UNIVERSITYof JANUARY 1956MAGAZINEWITCHCRAFT IN MANDELPage I IYour invitation to theseSPECIAL EVENTSLOOP LUNCHEONSGeorgian RoomCarson Pine Scott12:15 P.M.$2.00 Wednesday, January 4PROTESTANTISM ABSENT AT THE CENTERS OF DECISION INmodern life. Jerald C. Brauer, newly appointed Dean ofthe Federated Theological Faculties, will discuss his concernat the gulf between personal piety and man's total social andcultural life . . . and his plans for the Divinity School tobridge this gulf.Wednesday, Febrviary 8asian report — Hans J. Morgenthau, Director of the Centerfor the Study of American Foreign Policy, returns in January from a trip that included Tokyo, Hong Kong, Saigon,Bangkok, Rangoon and Karachi.CAMPUS EVENTS Tuesday, January 24 — 8:00 P.M. Goodspeed Hallrenaissance society Open House. Alumni and friends areinvited to tour the gallery, meet members of the Art Department and the Society, and to learn of the interest in the artson the campus. Refreshments. No charge.Saturday, January 28 Field Housesports festival. Beginning with a track meet at 1:30, afencing match at 2:00, highlighted by a basketball game,Chicago vs. Alumni at 3:30, and ending with an evening ofgymnastics. Alumni still long on breath and accurate of shotare needed for the team; no tryouts for the cheering section.Dinner at the Quadrangle Club, $3. (Please make reservations).January 27-28, February 3-4 — 8:30 P.M.Reynolds Club Theatertonight at 8:30 group of University Theater will presentan evening of one-act plays and famous scenes. (Indicateperformance date with ticket orders.)Monday, January 30 — 8:00 P.M. Mandel HallWOODROW WILSON CENTENNIAL LECTURES ON INTERNATIONALaffairs. January 30-February 2. Raymond B. Fosdick, anassociate of Wilson at Princeton and at the Versailles Conference, former President of the Rockefeller Foundation, willgive the first lecture — "Personal Reminiscences of Wilson."No charge.Oak Park Friday, January 20Fox River Valley Wednesday, February 1LaGrange Wednesday, February 8Betsey Shaw, Program Director, Midway 3-0800,Ext. 3241.SUBURBAN MEETINGSTELEPHONEI plan to attend the following events.....---Renaissance Society Open House.Sports FestivalMiss Betsey Shaw, Alumni Association5733 University Ave., Chicago 37 Ml 3-0800 X324II wish to order........ticket(s) @ 50c for theater on .. (date) . -Woodrow Wilson Lectures¦ • i ./ \ ^ <ho r .i i i i a I am interested in the suburban meetinq in.. ticket(s) (a) q>z tor the luncheon Jan. 4 tlcket(s) @ $2 for the luncheon Feb. 8- .ticket(s) @ $3 for the dinner Jan. 28I enclose my check in the amount of $... Name Address-Phone To avoid disappointment, if you wish to attend any of these events — even those at which there is no charge — pleasereturn the reservation blank so that you may be notified of last minute changes.emoSanta bows outI subbed for Dean Strozier as SantaClaus at the Phi Gam Christmasparty Saturday, December 3.In a locked room on the second floor,while 47 wildsters from Back of theYards swooped through the house, Iadjusted a tired pillow under my pantsand screwed on a glowing rubber face.Somehow the kids were herded aroundthe tree to sing Jingle Bells. This wasmy cue to sweep down the stairs whileone brother jingled a cow bell and another jiggled a shoe horn inside a clapper-less dinner bell.My face must have been on crooked.My "Merry Christmases" to the gangseemed to bounce back from inside myleft rubber cheek while I squintedthrough the one eye that tracked, tofind my throne.Fortunately, the kids were more interested in the stack of packages. So Iescaped with a few suspicious glances.Seven packages were marked for eachyoungster. But my glasses were up stairs.(Who would accept a Santa Claus withglasses?) Two brothers and a Club girlformed a rescue squad to read the tagswhile I explained to two little waifs,whose names hadn't yet been called,that I read only Eskimo. But they keptpoking packages under my rubber noseto ask wistfully if these were for them.As the loot accumulated in shoppingbags, interests began to wander. I became conscious of sharp eyes surveyingmy straggly nylon whiskers. It was obvious that if Santa was not to becomea dismembered collection of souvenirsin Back-of-the- Yards cub dens he'd better use his exit lines fast.So, with a brave "Ho, Ho," and a"Merry Christmas" to all, I made anabrupt dive for the stairs. It caughtthe gang off balance and probably saveda $35 Santa Claus outfit for Dean Strozier and December, 1956.WUCB was surprisedT^UCB, student operated campus radiostation, celebrated its tenth anniversary December 3. Most students whohave worked out of the "cracker box" inBurton-Judson basement to bring thestation to this milestone are surprisedthey made it.An annual $500 subsidy from theDean's budget and a few dollars hereand there from local advertising leaveslittle for a new tape recorder or a tonearm replacement.In fact, two evenings before the anniversary, the announcer (obviously hav-JANUARY, 1956 ing trouble keeping the turntable at 33V3rpm's) finally remarked with casual frustration: "The way things are going, I'msurprised we are still on the air."Don't let me give you the wrong impression of wucb. Normally these frustrations don't show. From campus newsto modern symphony; from InternationalHouse to Hitchcock Hall; from 7 to 11p.m. Mondays through Saturdays, the station broadcasts with all the confidence ofa Spectacular.There is subtle humor: "Listen to theUniversity's 'New World3 program eachSunday on Monitor over another network." And public service breaks: "Thisis sd (Safe Driving) Day. Make it apoint not to kill yourself on the highway."The chief engineer who, like an nbcpro, keeps the station on the Midway airwith picture wire and stray bolts, is anadvanced student in the Social ScienceDivision. He was a radio ham in highschool. (See story on Page 26.)Student Forum at Open HouseStudent forum has built a reputationfor lively debating. Their secret seemsto start with lively subjects. Recent subjects: Resolved that: The Education isnot Worth the Registration; Great BritainShould Become the 49th State; Grouchohas Contributed More Than Karl.At the annual Open House for alumniSaturday, February 25, the Forum willbe a part of the evening program. Subjects they are considering: Resolvedthat: The Intellectual is not Effectual;or This House Prefers Plato to Polo.The complete Open House program forSaturday afternoon tours, dinner, andevening program will appear in yourJanuary Tower Topics.Stagg High SchoolThe stockton (Calif.) , Board of Education has voted to name its newtwo-and-a-half -million-dollar highschool east of the College of the Pacificcampus the Amos Alonzo Stagg HighSchool.The Stockton Daily Record editorialized: ". . . If Stagg High School conformsto its namesake it will field superiorfootball teams, but more essentially itwill graduate young men and women inwhom is instilled the vision of service totheir fellow men, and whose sense ofvalues is influenced by the lodestar ofintegrity."H.W.M. But why MEN over 45?Our doctors still don't knowwhy, but if you are a manover 45 you are six times aslikely to develop lung canceras a man of your age twentyyears ago. They do know,however, that their chancesof saving your life could beabout ten times greater ifthey could only detect cancer long before you yourselfnotice any symptom. (Only1 in every 20 lung cancers isbeing cured today, largelybecause most cases progresstoo far before detected.)That's why we urge that youmake a habit of having yourchest X-rayed every sixmonths, no matter how wellyou may feel. The alarmingincrease of lung cancer inmen over 45 more than justifies such precautions. Fartoo many men die needlessly!Our new film "The WarningShadow" will tell you whatevery man should knowabout lung cancer. To findwhere and when you can seethis film, and to get life-saving facts about otherforms of cancer, phone theAmerican Cancer Societyoffice nearest you or simplywrite to "Cancer"— in careof your local Post Office.AmericanCancerSociety¥What class were you in at college?4qaj In that year American issued the first travel credit card as a convenience to' *»" businessmen, an innovation used by all airlines today.1 Q>l A ^n tnat year American inaugurated the first scheduled airfreight service. Today¦ **** millions of tons a year are flown by airfreight.1QR/1 That was the year that American again made history with the first nonstop servicefrom coast to coast on its new DC#7 Flagships.Over the years the college graduate, the leader in hisindustry and his community, has always been first toutilize the many opportunities created by air transportation. Today American Airlines, America's leadingairline, makes these advantages available to an evengreater degree than ever for business and vacation travel. * AMERICANAIRLINES(^/ImericaS <^Qading (^/fifiirtt•i THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEftiTlus [sssttcDRAW UP an armchair, your favoritecrystal ball, and come play politicalprognosticator with us. On Page 4, in"Who Will They Pick in '56?" alumnusRalph M. Goldman, AM '48, PhD '51, provides you with an excellent set of clues,culled from a close look at how the national nominating conventions work.Ralph's an expert on the subject, sinceit occupies most of his time as a Research Associate at the Brookings Institute, Washington, D.C. You may recallthe very favorable review given a political study he co-edited, PresidentialNominating Politics in 1952, on the frontpage of the NY Times book review section some while back. See how your predictions stack up with his.The illustrations for Ralph's articleare by alumna Elizabeth M. Gruse, AB'50, now a free lance artist in New York.DID YOU hate math when you werein college? We challenge you tomake the acquaintance of a course withwhich (so help us) most students seemto fall madly in love. See "But Is ItMath?" on Page 19.Ray Nelson, ex '54, is a versatile artistabout campus. He has done cartoons forthe Maroon and Cap and Gown, largedisplays for University Theatre, and silkscreen posters for an unknown numberof student organizations. Having takenMathematics I himself, his cartoon illustrations of the article express his own,whimsical recollections of the course.ONE OF the most vigorous groups oncampus is University Theatre. Withphotographer Morton Shapiro we droppedin on recent rehearsals for the UT production of Arthur Miller's "The Crucible."Using pretty Linda Libera, College student, as our major model, we bring youthe results on Page 11, "Witchcraft inMandel."For a group which operates strictlyon an extracurricula basis, UT hasturned out an amazingly high numberof actors into professional fields. Manyformer UT members are now appearingon radio and television shows, an occasional Broadway production, and ofcourse, in Chicago's own PlaywrightsTheatre and The Compass.One of the most outstanding is FritzWeaver, '51, who is currently appearingin "The Chalk Garden" on Broadway.Fritz also appeared recently on TV's"Omnibus", playing the second lead withMichael Redgrave in "She Stoops toConquer."Last summer, he played the role of<(Cassius" in Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" in Stratford, Conn., and receivedfavorable comments from Brooks Atkinson of the NY Times. UNIVERSITYMAGAZINE JANUARY, 1956Volume 48, Number 4FEATURES4II1417192426 Who Will They Pick In '56? Ralph M. GoldmanWitchcraft In Mandel — A Picture StoryTo Help Them BreathePublishers On The SquareBut Is It Math?Power From The Pumpkin Fields — Campaign NewsTen Years In The Cracker BoxDEPARTMENTSI32227282940COVER Memo PadIn This IssueNews Of The QuadranglesBooksAlumni ClubsClass NewsMemorialLinda Libera, 21, a student in The College from Sacramento,Calif., and Steve Brown, 23, a graduate student in The CommitteeOn Social Thought, from St. Petersburg, Fla., are shown in atense scene from "The Crucible," a recent University Theatreproduction. (Photo by Morton Shapiro.)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, IllinoisEditorFELICIA ANTHENELLI Associate EditorPALMER W. PINNEYTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive Secretary-EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH G. HALLORANProgrammingELIZABETH A. SHAW The Alumni FundWILLIAM H. SWANBERGORLANDO R. DAVIDSONStudent RecruitmentDONALD C. MOYERPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5733 University Avenus, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $4.00. Single copies,25 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois,under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.JANUARY, 1956 3Dark Horses,Split Delegations,Favorite SonsWho Will They Pick in '56?By Ralph M- Goldman, AM '48, PhD '51NOT SINCE James Polk pledgedhimself to a one-term presidencydid it seem as probable as it does today that a first-term president willnot seek renomination by his party.As a consequence of President Eisenhower's heart attack, what mighthave been a perfunctory Republicanconvention in 1956 now becomes adoubtful and probably a contestedone.With Eisenhower probably out ofthe main ring, Democratic hats alsohave begun to fly. Again, what mighthave been a perfunctory or mildlycontested Democratic convention in1956 now becomes a doubtful andprobably a well-contested one.(Copyright, 1956, by Ralph M. Goldman) History sometimes give us cluesthat help explain the present andforecast the future. Republican national convention behavior in the recent past offers some clues to consistencies that may bridge the past andthe future.By 1940, the Republican party, forthe first time in eight years, beganto see the Garden of Eden just beyond the wilderness and several attractive presidential aspirants emergedand contested the nomination. Thefirst ballot of the 1940 convention revealed Dewey as the front-runnerwith over a third of the convention's1,000 votes, Taft a strong second withalmost a fifth, Willkie third with a hundred of the thousand, Vandenbergand James trailing as possible compromise candidates, and no less thannine other names receiving scatteredsupport. The convention's uncommitted delegates moved uneasily fromone candidate to another. Dewey'ssupport decreased as Willkie's andTaft's increased. Willkie moved intothe lead on the fourth ballot. On thecritical fifth a large bloc of pro-Deweyvotes moved in behind Willkie. Onthe sixth and last it was Willkie.Dewey had for the first but not thelast time frustrated Taft's ambition torun for president.In 1944 the Willkie try for a renomination came to a dead halt in the4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEprimary election of Wisconsin. Deweyoverwhelmed Willkie in that presidential primary skirmish and marchedon to the nomination without opposition at the national convention.In 1948 Republican precedent wasto be shattered by that party's re-nomination of a defeated nominee forthe first time. Dewey came into theconvention with about 40 per cent ofthe votes in his favor, exceeding theTaft and Stassen votes combined. Onthe second ballot he moved to within32 votes of the nomination. On thethird he had it unanimously.IkeBy 1952 the Dewey-Taft rivalryhad about polarized the entire Republican party into two fairly equalcamps, with General Eisenhower taking Dewey's place as a leading contestant. The first test vote of the convention — on the Brown amendment-was strictly a choice between theEisenhower and the Taft positions.The Eisenhower-Dewey forces won,658 to 548.Evident in the three Republicanconventions of 1940, 1948, and 1952has been a significant regional patternthat made its appearance as early asthe Coolidge-Hoover era. Delegation-by- delegation examination of the"critical" fifth ballot for Willkie in1940, the second ballot for Dewey in1948, and the roll call prior to thegeneral switch to Eisenhower in 1952,reveals that Willkie-Dewey-Eisen-hower support came predominantlyfrom the delegations of the Northeast. The hard-core opposition centered in the Midwest.Thus, the most recent contestedRepublican conventions have witnessed a mounting polarization between the delegations of the Northeast and the Midwest, with South andWest straddling the two and often Ralph M. Goldman, AM '48, PhD'51, is a Research Associate for theBrookings Institution, Washington,D. C.He holds an AB from New YorkUniversity.After earning his doctorate inpolitical science at the University,he was associate editor of theAmerican Political Science Association's five-volume report onPresidential Nominating Politics in1952.He has also served for threeyears as a consultant in the research division of the DemocraticNational Committee.The views expressed in the accompanying article are his personalinterpretations.providing the decisive "pay-off" votes.The probabilities are great indeedthat this polarization will find its wayinto the Republican convention of1956, somewhat less concentratedlythan in 1948 and 1952 and perhapsmore on the order of the 1940 convention.A national convention is made upof delegates and delegations. Thedelegates often act in their individualcapacity but more often act as cooperating members of their respectivedelegations. Delegations in turn aremore likely to act with a high degreeof consensus than not.Small delegations tend to distributethemselves on all sides of the politicalfence, some waiting for the bandwagon, others holding out for somespecial bid, but, as a group, reflectingrather closely the over -all divisionsin the entire national convention. Thebig delegations are the prime-moversand the blue-chip players. The general political outline of a conventionis almost invariably a reflection ofthe way in which the big delegationsarray themselves.A Big Delegation may be describedas one holding 2 or more per cent ofthe total voting strength in the national convention. At Republican conventions there have been ,16 suchBig Delegations during the periodsince the Coolidge-Hoover era. Onthe basis of sheer size these delegations are the most influential ones ina Republican convention. Togetherthey total up to 60 per cent of theconvention's votes leaving the remaining 40 per cent to 32 other statesand to non- state areas such as Alaska,Hawaii, and the District of Columbia.Table A, (Page 6), summarizes howthe Republican Big- 16 voted on keyballots in the three contested conventions just discussed, (1940, 1948, 1952). Table B assigns a grade — classroomstyle — to each Big Delegation for performance in recent national conventions. The grades run from "A" to"F." Two types of performance aregraded: first, the extent to which themembers of recent delegates have onthe average voted together on menand convention issues; and, second,the success with which each delegation manages to put the bulk of itsstrength behind the horse, dark orotherwise, who manages to cross thetape first. These are very distinct performance records and cannot beadded up to a single grade for thedelegation. Each grade for each typeof performance may of course serve,in the way all records of past performance do, as a basis for guessinghow the delegation is likely to donext time.Unlike the Democrats, as we shallsee below, the Republicans tend tosplit delegations. Thus, none of theBig Delegations deserve an "A," onlythree receive "B" (New York, Michigan, and Texas), two are "C" (Ohioand Indiana), two "D" (California andNew