APRIL 1955UNIVERSITYofCHAISee Page 14More jobs— through scienceFrom the earth, air, and water come new things for all of us — and new jobsThe elements of nature are a limitless frontier, a continuing challenge to science. Out of them, scientists aredeveloping new materials that benefit us all in many ways.A CHEMICAL A MONTH -The scientists of UnionCarbide, for example, have introduced an average ofone new chemical per month for over twenty-five years.Some of these have led to the growth of importantindustries, such as plastics and man-made textiles. This,in turn, has meant more opportunities, more jobs — inconstruction, manufacturing, engineering and sales, aswell as in research.IN OTHER FIELDS, TOO, the people of Union Carbidehave helped open new areas of benefit and opportunity.Their alloy metals make possible stainless and other finesteels; the oxygen they produce helps the sick and is essential to the metalworker; their carbon products servethe steelmakers and power your flashlight.PROGRESS THROUGH RESEARCH-Union Carbide has23 research and development laboratories constantlyworking in major fields of science to continue this recordof product development— and more jobs through science.FREE: Learn how Alloys, Carbons, Gases, Chemicals,and Plastics improve many things that you use. Ask forthe 1955 edition of "Products and Processes" booklet E-2.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION'30 EAST 42ND STREET IHO NEW YORK 17, N. Y.In Canada: Union Carbide Canada LimitedUCC's Trade-iharked Products includeSynthetic Organic Chemicals Electromet Alloys and MetalsEVEREADY Flashlights and Batteries Prestone Anti-FreezeBakelite, Vinylite, and Krene Plastics Prest-0 HAYNES STELLITE Alloys Dynel Textile Fibers LiNDE OxygenPyrofax Gas Union Carbide National Carbons¦Lite Acetylene AcHESON ElectrodesiV lento f-^adA FTER 1100 ALUMNI had visited thefaculty in their laboratories the afternoon of Alumni Open House (Feb. 26)500 remained to have dinner at theQuadrangle Club.Members of the Student Alumni Committee, hosts for the day, joined alumniat the tables. At the table in the photo(from rear left): B. C. MacDonald, '20and wife from St. Louis; Mrs. Glomsetand husband, Daniel A. Glomset, '35, MD'38, from Des Moines; and Sue Perkins,student hostess.After dinner everyone adjourned toMandel Hall for the all-student varietyshow.Class reunionsIT LOOKS LIKE a bumper crop of classreunions next June. All classes endingin 5 or 0 will be celebrating. Thosealready in the planning stages are:1915. George Lyman telephoned latein February to say his committee wasmeeting "next Thursday" to plan their40th. The committee: John Breathed, AlEddy, George Lyman, Hays MacFarland,Harold A. Moore, Francis Sherwin, andAugust Kent Sykes.1920. While Beno MacDonald (St.Louis) and Gerry Westby (Tulsa) werein town for Open House, the committeemet to plan a 3-day celebration.Thursday, June 2nd, registration atAlumni Lounge will be followed by abuffet supper at the Morgensterns, thenthe Revels show.Friday, tours in the afternoon and thebig dinner at the Quadrangle Club inthe evening. Much discussion about doorand other prizes volunteered by Beno.Special tables at Alumnae Breakfast (forwomen) and Hutchinson Commons (formen) Friday, after which they will joinall alumni in the "big tent" for the restof the day and the Interfraternity Sing.The committee: Gale Blocki, Jr.,Frances and Charlie Higgins, B.C. MacDonald, Red McKittrick, Bill and DottyMorgenstern, Elizabeth Walker, andGerry Westby. 1930. The entire top floor of the DelPrado Hotel is reserved for the 25thanniversary celebration of the class Friday, June 3. Chairman of the committeeis Fred W. Turner, Jr. Other members:Daniel Benton, Suzanne Kern Eldred,Hal Haydon, Dr. Robert Lewy, JohnMenzies, Katherine and Hugh Riddle.Stagg at June Reunion"We ARE PLANNING quite a celebration this spring, including Mr. Stagg'sreturn to the campus for the 50th reunion of the '05 championship teams,"writes Frank S. Whiting, president of theOrder of the C.Frank points out that there are nearly1300 Order of the C members and thatmost of them will be expected back forJune (1-4) Reunion. The Alumni- Varsity baseball game and the big C dinnerwill be on Thursday, June 2nd.Beg Pardon!Dear Editor:Methinks you should do more proofreading and less bragging . . .Wilma Frances Lux AM '48And from Maurice Crane, who wrote"Literature Unbound" in last month'sissue, we received the following spanking:Tell your hawk-eyed letter writersthat "Margaret's Mead" is the summerhouse where Ruth Benedict stayed whenshe wrote Patterns