NOVEMBER, 1955 S^^^/^ ^'^^ UNIVERSITYCJuarqoMAGAZINE ^JUGHTHEARTED COACHPage 15©wJI%— *«»*Your invitation to theseSPECIAL EVENTSLOOP LUNCHEONS Wednesday, November 2Georgian Room how JURORS think — a preliminary report from an intimateCarson Pine Scott study of how jurors reach verdicts with demonstrations.$2 00 Speaker, Harry Kalven, Jr., Professor of Law and directorof the study.Thursday, December 8CORN and commissars — a report on the American agricultural experts' tour of Russia. Personal impressions byD. Gale Johnson, Professor of Economics and a member. of the party.CAMPUS EVENTS Sunday, October 30 — 2:00 P.M. Stagg Fieldsoccer: Chicago v. purdue. Reception with teams andcoaches after game. Bring the children. No charge.Friday, November 4 — 8:30 P.M. Mandel Hallvegh string quartet featuring Beethoven. Reserved seatsonly, $1.50. Dinner with Music Department faculty inQuadrangle Club at 6:30 P.M. $3.00.Tuesday, November 8 — 8:30 P.M. Breasted Hallexcavations in iraq. Dr. Robert J. Braidwood exhibitingthe Oriental Institute's most recent discoveries. Dinner withInstitute staff members, Quadrangle Club, 6:30 P.M. $3.00.Note change from November 9.Thursday, November 17 — 8:30 P.M. Mandel Hallthe crucible. University Theatre's production of theArthur Miller hit. $1.50. Dinner party at Quadrangle Clubbefore the show, 6:30 P.M. $3.00. Note change fromNovember 3.Saturday, Nov. 26 — 8:00 P.M. International Housepan-american student open house. A program of dancing, music and art from Latin Lands. $1.00. Come at 6:30P.M. to dine with students — ^cafeteria with reserved tables.Sunday, December 11 — 3:00 P.M. Rockefeller Chapelthe MESSIAH. The University of Chicago Choir and members of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. $2.00.Make up a party of friends to enjoy these events.TELEPHONE Betsey Shaw, Program Director,Ext. 3241. Midway 3-0800,Miss Betsey Shaw, Alumni Association5733 University Ave., Chicago 371 may wish the following reservations; kee p me posted ticket(s) for Jury Lunch Nov. 2 ticket(s) for Iraq Nov. 8 : ticket(s) for Russia Lunch Dec. 8 ticket(s) for Play Nov. 17 : ticket(s) for Soccer Oct. 30 ticket(s) for Int-Hs Nov. 26 : ticket(s) for Quartet Nov. 4 ticket(s) for Messiah Dec. ii :N*m^ PrinnAAddress MAIL THIS COUPONOR APOSTAL CARDMemofMGift Horse Has Last LaughThis will surprise editor Herbert A.Leggett of Arizona Progress. OnPage 4 he says: "The material containedherein may be quoted without specialpermission."Obviously Herbert refers to the pagesof charts and grafs showing the state'smonthly progress. Admitting that Arizona is going great guns, we leave thesefigures to the state papers and give youHerb's typical editorial (for September)which seldom has anything to do withArizona's progress.Incidentally, Arizona Progress, published by the Valley National Bank(Phoenix) crosses my desk by courtesyof Walter R. Bimson, '18, chairman ofthe board, and Lloyd A. Bimson, '41,executive vice president.Here's the editorial titled "Gift HorseHas Last Laugh:""Recently we went into a store andbought a necktie. The clerk wrapped itup and handed it to us with a cordial'thank you.' Just like that. No premiums, no coupons, no colored stamps, noteven a million-to-one chance on a Cadillac. We walked out with the empty feeling one has when he has been shortchanged."Of course, we should have rejoiced andbeen exceeding glad. Our modest littleigloo is already bulging with gadgets,widgets and whatchamacallems acquiredin the process of buying other things.For example, cereal packages are moreapt to contain toy airplanes or jumpingjacks than cereal itself. We are now allset for our second childhood, which isfairly near anyway."Modern merchants no longer concentrate on selling their products but thegimmicks or giveaways that go withthem. As a result, Mr. and Mrs. Americahave developed the habit of buying carloads of stuff they don't need just toobtain free articles that they also don'tneed. Who can resist that combinationscrew driver and potato peeler, or thatLittle Hercules stump puller, if they costnothing? The fact that the necessity ofpulling a tree stump may occur only, oncein a lifetime, if at all, bothers the buyernot a bit. Moreover, to get it, one maywind up with a fifty year supply ofOatsie Bloatsies or Atomic Dandruff Remover."Personally, we are out of the marketfor barbecue grills— forever and thensome. Our stock of grills has reachedunmanageable proportions. We have themin all shapes and sizes. We have themwith three legs, with four legs and nolegs. We have them rigid and have themcollapsible (their most dependable feature). We also have a few that we can'teven assemble which serve nicely as birdbaths or ashtrays for cocktail parties."We have bushels of ball point pens that don't write, rocket banks that don'trocket and whatnots that do nothing buttake up space. We used to brood someabout the possibility of being crematedby an H-bomb. It seems more likelynow that we shall be buried alive underan accumulation of possessions whichhave no use or value."Our Questionnaire Staff — AgainIn my October column I said our student questionnaire staff left the officeat five "like dazed sleep-walkers." Sothe day the office copies arrived, that wasthe way they filed out: arms extended,eyes dimmed, expressions wooden.The following week, Said Abu Rish,(pronounced sah-eed), an Arab studentfrom Beirut, appeared with stubble onhis chin. It flourished through the nexttwo weeks. As yet it wasn't interferingwith questionnaire sorting. But my curiosity got out of bounds.Said had a lucrative reason. A Connecticut manufacturer was exhibiting ata shoe fair in Chicago in late October.He wanted an Arab in full regalia todemonstrate sandals. Said is lookingmore and more like a young sheik everyday.Of course Said's family in Beirutdoesn't dress like Hollywood Arabs. Hisfather dresses just like any Time or Lifecorrespondent—which he is when he isn'tfreelancing. Said has been in this country two years. He will earn his summer and remain for a Master ofBusiness Administration degree beforereturning to Lebanon where he hopes tojoin an import- export company.Other students on our staff includeMarty Ryan from Burlington, N.J. Heoperates two automatic electric typewriters simultaneously in a sound proofroom. We should have a battery of fourto keep him occupied. This would prevent him practicing fancy rolls with hisdrum sticks to the rhythm of the typingclicks.Willem de Regt is from Holland andreads four languages — none of which helpwith some of the questionnaire handwriting.Dan Kunitz, from Paterson, N.J., plowsthrough the stack like it was a job todo "mundane through Friday" — accordingto the gang.Larry Goodman, from Chicago, hastrouble concentrating. He is always arguing a better way to do the job. His fellows claim he raises the tone decibel atleast ten units.Eddie Simmons will be Horatio in thePlaywright's Theatre production of"Hamlet" this fall. John Gilligan, fromNebraska City, plans to be a journalistand admits that this job adds little tothe necessary background.Supervising this staff is Dave Chaneyfrom Newark, Ohio. He's studying forthe ministry and is a "good" influence onthe staff. He may not realize it but thisexperience will give him patience andfirmness in controlling a Sunday schoolclass or boys' club.H.W.M. TAKETIMEOUTCancer strikes 1 in every 4Americans. It strikes withvicious swiftness. Too often itis discovered — too late.To protect yourself and yourfamily, have a thoroughmedical examination everysingle year without fail. Sixmonths after such an examination, every woman over35 should return for a pelviccheckup. Every man over 45should have a chest X-raytwice each year. Many cancers can be conquered ifcaught in time!STRIKE BACK AT CANCER..,MAN'S CRUELEST ENEMYGive toAMERICANCANCER SOCIETYNOVEMBER, 1955 1(settersLet me begin with a compliment first—and save the complaint for later.Certainly your magazine is well read.I stopped counting the number of peoplewho told me "your name was in theOctober issue of the alumni magazine."Well I rushed down to the library toget a copy, (I haven't subscribed but Iwill now), and, sure enough, there Iwas along with the Atomic Energy Commission and the New York Times in"Operation Candor Misfires." (Page 16.)Well, (and here comes the complaint)Operation Candor sure did misfire, andin a way your article only vaguely realizes. Your article was sub-headlined"The Story of the Press' Delayed Reaction on Dr. Libby's June ReunionSpeech."You attempted to go behind the factsto determine how and why reaction wasdelayed. Of course, what you had noway of knowing is the following:1) Contrary to aec and other governmental standard operating procedure, NOcopy of Dr. Libby's speech was. receivedby news media, to the best of my knowledge, (and I checked with my colleagues). Let any minor functionaryspeak and the aec would be sure to havea copy of his remarks sent to news bureaus well in advance of the date. Libby,an aec commissioner, apparently received some silent treatment from hisown public information office.2) The hurried 4:30 p.m. phone callby University press relations (yeoman-service that it was) hardly makes up forthe absence of a complete text. Some ofus take our reporting duties seriouslyand demand the source material insteadof a third party's version of it.3) There is nobody but nobody withmore of vested interest in Dr. Libby'sU-bomb remarks than I — and International News Service.On March 5, 1955, a full three monthsbefore Dr. Libby's speech, ins carried aworld copyrighted article under my byline disclosing the true nature of theMarch 1, 1954, Bikini ThermonuclearExplosion (see Washington Post, March6, Page one banner headline "New Superbomb Revealed"). This was the firstprinted story on the U-bomb.* Eversince that date, we have been trying —without success — to get the aec to confirm the truth and accuracy of that story.So far Admiral Strauss has NOT doneso.Dr. Libby's speech did, at least in theopinion of Arthur H. Rosenfeld, whomyou quote in your article. Here thenwas what I had been waiting for; canyou wonder why I felt a little angryat the manner in which Dr. Libby'sspeech was mishandled (by the aec, notthe University primarily)?(Continued on Page 38) Continuing our series oj Christmasdrawings by Paul Brown, '»••..»..,**jamous American artiste,^>fX*f&&«» ««w mn.nkwtfc**^INDIVIDUAL AND DISTINCTIVE GIFTSFOR MEN, WOMEN AND BOYSthat are exclusive with Brooks BrothersAt no time is our merchandise more appreciated thanat Christmas, when gifts that are unusual and of goodtaste are so important to both giver and recipient.Our Famous Own Make Shirts, jrom $6Our Colorful Own Make Odd Vests, $22.50Our Exclusive Peal £f? Co. Leather Goods, jrom $ 1 1 *Our Distinctive Own Make Neckwear, jrom $2.50Our Women's Shirts, jrom $7 • Sweaters, jrom $ 1 5Our Clothing and Furnishings jor Boys jrom 4 Years UpAlso men's exclusive imported sweaters and scarves . . . our exclusive robes, hats, sport shirts, Odd Jackets . . . and other items.Christmas Catalogue upon Request * Including 10% Federal TaxESTABLISHED 1818to furnishings, Pats 3r jfhoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N. Y.1 1 1 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 6, N. Y.BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCOfuTfttsfsssucWe are among the vast reading audience whom Milton Mayer, (ex'32), alternately pleases, infuriates,amuses, and just plain prods into thinking. Consequently, we are especiallypleased to be able to bring to you thismonth a chapter from his book, "TheyThought They Were Free." You'll find"What Would You Have Done" on Page4, courtesy of his publishers, The University of Chicago Press.For the benefit of the few who maynot know, Mr. Mayer is an author, editor and lecturer. He has been a lecturer in adult education at UniversityCollege, special representative of theGreat Books Foundation, and lecturerfor the American Friends Service Committee. He served recently as directorof the European Interviews Project,Voices of Europe, sponsored by the National Association of Educational Broadcasters. "They Thought They WereFree" is one result of his service onthe visiting faculty of the Institute forSocial Research, Frankfurt University,Frankfurt, Germany.The drawings for Mayer's article weredone especially for the magazineby Harry Adler, AB '53, now a seniorin the Law School.Harry also paints and sculpts, and youmay remember his photo on a recentcover of Tower Topics. He has exhibitedhis work in the Rockefeller Chapel religious art show and at Stuart Brent'sbookstore on North Michigan Avenue.One of the University's "promisingyoung men" mentioned in lastJune's issue was Robert I. Crane, Assistant Professor of History. Bob, a specialist on Southern Asia, wrote the article"Modern India: A Background," (Page10), which is a condensation of a chapter from his forthcoming book "Historyof Modern India" to be published in1956 by Rand McNally & Co. Bob received his AB at Duke University, AMat American University, and PhD atYale. He teaches modern history at theUniversity.The cover article this month, onalumnus Ted Haydon, "Lightheart-ed Coach," (Page 15), was writtenespecially for the magazine by our newassociate editor, Palmer Watson Pinney."Spike" is also co-editor of the Maroon,and is working on a master's degree inthe Committee on Ideas and Methods.Once again we bring you news ofthe University of Chicago Campaign, (see Page 20) . At a later date, weplan to bring you the text of some ofthe talks being given by our hard-working fund - raisers - and - admirers, alongwith up-to-date accounts of how thecampaign is doing. /^^^/^^^ UNIVERSITYvjracaqoMAGAZINE ( ) NOVEMBER, 1955Volume 48, Number 2FEATURES4 What Would You Have Done? Milton Mayer10 Modern India: A Background Robert 1. Crane15 Lighthearted Coach18 News of the Quadrangles20 Campaign Report24 Alumni Club NotesDEPARTMENTS1 Memo Pad2 Letters3 In This Issue17 Books25 Class News40 MemorialsCOVERTed Haydon, the University's lighthearted track and cross countrycoach, checks Dan Trifone's hurdle form while star hurdler FrankLoomos watches. (Photo by Stephen Lewellyn.) For story, seepage 15.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, IllinoisEditor Associate EditorFELICIA ANTHENELLI PALMER W. PINNEYTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive Secretary-EditorHOWARD W. MORTAdministrative AssistantRUTH C. HALLORANProgrammingELIZABETH A. SHAW The Alumni FundWILLIAM H. SWANBERGORLANDO R. DAVIDSONStudent RecruitmentDONALD C. MOYERPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $4.00. Single copies,25 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois,under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.NOVEMBER, 1955 3"I felt... that it was not German Man that y * ayerI had met, but Man. He happened to bein Germany under certain conditions. Hemight be here, under certain conditions.He might, under certain conditions, be I."4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAs an American, I was repelled by the rise of National. Socialism in Germany. As an American of Germandescent, I was ashamed. As a Jew, I was stricken. As anewspaperman, I was fascinated.It was the newspaperman's fascination that prevailed— or at least predominated — and left me dissatisfied withevery analysis of Nazism. I wanted to see this monstrousman, the Nazi. I wanted to talk to him and listen to him.I wanted to try to understand him. We were both men,he and I. In rejecting the Nazi doctrine of racial superiority, I had to concede that what he had been I might be;what led him along the course he took might lead me.Man (says Erasmus) learns at the school of exampleand will attend no other. If I could find out what theNazi had been and how he got that way, if I could spreadhis example before some of my fellow men and commandtheir attention to it, I might be an instrument of theirlearning (and my own) in the age of the mass revolutionary dictatorship.In 1935 I spent a month in Berlin trying to obtain aseries of meetings with Adolf Hitler. My friend andteacher, William E. Dodd, then American Ambassador toGermany, did what he could to help me, but withoutsuccess. Then I traveled in Nazi Germany for an American magazine. I saw the German people, people I had My faith found that of God in my ten Nazi friends.My newspaper training found that of something else inthem, too. They were each of them a most marvelous mixture of good and bad impulses, their lives a marvelousmixture of good and bad acts. I liked them, I couldn'thelp it. Again and again, as I sat or walked with one oranother of my ten friends, I was overcome by the samesensation that had got in the way of my newspaper reporting in Chicago years before. I liked Al Capone.I liked the way he treated his mother. He treated herbetter than I treated mine.I found — and find — it hard to judge my Nazi friends.But I confess that I would rather judge them than myself. In my own case I am always aware of provocationsand handicaps that excuse, or at least explain, my ownbad acts. I am always aware of my good intentions,my good reasons for doing bad things. I should not liketo die tonight, because some of the things that I had todo today, things that look very bad for me, I had to doin order to do something very good tomorrow that wouldmore than compensate for today's bad behavior. But myNazi friends did die tonight; the book of their Nazi livesis closed, without their having been able to do the goodthey may or may not have meant to doj the good thatmight have wiped out the bad they did.A Provocative Question? ThisReporter's Answer May Surprise Youknown when I visited Germany as a boy, and for the firsttime realized that Nazism was a mass movement and notthe tyranny of a diabolical few other helpless millions.Then I wondered if Adolf Hitler, was, after all, the NaziI wanted to see. By the time the war was over I hadidentified my man: the average German.I wanted to go to Germany again and get to know thisliterate, bourgeois, "Western" man like myself to whomsomething had happened that had not (or at least not yet)happened to me and my fellow-countrymen. It was sevenyears after the war before I went. Enough time hadpassed so that an American non-Nazi might talk with aGerman Nazi, and not so much time that the events of1933-45, and especially the inner feeling that attendedthose events, would have been forgotten by the man Isought.I never found the average German, because there is noaverage German. But I found ten Germans sufficientlydifferent from one another in background, character, intellect, and temperament to represent, among them, somemillions or tens of millions of Germans and sufficientlylike unto one another to have been Nazis. It wasn't easyto find them, still less to know them. I brought with meone asset: I really wanted to know them. And another,acquired in my long association with the AmericanFriends Service Committee: I really believed that therewas "that of God" in every one of them. By easy extension, I would rather judge Germansthan Americans. Now I see a little better how Nazismovercame Germany — not by attack from without or bysubversion from within, but with a whoop and a holler.It was what most Germans wanted— or, under pressureof combined reality and illusion, came to want. Theywanted it; they got it; and they liked it.I came back home a little afraid for my country, afraidof what it might want, and get, and like, under pressureof combined reality and illusion. I felt — and feel — that itwas not German Man that I had met, but Man. He happened to be in Germany under certain conditions. Hemight be here, under certain conditions. He might, undercertain conditions, be I.If I — and my countrymen — ever succumbed to that concatenation of conditions, no Constitution, no laws, nopolice, and certainly no army would be able to protect usfrom harm. For there is no harm that anyone else can doto a man he cannot do to himself, no good that he cannotdo if he will. And what was said long ago is true: Nationsare not made of oak and rock but of men, and, as the menare, so will the nations be.None of my ten friends ever encountered anybodyconnected with the operation of the deportation system or the concentration camps. None of them ever knew,on a personal basis, anybody connected with the Gestapo,Reprinted from "They Thought They Were Free," Copyright 1955 by The University of Chicago.NOVEMBER, 1955the Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), or the Einsatzgruppen (the Occupation Detachments, which followed the German armies eastwardto conduct the mass killing of Jews).None of them ever knew anybodywho knew anybody connected withthese agencies of atrocity. EvenPoliceman Hofmeister, who had toarrest Jews for "protective custody"or "resettlement" and who saw nothing wrong in "giving the Jews land,where they could learn to work withtheir hands instead of with money,"never knew anyone whose shame orshamelessness might have reproachedhim had they stood face to face. Thefact that the Police Chief of Kronen-berg made him sign the orders toarrest Jews told him only that theChief himself was afraid of gettinginto trouble higher up."Sixty days before the end of thewar, Teacher Hildebrandt, as a firstlieutenant in command of a disintegrating Army subpost, was informedby the post doctor that an SS man attached to the postwas going crazy because of his memories of shootingdown Jews "in the East"; this was the closest any of myfriends came to knowing the systematic butchery ofNational Socialism.I say none of these ten men knew; and, if none of them,very few of the seventy million Germans. The proportion,which was none out of ten in Kronenberg*, would, certainly, have been higher among more intelligent, oramong more sensitive or sophisticated people in, say,Kronenberg University or in the big cities where peoplecirculate more widely and hear more. But I must saywhat I mean by "know.""That is the way men are ..."By know I mean knowledge, binding knowledge. Menwho are going to protest or take even stronger forms ofaction, in a dictatorship more so than in a democracy,want to be sure. When they are sure, they still may nottake any form of action (in my ten friends' cases, theywould not have, I think) ; but that is another point. Whatyou hear of individual instances, second- or thirdhand,what you guess as to general conditions, having put half-a-dozen instances together, what someone tells you hebelieves is the case — these may, all together, be convincing. You may be "morally certain," satisfied in your ownmind. But moral certainty and mental satisfaction areless than binding knowledge. What you and your neighbors don't expect to know, your neighbors do not expectyou to act on, in matters of this sort, and neither do you.Men who participated in the operation of the atrocitysystem — would they or wouldn't they tell their wives?The odds are even in Germany, where husbands don'tbother to tell their wives as much as we tell ours. Buttheir wives would not tell other people, and neither wouldthey; their jobs were, to put it mildly, of a confidentialcharacter. In such work, men, if they