Jersey), but five are "E" (Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Wisconsin,Iowa, and Kentucky and four are "F"(Illinois, Missouri, Minnesota, andAdlaiNorth Carolina). If the 1956 Republican convention is a contested one,there is a good chance that the Republicans Big- 16 will distribute themselves along lines similar to these.As important as sticking togethermay be, equally important from thepoint of view of practical politics isa state delegation's ability to land onthe winner's side before the bandwagon rolls. Some delegations — particularly those that tend to be "safe"Republican in the November presidential election — insist upon beingJANUARY, 1956 5hold- outs and rarely support the winner. "A" for being with- the -winnergoes to four delegations (New York,Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and^New Jersey), "B" to only one (Missouri), "C" to two (Michigan andNorth Carolina), "D" to one (Texas),"E" to three (Indiana, Iowa, and Kentucky), and "F" to five (Illinois, Ohio,California, Wisconsin, and Minnesota).Note how the "A" delegations con-concentrate in the Northeast and the"F" in the Midwest.On the basis of past performance,therefore, we may expect that in asplit convention in 1956 New York,Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, NewJersey, and Missouri will probably befound with most of their votes behindthe ultimate Republican nominee forpresident. On the other hand, againfrom past performance, there is astrong likelihood that Illinois, Ohio,California, Wisconsin, and Minnesotawill throw most of their weight tothe man or men losing the Republican nomination race.What of the "small" delegations,those with less than 2 per cent of thevotes in the convention? Often thesedelegations may be crucial to the outcome of a closely divided convention.These 32 state delegations (as well asthe non-state areas) as a group, however, usually reflect the general toneand direction of the convention set Chief Justice Warrenby the Big Delegations. For example,in 1952 the small delegations addedup to a miniature of the conventionas a whole: 12 were for Eisenhower,10 for Taft, and 10 split down themiddle.In 1956 we may expect the smalldelegations once more to array themselves along the general lines takenby the convention as a whole. Alabama, Virginia, and Wyoming, splitinternally three out of three timessince 1940, will probably split inter nally again in 1956. The delegationsthat have split in two out of threeinstances in the recent past areArkansas, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, RhodeIsland, and Utah, and are likely todo so again.Some state delegations have alignedthemselves fairly consistently withone or another candidate or faction.The most consistent Dewey -Eisenhower small delegation support, forexample, has come from Georgia,Idaho, Kansas, Maryland, New Hampshire, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington. Mississippi and Tennesseehave found themselves most often inthe "solid Taft" column.What will be the general profile ofthe 1956 Republican national convention? Certain fairly probable assumptions need to be made. The firstassumption is that President Eisenhower will not be a candidate. ThePresident's illness and preference forretirement make his unavailabilityvery probable, and at this writingstill without substantial indicationfrom Eisenhower himself.The second assumption is thatPresident Eisenhower will name noheir apparent. There have been onlytwo instances in American history inwhich an incumbent president hasactively and overtly favored a particular understudy: Andrew Jacksonchose Martin Van Bur en and Theodore Roosevelt named Howard Taft.Both Andrew Jackson and TheodoreRoosevelt, however, were Old Proswho had long been accustomed tomanaging their own political destinies.Naming a successor was little morethan the continuation of an established behavior pattern. PresidentEisenhower, on the other hand, is anewcomer to party management andseems psychologically set againstovert dictation to his party. This doesnot mean that the President and hisstaff will play no role at all; it israre that a political leader leaves socomplete a power vacuum when heretires.This leads to a third assumption:that the Republican convention of1956 will probably open as a contestedconvention in some ways like the 1952Democratic convention, that is, splitdespite the fact that the party had apresident in office. There may be astrong regional and factional similarity between the 1956 and the 1940Republican conventions, as notedearlier, but one very basic differencewill be that Eisenhower is today thatparty's incumbent president. No matter how aloof Eisenhower attempts tobe, he could not afford the conse-Big Delegations(Ranked by Size)*New York (8.5) Pennsylvania (6.7) . .Illinois (5.4) TRepublican I(1940, 1948, aiP1940 CoiFirstBallot. . . 66 D. . . 97 F. . . 90 D ABLE AJig Delegation Votesid 1952 Conventions)er Cent of Delegation Supporting Candidateon Critical Ballots**ivention 1948 Convention 1952 ConventionFifth First Second First BallotBallot Ballot Ballot (Before Switches)81 Wi 99 D 99 D 96 E71 F 56 D 55 D 76 E38 T 40 T52 T 100 F 89 T 98 T100 T 83 T 83 T 100 T22 T, 20 D, 100 W 100 W 100 W20 H100 V 100 V 100 V 76 E24 T82 Wi 49 D 51 D 89 E34 V 31 V81 Wi 100 F 69 D 87 E70 D 52 D 55 D 81 E100 T 91 T 88 T 87 E71 Wi 100 D 100 D 94 T100 D 70S 70S 80 T55 T 100 S 100 S 68 S41 Wi59 T 57 S 57 D 62 E38 T100 T 44 T 44 T 95 T40 D 44 D52 Wi 61 D 65 D 54 T48 T 46 Dtotal convention voting strength held by delegation on,r; F — Favorite-Son; H — Hoover; M — -Martin; Mac — •ienberg; W — Warren; Wi — Willkie.Ohio (4.8) . . . 100 TCalifornia (4.5) Michigan (3.6) ...13D, 13 T,13 Wi, 13 H... 100 VMassachusetts (3.3) .New Jersey (3.1) ... .Missouri (2.9) ... . . . . 97 M... 63 D38 Wi... 33 DTexas (2.8) 100 TIndiana (2.8) . . .32Wi,25D,Wisconsin (2.4) Minnesota (2.3) Iowa (2.3) 25 T... 100 D... 32 V27 Wi1 00 MapKentucky (2.2) 55 D36 TNorth Carolina (2.2) .... 39 D30 T16 States (59.8)*Figure in parenthesis shows proportion ofthe average in recent conventions.**Abbreviations: D— Dewey; E — EisenhoweMacArthur; S — Stassen; T — Taft; V — Van6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETABLE BRepublican Big Delegation GradesFor Solidarity and Successful Candidate SelectionNormal Level Normal Tendency to Landof Delegation Behind the EventualBig Delegation Solidarity* Nomination Winner**New York B APennsylvania E AIllinois F FOhio C FCalifornia D FMichigan B CMassachusetts E ANew Jersey D AMissouri F BTexas B DIndiana C EWisconsin E FMinnesota F FIowa E EKentucky E ENorth Carolina F C*Solidarity grades may be described as follows:A — near unanimous; B — high solidarity; C — moderate solidarity;D — moderate division; E — substantial split; F — down-the-middle split.**Behind-the- Winner grades may be described as follows:A — extremely high success; B — moderately high success; C — averagesuccess; D — failure; E — moderately high failure; F — extremely highfailure.quences of a runaway convention.Presidential influence would make itsway somehow into a too-divided 1956Republican convention, probablyafter the broad factional lines haveemerged.On the basis of past performanceindicated in Tables A and B, howare the Big Delegations likely to arraythemselves in 1956? The Big Delegations may be divided into five broadcategories, based upon their tendencyto be solid or split and their generalpredisposition to either a Northeast-Eisenhower-Dewey type of candidateor a Midwest-Taft type.1. Fairly solid Northeast: NewYork2. Fairly solid Midwest: Wisconsin3. Split, but mainly pro-Northeast: Pennsylvania, Michigan,New Jersey, and Minnesota4. Split, but mainly pro-Midwest:Texas5. Split evenly between Northeast and Midwest: Massachusetts, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, and North CarolinaFour other states — Illinois, Ohio,California, and Indiana — will probably follow favorite sons into the 1956convention.Applying a crude break -down ofdelegation votes according to theabove general criteria, it would appear that the Big Delegations couldgo into the 1956 Republican convention with about one -fourth of thevotes committed to a Northeast-Eisenhower-Dewey type of candidate,about fifteen per cent of the votescommitted to a Midwest-Taft type ofcandidate, and about eighteen totwenty per cent of the votes tied upon the first ballot by favorite sons.Characteristically, the small delegations as a group would be similarlydistributed over the candidate field.Thus the 1956 Republican conventionwould have some of the broad characteristics of the 1940 convention thatnominated Willkie. Willkie, however,was a "dark horse" nominated by aparty out of power. As a party inpower now, the Republicans are lesslikely to need or condone a horse thatis quite as dark or a convention quiteas long.Since it is not very likely that therewill be a Republican "dark horse"whose name is not now known, whatare some of these names? The list isa familiar one: Vice President Richard Nixon, Chief Justice Earl Warren,Senator William Knowland, formerGovernor Thomas Dewey, HaroldStassen, Milton Eisenhower, Secretary of the Treasury George Humph rey, Governor Christian Herter, andAmbassador Henry Cabot Lodge.Among the favorite-son contingent,the outstanding names are: GovernorGoodwin Knight of California, Senator John Bricker of Ohio, SenatorEverett Dirksen of Illinois, and Governor Theodore McKeldin of Maryland.These are the 13 names that setthe limits of Republican presidentialchoice for 1956. Some fall ratherclearly into either the Midwest-typeor the Northeast-type of candidate.It is possible to include Knowland,Bricker, and Dirksen in the Midwestclass as previously defined. TheNortheast group would include Warren, Dewey j Stassen, Milton Eisenhower, Herter, Lodged and McKeldin.Nixon, Humphrey, and Knight arenot as readily classifiable.Some have blemishes on their"availability," others do not. NixonSenator Knowland is eminently available. Warren atthis writing continues to give thekind of categorical "no" that puts himcloser to Sherman than to Stevensonon the "reluctance" barometer; ChiefJustice Charles Evans Hughes alsosaid "no" practically to the last in1916, when he received the nomination on a third ballot. Knowland isan eager - aspirant. Dewey is twice-loser in a party that never beforegave a man a chance to lose thatsecond time; he is likely to continueto be a very influential force, but nota candidate. Stassen's presidentialfortunes reached their peak in 1948and have created little enthusiasmsince that time. Milton Eisenhowerhas the right name, a fact that hasspecial point when set alongside theconsistent findings of opinion pollsthat one in ten voters do not knowwho is running for president even atthe height of presidential electioncampaigns. Herter and Lodge havemany of the attributes and limitationsof regional "stalking horses" (NewEngland), as do Bricker and Dirksen(Midwest). Humphrey, Knight, andMcKeldin labor with very limitedpolitical support. In a thoroughlystalemated convention, however, McKeldin could be a most likely "greyhorse" prospect.Given this range of alternatives,and assuming an over- all distributionof intra-party forces similar to thatof 1940, only strong presidential intervention could resolve the issue of thenomination in a single ballot. In theabsence of presidential interventionor a carefully negotiated slate, it ismore probable that the 1956 Republican convention will run to two orthree ballots.JANUARY, 1956 7Two types of contested conventionmay be hypothesized for the Republicans in 1956. If Warren's ; reluctanceis not categorical, this will becomeevident if his name is seriously supported on the first ballot. If the ChiefJustice fails to withdraw again at thattime, his nomination as a Northeast -supported candidate would probablyrun the same three-ballot course thatwas needed to pull Hughes off thefence in 1916.If Warren withdraws categorically,the 1956 convention will probablycontinue to look like the 1940 convention in which a Northeast-supported front-runner did not make thegrade, a Midwest-supported candidatelikewise fell short, and a third placerunner — not a "dark horse" this time,however — drew enough Northeastsupport on the final ballot to carryhim over the tape. A hypothetical1956 situation could read as follows:Nixon as front-runner on the firstballot.A Midwest-supported candidate —possibly Knowland — in second place.Huddled around third place suchnames as Milton Eisenhower, Herter,Stassen, Knight, and McKeldin.This reading of the candidate prospects is of course hypothetical, byway of illustrating how much like1940 are the intra -party forces thatwould enter an Eisenhowerless, War-renless Republican convention in1956. It also points up the limitednumber of combinations for first andsecond place on the ticket that remainopen to the Republicans. The Constitution does not permit the presidentand the vice president to come fromthe same state. California — as keystate in the "payoff" West— has noless than four prospects for the national slate: Warren, Nixon, Knowland, and Knight. The movements ofany one of these men is a prospectiveveto on the chances of the otherthree. As the Warren or the Knowland barometer goes up, the Nixonbandwagon slows down, and viceversa. \With whom could the Nixon forcescombine to garner the winning votesfor first place on a national slate?The forces that might mobilize behind Warren, Knowland, Milton Eisenhower, Lodge, and Knight are already openly hostile to Nixon andcould hardly concede first place tohim. The Dewey following is knownto be friendly to Nixon, but, as in1940, this Dewey influence may gointo the convention behind the front-runner only to switch to another non-Midwesterner on a later ballot. Conceivably, Nixon might be able to win Estesthe support, in a trade, of some of theHerter, Bricker, Dirksen, or McKeldinfollowing, but whether this would beenough to carry him over the top isa moot question.With whom could the Knowlandforces combine to garner the winningvotes for first place on a nationalslate? Certainly not with the hardcore Nixon supporters. But a goodpart of the remaining Nixon support,particularly in the Midwest, could ingood conscience find a shift to Knowland easy to make. Knowland, however, is the antithesis of the Willkie -Dewey -Eisenhower type of Northeastern candidate and would bestrenuously opposed by that wing ofthe party, perhaps to the point ofovert veto by the President himself.The third-place runners also dwindle rapidly as prospects of theirwinning additional support are examined. Several can be eliminated atonce: Warren, through a categorical"no"; Stassen as a frequent loser inthe past; Knight as strictly a favorite -son; Herter as a regional stalking-horse. Leaving McKeldin, who hasalready been mentioned in a "greyhorse" role, and Milton Eisenhower.In a country that looks with disfavor upon nepotism, President Eisenhower could hardly be party to anyserious effort to nominate his brother.Nor could he categorically put a stopto it. Nor could he overtly renouncehis Vice President, Nixon. If, however, Milton Eisenhower — as thirdplace runner and in keeping with the1940 precedent — were "drafted" afterseveral ballots by a prospectively stalemated convention, such a candidacy might be palatable to both thePresident and the voters. Under suchcircumstances, the prospects of Northeast votes moving from the front-runner, Nixon, to Milton Eisenhowerwould be entirely reasonable. Andto show the country that the VicePresident's leadership was not beingrejected, the same combination ofvotes in the convention might conceivably once again give Nixon secondplace on an Eisenhower-Nixon ticket.When Franklin Roosevelt in 1940indicated a willingness to break theno-third-term tradition, James Farleyand others felt strongly enoughagainst this to deny the President arenomination by acclamation. Thepresidential roll call in the 1940 Democratic convention revealed a scattering of protest support for Farleyand others. In the vice -presidentialballoting, however, the full force ofthe anti-Roosevelt coalition made itself felt; Wallace was nominated byonly 626 votes to 330 for Bankhead,69 for McNutt, and several votes forothers. This resistance carried overto 1944 when Wallace was unable towin more than 429 votes on the firstballot. The vice -presidential prizewent to Truman on the second ballot,with Roosevelt leading the ticket fora fourth time. In the 1948 Democraticconvention the Truman leadershipwas clearly challenged during the voteon the civil rights issue. There were1234 votes in the convention, 309 ofwhich were anti-Truman and anti-civil right.As the retiring leader in 1952, Truman early expressed a preference forhis successor, Adlai Stevenson. Truman apparently holds the view that itis an incumbent president's prerogative to name his successor, and heproceeded on this premise early in1952. Stevenson, however, was a reluctant "understudy," in fact, hardlyan understudy at all. This had severalconsequences for the 1952 Democraticconvention. First, it kept the Trumanleadership off balance, on the onehand expecting that Stevenson wouldultimately acquiesce but on the otherhand needing an acceptable secondchoice such as Barkley, just in case.Secondly, Stevenson's reluctance andTruman's uncertainty left the wayopen for the emergence of two hardcore types of candidacy, Kefauver'sand Russell's.On the first ballot, Kefauver had340 votes and Russell 268. Not manyof these votes were amenable to Truman influence; but from 200 to 400other votes were. Stevenson's 273first-ballot votes were a substantial8 \ THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETABLE CDemocratic Big Delegation Votes(1944, 1948, and 1952 Conventions)Per Cent of Delegation Supporting Candidateson Critical Ballots**Big Delegations 1944 1948 Biemiller 1952 Convention(Ranked by Size)* Vice-Presidential Civil Rights First ThirdFirst Ballot Resolution Ballot BallotNew York (8.1) 73 T24 WPennsylvania (6.3) 66 W 100 pro 89 H 92 S100 pro 51 S 100 S34 T 32 KIllinois (5.1) 100 Oth 100 pro 88 S 90SOhio (4.4) 47 W 78 pro 55 K 50 K38 T 22 anti 24 S 48 SCalifornia (4.1) . 58 W42 TTexas (4.0) ... 50 abs 98 pro 100 K 100 K100 anti 100 R 100 R44 WMichigan (3.2) 90 W 100 pro 100 K 100 SMassachusetts (3.0). . . ... .40 W, 38 T, 100 pro 100 F 69 S22 OthMissouri (2.9) . ... 100 T 100 anti 53 S 65 SNew Jersey (2.8) 71 T 100 pro 88 S 88 S29 WNorth Carolina (2.4) . ... 100 Oth 100 anti 81 R 75 RIndiana (2.4^ 81 Oth 65 pro 96 S 96 S19 W 35 antiGeorgia (2.3) 100 W 100 anti 100 R 100 RWisconsin (2.2) ... 96 W 100 pro 100 K 100 KTennessee (2.2) 100 Oth 100 anti 100 K 100 KKentucky (2.1) 100 Oth 100 anti 100 B 100 BVirginia (2.1) 100 Oth 100 anti 100 R 100 RMinnesota (2.1) 100 W 100 pro 100 F 50 K50 S64 RAlabama (2.0) .. 100 Oth 100 anti 59 R36 K 34 K19 States (63.7)*Figure in parenthesis shows proportion of total convention voting strength held by delegation onthe average recent conventions.