of Culture.Washington and ClevelandCoDY PFANSTIEHL, '37, famous promoter about campus and one time editorof the original TOWER TOPICS (mimeographed campus weekly) did the lastWashington program announcement inthe old TT format. It was an invitationto a meeting with alumnus Reuben Gustavson, President of Resources for theFuture, Inc., as speaker on March 23rd.The Cleveland Club spent St. Valentine's evening as "private" guests of theThe Late Red Paine Museum of Natural History and Planetarium. On March 14 they had supperand a lecture-recital on "UnderstandingNegro Spirituals" by Mrs. ClaybourneGeorge, '24.A success storyUNDER a front page headline of theGlendale (California) News-Press Monday, February 14, the story began: "Oneof Glendale's most beloved citizens isdead. Dr. Norman C. Paine, 62 . . . diedat 8:23 p.m. Saturday ..."Classmate Chester S. Bell of Neenah,Wisconsin, left by plane on receipt ofthe telegram. Chet reports his "toughestmoment" was at the First PresbyterianChurch, packed with flowers and friends,when the organist softly played "Wavethe Flag for Old Chicago," "C Standsfor Cherished Courage," and the AlmaMater. Red Paine was wearing his "C"button.It had been a heart attack, which Redrecognized. He had sent the family tobed while he stretched out in the librarywith a touch of "indigestion." He hadlater quietly called a heart specialistand an ambulance before the family wasaware of the seriousness of the attack.Norman Paine, '12, MD '19, was anAll- American, from the day Walter Campselected him for this football honor in1912 until Physicians and Surgeons Hospital, where he had served 29 years asa staff member, lowered its flag to halfstaff.He had coached football at Baylor, athis own Alma Mater under the GrandOld Man, at Arkansas and finally atIowa State, where he also headed thecollege hospital. Since 1921 he had practiced in California.Red Paine was wholehearted in everything he did and he did everything. TheAlumni Association cited him as aworthy citizen in 1948. Many were theparties he staged for the Grand Old Manand his fellow "C" men at Rose Bowlsessions. One of his last such events heengineered as president of the Big TenClub of Southern California last yearwhen he honored Amos Alonzo Staggin the crowded Biltmore Bowl.Normally, this final story would becarried briefly in our Memorial column.But Red was the kind of alumnus thatthe University, the Alumni Association,and I honor in our own wholeheartedway.He loved his Alma Mater. There wereyears when he couldn't understand her;years when he disagreed with her program; years of frustration which wereshared by many classmates and alumnifriends. But through it all Red Painenever faltered. He headed fund drives,encouraged prospective students, took onany task asked of him by his AlmaMater — always with real enthusiasm. Ashe died he was preparing to come toChicago at the invitation of the Chancellor to talk about Chicago's future.His spirit will be a part of the futureof his Alma Mater.H.W.M.APRIL, 1955 1MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE CORPORATE ALUMNUS PROGRAM:A plan to match employees' gifts totheir colleges, up to $1,000 in one yearSince the General Electric Educational and CharitableFund announced the Corporate Alumnus Program onNov. 23, 1954, many questions have been received aboutit. The answers to questions most often asked by G-Eemployees are reprinted below as a matter of generalinterest.Q. Does the Program make any distinction between privatelyendowed and tax-supported colleges?A« No. All colleges, which are otherwise eligible, are treatedalike, irrespective of their source of support or type ofcontrol.Q, May I also make contributions to any institution fromwhich I earned an advanced degree?A. Certainly, but the total of all your gifts will be matchedonly up to $1,000 in 1955.Q. Supposing an employee completed part of the requirements for his degree at one college, and then transferredto another from which he received his degree — are theyboth eligible for "dollar-matching" gifts?A. No — only the one from which he finally received hisdegree.Q. Are there any restrictions on the use which the college canmake of the contributions it receives from the Fund underthis Program?A. Practically, no. The payments will be made to the college to foster the over-all purposes of higher education—which admits of a pretty broad interpretation.Q. To be eligible for the Program, do I have to have workedwith General Electric for any specified period?A. Yes, the rules require you to have had at least one yearof continuous service