y^^^, X "^ UNIVERSITY \ MAY 1955An Overseas Issuea major announcementconcerning the futureof the Universitywill he made at the Alumni AssemblySaturday, June 4th bythe Chancellor and the Board of Trustees.They and we hope you will be presentto hear the details.the June magazinewill be a special issuedealing with this announcement.It should reach youimmediately after Reunion Week.watch for the June issueREUNION-June 1-4Is fall-out dangerous?Will the atom replace oil for powerin locomotives, planes, and automobiles?If or when it does, what about radioactivity in smash-ups?Friday evening (June 3) of ReunionWeek, Dr. Willard F. Libby of theAtomic Energy Commission will discusssome of the current problems of theA.E.C, including fall-out.On the Mandel Hall platform with Dr.Libby will be two Chicago colleagues(Libby is on leave), Dr. Samuel K. Allison, Director of the Institute for NuclearStudies, and Dr. George V. Le Roy,Associate Dean of the Division of Biological Sciences. Dr. Allison will preside; Dr. Le Roy will tell of the progress being made in the prevention andtreatment of disease through radiation.This program will climax a dayjammed with interesting activities foralumni.Early afternoon tours will include digging up ancient Nippur; testing youraptitudes; measuring your reading speed;checking emotional maladjustments; visiting the home of the split atom; tea atInternational House, and other behind-the-scenes trips. May Tower Topics willlist these tours for you to make choices.Open house at the K imp tons and departmental teas will complete the afternoon. The College faculty and alumniwill hold a big reception in the Reynolds Club lounges where there will alsobe exhibits.There will be two dinners. In Hutchinson Commons, Julian Levi, ExecutiveDirector of the South East Chicago Com-Dr. Donald P. King, (1), instructor-in radiology, shows alumni special instrument for treatment of cancer patients at Argonne Hospital. The patientis placed on bed shown below, andhigh energy radiation is beamed athim through the machine at left. Thetherapist controls the machine fromoutside the room.Lewellyn LewellynAt Faculty Revels rehearsal, children of faculty admire "Hot-rod" Kimpton'slittle red tractor. Prof. Harry Everett sports the striped vest and derby.mission, will tell the fabulous story ofthe Hyde Park redevelopment program.He will trace the path of the bulldozer,followed by the architect and the mason.At the Quadrangle Club, Napier Wilt,Dean of the Division of the Humanities,will preside at a dinner where ElderOlson, Associate Professor of English,will tell you how to read and appreciatemodern poetry.The Mandel .Hall program will endthe day.Wednesday, June 1, will start Reunionactivities with the School of BusinessDinner at the Knickerbocker Hotel andthe O. & S. Convention in the Quadrangle Club. Speaker at the School ofBusiness dinner will be Trustee PhilipL. Graham, publisher of the Washington Post Times.Thursday, June 2, will have theAlumni- Varsity Baseball Game at StaggField in the afternoon and the giganticOrder of the C dinner at HutchinsonCommons in the evening. The GrandOld Man of football, Amos Alonzo Stagg,will be the guest of honor and the occasion will celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of five championship teams. TheWomen's Athletic Association will alsohold its annual awards dinner on Thursday night.The Faculty Revels of 1955 will be repeated for alumni in the evening atMandel Hall. This is one of the liveliestshows in recent history. You will seethe Chancellor tear up the Hyde Parkblight areas on his little red bulldozer! Saturday, June 4th is Alumni Day andthe peak of the week. Luncheons include: Citation, Emeritus, (and theAlumnae Breakfast). At the annualAlumni Assembly in Mandel Hall at3:30 p.m. the Chancellor will make anannouncement which will have far-reaching effects on the future of ourAlma Mater. He is anxious that as manyalumni as possible hear this from his ownlips.A Trustees' Reception in HutchinsonCourt will follow the Mandel Hall program.Amos Alonzo Stagg will be the speakerat the Student Awards Dinner in Hutchinson Commons Saturday night. Thisdinner will honor some 15 students whohave demonstrated top leadership inextracurricular activities during the year.All alumni and their guests are invited.After dinner and the fraternity OpenHouses, the evening will be dedicatedto the annual Interfraternity Sing — theoldest and most colorful tradition ofAlumni Day.These are only the highlights of Reunion at Chicago. We mention themhere so that you can begin making yourplans to be back for June 1-4.Tower Topics, with all details and withthe official program, should reach youthe middle of May. It will carry a coupon for all your reservations, includinghotel or residence hall rooms, which wewill have lined up for you at that time.See you on the Midway in June.H. W. M.MAY, 1955 1IMMORTALITY^ 1892Silas Bowman Cobb — the donor of CobbHall, who immortalized himself throughhis moral and financial contributions to theUniversity, Any gift to Education, small orlarge, creates a measure of immortalitythrough its constructive effect upon the future. But why our University? On June 2,1892, Mr. Cobb stated his view very simply:"there is no more important public enterprise than the University of Chicago."QIVE IN THE FINEST TRADITION OF QIVINQTHE ALUMNI FUND5733 University Avenue • Chicago 37, IllinoisJn ZJkU JteueOTAND BEFORE a map of the world,close your eyes and place a finger on it,and we'll bet that wherever it happensto hit, you'll find a Chicago alumnus orfaculty member there!T ASCINATED by the variety of placesand jobs that Chieagoans turn up in allover the globe, we became curious. Wewrote to several, asking for letters tothe magazine, telling about their workand life abroad.J; IRST, our awed thanks to our overseas contributors, for their extreme generosity in taking time and energy fromtheir busy lives, for their conscientiousness in mailing manuscripts to meetdeadlines, and for the money and salivaexpended on an overwhelming numberof foreign airmail stamps. And ourapologies to them for not running allthe pictures they sent — we simply don'thave room.OO ENTHUSIASTIC was the responseto our request for news from abroad,that it has crowded out all else from thismonth's issue. We'll catch you up onclass news and news of the quadranglesnext month — for now, come visit withour roaming correspondents.JL OU'LL find a brief note about ourwriters with each article, except wherethe writer tells you about himself. Butwe'd like to take this space to tell yousome of the fascinating background ofone writer in particular. Anne-MarieDurand-Wever '10, (This Side of Fear,P. 29) , has been a practicing gynecologistin Berlin for 20 years. During the Hitler regime she resisted all pressure tobecome a Nazi, endangering her life,while quietly carrying on her practice.When her building was bombed, she improvised an emergency hospital in acellar to treat wounded of all nations.A fire drove her to another ruin acrossthe street. She climbed rubble heaps tobring wounded into the shelter andguarded the entrance at night to protecther women patients and nurses fromlawless elements of the advancing armies.Dr. Durand-Wever was awarded anAlumni Citation for her work in 1949.J.F YOU'VE ever been curious as to howwe look as a foreign country, turn topage 23, for Britisher Alan Conway's"overseas" report on Chicago. /^^^/" ""^ UNIVERSITY(JmcaqoMAGAZINE ^| MAY, 1955Volume 47, Number 7FEATURES5 Interlude In Eden9 Will the Volcano Erupt?II "New Delhi Isn't India . . ."13 Which Approach to Japan?14 Every Street A Gallery16 Hippos Are On The Way Out17 Boom-Town In South Africa19 Home Is Behind Bars22 Tutors and Musty Rooms23 Earmuffs and Coffee Machines25 The Strange Fauna of Australia27 We Live 12,000 Feet UP28 Needed: A German Dr. Spock29 This Side of FearDEPARTMENTSI Memo Pad3 In This Issue33 Class News39 Memorials Marie Cole BergerOlaf K. SkinsnesDuira WardThomas LucasMaurice CopeMargaret C. FallersRoy P. CarlsonMarshall P. ClinardHerbert WerlinAlan ConwayJudy and Ernie LundeliusThomas A. Har!Gayle S. JanowitzAnne-Marie Durand-WeverCOVERThe drawing of the Bedouin City, Aleppo, in Syria, is by ElizabethM. Gruse, '50. Liz toured the Middle East last year, sketching asshe went, and this fall the Pocahontas Press of Lake Forest, III.,will publish her drawings in a book, "east, to the middle east."The cover drawing and others on pages 20-21 will appear inthe book.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE-5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, IllinoisExecutive EditorEditorManaging EditorAdvertising ManagerStaff PhotographerFoundation SecretaryField Secretary HOWARD W. MORTFELICIA ANTHENELLIAUDREY NEFF PROBSTSHELDON W. SAMUELSSTEPHEN LEWELLYNWILLIAM H. SWANBERGDEAN TYLER JENKSPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $4.00. Single copies!25 cents. Entered as -second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois/under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.MAY, 1955 3Jk4 Samoans, returning from a fishing trip inearly evening, beach their outrigger canoe.The Samoans fashion the canoes from hollowed out jungle trees; they use the canoesfor marlin and tuna fishing, and for shortvoyages around the islands.*-~"A Samoan girl combs her hair after a dipin the community washing and bathing poolat Talelili Upolu. The author took thispicture and the others on these pages inSamoa in December and January.The roof of Miss Berger's home in PagoPago gets a new thatched roof. During herstay in the islands, the author is living witha Samoan chief, his wife (a Chicago alumna) and their children.Interlude in EDENby marie L,oie iierger, JL& 3d, ju 3&A HIS YEAR finds me on the small,high island of Tutuila, living withVaiao and Fay Ala'ilima and theirtwo babies. Thanks to the generosityof the Rockefeller Foundation whichgave me one of its Public ServiceAwards this year, I am going to beout here in the South Pacific untilsummer studying problems of economic and political advancement ofthese peoples in their transition fromprimitive life into participation in thetwentieth century.During World War II the armedforces like a giant hand shook thetraditional organization and economies of these peoples — and then withdrew, leaving the delicate fabric oftheir society torn, but not destroyed.The problem before us is to find techniques for making human adjustmentto the new conditions an experienceof growth instead of an uprooting,and for opening new horizons withminimal social distress.I have selected Samoa as my baseof operations because it is smallenough to be comprehensible, becauseits problems are comparable to thoseof other tropical areas, and becausehere I have a close and affectionaterelationship with a large and leadingSamoan family who have accepted meinto their membership by adoption.Vaiao is a full blooded Polynesian,32, strikingly handsome with his blueblack hair, copper coloring and charming smile. He is kind and, gentle, veryintelligent and a leader among hispeople. I came to know him in Washington when he was working for hisAM in political science at AmericanUniversity. He married Fay Calkins(niece of Charles W. Gilkey, formerDean of Rockefeller Chapel), the oldest daughter of my friends Birdsalland Gladys Gilkey Calkins, withwhom I have made my home for thepast ten years. Fay obtained her PhDfrom the University in 1951, marriedVaiao immediately afterward andcame out here to help him with hispeople. I came here in November on a littlefreighter which sails at unpredictableintervals from San Francisco carryingeverything from trucks to drinkingstraws to these tiny islands and bringing back cocoa for America's sweettooth and copra for our soaps and cosmetics.This is a beautiful island, denselycovered with plants useful to man.The Samoans have been showing mehow everything in the jungle is useful for some purpose: one tree formaking out-rigger canoes, another forposts for the council house, the leafof another for healing coral scratches,and of course the abundant varietyof edible foods: coconuts, bananas,breadfruit, taro, mangoes, limes, anddozens of others. The reefs aboundwith fish and shellfish. Outside thereef the sea teems with great big tunaand marlin. The Samoans are healthy,clean, handsome, gentle and gay.After a few days of rest Vaiao tookme out to see the real "Fa'a-Samoa,"the Samoan way of life in the tinyvillages far away from the port. Ofcourse the port itself is pretty tiny,clustered around a block-long "malae"or what we would call a village green.Let me tell you about my first trip.At the village of Amanave we weremet by a "matai" or chief and takento the guest "fale" to rest on matsand drink fresh coconuts. Now Inever thought much of coconut waterin the States, but there it is stale.Here it is icy cold and delicious —and of course an absolutely uncon-taminated drink, purer than CocaCola and fuller of vitamins. Afterone has consumed the pint or so ofMarie Cole Berger, AB '35, JD'38, is chief of the East AfricanBranch of the Foreign OperationsAdministration, now on leave ofabsence for a year on a RockefellerFoundation grant. She has alsoserved with T.C.A. and U.N.N.R.A.in Egypt. Pago PagoTutuila, American Samoaliquid in the nut it can be crackedopen and with a piece of coconut shellthe delicious coconut cream spoonedout, about the consistency of custardwith a delicate bland flavor.The "fale" is about 50 feet long and30 feet high. The floor is raised threeor four feet off the ground. A doublelayer of big black lava rocks is laid;above this is a foot thick layer ofcrushed white coral; and on top of thecoral are laid mats of laufala fiber,soft and flexible and easily washable.Around the sides of the fale arestrong posts set in the rock, a doublerow, with posts about 10 feet apartand the inner circle about 8 feet in.These posts support an intricatelywoven and beautifully patterned roof.The sides are open all around to aheight of 10 or 12 feet giving beautiful views of the green jungle, Vermillion splashed, out one side and on theother side the turquoise lagoon fringedin coconut palms, the white surfbreaking on the reef and the darkblue sea beyond. The air conditioning is perfect and I've never been inprettier or better ventilated buildings.After resting and drinking our freshcoconuts in the guest fale we wereinvited to the council fale. First camea welcoming speech, then the famousand legendary "kava" ceremony. Tomake kava young men are given thetough old roots of the tree to chewup into soft balls. These balls arethen placed in the big four-leggedkava bowls of polished wood, about30 inches across. A young man pourswater on the balls and another mixes,kneads, and strains. When the drinkwas ready, one of the matais (chiefs)called out each drinker's name in order of the amount of honor due him.(I was first, being a guest.) A tall,muscled, matai dressed in elaboratetatooing and a red lavalava broughtthe cup to each drinker in a dancingstep. We poured a little kava on theground as an offering to the gods,called "Manuia" (God be thanked),and drank what tasted like wateredMAY, 1955 5turpentine. Then came the feast! Firstbowls of water and towels were setbefore us for washing our hands. Thenthick clean chartreuse banana leaveswere spread before us as we sat cross-legged on the mats with our backsagainst the inner row of posts. Onthe banana leaves shy teen-agers setout for each one of us a whole roastedchicken, a 3-or-4 pound lobster, bakedfish, taro (like white potato) in coconut cream, bananas, pineapples, andmore fresh drinking coconuts. This isthe Samoan idea of a light lunch. Ata big religious feast they add enormous wild boars roasted whole. Whilewe ate, the teenagers sat on the otherside of the banana leaves and fannedus and the food.After the feast came the fono orconference. This village makes thebest mats in Tutuila. Now they wantto sell them in the U.S. and get moneyto buy tools, medicine, cloth andutensils. How could they do it? Soall afternoon we talked about prices,shipping, importers, wholesalers, retailers, letters of credit and relatedcomplications in the twentieth century's system for exchanging goodsacross the oceans. The matais discussed each concept and asked plentyof questions. It was realistic adulteducation. They told me about theirproduction methods and problems;and in return asked me about merchandising methods and problems. Weall learned from one another; I learnedmost.This is the story then of onepeople's awakening to the outsideworld. The name of this village means"Hope."To introduce modern economic concepts into Samoan life without destroying the latter will be difficult.The Samoan boy returning to his village with a string of fish feels nosense of their being his private property. The fish were given his peopleby the Creator. It is the fisherman'sduty to take them to his chief, whohas the responsibility of distributingall food. Each Samoan has alwayslooked to his chief to meet his needs.And to the chief has always come theacquisitions of each family member.If a young Samoan goes to work forcash wages, he gives his earnings tohis chief. The wage-earner lives nobetter, eats no more, has no morepersonal property than before. Sothere is an unpredictable turnover atthe tuna fish cannery Van Camp hasstarted here and in other employment.Employees work only while they arehaving fun and can look on their bossas a matai who will help them. No Dept. of State, Whit Keith, Jr.Marie Cole Bergerother incentive can arise withoutbreaking up the basic pattern of theSamoan community.Savings and capital accumulationwill also be difficult to introduce to apeople who never had to save for awinter — in fact, cannot save, even fora day because food is perishable aswell as abundant. Every day thecoconuts, banana, taro and fish arebrought in and cooked up in enormous quantities. Leftovers are thrownaway. For thousands of years therewas no imperishable currency. Godprovided man's daily bread, daily, andfresh. Not for the Samoan has beenthe plowing, harrowing, disking, planting, cultivating, reaping, threshing,milling and baking we northern racesgo through to get bread. He picks hisbreadfruit off the tree over his head,warms it in the fire, breaks it, spreadsguava jam over it and eats. He throwsaway what he doesn't want becausetomorrow there will be quantities ofnew ripe breadfruit ready to drop into his mouth.But bicycles and trucks don't growon trees. To get one of these aSamoan must save. This is a strangethought to a boy who has grown uplike a lily of the field, neither sowingnor reaping. And so, Samoans todayare struggling to combine two utterlydifferent ways of life. For change iscoming — with results that are mixedfor good and evil . . .The M.V. Samoa left Pago Pago forManu'a at 8 p.m. with Samoansdraped solidly and colorfully over itshatch covers and decks. The M.V.Samoa would make a respectable fish>-ing boat on the Potomac. But wewere going out- on the Pacific out ofsight of land. To the Samoans the craft probably seems bigger than theancient double canoes of lore. To mecame the comforting thought that itwas longer, though not wider, thanthe Kon Tiki raft. And with this innerassurance I climbed into my hammock back of the steersman. Therewere six hammocks on board for theprivileged. Vaiao and his year andhalf old daughter had one, Fay andthe six-months' old baby another.Three men were snoring peaceably onthe other three. We began to roll aswe climbed the swells outside PagoPago harbor and I fell asleep tryingto figure out why Orion was standingon his head on the horizon. During afew wakeful intervals that night Iwatched the muscular brown back ofthe helmsman. He wore a wreath offlowers on his head, a string of beadsaround his neck, tatooing around hiswaist and a bit of red cloth about hisloins.At 5: 30 a.m. Vaiao shook me awake."We get off here," he said. I climbeddown and found a pewter sea turningto steel in the pre-dawn. A 10-manrowing boat and some orange outriggers were alongside. On a coconutfringed orange beach the whole village of Olosega was gathering frombrown thatched fales just showingunder the curves of banana and breadfruit trees. We handed the babies tothe oarsmen, then the big tins of sodacrackers and tins of candy which wereto be our gifts to the village, andthen our light luggage. At the moment when the rowing boat rose ona swell we leaped across ourselves,were caught by strong brown armsand in an instant were heading forthe reef. Now the sea was turningfrom steel to silver and purple. Down40 feet or more below, the jaggedcoral bottom could be clearly seen.Ahead were white breakers. Suddenly our boat shot through the one calmplace between two wicked coral rocks,a following wave or two pushed usthrough the emerald water over thesands and we jumped ashore to greetthe village just as the sun sent atentative wan streak through themists.The big treat of the day was