary, Galileo. The role of the"Renaissance," reviving classicalpagan learning was important but, Ithink, is commonly exaggerated.For our purpose here, the centralfact is the revolution in the conception of law. From its historical beginnings through the ages, the lawhad been sacred, hence in theoryeternal and immutable; and so was,of necessity, the authority for its in-30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEterpretation and enforcement, i. e.,the uneasy partnership of autocraticchurch and autocratic state, both divinely ordained and sanctioned. (Recall previous reference to reservationsfor Greece and Rome.) The essenceof democracy is the freedom of thepeople to change the laws at will, byequal participation, and to have themenforced by agents held responsiblein the same way. In norms of conduct, a new age began when menfirst thought that their laws couldbe wrong, contrary to a "higher" law.For this we unfortunately still usethe words "moral" and "ethical," giving them a radically new additionalmeaning, as we so often do. The coming of freedom to change it, of course,ended the sanctity of law. The ideaof improvement had been impossiblebefore, since the laws, jural or moralin the original sense, contained thewhole meaning of right and wrong.Verbally, the right means the regular.At this point, man took or underwenthis second great "fall", in the senseof the first; as he had then fallen fromthe innocence of insouciance into responsibility for obeying laws, he nowtook on the far more onerous responsibility for determining the contentof the law itself.A Right to Kill?There was, indeed, a transitionalstage when "positive" law was distinguished in theory from "naturallaw," opening the way to some changein the former — but never very muchand only by the sacred authority. Ican only mention the curious historyof the ambiguous concept of "nature"—standing for fact versus norm, orused in contrast with the supernaturalor the artificial. In culture, it is hardto separate the natural and the artificial, and only in that sense do naturallaw or natural right have meaning.Life has its scientific laws, a part ofnature, but conformity with any sortof standards, either ideals or conventions, is unnatural, against nature.Men have the rights, as also theduties, which are recognized in thelegal and moral order in which theylove, a sort of concentric series ofcommunities. My right to life meansonly that no one has a right to killme, unless he has that right — mayhapthe duty. I feel some impatience withthe solemn cant that passes for inspired wisdom on the most vital questions. The notion of men being bornfree or equal is one example, andanother is that loving people tellshow they ought to be treated, which is commonly not as they wish to be.And what "you" would like, with noconditions stated, would as typicallylead to misguidance. The phrase,"natural law," is current today — usedto cloak dogmatic pronouncements onwhat ought to be law or ought to bedone. If free society endures, thiswill be outgrown, as legal thinkingis struggling free from the conception of law as a command. Whenpeople "command themselves," individually or collectively, a differentword is called for.Advisedly I say "individually or"collectively. It is essential to free society that, even when law is madeby free agreement as far as possible,its scope still be minimized, leavingeach person to "command himself."Limits to freedom must be set onlyby general agreement — not the fiatof whoever can contrive to carry anelection — to meet the need for common restraints or for group actionto realize group values. But — there'sthe rub! With the progress of liberalcivilization, individuals pursuing theirwants and needs or ideals run moreand more into conflict; and more andmore do human needs become social,requiring a consensus in action. Basiclike-mindedness is requisite for discussion itself — the method of democracy, and Lord Bryce's familiardefinition. Conflict is not only, oreven mainly, because of "sin". Theminimum requirements for harmonyexpand, making agreement hard, andthreatening resort to force. Agreement must come in part throughcompulsory legal action, while thebasic consensus is the task of education. Hence above all, the schoolsmust be kept free, and not allowed tobe used for indoctrinating the youngwith dogma.Broadly speaking, the crucial taskof free society is to reach agreementby discussion on the kind of civilization it is to create for the future;hence it must agree on the meaningof progress. The living adult generation legislate for their children, andalso beyond them for the unborn.For that task, attitudes toward persons are not in point; even for infantsalready born, freedom has no meaning and equality means all equal tozero, or to digits in a census of unitsbiologically defined. Discussion oflegal change must run in terms ofgeneral values or ideals. The politicsof democracy cannot be a contest between individuals or interest- groupsin getting what they want at the costof others. Rights must be defined inrelation to obligations, as well as topossibilities. One of our worst verbal confusions is using the same term,"value" for both subjective desiresand ideals which, in seeking agreement, must be recognized as objectively valid, hence as "cognitive."Social problems arise out of conflictsat either of the two levels; but theycan be discussed only as differencesin critical -intellectual judgment ofnorms. More assertion of opposedclaims cannot tend toward agreement,but must intensify conflict.In a realistic view, the problemof legislation is hardly one of meansto ends, or of efficiency — and not atall in the sense of scientific technology. A useful analogy is the makingof rules in games or sport. The individual interest will be in winning,but the general interest is the idealof a good game. I once heard of abusiness- efficiency expert who suggested for