**Abbreviations: B — Barkley; F — Favorite-Son; H — Harriman; K — Kefauver; R — Russell; S —Stevenson; T — Truman; W — Wallace; Oth — one other candidate; abs — not voting.start, enough to compel Stevensoneither to make his refusal categoricalor to give the convention the feelingthat he would accept the nominationif it were actually given to him. Stevenson never said "no" categorically,for such a "no" would have foreclosedany future aspirations for his party'snomination. Nor did he say "yes" lesthe be labelled "a Truman understudy." After the first ballot, it wasclear that Stevenson would never say"no" categorically, and the Presidentbegan playing his trump hand infavor of the Illinois governor. Thenomination went to Stevenson on thethird ballot by 617 votes to Kefauver 's275, Russell's 261, and Barkley's 67.The regional similarities betweenthe 1948 and 1952 Democratic conventions are noteworthy, for bothTruman's and Stevenson's nominatingsupport came mainly from the Northeast and Midwest delegations. Thewinning Democratic nominees in 1948and 1952 received the bulk of theirstrength from the Northeast and theMidwest — and their most stubbornopposition from the South.Turning to the recent conventionperformance of the Democratic BigDelegations, we see in Table C thatthere are 19 such delegations thathave held two per cent or more ofthe total convention vote. The remaining 29 states and the non-statedelegations fall into the "small" delegation category. Together, the Democratic Big Delegations add up to about64 per cent of the convention's votes,leaving only 36 per cent for all therest.Democratic delegations have astrong tradition of "solid" voting, atradition often reinforced by the unitrule (which the Republicans do nothave). This solidarity comes throughin Table D where we attempt to gradeDemocratic delegations by the sameyardstick applied to the Republican.Where the Republicans had no delegation receiving "A", the Democratshave eight (California, Texas, Michigan, New Jersey, Georgia, Wisconsin,Tennessee, and Kentucky). Wherethe Republicans had five delegationsreceiving "F", the Democrats havenone. Other Democratic delegationsreceive solidarity grades as follows:two "B" (Illinois and Minnesota),three "C" (Ohio, Massachusetts, andIndiana), five "D" (New York, Pennsylvania, Missouri, North Carolina,and Virginia), and one "E" (Alabama).Grades for helping-the-winneramong the Democratic Big- 19 run asfollows: two receive "A" (Pennsylvania and Michigan), three "B" (Illinois, Kentucky, and Minnesota), five "C" (New York, Massachusetts, NewJersey, Indiana, and Wisconsin), two"D" (Missouri and North Carolina),two "E" (Ohio and California), andfive "F" (Texas, Georgia, Tennessee,Virginia, and Alabama). Note theregional factors in the Democraticcase; the Northeast and Midwestcluster among the top grades fromNixon "A" to "C" and the South is heavilyin among the "F's".As in the Republican case, Democratic "small" delegations tend todivide in the same way that the convention as a whole does.Defeated candidates for the presidency on several occasions havesought renomination. Those who triedfor a second nomination but failedinclude Van Buren in 1844, Clay in1848, Cass in 1852, Smith in 1932, andWillkie in 1944. Those who succeededwere former President Cleveland in1892, Bryan in 1900 and 1908, andDewey in 1948 (first time the Republican party renominated a previouslydefeated candidate). In the earlydecades of our history renominationof a titular leader was improbable. Inmore recent decades renominationprospects have improved significantly.These prospects will probably workin favor of Stevenson in 1956. Cleveland, however, has been the onlytitular leader to win both renomination and election, and even he accomplished this with the addedprestige of having served a term aspresident.From which directions will the 1956Big Delegations enter the convention,and in which direction may they beexpected to move? The Big Delega-JANUAPY, 1956 9TABLE DDemocratic Big Delegation GradesFor Solidarity and Successful Candidate SelectionNormal Level Normal Tendency to Landof Delegation Behind the EventualBig Delegation Solidarity* Nomination Winner**New York D CPennsylvania D AIllinois B BOhio C ECalifornia . . A ETexas A FMichigan A AMassachusetts. . .. C CMissouri D DNew Jersey A CNorth Carolina . . D DIndiana C CGeorgia A FWisconsin . . A C ,Tennessee . . A FKentucky A BVirginia D FMinnesota B BAlabama E F*Solidarity grades mayA — near unanimous; B — high solidarity C — moderate solidarity;D — moderate division E — substantial split F — down-the-middle split.A — extremely high success; B — moderately high success; C — averagesuccess; D — failure; E — moderately high failure; F — extremely highfailure.tions seem to fall into five classifications:1. Preponderantly for Stevenson:Pennsylvania, Illinois, New Jersey,Indiana, and Minnesota.2. Preponderantly for Harriman:New York.3. Former Kefauver States: Ohio,California, Wisconsin, and Tennessee.4. Probable Favorite- Son States:Texas, Michigan, Massachusetts, Missouri, and Kentucky.5. Southern Coalition: North Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, and Alabama.The probable behavior of many ofthese states may be estimated fromthe statements and activities of keyparty leaders and from past performance. In Pennsylvania GovernorLeader and Mayor Lawrence havedeclared for Stevenson; James Finne-gan of Philadelphia will be Stevenson's pre-convention campaign man ager. Illinois' Jacob Arvey andChicago's Mayor Daley are avidStevenson supporters. New Jersey'sGovernor Meyner and Minnesota'sSenator Humphrey have come out forStevenson. National Chairman Butler,a Stevenson man, is from Indiana.New York's Carmine DeSapio willlead the majority of his delegation forHarriman; this could quickly changefrom a self-described favorite-son toa major candidacy. Other favorite-sons would probably be SenatorJohnson of Texas, Governor Williamsof Michigan, Governor Chandler ofKentucky, and possibly Senator Kennedy of Massachusetts, although thelatter delegation might just as readilydistribute its votes over the entirefield until a band wagon is clearly insight.Missouri has three eminent Democrats: former President Truman, Senator Hennings, and Senator Symington, the latter frequently mentionedas a presidential possibility. Missouri's strategy will probably dependa great deal upon Truman's evidentinterest in keeping the conventionopen and competitive. A man whostill considers himself very activelyin politics and capable of throwing agreat deal of weight, Truman playedthe trump card for Stevenson in the1952 convention and would probablywant to be in a similar role in 1956,particularly in a wide open convention. Truman's influence extends wellbeyond Missouri borders and couldprobably move from 50 to 150 votes.Stevenson's reticence gave Truman ahard time in 1952; the reverse maybe the case in 1956. Of the four states that gave Kefauver his most substantial support in1952, Tennessee, his home state, wouldprobably support him again if hemakes a serious pre-convention campaign. The other three are presidential primary states which Kefauvermay find a great deal harder to carryin 1956. Ohio's Governor Lauschemay offer resistance in that state.Stevenson has announced his intention to enter the California primary.Leaders of the regular Democraticorganization there have already promised him their support. Wisconsin isalso uncertain territory, for Kefauverhad no real competition there in 1952.Nonetheless, Kefauver has importantcontingents of supporters in each ofthese states and could conduct an aggressive and possibly successful campaign in at least three of the four.The strategy of the Southern Coalition remains unclear at this writing.Some of its spokesmen have hintedthat Governor Lausche of Ohio mightmake an acceptable regional favorite-son, a favorite Southern strategywith a non-Southern twist this time.Others have declared Stevenson acceptable. Having demonstrated itsopposition to the national party in1944, 1948, and 1952, most Southernleaders may consider their hard-core-resistance strategy now worn thinand may be ready to go along as soonas a Stevenson majority becomes clearand so long as no special challengeis hurled before them by Northernliberals.There are still remnants of Dixie-crat extremism, however, that mayfind expression through GovernorShivers of Texas. Shivers is anti-Stevenson and could control the delegation, or one of two contesting delegations. Speaker Rayburn andSenator Johnson, who are working fora united favorite-son Texas delegation that would be friendly to Steven-(Continued on Page 25)10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWitchcraft in MandelDirector Marvin Phillips cocks an attentive ear asLinda Libera, as Abigail Williams, runs through her lines f\NE OF the most active^ student groups is UniversityTheatre. The group averages aproduction a month, major playsbeing presented in Mandel Hall,others in the smaller, moreintimate theatre on the thirdfloor of Reynolds Club.The group also meets there forSaturday afternoon workshops inacting, directing, lighting andmakeup, under the guidance ofprofessional director MarvinPhillips. A recent production wasArthur Miller's powerful drama,"The Crucible." Chosen forthe feminine lead was 21-year-oldLinda Libera, a College studentfrom Sacramento, Calif.An important part ofstaging is the lighting.Lowell Pickett makespreliminary adjustments.JANUARY, 1956 11In backstage dressing room,(left and below),Linda (left), and NancySammons apply makeup.Two stages (below, I. to r.), in transformingWim de Regt from, a 20th century student to an18th century Salem citizen. Lawrence Zerkel,makeup man, helps him put on his wig.(Photos by Morton Shapiro)12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELinda, as Abigail, appeals toco-star Steve Brown, whoplays John Proctor, to revivetheir dead love affair.Nancy Sammons, as Betty Parris, throws a hystericalpit and denounces her fellow townswomen as witches.Deeply concerned are George Crawford, (I.), as herfather, and Hall Taylor, who plays the Rev. John Hale.After an exhausting dress rehearsal, Lindaretreats to nearby Gordon's for coffee.As Danforth, Deputy Governorresponsible for sending hundredsto jail or the gallows, RobertEmmitt listens to NancySammons' accusations.JANUARY, 1956 13To HelpThemBreatheNew Machine Aids Polio VictimsDr. Morch adjusts machine for polio victim RobertAnderson. Paralyzed from the neck down, Andersonis unable to breathe without mechanical help. Air ispumped into patient's lungs through a tube insertedin a hole in his throat, then allowed to escape.Dr. E. Trier Morch, (left), Chief Anesthesiologist atBillings Hospital, demonstrates how respirator he developed works in the operating room by breathingmechanically for a patient. Operated by compressedair, bellows replaces hand-squeezed balloon ordinarily used. Patient, surgeons in photo are models. Patients ReceiveLife-Giving AirIn Variable FlowA MAN WAS admitted to the emergency room ofa Chicago Hospital recently, his chest entirely cavedin, his collarbones and pelvis fractured. He had beencrushed in an eight-inch space between a slowly-movingtrain and a steel furnace.So badly was his chest mutilated, (some ribs had beenfractured in two places), that external stabilization (amethod employing a system of hooks, pulleys and weights,attached to the outside of the chest), was out of thequestion.The man's life was saved by use of a newly developedmachine, which forced compressed air into his lungs andcaused the chest walls to stand out. The machine alsodid his breathing for him, pumping air into his lungsthrough a hole made in his throat, then letting it escapeagain. Within four hours the dangers he faced fromcomplete shock had lessened considerably. The patient,a 51-year-old man, left the hospital 51 days later, andhas since returned to work.The machine, called the Morch Piston Respirator, wasdeveloped by Dr. E. Trier Morch, Professor and Directorof Anesthesia at Billings Hospital. Dr. Morch has beenworking on development of the machine for the past twodecades, in an effort to provide better mechanical breathing methods for chest-surgery patients and polio victims.The electrically-operated machine breathes for the patient by pumping air directly into the lungs, at a variablerate, and sucking it out. The air is compressed by a piston.It is possible to vary the breathing rate from fifteento thirty times a minute, and also to vary the pressureof the air reaching the patient's lungs. In one model, amercury Switch enables the patient, should he startbreathing normally, to set the pace for the breathing cycle.In case of an electrical failure, the device is equipped witha bellows which can be hand-operated.For the past month, 23-year-old Robert Anderson hasbeen a patient in Billings' contagious ward, paralyzedfrom the neck down by polio. During this time, one ofDr. Morch's machines has been doing his breathing forhim, for he is unable to breathe without mechanical help.A simple valve arrangement allows use of the respiratorin polio cases.The Morch respirator has several advantages over theiron lung. The tank of the iron lung is often uncomfortableJANUARY, 1956 15To Help Them Breatheand doesn't permit easy access to the patient for routinecheckups and nursing care. With the Morch device thepatient can be easily turned to more comfortable positions.The Morch respirator helps the patient's morale, too.Encased in an iron lung, he feels trapped. He can onlysee what goes on behind him, through a mirror above hischest. With the Morch respirator, the patient is free ofmachinery, except for a small pipe inserted in a hole inhis throat. (A tube from the pipe leads to the machine.)He can see the entire room. The respirator, when in use,can be rolled under the bed, out of sight.Another advantage over the iron lung is the respirator'ssize. It measures 30" by 16" by 21", and is mounted onrubber-tired wheels. It can be transported on top of anautomobile with ease, and takes up little storage space.The Morch respirator, in another variation, can be usedto help patients breathe on the operating table, too. Whena patient's breathing fails during an operation, air is forcedinto the lungs by hand-squeezing a rubber balloon. Atrained anesthesiologist must do this, and on occasion adoctor has had to sit at this type of work for periods upto twelve hours. Currently Dr. Morch is investigatingbetter electrical hookups for his respirators in order toavoid sparking, which is an operating room hazard.Dr. Morch's machine, in addition to its simplicity, isunique in that it empties the lungs. This assists circulation, which other machines, which merely pump air intothe lungs, do not do. The device has been used in wellover one hundred cases of chest surgery and polio patients.Inhalators similar to Dr. Morch's machine are sold commercially in Europe, where they are widely in use. So far,none has been produced in the U. S. Plans are underconsideration for the first mass production of the Morchrespirator by a Kankakee manufacturer.Dr. Morch, working with engineers, has designed andcustom-made several models of his machine. He estimatesthat on a mass production basis each machine will cost$1,000. (In comparison, an iron lung costs $3,000.)Dr. Morch first became interested in the problems ofmechanical breathing as a chest surgeon in his nativeDenmark, prior to World War II. There were no anesthesiologists in Denmark at the time, he explains, and surgeonshad to administer anesthetics for each other's patients.This eventually led to his embarking for the Royal Collegeof Surgeons, London, where he became a Fellow inanesthesiology.He has experimented with many models of his machinesince he first began tinkering in Denmark. (The first device, built in wartime Denmark, is still in use.) A motorfrom a milking machine, a compressor salvaged from arefrigerator inundated in the Kansas City Floods, a pieceof sewer pipe and an electric motor from a prewar massagemachine were integral parts of the first machine he madein this country. (For three years, before coming to Billingsin 1953, he was at the University of Kansas MedicalCenter.)Dr. Morch works constantly on his machines, trying tofind ways to improve them. He spends all his free time inexperiments, in between directing Billings' anesthesiologydepartment, and training medical students. More precisetests on the physiological effects of the respirators — checking circulation, heart rate, and so on — are under way byDr. Morch and his staff! F.A. In most cases of severe chest injury, where thechest has been so damaged that a patient's breathingis impaired, external stabilization is used. Hooksare attached to the chest and suspended on pulleysto hold the chest wall out until it heals enough toallow normal breathing. Morch respirator, throughair pressure applied inside, removes necessity forthis complicated and painful method.Diagram showing how Morch Piston Respiratorworks. Humidifier moistens air being pumped intolungs, while filter purifies it. Filter can easily bechanged frequently by the nurse.MORCH PISTON RESPIRATOR10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE*"a business in books,a profit in fish"PUBLISHERSon the SQUARE«rpELL ME," the ad agency manX asked, "why this urge for self-destruction?"He asked the question of Mrs. CecilHemley, who had just informed himthat she was part-time fiction editorfor the infant publishing company,Noonday Press.The brand new publishing househad so far issued a book of poetry, abook of philosophy and was about tobring out the work of a Braziliannovelist, long since dead and unheardof in this country. It was this set offacts which prompted his question.Esoteric SuccessThe ad man's eyebrows have nodoubt since gone much higher. Noonday not only survived its initial publication of such esoteric works, buthas gone on to publish a great manymore. Moreover, it has met with somefinancial and an extraordinary amountof literary success since its foundingfour years ago — impressive feats inthe publishing world of the fifties.Noonday, now at 17 Union Square,New York, was founded by twoalumni, Cecil Hemley, AM '50, whoserves as editorial director, and Arthur Cohen, AB '46, AM '49, managing director."Noonday's Caliphon Hemley, 40, affable and pleasant, isa poet and has had works publishedin Furioso, Paris Review and Saturday Review. Noonday came into being partly because he was tired oftrying to get others to publish hispoetry, and decided to publish it him-Publisher-Poet HemleyWerner Wolf-Black Star self. "And because we were filled withan incredible naivete," he adds drily.He enlisted the help of Cohen, 27,a nervous, energetic young man witha flair for business (and the ability toenlist the aid of what the partnersterm a "mad" backer.)They rented a desk at Grove Press,another fledgling in the publishingworld, and set to work. They published Hemley's book of poems, Porphyry's Journey, and spent most oftheir days' furiously answering themost minute inquiries with two-and-a-half page letters, "because wesimply hadn't much else to do," saysCohen.Result: One SaleTheir second venture was a book ofphilosophy, Freedom and History, byRichard P. McKeon, Charles F. GreyDistinguished Service Professor ofClassical Language, Literature andPhilosophy at the University. He isalso Chairman of the Committee onthe Analysis of Ideas and Study ofMethods.In those early days, Cohen wasoffice boy, mail clerk, business manager, publicity and promotion