talk, lose their jobs.Under Nazism they lost more than their jobs. I am notsaying that the men in question, the men who had firsthand knowledge, opposed the system in any degree oreven resented having to play a role in it; I am saying* A fictitious name. Milton Mayer in the words of Cabinet-maker Klin-gelhofer, that that is the way menare; and the more reprehensible thework in which they are voluntarilyor involuntarily engaged, the morethat way they are.I pushed this point with TailorMarowitz in Kronenberg, the one Jewstill there who had come back fromBuchenwald. On his release, in 1939,he was forbidden to talk of his experience, and, in case he might become thoughtless, he was compelledto report (simply report) to the policeevery day. Whom did he tell of hisBuchenwald experience? His wifeand "a couple of my very closestfriends — Jews, of course.""How widely was the whole thingknown in Kronenberg by the end ofthe war?""You mean the rumors?""No — how widely was the wholething, or anything, known?""Oh. Widely, very widely.""How?""Oh, things seeped through somehow, always quietly,always indirectly. So people heard rumors, and the restthey could guess. Of course, most people did not believethe stories of Jews or other opponents of the regime. Itwas naturally thought that such persons would all exaggerate."Rumors, guesses enough to make a man know if hewanted badly to know, or at least to believe, and alwaysinvolving persons who would be suspected, "naturally,"of exaggerating. Goebbels' immediate subordinate incharge of radio in the Propaganda Ministry testified atNuremberg that he had heard of the gassing of Jews andwent to Goebbels with the report. Goebbels said it wasfalse, "enemy propaganda," and that was the end of it.The Nuremberg tribunal accepted this man's testimonyon this point and acquitted him. None of my ten friendsin Kronenberg — nor anyone else in Kronenberg — was theimmediate subordinate of a cabinet minister. Anti-Nazisno less than Nazis let the rumors pass — if not rejectingthem, certainly not accepting them; either they wereenemy propaganda or they sounded like enemy propaganda, and with one's country fighting for its life andone's sons and brothers dying in war, who wants to hear,still less repeat, even what sounds like enemy propaganda?Who is looking for trouble?Who wants to investigate the reports? Who is "lookingfor trouble"? Who will be the first to undertake (andhow undertake it?) to track down the suspicion ofgovernmental wrongdoing under a governmental dictatorship, to occupy himself, in times of turmoil and in wartime with evils, real or rumored, that are wholly outsidehis own life, outside his own circle, and, above all, outsidehis own power? After all, what if one found out?Suppose that you have heard, secondhand, or evenfirsthand, of an instance in which a man was abused ortortured by the police in a hypothetical American community. You tell a friend whom you are trying to persuade that the police are rotten. He doesn't believe you.He wants firsthand or, if you got it secondhand, at leastsecondhand testimony. You go to your original source,who has told you the story only because of his absoluteG THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtrust in you. You want him now to tell a man he doesn'ttrust, a friend of the police. He refuses. And he warnsyou that if you use his name as authority for the story, hewill deny it. Then you will be suspect, suspected ofspreading false rumors against the police. And, as ithappens, the police in this hypothetical American community, are rotten, and they'll "get" you somehow.So, after all, what if one found out in Nazi Germany(which was no hypothetical American community)?What if one came to know? What then?"Nichts dagegen zu machen ..."There was nichts dagegen zu machen, "nothing to doabout it." Again and again my discussions with each ofmy friends reached this point, one way or another, andthis very expression; again and again this question, putto me with the wide-eyed innocence that always characterizes the guilty when they ask it of the inexperienced:"What would you have done?"What is the proportion of revolutionary heroes, ofsaints and martyrs, or, if you will, of troublemakers, inStockholm, Ankara, El Paso? We in America have nothad the German experience, where even private protestwas dangerous, where even secret knowledge mightbe extorted; but what did we expect the good citizen ofMinneapolis or Charlotte to do when, in the midst ofwar, he was told, openly and officially that 112,000 of hisfellow-Americans, those of Japanese ancestry on theAmerican West Coast, had been seized without warrantand sent without due process of law to relocation centers?There was nichts dagegen zu machen — not even by theUnited States Supreme Court, which found that the actionwas within the Army's power — and, anyway, the good citizen of Minneapolis or Charlotte had his own troubles.It was this, I think — they had their own troubles — thatin the end explained my friends' failure to "do something" or even to know something. A man can carry onlyso much responsibility. If he tries to carry more, he collapses; so, to save himself from collapse, he rejects theresponsibility that exceeds his capacity. There are responsibilities he must carry, in any case, and these, heavyenough under normal conditions, are intensified, even multiplied, in times of great change, be they bad timesor good. My friends carried their normal responsibilitieswell enough; every one of them was a good householderand, with the possible exception of Tailor Schwenke, agood jobholder. But they were unaccustomed to assumepublic responsibility.The public responsibilities which Nazism forced uponthem — they didn't choose to assume them when theychose to be Nazis — exceeded their capacities. They didn'tknow, or think, at the beginning, that they were going tohave to carry a guilty knowledge or a guilty conscience.Anti-Nazism of any sort, in thought or in feeling (not tosay action), would have required them, as isolated individuals, already more heavily burdened than they wereaccustomed to being, to choose to burden themselvesbeyond their limit. And this, I think, is always the casewith public responsibilities of a volunteer nature — inGermany, America, anywhere — which promise, at best,a deferred reward and, at worst, an imminent penalty.The American is much better accustomed than theGerman to responsibilities of a volunteer character, butthe principle of rejection is operative here in the UnitedStates, too, although the load limit is greater. The greaterthe combined load of my private and required publicresponsibility, the weaker my impulse to take volunteerpublic responsibility; if I'm building a new house and Ihave to enroll in Civilian Defense, my work with theBoys' Club will suffer. And anti-Nazism in a Nazi dictatorship was no Boys' Club.Even good men deny responsibilityResponsible men never shirk responsibility, and so,when they must reject it, they deny it. They draw thecurtain. They detach themselves altogether from the consideration of the evil they ought to, but cannot, contendwith. Their denial compels their detachment. A goodman — even a good American — running to catch a trainon an important assignment has to pass by the beating ofa dog on the street and concentrate on catching the train;and, once on the train, he has to consider the assignmentabout which he must do something, rather than the dog-HflffRY flO^NOVEMBER, 1955 7beating about which he can do nothing. If he is runningfast enough and his assignment is mortally important, hewill not even notice the dog-beating when he passes it by.The Federal Bureau of Investigation, with its fantastically rapid development of a central record of an everincreasing number of Americans, law abiding and lawless, is something new in America. But it is very old inGermany, and it had nothing to do with NationalSocialism except to make it easier for the Nazi government to locate and trace the whole life-history of anyand every German. The German system — it has itscounterpart in other European countries, includingFrance — was, being German, extraordinarily efficient.American tourists are familiar with the police identitycards they fill out pro forma at Continental hotel desks.Resident nationals don't fill out a card when they cometo live in a German town or leave it; they fill out alife-history for the police.Everyone has his own troublesPoliceman Hofmeister explained to me, with enthusiasm, how thoroughly the identity system meshed inGermany, before Nazism, during Nazism, and sinceNazism. Every town has a criminal registry which contains, always up to date, the record of every person bornin the town (no matter where he now lives) who hasevsr been in "trouble"; in addition, the registry containsthe whole record of any person who has ever committeda crime (or been arrested) in the town, no matter wherehe was born. "Consider,"' said Policeman Hofmeister, anenthusiastic Nazi, "how nearly impossible it is, and alwayshas been, in Germany for anyone toescape or 'lose' himself. In such acountry, law and order rule always."How nearly impossible it is to escape, once a man has come into conflict with the police. Better, far, ifyou have ever before come into conflict with them (or if you suspect thatyou have ever come under their suspicion), to come into contact withthem on their side; best of all, nevercome into contact with them at all.Don't see the dog-beating on thestreet or the wife-beating or the Jew-beating or anything. You have yourown troubles.Everyone everywhere has his owntroubles. Two hundred miles fromKronenberg was the great chemicalsplant of Tesch & Stabinow. In 1942, the manager — he isnot a "little man," like my friends, but a manager — getshis first government order for Cyclon-B gas, which couldbe used as an insecticide but wouldn't be likely to be(especially since the order is "classified," secret). NowTesch & Stabinow has been producing poison gases forthe Army's chemical warfare service, which has a colonelof engineers attached to the plant for consultation. Butthis order is not for the Army, and there has been noconsultation. The manager may have heard, or guessed,that the famous "final solution of the Jewish problem"was to be mass death by gas; Cyclon-B would be themost suitable preparation for this limited purpose. Welearned at Nuremberg that the entire extermination program was directed without written orders, a remarkablefact in itself; still, a big man whose business is poison gasfor the government may have heard, or guessed. Perhaps the manager shows the order to the colonel, who is nota "little" man, either.What did these two big men — not little men, like theNazis I knew — do then, at that moment, with the government order on the desk between them?What did they say?What didn't they say?That is what we did not find out at Nuremberg. That iswhat we never find out at Nuremberg. That is what wehave to imagine. And how are we to imagine it? — We arenot colonels or plant managers or Nazis, big or little, witha government order on the desk between us, are we?Everyone has his own troubles.None of my ten Nazi friends ever knew — I say knew —of these great governmental systems of crime againsthumanity. None of them except possibly (quite probably,I "believe) Tailor Schwenke, the SA Sturmfuhrer, everdid anything that we should call wrong by the measurewe apply to ourselves. These men were, after all, respectable men, like us. The former bank clerk, Kessler,told his Jewish friend, former Bank Director Rosenthal,the day before the synagogue arson in 1938, that "withmen like me in the Party," men of moral and religiousfeeling, "things will be better, you'll see." And Hilde-brandt, the teacher, thought that it had to be expected,under the conditions that obtained in Germany just beforeNazism, that the movement would be proletarian andradical, with fools and villians in positions of leadership,"but as more and more decent citizens joined it, it wouldcertainly change for the better and become a burgerlich,bourgeois development. After all, the French Revolution had its Robespierres, nicht wahr?"My friends meant what they said; they calculatedwrong, but they meant what they said.And the moral and religious bankclerk was, on the basis of that mortally wrong calculation, to preach themost barbarous paganism. And thedecent bourgeois teacher was to teach"Nazi literature" from Nazi textbooksprovided by the Nazi school board.Teachers teach what they are told toteach or quit, and to quit a public postmeant, in the early years of the ThirdReich, unemployment; later on, whenone had an anti-Nazi political past, itmeant concentration camp. "Once youwere in the Party," said Baker Wede-kind, who doesn't say he ever wantedto get out, "you didn't get out easily."A man who had always been non-political might get away with "dropping out"; a political man, a man who had assumed thepolitical responsibility of citizenship, never. PolicemanHofmeister, who had done his duty in Kronenberg since1908, did his duty in 1938 when he was ordered to arrestJews for being Jews. One of those he arrested, the tailorMarowitz, calls him "a decent man" — anstandig is theword he used.All this in no degree reduces the number and awfulnessof Nazi evils; it reduces the number and awfulness ofNazi evildoers. It took so few to manage it all, in acountry fabled for the efficiency and faithfulness of itscivil servants. Policeman Hofmeister was sworn tofidelity to the Fuhrer in a mass-loyalty-oath ceremony atthe Kronenberg Town Hall early in 1933. The whole civilservice participated and heard the message from FieldMarshal Goring himself: "The Fuhrer knows that everycivil servant is faithful to the oath."8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAnd so they were, to the holy oath by which Germans,(more so than men of either freer or lighter consciences)bound themselves so mortally that the ultimate resistanceto Hitler, which exploded July 20, 1944, lost in advancemany bitterly anti -Nazi Army officers who would do anything except violate their sworn word. The decision ofthe resistance conspiracy to assassinate Hitler, rather thanarrest and convict him, was made for this very reason;sworn fealty to the Fuhrer bound hundreds of thousandsuntil he was dead.Only a handfulWith the civil service and the military safely "faithful,"it took so few at the administrative level and so fewmore, a million at most, of a population of seventy million,to carry out the whole program of Nazi persecution;a million ex-convicts, future ex-convicts, poolroom hoodlums, disheartened young job-seekers, of whom everylarge country has its million. And Germany had, especially in the north and east, a whole class of recruitsbetter known in eastern Europe and Asia than elsewhere,the brutally bred young Bauernknechte, the quasi-serffarm .hands, over whom the landowners up to the endof the first World War had had almost absolute feudaljurisdiction.The "democratic," that is, argumentative, bill-collector,Herr Simon, was greatly interested in the mass deportation of Americans of Japanese ancestry from our WestCoast in 1942. He had not heard of it before, and, whenI told him of the West Coast Army Commander's statement that "a Jap is a Jap," he hit the table with his fistand said, "Right you are. A Jap is a Jap, a Jew is aJew." "A German is a German," I said. "Of course,"said the German, proudly, "It's a matter of blood."He asked me whether I had known anybody connectedwith the West Coast deportation. When I said "No," heasked me what I had done about it. When I said "Nothing," he said, triumphantly, "There. You learned aboutall these things openly, through your government andyour press. We did not learn through ours. As in yourcase, nothing was required of us — in our case, not evenknowledge. You knew about things you thought werewrong — you did think it was wrong,didn't you, Herr Professor?" "Yes.""So. You did nothing. We heard, orguessed, and we did nothing. So it iseverywhere." When I protested thatthe Japanese -descended Americanshad not been treated like the Jews,he said, "And if they had been — whatthen? Do you not see that the ideaof doing something or doing nothingis in either case the same?""Very early," he went on, "still inspring, '33, one of our SA leadersprotested against the dismissal of theOberburgermeister, a Social Democrat, a good, really nonpolitical man.The SA leader was arrested and taken away. And this, mind you, was when the SA still hadgreat power in the regime. He never came back. Hisfamily is still here. We heard he was convicted, but wenever heard for what. There was no open trial for enemies of the State. It was said it wasn't necessary; theyhad forfeited their right to it.""And what do you think?" "That's a legal question.If the courts say it's so, it's so, gell?" Gell? is dialect forthe rhetorical "isn't it so?" "nicht wahr?" "n'est-ce pas?"and Hessian townsfolk love to use it.A few hundred at the top, to plan and direct at everylevel; a few thousand to supervise and control (withouta voice in policy) at every level; a few score thousandspecialists (teachers, lawyers, journalists, scientists,artists, actors, athletes, and social workers) eager to serveor at least unwilling to pass up a job or to revolt; a millionof the Pobel, which sounds like "people" and means"riffraff," to do what we would call the dirty work, ranging from murder, torture, robbery, and arson to the effortwhich probably employed more Germans in inhumanitythan any other in Nazi history, the standing of "sentry"in front of Jewish shops and offices in the boycott ofApril, 1933.And all the other millions?They had only to go on as they were and keep out oftrouble. What could be easier? "Only Communists werein trouble," said Herr Simon."And in Russia," I said, "only anti-Communists.""That's the way it is," said Herr Simon."But," said I, "besides the Communists, there were theSocialists and the Jews and the religious opponents ofthe regime. They were 'in trouble' too, weren't they?""Oh, yes," said Herr Simon, ingenuously, "but thatcame later. I meant at first."What about the others?Only Communists were in trouble. And all the othermillions of Germans? The SA and the Hitler Youth andthe German maidens marched up the hill and down againon State occasions, which, in such a State, and especiallyin Germany, are frequent. The workers were dismissedby the Arbeitsfront, the State employer- employee agency,to watch the SA march, just as thegovernment workers in Washingtonare given a half- day holiday to swell(or, rather comprise) the crowd thatlines the capital's streets to welcomethe President of Turkey or the Emperor of Ethiopia; in Nazi Germanyswelling the crowd was compulsory.Those who had uniforms strutted inthem on Sundays and came homefrom their Friday night Storm Troopmeeting to tell their wives that theyhad passed a Jewish acquaintance onthe street and only nodded to him.And their wives said, "Gut" which,in German, may mean "Good" andmay mean "Yes.""A few hundred at the top" was allit took to run Hitler's GermanyNOVEMBER, 1955MODERN INDIA:A BACKGROUNDBy Robert I. CraneAssistant Professor, HistoryThe need for a better understanding of contemporary Asian nationalism is, perhaps, equalled onlyby the need to comprehend the tenseagrarian problems which plague mostof Asia.If our foreign policy is to be effective and if our people are to measureup to the responsibilities facing us,we shall have to study these problems and manifestations so as todevelop the basis for intelligentpolicy. For we cannot hope to participate in the settlement of tension-producing situations unless we understand the factors that have createdthe difficulties. Nor can we deal withAsia unless we understand the nationalism that commands the loyaltyof multitudes. If we are to understand the policiesand attitudes of the Government ofIndia we must know something of itspast and of its development up to thepresent time. This article tries tosummarize the major characteristicsof the Indian National Congress inthe period prior to independence soas to provide the necessary insightsfor evaluation of the government thatthe Congress Party formed when independence was achieved. Attentionis concentrated on the posture of theCongress Party vis-a-vis the agrariancrisis in modern India because therecord of Congress Party attitudesand policy regarding agrarian changeis so illuminative of the fundamentalnature of the Party and of the basicproblems faced by nationalism inAsia. The period covered is roughlythat between 1920 and 1935, duringwhich the Congress became a massnationalist movement and prepareditself to evict the British. That wasalso the period during which theideological basis of the CongressParty was hammered out in considerable detail and the "line" was setwhich the Congress has, with modifications, attempted to follow andimplement since then.Local ConditionsThe nationalisms of Asia are not,of course, exactly comparable. Ineach case local conditions, peculiarhistory and specific environment havegiven the nationalist movement itsown integrity and focus. Nor is theagrarian problem the same everywhere in Asia. It may, in fact,exhibit differing aspects within anyone Asian nation. It can, however,be argued that sufficient similaritiesdo exist between the problems facedby and the nationalisms erected inthe several Asian states, so that careful study of one instance can leadto a better grasp of area-wide issuesand developments. Moreover, thecase of the development of the nationalist movement in India is ofinterest in itself because that movement became the government of independent India in 1947 and is amajor factor in contemporary Asiatoday.By permission of Rand McNally & Co. from the forthcoming book, "A History of Modern India" by Robert I. Crane.studied if we examine it as a conscious response to the needs of theindigenous population. If the Congress purported to represent Indiaagainst foreign rule it had to speakfor Indians. If the bulk of the Indianpopulation was — as it was — rural andagrarian, Congress had to "represent" the vital interests of the ruralmasses. In India, as elsewhere inAsia, the agrarian problem has forsome decades been one of the mostpressing problems to be faced. InIndia, as elswhere in Asia, the roleof the nationalist movement on agrarian issues has probably been crucialto its effectiveness in other spheresof activity. Therefore, in India aselsewhere in Asia, we may learn agreat deal by studying the leadershipgiven by the nationalist movement towhat has ben described as "peasantnationalism."Why the Agrarian Problem?The Congress party could, of course,be studied from a number of differentapproaches. I have chosen to concentrate on the Congress and the agrarianproblem because the agrarian problem was probably the biggest singleissue that the Congress faced in creating its ideology and making itsleadership effective among the Indianpeople.It is my position that a nationalistmovement may be most fruitfully Part of a StruggleThe major effort of the CongressParty was to secure independence forIndia. However, top Congress