the improvement of football, first to put all the men on thesame side. Sportsmanship, incidentally, looms very large in the ethicof free society, and has been veryimportant in the history of democracy; but little is said about it ineither connection, by moral philosophers and preachers, or by historians.Efficiency in Law MakingSociety in its rules -making mustof course give a high place to efficiency — which also is largely ignored inidealistic and religious ethics. I digress to say explicitly that in referring to anachronisms in religiousteachings on morals I do not condemnreligion. People should of coursehave any religion they choose, provided they allow others that right, donot indulge in "offensive" practices,and keep it out of politics; this lastwas of course the clear intention ofJesus and the Apostles. But I wouldmake one remark at the level of theobvious: Surely all who have bowelsof feeling share Henry Wallace's viewthat babies everywhere should havetheir bottle of milk at feeding- time.And that may well be a condition ofpeace in the world. It will not comeabout if the number of babies exceedsthe number of bottles of milk perfeeding period; and the contributionof church ethics to that situation ismore babies and fewer bottles of milk.Efficiency as a social problem isthe province of economics. The history of the free -enterprise economyhas shown its capacity to promoteefficiency, up to any reasonable expectations, but there are other valuesto be considered. The system is widely criticized, damned as "capitalism,"FEBRUARY, 1956 31by agitators for radical change. Undoubtedly there are evils, some moreor less remediable by intelligent political action. A primary criticism relates to unjust distribution. Thereare many formulas for justice in thatsense; they conflict among themselves, and no one could ever be fullyrealized, or pushed very far withoutunduly neglecting others. And compulsory redistribution infringes onfreedom; but conflicting definitions ofthat are also in dispute. All that canbe said here is that the citizen mustlearn to critically compare and balance among possible alternatives, firstknowing what these are. The economic order is also condemned forthe .esthetic and cultural values itfosters. It is blamed for a civilizationdenounced as ugly, crass or trivial,as well as for enslaving the workingmasses, not giving them real freedomor the good life.I only mention these things, without passing judgment, at the end of anover-long discourse, in order to suggest the kind of problems we face, inone important area, in trying to realizethe revolutionary ideal of a societycombining freedom with order. Theproblem involves "laws" of all thevalues of the familiar triad — Truth,Beauty and the Good — in their broadest meaning, everything that entersinto a high civilization and the goodlife for man. We tend to include itall in a vague concept of social justice — again a complex new meaningfor an old term. Its historical meaning, as the word shows, was accordwith law, which was assumed to beknown. That made good conduct amatter of will, of conformity andobedience, to law, established authority, and "conscience." In consequence of our second "fall," however,the issues in conduct are as muchintellectual, and esthetic, as moral.No longer is good will the wholestory; rather, the view of modernman is expressed in the proverb, theroad to hell is paved with good intentions.As a final word, I stress again twomain difficulties or dangers. The firstis in the survival of traditions whichdo not fit the facts and problems ofour free society. Traditions, evenfreed from sanctity as they must be,are still hard to change and slow tochange. Intelligent action demandsfirst of all that man accept that method, eschew wishful thinking, face theproblems and try to understand them.Our older maxims of sentimental,personal relations morality were formulated in and for a society with"static" ideals. Whatever their ade quacy in the original setting, theyhave little to say about the mainproblems of a society dedicated toprogress in truth, freedom and well-being. The second menace I havedwelt on at still greater length. It is"scientificism," another fatal oversimplification — the insistence on attacking problems of social change entirely by methods adapted to theunderstanding and use of the naturalenvironment. They likewise are irrelevant to the more crucial problemof democratic society, which is agreement on cultural norms. These mustsupply — not goals, for goals are always provisional, to be redefined asthey are progressively realized — butmust point the direction of change,that we may have progress and notstagnation or retrogression.Alumni ClubsJune Reunion PlansT t's January and it's cold which is¦*¦ one reason we enjoy thinking aboutJune reunion plans. We hope to seea large number of alumni from outside the Chicago area back on theQuadrangles. Committees from anumber of the reunion classes metthis fall and are planning activitiesfor Friday night, (June 1), before theInterfraternity Sing.The class of 1921 has reserved aroom (at the Windermere Hotel) forcocktails and dinner. Keith Kindredwrote Chal McWilliams in Los Angeles, Joe Hall in Cincinnati, and GlenHarding in Baltimore and all threewill work from a distance. MargaretSeymour Bay, Katherine Sisson Jensen and Perry Segal have begun workon a "college in the Twenties" skit.The class of 1926 has chosen Graham and Helen (Liggett) Hagey tohead the class's 30th reunion.The class of 1931 will be celebrating its 25th reunion. Errerett VanNice, (who's been working hard forthe Campaign as Special Gifts Chairman for Chicago's North Side), isheading up plans for the festivities tobe held at the Quadrangle Club.In the class of 1936, Irwin Askow,Tom Barton, Bob Beaird and BillStapleton are among those who willwork with Jay Berwanger.From the class of 1941 MelvinTracht and Mary Hammel Davis settled