theentertainment in the malae after supper. Two plays — both musical comedies — -were given in the 4-hour performance. The first was all about agreat "malaga" (journey) by a fellownamed "Ya-sonny," who went to findsome golden wool. In the first 20scenes "Ya-sonny" was born, grewup, went to school, recited, danced thesiva siva, learned to open coconutsand paddle a canoe, etc. Finally he6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgoes on his famous malaga. Boy meetsgirl. She gives him a Coke bottle.This is magic medicine with whichYa-sonny meets and defeats a succession of devil-fish, octopuses, sharks,strangers, etc., etc., who all succumbedto a few drops from the Coke bottle.With this palagi (white man's) powerhe naturally acquires the golden woolon a distant island. When he returnsPapa and Mama have a big row aboutwhether to turn the kingdom over tohim. Papa wants to; Mama says onlygive him half. Final scene: Papawalks out and plants the flower wreathfirmly on Ya-sonny's head giving himmataiship over the whole works.The Greeks weren't the only onesto have their mythology honored. Thenext play had to do with a father andson named "Leaky" and "Leafy."They made interminable and innumerable malagas and discovered Iceland. In Iceland Leaky got into afight with someone who ate all thebananas off his plantation. So Leakywas told to go on a malaga for threeyears until the matter blew over.Leaky went out in his outrigger andfound Greenland. He told Leafy togo back and tell the people in Icelandthat Greenland was a better place.But Leafy went the other way andfound America.Every scene of these plays waschanted or declaimed at the top ofthe lungs. The acting was spiritedand personal, with comic lines thatset the audience roaring. Afterwardthere were speeches of congratulations, one of them by me, in which Isaid I had made a longer malaga thanYa-sonny or Leafy and had come to abetter place: namely that village ofOlosega. This brought a laugh.It was 11:30 p.m. when the chiefsand I assembled for one final fono.Two of the problems were easy. Firstthey asked what to do about the soil.The soil would not grow as much ason the other islands of the Manu'sgroup. This was not to be wonderedat. The mountain is practically vertical. A thin fringe of sand surroundsit. The people have climbed themountain, sometimes using ropes tosurmount overhangs, and have plantedbananas and coconuts and taro wherever there is a slight toehold for alittle soil. The soil is just rock, nohumus. I suggested a big compost pitinto which to put fallen leaves, bonesof chicken and pigs and fish and ashesfrom the fires. I explained that thismixture when rotted and mixed withground coral would give a fertilizerrich in nitrogen, phosphate, potashand lime, the elements necessary formost plants. Then I told them to putMAY, 1955 some of this compost under their newplantings of bananas, taro, etc. It's notvery scientific but I hope this procedure will give them some humusmixed with their rock.The next problem was how to usethe laupaogo fibre which is one of theplants that grows profusely. I suggested forming a co-op like Amanave,weaving mats and marketing themstateside. So I got myself the job offinding a wholesaler for them.The most difficult problem is howto keep the young men "down on thefarm" after they have seen the moviesin Pago Pago and the pictures in the5th Grade English Reader at theschool. Also the young men are wisedup to the fact that they don't have towork for the chiefs and many of themhave gone off. To this I had no solution. We haven't solved the ruralyouth problem in the U.S. either. Themain trouble is that life in Olosega isso monotonous. It has many values,that life. It is safe and healthy, ahappy environment for children andold people. But a mentally energeticadult has too little stimulus there.To bed at midnight for a short deepsleep. Vaiao wakened me at 5:30.Luckily dressing consists of 2 garments and 2 shoes, a dip in a basin,tooth brushing: a matter of threeminutes and the curtain between bedroom and dining room can come down.A simple hurried breakfast of coffeeand bread and we went to the rowingboat. The 10 young men waiting forus didn't seem to have any problemssuch as their elders had thought theyhad. They had been told to row us to the island of Ta'u, a matter of 6miles across the open Pacific and rowus they looked willing to do — and alsocapable. The boat was loaded heavily,with Vaiao as bailer and Fay and Ieach clutching a baby, our luggageand our gifts of biscuit tins and candyin 10 pound cans. Twenty copperarms strained at the heavy oarsagainst the oncoming rollers, and suddenly we were through the break inthe reef and off across the deep blueswells heading for a tiny island almosthidden in the mists eastward in thesaffron dawn. The swells lifted usrhythmically. The rowers began tosing. As time went on we cleared ajagged headland and then left landbehind. The 10 backs swayed backand forth. The babies went to sleep.From time to time we passengerscalled encouragement: "Malo" (welldone); "Fa'afetai" (thanks to you)and passed out candy by the fistful.Cigarettes were passed out too butno matches were on board so theywere tucked away, goodness knowshow, in the lavalavas.In 2Vi hours of steady rowing at afast clip our young men shot throughanother reef on the island of Ta'u inthe full morning sun at 8 a.m. District Governor Lefiti was on the beachalong with most of the village and weall trooped to his hospitable guest falefor a second very substantial breakfast . . . We talked through the evening with Chief Lefiti, drinking coconuts from time to time while the surfon the reef beat a background rhythmto the tinkle of a ukulele the wildharmonies of Samoan songs some-The Ala' ilima family: Fay; Birdsall, 10 mos.; Vaiao, and Gladys, 2%.where around the fales. The chiefgets a salary of $50 a month as District Governor of Manu'a — which includes the 3 islands of Ofu, Olosega,and Ta'u.Finally to sleep in a lovely soft bigbed under mosquito netting.Right after breakfast next morningwe set off on a malaga to the villageat the other end of the island of Ta'u,the easternmost village where the sunfirst rises on Samoa every day. Fourstrong young men appeared, clad inlarge grins, flowers and lavalavas. Onecarried the baby, one carried the littlegirl; one carried our gifts for thevillage; and one carried our ownluggage which consisted mainly ofdiapers, nursing bottles, cans of milkand other stuff all parents knowabout, plus a change of clothes foreach adult. The trip was probably10 or 15 miles. I don't know. It tookus 5% hours of fairly steady walkingthrough the green and gold jungle.Samoan paths are likely to be justthe width of a Samoan foot, about 6to 8 inches; and they never dry out.The soft squishy mud is fairly easyon bare feet; but even little sharprocks make no difference to a footthat has run over sharp coral frombabyhood — coral that can so cut apalagi foot that the wound doesn'theal for 6 months.Walking in Samoa is somewhat asif there were free ice cream soda barsevery few yards. The land providesfor you. Are you thirsty? A boy willget you a fresh coconut — icy cold,mildly stimulating in the same way asiced tea or Coke. Each nut holds between a pint and a quart dependingon size. If you would like a changefrom this (although no drink in theworld is better) you can drink from aspecial vine that gives you anotherkind of cold drink when cut justabove a joint. Are you hungry? Afteryou've drunk your coconut, crack itopen and eat the lovely white custard inside. Easily digested, sweet,the consistency of custard, it will fillyou. The baby loves coconut. Hisstalwart nurse fed him several during the morning, a process which always made him gurgle happily andwave his arms over his head. If youwant a change from coconut custardyou can eat a few dozen, or a fewhundred bananas from the trees alongthe trail. Or maybe you have a sweettooth? You can chew sugar cane — acombination candy, chewing gum andtooth-cleaner. Or maybe you are getting hot? A fresh water shower willcome and sluice off all the perspiration, wash your clothes, wash you, Two boys assist at -a ceremonial feastby carrying in the taro.and leave you thoroughly clean andrefreshed. But if you want, with theinconstancy of human nature, to bedry again, then along will come thesun and dry you. And you can keepfrom getting hot again by fanningyourself with a stiff leaf that thejungle provides for the sole purposeit seems, of meeting even the least ofhuman needs. At a rest stop you neednot sit on the ground or grass or rock.Pick a thick banana leaf and you havea good pad, dry and comfortable. Didthe little girl get her hands dirty?She can pick the bud of a plant thatgrows all along under the largerthings. The bud when grasped exudesa liquid soap smelling of lemon flavor.Use the water stored in a big leaf torinse .with.I thought we were stumped at onerest stop when we passed out cigarettes and then (as usual) found wehad no matches. But the boys simplyrubbed a stick inside a groove madein another stick and (unlike most BoyScouts) really made fire in about 1%minutes.Many, many coconuts later we cameto the village of Fitiuta and promptlywent to sleep on the hospitable floorof the guest fale. At 4 p.m. we weregently wakened, given washing bowlsand towels, and then fed fish, taro,breadfruit, palusami (green youngtaro leaves like spinach mashed withcoconut cream) and given coconutsto drink. After that came showers atthe community wash house whilesome smiling teen agers took off ourdirty clothes to wash them for us.At sundown a gong called the village to evening prayer, each familyin its own house. The matais cameto our guest fale. The leading adults of Fitiuta sat around crossleggedwith their backs against the posts andgave thanks to God for his goodnessto them and to us, for guiding ussafely to that village for the night. Aquarter of an hour later the gong rangagain — this time for supper. Aftersupper the pastor turned on a batteryset radio for us. Into that thatchedfale came the voice of the Seattlenews announcer telling of icy highways, automobile accidents, planecrashes, jail out-breaks, and murdertrials. It felt very very good to besafely in Fitiuta, away from the hazards those poor Americans have tolive through in the U. S.Next morning the sound of childrensinging in Sunday School awakenedus and after eggs, bread and coffee wehurried to the adult service at 8 a.m.Never have I heard such singing, harmonies and rhythms we westernerssimply do not know.Dinner was at 11 — if anyone hadtold me I could put away a wholechicken at that hour I would havedenied it. But I seem to be getting aSamoan appetite. Then our youngmen picked up the children and westarted back to Ta'u. This time theyoung men carried the childrenstraight through without a stop whileVaiao, Fay and I took our time. Thisleft Vaiao to climb the coconut treesand get our drinks for us. I was happy to find that his MA in public administration hadn't hurt the strengthof his toes. He got us good big onesin a twinkling. How he gets themopen without a knife or other implement is a Samoan secret. We got toTa'u and a swim in the lagoon beforedinner. Then another fono (conference of chiefs) all evening. They toldme a lot about their problems andtheir ideas. I'm learning a good dealby living with these people in thevillages, eating with them, drinkingkava with the old chiefs, talking onthe floor with my back against a postuntil far into the night. I'm learningwhat kind of development they envision and what cultural and traditionalbarriers are in the way.Maybe I have been in the Gardenof Eden. It could be that this is asclose as a human being can come toparadise here on earth. Or do youthink those coconuts are intoxicating?Maybe they are. But I have had aglimpse of a simple and wholesomelife, filled with innocent sweetness,in a garden of plenty — with a charming and gracious people who couldteach us a great deal about man's relationship to the natural world andto his fellow men.8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWill theVILG1NErupt?A romantic scene in Hong Kong: a native sampan sets sail at dusk.by Olaf K. Skinsnes, SM '46, MD '47, PhD '47O,'N MOST GENERAL maps involving the Far East, Hong Kong appears as a fly-speck with a name.Opinions about this speck vary wildly.Thus, last summer Susan Haywardwas involved in a court case becauseshe wished to bring her childrenalong to Hong Kong on a movie-making assignment. According to localpress reports, the court denied herwish on the grounds that there weretoo many Communists running aroundin our streets and too many dangerous germs in the air to make sucha safari feasible. Yet, among thehardy tourists who venture this far,the women in general find themselvesgoing crazy shopping in a welter ofstores offering delightful Oriental"treasures" and the men spend whatfortunes their wives leave them onshooting reel after reel of color filmto show the folks back home.It is true that those of us who livehere occasionally find ourselves inconversation with persons sympathetic to the new government ofChina, and it is true that Hcng Konghas a very high incidence of tuberculosis and typhoid fever and that afair share of the population is hostto the parasite, Clonorchis sinensis.It is also true that coronary occlusions are so few that we have a difficult time obtaining teaching material.In fact, our teaching material on myocardial infection comes from some tissue blocks that I brought along fromthe University of Chicago. Just afew days ago we had our first postmortem examination on a case of acute rheumatic fever — we have beenteaching from Chicago material. Allthese things, and many others, balance out to give a fairly peaceful anddelightful existence while sitting onthe edge of a potential volcano.This British colony is geographically a part of South China and thereis a railroad and motor road extending directly up into China. The wholeplace comprises a rectangle aboutforty miles by twenty-five miles.Most of this is ocean though thereare over sixty islands and a peninsulajutting out from the Chinese main-.land enclosed within the colony'sboundaries. The dimensions are sosmall that our house, considered tobe relatively far from China, is onlyabout fifteen miles in a straight linefrom the border to the north. To thesouth a chain of Communist garrisoned islands rims the border. Theharbor is one of the most magnificentin the world, though occasionally disrupted by howling typhoons in thehot, wet, summer months, and theairport, ringed as it is by mountainson all sides, is one of the most hair-raising places to let down on. Despiteall the surrounding water, usablewater is obtainable only by storageof rain water in reservoirs duringOlaf K. Skinsnes, SM '46, MD '47,PhD '47, is a pathologist and medical missionary. Dept. of PathologyUniversity of Hong Kongthe rainy season. At present the twoand a quarter million inhabitants arelimited to a three-hour period of supply per day.The population is a mixture ofChinese, Indian, and "foreigners." Ofthe whole, the Chinese comprise morethan ninety-five per cent. During thewar the population was down to 500,-000 from a previous high of 800,000.Thus the post-war years have seenthe population triple its previous high.This has raised tremendous relief andhousing problems. In spite of a major building boom which is giving riseto apartment buildings, hospitals,churches and schools at an amazingrate, there are still hundreds of thousands housed in shacks knocked together from bits of packing cases andkerosene tins, or sleeping in rows byfamilies on the sidewalks. A steadysuccession of fires has wiped out section after section of squatter huts.They are quickly replaced by similarshacks, and more slowly by a plannedprogram of simple but fireproof concrete houses built in rows. A yearago, during one of our coldest nights,60,000 persons were burned out oftheir hut homes and had to be caredfor and re-housed under better conditions. On the other side of thepicture are numerous attractive modern houses for the more fotunate,many of which are located near someof the most magnificent swimmingbeaches one could wish for, or alternatively have scenic views calculatedto make one give up all thought ofany activity save that of just sitting,MAY, 1955 9looking, and perhaps taking pictures.There is, for example, a mansion witha beautiful white private pagoda builtby a fortune achieved from the selling of a patent medicine known as"Tiger Balm" which is reputed to begood for anything from headaches andchest ailments to keeping flies away.Again, there are two large residencesbuilt in the style of old British castlesby a wealthy Chinese who was toldby his necromancer that if he stoppedbuilding he would die. He lastedthrough to the completion of just twocastles.In the midst of all this, there isthe University of Hong Kong. It isBritish, has just over a thousandstudents, about half of whom are inthe medical school and the rest scattered in the faculties of engineering,arts, science and architecture. Thecampus has been rehabilitated froman almost complete ruin of buildingsand equipment, caused not so muchby the war itself as by local vandalism occurring in the few days between the Japanese giving up control and the British regaining power.I can speak only for the medicalschool from experience. Here thelevel of instruction has been improving right along and is now fairlygood. Instruction is given in English,otherwise the students and graduateswould have virtually no access toreference books or journals. Yet thisis also a handicap since the average English reading speed of the studentis only one-third to one-half that ofthe university student at home. Despite the handicaps the good studentsare really good and the middle onesare not too bad.When it comes to trying to do medical research one finds that one hasvirtually to build the facilities, raisethe financial support and hunt out allthe bits of required equipment. Muchof the material has to be orderedfrom Britain or the U.S.A., and thatmay take months and is subject tothe hazards of the red tape involvedin getting items cleared for HongKong through the embargo on goodsto China. Sometimes one finds themost unexpected bits of equipmentin some small shop up a side alley.Such good fortune is almost alwaystempered by an absence of spareparts or replacements. I once boughta microscope and later came back foran additional bottle of immersion oil.The shop had no additional bottle ofoil but offered to sell me anothermicroscope that had a fresh bottleto go with it! All this means that ittakes time to get going. Little bylittle, however, the essentials cometogether, and if one sticks to workingon problems in which one has theadvantage of an abundance of localmaterial for investigation one beginsto see glimmerings of possibilitiesthat lend zest to the effort.As the communist armies were tak-The author shares a pipe with a Formosan mountain woman. The tatoos of thetwo women have special significance — the mouth to ears tatoo indicates that theyare married, the lines on the foreheads show that they are members of the Tyaltribe. ****SkinsnesThis is the Chinese style Diamond HillLutheran Church in Hong Kong, whichwas designed and built by AuthorSkinsnes.ing over South China there was muchspeculation as to the possible fate ofHong Kong. Probably the majorityof the locally resident Chinese weresympathetic to the new government,not specifically because of communistideology but rather on nationalisticgrounds. Hong Kong was taken over,by treaty, during the Opium Wars,but the Chinese have always considered that it is really a part of China.To see the "imperialists" thrown outof China and to visualize a like possibility in Hong Kong was not a picture calculated to cause depression.The dream was tempered by the factthat the stream of refugees cominginto Hong Kong were fugitives fromthe Communists.With the establishment of the newgovernment there came to be twoChinese national days: October 1stfor the Communists and October 10thfor the followers of the deposed government. On the first October following the establishment of the Communist government, the Communistflag was plastered all over Hong Kong,and there were very few Nationalistflags in evidence on that October10th. The following year there wasa dramatic reversal of opinion — theCommunists had by that time instituted "reforms" in South Chinawhich had affected relatives andfriends of Chinese residents in HongKong. Accordingly when the monthof October rolled around again,scarcely a Communist flag could beseen save, ironically enough, on theCommunist controlled banks and otherlarge business concerns. On October10th, however, the Nationalist flagblossomed forth all over town. Everysampan flew a flag, as did the poorestof the squatters' huts. Taxis displayedthe same flag, rickshaws flutteredsmaller versions and even coolies hadthe