in General Electric or one of itswholly-owned subsidiaries. Q. What exactly is meant by "earned degree"?A. You must have at least a bachelor's degree or equivalent.Associate or other short-program "degrees" and certificates do NOT count for eligibility. Nor, for that matter, do honorary degrees.Q. Are men and women graduate employees equally eligible?A. Yes.Q. Is the Program limited to people in special job classifications?A. Not at all.Q* When contributing to my alma mater, to whom should Imake out my check?A« It will be helpful if you will make your check payable tothe college or university itself, rather than to an alumniassociation, foundation, or other fund-raising agency. Itis the responsibility of the chief financial officer of theinstitution to certify that the college actually receivedyour contribution. When this is done, the requirementsof the plan have been satisfied in this respect. However,making your check payable to the institution is a quickerand surer way of qualifying — but it is not obligatory.Q# Now, about the eligibility of my college — what specifications is it required to meet?A* Your college will qualify provided:1. It is located within the U.S. or its possessions.2. It is at least a four-year, degree- granting institution.3. It is accredited by the appropriate regional or professional accrediting association.HERE ARE THE RULES OF THE CORPORATE ALUMNUS PROGRAMThe Fund will match any contribution, made in 1955before Dec. 15, by a General Electric employee toa college or university from which he earned adegree, under these conditions:1. The employee's contribution, in order to qualifyunder this Program, must be the personal gift of theemployee actually paid to the college or universityduring the calendar year 1955 and prior to December15 of that year in cash or in securities having aquoted market value and not merely a pledge.2. The college or university to qualify must be afour-year course, degree-granting institution, accredited by the appropriate regional or professionalaccrediting association and located within the UnitedStates or its possessions.3* Contributions under the Program shall be employed by the college or university to realize orfoster the primary needs and objectives of an insti tution of higher education, namely, of augmentingthe required capital and general operating funds, ofproviding for expanded student enrollment, ofstrengthening educational facilities and curricula,and of improving incentives for the highest qualityof teaching.4. The employee at the time of his or her contribution shall be in the active regular employment ofthe General Electric Company or one of its wholly-owned subsidiaries and shall have had at least oneyear of continuous service in such employment.5. The total contribution under this Program withrespect to the contribution or contributions of anyindividual employee shall be limited to the sum of$1,000 and the total contributions to be made bythe Fund under the Program shall not exceed theamount appropriated by the Trustees of the Fundfor this purpose. In the event that total employee contributions otherwise coming within the terms ofthis Program exceed the amount so appropriated bythe Trustees, the contributions to be made by theFund under this Program may be apportioned by theTrustees in such a manner as they may considerequitable and proper.6. The Trustees shall be entitled, if they deem itdesirable to do so, to suspend, revoke, or terminatethis Program at any time with respect to employeecontributions thereafter made.7. Any question, whether as to the interpretation,application or administration of the provisions ofthis Program or otherwise, shall be determined bythe Trustees and their decision shall be final.For more information write: General ElectricEducational and Charitable Fund, CorporateAlumnus Program, Schenectady, N. Y.Tbogress Is Our Most Important ProductGENERAL HI ELECTRIC2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJn ZJkU SteueAT THE INVITATION of the Maroon,the campus newspaper, Chancellor Lawrence A. Kimpton addressed the studentbody recently on undergraduate education at the University. We bring youthe text of his remarks on Page 5.Visiting educators, includingmany foreigners, often ask to sit in ona Humanities I class. Invariably thecomment afterwards is: "I wish I couldtake it myself!"Joshua Taylor, Assistant Professor ofArt in the College and the Art Department, wrote this description of the famous course at our request. Mr. Taylor,who is chairman of the course, receivedhis B.A. and M.A. degrees at Reed