on the New Orleans Room at theDel Prado Hotel for reunion festivities. Plans are afoot for a combination Blackfriars and Mirror production with contemporary commentin rhyme and rhythm. Don Wilsonis heading the planning. E.A.S. SOCIALSCIENCESCONFERENCE(Continued from Page 12)moting economic stability, Bloughpredicted.Increasing faith in a tremendousfuture for the economy and in theeffectiveness of government action toavoid depression promotes the stability and growth of the economy, butpresents dangers as well as benefits,he said."The benefit is that businesses andconsumers, acting on their new belief, will not run for cover when adownturn occurs, reducing theirspending and thus aggravating theproblem of stopping the downturn,"he said."This permits a little governmentalaction to be successful and avoids theneed for more drastic measures. Thedanger is that businesses and consumers, confident in the protectingarm of government action, will engage in unjustified expansion."Anyone for Tennis?Politicians may leave smoke -filledrooms for grassy playing-fields ifYale Professor of AnthropologyGeorge P. Murdock has his way.Using the Berber tribes of NorthAfrica and the Creek Indians of thesouthwest United States as importantpolitical models, Murdock found thatthe Creeks anticipated the Americantwo party system by draining off political aggressions with lacrosse gamesbetween the two opposing divisions ofthe nation.Historical and ethnographic evidence from the Berber tribes showsthat a balance of power arrangementcan endure for more than two thousand years. "If we frankly acceptedthe balance of power arrangement.devoting our efforts to correcting itsdefects instead of deluding ourselveswith mirages constructed of well-meaning words and pen-strokes, wemight, with time and experience, evenbecome as civilized as the Creek Indians and replace war with an athletic sport," Murdock stated."Possessing such a safety valve,neither we nor they are ordinarilycompelled to suffer the gradual accumulation of suppressed grievance*and pent-up resentments until thejburst in destructive revolution," hepointed out.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa Nass Meurs15Philip J. Carlin and his wife have retired after devoting an aggregate of 71years to education. Carlin spent over 40years in the field and his wife totalled29, taking time out to raise three sons —Philip, a high school teacher, Thomas, atheater and TV performer, and Richard, a student at Loyola University. Atthe time of their retirement Carlin wasprincipal of Harper High School and hiswife teacher at Raster School, both inChicago.17Frederick Kuh, Sun-Times Washington correspondent, spoke before members of Chicago Woman's Aid recentlyon "American-Soviet Relations in Europe, the Middle East and the Far East."Elcy Russell Holdeman (Mrs. Albert)writes that she and her husband are inthe farm and ranch business in SanAngelo, Texas.ISClarence M. Loeser, Hammond, Indiana, is midwestern manager of the AlginCorporation of America.19Milford Desenberg and wife Elinor ofNew York, left January 3 for a leisurely'round the world trip: Honolulu, Japan,Bangkok, Ceylon, New Delhi, Rome, Madrid, Lisbon and way points. Milford,former president of our New York alumni club, is head of the King ClothingCo., with retail outlets in the Texassouthwest.20H. Broadus Jones, AM, PhD '24, andF. Manning Moody, '20, are serving asdistrict governors of Rotary International.For the past five years Frank J. Madden, JD '22, has spent two nights a weekon the Pullman between Chicago andOmaha. Frank was general counsel ofthe Cudahy Packing Co., which has itsheadquarters in Omaha. On November1 Frank resigned his Cudahy positionand cancelled his standing Pullman reservations for Omaha to go into privatelaw practice in Chicago. He will continueto represent Cudahy in many of its Chicago operations. Frank, a former president of the Alumni Association, liveswith his family in Winnetka. 21William N. Harrison, SM, Chief of theEnameled Metals Section of the NationalBureau of Standards, is Chairman of theCommittee on Porcelain Enamel, American Society for Testing Materials.W. Anthony Willibrand, AM, receiveda medal at the South Central ModernLanguage Association conference for hisservices as president of the association.Lawrence Poston, Jr., PhD '38, Chairman of Modern Languages at the University of Oklahoma, also attended theconference and read a paper on "Observation on Le Francais Elementaire."22Wilmer A. Jenkins has been electedexecutive vice president of Teachers Insurance & Annuity Association of America and its companion organization,College Retirement Equities Fund.J. Russell Whitaker, '22, PhD '30, Professor of Geography at George PeabodyCollege, Nashville, Tenn., recently received the Distinguished Service to Geographic Education Award of the National Council of Geography Teachers.23Henry Steele Commager, AM '24, PhD'28, delivered the annual Guild Memoriallecture at the University of Minnesotalast November. Commager has writtenextensively on American governmentand American freedoms. His topic was"Federalization and the Press."24Capt. L. Keith MacClatchie, MD '27,and his wife left recently for Japan. Hewill become executive officer and chiefof dermatology at the U. S. Naval Hospital, Yokosuka, Japan.Robert P. Pollak recently was re-elected member of the Board of RooseveltUniversity.26Seymour Berkson, '26, is the new publisher of the New York Journal-American. He was formerly general managerof International News Service.28Fred H. Mandel, JD '29, is now practicing law in Cleveland. Oak Ridge DirectorDr. Alvin M. Weinberg, SB '35,SM '36, PhD '39, has been appointedDirector of Oak Ridge NationalLaboratory.The Laboratory is the nation'sleading atomic research centerand is the chief source of radioisotopes used in medical research,agriculture, and many industrialoperations. Out of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have