directorand general handyman. Hemley editedall copy, rewrote and proofread it."As promotion man, Arthur managed to get us on a radio programJANUARY, 1956 17Werner Wolf-Black StarManaging Director Cohenwhich went on all night," recallsHemley. "We flew McKeon in fromChicago, then sat around until 2 a.m.before we appeared on the program.Out of all that, we sold one book!"A Wise PlungeTo make money, every new publisher must try to build up a backlistof books. Noonday looked about,finally decided to plunge into whatthey considered was the one reallygreat literature that was as yet untouched in this country, the Brazilian.They took public domain authors,"and the translators were willing totake the place of the authors and gettheir royalties," Hemley explains. Hehimself rewrote the books of Machadode Assis extensively from translation.Titled Epitaph of a Small Winner,Dom Casmurro and Philosopher orDog? they became something of aliterary sensation."We made our reputation on Epitaph of a Small Winner," says Cohen.Wrote critic Dudley Fitts in theNew Republic, September, 1954:"For many reasons the NoondayPress has deserved well of the Republic of Letters, but for no reasonmore persuasive than this: that intwo years it has given us serviceable,sometimes excellent, translations ofthe three great novels which are thepermanent legacy of Joaquim MariaMachado de Assis. For more thanseventy years his name has been one to conjure with — not only in his native Brazil, but in the literate wholeof the Latin continent and Europe."It is consequently gratifying tohave at our disposal, however late,the major work of one of the fewmodern writers who seem sure ofsurvival."A Mere PigmyStacked up against the giants inthe publishing business, Noonday is amere pigmy. The first year in operation, 1951, saw exactly one title published. By the end of the second year,three were out, and the number keptgrowing until this year, when 43books will come out under the Noonday and Meridian imprints.But the energetic duo of Cohen andHemley make up for their size byoffering something unique — consistently high level literary stuff."Our list doesn't conform to theusual conventional publishing list,"explains Cohen. "We were consideredvery different to break into publishing on such a high literary level.Actually, we didn't do it with anyclear, rational outlook. What we hadin our favor was good editorial taste,hard work on no salaries, and a madbacker.""We have since learned that if youbring out a commercial seller — acookbook, western or historical novel— you pay good money for it, spenda lot on advertising, and then can'tbe sure it will be reviewed. But ifyou bring out good literary stuff, ona high level, you're sure to be reviewed."To date, Noonday has had about 98per cent favorable reviews all overthe country on its output.It Won't DoHowever, like any other businessventure, Noonday needs to makemoney. Says Hemley, in his usualdry manner, "Our caliphon — threefishes — stands for a business in books,a profit in fish. But this really won'tdo."Noonday's answer to this problemis Meridian Books, a paperbound reprint line of worthy studies in history, literature, philosophy, religion,psychoanalysis and the social sciences.Noonday first brought Meridian booksout last February, in a jacket designed by one of New York's topartists, Alvin Lustig. Titles includePragmatism by William James, History as the Story of Liberty, by Bene detto Croce, Matthew Arnold byLionel Trilling, Imperialism and Social Classes, by Joseph Schumpeter,Creative Intuition in Art and Poetry,by Jacques Maritain."With Meridian we had our firstfinancial success, and we are now inthe process of becoming stabilized,"says Cohen.Stabilization includes larger officeson Union Square, and maintaining astaff of about a dozen. Among these,serving as editorial assistant, isalumna Rita Blumenthal Kramer, AB'48, wife of Yale Kramer, AB '46,(now a medical student at N.Y.U.'sBellevue Medical Center.)A ComplimentMeridian books are paper-backed,but are not in the twenty-five-centclass. They sell for $1.25, $1.35 and$1.95. They are, nevertheless, aimedat the lower-bracket income market."We feel that it is the young peoplein America who buy good books,"says Hemley, "and they just don'thave a lot of money. Our major concern is really to do books that willsupply us with not only an emotionalsuccess but a financial success."It is this outlook and these policieswhich earned a compliment for Noonday from John Hall Wheelock ofScribner's, who called it "the mostexciting young publishing house inthe world."Assistant Editor KramerWerner Wolf-Black Star18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESure, you can add and subtract —But is it Math?Math I has moral characterTO MANY PEOPLE, mathematicshas the personal warmth of machine-tooled steel and the moral virtues of an electronic brain. Most ofthese people took ordinary algebraand geometry courses in school. Theydid not have the opportunity to takea mathematics course with personalityand moral character, like Math 1 inthe College of the University of Chicago.Math 1 differs from ordinarycourses because members of the College mathematics staff have made itdifferent. Since its birth in 1943 theyhave labored over it, shaping it intoa course which emphasizes mastery ofa conception of mathematical systemsand their development, not mastery ofa large body of dry mathematical formulae and their manipulation. Because they have emphasized masteryof systems — like the system of sets,and the system of the continuouslyordered field on which ordinary algebra is based — they have made Math1 come alive.They have had to work hard. In1945 an examination in Math 1 became a requirement for the CollegeBachelor of Arts degree. As late as1947, in a meeting of the Mathematical Association of America, EugeneP. Northrop, William Rainey HarperProfessor of Mathematics, who wasthen course chairman, stated: "...the program is about to enter its fifthyear, and the aims have becomeclearer — although they still constitute the chief battleground over which thestaff struggles, week by week, in staffmeetings."The aims of Math 1 were complicated by the fact that they had toserve for all students, not merelythose with a career interest in mathematics. In 1950, when they had evidently become still clearer, Northropsaid: ". . . clarity and precision ofdefinitions and assumptions, and rigorin reasoning, can be more simplystudied in mathematics than in anyother discipline. Is not this the realThis isn't mathematics!place of mathematics in a liberal education — not simply as a subject matter, but as a discipline which is pertinent to almost every intellectualactivity of man?"Viewing Math 1 as a continuingexperiment in mathematics teaching,the staff brought out three editionsof a syllabus under the title Fundamental Mathematics (1944, 1946, and1948) before they published the current one, Concepts and Structure ofMathematics in 1954.At present the aims of Math 1 are even clearer. They do not show muchot the personal elegance or forthright,rigorous character of the course, butthey do indicate its depth and thoroughness:"1. To supply the student withcertain facts and methods basic toexact science; and with certain concepts and skills basic to exact thought."2. To deepen his insight into thenature and forms of mathematicalquestions and mathematical thinking."3. To deepen his insight into thesubject-matter of mathematics; intothe nature and form of mathematicalvalidation; and into the scope andlimitations of mathematical knowledge."4. To train him to the detectionof mathematical structures; in thedevelopment and exploitation ofmathematical knowledge; and in thestatement, organization, and communication of scientific ideas."Having formulated these aims afterten years' work, the twelve membersof the College mathematics staff confront their students with them onlycovertly in two quarterly tests, andone comprehensive examination at theend of the year. They let the emphasis on mathematical systems in Concepts and Structure of Mathematicsand in their own teaching fulfill theiraims.Modern mathematical systems,though more alive than a large bodyof dry formulae, are sometimes asdifficult. It is bewildering for a stu-JANUARY, 1956 19dent to find, early in the course, thatthe sentence "If Liberace wins thePimlico then a Republican is president" is mathematically true. Currentcourse Chairman and Associate Professor Alfred L. Putnam has said:"My impression is that at their firstacquaintance with the course, studentstend to react with the observation,'This isn't mathematics.' By the endof the year the course answers thequestion implicit in that comment byshowing what mathematics is andwhat it is like."What mathematics is* is far differentfrom what mathematics was at theturn of the century. A Math 1 studentin 1956 faces mathematical developments his father never had the chanceto face; developments his brother,taking a conventional basic mathematics course at another school, willnot meet.In 1910 Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead published theirPrincipia Mathematica, a reduction ofmathematics to formal logic. Theygive precise meanings to words like"and," "or," "if . . . then," "if andonly if," etc. Their meanings, as astudent soon learns, aren't always thesame as those of ordinary language.It turns out, for instance, that the twocomponents of a conditional sentence— like "Liberace wins the Pimlico"and "a Republican is president" — mayhave nothing to do with each otherand yet produce an entire sentencethat is true. (A conditional is falseonly if the first, antecedent component is true and the second, consequent component is false.)Russell, Whitehead, and contemporary logicians did not give their peculiar meanings to words in order toconfound future mathematics students. They assigned meanings andselected logical assumptions with aneye to producing an internally consistent system from which mathematics could be derived. They did notattempt to make their system appropriate to the physical world or a fundamental mathematics course."... logic, founded upon thissimple concept (of implication),turned out to be a satisfactory basisfor the most complicated and subtlemathematical reasoning," said logician Alfred Tar ski. "If a scientistwants to introduce a concept fromeveryday life into science and to establish general laws concerning thisconcept, he must always make its content clearer, more precise, andsimpler."After some preliminary bewilderment, Math 1 students begin to appreciate the clearness, precision, andsimplicity of modern mathematicsand the personality and character ofMath 1. The first system they meet— the theory of sets — shows many ofthe course's qualities.A set is a collection of things, likeapples in a bushel or college mathematics staff members in a University.A set can be given in two ways, bytabulation, as a list of the membersor by description, as saying simply,the college mathematics staff.There are different kinds of sets.There is an empty set Z, containingno members. An enumeration of thisset is: ( ). One description of anempty set is : the set of all mathematicsstaff members who earn over $25,000 ayear. There is, as well, a singleton set,containing just one member. An enumeration of one of these is: (AlfredL. Putnam). A description is: theset of all chairmen of the collegemathematics staff.When talking about sets, it is necessary to specify a universe, U: a limiton the kind of members the sets maycontain. In chapter four of the Math1 syllabus, on sets, the universe isoften represented by a diagram of arectangle. Sets in the universe areshown by circles drawn in the rectangle.Once the idea of a set and somebasic set notations have been mastered, the Math 1 student is introduced to relations between sets. Itis difficult to follow set relations, evenin a highly simplified form, withoutfirst visualizing them. Some of thediagrams on these pages give an ideaof the basic relations which can holdbetween two sets.( )Empty setTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAnother symbol is needed for therelation, "is contained in." Let it beC. For the three sets, U, S, and Zalready described, Z C S; Z C U: andgCU. In the actual course, all theserelations are defined in terms of themembers of the sets related.There are certain general properties belonging to the relation of inclusion. Some of them are: the setA, no matter what it is within theuniverse, is contained in U; A, nomatter what it is, is contained in A.This second property departs fromone common use of the word, "contained", but in set theory C is definedby saying that A C B if every memberof A is also a member of B. And soany set is contained in itself.Ending chapter four is a sectiondealing with operations on sets. Oneof the operations, that of complement,is easily explained, but the other two,union and intersection, are more difficult.Taking the complement of a set isanalogous to taking the negative ofa number. Diagrammatically, thecomplement of a set is shown above,right.That is, the complement of a set iseverything else in the universe. Forexample, the complement of the set Schosen before is a set containing allthe mathematics staff members savePutnam.The operations of union and intersection are analogous to addition andsubtraction. Diagramatically, theyare shown to the right and far left.The union of two sets is the setwhich contains all members of each.The intersection is the set which contains all common members. As withrelations, these operations are de-Singleton setv JANUARY, 1956 fined by reference to members of thesets, in the course.General properties of union are thatthe union of A and U is U; the unionof A and A is A; the union of Z andA is A. Some general properties ofintersection are that the intersectionof A and U is A; the intersection ofA and A is A; the intersection of Zand A is Z.In the course, relations and operations among sets are defined with theaid of logical symbols. These logicalsymbols and the theory of sets areused to describe algebraic relationsand their graphs in a later chapter,and then to illustrate chapters onIntersection of A and Bdeductive theories. Still using logicalsymbols, and aided by the chapterson deductive theories, the Math 1 student is later introduced to the theoryof commutative groups and to thesimilar but more complex system ofthe continuously ordered field.At the end of the year, after studying these systems and some analyticgeometry and trigonometry, Math 1students know more of what mathematics is and what it is like.Northrop has commented: "It hasbeen my conviction from the startthat such a course as Mathematics 1is far more appropriate than mostconventional courses for the collegestudent who plans to study mathematics only one year ... I am equallyconvinced, however, that such acourse, properly taught, is also moreappropriate than most conventionalcourses at the same level for the stu- y j.o 4U9lu9|c1luod 9i|| si gI / 0W 3A is the complement of Bdent who plans to continue in mathematics or science."And, not only has the student discovered much of what mathematics is,but he has met a course with personality and moral character.P.W.P.A is contained in B21NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESScience Students Visit;Crown IF QueenFUTURE scientists saw first handrecently at the University whatresearch means.Leading scientists of the University demonstrated their current investigations in 13 major laboratoriesof the Enrico Fermi Institute, forNuclear Studies to more than 400science students, teachers, and principals of Chicago.The tour represented a contribution of the University toward overcoming the country's shortage ofscientists."It is a matter of critical importance, perhaps of survival, that theUnited States develops more highlytrained scientists," Warren Johnson,Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences, said in describing the tour."If we can stimulate the interestof students by exposing them to themethods and tools of research, andpass on some of the excitement andsatisfactions of scientific investigation, we will be making a real contribution to America's future."Among the "big name" scientistswho explained to the students theproblems on which they are working, and the methods they are using,were: Samuel K. Allison, Directorof the Fermi Institute; physicists Andrew W. Lawson and John Simpson;Nathan Sugarman, Anthony Turkevich, and Earl A. Long, chemists, andCharles S. Barrett, Professor of Metallurgy.They were joined by biologicalscientists Raymond E. Zirkle, Dr.William Bloom, Hans Gaffron, andAaron Novick. Dean Johnson andphysicist Mark Inghram reported onthe Geneva Conference, to whichthey were U.S. delegates.The high school group saw threeof the University's five atom smashers, including the 460 million electronvolt synchrocyclotron, largest of its kind outside of the Iron Curtain.The laboratory for low temperature studies, one of the largest inthe country; an automatic brooderfor bacteria, used to study mutations;and a film showing the effect on living cells of heavy doses of radiation,were among the other demonstrations.Behind the scenes views of theelaborate machine and glass blowingshops that produce special equipmentfor experiments, were also providedthe future scientists.Award to GomoriSCIENTIST George Gomori wonthe Ward Burdick Award ofthe American Society of ClinicalPathologists in October. Gomori wonthe award for his work in histochem-Scientist Gomori istry, the chemical study of tissue.An able linguist, master of classicalGreek, Spanish, Dutch, French, Portuguese, and English, Gomori hasworked up from research assistant toprofessor of medicine since he cameto the University from Budapest in1938.He has developed an improvedmethod of straining certain cells sothey may be studied better under amicroscope. He is a member of twelvescientific professional groups and author of more than eighty papers,mainly in pathology. His award cameat a dinner of the society in theDrake Hotel. Dr. Charles F. Kettering, research head at General MotorsCorporation, was principal speaker.IF QueenMARGARET GARRETT, Phi Gamma Delta's candidate, was chosen queen of the Interfraternity Ballon Thanksgiving Eve.Miss Garrett, 17, a student in theCollege, had been selected the previous Tuesday afternoon by a panelof judges including Mrs. LawrenceKimpton, Dean Robert Strozier, andWBBM disc jockey Jay Andres. Candidates from eight other fraternitieswere Joyce Everett, Alpha Delta Phi;Margot Turkel, Beta Theta Phi; You-landa De Bruyn, Delta Upsilon; SueRupp, Phi Delta Theta; Paula San-sone, Phi Sigma Delta; AnnickDeutch, Psi Upsilon; Ellen Jane Kersey, Kappa Alpha Psi, and Judy Goddess, Zeta Beta Tau.At the ball, R. Wendell Harrison,Vice President and Dean of Faculties,opened a sealed envelope containingthe name of the winning candidate.In the absence of the Chancellor,Veep Harrison crowned the queenwith the traditional garland of flowers.22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPick Assembly TopicPICKING UP where a similar committee had left off last April,students and administrators meetingwith Assistant Dean of Students Ruth0. McCarn picked one topic for anundergraduate assembly without setting a general