leaders— such as Pandit Nehru — frequentlyinsisted that attainment of independence was merely a step in the direction of solving India's most pressingproblems. Indian nationalists, that isto say, viewed their political strugglefor independence as part of a strugglefor economic and social advancementand amelioration. In the post-independence period this blending ofpolitical objectives with concern overattainment of economic and socialjustice has been equally marked. Theattitude of the nationalist elite has,therefore, been marked by concernfor more than purely political issues.This fact certainly influences India'sforeign policy and makes it of genuine concern for Americans.10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIt may also be noted that, in 1917,Gandhi made his name knownthroughout India and gave the Congress Party a new vitality by leadingtwo satyagraha campaigns on behalfof the distressed peasantry of Cham-paran and Kaira districts. (Satyagrahameans "soul-force", the use of nonviolent resistance against an opponent.) He thus focussed nationalistattention on the agrarian issue, secured a mass popular base for theCongress Party, drew new leadershipinto the Congress ranks and becamethe acknowledged leader of the party.Prior to the first World War Congress had been, essentially, an organization of the middle-class intelligentsia. Its membership had beenlimited and its role was to ask theBritish for greater participation byIndians in public affairs in India.Gandhi brought the new techniqueof non-violent resistance and arousedmass peasant support for the Congress. This implied a new stage inthe development of Indian nationalism. Its first concrete expression wasthe Nagpur Resolution of 1920, declaring that "complete self-rule" wasthe goal of the Party. Its secondmanifestation was the great CivilDisobedience Campaign of 1920-21, to which segments of the peasantry gavetheir support.This meant that Congress had founda mass base that could be organizedfor political action. Economic hardship had produced discontent whichthe Congress, as a political and nationalist movement, could mobilizeagainst the government. It alsomeant that certain of the basic needsof the peasants would have to besupported by the Congress Party. Inthe Civil Disobedience Campaign, forexample, the Congress Resolutionauthorizing non-cooperation spoke ofnon-payment of taxes, a magic slogan for the peasantry. As A. R.Desai, in his book, "The Social Background of Indian Nationalism," putsit:"Sections of the Indian kisans[peasants] were roused to politicalconsciousness during the . . . movement . . . The peasants interpretedthe political struggle for Swaraj| self-rule | in terms of a struggleagainst the heavy land tax and sections of them sympathized with, supported, and participated in the movement."During this same period, the Congress, realizing the potential inherent in an aroused peasantry, madeIrrigating a rice paddy, peasants see-saw water from a ditch through ahollow Palmyra log. They spend hours at each water point working this way.Wide World efforts to organize them politicallyunder Congress leadership. PanditMotilal Nehru was established asPresident of an All India KisanSabha or Peasant Union which theCongress sponsored. In these activities, however, Congress ran head-oninto a political tangle that was totrouble it in the future. The Congress was basically a "national front"against the foreigner and includedwithin its ranks widely disparategroups of supporters. Among suchsupporters were Indian landlordsand it soon became apparent thatthe peasants were as anxious to denyrents to the landlords as they wereto refuse taxes to the Government.This landed the Congress on thehorns of a dilemma, for in supportingthe peasantry it gave offense to influential landlords and in placating thelatter it aroused the suspicions ofthe peasants.In addition, Gandhi's philosophyof "soul-force" was opposed to civilstrife and sought a society based on aspirituality in which exploitationwould be resolved into harmony by"brotherly love." Thus, in his adviceto the peasants, Gandhi made it quiteclear that he expected them to subordinate themselves to Pandit Nehru'sleadership. The Mahatma stressed theneed for self-discipline and for perfectnon-violence and asked the peasantsto get prior approval from MotilalNehru before they undertook anyaction.Not Selfless EnoughThe peasantry were not, however,of the degree of selflessness demandedby Gandhi's point of view. Kisansfelt themselves unjustly treated bytheir landlords and pressed the no-rent campaign despite Gandhi's hesitations. The peasants were also opposed to remnants of feudal corveethat continued in modern India andbegan to offer civil resistance to landlords in regard to these services. Atthe peak of the campaign, enragedpeasants killed several policemen andGandhi cancelled the whole movement. The Congress Resolution ending the movement is of interest because three of its seven clausesstrongly emphasized the duty of thepeasants to pay rents to landlords.After termination of the Civil Disobedience Campaign the Congresslapsed into temporary quiescence,turning attention to legislative officein the new legislatures that had beenestablished by the Government ofIndia Act of 1919. Gandhi's programNOVEMBER, 1955 11of "constructive work" in the villages,along with hand-spinning and weaving were also stressed. During thisphase membership declined and thepeasantry dropped out of Congressranks. The peasant problem washardly to be solved by debates in thelegislatures.No Overnight MiracleThe Indian agrarian crisis, revealedto all in 1920, had not developed overnight. Its antecedents lay in the process of dislocation and transformationundergone by the Indian agrariansystem during the latter half of the19th century. This transformation extended from a revamping of the traditional system of land tenure,through the immoderate growth ofcommercialization and of the ruralmoney-lender, to the polarization ofrural society between a small minorityof prosperous landlords and peasantproprietors and a vast group of ten-ants-at-will, landless laborers, andsharecroppers.As the peasant was torn from thesupports of the old, localistic, communal way -of- life and pushed intothe cash-nexus of a commercializedworld-market, his lot tended to passfrom bad to worse. English propertyconcepts legalized private ownership,mortgage, distraint, and forced sale.Heavy land taxes and rents, payablein fixed amounts and on definite dates,drove the small peasant into debt andloss of ownership. Simultaneouslylandlordism, rural moneylending andexpropriation developed on the ruralscene. By modern times the resultwas a striking concentration of landownership with less than two millionowners holding about one -half of thecultivated land of India. The remaining rural population, over 100 millionin all, owned the rest or lived as tenants, sharecroppers and landlesslaborers. The majority were burdenedby an intolerable load of debt whichleft them completely in the hands ofthe landlord-moneylender-merchantwho had come to dominate the countryside.By his control over retail and cropsales the bania [moneylender -merchant'] could dictate to his debtors theprice they must pay for the commodities they needed as well as the pricethey would receive, from him, for thecrops they sold. Frequently neitherprice had any relation to market conditions and the obvious result wasfurther indebtedness and loss of land.This situation was also marked byabsentee landlordism* and by rack-renting. As one scholar, M. B. Desai, ("Land Reforms", Papers In Economics, U. of Bombay Press), has putit:"The landlords live away from theirestates . . . and are not interestedin farming. They do not sink capitalin agricultural improvements. Thecultivators do not, therefore, get backanything in return for the heavy payments they make ..."Since European law had created thelandlords and had confirmed them intheir legal right to exact rent withoutplacing on them sufficient legal responsibilities to their tenants, andsince the alien court system stood behind them, the landlords were able toadopt an irresponsible attitude. Thusthey functioned as an engine by whichthe formerly independent peasantrywere ground do\£n to an almost un-free status as debt- serfs.Formidable HandicapsIn addition to the antiquated landtenure system and the oppressive debtrelationships resulting therefrom, theIndian peasant suffered under otherformidable handicaps. Forced to sellin a world market of which he hadlittle comprehension and over whichhe had less control, the peasant stoodat the mercy of market calculationsand economic conditions which resulted in price fluctuations thatserved, from time to time, to destroyhis ability to meet his obligations. Norhad the Government of India, priorto the decade of the 1930's, taken adequate steps to support him with cropinformation and market reports of thekind normally provided to farmers.The Indian rural economy was alsoplagued by relative over-populationor excessive population in terms ofdeveloped resources and /or occupational opportunity. The colonial economy that had developed in India putmajor emphasis on India's role as araw materials producer, while European manufactured goods enteredIndia in increasing quantities andeliminated the older Indian handicraft industries. The unemployedartisans from these crafts turned tothe soil for a living, adding to thepressure on existing land resources.This served to bid up the land rents,fragment holdings down to uneconomic sizes, and intensify the battlefor sheer survival.The premodern response of thepeasantry to this situation was in theinfrequent but bloody peasant revoltsof 1872 and later dates. From the endof the first World War, however, thepeasantry turned to formal organi zation and political agitation. TheGandhian Congress movement cameforward at this time with new techniques and linked peasant protest withthe demand for self-rule. The failureof the first Civil Disobedience campaign to get positive results for thepeasants and the desire of the Congress high-command to reassure landlords combined to disillusion thepeasant, at least temporarily. TheCongress did not, however, abandoninterest in the agrarian problem andas the decade wore on pressuresmounted for the Congress to do something about the issue.In 1927, for example, the Government made an upward revision of theland revenue assessment in BardoliDistrict. The revision was made afterwhat was alleged to have been acursory survey by the SettlementOfficer. The increase in land revenuewas placed at 20% for most of thevillages but in some cases ran as highas 50%. The peasantry objectedstrenuously to the increase and senta delegation to Gandhi to requestCongress leadership in a non-violent,non-payment campaign. Gandhi approved and sent Vallabhbhai Patel tolead the resistance. The Bardoli peasants adopted non-violence as theircreed and demanded a downward revision. In 1929 the Government conceded the demand, after a bitter struggle, and a committee was appointedwhich lowered the rates.Dominion StatusWhile the Bardoli peasants underwent a virtual seige in their huts,Congress formed a Committee toexamine the political future of India.The Committee produced a reportfavoring establishment of DominionStatus. The report included a clausereassuring propertied Indians thattheir possessions would be fully guaranteed under the proposed Dominiongovernment. These proposals weremet by vociferous opposition from thedeveloping left-wing in the CongressParty. (The rise of a Congress leftwing had been indicated as early asthe Madras session of Congress in1927. In that year Congress contactedthe League Against Imperialismestablished by the 3rd Internationalin Brussels and sent Jawaharlal Nehruto the sessions of the League. Uponhis return he was elected GeneralSecretary of the Congress, as wasSubhas Bose.) The left-wing objectednot only to the substitution of Dominion Status for complete independence,but also to the tenor of the promisesmade regarding property rights.12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWide WorldNear Delhi, an Indian farmer lets the wind separate chaff from grain ashe stands on a crude support, pouring the grain toward his helper below.This quarrel, heralding the overtdevelopment of a new element inCongress ranks, was smoothed over inthe course of the events that led tothe second Civil Disobedience Campaign and the unity of the Congresswas maintained. But the rift betweenright and left returned to the foreafter the termination of the secondCivil Disobedience campaign. Thus,the growth of the Congress after 1931was conditioned, in good part, by thegrowth of its left wing, led by SubhasBose, J. P. Narain, Jawaharlal Nehruand others. In 1934-35 the CongressSocialist Party was established withinthe ranks of the Congress Party andthat event must be viewed as havingbeen one of the most important occurrences of the inter-war period.Significantly, the rise of the CongressSocialist Party was, as we shall note,intimately connected with the matterof Congress policy on the agrarianissue.Non-payment of TaxesLike its predecessor, the secondCivil Disobedience campaign (1930-31) included a program of non-payment of taxes. Again the massesrallied to support the cause. This timetheir enthusiasm was even greaterbecause the world depression hadstruck India with full force, causingagricultural incomes to drop by morethan 50% during 1930. Rural debtdoubled and the bulk of the peasantrywere reduced to ruin. The no-rentcampaign spread like wild-fire.(Gandhi had given the movement astirring beginning by his defiance ofthe Government's monopoly of themanufacture and sale of salt. Hebroke the monopoly in his dramaticmarch to the sea at Dandi where saltwas manufactured despite the Government regulations.) Gandhi, however, was faced with the task of guiding the campaign along lines thatwould bring major concessions fromthe British without destroying lawand order in India. Thus he had tomaintain firm control over the publiceven while leading them in a bittercampaign of civil resistance. This wasby no means easy to accomplish.While the radical elements werepushing the movement and incitingthe peasantry, the Congress high-command kept an anxious ear turnedtoward the Viceregal Palace. In January of 1931 the Government reportedthat the no- rent campaign had grownmost vigorous and a few days laterLord Irwin released the CongressWorking Committee from jail, theIrwin-Gandhi Pact was signed, and civil disobedience was suspended. TheCongress rank-and-file was then released and the Congress met in annual session at Karachi to ratify theGandhi-Irwin Pact.The youth and left sections of theCongress, however, expressed seriousreservations regarding the Pact. Intheir view the termination of the campaign had been a betrayal and wasuncalled for. Partly for the purposeof salving their resentment the Working Committee prepared a Declarationof Fundamental Rights that waspassed by a large majority — as a "sop"to the militants. The Declaration ofFundamental Rights was designed toindicate the kind of India Congresswanted to see created after devolutionof power from British hands. As suchit was an important development inthe programmatic statement of Congress objectives. It sheds considerablelight on the character of the nationalist movement and on the kinds ofgoals that nationalist leaders felt were essential if the Congress wereto command sufficient popular support for further contests with theGovernment.Its many clauses promised equalitybefore the law and equal opportunityfor all Indians, reform of the economicsystem so as to "guarantee" economicjustice and amelioration of living conditions, development of basic civilrights for all, agrarian reform to helpthe disadvantaged, and the creationof a "welfare state" in India by publicaction. It gave the Congress programa content that could be expected todraw ever larger segments of the population into active participation in thenationalist movement and reflectedthe pressing needs and interests ofthe mass of the people in a colonialand underdeveloped society. Its largemeasure of "statism" reflected thefeeling so prevalent in Asia that impossible and antiquated conditions oflife must be transformed radically bygovernment effort rather than byNOVEMBER, 1955 13laisser faire. Even though some of itspromises were subject to different interpretations that later led to conflictwithin Congress ranks, it has stoodsince its adoption as the goal of theCongress and as the herald of a newera for the Indian masses.After the Karachi Session Gandhisailed for London and a protractedseries of Round Table Conferencesfrom which he was to return empty-handed. During his absence important events took place as the agrariancrisis deepened. In the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh peasant distress was, in the words of the officialhistory of the Congress, "appalling."As a result the Congress appointed aspecial Agrarian Enquiry Committeewhich was to make recommendationsafter careful study. The Committeepublished its full report later in 1931.The report is of considerable interestfor an evaluation of Congress thinking on agrarian problems.Too -high RentsThe report began by depicting theabysmal condition of the tenantry andthe misery that had resulted from therapid fall in prices. It was also pointedout that, even before the Depression,the level of rents had been too high.The report then criticised the government for its failure to alleviate theburden on the tenants and criticisedthe landlords for their rapacity. Despite its condemnation of the landlords, the report stressed the fact thatlocal Congress workers had at alltimes worked for harmony betweentenants and landlords. Congress hadalso advised the tenants to do theirbest to pay the exorbitant rents. Inconclusion, the report stated that thepolicy of the Congress Party stoodfor "justice to all including the zamin-dars [landlords]. It does not countenance any class war ... it stands for'harmony, goodwill, and cooperationbetween all classes.'"In view of the equivocal positionadopted in the report and in Gandhi'scomments that were appended to thereport, it was apparent that Congresscould hope to accomplish little exceptto smooth the tensions between thetenantry and their landlords. Subsequently, however, the U.P. CongressCommittee did approve a no -rentcampaign when Government used thepolice power to collect rents. A number of local Congress leaders werethen arrested and shortly thereafter— Gandhi having returned from London — the Civil Disobedience campaignwas resumed. This time Government was ready and mass arrests weremade. After weary and leaderlessmonths of resistance the movementbogged down, Congress terminatedthe campaign and legislative actionbecame the order of the day.Gandhi ResignsAt this time, however, Gandhi announced his resignation from the Congress Party. He gave as one of hisreasons for resigning the rise of theCongress Socialist Party, ^which wasunacceptable to him. The WorkingCommittee then adopted a new resolution which condemned all talk ofconfiscation of .property and remindedthe nation that the Karachi Declaration did not envisage class war or confiscation policies. The next session ofCongress (Bombay, 1934) adopted aprogram of prohibition of alcoholicbeverages, home spinning, aid to village handicrafts, and "constructive"work. This program was the CongressParty's effort to cope with the problems of the Depression in terms ofGandhi's ideals. It was clearly posedas an alternative to the militant program advanced by the Congress Socialists and by other radicals.During the next two years disagreement within the Congress over thedirection it was to follow grew apace.When the Government of India Actof 1935 was passed the rift was intensified by virtue of disagreement overthe wisdom of contesting the electionsunder what the Congress had officiallydescribed as a "slave constitution."The left-wing stoutly opposed office -acceptance while the moderate groupsfavored entering the legislatures. During the same two years the disagreement between the Congress and theCongress Socialists over other issuesincreased. One of the most thorny ofthese was the problem of an agrarianpolicy and of the attitude to be takenby the Congress toward the newlyorganized All India Kisan Sabha[Peasant Union] with its militant program of agrarian reform, debt reduction, and elimination of landlordism.An Urgent ProblemBy this time it was clear that theagrarian problem was urgent and thatmass support for the Congress entailedthe publication of a satisfactory Congress agrarian program. It was alsoobvious that if Congress were to contest the elections, the rural votewould be important for victory. Whatremained unclear was the price Congress would have to pay for peasant support, the attitude Congress wouldtake toward an independent peasantorganization with its own program,and the legislative relief Congresswould give the peasantry if it wonoffice.At the 49th Session in Lucknow in1936 the Congress adopted a partialagrarian program which stated thatthe crisis was basically due to anantiquated and repressive land tenuresystem and to the English revenuesystem. Both of these systems wereto be changed. Subsequently theElection Manifesto was published andwas caused to include three generalparagraphs on the importance of theagrarian problem, the need for reform, and the desirability of a reduction in rents and in revenue demandsmade by the state. The Kisan Sabhaimmediately denounced these clausesas being vague and inadequate, anddemanded a more precise statementof a definite legislative program of reform. At its 50th Session, held onthe eve of the all-India elections,Congress finally adopted an AgrarianProgramme. This Agrarian Programme promised reform of the landtenure system, reduction of debt, constructive public action to improve theposition of the farmer, and loweringof the land revenue demand.Congress' VictoryShortly thereafter Congress won aconsiderable victory at the polls andwas able to form ministries in a majority of the Indian provinces. Oncein office the issue arose of how farCongress was prepared to go in honoring its election promises. This ledto grave divisions within the Partyand considerable internecine strifeover the legislative record that wasattained while the Congress Ministries held office. Lack of space makesit impossible to review the record ofthe Congress ministries in the period1937-1939, but it can be said thatmajor parts of the Agrarian Programme remained unfulfilled whenthe Congress resigned from office in1939 because Britain had declaredIndia to be at war without askingIndian approval of the declaration.During most of the second WorldWar the Congress leadership was injail and the Congress functioned moreor less as an underground oppositionto the British war effort. Those Congressmen who had nothing to do withthe underground remained rather(Continued on Page 24)14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAlumnus, social worker, athlete,Ted Haydon succeeds by being aLighthearted CoachEDWARD