comeatomic reactors designed for research purposes and for power.The U. S. Exhibit Reactor, themain feature at the recent International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy inGeneva, Switzerland, was designed,built, and operated by Laboratorypersonnel.In 1942, Dr. Weinberg joinedthe Manhattan District's Metallurgical Project, where he contributed to the design of thenuclear reactors used in the production of plutonium. Since 1945he has been associated with OakRidge National Laboratory, holding the post of Director of thePhysics Division. In 1948, he became Research Director at theLaboratory.Dr. Weinberg is the author ofnumerous scientific papers and hasbeen a frequent contributor of articles dealing with atomic energysubjects. He recently returnedfrom Geneva, Switzerland, wherehe served as an official delegateto the "Atoms for Peace" Conference. He read two papers dealingwith reactor systems before thisConference. He is a member ofthe American Physical Society, theInstitute of Radio Engineers, theScientific Research Society ofAmerica, and the American Nuclear Energy Society.FEBRUARY, 1956 33PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEAJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, LA 2-8354BESTBOILERREPAIR&WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good— -or —Wasson DoesSince 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Producersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton h\ Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4 31 34Wilson E. Sweeney, SM '33, now aneconomist with the U. S. Dept. of Commerce, married Priscilla Shane on May21.Esther Fenenga Biggs (Mrs. Earl R.),lives in Portland, Oregon. Her husbandis president of the World Wide BookFinding Service.Barnes F. Lathrop, AM, is Chairmanof the Department of History at the University of Texas in Austin. Janet Kalven, a Jewish convert toCatholicism, is director of the new Grailcenter in Brooklyn. She lectured recently at the Edith Stein Guild on "Howa Jewish Intellectual Found Her WayHome." She is author of the pamphlet,"The Task of Woman in the ModernWorld39.3531Dr. Solomon J. Klapman, PhD, '40, isa research scientist for the LockheedMissile Systems Division, Encino, Calif.Viola Bower Roy (Mrs. Max F.), AM'33, is a technical literature searcher inthe documentary division of the University of California's Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Dorothy M. Stehle, AM '36, is a librarian at the Library of Congress,Washington, D. C.Bruce Stewart of Skokie, Illinois wasrecently promoted to manager of customer relations for Ditto, Inc. Bruce hasbeen with the firm since his graduationin 1935.3633John T. Holloway was recently madevice president and general manager ofthe George H. Hartman Co., an advertising agency in Chicago. Robert B. Giffen has resigned his position as executive secretary of theChristian Council of Atlanta, Ga., to become executive director of the Chatham-Savannah (Ga.) Mental HealthAssociation.UNFORGETTABLE!HOLIDAY'S BIG lOth ANNIVERSARYISSUE ON LEISUREFor an entire decade, this magazine has been the voice of thebiggest single change in our time — our new leisure! The leisure inwhich you live longer, better, more enjoyably.This month, Holiday's 10th birthday issue presents a significantportrait of this new and ever-increasing free personal time andopportunity. Testifying on this wonderful topic are a whole galaxyof noted writers! Don't miss their challenging views in sucharticles as:JAMES A. MICHENER'S report on the rewards of understanding your own — and other — lands!BERNARD DE VOTO'S "Heavy, Heavy, What Hangs Over?" —how our search for relaxation often turns into a race against time!BRUCE CATTON'S analysis of the joys of collecting — stamps,dolls, or battlefields!PLUS a host of other adventures in leisure activities by E. B.White, Edward Steichen, Joseph Wechsberg, Silas Spitzer, RogerAngell, Clifton Fadiman, Aubrey Menen . . . and more!ON YOUR NEWSSTAND FEBRUARY 16!March HOLIDAY MagazineA CURTIS MAGAZINE34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE37Helen Becknell Kindelsperger, '37, AM'41, is a casework supervisor at BethanyHome, Moline, 111.Norman M. Pearson, PhD '43, is a foreign service officer for the U.S. Dept. ofState in Montevideo, Uruguay.38Louis Linn, MD, assistant attendingpsychiatrist at Mount Sinai Hospital inNew York City, has just publishedA Handbook of Hospital Psychiatry.Philleo Nash, PhD, was elected statechairman of the Democratic party ofWisconsin in October. He defeated Horace Wilkie in an extremely close race.He is married to the former Edith Rosen -fels, AB '34.39Harry L. Shapiro, AB, of Skokie, 111.,has been appointed vice president of theMadison Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.He was previously vice president of theCentral National Bank, Chicago.40Forrest M. Swisher, MD, and his wife,Lois Hay, were recent Alumni Housevisitors. He was in Chicago to be inducted a fellow of the American Collegeof Surgeons. Forrest is one of five orthopedists in the Anderson Clinic ofArlington, Va., and Washington, D. C.This is one of the largest clinics specializing solely in the treatment of boneand joint disorders. The Swishers have3 children: Charles, 13; James, 11; andSara Joanne, born June 11.41Dale Tillery sent a Christmas cardfrom Athens, where he is working as aFulbright Professor of Psychology atPierce College. He spent Christmas inEgypt. Dale is on leave from his position on the faculty of West Contra CostaJunior College, Richmond, Cal.John W. Busby, SB '43, has recentlybecome engineering section head forsurface radar systems for the SperryGyroscope Company, Great Neck, N. Y.Frances Lander Spain (Mrs. D. G.),AM, PhD '44, has been appointed Professorial Lecturer at the Library Schoolof Pratt Institute. She has been Coordinator of Children's Services at theNew York Public Library, taught