assembly policy lastmonth. The topic picked was the college testing system, to be discussedby one or two faculty members in thefirst assembly of 1956. Attendance atthe newly instituted undergraduatemeetings is voluntary.Football ApprovedINTERCOLLEGIATE football hasreceived the unanimous approvalof a six-member faculty committee.The committee, appointed last May byChancellor Kimpton, approved thegridiron game on a "free lance" non-conference basis. Its report has goneto the 51 member Council of the University Senate. If approved by theSenate this month, the proposal willgo to the trustees.In approving the proposal the committee stated: "We believe that theUniversity of Chicago should be ableto play football on a truly amateurbasis, without overemphasis and itsattendant problems." The committeerecommended non-conference footballbecause "The flexibility of competition which is inherent in our presentpolicies would ... be inconsistentwith entry into an established conference . . ." Chicago dropped out offootball competition in December,1939, and out of the "Big Ten" in1946. This fall a football class practiced on the field north of the Field-house with an average attendance ofthirty.Members of the faculty committee:Kermit Eby, Professor of SocialScience; Edward M. Haydon, trackcoach; Earl A. Long, Chairman of theInstitute for the Study of Metals; Dr.Clayton G. Loosli, Professor of Medicine; Charles W. Wegener, AssistantProfessor of Humanities; and WarnerA. Wick, Associate Professor of Philosophy.Purchase Real EstateFOR $2 MILLION the Universitybecame owner of the largest undeveloped parcel of land in downtownChicago in November. Purchasedfrom the J. V. Farwell Co., the landwill be used for investment purposes,according to Albert C. Svoboda, Assistant Treasurer of the University. Queen of the Inter-Fraternity Ball,Madge Garrett shows surprise, delight.The property's 82,000 square feetare bounded by Adams, Monroe,Wacker Drive, and the Chicago River.It is a highly desirable piece of Loopproperty because of construction proj -ects in the area, said the UniversityOffice of Press Relations. The onlylarger section of developed land inthe Loop is owned by the MarshallField Corporation."Quiz Bowl" WinSPEED, luck, and a stock of nonessential information producedChicago's win over Georgetown Uni versity December 7 in NBC's networkshow "Collegiate Quiz Bowl," according to Chicago team members.David Schlessinger, Quentin Ludgin,David Friefelder and Leonard Friedman beat Georgetown's four contestants 200-120, by knowing such factsas the name of the sailor who led themutiny in Mutiny on the Bounty, andwhich of Columbus' three ships mutinied.Chicago held a heavy lead untilthey missed a question on currentpopular songs. "I don't know whatthis may indicate about Chicago . . ."commented announcer Allen Ludden.For winning, the University received$500 and the chance to compete thefollowing week. The losing contestantsreceived wrist watches.It has been calculated that Chicagowould have to win every week forover 1,000 years before its winningstotaled $32.7 million, not countinginterest.Win Moot CourtTWO LAW students, Larry Rubinstein and Lewis Ginsberg, recently won the ninth district mootcourt competition. The contest, consisting of presentation of argumentsconcerning cases already settled insome court, or fictitious, was heldwith teams from Illinois, Notre Dame,Northwestern, Wisconsin, Indiana,Chicago-Kent, Loyola and Valparaiso.The University team, judged firstin brief and argument, won both sections of the competition.As winners, Rubinstein and Ginsberg were scheduled to go to NewYork for the national moot courttrials on December 14, 15, 16.Fermi InstituteTHE UNIVERSITY formallychanged the name of its Institute for Nuclear Studies to the Enrico Fermi Institute for NuclearStudies in ceremonies November 18.The change, officially announced byChancellor Kimpton in a brief ceremony, is in tribute to the memory ofFermi, the Italian-born physicist whobecame the architect of the atomicage. He archieved the first controllednuclear reaction in the "pile" underthe west football stands of the University, December 2, 1942.Fermi was Charles H. Swift Distinguished Professor in the Instituteat his death, on November 28, 1954.He had been a member of the Institute since its organization in 1945 atthe end of World War II.JANUARY, 1956 23Campaign NewsPower fromthe "Pumpkin Fields"PEACEFUL uses of the atom soonwill give the economy "a mightyforward thrust," University economistTheodore W. Schultz said recently.Application of atomic power mayprovide the technological base to keepthe American standard of living expanding, at the rate of a compoundedtwo per cent a year, as it has beendoing for the past eighty years, hesaid.Continuation of this rate wouldraise the average family income from$5,000 to $25,000 a year in today'sdollars in the next eight decades.This estimate of the possibilites wasmade by Schultz, Chairman of theDepartment of Economics, in a symposium entitled, "From Stagg Fieldto Geneva," which summarized atomicresearch and development for an audience of 2,500 alumni and friends ofthe University. The symposium washeld in Chicago's Orchestra Hall onNovember 21."About nine -tenths of remarkableeconomic growth of the United Stateshas come from improvements in ournational efficiency, represented by increase in output per unit of labor andcapital," Schultz said."In the main, this has been madepossible by the outstanding advancesin our technology, and in the state ofproductive arts."Extent of the economic effects ofthe atom will depend not only onability to develop new processes, but"on our willingness to innovate with business taking new risks in committing their effort and capital to try outthese processes," Schultz said.When reports of the famous December 2, 1942 experiment in whichcontrolled release of nuclear energywas achieved in the University ofScoreboardTotal gifts for the Campaignhave reached $8,540,000, Edward L.Ryerson, Trustee Chairman, hasannounced.This is in addition to the $4,324,-000 which the Ford Foundation isgiving to the University.Primary categories of contributions to date, as given by Mr. Ryerson, are: 48 corporations, $1,302,-000; 60 non- alumni individuals.$1,999,000; 46 trustees, $4,113,000;497 alumni, $461,000; 554 faculty,$27,443; six foundations, $5,062,000,of which $4,324,000 is representedby the Ford Foundation grant and$500,000 given by the Commonwealth Fund to the Medical School.The Ford grant represents theUniversity's approximate yearlyfaculty payroll, plus a large "bonus" given in recognition of Chicago's leadership in raising facultysalaries. This bonus, which madeChicago's the third largest grant,may be used for faculty increases,or it may be devoted to otherpressing academic needs, accordingto the Ford Foundation. Chicago squash courts were translatedinto Russian at the recent GenevaConference, there was some confusion.Translated back into English, theRussian description of the revolutionary event had it taking place "inthe pumpkin fields of the Universityof Chicago," Warren Johnson, Deanof the Division of Physical Sciences,told the audience.Seeds of this "pumpkin" are nowsprouting throughout the world in theform of some seventy-five power reactors in the construction or drawingboard stage, Dr. Johnson, a UnitedStates delegate to the Geneva Conference, said.Dr. Johnson pointed out that theCommonwealth Edison Company ofChicago has a $45-million power reactor designed to produce 180,000kilowatts of electric power scheduledfor completion in 1960. He said thebest estimates are that ten per centof United States power will comefrom reactors by 1970, and that by1975 England will get approximatelyhalf of its power needs from the atom.Radioactive isotopes produced bythe nuclear piles "may prove to bethe foremost discovery of all time"for medicine, because they provide aresearch tool for the understandingof obscure disease processes.This judgment was made by Dr.Lowell T. Coggeshall, Dean of theDivision of the Biological Sciences.Radiation energy has two important aspects for biological research24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand medicine, he said. The radioisotopes can be safely introduced intoliving organisms, including the humanbody, to study chemical and biological processes. Radiation energy inthe form of therapy machines for thetreatment of cancer is the other leading contribution."In the past few years, literally awhole new science of medicine hasdeveloped," Dr. Coggeshall said.Demonstrating with a model therotating cobalt radioactive sourceused for cancer treatment in ArgonneNational Cancer Research Hospital,of which he is associate director, Dr.Robert Hasterlik said the unit gives aradiation dosage more than half aspowerful as that from all the knownradium in the world at the time ofthe first atomic pile. Dr. Hasterlikwas another of the seven Universityscientists who went to Geneva asUnited States delegates.Samuel K. Allison, Director of theEnrico Fermi Institute for NuclearStudies, said that the release of atomicenergy was accomplished without aprofound knowledge of the forces atwork in the atom. Basic research inthe laboratories is an essential requirement, he told the audience.Edward L. Ryerson, Chairman ofthe Board of Trustees, opened thesymposium by saying, "The atom isperhaps the most famous alumnusof the University of Chicago."In closing the symposium, of whichEdward W. Rosenheim, Jr. served asnarrator, Chancellor Kimpton saidthat "The great innovations you haveheard about tonight are just the latestand most dramatic expressions ofbasic research."Given support, given understanding, the scientists at the Universityof Chicago can enlarge this horizonbeyond anyone's wildest dreams. Thequestion we must all ask ourselvesnow is: Are we willing to give thissupport and this understanding?"Medical GiftHalf a million dollars has beenawarded the University's Division ofthe Bioiogical Sciences by the Commonwealth Fund of New York City.Purpose of the award is to "instituteor maintain a creative program inmedical education." Nine otherschools received similar awards, ranging from $300,000 to $1 million.Dr. Lowell T. Coggeshall, Dean ofthe Division, said that the grant wouldbe used to support areas of medicaleducation not popularly supported.The half million is unrestricted with in the area of medical education. Itsuse is up to the division.The Commonwealth Fund is one ofthe country's seven largest foundations. Its total grants to the ten university medical schools is $7,150,000.New AppointmentsTwo new appointments to the executive committee of the Alumni Campaign have been announced byKenneth A. Rouse, Chicago areachairman. Robert C. Lee, AB '34,MBA '51, trust officer with ChicagoTitle and Trust Co., and Dr. FrankB. Kelly, AB '18, MD '20, staff member of Presbyterian Hospital, haveaccepted appointments.Dr. Kelly will be in charge of directing the effort among the University's medical school graduates.Who Will TheyPick In '56?(Continued from Page 10)son, may organize a second delegationif their unity efforts fail. A Texasseating contest could very well provide the first test vote of the convention and the first real challenge to theStevenson forces. If the conventionfailed to seat the Rayburn-Johnsondelegation, the Stevenson front-running candidacy will have been dealta severe setback.How do the five groups of Democratic Big Delegations compare interms of past performance on intra-delegation solidarity and ability toget behind the winner? The followingare the average grades of the statesfalling in each of the five groups:Winner -Solidarity SupportPro-Stevenson . . B minus B minusPro-t Harriman. . .D CFormerly forKefauver ... A minus E plusFavorite -Son B C minusSouthernCoalition . . . C minus E minusThe former Kefauver states, because of the operation of presidentialprimaries, have generally been themost solid. Close behind are the Pro-Stevenson states and the Favorite -Son states. The Southern Coalition isfourth on solidarity, and -the Pro-Harriman state of "New York last. Dr. Kelly is past president of theChicago Society of Internal Medicine,and former president of the medicalschool alumni association. While anundergraduate he was elected to PhiBeta Kappa; Society of Sigma Xi,honorary scientific fraternity; andAlpha Omego Alpha, honorary medical fraternity.Lee will be in charge of coordinating the effort among the University's Executives' Program graduates.The Executive Program, which hasenrolled many top Chicago corporation leaders, is a graduate program inbusiness management designed forthose already carrying executive responsibility.Lee is a member of Beta GammaSigma, honorary business fraternity,and Phi Kappa Psi fraternity.More significant, however, are thewinner-support scores of the fivegroups. Here the Pro-Stevensonforces are well in the lead; the formerKefauver and the Southern Coalitionwell down the list; and the Favorite-Son states very individualistic, ranging from "A" to "F" separately butaveraging "C" together.If Stevenson surmounts the hurdlesof a wide-open favorite-son convention, of Kefauver and Harrimancompetition, and of a possible Texasseating contest, he will still have tocope with the problem of selecting arunning-mate from more than a dozenvice-presidential "availables." Amongthe "availables" in the Senate thenames most often mentioned are Kefauver, Humphrey, Sparkman, Johnson, Symington, Kennedy, and Gore.The gubernatorial "availables" include Lausche, Williams, Meyner,Leader, Clement, and Muskie. MayorWagner of New York concludes theoversized "baker's dozen." If Stevenson were to indicate his vice-presidential preference early, such a slatemight foreclose much of the bargaining and jockeying long in advance.On the other hand, such a slate wouldalso run the risk of unifying the"outsiders" against the front-runnersto a truly threatening degree, perhapsputting the Harriman and Kefauvercandidacies within striking distanceof the big prize. Adlai Stevensonobviously has a year of hard workahead and many eggs to tiptoe across.JANUARY, 1956 25Ten Years InThe Cracker BoxThe campus radio station, WUCBcompleted ten years of service onDecember 3. The student-staffedradio station marked the occasionwith a special fifty-five minute broadcast, which was followed by the Saturday evening concert, a favorite ofWUCB listeners for a decade.Included in the special birthdayobservance was a historical sketchof the station's activities during thepast ten years; a selection of musicwhich reflected the variety and quality of music broadcast over WUCB;and the re-creation of both a newsbroadcast as it might have soundedon the station's first night, and of thebulletin board, as it probably waspresented on December 3, 1945.WUCB was founded ten years agoas WGUS ("World's Greatest University Station") by a group of students, many of whom were armysignal corps veterans who wanted to"keep their hands in electronics."Lucien Chimene, of New York, wasone of the early directors of the station, which, though it had originallyhoped to broadcast to all buildingson the quadrangle, found that it waslimited in its coverage to BJ.By 1950, even though the stationhad expanded to include the BJCourts, the C group, and Internationalhouse, WUCB was plagued by technical difficulties. Operating from thesmall studios in the basement of Burton Court, which it still occupies, thestation violated the wiring code andexceeded the limit of signal strengthwhich was permitted.With a simultaneous blow, the station was closed in 1950 by Buildingsand Grounds, the Student ActivitiesOffice, and the Federal Communications Commission. Gone forever wasthe perilous but colorful studio atmosphere — in which the reams ofwiring festooned around the room resembled a Christmas tree ... inbrown.The organization of Radio Midway,which operated WGUS, in 1951 satisfied B&G requirements and obtainedpermission from FCC to recommencewith a new set of call letters: WUCB.Programming was resumed on a highcultural level; WUCB became the firststation in Chicago to broadcast LPrecords. In the Winter Quarter of 1951, thefirst annual 24-hour marathon tookto the air waves. Each year sincethen, a few hardy WUCB staff members, and probably a few equallystrong WUCB listeners, stay up allnight and all day as the. station remains on the air without a break fora twenty-four hour, period. The goalwas not the determination of the individual who can best withstandfatigue, but rather, the raising ofmoney for charities.The International house transmitter,which had been removed by the FCCin 1950, as one of the main causes oftheir crack-down on the station, wasrebuilt and reinstalled by TechnicalDirector Sheldon Danielson, in thefall of 1954.Within the past two years, the organization of Radio Midway wasrevived and transformed into a student activity which included bothWUCB and the student amateur ("Ham") station, W9YWQ. ThoughW9YWQ has moved to the ReynoldsClub, WUCB retains its headquartersin the basement of BJ.The WUCB studio, known to thestaff as the cracker box, is not yetall that could be wished. As JohnLyon, President of the Radio Midwaysays, "Far from being sound proof,the cracker box permits us to hearperfectly the sounds made by pingpong tables, juke boxes, washing machines, and BJ residents."In its tenth year, WUCB, with a staffof 35, rebroadcasts stations WEFMand WFMT from 9:30 to 7:00 dailyand schedules a variety of programsbetween 7 and 12, Monday throughSaturday evenings. The station alsobroadcasts Sunday afternoon between2 and 3: 30.Future plans for Radio Midway'sactivities with WUCB include tests todetermine the feasibility of an educational FM transmitter which wouldcover most of the South Side; expansion to either Gates dormitory orSnell and Hitchcock; a possible moveto new and better studio facilities onthe other side of the Midway, andcloser integration with other studentorganizations.Among the program possibilitiesmentioned by the staff in this connec-(Continued on Page 28)Announcer Sheldon Danielson awaits spot in WUCB's I Oth anniversary show.Bystryn(Reprinted from the Chicago Maroon)26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpoo)^cartel AL-LJN/lrvJIPolitics, Planning and the PublicInterest. By Edward C. Banfield,AM, '50, PhD '51, and Martin Meyerson (formerly Assistant Professor ofSocial Sciences from 1948-52). TheFree Press, Glencoe, III. 1955. Pp. 353.