M. "TED" HAYDON, PHB '33,am '54, coaches two sports atthe University, cross country andtrack. He coaches them extraordinarily well."Part of the secret of my successis that I've dealt with so many peopleand seen so many patterns of behavior that I don't get knocked offmy pins by a non-conformist," Haydon says. "University of Chicago students tend to be competitive anyway.The point is not to tense them up,but to take a lighthearted view." Since he began coaching informally in 1947, his lighthearted view —anyone may stay out for track, nomatter how poor, and no one hasever been ordered off one of histeams for any reason — has graduallygained him two of the best teams inthe history of the University. Lastyear his track team, on the basis ofrecords filed in an Athletic Officesafe, was as good as Chicago's Western Conference Champion teams of1905, 1908, and 1917, or teams of anyother years. His cross country team was the best in Chicago's history.Haydon's coaching success also hasa serious side, a competitive view.Each athlete is expected to attemptto realize his capabilities, taking eachmeet as it comes but also strivingeventually for his best performance.And Haydon himself has attempted,successfully, to realize the potentialof cross country and track coachingat a school with a male student bodyof about 3,500 and two of the finestrunning tracks in the country.This year may see the striving result in the National Amateur AthleticUnion cross country championship forthe University of Chicago Track Club,on November 20 in Buffalo. The Club,composed primarily of Universityvarsity and alumni athletes, finishedsecond last year, three points behindthe New York Athletic Club. Buteven if the Club loses and his twovarsity teams fail, the other side ofHaydon's coaching attitude, the light-hearted "run for fun" side, will allowhim to consider a season cf full participation successful.Former Social WorkerJuvenile delinquency and collegeathletics are the two sources of Haydon's successful attitude. For sixteenyears before he began coaching, heaided delinquents and disturbed children as a social worker in Chicago."All of my training in sociologyand in the community which is supposed to help people solve problems— there is nothing in that which isn'tpresent in a more concrete form incoaching," he says.Bantering with his team members after a workout, coach Ted Haydon talksto Frank Loomos, Dan Trifone, Jim. Brown, Art Omohundro, and Chuck Rhyne.NOVEMBER, 1955 15. _ _ MR LewellynNear the mile mark in Washington Park, Haydon times runners finishing onetour around the course which covers two small bridges and circles a lagoon.As a University undergraduate hecompeted in six different athleticevents and captained Chicago's 1933track team. His lighthearted strivingdeveloped from both influences.University High brought Haydonhis first contact with track. As ajunior he ran 660 yards once, anddecided afterwards to concentrate onshorter distances. He ran hurdles inhis last two Lab School years.In His Brother's StepsWhen he entered the University in1929 his brother Harold — now an Associate Professor of Art in the College — was a senior hurdler and relayrunner. Ted followed him as lowhurdler, relay runner, and member ofPsi Upsilon fraternity. In his freshman and sophomore years he wentout for football, and played in one"B" game, against Lake Forest. Asa sophomore trackman, he was running both high and low hurdles,throwing the hammer and the discus,putting the shot, and occasionallyrunning a 440 yard leg in the milerelay.In his junior year he dropped football for fear of injury, and added thejavelin to his list of track events. Hewon major letters in both his juniorand senior years, and was the University's best high hurdler in hissenior year. "I can't remember theexact words he (Ned A. Merriam,then track coach) used, but theywere something to the effect that Iwas the best slow hurdler he everhad. I made up for what I lacked inspeed with form," Haydon recalls. Inthe same year, he was an honorscholar in sociology. The second source of his successful coaching attitude began soon aftergraduation. In the middle of his firstyear of graduate work, he was givena part-time job with CommonGround, a youth work organizationsponsored by the Chicago Congregational Union. It soon became a fulltime job. He and Golde Breslich,PhB '33, who had gone through U.High and the University with him,were married in December, 1934.A variety of relief and recreationjobs followed. From 1941 to 1945 hewas Assistant Supervisor of the Division of Delinquency Prevention ofthe Illinois State Department of Public Welfare, a title almost as long asthat of his eventual master's thesistopic: "The Revised Burgess- WallaceRating Scale as an Instrument forMeasuring and Predicting Successand Failure in Marriage."Doctor's OrdersHe directed a community relationscommission sponsored by the American Jewish Congress between 1945and 1947, while the "Commission"became a "Service," and the Congressbecame the Chicago Ethical Society.His coaching work began as the product of doctor's orders. "My doctorsaid there was nothing wrong withme, but that I should have a highballwhen tense, nine hours sleep, threemeals a day, and exercise." Haydonchose track at the University for exercise.He also remembers that his doctorsaid, "I bet, with your temperament,within six months you'll be assistantcoach." Hurdling in his spare time pulledmuscles, and so he concentrated onhammer throwing. He competed forthe Green and Gold Athletic Club inan open meet in 1947. The club wonwith unattached athletes it hadpicked up before the meet. AthleticDirector T. Nelson Metcalf suggestedthat Chicago compete as a club thenext year, and so the Track Clubcame into existence.They Come to HimMerriam became sick in the fall of1948. Although he was still workingfor the Ethical Society, Haydon handled the Chicago team in ninety percent of its meets that year. The following year he quit the society tobecome head coach of the varsitytrack and cross country teams. Headded the junior varsity track teama year later.Haydon's serious, striving sidecame to light in his first fall as crosscountry coach. He combed Burton-Judson courts for prospects."I'm interested in taking peoplefrom any levels, and seeing improvement," he said.Haydon has seen great improvement. Each year for the past severalyears his teams have set new fiveand seven man team records (besttotal time) over three and four miles.He no longer has to comb B-J.His lighthearted side showed indirectly when one of his runnersscrawled "Ted Haydon was here" ona fresh stretch of concrete outsideC-Group, (Foster, Kelly and GreenHalls, girls' dormitories). Banteringin Washington Park produced doggerel and slogans like "run for fun,"but it also maintained interest in alarge group of good runners. Asteady schedule of over-distance —under-distance — pace running followed by rest and a race easily becomes monotonous. Lightheadednessand a goal to strive for relieve themonotony.The Attitude's CatchingHaydon's track team has progressedmuch the same way: His athletes' regard for his willingness to work withall his team members and for his attitude has resulted in a large team ofgood trackmen. Some of them havetransferred from other schools, butmost have been developed at the University.16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"The object of a coach is to developas well as get good runners," saysHaydon. Prime example of a goodrunner developed at Chicago is FrankLoomos, who holds the Universityrecords in the indoor 70 yard lowhurdles (7.9) and the outdoor 220yard low hurdles (23.3). A seniorthis year, Loomos set both recordsin his sophomore year, after growingseveral inches over the summer, andpracticing all fall.New University RecordShot putter Joe Howard is anotherUniversity product. He set a new University outdoor record last spring,putting the 16 pound shot 48 feet, 3%inches. And in the winter a new milerelay record was set: 3:22.6 aroundthe eight laps to a mile Fieldhousetrack. Of the relay runners, three hadtransferred — Chuck Rhyne, LowellHawkinson, and Ted Fishman — butone, Jim Brown, was a freshman.Brown broke 50 seconds for the quarter mile consistently in the spring.Being a coach without spendingtime with a full team is like directinga delinquency program without everseeing a delinquent. Neither holdsmuch satisfaction or continuing success.After his varsity athletes finishpractice Haydon coaches his TrackClub members. After he has recordedthe time and distance run by eachof his regular team members — he hasrecords on all of his team members since they began running for him —he works with alumni from Chicago,Loyola, Illinois, and other schoolswho run for the Club.The Club was little more than apaper organization until January 1,1954, when it sponsored the firstHoliday Meet. Trackmen rarely become famous enough to see theirnames used as household words, butanyone familiar with track knowsFred Wilt, Don Laz, Don Gehrmann,and a number of other "name" runners who have appeared in TrackClub meets. Some of the meet entrants subsequently join the Club.Phil Coleman, rated one of the tenbest milers in the world last year,Lawton Lamb, John Barnes andWalt Deike run for it.National Prominence?Haydon has hopes of nationalprominence for the Club. Someday,if the Club is unable to make arrangements for a trip to Japan similar to the once once made by theUniversity baseball team, the StateDepartment may sponsor some of itsrunners on a goodwill tour. Someday,The University of Chicago TrackClub may rival the New York Athletic Club. Whether or not these possibilities materialize, the Club's coachwill still be seeking to develop allof his athletes, with full participation. P.W.P. POOKSStanding on one of the bridges covered by Chicago's mile-long home crosscountry course in Washington Park, Haydon keeps a watch for stragglers. ar-id AL_l_>r\/lr-vllModernizing a City Government,Chicago Home Rule Commission. University of Chicago Press, 1955. Pp.436. $6.00. (Leverett Lyon, '10, Chairman of the Executive Committee,Chicago Association of Commerce andIndustry, was chairman of the Chicago Home Rule Commission, a special board set up by the Chicago CityCouncil in 1953.)Students of local government areindebted to the Chicago Home RuleCommission for publishing the firstsolid analytical treatment of Chicago's governmental structure since theturn of the century. Special creditis due the Commission Chairman,Leverett Lyon, and the Commissionstaff, (including U. of C. alumnusAttorney Jack M. Siegel,) for an excellent job of research and analysis.It is well to bear in mind that theCommission was operating under alegislative mandate and thus felt itself compelled to produce recommendations for legislative action thatwere both practical and acceptable.In politics, that which is acceptableis ipso facto practical. Since diversepolitical interests were representedon the Commission it was only to beexpected that watered-down compromises would be the order of the day.Hence, the reader may feel somewhat disappointed by the limited andcautious recommendations of the report, especially when consideredagainst the brilliance of the staffanalyses presented in the main bodyof the report.The report is organized in threesections, as follows:1. Structure and Procedure ofthe City CouncilThe most interesting question raisedin this section is "what's wrong withour City Council and would our aldermen be any better if we had lessof them?" The report finds that sizeper se has no bearing on the caliber,ethics, or effectiveness of aldermenor of the legislative body as a whole.Yet it finds itself hard put to reconcile the existence of Chicago's 50-mancity council (largest in the nation)against the fact that most major citieshave small city councils. Also, othercities generally provide for somerepresentation for the city as a whole.In fact, in Detroit, Pittsburgh and(Continued on Page 21)NOVEMBER, 1955 17News of The QuadranglesThe Youngest DeanJerald c. brauer, '34, became theyoungest dean of a theologicalseminary in the United States in ceremonies at Rockefeller Chapel October 10. Brauer's inauguration as headof the University's Federated Theological Faculty, largest interdenominational Protestant seminary in theUnited States, came in a ceremonysimilar to Chancellor Lawrence A.Kimpton's inauguration in 1951. Twohundred fifty academic and religiousdelegates representing seminaries,universities, colleges, and religiousorganizations marched in the procession.In his inaugural address, Brauerdeclared that American Protestantismhas failed because it has not bridgedthe gulf between personal piety, andman's total social and cultural life."... Protestantism has failed by notrelating itself to the forms of modernindustrial technological life. It appears to have little to say to responsible men of affairs as they engagein their daily tasks, and has even lessto say to laborers," Brauer said."Protestantism has been so successfulin winning people, raising money,and carrying on countless other activities that it has not had to face upto its obvious failure to relate itspiety and beliefs to the actual centersof decision in modern life."After he had traced the origins ofthis failure, Brauer described hopefulsymptoms for the revival of the influence of religion. As dean, Brauerheads a faculty of 42, representing 13Protestant denominations.Edward L. Ryerson, Chairman ofthe Board of Trustees, inductedBrauer into office. Chancellor Kimpton spoke on the integration of religion into the life of the University,stating "Protestantism today is madeup of groups, each increasingly" making its contribution to the whole,and a theological faculty which in itsteaching and research pretends tomake any contribution to the totalpattern of university life must reflectthis fact."Music From RockefellerTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO CHOIRwill go on the air in a regularseries of broadcasts from RockefellerChapel this fall. "The Sacred Note" will be heardThursday evenings from 9:15-9:30PM over WBBM, the CBS outlet inChicago, starting November 3. It ishoped that the program will go ona national network shortly thereafter.Eight stations in Wisconsin and threein downstate Illinois have alreadysignified they will carry it. (Detailson these will appear at -a later date.)The choir will present the finest insacred music, according to Richard E.Vikstrom, who will direct the group.He is Director of Chapel Music, Director of the Collegium Musicum, organist and lecturer at MeadvilleTheological School.Young Collectors' Show{(^lONTEMPORARY Art for Young\_j Collectors" is the title of theRenaissance Society's exhibition inGoodspeed Hall, November 25through December 23. The annualexhibition offers original works ofart to persons of limited means; fivehundred paintings, sculptures, prints,and drawings by American and foreign artists are priced from five tofifty dollars this year. During theexhibition galleries in Goodspeed andother University buildings are open9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Monday throughFriday; 1 to 5 p. m. Saturday; andare closed Sunday.Lab School Enrollment UpThe largest enrollment in the history of the Laboratory School ofthe University of Chicago was recorded on September 27th when 844students reported for the beginningof the 1955-56 school year.U-High, in its second year as afully accredited high school, has 351students, 83 of whom are pre-fresh-men, 96 freshmen, 94 sophomores,42 juniors and 36 seniors. In theLower School, Kindergarten through6th grade, 493 children are registered.As a result of a year -long studydone by a committee made up ofmembers of the faculty in the College, University, and LaboratorySchools, French is being added to thecurriculum of third and fourth grades.The program, planned to coincidewith the gradual development ofstudents through the remainder ofthe grades, is based on an oral approach to the language in the initial reading and writing as the child'slinguistic capacities develop. It ishoped that the program will be sosuccessful as to prove significant inpromoting a more universal study oflanguages in the lower grades. It isalso hoped that it will warrant theexpansion of the language program inthe Lab school permitting a choice offoreign languages in subsequentyears.A Busy ManTrustee laird bell, jd '07, assumed two new positions inSeptember. He became alternate delegate to the United Nations GeneralAssembly, and board chairman of theNational Merit Scholarship Corporation.Newly formed, the Merit Scholarship Corporation will provide thelargest independent scholarship program in the history of American education.At seventy-two, Bell continues tohold a large number of civic responsibilities. His knowledge of international relations and education findsuse in his positions with the U. S.Advisory Commission on EducationalExchange, and with the Fund for theRepublic. He is senior partner of theChicago law firm of Bell, Boyd,Marshall & Lloyd, whose predecessor,Fisher & Boyd, he joined in 1907after graduation from the Universityof Chicago Law School.Bell has been a Chicago trusteesince 1929. He served as chairman ofthe board from 1949 to 1953. In 1943he was awarded the Alumni medal,and in 1953 he received an honoraryLLD from the University.Walgreen LecturesMusic and science will be thetopics of the Walgreen Foundation Lectures this fall.Allen Sapp, Assistant Professor ofMusic at Harvard, will give six lectures on "A Search For Language inAmerican Music" during October.The lectures will be given at 4:30p.m. in Breasted Hall, The OrientalInstitute, on October 17, 19, 21, 24,26 and 28.Gerard Piel, publisher of ScientificAmerican Magazine, will deliver sixstages with gradual introduction to lectures on "Science in America,"18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEduring November and December. Histdks will be given at 4:30 p.m. inSocial Science 122 on November 28and 30, and December 2, 5, 7 and 9.Archeology on 57th StreetAll OF the sidewalk in front ofBartlett Gymnasium was tornup this summer for the laying of anew steam line between the Gymnasium and Stagg Fieldhouse. From themiddle of August to the middle ofSeptember workmen continued placing the line, finishing with a newsidewalk over their work.Excavation for the line revealedthe old Lake Michigan shoreline inseveral places, and unearthed rustedremains of the type of gas lamp usedto light Chicago's streets around theturn of the century.Inside the Gymnasium two otherimprovements took place. A women'sdressing room was completed, andsteps were added to the east side ofthe swimming pool so that spectatorswould not have to walk on the tilebeside the pool. No other immediatechanges in athletic facilities areplanned, according to Athletic Director T. Nelson Metcalf.Enrollment Up AgainFor the second year, enrollmentof new undergraduate studentson the Quadrangles increased. Thisyear 475 students entered the College. Twelve per cent of these were"early entrants" who had not completed high school.About three times as many transferstudents entered this year as last,swelling the total entering body tonearly 600. Changes in the AB planallowing transfer students to complete degree requirements in normaltime were regarded as cause for thetripling. The new students representforty states, Hawaii, Canada, Mexico, Malaya, Sweden, and the Netherlands.To Psychiatric StaffDr. h. waldo bird, Detroit psychiatrist and former faculty member of Wayne University, has beenappointed Associate Professor of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine.Dr. Bird has been in private practice in Detroit since 1949, and alsoheld a clinical appointment in theCollege of Medicine, Wayne Univer-s,sity. In 1949-50, he was psychiatriH and acting director of the Adult Psychiatric Clinic in Detroit.Dr. Bird was active in the formation of the Michigan Association forEpilepsy, serving as chairman of theorganizational development committee, and was also psychiatric consultant and chairman of the researchcommittee of the Michigan EpilepsyCenter.He graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1943 and interned atPhiladelphia General Hospital beforeentering the Army Medical Corps.In 1947-48, he was a resident at theMenninger Foundation School of Psychiatry.Bologna Honors FermiThe memory of Enrico Fermi, whodied November 28, was honoredby the University of Bologna in Italyrecently. Bolognese student AgostinoDeSalvo travelled from Italy to theSouth Side to place a wreath onFermi's grave at Oak Lawn Cemetery. The wreath bore a special ribbon brought from Italy. Accompanying him as he paid tribute wereAugusto Borselli, representing theItalian Consulate General in Chicago,and Herbert L. Anderson, Professorof Physics and one of Dr. Fermi'sfirst American students.Football, Anyone?Football's possible return was heralded in September by the formation of a football class. Kyle Anderson, Assistant Athletic Directorand former Chicago player, plannedto organize five hour-and-a-half sessions a week."If we have enough, we'll workDeSalvo, Borselli and Anderson toward one or two games, intrasquadgames," Anderson said. "First we'llsee what we've got. In general, everything we do will be in a footballway."The program will start lightly andwork up to body contact gradually.Anderson plans to employ a set pattern of defense and offense for thebasis of play. A group of forty athletes registering for the class will permit formation of two intrasquadteams.Chicago withdrew from intercollegiate football in December, 1939.BriefsTwenty-seven students from theUniversity have been elected tothe Illinois chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. . . Clive Gray, political science student from Claremont, California, wasone of four delegates selected by theU. S. National Student Association toattend the fifth International StudentConference, held in England duringthe summer. Student leaders from 52nations attended the conference todiscuss the role of student organizations in bettering the conditions ofstudent life. Clive was formerly student government president . . . Daystudents have formed a CommutersCouncil to help their members integrate more easily into the Universitycommunity. The council hopes toschedule regular activities, such asdances and coffee hours. During Orientation Week, the east lounge ofIda Noyes Hall was open to day students, and a file has also been placedat the Reynolds Club desk so thatstudents may leave messages. Activein organizing the group are PeterGreen, Irene Kenneth, and IreneSamorajski . . . Adult education sponsored by the University expanded totwo new sites last month. UniversityCollege inaugurated its Basic Program in Liberal Education on campusand in suburban Skokie. The keynote:"The chief problem facing an adultis not how to earn a living, but howto improve the quality of his life.". . . Thirteen pages of a specialtwenty-page Orientation issue of theMaroon were devoted to acquaintingnew students with their Universityon September 30. Tours by StudentOrientation Board, talks by administrators, and facts in the StudentActivities Handbook