atColumbia's Library School and at Chula-longkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand on a Fulbright appointment. Sheedits "Books for Young People" in theSaturday Review.FEBRUARY, 1956 Mrs. Margaret Powell, PhB, of Cincinnati, spent the summer teaching enameling and ceramics for the Diines ArtsFoundation at Michigan City, Indiana.Also on the staff were Martha BennettKing, AB '24, and Nora Tully MacAlvoy,AB '38.Dr. Robert Blackwell Smith, PhD, hasbeen chosen to be the next Presidentof the Medical College of Virginia. Hewill take office in July, 1956, upon theretirement of the incumbent president.42Vincent Oliver, SB, and his wife Mildred, SM '44, drove 1,960 miles fromWashington to Kansas City with theirfour children to attend a national meeting of the American Meteorological Society last June. Vincent works with theNational Weather Analysis Center inWashington. Mildred, who has a degreein Meteorology, is publishing a treatiseof her own soon, on rainfall in EastAfrica.Melvin Gerstein, '42, PhD '45, chief ofthe combustion branch at the LewisFlight Propulsion Laboratory, recentlyattended a combustion colloquium inBelgium sponsored by the AdvisoryGroup for Aeronautical Research andDevelopment, a part of NATO.Joel Bernstein, AM '48, and his wifeMerle Sloan, '45, returned from Romelast spring and are now living in Beth-esda, Md. He is chief of the Europeanprogram staff of the International Cooperation Administration. They have twochildren.43David R. Krathwohl, AM '47, PhD '53,has been named Associate Professor ofEducation and Research Coordinator atMichigan State University. Before goingto M.S.U., Krathwohl was Research Assistant for the University's board ofexaminations.Mary M. Graham, AB, JD '45, announced the opening of her law officesin La Grange, Illinois, in November. Shewill specialize in taxation and generalpractice.44John F. White, AM, vice president incharge of development at Western Reserve University since 1949, left the University in October to become generalmanager of WQED, educational television station in Pittsburgh.Capt. Portia E. Inmon, AB, of theWomen's Army Corps, has just been assigned as public information officer ofheadquarters, Texas Military District,Austin, Texas.Margaret E. Egan has joined the faculty of Western Reserve's School ofLibrary Science in Cleveland. She willbe Associate Professor of Library Science and Research Associate at the Center for Documentation and Communication Research. CHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING-LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters • Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addressing • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Dearborn • Chicago 5 • WA 2-4561MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica-Exacta-Bolex-Rollei-Stereo1329 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259"Neighborhood Servicewith Downtown Selection"Phones OAlcland 4-0690—4-0691-The Old Reliable k0692Hyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenuePHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Book ReproductionCongress St. Expressway andGardner RoadCOIumbus 1-1420POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigrapning ' 'Addressograph ServiceHighest Quality Service AddressingMailingMinimum PricesAll Phones: 210 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisWebb-Linn Printing Co.Catalogs, PublicationsAdvertising Literature?Printers of the Universityof Chicago Magazine?A. L Weber, J.D. '09 L S. Berlin, B.A. '09A. J. Falick, M.B.A. '51MOnroe 6-290035HYLAND A. NOLANCONTRACTORPLASTERINGREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. LAKE PARK AVE.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579PARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit InsuranceCorporationt. a. mwoBM co Sidewalks7 Factory Floors/ MachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'SA product -f Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400 Jewish Congress CounselJoseph 'Minsky, PhB '47, JD 51,moved from political to social workafter managing the successful al-dermanic campaign of Leon M.Despres, PhB '27, JD '29, of thefifth ward last year, (the ward containing the University neighborhood). He joined the staff of theChicago Council of the AmericanJewish Congress as legal counsel,with duties in the field of law andsocial action.Minsky saw overseas duty as aninfantry lieutenant in World WarII. Formerly a member of the lawfirm of Goldberg and Levin, hisactivities included work with theAmerican Civil Liberties Union,and the Independent Voters of Illi-45Helen I. Green, PhD, was one ofGeorgia's delegates to the White HouseConference on Education.Bernard A. Galler, SB '47, PhD '55, andhis wife Enid Harris, '47, AM '50, arein Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he isteaching mathematics at the University.Bruce Irving joined the family on December 5.Beverly M. Hill, AB, who is with theChicago advertising firm of Needham,Louis and Brorby, Inc., was married toJames E. Hayter on November 5.Elwood E. Yaw, MD, of Imperial,Nebraska, reports the birth of a son,Gary Wheaton, October 5.Mrs. Geneva Gordon, San Diego, Calif.,is now the grandmother of thirteen.Bert F. Hoselitz, AM, Professor of theSocial Sciences at the University, hasbeen awarded a fellowship at the Centerfor Advanced Study in the BehavioralSciences, Stanford, California. The Center opened last year in order to givepromising faculty members time off fromtheir unversity duties to work intensively together in one place on problemsof human behavior. SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 100 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoBIRCK FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380TheHOTEL SHERRY53rd and the Lake — FAirfax 4-1000BANQUETS — DANCESOur Specialtyalumni are alwayswelcome at theHotel Del PradoFifty-Third Street andHyde Park BoulevardHYde Park 3-9600~ mSmH^I^5ffli^.