flag on their carrying poles. Andso it has been ever since.10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Wards discover Britain's "one undebatable crime"and disprove Mr. Hutchins' theory that "learning doesnot occur in pleasant surroundings" . . . but, after allNew Delhi Isn't India..."by Duira Ward2, Circular RoadDiplomatic EnclaveNew Delhi, IndiaL ERHAPS this South Side housewife will be forgiven for remarking,first of all, that she enjoys very muchthe aid of the five grown men whowork, as they would put it, full time,to cover the ground she once covered daily in Chicago. At first, aswith all recently arrived Americans,our democratic hackles rose at all thisattention, and we spent our time trying to hide from it, or suggestingdesperately that the staff take a dayoff, for heaven's sake! I laugh tothink how, in our conceit, Champ andI worried about maintaining thechildren's moral fibre under theseconditions. Alas, our own degeneration is now complete, and the handsthat reach for the proferred cups ofcoffee couldn't be more languid. Theprediction of one of my more clearsighted friends: "You won't be worthshooting when you come home" hasalready proved accurate.The Ford Foundation office hadorganized our house for us before ourarrival, even to the hiring of a staff,so our landing couldn't have beenmore smooth. The servants are allproducts of long training in a succession of English families, and if theythink us a little uncouth in matterslike skipping the fish course, they arepolite about it. Siri Ram, our bearer,was cook-bearer to Colonel Jim Corbett of man-eating tiger fame, witha "chit" to prove it. He does not read,but it is a fine thing to see him lookwith pleased recognition at the pictures in the boys' Corbett books.In many ways quite unconnectedwith my life of ease it will be hard to leave the servants behind. In spiteof minor irritations, they are a warmand gentle and comforting group tohave around. I shan't forget onenightmarish night while Champ wasin Denmark and Andy, eight, was sodangerously ill that four doctorsstayed with him all night. Siri Ram,in the Hindu belief that no religionhas exclusive leverage with theDeity, found time between carryingbowls of ice to the sick-room andbrewing me coffee to organize prayersin the servants' quarters. He had ourChristian driver bring his Crucifix,he himself hired two sadhus, he linedup our Buddhist cook, and, because wehave no Muslim on our staff, he imported the Muslim cook from theJapanese Embassy next door to coverthat front. You can imagine, in myvulnerable condition, what this did tome. We credited the four doctors andtheir antibiotics with Andy's eventualrecovery, but an unprejudiced observer would have thought this apiece of impudence, at best.So many people have said to mereproachfully, "Mrs. Ward, New Delhiisn't India." I haven't yet discoveredwhat reply is expected. Evidently themere accident of living here is some-Duira Ward is the wife ofF. Champion Ward, William RaineyHarper Professor of Philosophyand former dean of the College.He is on leave of absence this yearserving as an educational representative of the overseas divisionactivity of the Ford Foundation. how discreditable. We can't write offas total loss, however, the opportunities afforded us of watching at closehand both the pageantry and theroutine of a new, self-conscious, vigorous and dedicated government.When we want to see what earnestfriends somewhat patronizingly, Isometimes think, call "the real India,"all we have to do is pass through theKashmiri Gate into Old Delhi, full ofhistorical monuments, squalor, andthe most fascinating shopping centerin the world, Chandni Chowk, withsilks, silver, parakeets, diamonds,perfume — -and junk — in one, madjumble.I might add that if New Delhi isn'tIndia, "India" comes regularly to NewDelhi. We shall never get used to therecurrent groups of wandering refugees who come and set up housekeeping under the trees just oppositethe Prime Minister's house until he,personally, can arrange for them tofind shelter; or to the sweeper's village in the field opposite our house,a collection of mud and straw huts,shoulder-high. Then there was thesadhu who staked out his claim fora few days just outside the gates ofthe spic and span Ford Foundationoffices. He was quite naked, with avery long, but none the less inadequate beard.Ever sensitive to public opinion, Ihave left New Delhi in search of "thereal India" several times. However,the realism hasn't always been exactly stark. The Ministry of Education, Government of India, has not yetaccepted Mr. Hutchins' thesis thatMAY, 1955 11"Learning does not occur in pleasantsurroundings," for it arranged aheadmasters' conference in Kashmirduring five weeks last summer. Thiscalled for a family excursion by carup over the Banihal Pass. People saythis is an exhilarating experience andthat the scenery is unsurpassed. Iwouldn't know, for I cowered in disgrace on the floor with my eyes shutmost of the way. We had to stayovernight unexpectedly at a resthousehalf way through the mountains, andby the time we reached Srinagar thenext day, our hosts had sent whatsounded like an all too casual telegram to New Delhi, informing theFoundation office that we must haverolled off a cliff.Probably because of the sense ofisolation in Kashmir, we were all themore impressed and unexpectedlytouched by the vestiges of the Empireeverywhere evident. The owner ofour houseboat took one look atChamp, pegged him as a reasonablethough very rough facsimile of anEnglishman, and spent the next fiveweeks trying to make him conformto an English mold. Champ would behappily settled down with a bookwhen "Your bath, sir!" would resoundthrough the boat at the oddest times,and there was no peace until hehad scrubbed. I tried not to makeunflattering deductions about thecleanliness of the English female, butthe fact remains that I had to pleadfor bath water.Then there was the cooking! I bowto no one in my admiration for theEnglish — no one, that is, but the Indians, who make no bones of the factthat the English in India are now byfar the most welcome and beloved ofall foreigners. However, in all theyards of criticism of the Empire Ihave ever read, I have never seenany mention of the one undebatablecrime they did commit, the propagation of English cuisine. The prideHelen Ward and Indian friends. with which our houseboat wallah presented us with the sticky porridge,the luke-warm boiled potato, the gray"veg," and the milk pudding brokeour hearts. Unfortunately for ourdigestions, he and his children andgrandchildren, all of whom lived onthe cook-boat attached to our stern,were too genuinely kind and hospitable for us to complain very strenuously.We stole two long week-ends fromthe conference in Srinagar to travelby car and mountain pony to Gul-marg, a hill-station in the high Himalayas where we lived in an excellentlodge, and rubbed our eyes to find anexcellent golf course with each teelocated in such a way as to proffer anew and ever more breathtaking viewof the white peaks and evergreenforests. While Champ played golf andI walked by his side emitting dazzledcries, the children rode their poniesChamundi Bull and saddhu,(holy man), in Mysore City.over the uplands, being very sure theyhad landed in heaven. We all left Gul-marg, finally, convinced we wouldnever be really happy anywhere else.I grant, "Srinigar and Gulmargaren't India." No indeed. Champ,who has been trying to learn aboutthe problems of rural education insideand outside of rural developmentareas, can, I think, claim to havesome acquaintance with "India," buthe isn't writing this letter. Asidefrom short excursions outside of theDelhi area, I have so far deserted thechildren to take only one extendedtrip with him as far south as Mysore.I did go with him to visit rural development and adult education pro-'grams, but comment on these isstrictly in his department.I don't suppose it was entirely by The Wards' houseboat at Srinagar.coincidence that we were in Mysorefor two days of the Dassehra festival,during which the Maharajah holds aDurbar every evening for ten evenings. This is one of the last remnantsof the old feudal magnificence, andis a veritable Cecil B. DeMille production, "featuring" sacred elephants,gorgeously arrayed horsemen, exhibitions of dancing, music, juggling,acrobatics — all presided over by theappropriately obese Maharajah, highin his audience hall, dressed in clothof gold and seated on his diamond-studded throne. This first night wewere given seats in a balcony flanking the hall, and had a maharajah's-eye view of the spectacle. The nextnight we joined the hoi-polloi downin the courtyard. In some ways thiswas even better, for the palace wasilluminated by thousands of lightsoutlining every arch, pinnacle, andwindow, which were all turned on atthe instant the Maharajah appearedto take the salute of his people.Being of the impressionable type thatturns wildly Tory at the sight of thepalace guard at Buckingham, I foundthe dramatic impact of this sudden illumination irresistible. By the timethe state elephant appeared andstarted making obeisance to thethrone I was lost. It was days beforeI could bring myself to a dutiful remark about the sociological implications of the Durbar, and even then itwas half-hearted.So you see, I'm not the kind of person who ought to be writing for youabout India. For a considered pieceabout this developing country, its intelligent and dedicated leaders, thetremendous experience of watchingits village development at first hand,its immense problems and the astonishing courage of those Indianscharged with solving them, you'llhave to wait until we can sort it allout. When that time comes, I shallrefer you gratefully to Champ.12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1 HERE ARE TWO popular approaches to Japan and the Japanesewhich are not fruitful because theygive too one-sided a picture. Thereis the approach taken by the motion-picture version of James Michener'snovel The Bridges at Toko-Ri, whichexhibits Japan as a garish, technicolorland inhabited solely by obsequiousservant types or cabaret girls whosethree or four words of broken English seem adequate to convey theirbest thoughts. Then there is the approach taken by "A Gateway to Japan" in the January 1955 issue ofthe Atlantic Monthly. Here, albeitsketchily, the careful selection ofstories, poems and articles presents aJapan that is all subtlety and form.While this latter approach is to bepreferred because it does give thewesterner glimpses of a Japan whichis only vaguely hinted at in the delicate beauty of temples and gardens,it is certainly no more true or complete than the former.It would be convenient to say thatthe truth about Japan lies somewherebetween these two extremes. Perhaps it does, but, if so, I am in noposition to spell it out. Japan remainsfor me a tangle of contradictions andcontrasts for which I can make onlysuperficial explanations.The nights and early mornings inJapan are beautiful and quiet withonly the lonesome sound of thenoodleman's flute, the occasional clattering of wooden clogs on the pavement, or the contrapuntal chants ofwandering vendors to ruffle their surfaces. Late morning, Japanese business commences at 9:30, breaks theenchantment and almost immediatelypeople appear to be running out ofthe ears of everything. The noise oftaxis, streetcars, busses and subwaysreaches a painful volume in a matterof seconds, and the sight of the multitude which jams them to the point Thomas E. Lucas, AM '48, is acaptain with the Deputy for Operations, Far East Air Forces, Tokyo.His duties involve some writingand some contact with the Japanese public.As an extra-duty activity, hemeets once a week with a groupof graduate students to discussEnglish poetry. "The enthusiasmand knowledge they display arevery impressive, and I feel a littlebit guilty for making them meetme on my ground and in mylanguage," he writes.of contusion, in an equally short time,would cause shortness of breath inthe most intrepid rider of inter ur-bans at rush hours. It is hard tobelieve that Tokyo was a bomb-gutted city less than ten years agowith a population less than half of1955's eight million.For a people who are such shiningexamples of genuine courtesy as individuals, Japanese in large groupsare as undisciplined and rowdy a lotas can be found anywhere. Goingto the theatre, or even to a concert,much less riding public transportation, poses a real threat to life andlimb. Invariably people attempt toenter a place of entertainment or astreetcar before those who wish toleave have had a chance to gain theirfeet. It is not so long ago that sixteen people were trampled to deathin a crowd of 380,000 which hadgathered in the Imperial PalaceGrounds to pay New Year respectsto the Emperor and Empress.The traffic situation is corollary. Itseems as if every driver in Japanimagines he is all by himself on theroad, or that all other vehicles constitute a challenge which he is honor-bound to accept. Where he feels theurge to drive — he drives. The factof cars approaching head-on will not HQ. FEAF, Box 493, APO 925c/o PM, San Francisco, Calif.deter him from passing, and right,left and "U" turns are made abruptlyfrom any lane. Fortunately, trafficmoves rather slowly because of thecongestion, and fatalities are kept totwo or three a day in Tokyo. Pedestrians and cyclists are even moreamazing than drivers. They are allover the streets, bemused, and withabsolute trust that they will not bestruck.Seeking an explanation for behavior of this kind is difficult, but thereare two factors which influence it Iam sure. Behavior in public placesis partly a matter of survival. Thereare always two bodies, at least, forevery seat, and if you are not therefirst, you stand. Traffic is a littlemore difficult, but the fact that western mechanization is relatively newin the Orient may be contributory.It is obvious, at any rate, that pedestrians and cyclists have no conceptionof the consequences of being struckby two tons of moving iron and steel.It would be easy to go on simplydescribing conditions without anyattempt at order, and such a procedure might have the value of reflecting the immediate impression. Seeking about for a dominant factoraround which to organize some observations always leads back to thenumber of people in relation to theamounts of available space and resources. The inescapable fact that inJapan there are too many people fortoo few of almost whatever can benamed is influential in shaping theactivities and thoughts of people fromall conditions of life. Japan can't produce enough food (only 17% of atotal land area less than that of California is arable and there are approximately eighty-five millionpeople), water is not plentiful, illuminating gas and electricity are inshort supply, and housing (in spiteContinued on page 15MAY, 1955 13Swtty Street a (faU&uf,by Maurice Cope, AM '49 Presso GordigianiPiazza Donatella, 25Florence, ItalyJ\T TIMES I wonder, while lookingthrough our large windows into theformal garden with the cherry treesalready in bloom in February, whyevery place cannot be as beautiful asFlorence, why all skies cannot be thesame brilliant blue which is herecopied on the Delia Robbia friezesand roundals on the facades of somebuildings. It is a perfect place to liveand work, and ideal for a student ofart.Coming from Chicago, I find it arather novel experience constantly tobe stopped, while merely walkingfrom one place to another, by buildings that demand that they be admired; and it is not their ostentationthat calls attention to them, but rather the much more subtle voice of theperfection of their design. For example, the street I take to the citylibrary, not a particularly importantstreet, has on the first corner I passa tabernacle attributed to BernardoDaddi, on the next cross street theentrance to a group of frescos byPerugino, in the next block a Renaissance cloister and church by Giulianoda San Gallo, Santa Maria Maddalenadei Pazzi, and so on for five moreblocks, past Santa Croce, to the Bib-lioteca Nazionale. And the irregularlyspaced, jutting roofs of ordinaryhouses suggest, in a way, some cubistsculpture.The Florentines themselves are verymuch aware of the beauty of theircity: "Bella Firenze" is almost a password here. Students in the Liceo takecourses in art just as we study literature in high school, and all are amateur art historians. In fact, I haveheard that no one is willing to undertake the rebuilding of the Ponte Santa Trinita for fear others will calldesigns for the new bridge ugly.As inescapable as the art here isthe sense of the past. Many buildingsdate from the Renaissance and bearthe names of great families, and manyof those that do not still have thoselarge white plaques which are socommon that they seem to be a conventional architectural ornament.Even the apartment we have rentedis the studio in which Elizabeth Bar- Maurice Cope, AM '49, and hiswife, Beatrice Everson Cope, PhB'45, AM '48, are in Italy for a year,while he studies art on a FulbrightFellowship. Maurice teaches English at Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind.rett Browning posed for the portraitwhich remained Robert's favoritelikeness of her.Living in the presence of such aquantity of art and in such historicalsurroundings is a great stimulus tostudy. It makes both art and historya part of common everyday experience and much more immediate thanthey are when one merely reads ofthem. And the resources for study,the collections of pertinent earlybooks and documents, are most abundant. But one must be patient. It isnot unusual to spend a day seekingpermission to examine a particularcollection, a second day getting a letter of recommendation from someproper authority, a third day waitingbecause the collection is closed for aspecial holiday, and then, on thefourth day, to find that parts of thecollection are not properly cataloguedor are even mislaid. But the materialone does find far overbalances suchdisappointments.Some of the confusion in librariesis the result of the war, for manythings had to be moved to safer places.But generally Italy has shown remarkable powers of recovery. It is aAuthor Maurice Cope country famous for its ruins, yet ithates a modern ruin. Not only havenew and attractive apartment buildings and stores been erected whereold ones were destroyed, but alsothere have been marvellous restorations of works of art. Many buildingsand paintings that seemed damagedbeyond repair and were published asThe Lost Masterpieces of Europehave now been reassembled fromfragments. The cloister of the CampoSanto at Pisa is almost completelyrebuilt, and the great fresco there,"The Triumph of Death," has not onlybeen saved, but the underpaintingwas revealed when the fresco itselfwas blown off the wall. Thus the warhas given us two paintings where before there was only one. But the OldTestament cycle by Gozzoli is almostcompletely lost. Although marvellousthings are being done, there is stillfar more to be done. But there issimply not enough money to keepeverything in good repair, and thusone sees paintings cracking and chipping badly, and Uccello's fresco ofJohn Hawkwood in the Duomo hasbeen taken down, but is not beingrepaired.In spite of all the attention thatthe past receives here, it never stiflesthe present, and Italy seems one ofthe most modern of European countries. Some of the oldest palaces havethe most up-to-date shops on theground floor and even the newfashion for store windows that recedefrom the street has invaded Italy;they are occasionally to be found behind medieval arches. We could certainly profit from the example of theirstainless steel coffee bars servingamazingly good strong black coffee,to be taken frequently, but in smalldoses; and we could profit also fromthe example of their news stands,which display half a dozen largesheets with all the headlines, disseminating the news rather than merelyselling it.Almost symbolic of the modern- spirit of Italy is the motorscooter.One sees them everywhere, and onesees everyone on them, the most conservative business men sitting stiffly14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEerect, casual monks in flowing robes,as well as young speed demons, andhousewives. But usually the womenride behind the men, always delicately poised sidesaddle on the little seatin back.The Italians themselves are wonderful people, smiling, cheerful, handsome, hard-working people, proud oftheir homes, proud of their families,proud of their excellent food, andproud of their personal appearance.The women, on the whole, are as chicas any to be seen in Paris, and thenumber of well dressed women is fargreater than there. They are a bright,inventive people, and eager to learn.Many of our neighborhood shopkeep ers are taking lessons in French, English, or German, via the lessons givenon the Italian radio. And the radioitself is supurb, broadcasting manyprograms comparable only to thoseof