$5.00.It is appropriate to include a reviewof Politics, Planning and the Public Interest in a publication addressedto University of Chicago alumni. TheUniversity's current efforts to improve the physical environment of thearea on both sides of the Midway,and its commitment to a comprehensive community conservation and renewal program, have attracted nation-wide attention and admiration.The high purpose and desirability ofthe program's goals are beyond dispute, but the test of whether theycan be translated into reality liesahead. If there is to be success, manyimportant battles are yet to be won,and any related experience such asthe one described in this book shouldbe of interest for the lessons it canteach.Subject matter is the series ofevents that occurred in Chicago during 1945-50, when a Chicago Housing Authority proposal to designatecertain public housing sites throughout the city developed into a majorconflict, with citizens of opposingpoints of view in almost every segment of the population taking sides.It eventually involved the Mayor,the City Council, commissioners andstaff of the Housing Authority, anda wide variety of private organizations that were spokesmen for various interest groups. The final resultwas a settlement that pleased almostnobody. As the authors explain, thiswas the outcome because "the principle of decision by political powertook precedence over decision byplanning," and the question of whatwas the public interest was neverresolved.The conflict grew not so much overpublic housing per se. With some exceptions, there was political acceptance of the idea that in no other waycould decent living accommodationsbe provided for low- income families.It came about, rather, over the choiceof housing project locations. With anestablished policy of non- discrimination in the selection of project ten ants, and the fact that Negroes madeup the largest single group of low-income families, it was obvious that,wherever projects were ultimatelybuilt, non- white families would live.Thus, in determining public housingsites, the city could not escape setting a fundamental policy on theissue of racial segregation.The book, a chronology of theevents and an analysis of their significance, is a case -study treatment ofthis important public issue. The content falls into three major sections:an elaborate background sketch of theforces that produced the conflict, adetailed accounting of how the forcesacted and interacted from the moment the struggle began until its settlement, and an interpretation of whythe forces behaved as they did.An object lessonThe first chapters set the stage andidentify the "dramatis personae" whowere to play a part in the high drama.There is a full description of theHousing Authority — its compositionand previous operational history — aswell as a review of Chicago's housingproblem in the immediate post-waryears. Inter-relationship of the twois shown, with emphasis on theagency's concept of its role in helping to solve the problem. This is followed by a chapter on the politicians,on whom the Authority is dependentfor approval of its programs. Here,the structure of Chicago's politicalsystem is set forth, and it is madeclear how a change in the distribution of power after 1947, in both theMayor's office and the City Council,had a crucial effect on the Authority'srelationship with the city government.Then comes an examination of "theclimate of neighborhood opinion" —attitude toward public housing of thevarious groups, more or less tightlyorganized, in the public at large. Itreveals the obvious fact that therewas a major division into two camps,for and against public housing, thoughnot all the adherents of each had thesame reasons and felt about the issuewith the same degree of intensity.The one factor common to all groupsseemed to be: Where would theC.H.A. program move Negroes?The middle chapters, entitled "TheStruggle Begins," "Climax," and"Settlement," trace in almost day-to-day diary fashion the public debate that ensued from the time theC.H.A. program was submitted tothe Mayor in July, 1949, until theCity Council approved a final com promise version (which bore littleresemblance to the original) in August, 1950. The account begins witha discussion of the deliberations anddiscussion within the C.H.A. that ledto the formulation of a seven- site"package" of 10,000 dwelling units,half to be built on slum-cleared land',half on vacant land. It continues withthe C.H.A.'s efforts to get supportfor their proposal from the Mayorand key leaders within the CityCouncil, and goes on to record howthe "battle lines" took shape whenCouncil sessions and public hearingsstirred public opinion on the issue.The sharply contrasting points ofview and attitudes of citizen groups,neighborhood associations and othersas well as the role of the major metropolitan dailies through editorialcomment, are set forth in such detailthat it becomes easily apparent howrational consideration of the CH.A.program was increasingly impossible.Finally, the issue is brought up tothe day of the politically- arrangedcompromise settlement, arrived atonly after thirteen months of intensiveemotional outbursts, charge andcounter-charge, and, at the end, ageneral weariness of the whole messybusiness.In the final chapters, the authorsexamine the sequence of events justdescribed and suggest some of thefactors inherent in the Chicago situation that tended to make the outcome almost a foregone conclusion.They attempt to show how, given thestructure of Chicago's political system, the politicians — mainly in theCity Council— were caught in a conflict of ends. As Meyerson and Ban-field state it:"On the one hand, the leaders ofthe Council wanted some publichousing. On the other hand, they didnot want to do anything which wouldencourage the spread of Negroes intothe outlying white neighborhoods.These two ends were clearly somewhat at odds and so it was up to theCouncil leaders to find the terms onwhich they could be harmonized orcompromised. . . . Not until it hadmade many trials and errors ... didthe Council leadership conclude thatthere was no 'saddle-point' to befound: that any compromise it mightmake would entail painful sacrificesof one or both ends."Under the heading "politics," relationship of the Housing Authoritywith the City Council is also considered. It is indicated here that theprincipal difficulty was the inabilityto establish effective communicationbetween the two groups, stemmingJANUARY, 1956 27largely from "differences in socialclass, temperament, professional style,and ideology."It is further pointed out that a major reason for failure of the C.H.A.'sprogram to find acceptance, eitherby the political leaders or the citizenry at large, was the absence of a comprehensive city plan as an "expression of some intention regarding thefundamentals of city development . . .to which the actions of public andprivate agencies would conform or besubordinated." Thus, because of thislack, the C. H. A. had no adequateplanning framework in which to operate, and had to rely on its own resources to set* up some kind of a planning base for its program. In theauthors' opinion, the C.H.A. did lessthan it might have on this score andwas, therefore, unable to defend itssite proposal as well as^if i^t had beendeveloped in conformity with a setof objective planning standards.In summary, this book tells a fascinating story. It should interest thesocial scientist concerned with processes of government and the development of public opinion at a timeof crisis. It should also appeal to Mr.Average Citizen, seeking to play aneffective role in the life of his community. While the subject matterdeals specifically with the case ofpublic housing in Chicago, the localexperience can be paralleled in anycity where a controversial issuearises. The next time a similar situation occurs, it may be over the implementation of a community conservation or urban renewal program.And, the city may be yours.Morris H. Hirsh,Executive Director,South Side Planning Board,Treasurer, American Societyof Planning Officials.PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Book ReproductionCongress St. Expressway andGardner RoadCOIumbus 1-1420POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigrapning AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 210 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, Illinois ALUMNI CLUBSPotomac Fever:Sherry WithAn AmbassadorFrom the vantage point of the officemimeograph machine, the ChicagoClub of Washington, D^ C, impressesus as the most active outpost of theUniversity. Chairman Hart Perry, '39,AM '40, must spend as many hourson the club's business as he does withthe Bureau of the Budget. Also at theBureau is our former Alderman, BobMerriam, '39, AM '40, who was thespeaker at the November meeting ofthe Club. The subject was "How toRun for Mayor" — Bob became an expert the hard way.This program followed a very successful October gathering at the German Embassy which included sherrywith the Ambassador. The Washington Club operates not only a full program schedule but an active studentrecruitment committee, headed byBurt Moyer, '39. Sometimes we thinkalumni feel that all their Alma Materwants of them is money. It isn't so;she wants their sons and daughtersand neighbors' sons and daughterstoo.ArizonaAll over the U. S. alumni are helping Don Moyer, PhD '54, Alumni Student Recruitment Director, locatefuture students for Chicago. We remember a cousin who went to theUniversity of Arizona because he hadasthma . . . wonder what CarrollWoods, '42, MBA '46, who heads therecruitment committee in Phoenix,tells prospects to get them to spenda winter in Chicago.California, and the Tri-CitiesChuck O'Connell of the AdmissionsOffice was in Phoenix this fall to encourage alumni efforts and also putin a call at Long Beach, California,where Robert J. Kilpatrick, JD '48,is chairman. The Tri-Cities of Davenport, Rock Island and Moline, arepooling their efforts under the chairmanship of Gifford Mast, '35. Giffordemphasized the value of publicity inlocal papers for the local boy whoshines academically, athletically orsocially at Chicago. CincinnatiOf course, many young people don'tgo to the college of dad's choice butof their favorite teacher's choice, sowe're always delighted when a teacher-alumna is willing to recruit forChicago. Elizabeth Butler Green, '38,got together high school counselorsin Cincinnati for an evening of talkabout Chicago, for which AssistantDean of Students Ruth McCarn flewto Cincinnati.PhiladelphiaThe Philadelphia committee, underthe leadership of Harold Laden, '27,would like to fly counselors to Chicago for an on-the-spot pitch. Thismight be a good idea, judging by thesuccess of the November 19 programat the Institutes for Basic Research,when over 400 high school principals,science teachers and "best sciencestudents" from four states watchedsome of Chicago's top scientists demonstrate and talk about their important work. We expect a noticeableincrease in science students in thefuture.DetroitAll student recruitment committeesare concerned with how to tell Chicago's dramatic story in a dramaticfashion. The Detroit committee, whichis headed by George J. Fulkerson,'49, includes four alumni who arewith the Ford Motor Company: LyleR. Johnson, '44, MBA '48, Paul L.Lorenz, MBA '41, Robert Taub, '44,JD '47, and Robert J. Zolad, MBA '41.Impressed by the crowds that turnout for an exhibit of Ford's technology and production, they dream ofattracting large crowds to an exhibitof the important work going on atChicago. Maybe we ought to put the"From Stagg Field to Geneva" show(see Page 24), which was so wellreceived by the crowd at OrchestraHall November 21st, on the road.E.A.S.(Continued from Page 26)tion are more foreign language featurebroadcasts, in addition to the German,Spanish, and French now carried,many varied musical productions withcampus groups; and wider news andspecial events coverage.The special tenth anniversarybroadcast over WUCB was producedby Bill Dunning, business manager, incooperation with news director BarryRappaport, station manager, andPresident of Radio Midway JohnLyon, the office of Student Activities,and the Maroon.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa Nass Mews 1596Agnes Cook Gale was honored by theRenaissance Society in November by anexhibit of 31 of her original paintingsand drawings. Agnes Gale initiated original art exhibitions at the Society's galleries in the early days and has devotedmuch time to the Society since.06Charles F. McElroy, AM, JD '15, popsup in the most surprising places. Lastsummer it was Palestine, Istanbul, Egyptand Athens, by TWA. And we have apicture of him on a camel before a pyramid to prove it. Charles lives in Springfield, Illinois.07Laird Bell, JD, was awarded an honorary doctor of laws degree by CarletonCollege last June when he retired fromchairmanship of the board of trustees.The Laird-Bell family has put in a totalof 70 years of service on the board, including 33 as chairman, and Mr. Bell'sretirement did not end this record; hisdaughter Margaret was elected to theboard, thus becoming the fourth generation to serve. The degree given Mr. Bellrecognized his wide-ranging service tothe cause of education, in addition to thesupport which he and his family havegiven to Carleton. He has been a leaderin the movement to interest business ingiving financial support to independenteducational institutions, and has been anardent champion of the right of free discussion and inquiry in the colleges. Mr.Bell was awarded the University AlumniMedal in 1943, and was chairman of theUniversity Board of Trustees from 1949until he became an Honorary Trusteein 1953. He practices law in Chicago andlives in Winnetka.IINathaniel Peffer, Professor of International Relations at Columbia University, joined Quincy Wright, Professor ofInternational Law at Chicago, in anacross-the-Atlantic radio discussion withtwo British experts on "Loyalty — National and International" on "NewWorld" over NBC's Monitor, November27.Harvey B. Franklin, PhB, who for thepast two years has been teaching retirement adjustment to adults at the LongBeach City College School, Long Beach,Calif., entered the ranks of the retired in June. "I have a feeling that learningabout retirement out of books is onething and that living it may be a lottougher," he commented. He plans tospend his first months of retirement ina world air tour, preparing a series oftravelogue lectures, and then to startwork on a gerontology guidebook.Clyde M. Joice became chairman ofGoodkind, Joice & Morgan, Inc., afterfifteen years as president. He will continue to function as chief executive officer of the Chicago agency. George B. McKibbin, JD, was recentlycited by the Southside Community Committee for his "unselfish interest in thesouth side's social problems." McKibbinhelped found and is vice president ofFriends of the South Side CommunityCommittee. He is also Illinois public aidcommission chairman and vice presidentof the National Conference of Christiansand Jews.The Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Billings, PhD,is minister of the First CongregationalChurch, Hancock, N. H.1614Mrs. Marie Nagl Crossland, PhD, hasretired from the U. S. Internal Revenueservice, after working in the income taxdivision for thirty years. The governmentawarded her the Gallatin award for"loyal, efficient and faithful service." Shehopes now to do some writing. Dr. Harvey H. Guice, AB, JD '18, hasretired after more than thirty years ofteaching government at Southern Methodist University. He was particularlywell-known among students for his development of "Pompology," a series ofanecdotes about a horse named "Pomp"which he used to illustrate his lectures.He plans either to continue teaching orto begin a book on American legislation.Samuel N. Katzin has been elected tothe board of governors of Hebrew University in Israel. He is a real estatedeveloper and a commissioner of theChicago Housing Authority.Alumnus Ambassador of Good WillSidney A. Teller, '08, (left) is trying to change the idea of battle flags tothe idea of peaceful exchange of flags between nations. He has recentlyaccomplished U. S. exchanges with Mexico (above, Mexico City, Lincoln'sBirthday 1952) and Israel. He is planning similar ceremonies with Pakistanand Indochina."The world won't be better until the peoples of the world know eachother," he said, adding "You have to watch the protocols, you can't makeit political and you can't make it sectarian." It took Teller two years toarrange the exchange with Israel.Teller established the Sidney A. Teller student loan fund at the University in 1933. He and his wife have donated the Teller International Brassand Copper Collections to the University, and Illinois Institute of Technology.JANUARY, 1956 20Forum FounderSamuel Disraeli Schwartz, PhB'12, AM '13, is still serving in the ."temporary" position he took whenhe graduated from the University.This fall he celebrated forty yearsof service at Chicago Sinai Temple. He is executive director ofSinai Temple, and the founderand director of the Sinai TempleForum, which has acquired famethrough the years for the variedand interesting speakers it hassponsored.In a recent interview, Schwartztold of the many changes he hasseen since founding the forum."Years ago people used to likewhat I call 'pmk-tea' programs,"he recalls."But the forum has changed asthe world's problems have changed,and now we find people particularly interested in world events,religion or psychiatry."Another change has been inspeakers' fees."A $100 fee was unusually highnot so many years ago," he said."Now $500 is more like it."Among the famous speakerswho have appeared at the forum:Clarence Darrow, Norman Thomas, Will Durant.Schwartz lives near Sinai Temple with his wife, Roey. Theyhave a grown son and daughterand two grandchildren.When his son was small, heonce asked his dad if GeorgeWashington ever addressed theforum. We thing George wouldhave been glad to. Arthur L. Beeley, AM, PhD '25, Deanof the Graduate School of Social Workat the University of Utah, received anhonorary LLD from Utah, where he hasbeen a faculty member for twenty-eightyears. His citation reads: "In recognition of his administrative leadership inthe development of meaningful socialinstitutions, for his intelligent approachto community life and world affairs andhis concern for the total well-being ofthe individual, and in appreciation forhis devoted service as Professor, Department Head, Director, Dean, and Counselor."19Otto W. Snarr, AM, PhD '41, retiredas president of Moorhead State TeachersCollege, Moorhead, Minnesota, in July.From 1920 to 1941, before becomingpresident of Moorhead, he was directorof the professional division at MankatoState Teachers College. He now residesin Romney, West Virginia.Lee Ettelson, executive editor of theChicago American has been transferredto the San Francisco Call-Bulletin wherehe will be the publisher. Ettelson hasbeen with the Hearst organization since1919. Don Piatt, PhB, PhD '25, is nearing histwenty-fifth year as Professor of Philosophy at U.C.L.A.After fifty-one years of teaching JudgeBoggs, AB, AM '20, has retired. But forthe last three winters, in Florida andCalifornia, he has visited schools, talkingon U.S. history. "Like old Johnny Ap-pleseed, I'm doing this service at myown expense hoping to lighten the loadand create a deeper interest in the storyof America," he says.20Fannie A. Baker is professor of Spanish Emeritus at Nebraska University.Soaring GrandmotherNena Wilson Badenoch, '12, director of television and radio relations for the National Society forCrippled Children and Adults,New York, attended the state conference for American Women inRadio and Television at Elmira,New York. To the surprise ofeveryone, including Nena, she returned with a membership card inthe Elmira Area Soaring Corporation of America.It was at Elmira where Nena'sson cracked up while competingfor national honors as a gliderpilot. Both legs were broken. Itwas during his slow and painfulcomeback that Nena became interested in the care of cripples, towhich she is