completed theorientation . . .Student Forum's contribution to>Orientation Week was an English-style debate: Resolved that the Edu->cation is not Worth the Registration.NOVEMBER, 1955 19The University of ChicagoCAMPAIGNA Monthly ReportTaking the message of the University's needs to various groupshas been the major activity of campaign headquarters in recent weeks.Meanwhile, the Alumni Division ofthe campaign continues its organization of volunteers. When completelyorganized, the Alumni Division willhave committees in 460 cities havingmore than 10 or more Chicago alumni.A list of graduates who have acceptedthe responsibility of local chairmenwill appear soon in the magazine.As we went to press, Clarence B.Randall, recently named chairman ofthe Corporation Gifts Committee, wasscheduled to speak before severalhundred leading Chicago businessmenand industrialists at a dinner onMonday, October 17.Randall, chairman of the board ofInland Steel Co. and a trustee of theUniversity, was to speak on "Industry's Stake in Education."Chancellor Kimpton, Edward L.Arthur R. Cahi20 Ryerson, Chairman of the Board ofTrustees, and Mr. Randall were to behosts at the gathering.Randall has long been noted as anadvocate of direct financial aid toeducation by business. Acceptance ofthese views has been increasinglyevident in the past few months, asmany large firms throughout thecountry have announced plans forcontributing to the financing of private education.George H. Watkins, University VicePresident in Charge of Development,travelled to the west coast to addresstwo alumni groups on the campaign.On October 19 his schedule called fora talk before members of the AlumniCommittee and a group of northernCalifornia alumni at a dinner in SanFrancisco. Committee ChairmanRalph Larson, '25, president of TheMorris Plan Co., was to preside.The following night Watkins wasto talk in Los Angeles before a similar group. LeRoy D. Owen, '21, president of the LeRoy D. Owen Co., headof the Los Angeles Area CampaignCommittee, planned to preside.Philip L. Graham, publisher of theWashington Post and Times-Herald,and a trustee of the University, willspeak to a group of Chicago area committee workers and special gift prospects at a dinner to be held November2 at the Sherman Hotel.Kenneth A. Rouse, '28, vice president of the A. B. Dick Co. and ChicagoArea Chairman of the Alumni Campaign will preside at the dinner, whichwill be the opening ev^ent in the special gifts phase of this year's drive inChicago and suburbs. ChancellorKimpton and Chairman Ryerson willagain join Rouse as hosts for theoccasion.Arthur R. Cahill, '31, vice-president and treasurer of InternationalMinerals and Chemical Corp., hasbeen named special gifts chairman for the Chicago area, Rouse announced.Cahill is married to the formerJeannette Estes Smith, '32, and theylive in River Forest. His other civicactivities include such responsibilitiesas vice president and board member,Chicago Boy Scouts; board of directors, Chicago Better Business Bureau; and board member of Oak ParkHigh School.In addition, five area chairmenhave been named for the specialgifts committee. They include Barbara Cook Dunbar, (Mrs. James H,Jr.), '32, of Geneva, 111., who willhandle the western suburbs; MarionRobb Roberts, (Mrs. Joseph K), '29,of Flossmoor, the southern suburbs;Howard E. Green, '25, of Winnetka,the northern suburbs; Arthur A.Baer, '18, Chicago, the south side;and Errett I. Van Nice, '31, Chicago,the north side.Clarence B. RandallJean Rae burnTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MACAZINI(Continued from page 17)San Francisco all aldermen areelected from the city at-large ratherthan from wards or districts. Somewhat sheepishly, the Commission recommends a compromise with theinevitable — a 35-man council, ten ofwhom would be elected at-large. Thepresent patrons of political power inChicago have found this compromiseunacceptable on the pretense thatthere is "no magic in numbers".The heart of the representationproblem in Chicago is not the inability to discover the "optimum size"for a local legislative body. Rather,it is the inability to devise and effecta suitable alternative to the presentstructure in a "one -party town"which is also beset by tremendouspopulation pressures which have created a touchy racial problem. Thesetwo facts are the nub of the problem. They are explored in the text,to the credit of the intellectual integrity of the Commission.2. Legislative -Executive RelationshipsThe Chicago City Council performsa wide variety of administrative taskswhich in "well-governed" cities areconsidered more properly to be executive rather than legislative responsibilities. The report finds that thissituation is an historical outgrowthof the "social services" that Chicagoaldermen render to and for theirconstituencies. After some researchand much soul-searching, the Commission concludes that such moderninstitutional developments as laborunions, public welfare programs, andfamily service agencies have sufficiently lightened the alderman's burden to the point where it is now safeand wise to transfer many of theseadministrative prerogatives to theexecutive arm of government.Many of the recommendations transferring these powers to the mayor'soffice have been adopted as of thiswriting and when fully implementedwill give Chicago a "strong mayor"government for the first time in itshistory.3. Home RuleThis section is the most brilliant ofall in terms of research and analysisbut it is open to serious questions onthe validity of its conclusions. It is the"best" and "wrongest" section, so tospeak. One will find such conclusionspresented here as (a) constitutionalhome rule is a rather meaningless anddeceptive mirage, (b) Chicago hasreceived what it has asked of theState Legislature, and (c) the pow ers handed down by the State areadequate.As to point "c", "adequacy" is nota matter of facts but rather of philosophy. Powers are adequate or inadequate only to the purpose in mind.For example, if we believe thatsuburbanization, transportation strangulation, and slums are the greatestproblems facing large municipalitiesand that cities should be empoweredto cope effectively with them, thenwe can only conclude that our present municipal powers are inadequate. . . period.The conclusion that Chicago hasreceived what it has asked of theState is a hindsight error, unless, ofcourse, we can call waiting 30 or 40years for a piece of legislation "getting what we asked for". Then again,it is easy to forget the many thingsrequested and never obtained. Thehistory of Chicago's relationship withthe State Legislature is loaded withincidents and facts to dispute theCommission's contention. It is truethat "things have picked up" in recent years, but that is no basis for ageneralization so sweeping as to embrace our entire history.Reaction to the StateThe movement for home rule (localself-determination) is a reaction ofcities to state domination (whichmeans rural domination) as urban-ism has become more and more thepredominant form of socio-economicorganization. Many states have enacted constitutional home rule provisions guaranteeing broad powers ofself-government to large cities. Unfortunately, many of these provisionshave in fact been invalidated throughloopholes, adverse judicial interpretations, and acts of state legislatures.Because of this, the report finds littlecomfort in demands for constitutionalhome rule for Chicago and seems totake a rather fatalistic view of thewhole problem. This is indeed unfortunate. Constitutions and laws arestatements of intent rather thanrecordings of accomplished fact. Ifwe follow the logic of the report wewould discard the 14th Amendmentof the United States Constitution because it has been ignored and violated for years in certain regions ofAmerica. The fact is that municipalhome rule, as a historical phenomenon, implies a redistribution of powers between federal, state and localgovernments. Constitutional amendments providing for municipal homerule contribute to a trend help create a climate of opinion throughsuch redistribution of powers as canbe effected gradually and within anorderly, legal framework. This lackof historical perspective is most evident in the discussion of constitutional home rule.The only major shortcoming of thereport is its failure to expand itsarea of interest. For example, Chicago operates under 14 autonomousand semi-independent governmentalbodies. There is an inane habit inthis community of creating a newgovernment for every new function.We not only have a city governmentproper, we have a school board, apark government, transit authority,housing authority, slum clearancecommission, ad infinitum. Yes, weeven have a mosquito abatement district! The Commission, for some reason, felt itself constrained to ignorethis strange governmental superstructure in its investigation anddeliberations. Yet it is going to takefour different governments to builda "cloverleaf" intersection at 57thStreet and the Outer Drive. Why?However, within the confines of thearea of interest which the Commission charted for itself it has produceda rather remarkable document, stimulating as well as factual. This bookwill undoubtedly become a standardtext in the literature on local government.Norman Elkin, AM '49(Mr. Elkin served for four yeanon the staff of Robert E. Merriam when the latter was a Chicago alderman. In that capacityhe was a research assistant onthe staff of the City CouncilHousing Committee.)A Passion for Politics. The Autobiography of Louis Brownlow: TheFirst half. University of ChicagoPress, 1955. Pp. 618. $7.50. (Mr.Brownlow was a lecturer in PoliticalScience from 1931-49, a founder ofthe Public Administration ClearingHouse, and its director from 1931-45.)This month we bring you a slightlydifferent kind of book review. A letterfrom Nadreen Burnie, AB '38, AM '39,to Mr. Brownlow after she had readan advance copy of his book happened to come to our attention, andwe present it here instead of the usualkind of book review, with an explanatory note from Miss Burnie herself.The book covers Louis Brownlow'syouth, his years as a newspaper reporter at the turn of the century andas a roving international correspondent during the crucial years precedingLNTOVEMBER, 1955 21An InvitationTo PioneerIn TheDevelopmentOfowerENGINEERS! ^SCIENTISTS!Join WESTINGHOUSE in the researchand development of nuclear reactorsfor commercial power plants andfor the propulsion of naval vessels.PHYSICISTSMATHEMATICIANSMECHANICAL ENGINEERSMETALLURGISTSNUCLEAR ENGINEERSRADIO CHEMISTSNew! WestinghouseFellowship Program... in conjunction with the Universityof Pittsburgh. This new Westinghouseprogram enables qualified candidates to attain their M.S. and Ph.D.degrees WHILE ON FULL PAY.SALARIES OPENAmple housing availablein modern suburban community 15 minutes fromour new plant. Idealworking conditions. Excellent pension plan. Education program. Health& Life Insurance.Atomic Send Complete Resume To:MR. A. M. JOHNSTON[WESTINGHOUSE BETTIS PLANTP.O. Box 1468Pittsburgh 30r Penna. World War I. Mr. Brownlow is anexcellent story-teller and a shrewdobserver. He has a sprightly style,and his views on this fascinatingperiod in American politics makegood reading.But now to Miss Burnie:"When I met Louis Brownlow threeyears ago, I was a secretary and hewas the director emeritus of the organization for which I worked (PublicAdministration Clearing House) — adifference in status ordinarily permitting only the most formal relationship. Mr. Brownlow, however, hasnever paid much mind to status orto any of the barriers, such as age,which keep one human being fromknowing another. His curiosity aboutpeople is as lively now as it was whenhe was a small boy in Missouri, hisinterest as brisk and stimulating."We met. He soon found out whatmy hobbies were. He thought I couldwrite and encouraged me in such apractical way as sending my 'pieces'to a magazine editor. He seemed moredisappointed than I that they wererejected! (And this bright kindnessis characteristic of his acquaintanceship with hundreds of people!)A Trip Into Time"When A Passion for Politics wasannounced by the Press, I wangled anadvance copy and entered into an adventure in time; for here was thisyoung man, crowding his days withlearning and experience, meetinglegendary people (imagine knowingSam Clemens and John SingletonMosby!), building himself a reputationas a journalist years and years beforeI was born — and it was all in print,like a novel, only he was real and Iknew him! It was like finding out thatone's favorite partner at last night'sdance was really the bronze hero fromthe memorial in the park."Mr. Brownlow has given me permission to use as a review the letterI wrote him after completing his book.It is a "love letter" to a specialist inlove letters, (See Chapter VI), and Imeant every word with all my heart.My 'review' follows:"Dear Brownie:"Please let me so address you, because 'Dear Mr. Brownlow' sounds tooformal for a love letter, and this isthe one I promised to write you whenI had finished your book."I read the first 300 pages during oneweekend and thought, 'What a splendid witness to the vitality of theAmerican small town!' This impression remained with me through the rest of the book, lending a specialquality to your observations on thenational and international scene.The Small-town Man"I lived in Missouri from my ninthto nineteenth years. Kansas City andSt. Louis are, relatively, 'big' cities,but many of their citizens are fromlittle towns within the state and keepin close touch with 'home.' They carrywith them their own atmosphere —sane, bright, and faintly sceptical. (Irealized after a while that the scepticism was a matter of reserved judgment. 'Show Me' is not a fair nickname!) Whdn I came to know someof these true Missourians, I thoughtof them as I thought of the land: —they were strong, they 'abided,' theywere naturally wise. Beside them, Ifelt rootless and not very necessary."Then I read American history andliterature and saw that the qualitiesI so admired in the small-town Missourian were possessed also by peoplein small towns all over the country.None of my special heroes, exceptFranklin, was a city man, or, exceptJefferson, particularly learned, butthey all had fine intelligence (commonsense), they were all curious (andmore often in a practical than a speculative manner), and they all appreciated the miracle of being alive. If,as in Mark Twain's case, they fell intodark pessimism, they at least fell likeangels and kept their values on agrand scale (cynicism is, to me, anurban failing); and the laughter ofthose who rejoiced in their youth —like the Virginian — was a very specialway of praising God."But — 'You wouldn't really like asmall town,' they told me in college.'You're glamorizing them. You'rearguing from special cases. Smalltowns are narrow, confining, bigoted,reactionary, moribund. Small townpeople are hypocritical and vicious.Only in a cosmopolitan society can aman reach his full stature, and onlythe intellectual life,' they ended, bowing to Hutchins, 'can make man free.'"My faith was untroubled. I had, Ihoped, some common-sense of myown. If the intellectual life was theultimate level of existence, why werecampuses — where certainly if anywhere the intellectual life was beingpurpsued — such hot-beds of pettyconspiracies, envy, jealousy, personality problems and — oh yes! — hypocrisy? If the cosmopolitan society encouraged growth, why were the peoplewho were privileged to live at theworld level so many times the meanest of snobs?22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEI can appreciate the ideal expressedin the desire for an international society founded on principles of truth-seeking and truth-defending; but Ibelieve most strongly that such a society cannot exist until all its citizenspossess the virtues of my small -townheroes — above all, the virtue of com-monsense. The walking horror amongmy contemporaries is, for me, theman who is intellectual without beingintelligent, clever without being wise,and cocksure about human behaviorwithout being able in the least todiscipline his own appetities. (Thehorror doubles when it is a woman.)Miniature worldsGreat men can come from cities andobviously small towns are not miniature Edens! But as they existed beforethe automobile-electronic age, theywere miniature worlds. As such, theywere far more challenging a test ofa man's ability to adjust to societythan a city could ever devise. A cityprovides a choice of social groups anda certain amount of anonymity, butthe small town must be met as awhole, and the person must achievehis maturity with everyone lookingon, in full possession of his privateand family history!The mature citizen of a small towncan, surely, hold his own anywhere.His intelligence, curiosity, and appreciation of life will guide him effectively through strange places and enable him to meet all kinds of men withjudgment and sympathy held in nicebalance.So, dear Brownie, in these paragraphs I have really been writing toyou about yourself — as I have seenyou and now, read you. Your life isa fine memorial to what I think isthe real American way of life, andyour book could not help but be anexciting, vital American record.With respect and affection,Nadreen Burnie"Roxana. By Marian Castle, '20. William Morrow & Co. Pp. 344. $3.95.The man in the Shoo Fly VarietyTheatre was disgusted. The nerve ofthis innocent sixteen-year-old wanting to join his hard-bitten troupe.With a wise crack about "a skinnylittle plucked pullet" and a whackunder her newspaper bustle, heshoved her out the door.Roxana was shocked but determined. She was going to be an actress.It was 1879 in gold-mad CentralCity, Colorado. Roxana and her littlesister suddenly were orphans seventeen days after the family covered v 5%L .1Thomas & KitchelMarian J. Castlewagon from Iowa had labored upEureka Street past the Teller House.In their desperate loneliness the girlspledged never to be separated.At the Opera House Roxana got atemporary bit part with a road company. A week in Central; three nightsat Idaho Springs, Georgetown, andSilver Plume; then Roxy would rejoin her sister in Central City. Butwhen Roxana returned her sister haddisappeared.There follows ten years of searching interspersed with kerosene stockcompanies; a wealthy, stock-plunging, middle-aged husband; the GreatDivide Tent Show, and a versatilepitch man. These ten years are asunpredictable as the seasons amongthe Colorado crags.If you have attended opera inCentral City; dined in the old TellerHouse; followed U. S. 6 through Idaho Springs to Dillon and the Valleyof the Blue; and visited the collapsedBay Doe mine in Leadville, you havetraveled the stage coach trails withRoxana of 75 years ago.This is the kind of historical imagination Marian Johnson Castle enjoysplaying on her typewriter from hersecond-floor study on St. Paul Streetin Denver. Ghost towns and Coloradohistory are her hobbies.They inspired Deborah and TheGolden Fury (best sellers) beforeRoxana. The fun she has in livingthose pioneer days with her heroineswas told at the 1950 Alumnae Breakfast when she was on campus to celebrate her thirtieth anniversary withthe Class of 1920.H. W. M. FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Males of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts. Silverware.Golden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)FLATWARE & HOLLOW WAREWhole sets and open stockCOMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, III.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSince 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyTheCollwide bestege,pat in placement service for USecondary and Elementary.onage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III. Diversity.Nation-TJfieexclusive Cleaner*We operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608NOVEMBER, 1955MODERN INDIA: A BACKGROUND(Continued from Page 14)ALUMNI CLUBNEWS NOTESThe alumni Association has goneon the road. It's planning to takethe University to alumni who livewithin commuting distance of theQuadrangles.Committees have been meeting inliving-rooms all through September,planning various events, includingtalks by distinguished professors andteas for prospective students.In Park Forest, the new-since-the-war suburb south of Chicago, thereis a large alumni group, most ofwhom were graduated during theforties.Rex J. (Jim) Bates, '47, MBA '49,invited a few of them over for anevening early in the month to discussthe prospects for a Chicago Club.Biggest hurdle is the cost ofbaby-sitters in this young-marriedcommunity.The Park Forest group was impressed that so many of the influential citizens in the village went tothe University — village trustees, clergymen, former village manager — andthey want to publicize this.The "north North Shore"In Highland Park, Harold, '38, andShirley Irish, '38, Webber had a dozenalumni from the "north North Shore"to their home. They elected GordonHenry, JD '43, chairman. His wife,Aileen Wilson, '38, said he was agood organizer, and that did it.Norman Barker, Jr., '44, MBA '53, ishelping on this and is also workingon a loop luncheon club for recentgraduates of the Business School.Roger Baird, '35, JD '38, congratulated the Alumni Secretary for being able to persuade his very busybrother, Russell (Rusty), '38, JD '40,to head a revitalized Oak Park andRiver Forest group. The truth is thatCharles and Frances Higgins, both'20, did the persuading. They'veworked hard on alumni activities inthe western suburbs for years andi wanted some help from youngergraduates.Another family that's getting involved is the Axelsons, Kenneth, '43,in Lake Forest, and Charles, Jr., '37,MBA '37, in Northbrook — quite proper activities for sons of long-timetrustee Charles F. Axelson.Helen (Tyler) Parisi, '43, evenbaked cookies for the group of Wil-24 passive and it was not until 1945 thatenough leaders were released to enable the Congress to begin functioning in a normal fashion again. Shortlythereafter, as is widely known, theBritish decided upon a voluntarydevolution of power and in 1947 theCongress Party formed the Government of Independent India. Since thatdate Congress has been attempting tocreate a stable nation and to implement the promises macje during theperiod between World War I andWorld War II. Some of the problemsfaced by the -Congress today reflectthe kinds of difficulties that it facedin the decade of the thirties.A Mass MovementBetween 1920 and 1937 the Congressbecame a mass nationalist organization based upon widespread popularsupport. As this happened the program of the Congress changed fromrequests for greater participation inthe affairs of state to a demand forcomplete independence. At the sametime the organizational structure ofthe Congress was extended down tothe village level and its mettle wastested in two major campaigns basedon Gandhi's civil disobedience. Itwas not, however, a homogenous organization. Its ranks included disparate groups and different specialinterests. Its role was that of a national front and as such it had tocarry with it a majority of the Indianpeople as well as a majority of thespecial interest groups.A two-headed monsterIn order to do so the Congress hadto avoid a policy that would estrangeany significant element of the population. At the same time, it was im-mette-Winnetka-Glencoe alumni whomet at her house. Her husband,Nick, '43, MBA '48, is also interestedin Business School alumni activities.These groups are but a step behindthe enthusiastic committee that metat the Randall Ratcliff 's (he was'34, she was Marjorie Chapline, '32)in Hinsdale. Keith Parsons, '33, JD'37, heads this group, which is planning a dinner for the Kimptons thisfall; the Jay Berwangers, '36, (PhilBaker, '38), to handle reservations —the group thought the name wouldbe known to Chicago alumni!e. s. pelled by the logic of events to seekever wider popular support. In orderto gain wider popular support theCongress had to adapt itself to theinterests and demands that were uppermost in the minds of the public.Therein lay a dilemma. The politicalproblem facing the Congress leadership came to be one of balancing thedifferent interests it tried to represent while presenting a program andplatform that would attract mass support and give dynamic leadership.During most of the period under consideration it was up to Gandhi tobridge all of the differences, unite theopposites, and steer a popular andsuccessful course without sacrificingany important element of the Indianpublic. Despite his skilled leadershipthe Congress remained an uneasy coalition and faced sharp internaldisagreements.As the Congress developed andsought mass support in its fight againstthe Government, it had to face thequestion of the price to pay for thatsupport. Implicit in the process wasthe split that developed within theranks of the Congress and inherent inthe split was the promise that onceindependence was attained Congresswould not be big enough to containall of the differing groups that constituted its membership during thefight for independence.A "Socialist Society"At the same time, the conditioninggiven to Congress thought by theevents of the inter-war period servedto provide it with a bias in favor ofwhat we may call the "welfare state",so that even the more conservativeelements in Congress ranks came- tointerpret independence in terms ofthe ameliorations that would be forthcoming. The burden of that thinkingremains very much with the Congresstoday — along with the practical necessity for garnering votes by supportingmass demands — and reflects itself inthe public acts and policies of theGovernment of India. The backgroundof the Congress is evidenced by suchactions as the recent announcementthat Congress favors a "socialist" society in India and is determined topress in that direction. In evaluatingnationalist attitudes and policies inAsia today one would do well to keepin mind the ways in which domesticissues have shaped the thinking ofthe nationalist leadership, as in thecase of India in the inter -war period.