WFMT in Chicago. There are atleast two operas a week, as well asconcerts, lectures on literature andart, plays by such writers as Goldoni,Moliere, and Shaw, and even seriesof programs devoted to such thingsas the operas of Monteverdi, and thehistory of twelve tone music.There is in Italy, in spite of thestrength of the Communist party, andpartly because of it, a tremendousfriendship for the United States. It isa friendship for a country where many of their relatives now live, and afriendship for the country whosesmall individual gifts — caring forItalian orphans, CARE packages, orassistance in time of a flood — arewidely publicized and appreciatedfully as much as the more essentialofficial aid. And it is friendship for apeople whose open extroverted spiritthey find much like their own. It isthe feeling exemplified by the officeworker we met in Pistoia recently,who, on a Sunday, took three hoursof his own time to show us the wonders of his city, to see that we werewell fed, and to talk to us of Italyand the United States, out of pride inhis city, and friendship for Americans.Continued from page 13of the truth of an observation by afriend as to how strange it was tolook out into the yard and find theneighbor's house there), is more thancritical.There is no privacy for most individuals. In average homes, which aresituated within whispering distance ofeach other, six or seven people of assorted ages and sexes are required toeat, live and sleep in a space aboutequal to that of a good dollar hotelroom. As money is also in short supply, this average home is supportedon Yen 15,000 ($41.67) a month.The college student is faced withthe prospect of finding himself well-educated and with potentialitiesabove average by any standards, butwithout means of support on graduation. Just recently one such studentstood on Sukiyabashi in downtownTokyo bearing a placard on whichhe offered to sell his body for research purposes in exchange for asmall amount of money with whichto pay off debts incurred while hewas in the university. It is not surprising that college students gatherquietly in coffee shops where music(and, by the way excellent coffee) isavailable and sit in studied posturesof reverie, nor that Tschaikowsky ispreferred for this purpose to Mozartor Bach.When the student and his more mature counterpart, the intellectual, arenot pre-occupied with their own precarious position in the mad scramble,they are generally concerned with thefate of Japan. "How is Japan to copewith the problems of rising population? Inadequate resources? Unfavorable balance of trade? Shortageof foreign exchange?" "What is thebest position to maintain vis a vis theUnited States? The Soviet Union?The Communist Chinese?" The proposed answers to these questions are often ingenious, but there is littleagreement on them either among individuals in discussion or on the national level.In spite of the hardships imposedby living in such close quarters andwith such small prospects for thefuture, or perhaps because of them,most Japanese have become adaptedto living in and for the present whichenables them to get a great deal outof situations which apparently holdlittle in the way of potential pleasure.There is no air of "whistling in thegraveyard" about their enjoymentand in no real sense is present pleasure taken at the cost of the future.Separate from the ability to acceptand make the most of things is a pronounced trait which is very refreshing, a genuine disinterestedness.Imagine if you will a land wherepeople are able to participate in anexperience fully and spontaneouslyand at the same time are capable ofa true self-effacement and sensitivityto the needs of their fellows. In theface of the warmth generated by personal contact with the people ofJapan, it is impossible not to forgetthe inconveniences and defects whichthe outsider can see by virtue of notbeing involved, and not to feel thatdifficult as Japan's problems appear,they will be solved through the adap-tiveness and energy which are soabundant in the midst of the generalwant.Capt. Lucas, (left) Far East Air Forces project officer, examines a Kabuki dollheld by Tetsuo Mikiami (center) and Niro Otaka in Tokyo.U.S.A.F.; N 4MAY, 1955 15HIPPOSare on the way outMakerere CollegeAlW 48 Kampala, UgandaEast Africaby Margaret Chave Fallers,E HAVE on the walls of ourliving room two maps: one of thecontinent of Africa, and a very largeone of the Uganda Protectorate. Thefirst is to give us a sense of proportion — to remind us that although wefind our world fascinating, its problems large, and its position near thecenter of equatorial Africa important,still it is only a tiny part of this vastcontinent. The second shows us thewide spaces and great variety ofUganda: the fertile, rolling countryalong the shore of Lake Victoria (theworld's second largest lake) ; the dry,sparsely-populated parkland of theNorthern Province; the towering Ru-wenzori range, the "Mountains of theMoon", rising 17,000 feet from thevalley of the Semliki River on theCongo border. In odd moments weplan trips to all these places, mostof which we have thus far been toobusy to visit.When we first came to Uganda, in1950, Africa was still, in the minds ofmost Americans, a little-known andfar-away continent of big game andcolorful savages. It was necessary toexplain to friends and relatives thatwe did not live in South Africa andhence could not possibly have metMrs. Jones' brother-in-law who minesgold in Johannesburg (1800 miles tothe south), and that we did not livein West Africa and could not bringback a gold mask from Ashanti (2200miles to the west), but that we livein Uganda in East Africa. Today suchexplanations are no longer necessary.To less timorous souls we can saythat we live just to the west of Kenya, of Mau Mau fame. To the moretimorous we can say that we live inthe country where Hemingway'splane crashed last year. As a matterof fact, except for accounts in thelocal press, the Mau Mau seem faraway and Hemingway's accident issomething of a local joke.Uganda is a protectorate — not acolony — which partially explains whyit has more in common with the territories of British West Africa thanwith neighboring east African territories. Since shortly after the establishment of the British Protectorate at the end of the last century, nowhite settlement has been allowed.That is to say, no Europeans havebeen allowed to buy land. We haveno "settlers" in the Kenya, Rhodesiaor South African sense — no Europeansfor whom Uganda is homeland andheritage. Though one sometimes tendsto hold the settler communities inneighboring territories responsiblefor more past and present unpleasantness than can fairly be attributed topresent individuals, their absence inUganda makes for a much less clouded future.Uganda, then, though administeredby British officials, is primarily anAfrican country, now striving for self-government. It is the declared aimof the Protectorate Government andthe Colonial Office that the countryshould move toward self-governmentas rapidly as possible. There is, ofcourse, much debate about the speedwhich is "possible", but it is clearto everyone that since the war thepace has quickened. There is an atmosphere of planning and progressalmost like that of the early years ofthe New Deal, here directed towardrapid industrialization and the development of representative localgovernment and ministerial centralgovernment. Thus the British administration is attempting, and large-Margaret Chave Fallers, AM '48,and her husband, Lloyd Fallers,PhB '46, AM '49, PhD '53, arespending this year in Uganda,where Lloyd is conducting a studyof group life among people whohave been transplanted from normal native life into modern industrial operations.Both Fallers' held Fulbrights atthe London School of Economicsin 1950, then spent two years inUganda at the East African Institute of Social Research. Now ontheir second trip to Africa, theywill visit the U. S. this summer,then go to Cambridge Universitywhere Lloyd will teach fall quarter. In January he will becomedirector of the East African Institute, for a five-year term. ly succeeding, in planning itself outof work.Uganda's economy is varied; in thenorth are large herds of cattle, onthe lakes a substantial fishing industry, in the mountains copper mining,and in the towns light industry(blankets, cigarettes, sugar, evenPepsi-Cola!) but basically this remains an agricultural country. Themajor exports are peasant-grown,medium-staple cotton and coffee. Thispattern of peasant agriculture helpsto explain the absence in Uganda ofmany of the discontents which haveafflicted so many other non- Westernareas in recent years, for not only isthe basic wealth of the country notin the hands of immigrant Europeans,neither is it confined to a few Africans; it is very widely spread. Tomake the picture even brighter, thedevelopment of cash-crop agriculturehas not been at the expense of subsistence production. Peasants haveboth an adequate and relatively surefood crop (plantains, sweet potatoesor millet, in different areas) and asource of cash with which to purchase trade goods from the shops.The shops are mostly run by Uganda's other major ethnic group — theIndians. One of the first acts of theBritish after the establishment of theProtectorate was the construction ofa railway up from the coast at Mombasa and many construction workersContinued on page 18Milady's bath — Uganda style.16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBOOM-TOWNin South Africaby Roy P. Carlson, AM '48American Vice-ConsulIN THE COURSE of his pioneeringvoyage to India via the Cape of GoodHope, Vasco da Gama sighted agreen and hilly land on ChristmasDay, 1497, which he named "terra doNatal" to commemorate the occasion.This stretch of southeastern Africancoast subsequently has had a checkered history, and its principal city,Durban (once called Port Natal) hasnot always enjoyed the rate of growthand activity that it is experiencingcurrently."Better fortune will follow a weakbeginning" is the optimistic prophesyof the city's motto. The first whitesettlers, who came from Britain in theearly 1820's, found the area underabsolute control of a despotic Bantuchieftain, Chaka, who ruled with anefficient and ruthless band of Zuluwarriors. The little settlement waswithdrawn but re-established soonthereafter, and struggled along forabout a decade tolerated by the Zululeaders.In 1836 the Great Trek of Dutch-speaking settlers from the CapeProvince began, and the followingyear a band of these "voortrekkers"reached Port Natal by the overlandroute through the Drakensberg mountain range which today forms Natal'swestern boundary. They were soonengaged in armed conflict with thenatives and in December of 1838 succeeded in crushing Zulu militarypower at the battle of Blood Riverabout 200 miles north of Durban.That the subsequent developmentof the port and its hinterland has beenchiefly by the British instead of theAfrikaners (evolved from the SouthAfrican Dutch) is due to the largeinflux of British settlers who cameby sea in the middle decades of thenineteenth -century, and to the subsequent withdrawal of the Natal voortrekkers to the high plateaus of theTransvaal and Orange Free State.In the 1850's sugar grown in theprolific cane fields of the Natal coastalarea was first milled commercially;this marked the establishment ofwhat became one of Durban's majorindustries. The early planters were unable to recruit native labor forwork in the fields because the Zuluswere still living self-sufficiently intheir kraals and possessed little incentive to strive for monetary remuneration. Agitation developed forimportation of indentured workersfrom India and for the next half century thousands of Hindustani, Gujer-ati and Tamil laborers poured intoDurban and its environs until furtherAsian immigration was prohibited.Today Durban is South Africa'smost heterogeneous city, and all ofthe racial groups that compose thecountry's variegated population arerepresented here. Of almost a halfmillion residents, official statistics listthree major groups — "Europeans"(whites), "Asiatics" (principally Indians) and "Natives" (Bantu) — eachof which constitutes over thirty percent of the total. The small balanceis made up principally of "Cape American Consulate144 Smith StreetDurban, South AfricaColoureds" who are primarily descendants of intermarriages betweenthe earliest Dutch settlers and aboriginal Hottentot women in the Capetown vicinity.Though a visitor to Durban will hearEnglish spoken almost universally,the British element in the total population is proportionately diminishing.Young Afrikaners from up-countryfarms are moving in increasingnumbers to the sunny, mild climate of the Natal coast, and are remaining to raise families as they findjobs and establish themselves in theDurban community. At the same timea growing number of Africans areleaving the native reserves to accelerate the trend toward urbanizationthat has been apparent since Durbanfirst began to develop industrially.Meanwhile the youthful and virile Indian population is outdistancing theContinued on page 18This view of Durban's business district shows the city's postoffice, (buildingwith the clock) where the convention was held that resulted in the formationof the Union of South Africa.Natal MercuryMAY, 1955 17Continued from page 16were brought in from British India.From these and from others who followed them has grown up a groupof merchants, skilled artisans andprofessional people to form a kind ofethnic middle class.Thus Kampala, Uganda's metropolis and our present home, is a cityof colorfully varied population: African women in magnificent long printdresses, Indian women in saris, Sikhartisans in yellow, pink or blue turbans, African men in long Arab nightshirt-like kanzus, and of course someof each group in Western dress.In 1950, we lived in Jinja, situatedon the shore of Lake Victoria wherethe Nile begins its long northwardjourney to Egypt. Until the SecondWorld War, Jinja was a sleepy littledistrict headquarters inhabited by afew Indian traders and British administrators and missionaries, but today it is booming and looks and actsfor all the world like a western American mining town. The first of severalprojected hydro -electric dams is being built on the Nile to provide powerfor heavy industry — cotton spinning,copper smelting, and chemicals.In 1950, late in the evening, weoften heard heavy footsteps andchomping noises outside in the garden and we knew that hippos hadcome to feed on the lawn and to sleepin the soft soil of the flower beds.Now the hippo stories told in JinjaContinued from page 17city's other large groups in naturalincrease, particularly since improvedhealth measures have resulted in amarked decline of the death rate.Durban prides itself on its attractiveness as a holiday resort and thetourist industry is, indeed, big business, especially during the three "seasons" at Christmas, Easter and inJuly when all of the city's hotels,numbering more than a hundred, areapt to be filled to capacity. But it ismuch more, for it has displaced Capetown as the major port in SouthernAfrica, and since the termination ofWorld War II has seen a rapid growthof industry crowned by the erectionof the country's only oil refinerywhich began to produce last year.No longer is it necessary for the area'syoung men to journey to Johannesburg in search of promising careers;Durban now offers opportunities inmany fields.The old industries meanwhile havenot been abandoned; sugar is still themajor agricultural crop processed inthe city while the long establishedwhaling industry sends a factory ship Winni poses in her school hat.are not about ruined rose beds butabout ruined control panels in thepower house of the dam. One feels,however, that these days hippos inJinja are on their way out.Do I give you a clear enough picture to show that this is an idealplace for Tom's study of the "newleaders" of Uganda — the new peopleof high status and authority who arearising in the political, economic andreligious fields in this rapidly-changing society? He works at the EastAfrican Institute of Social Research,a social science research organizationattached to Makerere College, theUniversity College of East Africa andhis present project is supported bythe Carnegie Corporation. Part of thetime he is in Kampala, and at othertimes in the country side — "on safari".Our two daughters, Winni, 5, andto the Antarctic every summer andkeeps a fleet of offshore whaleboatsbusy in Natal waters during themonths in which it is impossible tooperate in polar regions. Durban'swhaling station is an interesting placeto visit and at times is so busy thatthe carcasses of the large mammalsare queued up in the bay near thestation's slipway to await their turnsto be hacked to pieces by menequipped with long-bladed knives.Last year the city celebrated itscentennial as an incorporated municipality. The first hundred years werenot without problems; just six yearsago serious racial strife occurred between the African and Indian communities in the city, leaving in itswake scores of people dead and injured and untold property damage.But leaders of the two groups as wellas city officials are hopeful that conditions which caused the trouble havebeen eliminated or brought undercontrol sufficiently to preclude anyrecurrence.Many of the Natal Indians feel veryclose to the Gandhian tradition, forit was while residing here that the Beth, 3, are thriving or we wouldn'tstay here. We live at an altitude of4000 feet so there are very few tropical diseases and we, like you, worrymuch more often about polio thanmalaria. Winni goes each morning toKampala European School — properly,as all English school children, in hergrey felt hat. (Maybe you would havethought they'd make some modification — straw hat, say. Have no fear.Good quality, heavy grade, felt it is.)The girls speak with slightly Britishaccents, and carry on well in the native tongue — Luganda.You'd be staggered at the numberof travellers who pass through hereeach year: Swedish business men,German Volkswagen salesmen,UNESCO and other UN people, representatives of foundations and universities from all over the world, and,of course, movie makers and tourists.(Some of the scenes for "AfricanQueen" were shot just outside of ourhouse in Jinja.)Since the day we landed in Mombasa in 1950 we have been seeingUniversity of Chicago people. Thatday as we wondered where to go,what hotel to try, etc., Alfred (AB '41,AM '52), and Grace Gredys Harris,PhB '45, AM '49, drove up to us onthe pier and said we were expectedat the American consul's house — whoturned out to be Deane (AB '43), andAngela Peyraud Hinton, SB '45! Sincethen we have seen many others.Mahatma first organized his thinkingabout the system which subsequentlydeveloped into satyagraha or passiveresistance. Some twelve miles fromDurban's northern boundary is thePhoenix Settlement founded by Mahatma Gandhi fifty years ago; hissecond son still dwells there.The diverse backgrounds of Durban's residents have produced a fascinating city of contrasts in whichcricket and rugby are followed withas much enthusiasm as anywhere inthe British Commonwealth, while atthe same time Hindu fire-walkerstread through white hot coals, Muslim priests call the faithful to prayerfive times a day, and Bantu witchdoctors equipped with crocodile teeth,cocks' combs and dried snake skinsply their trade. And it was only afew years ago that a hippopotamusmigrating from a Zululand stream tosouthern Natal walked through thetraffic-laden streets of Durban, mutely testifying that the city's stream-' lined modernity is only a short distance in both time and space fromthe primitive Africa that was oncethe dark continent.