^ftfl8^MTSi IBSa el m. 0 ela is. a a a U LJ "\© ® ®:"ivi i 6 ii f 6 n is !m-iMipiH-Hi5487 LAKE PARK AVE.CHICAGO, ILLINOIS£/0r JZeservaiiom Uall:BUtterfield 8-496 036 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELois Wells Reed (Mrs. Charles A.),SB, SM '51, reports that her husbandis on leave of absence from the Collegeof Pharmacy at the University of Illinois, in order to act as zoological expertfor Robert Braidwood's Oriental Institute expedition to Iraq (reported in theApril, 1955, magazine). "It is always alittle difficult to explain that yes, I ama faculty wife but no, my husband isn'tteaching anywhere on campus," Mrs.Reed states.46Sebastian V. Martorana, AM, PhD '48,is working as a specialist for community -junior colleges and lower divisions, Division of Higher Education, Office ofEducation, Washington, D. C.Alfred Schwartz, AM, PhD '49, is coauthor of Administration in Profile forSchool Executives, a book published thissummer by Harpers. Idea for the bookcame, in part, while he was a studentat the University.34Joseph A. Kahl, AB, AM '48, is spending six months at Mexico City College,Mexico, as Visiting Professor. Charles Warren Van Cleve, AB, AM'50, received his PhD in governmentfrom the University of Texas on June 4.Joan Yoken Frye, Scarsdale, N. Y.,reports the birth of her second child,Hollyce Susan, in September, 1954.H. Robert Gemmer, DB, has beenappointed assistant director of studentactivities and guidance at Fenn College,Cleveland, O.Quentin H. Blewett, Jr., a postgraduate student at the Manhattan School ofMusic, New York, recently participatedin the Tenth Annual Composer's Conference at Bennington College, Bennington, Vt. He is working for his AM incomposition and musical education.Margaret Sibley, AM, has been appointed director of case work at Lakeside Children's center, Milwaukee, Wis.48Avery M. Millard, MBA, has beenappointed executive director of the California Hospital Association, San Francisco.Aynslee MacEwen Cameron (Mrs.Lome A.), MBA, writes of the Januaryarrival of Carol Ann, her second daughter, in Columbus, Ohio.J. Clare Heinlein, PhD, is Professorof Political Science at the Universityof Cincinnati. BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71ST ST.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-318611 1 know we locked up the liferafts, Mr. Roberts, but hefound an H&D corrugated box!"^g^-g^^ -gZWV^^Kf&XS&Zp S? „ <*(>>«$<$»"1Sailors,silks, swordfish... everythingtravels better in H&D boxes.HINDU DAUCHSubsidiary of West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company•©© 13 FACTORIES AND 42 SALES OFFICES IN THE EAST, MIDWEST AND SOUTHFEBRUARY, 1956 37An InvitationTo PioneerIn TheDevelopmentowerENGINEERS!SCIENTISTS!Join WESTINGHOUSE in the researchand development of nuclear reactorsfor commercial power plants andfor the propulsion of naval vessels.PHYSICISTSMATHEMATICIANSMECHANICAL ENGINEERSMETALLURGISTSNUCLEAR ENGINEERSRADIO CHEMISTSNew! WestinghouseFellowship Program... in conjunction with the Universityof Pittsburgh. This new Westinghouseprogram enables qualified candidates to attain their M.S. and Ph.D.degrees WHILE ON FULL PAY.SALARIES OPENAmple housing availablein modern suburban community 15 minutes fromour new plant. Idealworking conditions. Excellent pension plan. Education program. Health& Life Insurance.fcf ffl \ Send Complete Resume To:**• \ MR. A. M. JOHNSTON4 f0fl|lC\ WESTINGHOUSE BETTIS PLANTPoyt&L P.O. Box 1468Pittsburgh 30, Penna. Katherine Curtis, AM, was named"Woman of the Week" recently by theBoston Traveller. She is guidance counselor to high school students at NewtonHigh School, Newton, Mass.John W. Wilkes, AM, has been appointed instructor in history at PomonaCollege, Claremont, Calif.James H. Dornburg, MBA, has beennamed director of market research andsales planning for the Chatham Manufacturing Co., Elkin, N. C.Richard Wolfe Reilly, PhB, SB '50,MD '53, and his wife, Marion, are theparents of a son, Philip Mark. They livein Cedar Lake, Ind., where Dick is inprivate practice.Ruth Sandra arrived at the home ofthe Allen H. Dropkins, JD '51, on October 10. Allen is an assistant states attorney of Cook County. ica. Mayer-Oakes joined the staff ofCarnegie Museum in 1950 as Field Archaeologist.Donald Hayworth, AM, was electedDemocratic representative of the SixthDistrict of Michigan in November, 1954.50Ralph Fertig, AB, joined the HydePark Neighborhood Club as a full timeworker in August. He holds an AM fromColumbia University, and is completinghis PhD on the Midway campus whenhe has time free from social work.5149Robert P. Brandau, AB, SB '50, married Anna Louise Bregman in June. Heis chemist for the Stepan Chemical Co.,of Chicago.William Mayer-Oakes, Jr., AM, PhD'54, has just published Prehistory of theUpper Ohio Valley under the sponsorshipof Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh. Thebook supplies a major missing link inthe history of pre-white man in Amer- Robert A. LeVine, AB, AM '53, is oneof fourteen students granted FordFoundation fellowships for study andresearch on Africa. The grant providesfor up to two years of research in thebackground and current problems of theAfrican peoples, in hopes of increasingthe number of Americans who can interpret and deal with the increasing problems this country faces in foreign areas.He will conduct an 18-month study ofpersonality development in West Ugandatribal society.David R. McClurg, PhB, successfullypassed the State Department ForeignService Officer examinations in June.Robert D. Welch, AM, was married onJune 18, 1955, to Susanne M. Dengler."its time he talked things over-with a Suit Life man/"_ . . . time to have a Sun Life man arrange for aSun Life of Canada Retirement Pension policy.The Sun Life man in your community isRalph J. Wood, Jr., '481 NORTH LA SALLE STREET, CHICAGO 2, ILLINOISFR 2-2390 • GA 2-527338 