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEQass94-96Walter B. Nance has retired afterfifty-three years as a missionary inChina.Frederick H. Minard, BS, recalls receiving his diploma in a large tenterected on campus. Now in his Los Angeles home, the document was handedhim by John D. Rockefeller and wassigned by Harper, Judson, Salisbury,Goodspeed and Ryerson, among others.98Edward M. Baker, 80, was presentedwith a new cane and scroll at a testimonial dinner honoring his 54 years inthe investment business. Fellow-businessmen in Cleveland threw the party.Mr. Baker is a resident partner of Bache& Co., and is considered the "dean ofinvestment men" in his city. He wasformerly president of the old ClevelandStock Exchange, now incorporated intothe Midwest Stock Exchange.02-05Mabel Whiteside, AB, AM '15, PhD'32, writes from Lynchburg, Virginia,that a film version of Orestria, the playshe helped direct while at the University,will soon be ready for distribution.Ada Hoebeke, AB, is recovering athome in Kalamazoo, Michigan, after along illness. She retired from teachingten years ago.Mrs. Cary Thomas is living in NewYork City.06Professor Emeritus Harvey Lemon,AB, SM '11, PhD, '12, is now Directorof Science and Education for the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago.Lillian Stephenson Kennedy lives inVan Wert, Ohio.Florence Winslow, PhB, retired fromteaching in '46 and is living in Kalamazoo, Michigan.OSC. H. R. Houde, MD, has retired fromthe practice of Medicine in Lawndale,California. NewsEthel Preston, AM '10, PhD '20, hasjust begun her eighth year as head ofModern Languages at Vincennes University, Vincennes, Ind. She also teachesat the Indiana University Extension,Vincennes Educational Center Nightschool. She writes that this year she became a member of the Dante Society ofCambridge, of which Ernest Hatch Wilkins is president.10Augusta Hasslock Kemp (Mrs. John)SM, still gathers fossils near her Seymour, Texas, home when not helpingindex the Journal of Paleontology.IILoren C. Petry, SM '11, PhD '13, Professor of Botany at Cornell University,Ithaca, N. Y., since 1922, retired in June.In 1952 Dr. Petry received the "Outstanding Professor" award from thesenior class of the College of Agriculture.During World War II he directed thebasic course of the Army SpecialistTraining Program at Cornell, and in 1944became director of veteran's education.Charles Vernon Stansell, AM, makeshis home in Kansas City, Missouri.12Annette Hopkins, PhD, is retired fromher Professor of English position withGoucher College, Baltimore, Maryland.Elizabeth A. Keenan, PhB, retiredfrom teaching this year at the end offorty-one years of high school historyand physics in Chicago.Katherine Scobey Putnam (Mrs. Walter) AB, of Pasadena, California, has hadher book Glimpses of Family Historypublished.13After a lifetime of work as a missionary in China, Katherine Putnam hasretired. She now makes her home inHinsdale, 111.Robert V. Titus of Pacific Palisades,California is no longer Regional Directorfor the American Heart Association. Henow presides over Funds, Inc., a newcampaign organization located in BeverlyHills.After six years Alan D. Whitney, AB,continues as leader of a Great Booksgroup in Winnetka. Football Hall of FamePaul "Shorty" Des Jardien, '15,PhB '19, was one of sixteen players and five coaches named toFootball's Hall of Fame, in July.Nicknamed "Shorty" because ofhis six foot six inch height, DesJardien joined Maroon starsWalter Eckersall, all-time Ail-American quarterback, and JayBerwanger, last Chicago All-American at halfback, in the Hall.Although Des Jardien playedcenter, his most spectacular featwas probably a ninety-seven yardpunt, from his own two-yard lineto the Illinois one-yard line. Atpresent he is the owner of a sheetmetal contracting firm in Monrovia, California.Hundreds of candidates werescreened by the Honors Court ofthe Hall. Players must be out ofcompetition for ten years beforebecoming eligible. Des Jardiens isamong eighty-five players andthirty-nine coaches now honored.14Dr. James Milton Hess, AM, DB '15,for 37 years a missionary under theAmerican Board of Foreign Missions inIndia and Japan, has been awardedthe honorary degree of doctor of divinity by Elon College, N. C. Dr. Hess washead of the Department of English Literature at American College in Madurai,India, and served also as bursar andchaplain. He has also taught in Kyoto,Japan. He and Mrs. Hess will be backat Elon College this year, after a year'sstay in Claremont, Calif.NOVEMBER, 1955 2515Harold A. Moore, senior vice-presidentof the Chicago Title & Trust Co., hasbeen named to the Foreign Policy Committee of the U. S. Chamber of Commerce.16Walter Whitney, PhD, and his wifeEdith, SB 15, SM 16, plan to spendsome time in travel since he retiredfrom the Pomona College AstronomyDepartment after twenty-five years ofservice. The youngest of their two sonsis a junior at Pomona, in Claremont,California.17Lucille Ellingwood, PhB, is living inCollinsville, Oklahoma.Cataloguing books for the Penn Statelibrary occupies Vera L. Moyer, SB.For the second year Elinor E. Pan-coast, PhB, AM '22, PhD, '27, was Director of the Maryland Workshop onEconomic Education held at GoucherCollege, Baltimore, in August.Albert Pick, Jr., president of Pick Hotels Corp., has been elected president ofthe LaRabida (Jackson Park) Sanitarium for rheumatic heart patients. Hewill also serve as board chairman.18Margaret A. Hayes, PhB, now vacations at her own place in the dune country near Sawyer, Michigan. She livesin Chicago.Barbara Hendry Holman, SB, ofElmhurst, Illinois, is taking a vicarioustour of Europe through letters fromher artist son Arthur and her daughterMargaret, who are on a five monthstrip of the Continent.Leila F. Venable Hager, PhB, AM '26,of Tallahassee, Florida, spent the summer traveling in Central America andMexico.19Samuel Lerner, SB, is a member ofthe board of directors of Roosevelt Memorial Hospital.Frederick W. Mulsow, PhD 19, MD'20, writes from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, ofhis interest in cancer cure through hismedical work and the County TumorClinic.20Mrs. Mary Quayle Innis, PhB, (widowof Harold Adams Innis, PhD '21) hasbeen appointed Dean of Women of University College, University of Toronto. Luther M. Sandwick is a sales manager of Pilot Radio Corp., Long IslandCity, N. Y.Chester E. McKittrick has been promoted from general display advertisingmanager to advertising manager of theChicago Tribune. A resident of Chicago,he is also a director of WGN, Inc., andthe Chicago Tribune Building Corp.B. W. Hammer, PhD, was awarded anhonorary Doctor of Agriculture degreeby Iowa State College, Ames, la., inJune. He is a private consultant in Sarasota, Fla., and had been dairy bacteriologist at Iowa State from 1911-43. Heis an authority in the fields of bacteriology and the dairy indultry. His investigations were instrumental in the development of several aspects of the cheeseindustry in the U. S.Having retired in '52, Herman Tartar,PhD, now holds the title of ProfessorEmeritus from the University of Washington.Lucia E. Tower, SB, MD '26, is practicing medicine in Chicago.21Norman S. Hayner, AM, PhD '23, ison leave as Professor of Sociology atthe University of Washington to servefull time as Chairman of the Washington State Board of Prison Terms andParoles.Katherine Sisson Jensen, PhB, MA'38, busies herself in P.T.A. and Leagueof Women Voters work in Chicago.22John J. Milford, AM, has retired following twenty-four years of pastorshipof the First Baptist Church, Huntsville,Alabama.Julian F. Smith, PhD, has left hisconsulting job to teach chemistry atLenoir Rhyne College, Hickory, N. C,this year.23Frances Andrews Mullen (Mrs. UrbanJ.) PhB, AM '23, PhD '39, wrote Therapyand the School Psychologist for the Mayissue of Exceptional Children. She hascontributed to two recent books: SchoolPsychology at Mid-Century, publishedby the American Psychological Association, and Education of ExceptionalChildren} published by Porter Sargent.She lives in Chicago.Marjorie E. Howard Morgan, (Mrs.W. R.) PhB, spent the summer givingfolk song programs in and around theLos Angeles area. Mrs. Howard lives inChicago.Amos Alonzo Stagg, Jr., SB, AM '35,and Arvilla Meyer Stagg, '24, finishedtheir twentieth year at SusquehannaUniversity, Selinsgrove, Pa., in May.Mr. Stagg has been Professor of Physical Education, Director of Athletics, andfootball coach there for the two decades. Rabbi Ernest R. Trattner was honored at a testimonial banquet in celebration of his thirty-fifth anniversary in theministry by the congregation of West-wood Temple, Los Angeles, Calif., inMay. At the same time, Thomas Nelson& Sons published his book, Understanding the Talmud.Harold Floyd Moses, AB, is presidentof Olin Oil and Gas Corp., New Orleans.24Norris C. Flanagin has been electedexecutive vice-president of LumbermansMutual Casualty Co. and American Motorists Insurance Co., Chicago.Dr. Henry T. Ricketts, Professor ofMedicine at the University, has beenelected president of the American Diabetes Association.C. C. Crawford, PhD, Professor at theUniversity of Southern California, hastaken a year's leave of absence in orderto devote full time to a managementconsulting firm as rsearch director.Crawford's work in executive trainingstemmed directly from his doctoral dissertation on note -taking in collegeclasses.Dr. Edward Lyon Compere, AM '24,MD (Rush) '27, a leading orthopedicsurgeon, has been elected chairman ofthe Beloit College Board of Trustees.Dr. Compere has been chairman of thedepartment of orthopedic surgery atWesley Memorial Hospital and at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicagosince 1941. He also has been consultingsurgeon at Chicago Memorial Hospitaland a member of the Illinois State Commission on Handicapped Children. Heis Associate Professor of Surgery atNorthwestern University Medical School.Guy Lackey, AM, is Professor of Education at Oklahoma Agricultural andMechanical College.Eugene O. Macoy, PhB, and his wifeRuth Norman Macoy, PhB, '29, arebuilding a new house in Greenwich,Conn. They now live in Cos Cob.Howard McGinnis, AM, is completingthe manuscript of his first commercialliterary effort: Know Your Bible Better.Helen R. Messenger, AM, has retiredafter forty years of teaching, thirty-twoof them at Northern Illinois State Teachers College. Her present home is inHouston, Texas.25Dr. Claude V. Courter, AM, Superintendent of the Cincinnati (Ohio) PublicSchools was awarded an honorary doctor of laws at the fiftieth anniversaryconvocation of Teachers College, University of Cincinnati.Susan E. Smith, PhB, is teaching atJohn Adams High School, Cleveland,Ohio.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEVong-Kyih Nyi Mei, AM, received amaster of science in library sciencefrom Western Reserve University, Cleveland, in June.26Margurite G. Mai Ion, PhD, is nowAssociate Professor of Home EconomicsEmeritus, University of California.During the second semester of thepast academic year Harold Titus, PhD,visited twenty mid-western colleges anduniversities to discuss intellectual freedom and related issues. The programwas sponsored by the National Councilof Churches and the American BaptistConvention. Gronville, Ohio, is Titus'home.Henry P. Weihofen, JD '28, JSD '31,Professor in the College of Law, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque,N. M., has been awarded the AmericanPsychiatric Association's "Isaac RayAward" for 1955. The award is madefor outstanding work in furthering understanding between psychiatrists andlawyers on legal questions involvingmental disorders. As recipient, Weihofenwill deliver a series of lectures at theLaw and Medical Schools of Temple University in Philadelphia in 1955-56. Thesewill later be published as a book byHarcourt Brace Co.27Kurt Leidecker, PhD, has been appointed Consultant on Cultural Affairswith the U. S. Information Agency inBangkok, Thailand. He is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Mary WashingtonCollege, University of Virginia, and aninternationally known authority onBuddhism.Matthew M. Lewison, SB, MD '32, isnow Assistant Professor of Pediatricsof the University of Illinois MedicalSchool.In her third year of retirement VeraLighthall, AM, has found a hobby inher Fort Dodge, Iowa, home producingfabric miniatures, such as small hookedrugs.28Robert J. Hannum, DB, and AmyTaylor Hannum, PhB, '28, are busy inWeirsdale, Florida, he as pastor of thePresbyterian Church, she as teacher ofthe first grade.Mrs. Louis Zimmerman, PhB, and herdaughter, Mimi, spent a three week vacation in Mexico this spring. Mimi is astudent at Milwaukee Downer Seminary.They live in Milwaukee, Wis.Carol L. Hess Saphir, (Mrs. William),SM '31, has been appointed for the second year co-chairman of the Woman'sDivision in charge of the South Sectionof the 1956 Heart Fund Drive of theChicago Heart Association. Captain Carl A. Nylund, PhB, AM '32,is a member of the Third TransportationRailway Command in Korea.Helen King Rouse, (Mrs. Kenneth A.),Winnetka, recently was elected president of the Young Women's ChristianAssociation of Chicago.Malcolm J. Proudfoot, SM '30, PhD'36, Associate Professor of Geography atNorthwestern University, has beenawarded Greece's Cross of Commanderof the Royal Order of Phoenix. Theaward by King Paul of Greece cites hiswork in connection with the repatriationof 30,000 Greek displaced persons afterWorld War II. He is now in Englandunder a Guggenheim Fellowship to studywar-time and post-war migration ofpeoples in the United Kingdom. 29Charles L. Swan, Assistant Professorof Sociology and Chairman of the Department at Albion College, Albion,Mich., received a PhD from GarrettBiblical Institute, Evanston, 111., in June.Swan is also pastor of the Concord,Mich., Methodist Church, and served asa missionary in India from 1930-36, and1940-46.Paul Hollister, SM, has been electeda fellow by the Executive Committee ofthe American Association for the Advancement of Science. Another honorcoming to him in his Cookeville, Tennessee, home is the birth of a second grandson.New Theory of Evolution Explaining ManInteraction between two primitive forms of man is the keystone of anew evolutionary theory developed by Dr. Joseph E. Weckler, PhB, '28,PhD '40, head of the Anthropology Department at the University ofSouthern California. After a common origin, the ancestors of modernman and those of Neanderthal man split and developed in completeisolation, the former in Africa, the latter in Asia, according to the theory.And although the ancestors of modern man eventually overran Europe andAsia, it was only with the aid of fire, clothing, and shelter learned fromNeanderthal man in a contact across the Mediterranean between thethird and fourth ice ages.Other anthropologists claim that these two forms evolved together.Weckler believes that the form of Neanderthal that did evolve with theancestors of modern man was actually an intermixture of these andtrue Neanderthals from Asia.A complete statement of Weckler's theory was published in the American Anthropologist, official journal of the American AnthropologicalAssociation.NOVEMBER, 1955Marjorie Maxwell reports that herhusband, Buell J. Maxwell, is now District Court Judge in Tipton, Iowa.Isaac H. Miller, PhB, continues hiswork at Livingstone College as Professorof Psychology. Until March he held aProfessor of Education post at the Salisbury, N. C, school.Carl A. Nissen, AM, was in Denmarkfrom September '54 until March of thisyear on a Fulbright grant as a visitinglecturer. On his return to the states hetook up his duties as Assistant Professor of Sociology at Ohio State University.30Harriette Krick Bartoo, PhD, has beenpromoted to professor of biology atWestern Michigan College, Kalamazoo.Robert L. Nicholson, AM '31, PhD '38,has been promoted to Assistant Professor of History at the University of Illinois' Chicago Undergraduate Division atNavy Pier.After having served a semester as visiting Professor of Philosophy at the University of Michigan, Wayne Leys, PhD,of Wilmette, returned to his RooseveltUniversity posts of Dean of the Graduate Division and Professor of Philosophy. Between semesters, Leys traveledin Europe.Mary Martin, PhB '30, is teaching hertwenty-fifth year at Michigan StateNormal College, Ypsilanti, Michigan.Florence Taylor Mills (Mrs. R. V.)PhB, of Briarcliff Manor, N. Y., writesof the death of her mother in June. Herfather, the late Clifton O. Taylor, AB'99, was former head of the Departmentof Education at Pratt Institute.31Daryl Chase, AM, PhD '36, was inaugurated as the tenth president of UtahState Agricultural College, Logan, Utah,on June 3.Donald H. Dalton, Washington, D. C,attorney and former reporter with theWashington Post, is also an associateprofessor in public relations at Southeastern University in Washington. Hiswife is Irene Martin, '30. Their home isin Chevy Chase, Md.Peter Loewen, AM, is on the Englishstaff at Mississippi State College.Anna Tull, PhB, writes that one ofthe greatest joys of retirement is to beable to follow the spring north fromFlorida to her Whiting, Indiana, home.Jo Scott Griffith, SB, has been promoted from supervisor to assistant manager of the ceramics and minerals research department at Armour ResearchFoundation of Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. Errett Van Nice, vice-president of theHarris Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago, has been named to the board ofthe Chicago Sunday Evening Club, anationally known religious institution.James M. Sheldon, Jr., vice-presidentof Charles A. Stevens & Co., Chicago,has been appointed general campaignchairman for the 1956 Cook CountyMarch of Dimes. Sheldon lives in Western Springs, 111.32Walter D. Yates of Ridgewood, 111.,has been promoted to vice-president ofJames S. Kemper & Co.Marion Reinstein Gans, PhB '32, received her SM in Library science fromWestern Reserve University, Cleveland,in June.33Arthur S. Abbott, PhB, AM '42, andMarjorie Hamilton Abbott, PhB, havetraveled half way around the world ina change of position with the U. S. diplomatic corps. Abbott, formerly with theAmerican legation in Wellington, NewZealand, has recently been appointedto a consulship at the American Consulate General in Zurich, Switzerland.From Lawrence, Kansas, Anna Mc-Cracken reports that she is continuingher teaching career at the Universityof Kansas, where she has been since1922.34Rose J. Jirinec Jacobson, SB, MD '31,has two children, aged six and eightyears. She lives in Riverside, Illinois,and practices medicine on a limitedscale in Berwyn.Robert A. Walker, PhD '40, wifeLouise Craver, '35, and three children,14, 12, and 7, returned this summerfrom Europe where Robert had been aFulbright lecturer at the College ofEurope in Bruges, Belgium, from January to June. The family had a richexperience living in the Student Residence with 40 students from 14 European countries. They have returned toStanford University.Arna McFarland is completing herninth year in the French department ofNorthland College, Ashland, Wisconsin.J. D. Nobel, of Solon, Ohio, is thedirector of the newly formed Councilon Human Relations.Donald M. Typer, AM, has finishedhis first year as President of DoaneCollege, Crete, Nebraska. 