College, Portland, Ore., and his M.F.A. atPrinceton University. He's been at theUniversity since 1949.XOU'LL APPRECIATE this story aftertaking a look at the picture of a hydrogen bubble chamber on Page 15. Dr.Hildebrand, who is holding the littleglass tube in the photo, was using anobject just about this size in some workat the University of California, beforecoming to Chicago. As with the bubblechamber, he was doing experiments withthe giant cyclotron.A visiting U. S. senator, observing hisuse of the tiny object with the giantatom-smasher, commented that it seemeda waste to use such a large machine onanything so small!X OU'LL FIND more news -^out theupcoming Festival of the Ai. ge17. Some people are already at v ontheir costumes for the Beaux Arts Jball,and rumor has it that a national picturemagazine will cover the event. (We'llbe there, too!)T OR A GLIMPSE of what you missedif you didn't make it to Mid-Year OpenHouse on February 26, see Pages 19-21.However, don't despair — you can catchmore of the same Reunion Day, June 2.WiE WISH we could present MarthaBennett King, our folksong specialist, inperson, singing the songs she loves andplaying her guitar. Instead, we offer youher lively discourse, Folksongs Alive, onPage 24. The drawings which accompany the article were done especially forthe Magazine by Irene Friedman, '54.1 HE HISTORY DEPARTMENT Newsletter on Page 29 is the first of a seriesof newsletters we will run from time totime, bringing you news of alumni fromvarious departments. y^^^^/' m^ UNIVERSITY(JmorcroMAGAZINE t) APRIL 1955Volume 47, Number 7FEATURES5 Undergraduate Education8 What is Hum I?14 Hydrogen Bubble Chamber17 New Clinic for Disturbed Children19 Mid-Year Open House22 Folksongs Alive29 History Department NewsletterDEPARTMENTSI Memo Pad3 In This Issue26 Books — Readers' Guide35 Class News40 Memorials Lawrence A. KimptonJoshua C. TaylorMartha Bennett KingCOVERDr. Darragh Nagle, (left), and Dr. Roger Hildebrand, physicists,peer through glass window to observe high energy particles inthe hydrogen bubble chamber. For story, see Page 14. (Photoby Lewellyn).THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37,Executive EditorEditorManaging EditorAdvertising ManagerStaff PhotographerFoundation SecretaryField Secretary linoisHOWARD W. MORTFELICIA ANTHENELLIAUDREY NEFF PROBSTSHELDON W. SAMUELSSTEPHEN LEWELLYNWILLIAM H. SWANBERGDEAN TYLER JENKSPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $4.00. Single copies,25 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois,under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross,director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.APRIL, 1955 3A REPORT ONUnder graduateEducationBy Lawrence A. KimptonChancellorIt IS A STRANGE contradictionwithin the University of Chicago thatits great reputation has come downthrough the years from its distinguished graduate training and research, but at the same time it is oneof the very few major universitiesthat has taken undergraduate education seriously. In most major universities undergraduate education isdelegated to a combination of impoverished and inexperienced graduate students and faculty members whoregard it as an odious chore that interrupts their important function ofresearch and graduate teaching. Butthe great debates over the past halfcentury at the University of Chicagohave raged about undergraduateteaching and curriculum, and perhapsthis is the place to remind you thatinnumerable changes have been madein the program since the beginningand will continue to be made. Uponthe whole, all the changes have beenproductive of beneficial results and, Imight add, of undergraduate suspicion.¦^ LewellynThe seven finalists in the Wash Promqueen contest, chosen by a panel ofoutside judges: (from 1 to r, seated)Michelle Hermann, Rosemary Galli,Mary Ellen Lieberman, Carolyn Eg-gert, Ann Peyton, and Gertrude Martin.Margaret Anderson is standing. Tosee the winner, chosen by popular vote,turn to Page 26. I have two difficulties of an opposite kind in talking about our newundergraduate program and the reasons that brought it about. The firstis that the rationale and objectivesof the program are so simple that astatement on them seems to proveonly that we have a firm grasp of theobvious. The second reason, interestingly enough, is that the program isso complex that it is peculiarly difficult to make a definitive statement.On the side of simplicity, I havedeveloped an allergy to the inflatedand abstract prose with which educational institutions describe in theircatalogues or their self-studies whatthey are