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE52 54Mrs. Dorothea Elmer Brown (Mrs. David), AB, of Park Forest, 111., announcesthe birth of her third son, George Jarvis,on November 12.53Edward W. Maupin dropped in atAlumni House Thanksgiving week ashe was shifting from his army basictraining at Fort Jackson, S. C, to FortSam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.Douglas DeYoung, AB, graduated fromthe U. S. Naval Pre-Flight School atPensacola, Fla., in September.Paul S. Kelley, MD, is in private practice in Hammond, Ind. The Kelley s havea year-old daughter, Sylvia.Elizabeth Barnes, AB, married RogerR. Gay on October 8. Roger was a student at the University for two years andis a graduate of the Illinois Institute ofTechnology. They will live in Wayne,Michigan, where he is a research engineer for Ford Motor Co.Bertram L. Hanna, PhD, who is Assistant Professor of Genetics at the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond,presented greetings for the Universityat the inauguration of the new Presidentof Virginia Union University on November 4. Samuel G. Wagner, MBA, has beenappointed assistant to general sales manager for Kaiser Aluminum & ChemicalSales, Inc., Chicago. He was previouslyassociated with Inland Steel Co.Carol Henderson, AM, married DeweyA. Ganzel, Jr., July 27, in the First Unitarian Church in Chicago. Ganzel, agraduate of the University of Nebraska,has been studying for his doctor's degree at Chicago. The couple are now inEngland where Ganzel has a Fulbrightscholarship at the University of London.55Richard Cox, PhD, has accepted afaculty post at Harvard University.John E. Twomey, AM, who was thethird person to receive a master's degreeunder the Committee On Communications, went to work November 1 in themarket research department of J. WalterThompson. He's with the ad agency'sChicago branch. John had an articlepublished in the current issue of theDuke University Law School magazine,on "The Citizens' Committee and ComicBook Control: A Study of Extra-governmental Restraint." The entire issue wasdevoted to obscenity and the arts. LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERLOWIR YOUR COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVES ;JOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURESROBgRT 8. SHAPIRO, '32*, FOUNDERGENERAL MOTORS INVITES— ALL GRADUATE ENGINEERS -t;hPetitutuatl £W Oppmimiim Ifor ambitious, creative men.AVIONICSINERTIAL SYSTEMS ETC.G.M. ELECTRONICS DIVISIONoffers challenging, pioneering opportunities to ambitious men. We extend a cordial invitation to everydeserving Engineer and Designer towrite us their wants. We may beable to supply the square hole forthe square peg! CREATIVE OPPORTUNITIESin the following fields : Missile Guidance Systems; Jet and Turbo PropEngine Controls; Bombing andNavigational Computer Systems;Airborne Fire Control; U.H.F. Communications, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, etc. YOUR FUTUREdepends on your making theright connection with the rightfirm as quickly as possible. Whynot send full facts about youreducation, work background,etc. We will do all we can foryou and treat your applicationwith the fullest confidence.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦HiGENERAL ilBiii!^BHHHHBHHHHHHHHFEBRUARY, 1956 39MemorialMadeline Wallin Sikes, PhM '93, diedDecember 3 in San Antonio at 88. Shewas active in Hull House, and also inmany Chicago area clubs.Hermann V. von Hoist, '93, of BocaRaton, Florida, died in October. An architect and teacher in Chicago for manyyears, he designed power plants for thePublic Service Company of NorthernIllinois and the Commonwealth EdisonCompany of Chicago. In 1907 he waselected president of the Chicago Architectural Club. He retired in 1932 andmoved with his wife to Boca Ratonwhere he was an active leader in civicaffairs until his death.Dr. Morrell Pattengill, MD '95, died at87 in Cisco, Illinois last October. He wasa retired physician.Howard S. Erode, '96, PhD '96, diedat his home in Santa Monica on December 11, 1955. He was in his 90thyear. Dr. Brode, from 1899-1939 servedon the biology faculty of WhitmanCollege, Walla Walla, Washington. Hewas active in civic and professionalaffairs, particularly in the field of 'tuberculosis and public health. He wasinstrumental in establishing the PugetSound Marine Biological Laboratory andwas active in the archaeological society.He retired to Santa Monica in 1940.Dr. George H. Miller, MD '97, a retiredphysician, died in November in Bellaire,Mich., at 79.Grace Bird, '97, died December 1 inProvidence. She was Professor Emeritusof Educational Psychology at the RhodeIsland College of Education. One of theearliest researchers in the field of childdevelopment, she specialized in the working out of intelligence tests for smallchildren.Victor W. Sincere, '97, of New YorkCity, died in September at 79. He hadbeen secretary of the National Department Stores Corporation.Roy C. Griswold, '99, died at his homein Chicago on December 17, after a lingering illness. He was chairman cf theboard of Griswold & Bateman, warehousing.L. Allen Higley, '00, PhD '07, a formercollege professor, died in April, 1955. Hiswife, Charlotte Ismay Higley, is a member of the class of '17.Dr. Oran A. Brown, MD '01, a physician in Oak Park, 111. for 40 years, diedin November at his home. He was 80.Walter L. Hudson, '01, died in SanDiego on August 14 at the age of 76. Hewas retired assistant vice president inthe trust department of the Harris Trust& Savings Bank, Chicago.Lill Stevens Sutherland (Mrs. Douglas), '02, died in November at 76.Dr. Arthur Hale Curtis, MD '05, diedin Evanston, 111. in November. He hadbeen head of the department of obstetrics and gynecology at NorthwesternUniversity Medical School and PassavantHospital until his retirement in 1947. Mary L. Van Hook, '06, died in August.Dr. Frank Clay Murrah, '08, MD '10,died in Herrin, 111. last October after along