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHOME is Behind Barsby Marshall B. Clinard, PhD '41 Furusundsgatan 9Stockholm, SwedenIhIS IS THE FIRST year thatSweden has had a Fulbright program,and there are three of us here, aprofessor from Minnesota who lectures in history, another from Illinoiswho is doing research in labor education, and I am doing research insociology. Although I have traveledquite a lot in Sweden, as well asvisiting Norway, Denmark, and Finland, I have been located in Stockholm.This is a beautiful city, often calledthe "Venice of the North," withbridges and water everywhere. Sweden, the fourth largest country inarea in Europe, has seven millionpeople, of whom almost a million livein metropolitan Stockholm, which is700 years old. Throughout the country the standard of living seems tocompare with America, and thepeople are efficient, industrious, andprosperous. Extremes of income,however, have been almost leveledout, so that few are poor and few arevery wealthy.Being a sociologist particularly interested in criminology and socialdeviation, and my wife a former socialworker, it is understandable why wehave long wanted to spend some timein Sweden. As shown by the figuresof American tourist travel in Sweden,many Americans want to know moreabout this country, and last year over65,000 Americans came here, abouthalf of whom were of non-Scandinavian background. Swedish welfareprograms are known throughout theworld, and it is almost unique thatthis feature alone draws many visitors.In my own field of criminology Ihave long felt that more attentionshould be given to comparative studies of the extent and nature ofcrime. I have been making a studyof the theories, extent and incidenceof criminal behavior in Swedenwhere the crime rates are low andpresent an even more difficult situation to explain scientifically thanlarger countries where there is a Marshall B. Clinard, PhD '41, isa professor of sociology at the University of Wisconsin, now in Sweden on a Fulbright Fellowship. Heis the author of The Black Market:A Study of White Collar Crime.Dr. Clinard is married to analumna, Ruth Blackburn, AM '36.higher crime rate. Besides Stockholm, there are two other large cities,Gothenburg with 350,000 and Malmowith nearly 200,000.Sweden is one of the most homogeneous countries in ethnic and religious background in Western Europe.Since it has not been in a war foralmost 150 years its social and economic situation is more stable thanmost other countries. In addition,Sweden is a country small enough toget some perspective on the total social situation and one in which therehas long been interest in criminologyand other areas of social deviation,with many people working in theseareas.A number of features of the Swedish correctional practices are almostunique. In the first place, the Swedesbelieve that institutions should besmall so that the persons in chargecan know all the inmates, and thereThe Clinard Family can be a minimum of rules. A largeproportion of their institutions haveless than 100 inmates, and for onlyabout 3,300 inmates they have 31closed and 21 open institutions. Thereare also about 10,000 persons on probation and parole. Many of the smallinstitutions have an industrial plantfor vocational training and work,while others do forestry and farming.They believe that inmates should receive a fairly adequate wage for theirwork, although not nearly as much asfree labor, so that they can purchasetobacco and extra coffee which, likemost Swedes, they drink severaltimes a day at work and in theirrooms. They can thus save money,too, for other expenses and to havewhen they leave the institution.While many of their institutions arewithout any walls or armed guards,even the walled ones are operatedwith considerable freedom. Practically every room or cell of a Swedishinmate resembles the way it mightlook at home, with personal belongings such as drapes, paintings, hobbies, and sometimes one or two additional pieces of furniture.Practically all Swedish prisonersserving ten months or more whosebehavior is good receive a home furlough every four months for two tofour days, exclusive of travel time,for which they pay out of their earnings. It is felt that such furloughsreduce disciplinary and sexual problems and tend to break up the sentence periods of several monthsrather than years. In addition, inmates can thus maintain their socialcontacts at home with free society.Furloughs are also given to all inmates for special reasons, such asserious family illnesses or a funeral.Most Swedish prisoners do not haveto face a hopeless sentence, for sentences are generally less than twoyears, a small proportion have sentences up to ten years, and a lifesentence, which may be given onlyfor murder or treason, is rare. ThereContinued on page 32MAY, 1955 19east*, to the middle eastThese are selections from thesketchbooks of Elizabeth M. Gruse,AB '50, who travelled for sixmonths in Lebanon, Syria,the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,Egypt, and Iraq.Shown here are people fromthe streets of Cairo, Baghdad,the old city of Jerusalem,and Beirut.TUTORS AND MUSTY ROOMSA Chicagoan Looks at OxfordExHer Collegeby Herbert H. Werlin, AB '53 March 12*1955JL OMORROW, the Winter Term willhave ended; and there is nothing atChicago quite so striking as the sudden cessation of life which takes placehere at the beginning of a vacation.Oxford in vacation is like some deserted city of an ancient civilization,fit only to be probed by archaeologistsor overly curious tourists. We fewforeigners left must anxiously gathereach afternoon for tea, in dread ofbeing completely abandoned to literature, landladies, and loneliness. Thisdormant condition will last for sixweeks, that is, until the Colleges areshouted into arousal by the returningstudents in the last days of April.Unhappily, the vacation will not bea vacation for me. I shall be desperately preparing for the final examinations, taking place next term. Theywill be the culmination of two yearsof work (not wholly by any means)in the Honour School of Philosophy,Politics, and Economics. Success willonly mean getting a B.A., and sinceI already have one from the University of Chicago, I theoretically shouldn't have to worry. But I do.The examiners here have a muchgreater advantage than those at Chicago. They aren't limited in theirquestioning to any series of syllabibut can touch any obscure facet ofeight terribly involved subjects, suchas English History from 1830, Moraland Political Philosophy, Theory andWorking of Political Institutions, andPrinciples of Economics. Also, theywon't tolerate multiple -choice questions, only essay type. At each exam,we must choose four out of about ten,to be handled in three hours. Thiscontrast in type of examination indicates some significant differences inthe purpose, approach, and attitudeof the two universities.The teachers at Chicago weremainly concerned with repairing someof the deficiencies of our high schooleducation. We were taught how toread "The Great Books" and we wereintroduced to a wide range of important ideas. We seldom went any further than this, and it took me a considerable while to realize there was much further to go.At Oxford this first struck me in anearly philosophy tutorial. I had beendealing with a certain problem in theU. of C. manner, saying Hobbes believes this; Locke, this; and J. S. Mill,that. My tutor replied in a beautifulOxford, accent: "That's all very well,but what do you think?"There was the trouble. I had neversystematically learned at Chicago todevelop and defend a particular lineof thought — to find suitable ideas, insulating them with facts or examples,and organizing them into a formidableargument. The random reading wedid at Chicago, pleasant and stimulating as it was, was rather too conducive to the dilletante. What funwe had, late at night in the halls ofthe Burton-Judson Courts, playingcatch with the theories of Freud,Plato, Machiavelli, Rousseau, andJohn Dewey! But it wasn't scholarship, as some of us were prone tobelieve or hope. That only comesthrough the writing of essays as forthe scientist, only through the doingof experiments; and in the College,we had scant opportunity for this. Wewere like American tourists in Europefor the first time, seeing a dozencountries in half a summer, with theappalling duty of bringing home somesensible impressions. From Freud toMyrdal to Margaret Mead to AdamSmith and so on — could any tour bemore hectic!At Oxford the approach is throughproblems, with readings as the process of developing tenable answers.For example, instead of trying to copewith the difficulties of internationalrelations and the proposals for dealing with them by reading Grotius,Kant, Reinhold Nielbuhr, or R. M.Hutchins, we deal with specific problems, such as those between the twoworld wars: national self-determination, reparation, disarmament, theweakness of the League of Nations,etc. Books, considered as tools forshaping arguments, are then moremeaningful and helpful." The tutorial system is admirablysuited to this approach. Having toContinued on page 24Oxford students in their formal academic robes gather in front of Exeter.Werlin22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEARMUFFS AND COFFEE MACHINESA British View of the Midwayby Alan ConwayIt IS A FONDLY cherished beliefin Great Britain that if one standslong enough on the corner of Piccadilly Circus in London, sooner orlater the major portion of mankindwill pass by. In much the same fashion, if one stays on the University ofChicago campus for some duration oftime much of the personnel of theacademic world will be seen, forChicago is one of the major crossroads of that world. The great andthe famous arrive, impress or disappoint and depart once more: the rankand file too are welcome no lesswarmly than the captains and thekings, toss their mite of scholarshipinto the common pool of learning andgo their way with pleasant thoughtsof an active, intelligent body.Yet Chicago is not solely an international meeting place for facultymembers; the same can be said evenmore so for the student body. Inaddition to Americans drawn from allthe States, the visitor meets engineersfrom India, lawyers from Africa,mathematicians from China, physicistsfrom Europe, social service workersfrom Hawaii and of course, the ubiquitous Britisher, still possibly wondering why his ancestors allowed theAmerican colonies to slip from hisgrasp. The reason why so many nationalities enroll at Chicago can onlybe that the University is outstandingin so many fields. A virtual babe inits academic cradle by most Europeanand some American university standards of longevity, it has reached thisposition by gathering together eminent scholars not simply in one ortwo fields but in several, with theresult that the work carried on becomes as well known in London as inLos Angeles.To provide accommodation for somany foreign students, Chicago isone of the few universities favoredwith an International House, a twentieth century Noah's Ark of nation alities, where the foreigner can livecomfortably and compare his ownadjustment to the American scenewith that of a score of others, wherehe can rid himself of a number ofmisconceived prejudices and developmany others.Alan Conway is a lecturer inAmerican and modern Europeanhistory at the University College ofWales, Aberystwyth, Wales.Mr. Conway, who has an AMdegree from the University ofLondon, is in the United States fora year as a Commonwealth FundFellow, to observe Americans andtheir way of life. After six monthsat the University, he is touring thewestern part of the U. S. by auto,together with his wife. International HouseChicago, III.To the Hollywood educated foreignobserver looking for typical Americanuniversity life, Chicago is not theanswer. He seeks in vain for thedrum-majorettes, the ra-ra-ra of thebig game in the enormous stadium,the dormitory raids on the flimsiestof pretexts, or the cars of ancientvintage in riotous colors with American college girls sporting fraternitypins and seeking husbands as assiduously as a smattering of culture.Here the student body is more mature, the majority engaged on postgraduate work with determinationand seemingly on occasion with desperation. A student can be anyonefrom retirement-age downwards, although this is not to suggest thatContinued on page 24The author samples the wares of a native emporium.LewellynMAY, 1955 23Continued from page 22face alone two frightfully astute donseach week is much more of an ordealand a challenge than is a seminar.How intently they listen to the essayswe read, tedious as they may be, everready to pounce upon the inaccurate,the inconsistent, and the incomplete.It took me terribly long to realizewhat was wanted, where to find it,and how to serve it, Oxford style. Ibecame rather concerned to avoid:"Dear me, that did make painful listening," or "That's an Americanism,and it's frothy."Could Chicago's undergraduatesbenefit from a tutorial system? Probably, assuming they could read properly; but most of us coming to Chicago could hardly do that. The greatvalue of the College's general educational program was that it taught usto abstract and handle significantideas as well as encouraged us toperservere in an assault on the awesome Liberal Arts. When I told oneof my friends of our training at Chicago, he said: "We take it for grantedthat those coming here have this."Well, that certainly couldn't be takenfor granted at the University of Chicago, and there lies the defense ofthe program. I only hope that thestudents there, if not the instructors,realize it's only an introduction. Perhaps, after the recent change to afour year program, more of them do.The College's vitality is in its willingness to try something new.It may well be that Oxford takestoo much for granted. With the decline of the old English tradition ofclassical learning, some of those coming here, though competent in a particular field, lack a broad enoughoutlook to see across the barriers between the social studies, the humanities, and the physical or biologicalsciences. What contributes to this isthe rigidity of the Schools. Someonestudying politics can't study psychology; or geography, economics; orhistory, philospohy. A quick tour of"The Great Books" might be useful,though as things are, there must bea remarkable proportion of very cultured people here.What sometimes gives an unfairimpression are the repercussions ofthe Oxonian system of education. Itdoesn't foster the discussion of studiesamong the students, which was oneof the more enjoyable and profitablepractices at Chicago. Hera, studyingseems to be a very personal affair.In fact, for 'talking shop' at dinnerin our College, one is liable to haveto buy beer for those at the table, anot altogether unpleasant or unfairpunishment. Moreover, the system Herbert H. Werlinencourages the development of a certain urbane attitude that disdains aflaunting of intellectuality. At its best,when the attitude avoids undue cynicism or complacency, it can be worthyof a great cultural tradition. Otherwise, it tends to approximate the tiresome Lifemanship of Stephen Potteror the banal repartee of an OscarWilde play. At Chicago, we weremore zealous, if naive, perhaps because we felt more isolated and insecure in the conflicts of the Americanscene and in the squalor of a disintegrating and depressing neighborhood.The great difficulty at Oxford is toavoid the temptations of the myriadcultural and social events, or in summer, those of punting on the Riveror sauntering in the graceful fieldsand gardens. It was once very fashionable to float through the culturalatmosphere of Oxford, to casually inhale the diffused wisdom of the theatre, the club, and the Junior CommonRoom. The state aid program andcompulsory military service havemade this less fashionable. These havealso harmed the popularity of the traditional Oxford snob.The friends I have made here havedone their best to make my stayeducational and enjoyable. I shallcertainly miss Oxford next year(food, weather, and comfort apart)when I return to do graduate worksomewhere in the U.S. I shall especially miss the musty old rooms ofour College, huddling against the inadequate fireplace, among furnitureand fixtures that are dark and heavyand quaint, meandering with friendsamong odd thoughts as countless generations did before us and will doafter us, we hope. Without this, Oxford, with all its dignity and elegance,could only be a monument. Continued from page 23every classroom has its GrandmaMoses waiting to burst in delayedgenius upon an unsuspecting world,but simply that to a visitor accustomed to students seldom older-<flian25 years, it is strange to discover thatthe desire for further formal education does not cease with the acquisi-+ion of initial degrees.At the same time the Americanuniversity system as seen at Chicagohas much of the assembly line in itsmake-up. Students seem to go towork accumulating courses and theirattached credits with almost mechanical precision and finally roll off theline at the end of a specified timechecked, examined and stamped withM.A.'s and Ph.D.'s, ready for serviceand higher salaries in the everydayworld. A question often raised abroadis how well is the American student"educated" and to this question thereis no real answer. Some emerge bothwidely and deeply read, often embarrassingly so, others with theireyes rarely lifted beyond the edge ofa transcribed text at the continentallimits of their own country. But Chicago is not alone in this respect; theproducts of the famed British systemof education can be sorted likewiseinto the educationally mature and theeducationally myopic.It would be well if some comparisons could be drawn between Chicagoand some British university but as inthe United States there is no stereotype in Britain. The eyes of the British visitor may take a while to adjustto the glaring check shirts and jeansof the American student after thesombre black academic trappings ofthe gowned British student; he maybe taken aback by the casual mannerwith which an American studentlights a cigarette in class or by thehabit of arriving or leaving in themiddle of a lecture, but basically thereis not a great deal of difference. Thelecturer sparkles with enthusiasm orplods the same weary way, the eagerstudent takes the same copious notesand the not-so-eager student dozesquietly in the back row of the classroom as the warmth and sense ofwell-being overtake him. What ispeculiar, however, to the Americanuniversity system is the student whois working his or her way in andthrough college. Despite exhortationsthat vacations are for the preparationof work for the following term, theBritish student generally takes somekind of employment between terms.Few, if any, take jobs during attendance at college. But in Chicago asContinued on page 3224 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Strangeof AUSTRALIA J. FrostLook again — it's not a porcupine. It's anechidna enjoying a favorite drink — milk.by Judy and Ernie LondrtiusA HE FAUNA of Australia is uniquein containing the primitive mono-tremes (of the lowest order of mammals, the duckbilled platypus and theechidna) and a diversified marsupial(animals with pouches for carryingthe young) population.The history of the monotremes isunknown. They combine such mammalian characters as hair, primitivemilk glands, and a single bone in thelower jaw with reptilian features inparts of the skeleton and soft anatomy, and in laying eggs. It has beenconjectured that they are descendedfrom mammal-like reptiles apart fromthat of the main mammalian stock.The present day marsupials areOne of Australia's striking botanicalfeatures is the "black boy" tree.Serventy thought to have an ancestor closelyrelated to the American oppossum.They are believed to have had aworld-wide distribution in the lateCretaceous period (about 75 millionyears ago). At this time Australiawas connected to Asia by a land corridor through which the primitivemarsupials migrated. Shortly afterthis invasion, Australia was cut offfrom the continent and the more advanced placental mammals, whichdeveloped later, were barred.In the absence of powerful predators and more efficient competitorsfor food, the early, generalized marsupials evolved into a variety of specialized forms which were adapted tothe numerous environmental nichesavailable. In this respect they paralleled placental evolution, and the result was a superficial resemblance tosome placental types. The most obvious of these are marsupial "moles,""Shrews," "anteaters," "squirrels," theTasmanian Wolf, and the native cat(Dasyurus.)Marsupial fossil remains are rareWhile Ernest Lundelius, PhD '54,carries on his studies in vertebratepaleontology on a Fulbright, hiswife, Judith Weiser Lundelius,AB '49, SM '53, is carrying onstudies in the same field on a grantfrom an Australian university. Geology DepartmentUniversity of Western AustraliaNedlands, Western Australiain Australia. The earliest knownform, from the Miocene (c. 17 million years) of Tasmania, is Wynyardia,an extinct phalanger. The next knownfossils are from Pleistocene (one million years) cave and swamp deposits.This period was remarkable in having gigantic species that are relatedto the smaller animals of today. Thefossil monotremes were also largerthan the recent species. This trendtowards gigantism was universal inthe Pleistocene, and may be relatedto the colder climate caused by gla-ciation.Some giant forms such as Diproto-don (a large herbivore with a three-and-a-half foot long skull) becameextinct, possibly because of increasing aridity which destroyed theirswamp environment. The bones ofother large marsupials are found incaves associated with artifacts, andit is likely that the early aboriginalshad a hand in killing them off.More recent bone deposits containthe remains of living marsupial species, though in many cases thesespecies may not be living in that areatoday. Climatic changes, agriculturaldevelopment, competition from imported placentals (e.g., rabbits), andhunting by man and by importedpredators (e.g., dingo), have shrunkthe geographic range of many marsupials. A few animals, such as theTasmanian Wolf, have been