now devoting herlife.Mrs. Badenoch was the firstwoman in nine years to belaunched in a glider from an automobile tow — more hazardousthan by power winch or plane.But this was the way her son,now in the aeronautical business,trained as a glider pilot on theMassachusetts Institute of Technology team.After landing, Nena wired herson: "Salute a soaring grandmother! Honorary member of ElmiraArea Soaring Corporation."30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAndrew M. Baird, vice president ofA. G. Becker & Co., Chicago, has beennominated for vice president of the Investment Bankers Association of America. (Nomination is tantamount to election.) The association will act on theslate at its annual convention this monthin Hollywood, Fla.22John Gunther finished writing InsideAfrica in time to be on Ed Murrow'sPerson to Person TV program in November.Harry L. Bird, 22, is vice presidentof Applegate Advertising Agency, Muncie, Indiana. In his spare time he editshis fraternity magazine, the ATO Palm-Wilbur Hatch, AB, of Hollywood, isnow directing music for three televisionshows — "I Love Lucy," "Our MissBrooks," and "December Bride." Althoughhis college major was chemistry, he wasan outstanding star in Blackfriars andother musical activities. When he graduated he put aside his scientific interestto enter commercial radio, and continuedin that field until "My Favorite Husband," the radio serial, became "I LoveLucy," the television show.23Archibald McPherson, PhD, and Margaret Wilcox McPherson, PhD '24, ofKensington, Md., write that their daughter, Jean McPherson Bennett, became thefirst woman to receive a PhD in physicsfrom Pennsylvania State University. She married a fellow physicist, and the couple has already published nearly a dozenjoint articles in the field of infraredspectroscopy.25Lucille Hoover Jacobs (Mrs. WilliamH), PhB, AM '48, reports that her twochildren are both in graduate training.Ellen is at Illinois Tech and William atthe University.26Allen Miller, station manager of radiostation KWSC, State College of Washington at Pullman, will not be able toreturn for his 30th Class reunion nextJune. (Allen is president of the Class.)Pointing to the passing of time, Allenwrites that his son will be graduatingon that day in Pullman, Washington.Meanwhile the Class of '26 is makingplans already for June 1st.Norman F. Arterburn, JD, has beendesignated for appointment to the Indiana State Supreme Court to succeedJudge W. Henly. Senior partner of theVincennes, Indiana law firm of Arterburn and Hart, he has been in the practice of law with two brief exceptions.He held a teaching position in the LawSchool at Washburn College, Topeka,Kansas, shortly after graduation, andwas visiting professor in law at IndianaUniversity in 1949 and in 1953-54.Leo H. Arnstein, AB, JD '28, is a member of the law firm of Lederer, Livingston, Kahn & Adsit of Chicago. Mr.Arnstein lives in Glencoe, Illinois. One Step AheadCharles E. McKittrick, '20, is astep ahead of us. In our Novemberissue we reported that he had beenpromoted from general display advertising manager to advertisingmanager of the Chicago Tribune.Actually, McKittrick received promotion from advertising managerto business manager.As we stated, he is a directorof WGN Inc., and the ChicagoTribune Building Corporation. Heis also director of MetropolitanSunday Newspapers, and the Chicago Tribune Press Service. Andunless he receives another promotion soon, he is no longer a stepahead of us.Helen E. Smith Bevington, PhB '26,and her husband, Dr. M. M. Bevington,are spending a year in England doingresearch. They are on sabbatical leavefor the 1955-56 academic year from DukeUniversity, Durham, N.C, where Mrs.Bevington is an Assistant Professor andher husband a Professor, both in English.A high spot of their trip will be Dr.Bevington's attendance at the installation of the Queen Mother of England asChancellor of the University of Londonon November 23-24. He will representDuke at the occasion. Mrs. Bevington,a poet, will do further work on verseand research on 20th Century poetry.Her newest book, "Report from the Caro-linas," will be published next June.Child Care . . . Now Baby and Child FeedingMiriam Lowenberg, PhB '18,collaborated with child care expertDr. Benjamin Spock on a recentlypublished book, Feeding YourBaby and Child. Miss Lowenberg,head of the Foods and NutritionDepartment of Pennsylvania StateUniversity, joined with Dr. Spockto write a cook book for parentswith babies and young children.Their book covers all aspects ofchild feeding with the same assurance that made Dr. Spock's Common Sense Book of Baby andChild Care the bible of parenthood.Miss Lowenberg and Dr. Spockdiscuss pregnancy, breast-feeding,weaning, foods to avoid, andchanging from the infant's diet tothe child's diet. They tell how toinfluence the child's attitude toward his food through its color,texture, shaps, and "stage setting."Duell, Sloan and Pearce are thepublishers.JANUARY, 1956 31LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVER Seward A. Covert, president of hisown Cleveland public relations firm, washonored by the Cleveland City Council.They passed a resolution (with gold sealand ribbon) commending him for hislocal leadership of "The University ofChicago Alumni Committee to raisefunds for a multi-million dollar drive tocontinue and extend research and teaching." The resolution wished him "greatsuccess in his endeavors."27LOWER YOUR COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURES John M. Meyer, Jr., AB, has been promoted to the post of senior vice president of J. P. Morgan & Co., Inc., NewYork.Grace Lindquist Ragle, PhB, writesof a long history of University participation. Her father graduated from RushMedical School at the time the University was being founded, and her son-in-law is now doing graduate work atChicago Theological Seminary. Carleton R. Worth, SM, has been appointed Assistant Professor of Mathematics at Ithaca College, Ithaca, N. Y.29Hesta Sweitzer Vetter (Mrs. Carl),AM, PhD '33, of Walnut Creek, California, directed a weaving exhibit at anart and garden show held in September.Albin Bro, for the last five years onthe faculty of George Williams Collegein Chicago, reports that his eldest son,Harmon H. Bro, received a PhD degreefrom the Divinity School this year, andthat his youngest son, Andrew Bro, ispresently enrolled there.Phones OAkland 4-0690--4-069 1 —4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove Avenue"it's time he talked things overwith a Sun Life man/". . . time to have a Sun Life man ensuretheir future with a Sun Life of Canadaeducational policy.The Sun Life man in your community isRalph J. Wood, Jr., '481 NORTH LA SALLE STREET, CHICAGO 2, ILLINOISFR 2-2390 • GA 2-5273 30Election to a professional organization which limits itself to 100 memberscame to Harvey J. Locke, PhD, this summer. Dr. Locke, Professor of Sociologyat the University of Southern California, became a member of the Sociological Research Organization, a select groupof men doing research in sociology.Leo R. Werts, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Manpower and Employment,has been presented the Department ofLabor's Distinguished Service Award.31Willard R. Sprowls, SB, SM '35, PhD'38, received an LLB Cum Laude fromthe School of Law of St. John's University, of New York in June.PROGRESSIVEPAINT & HARDWARE COMPANYPaints • Wallpaper * HardwareHousewares • Janitor Supplies1158 East 55th StreetHYde Park 3-3840N.S.A. AND FACULTY DISCOUNTSCHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING CO.Complete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING-LETTERPRESS & OFFSETLetters • Copy Preparation • ImprintingTypewriting • Addressing • MailingQUALITY — ACCURACY — SPEED722 So. Dearborn • Chicago 5 • WA 2-4561MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica - Exacta- Bolex- Rollei -Stereo1329 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259"Neighborhood Servicewith Downtown Selection"32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFellow Alumni, Rival Office HoldersAlumnus Nicholas Melas, PhB '46, SB '48, MBA '50, met alumnus HerbertDe Young, AB '25, JD '28, at a fund campaign dinner in November. Asalumni, both Melas and De Young are working on the campaign. As formerstudents with strong records in extracurricular activities, both are membersof Owl & Serpent, men's honorary society. As men making a living, bothare concerned with law enforcement in Cook County, but in different ways.Alumnus De Young was personal attorney to former Cook CountySheriff John Babb. Alumnus Melas is administrative assistant to presentCook County Sheriff Joseph D. Lohman. Melas, on indefinite leave fromthe University's Industrial Relations Center, entered office in 1954 whenDe Young, now president of the Tuberculosis Institute of Chicago andCook County, left it.Minnie Larson, AM, has retired fromteaching in Kearney, Nebraska, to livein San Francisco.Lawrence Prugger, AB, is residing inChicago.Willett M. Gorham, AB, JD '33, waselected assistant secretary of the trustdepartment of Northern Trust Co., Chicago. He lives in Winnetka, Illinois.SIMrs. Nann Z. Slade is Assistant Professor in the Business AdministrationDept. at the University of Houston. Herson, Glenn W., has an A.B. from theUniversity.George E. Drew, pastor of LakewoodCongregational Church of Cleveland,dedicated a $450,000 addition to hischurch in October. Guest preacher atthe dedication services was Rev. OkeyR. Swisher, AM '40, executive secretaryof the Congregational Union of Cleveland.Armistead S. Pride, AM, was electedvice president of the American Societyof Journalism School Administrators. Heis Dean of the School of Journalism atLincoln University, Jefferson City, Mo.33Frank Mayer-Oakes, PhB, PhD '55,is Professor of Far Eastern History atWayne University, Detroit.Margery Miller Anderson (Mrs. DavidA.), AM, is teaching at the School ofEducation at Arizona State College atTempe. Children's literature and storytelling is her special field.Martha Miller Davenport (Mrs. JohnR.), AB, writes from Winnetka of around robin letter among her alumnaefriends. From herself and Charity Harris Moulton (Mrs. John R.), AB '35,in Winnetka, the letter goes to Elizabeth M. Hambleton, AB '36, in Washington, D.C, to Ruth Anne Heisey Black,AB '36, in Sausalito, California, andthen to Harriet -Ann Trinkle Hastings(Mrs. Russell), AB '32, in Tucson, Arizona.34Paul G. Roofe, PhD, is Chairman andProfessor of the Department of Anatomy,University of Kansas Medical School,Lawrence. His wife Helen, PhB '29, isengaged in volunteer work with socialagencies in Lawrence.An operation on the mitral valve ofhis heart has freed Frank M. Van Etten,AB, of a valve leakage that he has hadsince he was thirteen. Mr. Van Ettenlives in Silver Springs, Maryland. M. Luella Gardner, PhB, has beenappointed associate director of nursingservices at the Cook County School ofNursing. Miss Gardner is a graduateof the last class (1929) of the IllinoisTraining School for Nurses, the firstschool of nursing to be established westof the Alleghenies, and succeeded bythe present Cook County School ofNursing.Since 1945, she has been assistantdirector in charge of surgical nursing at the school.Bernice Scroggie Beerman, AM, isdirector of research for the CommunityWelfare Council of San Diego, Calif.Prior to this she had been Public ChildWelfare Consultant for the Child Welfare League of America and served as liaison between the League and theU.S. Children's Bureau.Vera F. Powell (Mrs. E. L.), AM, isemployed as a speech therapist with theVisiting Nurse Society of Philadelphia.Lt. Colonel Waldemar A. Solf, JD '37,has been appointed director of the academic department of the Judge Advocate General's School, Charlottesville,Va. Waldemar has had an outstandinglegal career in the Army. Since 1951he has been at the Headquarters European Command as Chief of the Courts-Martial Branch and Chief of the Military Justice Branch, Judge AdvocateDivision. His director's job is now withthe "largest law firm in America" andapproved by the American Bar Association.JANUARY, 1956 33BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71ST ST.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLab Street KEdzie 3-3186 Mrs. Marguerite Huggins Sawin (Mrs.Fredrick), SB, has been elected to theboard of education of Adams Township,Toledo, Ohio.36Daniel D. Stok is a member of theArmy's Korean Military Advisory Groupin Taegu, Korea. He holds the rank ofmajor.Robert Schnering, SB, president ofCurtiss Candy Co., Chicago, was named"candy man of the year" at the recentNational Confectioners Association Convention. He received the Kettle Award,emblematic of the honor.37Wade T. Searles, AM, who was formerly field secretary for the IllinoisSociety for Mental Health, has recentlybecome suburban secretary for the Welfare Council of Metropolitan Chicago.Forest D. Richardson, AB, MBA, '42,was recently elected president and general manager of Red Wing Potteries,Inc., Red Wing, Minn. He and his wifeHildegard, '38, have two children, Forestand Stephanie. 5487 LAKE PARK AVE.CHICAGO, ILLINOIS&or Jveiervaiions Gall:BUtterfield 8-4960ROCKEFELLERcould afford to pay $6, $7, $8, $9, and morefor vitamins. Can you? We have developeda system of distributing vitamins by mailorder only which will save you up to 50%.Eliminate the commissions of 4 or 5 middlemen. 20 element formula with ALL vitaminsand minerals for which need has been established, plus 6 others. 100 capsules — $3 15;250 capsules — $7.20; 500 capsules — $13.50 Postpaid.SPRINGER & DASHNAU(AB '51, AM '52, U. of Chicago)2707 E. ANN ST. PHILA. 34, PA.GENERAL MOTORS INVITES^ ALL GRADUATE ENGINEERS ?CsHV&mmmi 9&t OppenUmHmlfor ambitious, creative men.AVIONICSINERTIAL SYSTEMS ETC.G.M. ELECTRONICS DIVISIONoffers challenging, pioneering opportunities to ambitious men. We extend a cordial invitation to everydeserving Engineer and Designer towrite us their wants. We may beable to supply the square hole forthe square peg! CREATIVE OPPORTUNITIESin the following fields : Missile Guidance Systems; Jet and Turbo PropEngine Controls; Bombing andNavigational Computer Systems;Airborne Fire Control; U.H.F. Communications, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, etc. YOUR FUTUREdepends on your making theright connection with the rightfirm as quickly as possible. Whynot send full facts about youreducation, work background,etc. We will do all we can foryou and treat your applicationwith the fullest confidence.© AC SPARK PLUG • THE ELECTRONICS DIVISIONGENERAL MOTORS CORPORATIONMILWAUKEE 2, WISCONSIN34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEForest D. Richardson, MBA '42, resigned as comptroller and secretary ofthe S. B. Foot Tanning Co., Red Wing,Minnesota, to become president andgeneral manager of The Red Wing Potteries, Inc., nationally famous for din-nerware, artware, and ceramics. Mrs.Richardson is Hildegard Breihan, '38,whom you will remember as the attractive blond coffee girl at HutchinsonCommons before Forest took her to RedWing. They have two children: Forest,Jr., 13, and Stephanie, 7. 39James W. Errant, PhD, is president ofthe Municipal Insurance Company ofAmerica, whose home office is in Chicago.Jeanne M. Musham was married onJuly 29 to Robert Biggert. They areliving in Oak Park, 111.Blair S. Ruben reports he has movedback to "Yankee Land" from Dalton,Ga., to Columbus, Ohio. Blair is district sales manager for Swank, Inc.,makers of men's jewelry.38 41Naomi Lipkowitz Lodish (Mrs. Harry),AB, of South Euclid, Ohio, reports thebirth of Deborah, her fourth girl andseventh child, in May.Arthur P. Klotz, SB '38, MD '38, isAssociate Professor of Medicine, andchief of the gastroenterology section atthe University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Mo.The Rev. Edward E. Grice, DD, AM,is promotional secretary for the Boardof Foreign Missions of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, withheadquarters in Philadelphia. Blake S. Taibot, MD, reports thebirth of a new daughter, Debra Ann, inOctober, 1954, in Bethesda, Maryland.Thomas W. Fetzer, AM, is now associate executive director of United Community Services of Washington, D.C.45Charles J. Ruth, SB, MD '47, is Chiefof Orthopedic Surgery at the ArmyHospital, Ft. Riley, Kansas.Edward S. Lowenstein, AB, MBA '46,reports from Chicago the birth of adaughter, Beth, in May.Holiday's unforgettable portraits of the first Americans!Ky, An American— ^r Indian PortfolioHoliday presents America's Indians as you'venever seen them before! Jack Schaefer, authorof "Shane," writes of the richness of their onceflourishing civilization. Famed photographerArnold Newman captures their proud facesin one of the most remarkable color documentaries ever made! It's a real collector's itemthat all America will want. Get yours today!AND DON'T MISS THESEEXCITING HOLIDAY FEATURES!NEW ENGLAND SNOW RESORTS - Here'show and where to enjoy the happy way ofwinter life! With breath-taking photos ofthe snow-covered slopes that are a skier'sparadise!WALl STREET - Where else in the world doso many people work so hard to makemoney without working?On your newsstand January 1 7!February HOLIDAY magazine FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Males of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Sifts. Silverware.Golden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)FLATWARE & HOLLOW WAREWhole sots and open stockCOMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4,CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSince 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best In placement service for University.College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.