doing or should be doing.We have become so victimized by ourown pedaguese that we often concealeven from ourselves what our rathersimple objectives are. I do believethat the old Mark Hopkins definitionof logs and education would soundsomething like this today: "Educationrequires the ongoing maintenance ofan appropriate equilibrium betweenthe teacher qua teacher and the student qua student, to the end thatmeaningful and dynamic interpersonalrelations are fostered equilaterally inan environment of commonality."However complex the learning process is, and it is a very complex psychological process indeed, I really believe that what we are trying toaccomplish can be described verysimply.But let me turn to my second diffi culty. However simple it is for me todescribe, I must remind you thatmany different persons — members ofthe College, Divisional and Schoolfaculties — have had a voice in theconstruction of the programs. Theresult represents a remarkable act ofacademic statesmanship, and the objectives, though essentially similar,would be described somewhat differently by each individual. The newundergraduate program is th-3 resultof the collective wisdom of the University of Chicago, and it is not thecreation by fiat of a single person orof a coterie. This fact, may I add, isone of the sources of its strength, butit also makes it difficult to describe tothe satisfaction of everyone.What should we expect of an undergraduate education, at the University of Chicago or indeed any greatuniversity in the world today? Anundergraduate education, beyondserving as an end in itself, should bepreparation for adult life, and thisleads us on to the question of whatyou wish to obtain from life and howyou will and should lead your lives.Even the most cursory glance at aman's life in nature and society suggests that human existence can beprofitably considered under two mainaspects — its public and its private side.From one point of view men sharecertain fundamental needs, problemsand ends. As a social animal, manmust live with his fellow man, communicate with him, work with him,APRIL, 1955 5share decisions with him, and evenunderstand and appreciate him. Perhaps this is what Plato meant in TheRepublic when, in describing the idealstate, he said that it was marked bythe fact that "friends have all thingsin common." But from another pointof view each man is unique and special, firmly resisting all efforts toconsign him to some communal category. It was a needed correction ofPlato perhaps that made Aristotledescribe moral virtue in a highly individualistic way, recognizing that people do differ and that this is a goodand a significant thing. It is a recognition of this uniqueness of each individual that creates much of the English common law, and it is thefundamental respect that we have forthe individual that creates our concern for such things as civil rightsand academic freedom. Perhaps thereason most of us resist the idea of atotalitarian state, whether Hitler's orthat of Soviet Russia, is because wedon?t wish to be brainwashed andmolded and created into someoneelse's image of the way we ought tobehave and think.These are the two aspects of manwhich have been recognized by almostall philosophers, and the literature isfull of such titles as "The World andthe Individual," "Science and Solitude," "Man and Society." Men havetheir public or political or social lifethat they share with their fellows,but with Thoreau they have theirWalden Pond which they possess asindividuals.But having made this distinction,may I proceed at once to blur it.Human experience is a rich and complex thing and it is not divided intotwo air-tight compartments. In allour social actions we carry our individualism with us, and man's individuality is changed and enriched byhis participation in the social community. Nonetheless, it is a meaningful distinction, for there are certainimportant concerns that we share withour fellow man and equally importantconcerns that belong to us primarilyas individuals.If it is both these lives that weshould lead, it follows that undergraduate education in the liberal artsand sciences should play an importantpart in developing both of thesephases of human experience. An education that prepares a student for lifeshould fit him for an understandingof and participation in the more important fields of democratic thoughtand action and at the same time provide for the cultivation of thoseunique gifts and interests which setthe individual apart from his fellows. These are complementary objectivesand every student has the right todemand that