drivenalmost to extinction; they are onlyrarely reported seen alive.Other faunal elements of this region are also unusual. The Spheno-MAY, 1955 25don in New Zealand is the sole survivor of the reptilian order Rhyn-chocephalia which flourished in theMesozoic era. Here many flightlessbirds, the emu, kiwi, and the newlyrediscovered Notornis have been ableto live because of the slight predationpressure. Among the invertebrates,a pelecypod, Trigonia, thought to beextinct since the Cretaceous, has beenfound living in coastal waters.With so many diverse problems andgaps in its faunal history, Australiais truly a paleontologist's happy hunting ground. The fossil deposits thatwe are investigating are in limestonecaves which riddle the Western Australian coast. Only a few of thesecaves are fossiliferous, though manyof them contain a few mummified remains of recent animals.The caves are scattered over thebushland, and some we have visitedare more than twenty miles fromhuman habitation. The roads leadingto them are often overgrown sandtracks and can be traversed at a speedof 10 m.p.h. Extra supplies of gas andwater are necessary, as the latter ispractically non-existent.On a recent trip to Jurien Bay, adesolate scrubland about 120 milesnorth of Perth, we investigated sixcaves. Five had no fossils, thoughone, known as the Tourist Cave, wasbeautifully decorated with stalactitesand stalagmites. The floor of the sixthcave was littered with small bones.On the surface were found the bonesof the domestic cat, the European fox,and the house mouse, all forms whichwere introduced by the white settlers.We dug a trench about five feetdeep and found three bone layers.The top twelve inches consists of apowdery black dust with an enormousamount of small bones. Most of thembelong to animals still found in thearea, the grey kangaroo (Macropttsgiganteus), brush wallaby (Protem-nodon irma), rat kangaroo (Bettongiapenicillata), short nosed bandicoot(Isoodon obesulus), native cat (Dasy-urus geoffreyi), pouched mouse(Sninthopsis crassicaudata), and manyindigenous rodents. A few of thebones belong to animals not in thearea today, a gigantic carnivorousbat (Megaderma gigas), known nowonly from the northern part of Australia, and a small insectivorous marsupial, (Canning's little dog, Dasycer-cus sp.), now occupying the desertareas of Australia. In addition, thereare bones of birds, reptiles, and afew amphibians.At the two and a half foot levelalmost exactly the same fauna is found with the exception of the introduced forms. Charcoal and an aboriginal scraper were found associatedwith the bones in this layer.The five foot level also has muchthe same fauna but to date no remains of the large bat or the littledesert marsupial have been found.These deposits are probably notvery old geologically speaking. Thechange in the fauna suggests that thedeposits represent the later stages ofthe recent drying of the continent.The presence of the large bats throughmost of the deposits, and of Dasycer-cus at the top would indicate that theclimate has become more arid. Thishas forced some animals out of thearea and has allowed others to movein. Although Dasycereus is not recorded from this vicinity today itsremains are found in recent owl pellets and it may actually exist there.The area of this deposit is about50 x 100 feet to a depth of at least fivefeet. How were these bones accumulated? The majority of bones belongto small marsupials and rodents. Verysimilar aggregations of bone are foundin the pellets of hair and bone which owls regurgitate. If the deposits wereformed in this way the cave musthave been inhabited by owls for aconsiderable period of time to allowfor such a large accumulation. Theremains of the larger animals are almost all of young individuals. Theywere probably dragged into the cave^by carnivores who used it as a den.All of the above conclusions andinterpretations are only tentative atthis time. They are cited merely asan example of how paleontologistsattempt to build up the complex prehistory of an area. Much more extensive work will have to be done beforemore definite statements can be made.Competent paleontological interpretations must be based on knowledgeof the living fauna. Part of our timeis spent in collecting and studyingwhat animals we are fast enough tocatch. Consequently we have builtup quite a zoo.We next plan to visit some cavescontaining much older, Pleistocenefossils. The matrix around these bonesis reputed to be fairly hard, and wewill welcome anyone that would comeover to help to dig them out.Judy feeds a young Australian friend.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWe Live 12,000 Feet UPU.S.A. Operations Mission to BoliviaThe Institute of Inter-American Affairsc/o American EmbassyLa Paz, Bolivia1 HIS LETTER is being written atLa Paz, a lovely city of some 300,000population, which climbs the steepsides of a gorge at 12,300 feet abovesea level. Newcomers to La Paz aresometimes fearful of our steepeststreets leading up to the Plaza Muril-lo, especially on a wet day, for thesidewalks and the streets are alreadyslick from the bare feet of the Indians who have been treading themthese three centuries. The great plain,or Altiplano, into which this gorge iscut rises above the city another 1,000feet, and our airport, where a haughtyllama resentfully poses with tourists,is at 13,404, the highest commercialairport in the world.We who are accustomed to thesegreat heights are not above boastingin letters back home about our rarefied circumstances, mentioning casually that we have gone down toCochabamba for a weekend to getout of the altitude, since that city isa mere 8,000 feet above sea level. Afew years ago in a report in someFrench medical journal, the statementwas made that it was rumored thatin the Andes people actually livedat altitudes of 12,000 and 13,000 feet.Well, here we are. The rumor wastrue.A schoolboy of the Altiplano.SCIDEjjm± fe^& .^H IS?**' V-i ^F% :a^»l^t^Bi, 4,IKfe^ One's body on arriving in thesehigh altitudes has to manufacturemore red blood cells, and the wiseperson lives and walks a little cautiously for the first few weeks. Welowlanders can never hope to bequite as lively as we are at sea level,but there are definite compensationsto living here. If you trump yourpartner's ace, you can blame it on thealtitude. Also, the sky is bluer andthe sunshine more brilliant up hereso much nearer heaven.My job here is that of directingthe joint educational program conducted by our government and theBolivian government. Technical assistance, which is a term of fairlyrecent vintage, was actually startedfirst in Latin America shortly afterPearl Harbor, by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, an agency ofthe U. S. Government. Our educational work in Bolivia is one of theearly programs. It is operated throughan agency set up under the laws ofBolivia for the purpose, and namedthe Servicio Cooperative Interameri-cano de Educacion (SCIDE).Most editors want to know first ofall why U. S. educators should beneeded in Bolivia. The long historicalanswer to that is far beyond the scopeof this letter, but I can condense theanswer into the statement that thebackward state of Bolivian schools isdue in great measure to the profoundsocial and economic troubles in whichthe country has been involved for solong. This nation is split into threegeographic regions, the big Altiplano,100,000 square kilometers in extension, between peaks of the Andes;the high valleys between Cordilleraof the Andes; and the eastern lowlands the other side of the Andes.The accompanying article istaken from a letter from ThomasA. Hart, PhD '41, who is in Boliviaworking for the U. S. OperationsMission. The Altiplano is a treeless cold regionthat produces chiefly barley, potatoesand a high altitude cereal calledquinua, yet, believe it or not, some57 per cent of the nation's 3.5 millionpeople live up here. They are AymaraIndians, for the most part, whoscratch a living from the soil byprimitive techniques and who arepractically "economic zeros" in thenational life. Another large fractionof the population lives in the highvalleys, and most of these people areQuechua Indians. In many communities, Spanish, the official language ofBolivia, is spoken by only a few, theothers speaking Aymara or Quechua.Illiteracy is about 85 per cent amongthe Indian population, and 71 per centof the population as a whole.This region is part of the old mountain kingdom of the Incas, and theIndians are descendants of those whowere conquered by them. The Spanish Conquistadores moved in around1540 and enslaved the people theyconquered, setting an unfortunatetradition of a small elite group ontop of a submerged mass of Indians.In the words of one of Bolivia's leading educators, the Colonial era wasone long dark night for the Indian.Bolivia as an independent nationhas had a constant struggle for existence. The country developed an economy based on minerals, chiefly tin.Some 90 per cent of the foreign exchange today comes from the sale oftin, and when the demand for tin goesdown and the price drops, Boliviansimmediately feel the pinch. The country is like a family whose livingcomes from a hardware store. Whenbusiness drops off in hardware, theyhave less money for groceries. SinceBolivia has to import much of suchstaple foods as rice, flour, meat andmilk, her position is extremely vulnerable when the price of tin goesdown.In the war of the Pacific late in thenineteenth century, this country lostthousands of square kilometers in-Continued on page 31MAY, 1955 27Needed: A German Dr. Spockby Gayle Shulenberger Janowitz, AM '51IT IS ONE THING to be a touristin Germany for a few weeks, as wewere two years ago. It is quite different to be an American army wifein an American community transplanted overseas. And it is an entirely different matter to be the wife ofa Fulbright professor living in a German neighborhood, on the Germaneconomy, and raising an Americanchild under the eyes of the Germans.The most pleasant parts of such arole are the thrill of trying to makemyself understood in a foreign language, and the pleasant social contacts with young students, whosebackgrounds are very different frommy own. The eagerness and goodspirit of these young students is veryimpressive.I do not mean to belittle the concern over a rearmed Germany, orthe other vital German problems ofinternational importance. However,one of the most striking needs of Gayle Shulenberger Janowitz,AM '51, is an authority on childbehavior, having been chief counselor at the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School before her marriage to Morris Janowitz, PhD '48.The Janowitz1 are in Germanywhere Morris is a Fulbright research professor at the Institute forSocial Research, University ofFrankfurt, studying changes inpost-war German social structure.He is an associate professor ofsociology, University of Michigan.Germany to an American mother isa German Dr. Spock. Their child-rearing practices seem as crude to meas ours must appear confusing tothem.The keynote to their system is manipulation. Never allow a young childto do what you can better do forThe Janowitz family: Morris, Rebecca and Gale. 61 Haeberlin StrasseFrankfurt /MainGermanyhim, which is just about anything.There are long-standing and accepted patterns of what children need,and these are forced on them. Forexample, children are forcibly fed.(German highchairs have only a narrow bar across the front for themother to rest her arm on. They makea special highchair with a wide tray,just for sale to Americans, whosechildren feed themselves.) What happens when the forced feeding breaksdown, as it inevitably must? The children do not eat of course — in the finalanalysis, there is no way to makesomeone eat who refuses to. The German mother continues to say "Hemust eat it," repeating it innumerabletimes. This seems to satisfy her, sinceshe has done her duty. I dared topoint out to one of my Germanfriends, "But they don't eat it," inregard to the spinach and oatmealwhich all children must have. Sheanswered, "Yes, but they know theymust." Here is perhaps one originof the mechanical sense of duty thatGermans have often displayed.It is impressive how early the results of this manipulative training become apparent. Even German toddlersshow a desire and ability to "manage" younger children. Our daughterRebecca cannot sit on the ground,even for a moment, nor can she getup by herself. She is immediatelypicked up, sometimes by five eagerchildren who rush to her sides. Shecannot put anything in her mouth —including clean toys and fingers.Every child on the playground seemswatching and eager to "do right byher," and she is constantly pulledthis way and that. When she and Iare both quite frustrated and canstand it no longer, she goes to playwith some American children. There,competition runs rampant, but humanmanipulation is at a manageable level.The prohibitions on children are soconstant as to seem pointless. "No"Continued on page 3028 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThis Side of Fearby Anne-Marie Durand-Wever, '10B.BERLIN is the place where the lastthirty years of my life have rolled off.I am a fanatic Berliner, and I willgive you a lover's picture of it.First let me tell you something ofmy background; it will show how Icome to understand the mentality oftwo peoples. From 1900-08 my father,Dr. Walther Wever, was ImperialGerman Consul to Chicago. When heleft, the University honored him withan L.L.D. Supported by his personalfriend, Dr. William Rainey Harper,the University's first president, hehad been instrumental in bringingabout the exchange of American andGerman professors and students, as ameans of bettering international understanding, (an idea which I find isstill being carried out). When hewas called away in 1908 to a new postI stayed on to finish my college courseat the University until graduation inJune, 1910.Wars and subsequent inflationshave made it impossible for me topay the visit to my Alma Mater thatwas and still is on my program. ButI have had many visitors from theU.S., and have kept up my contactsby letters, personal talks, books andmagazines. I have always been proudof being a graduate of Chicago.Three of my teachers there havehad a lasting influence on my life:John Watson, the psychologist, JamesWestphal Thompson, the historian,and Reginald Ruggles Gates, the botanist. I grasp the occasion to thankthem.Berlin was, before and during thefirst part of the war, not merely thepolitical capital but also the culturalcenter of Germany. It also was commercially important. Today it standsfor fortitude and courage and isfighting to regain its status.The theatres are up to date, thephilharmonic orchestra is of worldrenown, we have a Free Universityand a public library, thanks to American donors.The Berliner is a matter-of-factperson with much presence of mind and a lively sense of humor. He andshe don't wait to be told what to dobut pick up a shovel and start purposeful digging. After air raids thesiren would scarcely have stoppedproclaiming the end of an alarm,when all the women had set to workto sweep out the broken window glassand nail up their windows with cardboard. Two hours later streets andtracks were cleared of debris andwork went on as usual!Today we are a cleft city, dividedinto a Western sector, occupied byAmerican, British and French, and anEastern sector — occupied by the Soviets. Thousands daily pass freelyfrom one sector to the other, onlythose of us who have publicly opposedthe Soviets are reticent in visiting theRussian sector, because cases of arrest have occurred and well knownpersonages have disappeared.Street cars change personnel at thesectored boundaries and occasionallyend there, but the subway and the S-Bahn (electric -railroad) daily transport Berliners without a hitch. Thereare thousands of West Berliners whowork in the Eastern sector and viceversa.There are occasional controls, chiefly because the West Berlin housewifelikes to shop in the East, where shecan get the same thing much cheaper.For our divided city has two currencies, the Eastern Mark being worthabout one quarter of the Western.Both sides try to put a stop to thisby control of the shopping bags, theWest because our business is badlyhandicapped by the competition, theEast because they are harder up andrationed in many things and want tokeep their products for their inhabitants who have to live on an incomeof devaluated currency.Although there are many rumors,on the whole very little happens inthe way of confiscation. At Christmasevery one tried to buy a Christmasgoose in East Berlin. The paperswrote that 400 people had their geeseconfiscated by the Western custom Berlin W 30Ansbacher Strobe 3office and turned over to hospitalsand old peoples' homes. But thousands brought their trophies home.The telephone wires between Eastand West Berlin are cut. Every oneof us has friends or relatives that livein the other sector; we have to senda telegram or a messenger when weneed them. We can telephone withany other town in the Soviet Zone,and the East Berliners can call theirfriends in Western Germany. But wecannot reach each other. However, wehave hope as we have just had elections and the new Lord Mayor promises us that he will do every thing inhis power to re -install the telephoneconnections.The new city parliament has amajority of Social-Democrats and hasformed a coalition with the Christian-Democrats. The SED (communists)had been admitted to the electionsbut did not succeed in getting asingle representative, neither did theDeutsche Partei whom we believe tohave gathered the incorrigible Nazis.West Berlin has demonstrated thatit is a democratic city and I firmlybelieve that "free" elections in EastBerlin would give a similar result.We have a house of representativesand a senate. The senate has 13members who are really secretariesof state or ministers, as Berlin is afederal "Land" even as Hamburg andBremen are city states with their owngovernment.We now have one woman senator,Ella Kay, who has in the last decadedone good work in social and youthproblems.There are quite a number of womenwho work in politics and some activewomen's organizations. From 1945-48we tried to rally women of all partiesand from all walks of life to forma big super-party, an all-women'sleague for peace. It was at the timewhen the occupying powers still heldtogether and cooperated. We Berliners managed to organize the Demo-kratischer Frauenbund Deutschlands,Continued on page 30MAY, 1955 29Continued from page 28and "dirty" in German are said inregard to everything — and in regardto nothing, apparently for reinforcement. And these prohibitions are successful. A startling aspect of Germanchild care, to me, is the fact that children of all ages are left at home alone,during the day or the night. Theyoungest one that I personally knowof is a six-weeks-old baby. Germanfriends with a two-year-old daughterregularly leave her alone at night.They show her her toys and tell herto put herself to bed. They tell methat it is an accepted "middle -class"custom. The existence of this practice means that by the time a Germanchild can walk, he has so completelyincorporated the fearful and forbidding environment that he is literallyafraid to do anything dangerous. AnAmerican child in the same situation would be liable to involve himself in countless dangers. I askedwhat German children are told if theyare afraid, and a friend said "Theyare told that if they stay in their bedsand are quiet, nothing will hurtthem." German friends are shockedwhen I tell them that, in the UnitedStates, it is considered criminal behavior to leave small children alone.Since age is equivalent to intelligence here, young adults are alsotreated as children. This is amusing,even though annoying. A typicalContinued from page 29(DFD), and worked hard in commissions on health, women's rights, etc.We helped the returning P.W.s andthe fatherless families, founded daynurseries and kinder-gardens, startedhome industries and lectured on democratic principles. We had gatheredabout 300,000 members in the firstyear and were whole-heartedly convinced that we were on the right way.As I had never been a member ofany political party I was elected president and did my best to hold up thesuper-party ideal.But in the fall of 1947 the discrepancies between the occupying powersbegan to become evident, and political opinions in the originally harmonious DFD began to clash. Sincethe seat was Berlin and the Sovietshad done much to further us, theSED influence became daily strongerand the western women, particularlythose of the bourgois class who havenever shown much interest, began todrop out. I could not stand up aloneagainst a communist majority and resigned early in 1948. The DFD is now morning's walk will include severalincidents such as the following. Rebecca is riding in a stroller, and hastaken off her mittens, since she iseating the food that all