35Mrs. Robert Knapp, AB, AM '43, isnow a candidate for a PhD at the University. She lives in the city.36Frederick M. Fowkes, PhD '38, isspending a year in The Netherlands asa chemist for Shell Development Co. ofEmeryville, Calif. He is supervisor ofcatalysis and surface chemistry for thefirm.Richard F. Kinnaird, AB, and Mar-geret Evelyn Thompson Kinnaird, AB'37, recently returned after three monthsin England. Kinnaird worked for theNational Physical Laboratory on theoutskirts of London.Morris Neiburger, SB, PhD '45, willbe on leave from his position as Professor of Meteorology at UCLA to workon "smog" at the Air Pollution Foundation, Los Angeles, this year.John Reese Richards, PhD, has beennamed Chancellor of the State Systemof Higher Education of Oregon. Boardoffices are in Eugene, Ore.Harold Guetzkow, AB, has been nameda full professor in Carnegie Tech's Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Pittsburgh. During the past fouryears he has been a consultant to Pittsburgh industry and to the staff of Psychological Service of Pittsburgh. He received his PhD in 1948 from theUniversity of Michigan.Sumner W. Thorpe, AB, AM '54, isserving as organist and director of musicfor Epworth Methodist Church, Savannah, Georgia.37Anita Bellow (Mrs.), AB, received herSM in social work from Adelphi College, Garden City, N. Y., in June.Floris Rottersmann Mills (Mrs. CharlesH.), has a daughter, Kathleen Suzanne,born June 22.James L. Walters, SB, was awardedthe first Faculty Summer Research Fellowship to be received by a member ofthe Santa Barbara College faculty, SantaBarbara, Calif. He is Assistant Professorof Biology, and used the grant to pur-sue a research program in which hetraveled throughout the northwest collecting material on the Western Peony,a wild flower in which he has beenstudying chromosomes in relation toevolution.Ralph N. Johanson, SM, PhD '39, isengaged in advanced mathematical studies in the area of applied mathematicsat Harvard University and MassachusettsInstitute of Technology, under a fellowship from the Fund for the Advancementof Education.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENew Ad ManagerAlex C. Furtwangler, '38, has beennamed manager of advertising and merchandising of Martin-Seymour PaintCompany, Chicago.Furtwangler, who has been with thecompany since 1938, was promoted fromthe position of north central divisionsales manager. He also has served assales promotion manager, territorialrepresentative in the Northwest, andBoston branch credit manager.Mr. Furtwangler is a member of theSales Executives Club of Chicago. He,his wife, and son, Thomas, 2, live inEvanston, 111.Robert Elder, AM, PhD '47, has received a grant for advanced study ofthe structure of government from theFund for the Advancement of Educationof the Ford Foundation. He is leader ofthe Colgate University WashingtonStudy Group, and Associate Professorof Political Science at Colgate, which isin Hamilton, N. Y.Catherine B. Cleary, AB, joins Mrs.Jewel Rogers (page 32) as a Universityof Chicago woman who has broken newground. Miss Cleary was recently electedthe first distaff trustee in the ninety -eight year history of the NorthwesternMutual Life Insurance Company. Formerly she was Assistant Treasurer ofthe United States . She now is VicePresident of the First Wisconsin TrustCompany.Fighting crime with scientific analyses is the job of Claude Hazen, micro-analyst with the Chicago Police CrimeDetection Laboratory.Eugene Her/, AB, MBA, '38, marrieda native of Hungary this year, and honeymooned in Munich, Germany. He andhis wife will live in Chicago.NOVEMBER, 1955 Albert C. Houghton is on the staff ofKXXL in Monterey, a newly openedstation dedicated to both long and shorthair music.Edward G. Kominek, MBA '49, whojoined Infilco, Inc., at Tucson, Arizona,in 1937 and became assistant sales manager in 1950, has just been appointedgeneral sales manager, in charge of allbranches including Canada and Mexico.Infilco is one of the largest manufacturers of water treating equipment inthe world. Its headquarters is in Tucson,where Edward will continue to live.38Laura Lee recently joined the J. Gordon Henry family in Lake Bluff fromThe Cradle in Evanston. Gordon Henry,JD, '41, is with the Northern Trust Co.,in Chicago. Aileen Wilson Henry, '38,is a member of the Senate of the College Division of the Association.T. W. Lester, SB, MD '41, is chief ofstaff of the new Suburban Cook CountyTuberculosis Hospital-Sanitarium. Lester lives in Hinsdale, 111.From Honolulu, Hawaii, James H.MacKenzie writes that he is in the travelbusiness in his native land.Robert Mason has been with the University twenty years this fall. He is aninstructor in the Lab School. He andRetha Mason, AB '38, AM '45, directCamp Brigadoon, a co-ed camp in Wisconsin. Their daughter Vicki is a highschool senior.Frederick D. Moon, AB, has beenhonored by the recent naming of a Frederick D. Moon Junior High School, inOklahoma City. A further honor wasa gift trip to Europe and the Near Eastthis summer.Elizabeth Marshall, (Mrs. James E.AM '39, is assistant director of radio andtelevision for the Chicago Board of Education.39Melvin Philbrick, AM, has been namedExecutive Director of St. Christopher'sSchool (Methodist), Dobbs Ferry, N. Y.Leo Seren, SB, PhD '42, has joinedthe faculty of Coe College, Cedar Rapids,la., as Associate Professor of Physicsand Mathematics.Morris H. Cohen, AB, PhD '50, anAssociate Professor of Government atClark University, Worcester, Mass., hasbeen awarded a Fulbright grant to lecture in American political institutionsat the University of Amsterdam, Holland, during the 1955-56 academic year.During his year in Holland he plans tocarry out research in the role of religion and regionalism in Dutch politics. A Tradition RevivedIn an appointment reminiscentof the University's founding, Gilbert F. White, SB '32, SM '34, PhD'42, has resigned as President ofHaverford College effective January first to become Professor ofGeography at Chicago. Like theformer college presidents whogathered around Harper, Whitehas chosen to return to the fieldsof teaching and research.White was on appointment tothe faculty before going to Haverford in 1946. He is a specialist inland and water conservation, andserves as United States memberof UNESCO Advisory Committeeon Arid Zone Research."In a time when the pressureof world population upon naturalresources is increasing and whenthe world's regions are moreclosely linked to each other, thegeographer has an important rolein enlarging our understanding ofthe limits and potentialities ofresources development," Whitesaid in connection with his decision to return to teaching.While President of Haverford,the nation's oldest Quaker college, in Haverford, Pennsylvania,White saw endowment double andscholarship funds quadruple. Abuilding program, nearly complete, gave the college a new dormitory and fieldhouse during hispresidency. His most importantdecision was probably acceptanceof a policy limiting the Haverfordstudent body to 450, so that Haverford would "stay a small liberalarts college with a genuine community of students and teachers."40Mr. and Mrs. Myron H. Davis, ofBrookfield, 111., are the parents of adaughter, Mary Lynn, born July 21 atLying-in Hospital. They have two boys,Glenn, 10, and Keith, 8.Robert Edward Merriam, AM, is assistant to the director of the Bureau ofthe Budget, Washington, D. C.Arthur H. Parmelee, Jr., AB, MD '43,is Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at theUCLA School of Medicine. He lives inPacific Palisades.Samuel M. Strong, PhD, Professor ofSociology and Chairman of the Department at Carleton College, Northfield,Minn., has been appointed to the National Committee on Research of theAmerican Sociological Society. He wason leave of absence from Carleton inspring quarter to study with the Committee on Human Development at theUniversity.Robert A. Goodman, AM, has joinedthe staff of Family Service of HighlandPark, 111., as a part-time counsellor. Heis a case worker at Ridge Farm in LakeForest.Herman F. Jaeger, AM, is busy establishing a junior college in the schooldistrict of which he is superintendent inPasco, Washington. From Hawaii Robert Martin Kamins,AB, AM '48, PhD '50, writes that histitle at the University of Hawaii is nowResearch Professor in Economics.From N. Y. C. Frances L. Spain, AM,PhD '44, reports the birth of a newgranddaughter, Jean Spain Dobbins, inAugust, 1954.Carl E. Steinhauser, AB, AM '53, returned to campus from his Greencastle,Indiana, home this summer in order towork toward a PhD.Lillian Wurzel, AM, is chairman of theNorthern California District, AmericanAssociation of Medical Social Workers,a post she has held since 1953. She wasalso chairman of the Walnut Creek,Calif., alumni drive for the University.41A. Reland Jamison, PhD, is now Professor of Religion and Chairman of theDepartment of Religion in MacalesterCollege, St. Paul, Minn.Bernard R. Kogan, AM '46, PhD '53,has been promoted to Assistant Professor of English at the University ofIllinois' Chicago Undergraduate Divisionat Navy Pier. 42Jesse Brown, SB, is an Assistant inAnaesthesia at Harvard Medical School.Dr. Paul Lewis Munson, PhD, has beennamed Associate Professor of Pharmacology at Harvard. Dr. Munson developed the first practical method for thelarge scale production of the hormoneACTH for human use.Donald A. Petrie, AB, JD '47, has beenelected vice-president and member ofthe administrative and management staffof Hertz Corp., Chicago. He is marriedto the former Ruth Hauser, AB '40.Nanette Lowenstern Doernberg is living the suburban life in Scarsdale, N. Y.She has three sons, aged ten years, sevenyears, and four months.John Jamrich, SB, has recently beenappointed Dean of the College at DoaneCollege, Crete, Nebraska.Starting this year, Ruby Lyells, AM,is serving as Executive Director of theMississippi Council on Human Relations.Richard P. Matthews, AB, received anMS in Library Service from ColumbiaUniversity in June.Raymond H. McEvoy, AB, AM '47,PhD '50, has resigned as economist forthe Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to joint the faculty of MontanaState University.Joseph E. Merritt, Jr., MD, attendedthe International Congress of InternalMedicine in Stockholm, Sweden, oneyear ago.Ann Elizabeth Schroeder, AB, wasmarried to James F. Wall, a Universityof Omaha graduate, in Thorndike Hilton Chapel. Both are employed at Marathon Corporation, Menasha, Wisconsin.43A. L. Grabham, SB, transferred hismeteorological abilities from ColoradoSprings Weather Bureau to the NationalWeather Analysis Center in Indiana during August.John T. Kilbridge, AB, AM '47, PhD'49, has joined the faculty of CanisiusCollege, Buffalo, N. Y., as AssistantProfessor of Education.David M. Hume, MD, has been appointed Assistant Professor of Surgeryat Harvard Medical School.44Beverly Glenn Long (Mrs. J. EmeryLong), was featured as one of sevensuccessful young woman lawyers in anarticle in the September issue ofGlamour Magazine. She is with theProvidence, R. I., firm of Edwards andAngell.Albert Unger holds a captain's rankas head of the allergy clinic of theWilliam Beaumont Army Hospital, ElPaso, Texas.%%it's time he talked things overwith a Sun Life man/". . . time to have a Sun Life man plan through theSun Life of Canada the protection your family needs.The Sun Life man in your community isRALPH J. WOOD, Jr., '48I NORTH LA SALLE STREET, CHICAGO 2, ILLINOISFR 2-2390 • GA 2-527330 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEManager DorseyTwo former University students havereceived promotions with United AirLines. Fred Brown has been named assistant to the vice president of transportation services and Richard F. Dorsey,AB '42, has been named a manager ofstation operations, both in Denver, Colo.Brown, a 15-year veteran of commercial aviation, joined United's service department in 1939 in Chicago. In 1941 hebecame manager of passenger servicetraining there and in 1948 was appointedadministrative assistant at Denver. Hismost recent post had been assistant general manager of passenger service, since1951.Dorsey has spent the past 17 years incommercial aviation, having joinedUnited in Chicago in 1937, as a passengeragent. He became assistant station manager at Washington, D. C, in 1943, andin 1945 moved to station ground servicemanager at Newark, N. J. Since then hehas held similar posts in Philadelphia,Cleveland, and Honolulu. Elizabeth Wirth Marvick, (Mrs.Dwaine) PhB, AM '46, has a one-year-old son, Louis Wirth. Her husband ison the political science faculty of UCLA.Merrill Mead Parvis, PhD, has joinedthe faculty of Emory University, Atlanta, Ga., as Associate Professor of NewTestament. He was formerly on the Federated Theological Faculty at the University.45Since August, Martin E. Hanson, SB,MD '50, has been practicing in a clinicand hospital in Leavenworth, Washington.Dr. Joseph Solovy is on active dutywith the U.S.A.F. Medical Corps, aftercompleting a residency in internal medicine in June, 1954. He and his wife,the former Ellen Ruth Bransky, PhB'46, SB '47, are living in Mobile, Ala.Appointed to help organize a newpsychiatric residency program at the U.of Illinois School of Medicine, ThomasTourlentes, SB, MD '47, is extremelybusy. He also is Assistant Superintendent of the Galesburg (Illinois) ResearchHospital, a post he has held since lastDecember.46 Edward J. Miller, AB, left Macy's ofNew York as a furniture buyer in orderto take a new position with the WilliamsFurniture Company. With an office inthe American Furniture Mart in Chicago, Miller represents his company fromIllinois to Wisconsin.Assistant Brown Dorothy Harbin, AB, has been awarded an AM in librarianship from EmoryUniversity, Atlanta, Ga.John H. Kautsky, AB, AM '47, hasbeen named Assistant Professor of Government at Washington University'sCollege of Liberal Arts, St. Louis, Mo.John F. Richardson, AM, has beenpromoted to Associate Professor of Artat the University of Illinois' ChicagoUndergraduate Division at Navy Pier.Emert S. Pfau, SB, has been appointedtechnical director of General Tire &Rubber Co.'s chemical division, Akron, O.Paul R. Salerno, SB, PhD '49, receivedhis MD from Western Reserve University, Cleveland, in June.Walter R. Goedecke, AB, AM, '52, received another AM in February, thisone from Harvard University.Ruth Calladine Haynes, PhB, SB '48,is an Instructor in Anaesthesia at Harvard Medical School.John W. Hanni, MD, is now in privatepractice in psychiatry in Elmhurst, Illinois, after a seven year stint in theNavy.Dorothy Ladendorf, PhB, SB '49, andKenneth Oehlerking, a graduate ofNorthwestern University, were marriedJune 11, and are living in Chicago.Dorothy has given up teaching forhomemaking.Robert R. Martelle, MD, received hisdischarge from the Navy in January andhas returned to civilian life to practicepediatrics in Fullerton, California. PROGRESSIVEPAINT & HARDWARE COMPANYPaints • Wallpaper • HardwareHousewares • Janitor Supplies1158 East 55th StreetHYde Park 3-3840N.S.A. AND FACULTY DISCOUNTSPENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEAJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, LA 2-8354BESTBOILERREPAIR&WELDINGCO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoSince 1878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Wasson -PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-21 16-7-8-9Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or—Wasson DoesNOVEMBER, 1955 31HYLAND A. NOIANCONTRACTORPLASTERINGREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. LAKE PARK AVE.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579ibimilllMkniiJIlPARKER-HOLSMAN iinuiimiummnmiCOMPANY¦ uiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiinmnniBfT"<TRE ALTOR SfReal Estate and Insurance1461 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit InsuranceCorporationt. a. hehnquist co Sidewalks^7 Factory Floors-' MachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S . . .MADE WITHSwiffeIce CreamA product f Swift & Com|7409 So. StatPhone RAdcliCompanyState Streetffe 3-7400 Assistant AttorneyHer ability in law gained JewelStradford Rogers (Mrs. John W.),JD '46, the post of assistant this summer. She is thefirst Negro woman to hold thispost in Chicago.Mrs. Rogers was formerly inprivate practice as a lawyer withher husband, John Rogers, JD '48.Her activity in political groups —the Republican party, the American Civil Liberties Union, and theNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People — ledto her being named "Woman ofthe Year" in '54 by the IllinoisAssociation of Colored Women.Mrs. Rogers immediate familyholds one other member of thebar other than her husband; herfather, C. Francis Stradford, isalso an attorney. She has beenassigned to the civil division ofthe U.S. Attorney's office.47E. Arline Heath, SB, AM '52, directsthe Jordan School of Nursing in Amman,Jordan, as part of the government's PointFour program.Jack T. Knuepfer, AB, MBA '47, waselected alderman for the city of Elmhurst, Illinois, in April.Edith Lentz, AB, AM '50, has justreceived a PhD from Cornell University,and is now Assistant Professor in theprogram in Hospital Administration atthe University of Minnesota.Bernard Martin, AB, resumed his postas rabbi of Sinai Temple, Champaign,Illinois, after returning from a tour ofduty as an Army chaplain in Japan. InJune he married Nancy Piatt, LLB, '52.Douglas Stewart, Jr., AB, changedstates and high schools in the southwest.From Vona, Colorado, he went to LosAlamos, New Mexico, where he will beteaching the third grade again thisyear. Morris J. Seide, PhB, SB '49, MD '53,is a Research Fellow in Medicine atHarvard Medical School.Louis A. Kokoris, SB, SM '47, PhD '52,has been appointed Assistant Professorof Mathematics at Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.Sidney Eli Zimbalist, AM '47, recentlyreceived a PhD in social work fromWashington University, St. Louis.Nathan J. Divinsky, AM, PhD '50, isan Assistant Professor of Mathematicsat the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg,Canada. An ardent chess player, he waspresident of the Canadian Chess Federation in 1953-4, and a member of theCanadian team at the Chess Olympicsin Amsterdam in 1954. The Divinsky shave two daughters, Judy, 3, and Miriam, 2.John H. Ballard, AM '49, has beenappointed administrative assistant to thedirector of the Welfare Council of Metropolitan Chicago. He was formerly secretary to the Budget Reviewing Committee of the Community Fund ofChicago.Richard Willey, PhB, SB '48, PhD '51,is now executive secretary of the Mental Health Study Section of the NationalInstitute of Mental Health, Bethesda,Maryland.George Wren, PhB, SB '49, SM '49,MBA '51, is director of the AultmanHospital, Canton, Ohio, and the fatherof three children, Patricia, 8, Christine,4, and Douglas, 1.48Morris Halle, AM, received his PhDfrom Harvard University in February.William O. Hansen, MBA, HighlandPark, 111., has been elected a corporatevice-president of Wieboldt Stores, Inc.He has been controller of the firm since1947.Miles F. Shore, AB, is a Teaching Fellow in Psychiatry at Harvard MedicalSchool.Mary M. Bower, AB, received an AMfrom Tufts University, Medford, Mass.,in June.Carl H. Abraham, MBA, and ClaireSiegel were married January 12 in NewYork. He is president of Taste MakerFood Corp., Union, N. J.William W. McCreedy is a land development analyst in Detroit, Mich.Elizabeth Babette Gaertner, AM, wasmarried February 27 to Werner Schumann. She is a statistical clerk at Ft.Huachuca, Arizona, and they live inTombstone.Heather Akselrod Rodin (Mrs. Sherwin), AB, has a year old son, MichaelFrank.Greta Goldberg Wiley (Mrs. RobertLee), PhB, writes that her husband hashis own advertising agency in Chicago,and that she is kept busy with TV andbook reviews for clubs throughout thestate.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElawrence Levine, PhB, AM '51, re-Uv moved to Guilford, Conn, whereu has accepted the position of townfanner with the Guilford Town Planning Commission.Stephen B. Llewellyn, AB, who hasheen this magazine's chief photographerrf the past several years, and Lois Ar-Stt Llewellyn, SB '45, adopted a baby¦ 1 Amy Jean, who is now elevenmonths old.Robert W. Parsons, PhB, marriedElise Hampton in December of '53, andill begin residency training in generalSurgery at Fitzsimmons Hospital in Denver in January after his stint in theArmy.John Withall, PhD, and his family,are living in Washington, D. C, but hopeto buy a house in Silver Spring, Md.soon. John is associate for Conferencesand Centennial Celebration of the N.E.A.Of his three children, B. J. will go tokindergarten this year, Ronnie will bein nursery school, and Carol Ann athome.49Joanne Fink, PhB, was married inMarch to Bernard Wilner. After honeymooning in Hawaii, the couple is residing in South Pasadena, California.Elizabeth Frances Kientzle, AM, ofChicago, was married to Walter Schaeferon May 21.Since its opening in '54, Frances B.Lavin, MS, has been working in the newV.A. Research Hospital in Chicago. Herwork is in the radioisotope unit of thehospital.Herbert Lederer, AM, PhD '53, is nowAssociate Professor and Chairman ofthe Department of German at WabashCollege, Crawfordsville, Ind. The Led-erers have two children: a son, four,and a daughter, two.Harold Lieberman, AM, is now finishing his doctoral dissertation in the socialsciences, while chairing the SociologyDepartment at Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio.Robert B. McGregor, AB, now onactive duty with the U. S. Army, wasadmitted to the Florida Bar in '54 afterreceiving his LLB from the Universityof Miami.Jerome G. Manis, AM, has been promoted to Associate Professor of Sociology at Western Michigan College, Kalamazoo, Mich.Joseph S. Kimerling, AB, and Leo J.Paulissen, SM, received degrees fromwe University of Washington in St.f*>uis. Kimerling received an AM, Paulissen a PhD in microbiology.. pWlip H. Leiderman, AM, is a Teaching Fellow in Neurology at HarvardM^ical School.Pknalter B- Miller> AM> received hisWJ from Harvard University in February. Arthur W. Fort, PhB, SM '51, receivedhis PhD from California Institute ofTechnology, Pasadena, in June.Lilyan A. Olech, (Mrs. Eli), AM, hasjoined the staff of Family Service ofHighland Park, 111., as a part-time counsellor. She has been a psychiatric socialworker for the past nine years.William R. Brueckheimer is an Assistant Professor of Geography and Geology at Western Michigan College,Kalamazoo.Col. John R. Hall, SM, has assumedhis new post in the Army Surgeon General's Office as chief of the occupationalhealth branch, preventive medicine division, Washington, D. C. Prior to that hewas a student at the Johns HopkinsSchool of Hygiene and Public Health.Harry Gourevitch and his wife, Susannah Jane Rich, '51, became the parentsof a boy, David Usher, July 5, in NewYork City.Peter Selz, AM, PhD '54, is the newlyappointed chairman of the Departmentof Art at Pomona College, Claremont,Calif. He was previously Assistant Professor of Art History and head of ArtEducation at the Institute of Design ofIllinois Institute of Technology. Peteris married to the former Thalia Cheronis,AM '51.Mixing CareersCareer officer Lt. Col. GeorgeC. Warren, Jr., AM '48, has managed to mix the academic lifewith a military career. After receiving his degree from Chicago,Warren joined the academic department of the InformationSchool, Fort Benning, Georgia. In'51 he began the study of Japanese at the Army LanguageSchool, Monterey, California. Thisyear he has been named Directorof Intelligence and Training atFort Jay, N. Y. Before comingto the University, Warren hadearned an SB degree from Clemson Agricultural College, in SouthCarolina. Any Insurance Problems?Phone or WriteJoseph H. Aaron, '27135 S. LaSalle Street • RA 6-1060Chicago 3, IllinoisPhones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueProducersof PrintedAdvertisingin ColorAround the ClockMilton H. Kreines '27101 East Ontario, Chicago 11WHitehall 4-5922-3-4CHICAGO'SOWNII •CIGARETTE BOX ORPIPE RACK HUMIDORRAISE LID ANDGENUINE SWISSMOVEMENT PLAYSYOURCOLLEGE SONG"Wave the flag. Chicago"Cover decoratedwith C/oisonneeCollege Seal. Apossession youwill long cherish.Brings back pleasant memories after graduation at home, den or office. Don't delaylSend for yours todayi$OeS $|l)9JCigarette Box 7 Pipe Rack Humidor I XSpecify ? Lt. Mahogany ? Amer. WalnutRAMAR SPECIALTIES420 YALE AVENUEROCKVIILE CENTRE, N. Y.NOVEMBER, 1955 33It costs each American this many pennies a yearfor the United Nations -World War II cost each Americanalmost 1000 times that much a year!This is the 10th Anniversary of the UN — the10th Anniversary of man's first completelyorganized search for peaceNobody has ever said that they were sure the UnitedNations will prevent a war.But then, nobody ever said they were sure a cure forcancer could be found.The fight for a cure for war must go on, just as the fightfor a cure for cancer must go on.The United Nations is now 10 years old. With eachpassing year, it has gained the support of more and morepeople. In fact, a recent survey shows that only 7% ofthe American people are for quitting the United Nations.The rest believe, and rightfully so, that we can never findlasting peace unless we look for it . . . unless we work for it.Above, you counted 54 pennies. That's what the UNcosts each American per year. Look at just a few of thethings that your 54ff buys: 1. The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) has helpedorganize health campaigns that examined400,000,000 children in 88 countries.2. Through the UNICEF, 14,000,000 children werevaccinated against tuberculosis.3. 