his university pursuethem wisely and well. In dischargingthe first of these functions, the University believes that educated menand women should possess in commonskill and judgment in the use of indispensable intellectual tools and agrasp of the essential facts in the greatfields of human inquiry. In discharging the second obligation, the University should develop within the studenthis capacity for recognizing and following up an individual preference orpredilection which is peculiarly his.It may be reading Kant or colloidalchemistry or rattling some bones inan anthropological laboratory, butthe student should undertake it notbecause all men should share thiseducational experience but becausehe has decided that this activity isimportant and interesting to him asan individual.May I introduce two qualificationshere by way of clarifying my meaning. This program has nothing to dowith higher specialization or voca-tionalism or a trade school diploma.I am talking about liberal education,and it is my contention that one element of it is the requirement that astudent demonstrate his capacity towork independently in a field or program of study which he has freelychosen. Secondly, it is ridiculous thatthese two fundamentals of a liberaleducation are always to be developedthrough totally different kinds ofcourses. A general course in the humanities, for example, which has asits main objective to develop a commonality of communication and appreciation, will inevitably enhanceeach student's powers for significantindividual exploration in the arts. Isuggest, on the other hand, that anadvanced course in non-Euclideangeometry may well promote the student's knowledge and skills which he should share with all men. These arematters of differences in degree andemphasis, and if we have had a faultin the past, it is perhaps treating thesethings as if they belonged to totallydifferent worlds.The relevance of these general remarks to our new undergraduate curriculum should not be difficult todetect. We now have quite an assortment of pathways — perhaps I shouldcall them toll highways — to the bachelor's degree, but each of these different roads reflects the view thata sound education consists of generaland individual elements. In each casethe student receives a general education, not through an assortment ofrequired electives or field distributionor similar nonsense, but through athoughtful and substantial program ofgeneral education which has beenevolved and tested at Chicago overthe past quarter of a century. TheCollege remains charged with theprimary responsibility for the University's work in general education,and our program remains uniqueamong the universities of the world.At the same time the new curriculumoffers the undergraduate the opportunity and responsibility for testingand developing his powers in a fieldwhich commands his special interest.Thus the joint degrees combine thework of the College with the specialized programs of the Divisions of theBiological Sciences, the Humanitiesor the Physical Sciences. Anothervariation combines the general courses of the College with a year's studyin the Division of the Social Sciencesand the Professional Schools of theUniversity. It is equally true of theCollege A.B. degree, with tutorialstudy in which a council composed ofboth College and Divisional facultymembers directs students in a yearof individual work designed to meettheir special needs and interests.There is already one interestingconsequence of our new recognitionof the difference in talents and interests of our undergraduates. In thepast, many of us have been struck bythe preponderance in our studentbody of young people convinced before they entered the University ofthe merits of the kind of educationthey were to receive — salvation preceding matriculation, as it were. Butthere were so very few of them! Themajority of superior young peoplewho were considering an undergraduate institution were already drawnto special interests in archaeologyor chemistry or mathematics, and,though such students may have beenwrong or badly advised, they wereboth strong-willed and numerous —6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand they went elsewhere. Under ournew arrangement we are once againattracting such students who have aclearly developed special bent and inmost cases with no prior commitmentto the idea of a balanced general education. In our association with thesestudents it is our problem to see to itthat, though breadth was initially nopart of their educational purpose, it isa consequence of their arrival at Chicago. I