shopkeepersgive small children. A man we do notknow passes us on his way into astore, glances in our direction, andsays, "Her hands are cold." In a shop,I drop one of my gloves. Before Ican pick it up, a woman has done so,and handing it to me, says "Put themin your pocket," as if I were fouryears old — and her responsibility.Shopping is a daily necessity. Thelack of refrigeration, both at homeand in the shops, forces me to spenda great deal of time every day waiting to be waited on, speaking German, and buying the various kindsof wurst, kraut, and the excellentbreads that make up a large part ofour diet. Self-service stores are coming to the large cities, and seem tobe a great success.Of course, the hardest aspect oflife in Germany for me has nothing todo with being a housewife and mother. It is the German ability to denythe period of history under the Nazis,and to criticize the behavior of individual Americans with whom theyhave had contact.As an extreme example of the denial of history, I know a sixteen-year-old German girl who recentlygraduated from Mittelschule (in aSouthern rural area) never havingone of the big Soviet zonal organizations. It still does a great deal tohelp women and children but it hasbecome a communist tool. I severedevery connection and went back tomy medical practice and birth-controlwork.Last year the federal Republic ofGermany passed the law of equalrights for men and women, but weare still working to adapt it to everyday life. The women's organizationsin Western Germany are still of littleimportance and less influence. Thisis psychologically explainable. Womenhad to work very hard during andafter the war and a great many stillmust, aside from their vocationalwork; they have to take care ofhousehold and children (Germanmen generally do not wash dishes).Unemployment is frequent and the"dole" insufficient. The averagewoman has neither the time nor theenergy to occupy herself with thingsoutside her household and work.However, the professional womenare doing their utmost to awakeninterest; the female lawyers are work- heard of Adolph Hitler. She did notknow who he was. Mittelschule is theend of formal education for most Germans.It constantly comes as a shock tohave German friends whom I havegotten to know quite well becausethey are very pro-American (theyall have relatives married to Americans or living in America) suddenlyattack me as an American. A typicalstory of German suffering at thehands of the Americans is the following. Some G.I.'s lived for severalweeks in a requisitioned house. Whenleaving, they took a mattress whichbelonged to a poor old widow. (Itwas subsequently returned, on ordersfrom the superior officer, my informant told me.) The story is told withrising anger, so that finally the wordscome spitting out, and the womantelling the story is shaking with apparent rage. From her tremendousemotion, I feel that she is aware ofGermany's past, and only because sheneeds to suppress her awareness ofit, does she blow up so completelywhen she relates this "war crime."But this knowledge does not keepme from feeling shaken by such attacks.Democratic government had to precede other reforms in Germany. Perhaps as this experiment becomessecure, individual dignity and mutualrespect in everyday living can develop in Germany.ing on the laws that are touched bythe newly gained equality, and themedical women are occupying themselves with such questions as artificial insemination, abortion and family planning. I believe the Berlinwomen are more interested than theirWestern German sisters. We are frequently annoyed whenever we talkto them here or there — Western Germany where the "German wonder" issaid to have taken place, seems to usto have forgotten that we ever hada war; we here are daily fighting ourlittle skirmishes in the cold war. WeBerliners really value democracy andfreedom because we daily see whatit means to our Eastern brothers andsisters to live under a reign of fear.Most Berliners feel awkward whenthey visit in the West, they are homesick and glad to get back. We arepoorer than the West, we have towork harder and live simpler, butevery Berliner knows that he or she,is a factor for Germany's final unity,that it is up to us to hold the fortressto win the fight for freedom anddemocracy.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEContinued from page 27eluding her outlet to the sea, and hassince been locked behind the mightybarrier of the Western Cordillera. Inthe 1930's it lost more territory inthe Chaco war.This is probably one of the most fascinating countries in which to work,because it is trying to struggle out ofits limited economy and welcomesthe techniques we bring. Bolivia'splan is to open up more of the easternlowlands to agriculture and to develop small industries, thus reducingits vulnerability to the internationalprice of tin.Success depends in great measureon revamping the rural schools, forthe population is largely rural, andthe schools in the main are woefullyinadequate. Our oldest program inSCIDE is rural education. The ruralschools are grouped into units knownas nucleos escolares campesinos, andI shall keep to the Spanish wordingbecause the only translation would benuclear schools, which carries astrange connotation. Campesinosmeans the countrypeople, particularly Indians, and escolares refers toschools. The nucleo escolar campe-sino, based upon the old Inca politicaldivision called the marca, consists ofa central school and some 20 to 30smaller sectional schools. These sectional schools are usually little one-or two-room adobe affairs, and someof them in remote areas of that bleakAltiplano look like unutterably lonely places for a teacher. The teachersthemselves have few resources, manyof them being young Indians withonly a few grades of schooling attheir back. There are schools withoutdesks or chairs or blackboards andwithout pencils and paper. The central schools are supposed to have sixgrades and to include teachers whohave had training in hygiene, agriculture, home life, and shop work.Many of these schools, however, areextremely limited.The great weakness in the ruralschools is lack of trained teachers —around 80 per cent are untrained andhave had very little experience. Another weakness resulting from thefirst is the parrot-type methods oflearning, based upon lecture by theteacher and memorization by the student.Our job has been to introduce functional education into these schoolsand turn them into community centered institutions, which will influence people to improve their homes,their health habits, their methods ofagriculture.Any profound change in a systemof rural schools must start with the training of new generations of teachers, and our prize exhibit is the Indian Normal School at Warisata onthe Altiplano. This school with 130students and 16 teachers has beenunder our wing since 1949 and itsgraduates are in great demand. OurU. S. technician in elementary education spends most of each week atthis school, working with her counterpart in revision of methods oftraining. The introduction of units ofwork has been of great significancein swinging the curriculum away fromthe old traditional methods of teaching.Two years ago, I requested that asocial service technician be sent downfrom the United States, and she alsohas spent her working week at Warisata, helping the faculty and studentsin finding the best ways for drawingthe campesinos into the school's orbit.Our other U. S. technicians, in homelife, rural arts and crafts, and agriculture have also taken part alongtheir lines in bringing the normalschool up to date. In the meantime,members of the faculty have receivedstudy grants on which they couldtake turns at going to the UnitedStates for postgraduate study, andpractically all of them have now completed this extra training abroad.Courses of instruction arranged forthem at U. S. institutions emphasizethe community role of the elementaryschool.We felt that we received the equivalent of a laurel wreath some monthsago when the Canasmoro Rural Nor mal School down toward the Argentinian border asked to come underour direction, so that they could havea revamping similar to the one wehave been giving the Warisata Normal School. The ministry in chargeof rural education made the formalrequest, and we are just starting workthere with the new school year.We also conduct our demonstrationin functional education in certainother nucleos escolares campesinos.Up to the end of 1954, we had threenucleos on the Altiplano and two inthe high valleys, with a total of 128elementary schools and some 7,000students.We have given in-service trainingto the teachers in these schools bymeans of workshops held in eachnucleo, under the direction of U. S.and Bolivian technicians. At first nobody knew what a workshop was,but now these sessions are reportedin the papers as news, and in December we were asked by the Ministryto conduct one for a group of 80 ruralteachers from different parts of thecountry. Our influence, thus, goes farbeyond the schools and teachers actually under our supervision.I have given all the space allowedme for this letter to our rural education program, and since I cannotadequately treat in a final paragraphour work in industrial education andin vocational agriculture, I shall postpone that discussion against the timewhen I may write another letter tothe editor of the University of Chicago Magazine.Illampu, one of Bolivia's handsomest mountains, presides over the IndianNormal School at Warisata.SCIDEMAY, 1955 31Continued from page 19have been no prison riots in Sweden,and it is hard for them to understandwhy we have them. In the past fewmonths they have opened a small institution, called Roxtuna, for intensive therapy for the more difficultyouthful offenders. Many will be persons who have repeatedly committedauto theft which is a fairly commonSwedish crime among the youngeroffenders. This new institution cost$1.5 million and consists of a smallgroup of cottages and industrialbuildings, housing in all 65 boys andwith a treatment, administrative, andcustodial staff of 51 persons.Our family has been living inStockholm since last September. Weare not of Scandinavian origin, andwe have had to struggle with learning the language, mainly for researchpurposes, as English is almost a secondary language among manySwedes. English, French and German are required in the Swedish upper school grades, English beginningat the age of 11. Our seven-year oldboy is in a Swedish school, and ourfourteen-year old daughter is attending the French School in Stockholm.Although all of her instruction is inFrench, she has learned some Swedish in our neighborhood. Along withabout 90 per cent of the Stockholm-ers, we are living in a furnishedapartment in one of Stockholm's mostmodern apartment house areas. Notunlike many rapidly growing cities,housing is at a premium here, and ithas been said to take a Swede inStockholm many years to find anapartment. Apartment house living iscommon even in the smaller cities,and about half of all Swedish apartments are one or two rooms andkitchen. This smallness of the apartments has been an important factorin the decreased size of the Swedishfamily, and undoubtedly makes familyadjustment difficult in this country.One of the most amazing thingsabout living in Stockholm has beenthe mildness of the climate. Considering the latitude of the city, whichis parallel with the middle of HudsonBay and Seward, Alaska, and approximately the southern tip ofGreenland, one would presume thatthe winter would be cold and miserable. On the contrary, the wintersduring the past few years have beenextremely mild. This year temperatures were seldom below 15 to 20 degrees above zero Fahrenheit inStockholm, although it was muchcolder in the northern part of thecountry. The Gulf Stream largely accounts for this. There are, however,two or three months where manydays are dark and gloomy, the sunbeing low in the sky, rising late andsetting about 2:30 each afternoon.The Swedes do a great deal to bringlight into this darkness, prepare veryearly for Christmas, using decorationsof electric lighting and many candles.On December 13 they celebrate Luc-cia Day when they pay homage to theGoddess of light throughout Sweden.As the holiday season passes and thedays are longer the Swedes know thatthe longest days are over and thatspring will be. beautiful. Many families take a skiing holiday at the endof February when all schools areclosed, and we went several hundredmiles north of here to the mountainsalong the Norwegian- Swedish border.When we return home we will missmany things — the smorgasbords andthe extensive politeness to one another which we have found practically universal here. When we leavehere we will drive through severalEuropean countries, attend the UnitedNations Conference on Corrections inGeneva in August and the Third International Congress of Criminologyin London the middle of September.For persons connected with a university, it is always interesting tocompare ours with those of a foreigncountry. Sweden has four universities, at all of which I have lectured.The three state universities are atUppsala (founded in 1477), Lund(1668), and Gothenburg (1891), andthe semi-private University of Stockholm (1877). In addition, there arethe technical schools. Entrance to auniversity is on a highly competitivebasis because they feel that Swedencan only afford to furnish a university education to a small group.There are some 200 university professors, in addition to docents andassistants, and they are persons whoare carefully selected and have almostthe highest prestige in Swedish society. Professors receive a comparatively high but identical salary, regardless of the university affiliationor length of tenure. At the Nobelbanquet to which we went in December, one could see the high statusof all university professors present.The doctoral hat (a special silk tophat), gold ring, and academic medalswere everywhere in evidence in thegolden banquet hall of the Stadshuset.It is fortunate that we have this ceremony to give the professor and manof science his recognition in a daywhen the Academy Awards of Hollywood are almost as significant to sections of the world." Continued from page 24elsewhere the American student hasoften to work either on the campusor outside in order to maintain himself. It is thus quite strange for thevisitor to find himself served at table,often with solmen-faced deference, byhis companion of the previous evening. That the American student cancombine both tasks is a tribute to hismental and physical stamina, for hisacademic work is far from light andwould account also for the burning ofmuch midnight oil and the strangepractice of eating a heavy meal in theearly hours of the morning.As regards the physical aspects ofthe University of Chicago the campusis pleasant without being beautiful.The campus and its immediate vicinity seem to be very much an islandin a dilapidated, deteriorating neighborhood, and like the poor it wouldseem likely that the neighborhood willbe with the University for some timeto come. This is an unfortunate accompaniment to having a universitylocated in Chicago for it cannot setitself apart from the great industrialcity which has its share and more ofsocial problems, but which in itself isthe finest social laboratory that couldnot be duplicated in an ivory -towerenvironment.What has been, however, the mostgratifying part of a stimulating periodof study is the freedom and vigorwith which everyone has expressedopinions on many controversial subjects and the reassurance that freespeech and academic freedom ofspeech in particular are realitiesrather than myths; and furthermorethe recognition that scholarship is notlimited to any particular creed, raceor color.It may well be the smaller aspectsof life on the campus that will remainlongest in the mind; the fantasticmachine which for ten cents will servehot coffee with cream, without cream,with sugar, without sugar and anypermutation of all four, which tastesoddly even to the tea -drinking Englishman but provides the happyknowledge that there are limits toAmerican mechanical genius; the ear-muffs of every hue and color makingthe wearers look like so many budding radio operators; the hundredsof cars parked closely about thecampus, many with windows semi-obscured by "no parking" notices onlypartially scraped off; the magnificentrendering of the "Messiah" in Rockefeller Chapel; and perhaps most ofall the friendly informality of American students summed up in the cheerful greeting, "Hi there!"SITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE32 THE UNIVER!97-09W. E. Garrison, PhD, who becameemeritus from the faculty of the University and the Disciples Divinity Housein 1943, has been professor of philosophyand religion at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas, since 1951. He wasa consultant last August at the WorldCouncil of Churches Second Assemblyat Evanston, 111. He has recently completed a book, Christian Unity and theDisciples, of Christ, which will be published shortly.Carl Van Vechten, famous critic, biographer and fiction writer, is beinghonored by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.,publishing house, which is preparing alimited edition of a bibliography of hisextensive writings. The edition willhonor his 75th birthday June 17.Dr. Oscar Riddle, PhD, has won the$500 prize for the "Best Vantage Bookof the Year" from Vantage Press, Inc.,for his book, The Unleashing of Evolutionary Thought. He previously won the$100 first prize of the Thomas PaineFoundation for the book.Dr. Erwin Paul Zeisler, long a residentof Kenwood, has moved to Winnetka,111. He is retired, and is engaged inwriting a book on radiobiology andradioactivity in nature.Florence Cowan Rankin is living inOakland, Calif., where her interests asidefrom gardening and housekeeping areYOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S . . .MADE WITHSwiffe'.^jJceCreamif Swift & Com|7409 So. StatPhone RAdcliCompanyState StreetRAdcliffe 3-7400 centered in the League of Women Votersand the College Women's Club of Berkeley. She writes: "I think the mostinteresting discovery about life that Ihave made is that old people don't feelold."10-15(* Indicates those planning to return forJune reunion.)Leverett S. Lyon, AM, PhD '21, chairman of the Chicago Home Rule Commission, was among four Chicagoanshonored by the Union League Club foroutstanding civic service.Dr. Morris Fishbein, MD '12, has beenawarded the Netherlands decoration Officer in the Order of Orange, in recognition of his contribution while a memberof the chief editorial staff of "ExcerptaMedica," a medical magazine.A card from Conrado Benitez of Manila, P. I.: "Greetings from Geneva at aworld YMCA committee meeting, after apro-freedom conference in Rangoon.Sorry to miss America but hope to beout again in August."Dr. Ralph H. Kuhns, MD '13, has beenappointed to the Committee on Veteransof the American Psychiatric Association.He is a life member and director of theU. S. Chess Federation.The Honorable Florence E. Allen,judge of the United States Circuit Courtof Appeals in Ohio, addressed a specialwomen's assembly of professional womenof the St. Louis, Mo., area at the SecondCentury Convocation of Washington University in February.* Mrs. Phyllis Fay Horton, a resident ofFlossmoor from May to November andChicago during the spring and wintermonths, is making plans early to attendher class reunion in June.16-20(* Indicates those planning to return forJune reunion.)James G. Dwen has been retired after20 years' service with Shell Oil Co. as achemical analyst. He and his wife residein Tulsa, Okla.Daniel R. Ingwersen, partner of Ing-wersen & Compton, live stock commission firm, was elected president of theChicago Live Stock Exchange.* Gladys Nyman Markward and her husband, H. W., live in San Francisco, Calif.,where he is manager of Life Magazine.They have two children and five grandchildren.Charles Breasted is living in Tucson,Arizona, with his wife and four children,"where we are now legal residents, Any Insurance Problems?Phone or WriteJoseph H. Aaron, '27135 S. LaSalle Street • RA 6-1060Chicago 3, IllinoisPhones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueSARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 1 00 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoHyd e Park Chevrolet5506 Lake Park AvenueComplete FacilitiesNew & Used Cars and TrucksCall DO 3-8600Satisfaction GuaranteedHARVEY -CORBOYPERSONNEL SERVICEPlacement ConsultantsTo Men And Women in Business20 W. Jackson Blvd. • WAbash 2-9284Leland T. Becker, M.B.A. '48Webb-Linn Printing Co.Catalogs, PublicationsAdvertising Literature?Printers of the Universityof Chicago Magazine?A. L Weber, J.D. '09 L S. Berlin, B.A. '09A. J. Falick, M.B.A. '51MOnroe 6-2900MAY, 1955 33though we still retain a little 'farm' inLocust Valley, L. I. The Southwest is anostalgic region for anyone long familiarwith the Near East; and it also harbors,and is constantly being visited by, manyU. of C. alumni and former or presentfaculty members; so that, while I havealways tremendously liked the Saharaand the great lonely reaches of the ancient world, I must confess that in theseyears of whitening — and thinning! — hair,I find the so-called Great American Desert rather more congenial as well as accessible ... I am preoccupied with writing ... I am at work on commitments toCharles Scribner & Sons, in the field offictional Americana — possibly a logicalreaction to so many earlier years of exposure to factual antiquity." 