9,000,000 children were vaccinated against malariaand typhus.4. The World Health Organization helped wipe outyaws in Haiti where this scourge affected Vz of thepopulation in 1950.5. The UN's Food and Agriculture Organizationhelped farmers in Iran locate 50 new wells forirrigation.By attacking some of the underlying causes of war— hunger, poverty and disease — the United Nations is helping prevent war. At every opportunity, support the UnitedNations. You support it best by knowing what it's doing— and by letting others know what it's doing. A betterunderstanding of the United Nations means a better chanceof peace for the world !The United Nations works for youThe United States Committee for the United NationsAn accredited citizens' organization whose chairman is appointed annually by the Secretary of State 816 21st St., N. W., Washington 6, D. C. 34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPolitical EditorHenry A. Turner, PhD '50, anAssistant Professor of PoliticalScience at the University of California, Santa Barbara College, isthe editor of "Politics in the UnitedStates" one of McGraw Hill BookCo.'s series of books in politicalscience. Turner collected andedited all of the 64 separate articleswritten by government officials, labor and farmer leaders, businessmen and political observers. Charles Robert Whitsett, SB, receivedhis PhD from Iowa State College, Ames,la., in July.50Morris S. McKeehan, PhD, has beenpromoted to Associate Professor ofAnatomy of the University of Virginia,in Charlottesville.Dean A. Pack, AB, AM '54, of NewOrleans, has joined the U. S. Army.Jack M. Planalp, AM, has been awarded a Ford Foundation fellowship forstudy on Asia and the Near East. He isstudying Indian cultural themes andvalues and their relation to religion andritual. Jack is married to the formerShirley Marshall, AM '50.Helen Rydholm, AM '53, and Dr. DaleSattler Grimes, AB '51, MD '55, weremarried June 18. Dr. Grimes is interningat Cook County Hospital, Chicago, andMrs. Grimes is teaching Spanish andFrench at Riverside -Brookfield H. S.,Riverside, 111.Edward L. Trindle, DB, is working asfund raising Director for the Wells Organization in Chicago.John W. Winchester, SM '52, is spending the academic year 1955-56 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, studying nuclearchemistry on a Fulbright grant. He'llreturn to Harvard next year, where, hesays, "The U. of C. is quite well knownin spite of so many other schools." Heoften sees Frank Logan '50, Allen M.Gold, '50, SM '52, Al Feldman, SM '53,Geoffrey Zubay, SM '53, all at Harvard,and Roger Prager, '51, who is at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.David Lindsey, Associate Professor ofHistory and Political Science at Baldwin-Wallace College, Berea, O., is Visiting Associate Professor of History atOberlin College for the 1955-56 schoolyear.Jack D. Bateman, SB, senior marketanalyst at Rockwell Manufacturing Co.,Pittsburgh, Pa., has been named manager of market research.John L. Glenn, a fellow of the Societyof Actuaries, has joined the staff ofBowles, Andrews & Towne, actuaries,in Atlanta, Ga.Robert W. Christy, SM, PhD, '53, hasbeen named Assistant Professor ofPhysics at Dartmouth College, Hanover,N. H.NOVEMBER, 1955 51Faye Buchhalter Lewis (Mrs. HerbertB.), AM, guides her section of theLeague of Women Voters in Brookline,Mass.Warren Holperin, AB, is now an aviator in the Marine Corps. He receivedhis wings in August.Gertrude E. Knox, AM, of Riverside,Illinois, directs the. Reading Clinic ofthe National College of Education.Thomas Latimer, AB, reports fromChicago that he is representing CentralSecurity Insurance Company as anagent as well as working as' GeneralBookkeeper for Aldens Mail OrderFirm. And in his spare time, he is working toward a C.P.A. at Northwestern.William Munson, AB, is holding anassistantship in Social Sciences whileworking for his AM in Art History atIowa University.Robert St. John, AB, is now attendingUCLA.Donald M. Lowe, AM, has been awarded a Ford Foundation fellowship to continue his study in history and Russianarea studies at the University of California. He plans later to do researchon the Stalin-Trotsky controversy overthe Chinese revolution.Donald G. Arnstine, AB, received hisAM in education from Western ReserveUniversity, Cleveland, in June.Dr. Wne-yu Cheng, AM, has beenpromoted to Assistant Professor of Artat Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio.Frank S. Walter, MBA, has beennamed administrator of Methodist Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa.Patricia Jean Pilliard, AB, was married in the Cathedral of Steyn, Austria,to Curt Feheberger of Linz. She hadbeen studying at the Academy of Artin Linz and in Vienna for the past twoyears.Thalia Selz, (Mrs. Peter), has beenappointed a part-time instructor in English at Pomona College, Claremont,Calif. Her husband is the new Chairmanof the Art Department.Victor E. Ricks, PhD, has been promoted to Associate Professor of education at the University of Illinois' Chicago Undergraduate Division at NavyPier.Walter McK. Pintner, New York City,AB, has been awarded a Ford Foundation fellowship for the study of Russianeconomic history at Harvard University.He received his AM in history and Soviet studies from Harvard.Ethel Nurge, AM, will live in a smallvillage in the Philippine Islands in orderto study native women's roles and childtraining practices. She will have headquarters at Silliman University in theIslands. POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing 'Addressograph ServiceHighest Quality Service AddressingMailingMinimum PricesAll Phones: 210 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisRAND McNALLY & COMPANYConkey DivisionBook and CatalogPrinters and BindersCHICAGO • HAMMOND • NEW YORKCHICAGO ADDRESSING COMPANYComplete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING-LETTERPRESS & OFFSETProcessed Letters • Copy PreparationImprinting • Typewriting • AddressingAddressographing • Folding • MailingQUAUTY-ACCURACY-SPEED111 So. Dearborn • Chicago 5 • WA 2-4561MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica-Exacta-Bolex-Rollei-Stereo1329 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259"Neighborhood Servicewith Downtown Selection"SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 100 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoWebb-Linn Printing Co.Catalogs, PublicationsAdvertising Literature?Printers of the Universityof Chicago Magazine?A. L Weber, J.D. '09 L. S. Berlin, B.A. '09A. J. Falick, M.B.A. '51MOnroe 6-290035It's all right...there's a telephoneright here, too"The man who has a telephone athis elbow in the office appreciatesthe same convenience in his home.He knows that running downstairs or from room to room totelephone is an unnecessary wasteof time and energy . . . when additional telephones, convenientlyplaced, cost so little.Great thing for Mother, too. Fortelephones in the kitchen and bedroom will save her many steps.And give her greater peace ofmind, especially at night when shemay be at home alone.All of this convenience — andsafety too— can be yours at smallcost for each additional telephone.Just call the business office of yourlocal Bell telephone company.Bell Telephone System f( Mgk_%SERVICE THAT'S WORTH SO MUCH. ..COSTS SO LITTLE36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE52Sander W. Wirpel has been appointedto the Chicago office of Inland Steel Co.He is married to the former Estelle R.Mass, '47, and they have a daughter,Barbara Lynn.Irvina S. Perman, AM, received amaster of science in social administrationfrom Western Reserve University, Cleveland, in June.James C. Phillips, AB, SB '53, SM '53,of Albuquerque, N. M., has been awarded a General Electric graduate fellowship for the study of solid state physicsat the University.Herman G. Richey, AM, received anAM from Harvard University in February.Frederick R. Weedon, Jr., receivedhis MBA from Harvard in June. He andhis wife became the parents of theirfirst child, a daughter, in June. All thisnews, by the way, comes from FrederickR. Weedon, Sr., MD '29, a practicingphysician in Jamestown, N. Y.Vivian Hamilton, AM, makes a careeras a lighting consultant, designing homeillumination for "seeability" and decorative accent. She works in El Paso, Texas.Ann Tiffin Hays, SB, and Mac BartonGreer were married on September 18,1954, at All Saints Episcopal Church,Mobile, Ala.At the University of Wisconsin Thomas C. Kishler, AM, is a GraduateTeaching Assistant in freshman English.53Anna Freude, AM, planned a trip toDenmark, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland for the past summer.In addition to her work for an exportfirm, Katherine Jane Uhry, PhB, servesas librarian for Sinai Congregation, Chicago.George Hayduke, MBA, assists thecomptroller at the Motorola ResearchLaboratory in Phoenix, Arizona.Henry Kircher, PhD, is employed byRayonier, Inc., in Shelton, Washington.Frank D. Montague, Jr., AM, is alieutenant (jg) in the U. S. Naval Reserve and is stationed at Atsugi NavalAir Station, "a short way out of Yokohama, Japan," writes Mrs. Montaguethe former Zoe McKey, '52. Zoe is working as secretary for the Red Cross FieldDirector at Atsugi. The Montagues havetwo children, Danny, 3, and Melanie, 1.They are looking forward to Dan's return to civilian life in January, 1957.They expect to remain in Japan untilthen.Henry P. Seermon, MBA, has givenup teaching school for insurance. He isnow with Massachusetts Mutual Life inChicago. Henry did his undergraduatework at Northwestern. He has fourchildren.Clement Walbert, AM, and his wife sailed for Japan in July as missionariesfor the Baptist General Conference.Robert A. Gessert, DB, has been appointed Assistant Professor in Religionsat Smith College. He had been an Instructor in Religion and Executive Director of the Institute of Ethics andPolitics at Wesleyan University, Middle-town, Conn.Boris Pesek, AM, Chicago, has beenawarded a Ford Foundation fellowshipto study the monetary policy of Czechoslovakia in research libraries in theU. S.Edward A. AHworth, AM, New YorkCity, has been awarded a Ford Foundation fellowship for study of the impactof Russian culture on the Uzbek peoplesof Central Asia. He plans to study forsix months at Columbia University, andfor an additional six months in Germanyand Turkey.Richard Greenbaum, AB, has beenawarded a Ford Foundation fellowshipto continue his Soviet area studies atHarvard. His special interest is in ideological and sociological factors affectingthe formulation and execution of Sovietforeign policy since 1944.Emma Kraidman, AB, received herAM from Clark University, Worcester,Mass., in June.Marianne P. Rigsby, AM, was married to John C. Baker in July. TheBakers live in Chicago.Leslie P. Sorensen, MBA, is a statistician in the management engineeringbranch of the comptrollers' office atOrdnance Weapons Command, RockIsland, 111. He was recently promoted tothat position, having been previouslywith the Electronic Supply Office, GreatLakes, 111.Howard A. MacLeod, JD, is a member of the newly formed firm of Har-baugh, Drumm & MacLeod, practicingpatent, trademark, and copyright law.He has three sons.Willie White, AM, DB '54, has completed his first year as Instructor inPhilosophy at Dillard University, NewOrleans.54Robert Samuel Lerner, AB, is now inthe Business School.Kathleen Ward has had one of herpoems chosen by the National PoetryAssociation to be included in an anthology to be entitled "Voice of America." She lives in Orlando, Fla. andworks for a law firm.Sylvia Winter graduated in June fromMichigan State University, East Lansing,Mich., and entered Yale University'sDepartment of Design this fall, for further study in the design of books.Elizabeth Ann Sly, AM, and Dr. H.Carmer Van Buren were married June3. They live in Denver, where Mrs. VanBuren is a medical social worker atColorado General Hospital. BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71ST ST.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186The Max Brook Co.CLEANERS & LAUNDRYUnexcelled Quality Since 19171013-15 E. 61st STREETFor prompt pickup call Midway 3-7447LOWER YOUI* COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYS* TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURESROBERT B. 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Order from:Springer & JJamnau(U. of Chicago, AB'5I, AM'52)2707 E. Ann St., Dept. A Philadelphia 34, Pa. Advertising ManHarold L. Christensen, MBA '49,has joined Needham, Louis & Bror-by, Inc., Chicago advertising firm,as assistant personnel manager.He formerly was personnel manager of Allstate Insurance Co.Christensen's home is in DesPlaines. He is vice-chairman ofthe Skokie Valley Industrial Association.Alfred R. Kurtz, MBA, has been appointed Superintendent of Beyer Memorial Hospital,* Ypsilanti, Mich.Marion Kuebler and Daymond J.Aiken were married September 25, 1954.They live in Lockport, 111.Moreene E. Crumley Jordan, (Mrs.W. D.), PhD, has been promoted to Assistant Professor of English at theUniversity of Illinois' Chicago Undergraduate Division at Navy Pier.Marvin C. Rintala, AB, received hisAM from Tufts University, Medford,Mass., in June. Letters(Continued from page 2)One last point: for your information —and the information of the alumni magazine readers — the aec party line asexpressed to me by a high official asrecently as July is to maintain that Dr.Libby was talking "theoretically" abouta hypothetical case. In other words, theofficial version is that there is NOU-bomb. (Said Admiral Strauss whenasked about the U-bomb on "YouthWants To Know" shortly after my storyof March 5: "The U-bomb? I don'tknow what you mean by that.")To conclude with a compliment:thanks for bringing the issue to lightagain. Perhaps with the background ofofficial silence which I have brieflytouched on in this letter, the readers ofthe magazine can start a campaign for"more candid candor about the so-calledthermonuclear weapons." No one wouldappreciate this more than I.Sincerely,Edwin Diamond, PhB, '41, AM '49Science Writer,International News Service*I sent this to the University's greatlexicographer, Prof. Mitford M. Mathews,hoping he would credit me with coiningthe term in his monumental "Dictionaryof Americanisms.'3HINDU DAUCH38 Subsidiary of West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company13 FACTORIES AND 42 SALES OFFICES IN THE EAST, MIDWEST AND SOUTHTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWhat are you looking for in a job?. . .«**slllillo&IKS.w fipill **i^lilllliok G HOENcecSsnMO work^ppO*TONVVYHERE'S A CAREER THATCAN OFFER THEM ALL!Imagine being in business for yourself— a business that can bring security, agood potential income, and the deep satisfaction that comes from helping others.That's the kind of opportunity thatmay be open to you as a career representative for the New York Life Insurance Company! If you qualify, we willpay you a salary and training allowancewhile you learn. And later, when you'reon your own, you'll continue to receivethe backing of one of the world's strongest legal reserve life insurance com panies. You'll find no ceiling on yourearning power except your initiative andability. 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Y.Please send me your free booklet, "A Good Man To Be/'with full information about sales career opportunities withNew York Life.Name_ _Age_Address-City- -Zone- -State-Present Occupation-NOVEMBER, 1955 39BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 Eo Marqueife RoadPhone: WEnfworfh 6-5380TheHOTEL SHERRY53rd and the Lake— FAirfax 4-1000BANQUETS — DANCESOur Specialtyalumni are alwayswelcome at theHotel Del PradoFifty-Third Street andHyde Park BoulevardHYde Park 3-9600B-Z AUTOMOTIVECOMPLETE FRONT SYSTEM CHECK ANDESTIMATE: $1.50 (APPLIED TO REPAIRBILL). QUALITY BODY AND FENDERWORK AT REASONABLE RATES: FREEESTIMATE. LUBRICATION AND ROADSERVICE. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONSADJUSTED-REPAIRED.MOTOR TUNE-UP SPECIALAIR FILTER AND PLUGS CLEANED • TESTVOLUME AND PRESSURE IN FUEL PUMP •TEST COIL • SET TIMING AND CARBURETOR ® COMPRESSION CHECK • POINTSAND CONDENSER INSTALLED • 6 CYLINDERS $5.50, MOST 8'S $6.50 PLUS PARTS.MOTOR AND CLUTCH OVERHAULINGBRAKES ADJUSTED AND RELINEDDO 3-0100 • 5547 HARPER AVE.HotelsWindermereImmediate proximityto The University ofChicagoFINESTACCOMMODATIONSAND DINING ROOMSFRONTING ON JACKSON PARK1642 EAST 56th STREETFAirfax 4-6000 MemorialLila C. Hurlbut, (Mrs. Eugene B. Wood-ruff) '96, a member of the first four-yearclass at the University, died June 7 inKalamazoo, Mich. She was a retiredlibrarian of the City Library, Lincoln,Nebraska.Joseph E. Raycroft, '98, MD '99, ofPrinceton, N.J., died at the age of 87after an extended illness. He was a member of Chicago's first four-year graduating class. After 12 years as medicaldirector at Chicago he went to Princetonas Chairman of the Department of Healthand Physical Education. He retired in1936. Since then he has lived in Princeton with his wife, Sarah Elizabeth Butler,'98. Internationally active in his field,Dr. Raycroft was awarded an AlumniCitation for Public Service in 1941.Dr. Kellogg Speed, '01, MD '04, of Highland Park, 111., died July 2. Dr. Speedhad been awarded an alumni citation in1942.Evarts Vaine DePew, SB '01, MD '04, ofSan Antonio, Texas, died February 7 atBrooke Army Hospital. Dr. DePew hadbeen retired since 1952.Lucenia M. Ripley, PhB '05, died May 5in Detroit.Mrs. Dorothy Kuh Gottlieb, PhB '09,died in Chicago April 21.Julius F. McDonald of Navasota, Texas,AM '10, died August 12 at the age of 80.Thecla Doniat, '12, died July 28 at herhome in Chicago. She had been principal of the Spalding School for Crippled Children until her retirement 15years ago. The Chicago Board of Education has announced that it will name anelementary school at 42nd Place andCottage Grove Avenue after Miss Doniat.Benjamin W. Van Riper, PhD '12, diedAugust 22 in Forest Hills, N. Y.Harvey L. Harris, '14, died September 18in a Denver hospital following a heartoperation. He was 62. Harvey was anAll-Western Conference guard on our1913 championship team. In recent yearshe moved to Colorado where he developed a model ranch, becoming an authority on erosion control and rangegrasses. Members of the Class of '14,who have built an impressive studentloan fund through the decades, are adding to this fund in his memory. Roderick Peattie, '15, died June 18, inRutland, Vt.Ezra O. Bottenfield, '16, retired highschool history teacher in Champaign, 111.,slumped at the wheel of his car and diedof a heart attack on June 13, 1955. Hewas 75 years old. In 1950 the Champaign Exchange Club entered him in itsbook of Golden Deeds for his continuing activities in religious, educational,and civic affairs.Frances Whelan Law, (Mrs. C. P.), PhB'23, AM '26, died December 21, 1954,while in Frankfurt, Germany with herhusband, Col. C. P. Law.Dr. Reuben E. Almquist, '24, MD '28, ofGary, Ind., died March 10.John Landesco, '24, died June 24 inLemon Grove, Calif. Mr. Landesco, asociologist and criminologist, was bestknown for his work on ''OrganizedCrime," part of the famous "IllinoisCrime Survey." He spent six years onthe Illinois Parole Board, under Governor Henry Horner, and at one timeserved on the sociology staff at theUniversity, an associate of Ernest W.Burgess.Mary Rebecca Barnette, '25, died January 17 in Holmes Hospital, Cincinnati,Ohio. Miss Barnette was well known inher field, teaching economics.Louis Scala, '26, died March 6 in Greenwich, Conn., where he had taught mathematics and science since 1926.John Joseph Palsedge, '28, died May 16in Chicago.Dr. Daniel A. McGregor, PhD '29, ofNew Rochelle, N. Y., died February 10.Dr. Paul G. Cressy, AM '29, died July5 in Montclair, N. J. Dr. Cressy hadbeen a sociologist, professor, author anddirector of the Social Welfare Councilof the Oranges and Maplewood, N. J.Dora Hirsch, '31, died July 22 in Chicago.Kathryn M. Sturm, '38, died May 31, inCedar Lake, Ind.M\m fiU»_!¦! IBIn mm mm ^ ^a at Has it ®; ®fWOR-fONS5487 LAKE PARK AVECHICAGO, ILLINOIS£for Reservations Gall:BUtterfield 8-496040 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIntense Cold ...Fierce Heat .. .Terrific Pressure—forces of nature used by UCC scientists to work for youHeat SO FIERCE it makes steel boil . . . cold so intenseit turns the very air to liquid . . . pressure so great ithas the force of 600 hurricanes . . . space so "empty"that nothing could live in it.THESE FORCES OF NATURE are used by industry inmaking so many of the things we take for granted today.The electric arc furnace— 6,000 degrees hot— is the birthplace of alloying metals that go into stainless steel andother fine steels. Oxygen, so vital to medicine and industry, is extracted from air made liquid when cooledto more than 300 degrees below zero.ETHYLENE GAS SQUEEZED under pressure of 15tons per square inch changes into polyethylene. 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Write for booklet H-2.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION3 0 EAST 42ND STREET MINN NEW YORK 17, N . Y .In Canada: UNION CARBIDE CANADA LIMITEDCHICAGOWEDGWOODDINNER PLATESFour plates to each set withFour different campus scenes1 ROCKEFELLER CHAPEL2 MITCHELL TOWER3 HULL COURT GATE4 HARPER LIBRARYIdeal Christmas gifts. Break up a set and makefour gifts if you wishiIThe Alumni Association I5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois IEnclosed find $ for which please send me the jfollowing Wedgwood Ware: (immediate delivery) : | set(s) of Chicago dinner plates at $12(Not sold singly) jINAME IIADDRESS |II THE PLATESTen-inch Traditional QueensWare in Williamsburg sepia andDysert glaze. Borders arefrom Gothic design on Ryerson.Delivered to your door12 per set