* CURTIS MAGAZINi ZJheexclusive Cleaner*We operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608JANUARY, 1956 35SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 1 00 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicago 46Webb-Linn Printing Co*Catalogs, PublicationsAdvertising Literature?Printers of the Universityof Chicago Magazine?A. L. Weber, J.D. '09 L. S. Berlin, B.A. '09A. J. Falick, M.B.A. '51MOnroe 6-2900 Sebastian V. Martorana, AM, PhD '48,is now working as educational specialistfor the Office of Education in Washington, D.C. He is with the division ofhigher education.Kurt Reichert, AM, was awarded aPhD degree from the University of Minnesota in August.The son of Arthur B. Mercer, AB, JD'48, was ordained at the Fourth BaptistChurch of Providence, Rhode Island, lastyear, after graduation from ColgateRochester Divinity School.Sol K. Newman, PhB, SB '47, MBA'49 and Grace Engel, a summer studenthere in 1953, were married July 3. Solis an accountant with Material ServiceCorp., Chicago.47From Key West, Florida, Arnold M.Tanis, AB, SB '49, MD '51, and hiswife Maxine Kroman Tanis, PhB '48, report that they have two children, a son,Jackie, two, and a daughter, Elizabeth,one. Dr. Tanis is practicing pediatrics atthe U.S. Naval Hospital in Key West.Mary Ella Hopkins, AB, writes that,with her golf handicap, she beat PattyBerg on L7FE Magazine's golf day. BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380TheHOTEL SHERRY53rd and the Lake — FAirfax 4-1000BANQUETS — DANCESOur Specialtyalumni are alwayswelcome at theHotel Del PradoFifty-Third Street andHyde Park BoulevardHYde Park 3-9600Subsidiary of West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company30 13 FACTORIES AND 42 SALES OFFICES IN THE EAST, MIDWEST AND SOUTHTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE49Lowell E. Olson, AM, received an MSdegree from the University of Minnesotain August.Gene Conrad Robinson, AB '47, SM'49, is a research chemist with theEthyl Corp., Baton Rouge, La.Charles K. Sapper, AM, until this yearan instructor in Portland, Ore., HighSchool, (while filling a U. S. Air ForceReserve training post as a major), hasjoined the staff of Contra Costa JuniorCollege, Martinez, Calif. He will teachpsychology, sociology, and anthropology.50Jay Sawilowsky, AB, entered theUniversity of Georgia Law School ayear ago September. He hopes to receivehis LLB in December, 1956.Owen Jenkins, AB '45, AM '50, hasbeen promoted to Assistant Professor ofEnglish at Carleton College, Northfield,Minn.51Joseph M. Gilde, AM, has been appointed an Instructor in English atIllinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.Last year he taught English at OhioWesleyan University.Lloyd Edward Dodd, AM, has beenappointed to the faculty at AdelphiCollege, Garden City, N. Y., as an Instructor in English. He is a member ofPhi Beta Kappa.Barbara L. Weiss Blumfield, (Mrs.Irvin H.), AM, is the mother of a son,Michael Jay, born July 19, 1954. Shehopes he will become a third generationU. of C'er. His grandparents are MortonB. Weiss, '19, and Edna Levi Weiss, '24.Robert A. LeVine, AM '53, has beengranted a Ford Foundation fellowship foran 18-month study of personality development in West Uganda, Africa, tribalsociety.52Alfred S. Dale, Jr., DB, is minister-director of the United Student ChristianFoundation at Western Washington College of Education, Bellingham, Wash.This is an ecumenical protestant studentwork program, sponsored by Baptist,Congregational, Christian (Disciples),Presbyterian, and Methodist groups. TheRev. Dale writes that it is "the Federated Theological Faculty and schools atChicago idea out in the world." He andhis wife, Dorothy, (C.T.S. 47-49), are"excited about the prospects."53Elizabeth Anne Barnes was marriedto Roger R. Gay on October 8. Theylive in Wayne, Mich.First Lt. John S. Thompson, MD, graduated from the military medical orientation course at the Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Texasthis summer.JANUARY, 1956 for a vacation where it's warm • . .OUR DISTINCTIVE SPORTWEARin our exclusive designs and coloringsWe have an outstanding selection of good-lookingactive and spectator sportwear for cruise and southern resort wear . . . from our washable, no pressingrequired Brooksweave* Odd Jackets and OddTrousers to colorful new sport shirts and beach wear... all made to our exacting specifications.Odd JacketSy jrom $35 • Odd Trousers } jrom $ 1 5*Bermuda Length Shorts, jrom $ 1 1Sport Shirts } jrom $ 1 2.50'"Brooks Brothcis trade-markESTABLISHED 1818^eir* furnishings, ffate *r$hoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N.Y.1 1 1 BROADWAY, NEW YORK- 6, N. Y. 'BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCOYou might wait forever foranother opportunitylike this . . .Here is a once-in-a lifetime opportunity for you if you are an ambitious engineeror scientist. Westinghouse has just received additional new contracts to develop,design and build atomic power plants to propel naval vessels. That means unusualprofessional openings for a few talented engineers and scientists. If you are interested in a creative job, solving some of today's most challenging problemschance to use all your training and experience . . . the opportunity to carve a careerin today's most dynamic industry . . . and you'll want to investigate WestinghouseAtomic Power today. You might wait forever for another opportunity like this.For many of these jobs you do not need previous experience inatomic power. Can you qualify for one of these assignments?PHYSICISTS-MATHEMATICIANS Experimental Physicists for Research Studies withNuclear Reactors; Theoretical Physicists for GeneralReactor Theory Development and Dynamics. Mathematicians— Research in Applied Mathematics,Numerical Analysis, and Digital Computing Techniques relating to Nuclear Power Reactors.METALLURGISTS Basic Researc^ in Physical Metallurgy, Corrosion and Radiation Effectson Metals; Applied Research and Development on Materials and Fabrication Processes for Reactor Fuel Components, Power Metallurgy and Metal Working; Non-Destructive Testing.MECHANICAL ENGINEERS To Design Power P,ant ComPonents— Heaf Exchangers,Purfips, Valves, etc.; Experimental and Theoretical HeatTransfer and Fluid Flow; Analytical Development in Mechanisms, Applied Mechanics, andStress Analysis.NUCLEAR ENGINEERS We WiM Train Graduafe Mechanical, Electricaland Chemical Engineers with Analytical andDesign Talents to Assume Capacities as Nuclear Engineers.RADIO CHEMISTS To Perform and Supervise Analysis for FissionProducts, Transuranic Elements and Other Activities.NEW ATOMIC EDUCATION PROGRAM1. Atomic Power Fellowship Program in conjunction with theUniversity of Pittsburgh for selected engineers and physicistspermits qualified personnel to obtain MS or PhD degrees, whilereceiving FULL PAY.2. Westinghouse will also pay one-half of the tuition forpart-time graduate courses completed for all technicalemployees. The other half will be refunded when an approved advanced degree is earned.modernSALARIES OPENStarting salaries depend on your education and experience.Ample attractive housing reasonably pricedsuburban community 15 minutes from plant.Send Complete Resume Today To:MR. A. M. JOHNSTONWESTINGHOUSE BETTIS PLANTP.O. Box 1468, Pittsburgh 30, Penna*?t?i4t c*t /4fomCc r^ow&i38 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Va!ves„ Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550'ENDER CATCH BASlfi SEStflCEIJM WASTE PAPER CO1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, LA 2-8354IESTBOILERREPAIR&WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoWasson -PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2H6-7-8-9Wesson's Coal Makes Good— or—Wasson DoesSince 1878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored19119 H. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Producersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockHon H. Kreines '27IQTj East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4 Averil E. Stephenson, AB, marriedGary Pielemeier, student at SeaburyWestern Theological Seminary, in June.The couple reside in Evanston.54Gerald Phillips, AM, of Welcott, Conn.,has been awarded the first Dom Moc-quereau Fellowship for study at theGregorian Institute in Paris. He is choirmaster of the Church of the SacredHeart, Roslindale, Mass., and the Churchof St. Pius X in Milton, Mass.Loretta Sharp, AM, completed her firstyear as Assistant Professor of PediatricNursing at the Syracuse UniversitySchool of Nursing in June.First Lt. Fred E. Nelson, AM, has beenassigned to Ft. Benning, Ga., as a psychiatric social worker. Fred worked for theInstitute for Juvenile Research in Chicago before entering the Army inAugust.Max I. Stucker, AB, MBA '55, assistant with Arthur Anderson & Co. (accountants), Chicago, wrote in mid-October: "About the time this note ispublished I will be employed by UncleSam." The draft noticed arrived "yester-day."From Robert College on the banks ofthe Bosporus near Istanbul, John Wilkinson, PhD, writes of other Universityalumni on the staff of the all-Englishspeaking school: David Merriell, PhD '51;and Donna Swain, AM '54. Both Wilkinson and Merriell taught in the Collegeat the University, 1947-1951.Victor L. Andrews, AB '51, AM '53,MBA '54, is a teaching assistant in theSchool of Industrial Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, Mass.Junji Kumamoto, PhD, has joined theShell Development Co.'s Emeryville,Calif., Research Center as a chemist inthe Organic Chemistry Dept.Curtis G. Smith, AB '47, PhD '54, hasbeen appointed Instructor in Physiologyat Mount Holyoke College, South Had-ley, Mass.Kent V. Flannery, AB, is pitching forthe Darlington, Maryland, Historical Society's softball team.55Pvt. Leon D. Rosen, Chicago, recentlybegan six months of military training atFt. Leonard Wood, Mo., under the newReserve Forces Act.Henry Telfer Mook, DB '55, is ministerat the First Congregational Church, Concord, N. H.John Payne Mitchell, PhD, has beennamed commissioner of immigration anddeputy attorney general for the Bureauof Immigration, Monrovia, Liberia.Audrey A. Clifgard, AB '54, AB '55,and Dr. Merle S. Moskowitz, SM '55,MD '55, were married June 11. They areliving in New Orleans, La. where Dr.Moskowitz is attached to Tours Infirmary. Mrs. Moskowitz is a laboratorytechnician. HYLAND A. NOLANCONTRACTORPLASTERINGREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. LAKE PARK AVE.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579PARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit InsuranceCorporationT. A. REHNQU1ST CO SidewalksU #/ Factory Floors**— '/ MachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'StSwif7409PhonSwift & CompanyA product of ^| 7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400JANUARY, 1956MemorwfHenry T. Chase, '96, of Carmel, Calif.,a member of the first four-year class ofthe University, died August 14.Joseph A. Lenz, MD '00, died October 24.Dr. Kellogg Speed, '01, MD '04, ofHighland Park, 111., died July 2 at theage of 76. Dr. Speed was captain of theUniversity football team in 1901. Duringhis medical career he was head surgeonat Presbyterian hospital in Chicago, wasa founder of the American Board ofSurgery and the American Board ofOrthopedic Surgery, and was a memberof the board of governors of the American College of Surgeons.Mary Mills, '02, AM 15, died in Wilmington, Ohio, September 18. She hadretired as Professor of English at Wilmington College.Dr. Carl F. Siefert, MD, '03, died July19 at the age of 76.Dr. Arthur H. Curtis, MD '05, died November 13 in Evanston, 111. Dr. Curtiswas formerly head of the department ofobstetrics and gynecology of the Northwestern University Medical School anda staff member of the Passavant Memorial Hospital.John E. Walker, SB '07, died on October 6.R. D. Calkins, '03, SM '07, Professor Emeritus of Geography at Central MichiganCollege, died September 27 in Lansing,Michigan. Professor Calkins had beenat the College since 1904, when he organized the department of geography.He was widely known in his field as athorough and inspiring teacher and apersistent student.Marie A. Hallinan, '16, AM '26, retiredChicago public school teacher, died July29. She was 63.The Rev. Dr. David Bovington, AM '16,died in Cleveland, Ohio, on August 22.He was 86. Dr. Bovington was born inTunbridge Wells, England, but did hisacademic work in Canada and the UnitedStates and then remained in this countryas a teacher and minister in the Cleveland area. From 1917 until 1926 he waspastor of the church which is now knownas the First Baptist Church of GreaterCleveland.James Hugh Pruett, '16, of Eugene,Oregon, died September 25.Correct SpellingIn the December Memorial section,Dr. John P. Senning, '10, professorof political science at the University of Nebraska, was incorrectlylisted as Dr. John P. Jenning. Dr.Senning, who helped draft theamendment making Nebraska theonly unicameral state in the nation in 1934, died in Lincoln in1954. He is survived by his wife,Elizabeth Stone Senning, PhB '88,PhM '09. Elizabeth M. Blish, 17, died August 16in Chicago.Dr. Denton Jacobs, PhD 18, died in Lincoln, Nebraska, October 4.Mildred Berleman, 18, of Chicago, diedNovember 8.Ellsworth C. Murphy, JD 19, diedMay 30. He lived in Chicago.Alice Kimball Gonnerman (Mrs. Allan), AB '20, died September 21. Shewas a Chicago resident.Bertha Moore Marum, PhB, '20, diedSeptember 16.Marguerite De Grasse, PhB '20, died inSanta Barbara, Calif., on September 3at 62.George T. Renner, Jr.,..a graduate student in the early twenties, died at theage of 55 on October 14. He was Professor of Geography at Columbia University.Clay E. 'Palmer, AM '20, Congregational minister in Yankton, South Dakotafrom 1940 to 1952, died March 13. He wasa member of the faculty of the YanktonCollege School of Theology.Elizabeth Weick, AB '20, died July 19.She was a resident of Jackson, Michigan.Frederick Moffat Elton, PhB '22, vice-president of the Aldrick Howey Co. ofCleveland, died September 22. A memberof the University baseball team whichvisited Japan in 1920, he had been withthe Aldrick-Howey Co. since 1926.Albert W. Giles, PhD '22, head of theUniversity of Arkansas geology department for twenty-five years, died oneyear ago May. He was a member of theAmerican Association for the advancement of science, and the GeologicalSociety of America.Mrs. Ruth V- Wigelworth, PhB '22, ofLos Angeles, California, died in July.Esther L. Hulbert, '23, of Berkeley,California, died July 6.Clara L. Rathfon, AB '23, Dean ofGirls and Assistant Principle at theLogansport, Indiana high school, diedthis year.Elizabeth Brooks, '24, of Jacksonville,Illinois, died September 8.Robert B. Campbell, '24, died August17. He had lived in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, and in Fort Myers,Florida.John E. Seney, AB '24, principal ofAustin, Chicago, high school, died October 17. Head of the Austin faculty sinceFebruary, 1954, he had previously beenprincipal of Fenger High School andOrr Vocational School.James Wallace Tanner, PhB '24, MD'29, died one year ago November in EauClaire, Wisconsin. He specialized in thetreatment of eye, ear and throat ailmentsin his medical practice.Robert E. Ackley, '24, of Rock Island,111., died July 6.John A. Hardin, AM '24, died August 6.He was in retirement from the facultyof Centenary College, Shreveport, La.Lisle A. Rose, AB '25, AM '28, PhD'35, died May 23. He lived in Champaign,Illinois.Griffith G. Levering, AB '25, vicepresident in Philadelphia for the Kem per group of insurance firms since 1947,died this year. He was associated withthe firm since his graduation until hisdeath, with the exception of two yearswhen he served on the Quaker ReliefMission to China.Louise Burgstreser White (Mrs. PaulE.), '25, died September 5 in Xenia,Ohio.Hower Q. Earl, JD '27, of South Bend,Indiana, died June 23.Joseph C. Thomas, AB '27, died May21. He was a member of the Universityof Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PuertoRico.Joseph H. White, PhB '27, vice-president in charge of research at Weiss andGeller Advertising Agency of Chicago,died September 20. Previously he hadbeen president of Joseph H. White andAssociates, merchandising and management consultants.Jacob L. Sheer, AB '30, JD '31, supervisor of complaints for the Illinois statedepartment of education and registration from 1949 to 1953, died May 27 inChicago.Frank Neuwelt, SB '31, MD '37, ofGary, Indiana, died July 4.Rowland Emery Jones, PhB '33, diedJune 25. A resident of Akron, Ohio, hewas a member of Phi Delta Thetafraternity.Mrs. Ella Kleisner Kryl, PhB '33, diedJanuary 26 in Berwyn, Illinois. She wasadjustment teacher for the Chicago Public School System.Antonio Jesus Rubio, PhD '34, diedin August. He was chairman of the Department of Modern Language, De PaulUniversity, Chicago.Myrddyn W. Jones, AM '37, DB '38,PhD '45, of Indianapolis, Indiana, diedAugust 30. He was librarian of theSchool of Religion of Butler University.Philip Lefkin, MD '37, died August 4in Duarte, California. He was a memberof the American College of Surgeonsand a veteran of World War II, retiringas a captain.Ada Blumer, AB '38, died August 17in Terra Haute, Indiana. She was amember of the American Association ofMedical Social Workers.Carl L. Horberg, PhD '38, AssociateProfessor of Geology at the University,died August 18 in Billings hospital. IJewas editor of the Geology Journal, anda member of the University facultysince 1946.Arthur E. Brake, AB '41, died February17 in Chicago.Clara H. Pagel, MBA '42, died May 29.She resided in the Suwanee Hotel, St.Petersburg, Florida.Charles Henry McCroskey, MD '46,died September 28. Interment was inKansas City, Kansas.Andrew E. Papp, MBA '48, of Crete,Illinois, died August 29. He was executive vice president of the G&W ElectricSpecialty Company.Nancy R. Lederer, AB '49, died June25 in Chicago.40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEReaching for the moonOnce it meant the impossible . . .today it's a progress report on scientific researchWho DARES call anything impossible today? Not whenresearch scientists are constantly seeking and findingnew wonders to improve the way you live.ONLY A DREAM YESTERDAY. . reality today. A generation ago, Union Carbide scientists began taking oiland natural gas apart and putting the pieces togetheragain in ways unknown to nature.The result? A steady stream of entirely new chemicals ... an average of one a month for the past 25years. The benefits of these petroleum chemicals areeverywhere— man-made textile fibers, amazing plastics,life-saving wonder drugs, enduring paints and enamels. . . the list is endless.NOT ONLY CHEMISTRY has felt the touch of UnionCarbide research. Alloying metals that make possible stainless and other fine steels, oxygen from the air formedical and industrial use, a variety of carbon products—all have been developed, made better or moreabundant through UCC research.AND THE MOON? The work of Union Carbide scientists in new metals such as titanium, in rocket fuels,and in the beneficial uses of atomic energy, is helpingman reach in that direction, too.STUDENTS AND STUDENT ADVISERS: Learn more about careeropportunities with Union Carbide in Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals,Gases, and Plastics. Write for "Products and Processes" booklet.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET ) I H B| NEW YORK 17, N. Y.In Canada: Union CARBIDE CANADA Limited, Toronto— UCCs Trade-marked Products include Synthetic Organic Chemicals Prestone Anti-Freeze Eveready Flashlights and Batteries Prest-O-Lite AcetyleneDynel Textile Fibers Electromet Alloys and Metals Haynes Stellite Alloys UNION Carbide LiNDE OxygenLiNDE Silicones BAKELITE, Vinylite, and Krene Plastics NATIONAL Carbons ACHESON Electrodes PYROFAX GasFRIENDSTRIKE BACKAT CANCER...MAN'S CRUELESTENSMY...GIVE Tens of thousands with cancer will lose their livesneedlessly this year. They could have beencured by early diagnosis and prompt treatment.Will one of these unfortunate victims be a friendof yours? It could happen. We know that cancerstrikes one in four.There's a way to help that friend, and thousandsof others. That's by helping the AmericanCancer Society spread its educational messageas widely as possible.Money you contribute improves services topatients, arms everyone with protective informationabout cancer, and pays for research to conquerthis crudest of diseases.When you give your dollars to the AmericanCancer Society, you are making an investment thatpays off in the saving of human lives. Perhapsthe life of one friend.Perhaps your own life.American Cancer SocietyGENTLEMEN:I want to help conquer Cancer.( ) Please send me free information about Cancer.( ) Enclosed is my contribution of $ to the Cancerade.NanAddress-City_ _Zone State_(MAIL TO: CANCER, c/o your towns Postmaster)___.--_--_________________-- ----------- -^