22-23HotelsWindermereImmediate proximityto The University ofChicagoFINESTACCOMMODATIONSAND DINING ROOMSFRONTING ON JACKSON PARK1642 EAST 56th STREETFAirfax 4-6000 Antoinete Geraldine Wolff is assistanttreasurer and secretary of AmericanSlicing Machine Co., and lives in LakeSide, Michigan.Paul B. Sears, PhD, Professor of Bot-ony and Chairman of Yale's newly established program in conservation, is thepresident-elect of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Dr. Sears' talents include popular writing in his field. While he was chairmanof the Department of Botany at Oklahoma he experienced first hand thedust-bowl problems and wrote Desertson the March. Other popular books:This Your World, Life and Environment,and Charles Darwin, the Naturalist as aCultural Force.Allin H. Pierce, JD, whose specialty isfederal taxation, has been nominated tobe a judge of the U. S. Tax Court byPresident Eisenhower.Allegra N. Nesbit, AM '37, guidancedirector for 27 years at Lew WallaceHigh School in Gary, Indiana, retired inMay, 1951. In a new Cadillac she touredthe south from Florida to California,finally settling in a newly purchasedcooperative apartment on the Evanstoncampus of Northwestern University. Notsatisfied with retirement, however, sheaccepted the position of administrativecounselor for Illinois College (Jacksonville) in the Chicago area. She debatedtaking a trip to Singapore to visit herbrother-in-law, Dr. Alexander Oppen heim, PhD '30, dean of the Liberal ArtsCollege and head of Mathematics at theUniversity of Malaya. Instead she remained in Evanston to greet his daughter, who came to Evanston to attendNorthwestern.BIRCKFELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380TheHOTEL SHERRY53rd and the Lake — FAirfax 4-1000BANQUETS — DANCESOur Speciallyalumni are alwayswelcome at theHotel Del PradoFifty-Third Street andHyde Park BoulevardHYde Park 3-9600Near the Heart of CHICAGO'S Loop. . . Yet only 22 minutes from the U. of C. Campusthat's the world-famous Hotelhome of • THE NEW POMPEIAN DINING ROOM• GLASS HAT SUPPER CLUB• MOCHA ROOM COFFEE SHOP• TAVERN TAP MICHIGAN AVENUE AT CONGRESS STREETOverlooking Lake Michigan^k When you stop at the Congress, you arewithin easy reach of Chicago's exciting entertainment, cultural and shopping centers, yetonly minutes away from the campus via I.C.transportation. Make your plans now, to stopat the completely-remodeled Congress Hotelnext time you're in Chicago.Air Conditioned Rooms34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESurpriseEsmond R. Long, '11, PhD '19,MD '26, had no inkling of whatwas about to happen to him whenhe joined his friends at the Barclay on March 10 for the annualmeeting to make the PhiladelphiaAward to a worthy citizen of thatcity.So it was a surprised memberof the Class of '11, who was calledforward to receive the gold medaland $10,000 at the close of themeeting.Established by Edward W. Bokin 1921, the award is given eachyear to the man or woman livingin Philadelphia or vicinity who,during the preceding year, performed or brought to its culmination an act or contributed a servicecalculated to advance the best andlargest interests of the community.Dr. Long is one of the nation'stop experts on tuberculosis. Hehas been credited with exertingmore influence on its control in theUnited States than any other person. He is director of the University of Pennsylvania's Henry PhippsInstitute for the Study, Treatmentand Prevention of Tuberculosis.The University of Chicago Alumni Association, in 1941, honoredDr. Long with its most distinguished award, the Alumni Medal.B-Z AUTOMOTIVECOMPLETE FRONT SYSTEM CHECK ANDESTIMATE: $1.50 (APPLIED TO REPAIRBILL). QUALITY BODY AND FENDERWORK AT REASONABLE RATES: FREEESTIMATE. LUBRICATION AND ROADSERVICE. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONSADJUSTED-REPAIRED.MOTOR TUNE-UP SPECIALAIR FILTER AND PLUGS CLEANED • TESTVOLUME AND PRESSURE IN FUEL PUMP •TEST COIL • SET TIMING AND CARBURETOR • COMPRESSION CHECK » POINTSAND CONDENSER INSTALLED • 6 CYLINDERS $5.50, MOST 8'S $6.50 PLUS PARTS.MOTOfl AND CLUTCH OVERHAULINGBRAKES ADJUSTED AND RELINED ThisDO 3-0100 5547 HARPER AVE. J 250,000businesscould be yours ! PSJ. C. Smith,* age 42, is the president ofhis own insurance agency, representingThe Travelers Insurance Companies. Hedirects the activities of five associates.Last year, this business grossed more than$250,000.It was built by an insurance agent, and iCsan example oj the opportunities that qualifiedyoung men find with The Travelers.As an agent of the largest multiple-lineinsurance organization in the country,you will be backed by prestige, experience and service facilities unequaled inthe industry.And here's how The Travelers will giveyou the best possible help in gettingstarted and in increasing your incomeover the years.1. Training — The Travelers operates oneof the finest insurance schools in thecountry (celebrating 52 years of experience this year). Individual training isconducted constantly both at the HomeOffice Schools and in the field.2. National Advertising — A million-dollar advertising program will sell yourprospects on the nationwide services ofThe Travelers — in such national magazines as The Saturday Evening Post, Life,Time, Newsweek. 3. Field Staff Assistance — Experienced,trained field personnel in Life, Accident,Group Casualty, and Fire insurance —available through all 87 Field Offices —will assist you in your sales and technicalproblems — assuring you of continuedsuccess and better customer service.4. Nationwide Claim Service — Outstanding in the industry, The TravelersClaim Service maintains 245 ClaimOffices, staffed with over 3,000 trainedpersonnel to render quick, efficient service to your policyholders.5. Sales Promotional Tools — A continuous flow of the most modern sales andpromotional helps will make it easier foryou to sell your clients.Send for the free booklet, Building YourOwn Business in Your Own Home Town. Itanswers in detail the questions mostlikely to come up in your mind. Use thiscoupon. Replies held confidential.* Not his real name — but an actual case from thefiles of The Travelers.THETRAVELERSINSURANCE COMPANIES, HARTFORD 15, CONNECTICUTMR. ESMOND EWING, Vice-PresidentThe Travelers Insurance CompaniesHartford 15, ConnecticutPlease send me the booklet, Building Your OwnBusiness in Your Own Home Town.tZ NAME . .STREET .CITY STATE .MAY, 1955 35OUR WASHABLE BROOKSWEAVE* SUITSexclusive with us, they are crease-resistant,require little or no pressing after launderingBrooksweave— our revolutionary blend of Dacron'f'and Egyptian cotton— has now been made into acomfortable, good-looking, very practical suitingweight that may be laundered, and requires little orno pressing afterwards. The suits, made exclusivelyfor us in our single-breasted model ... in unusuallyattractive shades of charcoal, medium grey, brownor navy... also in a new color we call Bamboo, finished to look like linen... are outstanding (swatchesupon request). Coats and trousers. $47.50 24Arnold H. Maremont, JD '26, president.of Maremont Automotive Products, Inc.,has been elected chief executive officerof Thor Corp., Chicago appliance manufacturing firm.The Rev. Dr. Mary Ely Lyman, PhD,has retired as Morris K. Jessup Professor of English Bible and Dean of WomenStudents at Union Theological Seminary,New York City. Mrs. Lyman was thefirst woman to occupy a chair on thefaculty and one of the first women tohold a full professorship in any Americantheological school. She was ordained tothe Congregational Christian Church in1949.Arthur and Marge Cody missed theInterfraternity Sing last June for thefirst time in decades. Here's a noteto their 1924 friends: "Marge and Iwere terribly sorry to miss out 30threunion last spring. Had to be in Denver so I took Marge with me. It wouldhave given us a chance to report fivegrandchildren and make comparisons (ifyou know what I mean.) Best wishesto all of you in the wonderful class of'24."25C* Indicates those planning to return forJune reunion.)* Mrs. Charlotte Arnold Senechallewrites that she has two married daughters and 5 grandchildren. Here son Lester, is a third year student at IllinoisInstitute of Technology; and David, afreshman at Harvard School for Boys.Always active, Mrs. Senechalle is nowserving as corresponding secretary forthe Parent-Faculty Club of HarvardSchool for Boys, and is serving herchurch, and as a member of the Leagueof Women Voters.* William Bomain Purcell of HubbardWoods, 111., will see his daughter, Ro-maine, a student at Drake University,married June 15, 1955, to Ralph Petersen.Mr. Petersen, a graduate of Drake, is inbusiness in Los Angeles.J. S. Hicks, MS, PhD '27, has returnedto Sam Houston State Teachers College,Huntsville, Texas, where he is directorof chemistry, after a year's leave of absence to hold a similar position at Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, Texas.He has been at Sam Houston since 1949.26-27Henry M. Tibbits, assistant vice-president in the business division of thetrust department of Harris Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago, celebrated his 30thanniversary with the bank on January26. He and Mrs. Tibbits and their twochildren live in Evanston, 111.Leonard B. Ettelson, JD, was awardedan L.L.D. at Illinois Wesleyan University,Bloomington, 111., February 9. He is apartner in the Chicago law firm ofEttelson & O'Hagan. He lives with hiswife and daughter in Evanston, 111.FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts. Silverware.Golden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)FLATWARE & HOLLOW WAREWhole sets and open stockCOMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, III.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSince 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for University,College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.7Jfteexclusive CleaneriWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608 George E. Widmann, runs his ownfirm, Patio Wood Products, in San Gabriel, Calif.Jack P. Cowen, SB, MD '31, held anexhibition of his paintings and sketchesat the Cliff Dwellers Club, Chicago, recently. Dr. Cowen is an opthalmologist,and is on the faculty of the University ofIllinois Medical School. He began painting during World War II while a commander in the U.S. Navy Medical Corps, 'aboard the U.S. Hospital Ship Consolation.He has held many exhibitions of hiswork, and has taken several paintingtrips to San Miguel de Allenda, Oaxaca,and Guanajuato in Mexico. He recentlyreturned form a trip to Europe, and therecent showing included artistic impressions of that trip.29Charles F. Cutter has become a partner in the Chicago office of F. S. Moseley& Co., Boston investment firm.Maurice E. Moore has joined the WolfManagement Engineering Co. of Chicago.He had been with the U.S. Dept. ofLabor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.Lester Connell Shephard of IdahoFalls, Idaho, is in the Philippines as abudget and accounting advisor for theForeign Operations Administration. Hehad been with the U.S. Atomic EnergyCommission. His wife, Dean MoodyShephard, 34, and three of their fourchildren, Sandra Jean, 16, Frank, 10, andSusan, 8, will join him later. David, 20,is a student at the University and willjoin the family in June.30C* Indicates those planning to return forJune reunion.)Robert W. Feyerharm, who has beenassistant treasurer of Carleton College,Northfield, Minn., has been elected vicepresident — financial operations at Simpson College, Indianola, la.Montana Faber Menard and her husband, David, live in Wheeling, West Virginia, where he is chief chemist for theWheeling Stamping Co. Mrs. Menardcontinues her interest in music and isWheeling correspondent for MusicalAmerica.Frank and Betty Blair Herlihy '31, areenjoying semi-country living on theirpleasant eight-acre home site. They havethree children: Joanna, who is now doing work on her master's in Slavic language; Susy, 15, a high school sophomorewho owns and rides constantly twohorses; and Terry 10, a 5th grade astronomy enthusiast.* Edward J. Lawler is a practicing attorney in Memphis, Tenn.Marjorie Tolman, circulation managerof the Journal of Religious Education,and a member of the Senate CollegeDivision, Alumni Association, was married to Wesley H. Winters on February10. Their home is in Sumner, Wash. LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERPENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sump-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEHYLAN A. NOLANCONTRACTORPLASTERINGREPAIRING A SPECIALTYS341 S. LAKE PARK AVE.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579Jj jective book. Write for it today — it's FREE.i ALLIED RADIO AAmerica's HI-FI Center (LI FREE BOOK tfc#~Allied Radio Corp., Dept. CC-55100 N. Western Ave., Chicago 80, III.? Send FREE "This Is High Fidelity" bookI Name A ttdress City Zone Stale "this ishigh fidelity"if youlove yourmusic—you'llwant it!r Here's your guide to an easyunderstanding of Hi-Fi — themodern revelation in musicalenjoyment. This 64-page bookshows you how to select a Hi-Fimusic system for your home at#minimum cost. Tells you what to*look for and shows many handsome, practical installation ideas-Offers you the world's largestselection of complete systems andindividual units from which to makeyour money-saving choice. If you loveyour music, you'll want this helpful, ob-MAY, 1955 37BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71ST ST.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186 32John P. Barnes, Jr., JD '34, is generalattorney for The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co. of West Virginia,Charleston, W. Va.I. E. Haebich will retire in Septemberas superintendent of Riverside-Brook-field (111.) Township High School, andwill be replaced by George W. Brown,PhD '48, principal of Emerson HighSchool, Gary, Ind. Mr. Haebich has beenwith the Riverside-Brookfield School for37 years as teacher and administrator.E. Emory Ferebee has been appointeddeputy director of the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.He had been with the Bureau of theBudget since 1944.Jack Luin Hough, SM '34, PhD '40, hasbeen appointed editor of the Journal ofSedimentary Petrology by the Society ofEconomic Paleontologists and Mineral-ologists. He is presently in Karaghpur,India, with the geology department ofthe Indian Institute of Technology, onleave of absence from the University ofIllinois. T. A, BEHNQUIST CO SideWSlKS"7 Factory Floors- MachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433PARKER-HOLSMAN)T'eT'l't"o'r"sVReal Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit InsuranceCorporationYour product's a winner, too,in an H & D box. See . ,HINDE & DAUCH38 12 FACTORIES AND 40 SALES OFFICES IN THE EAST, MIDWEST AND SOUTHTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJi emoria i IFMajor Daniel J. Hayes, MD '94, diedFebruary 9 in Corona, Calif. Dr. Hayespracticed medicine in Chicago until 1914,when he joined the regular Army. Inhis early years in the Army he servedwith General Pershing in Mexico, andin his last fifteen years of service hewas General MacArthur's aide and physician in the Phillipines and China.Dr. Harvey Howard, MD '94, diedFebruary 1 in Freeport, Maine. He hadpracticed medicine for 59 years in Free-port where he helped organize the firsthospital.Dr. Joseph Vasumpaur, '94, died August 27, in Seattle, Washington wherehe had been living since his retirementin 1949.Caroline E. Silliman (Mrs. ArchibaldT. Erickson), PhM '96, died December10 in Saukville, Wis., after suffering astroke.Dr. Ernest E. Ochsner, MD '96, diedNovember 4 in Rockford, 111., after anillness of almost a year.William D. Merrell, PhD '98, died February 11 in Rochester, N. Y. He joinedthe faculty of Rochester University in1899 and served there in the BiologyDepartment from 1899 to 1942, when hebecame Professor Emeritus.Dr. Ernest Carroll Moore, '98, firstprovost of the University of Californiaat Los Angeles, died at his home January 23.Dr. William F. Hewitt, '08, MD '12, diedat his home in Chicago March 21. Hewas assistant professor of obstetrics atthe Rush college from 1920 to 1925, andmore recently was attending obstetrician at Illinois Central Hospital.Robert Lincoln Kelly, PhM '99, diedDecember 12. He was executive secretary of the Association of AmericanColleges from 1918 to 1937.Samuel Adams Lynch, AM '00, diedSeptember 26. He was Head of the Department of English and Speech of theIowa State Teachers College from 1909to 1938, and Professor Emeritus from1938.Wilhelmine Enteman, (Mrs. FrancisB. Key), PhD '01, died January 31 whileon a visit to the Pacific coast.Edith R. Behrhorst, (Mrs. Edith B.Maize), PhB '02, died January 28 atWashington, D. C. She is survived bytwo daughters, also alumnae of the University, Mrs. James E. Stinson (Mary C.Maize), '31, and Eleanor B. Maize, '33.Beatrice Davies (Mrs. E. H. Eardley),'02, died March 13, in Detroit, Mich.,after a brief illness following an accident. Antonie Krejsa (Mrs. T. B. Kendrick),'02, died February 8 in Dallas, Texas.Dr. William S. Mortensen, MD '03, ofLos Angeles, Calif., died February 10.Edith Shaffer (Mrs. Frederick Sass),'03, died in a Pittsburgh hospital January 6 following an extended illness. Herhusband, Frederick, '01, died in Denver, where the family had lived foryears, in 1946. Two sons are also alumni:Frederick, Jr., '30, JD '32, with the Officeof the General Counsel, Department ofthe Navy in Washington; and Louis,'32, with the Gulf Oil company in Pittsburgh.Helen Solomon (Mrs. Emile Levy), '03,Chicago civic leader, died in her homeJanuary 26. She was on the boards ofthe Urban League, the National Conference of Christians and Jews, andBrandeis University.Delia Gandy, (Mrs. Ervin D. Stuart),PhM '04, died February 16 in SantaPaula, Calif.Ruth Myrtle Miller (Mrs. Clarence H.Baum), '05, died in Billings Hospital,June 28. She had lived in Danville, 111. 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Western Ave., ChicagoSince 1878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Wasson -PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 210 W.Ml 2-8883 Chic, Chicago Avenuego 10, Illinois5487 LAKE PARK AVE.CHICASO, ILLINOISZJor JCetervatlom Csalt:BUtterfi.ld 8-41(0 Dr. Jonas O. Backlund, '05, of Sawyer, Mich., died January 9.Frank K. Baker, DB '06, died January 2, 1953. He held Presbyterian pastorates in Indiana at Ossian, Portland,Anderson, and Hopewell.Charles E. Nixon, '06, died July 10in Chicago.Grace A. Beed, '06, died early thisyear, at St. Joseph's Hospital in KansasCity.John B. Dube, '07, Dallas, Texas, diedlast November.Nathan L. Krueger, '07, a Chicagolawyer for 50 years, died December 24,at Weiss Memorial Hospital, after a longillness.Henry T. Louthan, '09, Richmond, Va.,died July 20, 1953.Warder Clyde Allee, SM '10, PhD '12,Prof. Emeritus, Department of Zoology,died March 18.Elbert E. Chandler, PhD '10, of Glendale, Calif, died May 27.Harry N. Irwin, '10, dean emeritus ofthe School of Education of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, O, diedJanuary 28 in his home in Woodsmere,Orlando, Fla. He was dean at W.R.U.from 1933 until his retirement in 1946.For several years before going to Cleveland, he taught in the American University at Beirut, Lebanon. Later hetaught in the experimental high schoolin connection with the University ofChicago. Mr. Irwin was the author of"Outline of Elementary Grammar" and"Beginning Lesson in English".Ida C. Langerwisch, '10, of Big Rapids, Mich, died July 15.Josef T. Skinner, '10, of Princeton, 111,died January 19. He was a lawyer withthe concern of Skinner and Skinner.Gertrude E. Nelson (Mrs. Alvin J.King), '11, died July 16 in Jackson,Miss.E. Russell Lloyd, '11, prominent geologist and former Rhodes scholar, diedFebruary 16, in Midland, Tex. after abrief illness. He had served as a staffor consulting geologist for most of thenation's major oil companies and headedvarious phases of the United StatesGeological Survey.Dr. Frederick F. Miller, MD '11, ofSan Diego, Calif, died December 13.Jean Work (Mrs. James A. Gibson),'12, died August 31 in the Hospital ofthe Good Shepherd, Syracuse, N. Y.Anna Maud Hulse, AM '13, of Mankato, Kan, died January 16.Joseph E. Evans, LLB '13, lawyer, ofSalt Lake City, Utah, died last summer. 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