illness. He had practiced for manyyears in Herrin, owning and operatingthe Herrin hospital from 1935-46. He was74.Roy D. Thatcher, '10, died October 26in Ogden, Utah.Geraldine Brown Gilkey (Mrs. CharlesW.), '11, died November 11 in Boston.Class Secretary, she received an AlumniCitation in 1944. In 1930 she was electednational president of the YWCA. Herhusband, Dr. Gilkey, was Dean of Rockefeller Chapel at the University from 1928until his retirement in 1947.George A. Macready, xg '14, died November 10 in Los Angeles.The Rev. Earl A. Riney, DB '14, diedOctober 20 in Kansas City, Mo.Edwin P. Hart, '15, died November 7in Highland Park, 111. He was a memberof the football team while at the University, and at the time of his death wascontroller of Eversharp, Inc.Amelia M. Racy, '16, died November 7in Clayton, Missouri.Percy C. Lapham, AM '16, died October22 in Charles City, Iowa.Carl R. Moore, PhD 16, died October16. He was Chairman of the Departmentof Zoology at the University.Mabel Witter (Mrs. Willard D.), '17,died November 24 in Park Ridge, 111.John Slifer, '17, died November 15 inBoston.Dr. Harold O. Jones, MD '17, ProfessorEmeritus of Obstetrics and Gynecologyat Northwestern University MedicalSchool, died in November at Pottsboro,Texas. He was 70.Dr. Benjamin P. Graber, '18, MD '21,died November 30 in Elgin, 111. He hadpracticed for thirty years in Barrington,111.Pauline S. Peeples, AM '27, died July31 in Owensboro, Kentucky. She hadbeen a member of the faculty of Kentucky Wesleyan College for thirty -eightyears.Arthur B. Leible, PhD '30, died Nov. 9at the age of 63 in Bloomington, Indiana.He had three earlier degrees from Indiana University where he taught Englishfrom 1930 to 1955.C. Arthur Messick, PhD '30, died October 10 in Topeka, Kansas.Sidman P. Poole, PhD '32, died Oct. 28,at the age of 64 in Charlottesville, Va.,where he had long been a professor ofgeography. His earlier degrees were fromSyracuse University.Dr. Philip Vogel, '32, MD '36, died July15.Eugene J. Marshall, SB '42, died July10 in Chicago.Andrew E. Papp, MBA '48, of Crete, 111.,died August 29. He had been executivevice president of the G. & W. ElectricSpecialty Co.Florence Carney, '40, died in Big Timber, Montana, June 7. FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts. Silverware.Golden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)FLATWARE & HOLLOW WAREWhole sets and open stockCOMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, III.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSince 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe bestCollege,wide pat In placement service for UniversitySecondary and Elementary. Nationonage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.ZfheCxcluilve Cleaner*We operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Stree» Midway 3-060840 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE'2*!»agSte.Why I earnestlyrecommend a career inlife insurance(Some questions answered bya New England Life Agent)BILL GRISWOLD. college graduate in '48, wasNew England Life's 1954 Rookie of the Year, and had an evenbigger year in '55. Read why he ('alls his work, tras satisfyinga livelihood and vocation as could ever be desired. "What do you like best about the life insurancebusiness?"The fact that I'm a professional man, I'm my own boss,and there's no limit on my income. I'd had good jobs, fromthe laundry business to managing a theater, but none ofthem offered me half the opportunities I've found in lifeinsurance."How did you learn to sell life insurance?"New England Life gives a new agent comprehensivetraining in his general agency and at the home office. Inaddition, he gets skillful field supervision. And he is urged to continue his insurance education through advancedcourses and special seminars.How about earnings?"New England Life gives each new agent a generoustraining allowance. With some good breaks, I earned a fivefigure income in my first year. I'm now in my third year.My income has steadily increased, and I take a lot of satisfaction in serving a fine clientele."Let us tell you more about the advantages of a careerwith New England Life. Write Vice President L. M.Huppeler, 501 Boylston Street, Boston 17, Massachusetts.A BETTER LIFE FOR YOU NEW ENGLANDQ^y/C6o66u</ mJM-M- JCi boston, MassachusettsTHE COMPANY THAT FOUNDED MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE IN AMERICA — 1635These Chicago University men are New England Life representatives:Paul C. Lippold, '38, Chicago John R. Down, '46, ChicagoRobert P. Saalbach, '39, Des Moines Eugene Freemen, '37, ChicagoJames M. Banghart, '41, Adv. Mgr., St. PaulHarry Benner, '12, ChicagoGeorge Marselos, '34, ChicagoRichard M. Rohn, '37, Grp. Mgr., ChicagoAsk one of these competent men to tell you about the advantages of insuring in the New England Life.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, NOVEMBER 20, 1930REORGANIZE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMGRADUATION FROM UNIVERSITY WILL BE POSSIBLE WHENEVERSTUDENT CAN PASS COMPREHENSIVE EXAMWILL REVOLUTIONIZE EDUCATIONUniversity of Chicago Friday, March 8, 1946 HEAVUNSTUN, ILLINOIS Friday, December 10, 1948UC QUITS BIG 10Maroons Unable to Compete Equally, Conferenceis Told. ONIONS!NU says Roses — UC says Onions!Read these and other famous front pages, atotal of nineteen In the Chicago Maroon special edition appearing this quarter.And to avoid missing this year's headlines, subscribe now to the Chicago Maroon. Regularrate, $3.00. Alumni rate including special edition, only $1.25.Business Manager The University of ChicagoChicago Maroon Student Newspaper1212 E. 59th StreetChicago, IllinoisPlease send my copy of the Maroon special edition:\~] 1 enclose $1.25 for a year's subscription to the Chicago Maroon including the specialedition.[~] 1 enclose 25^ plus 5^ for postage and handling for the special edition only.Name Address City State