would even suggest that thisextension from the already convincedto the initially indifferent or evenskeptical may prove to be one of themost significant results following fromthe introduction of the new curriculum. If this new attractiveness to awider variety of superior students is,as some suggest, a lowering of standards, then I am happy to see themlowered.A criticism that I have heard of ournew undergraduate program is that itseems to lack the tidiness, the neatness, the uniformity of our old. Itreminds me of a Britisher's description of the Institute of Human Relations at Yale, abandoned in morerecent years. He said that he didn'thave the slightest idea what theywere doing, he only knew that theywere all doing it together. The factthat our present program has a shaggy and unkempt quality does notworry me at all, so long as underneathit there is a thread of rationality thatholds it all together. It does notworry me, for example, that the student who enters the University witha particular interest already identified proceeds simultaneously with thegeneral and individual emphases inhis program. I see nothing reprehensible, either practically or theoretically, about a young biologist settingto work in his special field and concurrently encountering the otherkinds of educational experienceswhich are designed to produce thewell-rounded man and citizen. Ithappens to be the case that manystudents do identify their special interests very early in the course oftheir undergraduate experience, andthey need early to develop the knowledge and skills which are fundamentalto their more specialized work. Conversely, I see nothing at all wrongwith the student who selects ratherlate in his undergraduate educationthe area in which he has a specialinterest and competence and uses thebroad general courses to determinethe field of his special concern.It has been suggested also by somecritics that in the interest of a tidyblue print we should have arrangedan exact and uniform proportion between the general and the more spe cialized studies so that a formulamight have been developed and students fitted to this procrustean bed.It would have been prettier, I haveno doubt, and certainly easier, but Iam not sure that either of these objectives has anything to do witheducation. It would take a masterdraftsman of a kind not yet producedto draw a solid black line between thekind of education which equips onegenerally for the affairs of life and thekind of education which ministers toindividual purposes. In our undergraduate program, as in educationgenerally, while there is an area inwhich general studies are dominantand another area in which specialstudies are uppermost, there is a verygenerous expanse of overlap. As Ihave said before, the general curriculum of the College has made animpressive contribution in the pasttoward developing the kind of competence that we call specialization, andthis was proved by the results of theGraduate Record Examination. Weknew also that instruction in the Divisions and Professional Schools, thoughprimarily directed toward specializedobjectives, has served to enlarge andstrengthen breadth of understanding,clarity of statement, and discrimination in judgment. If liberal educationaddresses itself to both general andindividual objectives, and if it mayproceed concurrently on these twofronts which to some extent occupycommon ground, then we should feelno concern about some superficialuntidiness.A magic formula, dictating exactproportions of general and specialstudies, could of course have beenselected, but the particular formulaof blend would be arbitrarily chosen— about as relevant to the real problem in hand as the price of potatoesin Ireland in 1923. It is the hardway, but we chose it, namely, lookingclosely at each special area and varying the blend to meet the individualcase. In cases where the area of over lap is substantial, one solution to theproblem of articulating general studies and special studies is appropriate.This holds, for example, in my ownfield of philosophy. In other cases, avery different solution is called for.In the languages or the natural sciences, significant individual study canonly proceed where there is an opportunity for extensive preliminary workin a special field, and since we seriously intend to obtain this secondmajor objective of liberal education,we must adjust the student's programto reflect this.Perhaps I should add that admitting qualified young people prior tohigh school graduation provides afurther element of untidiness. Thisprinciple of flexibility, however shaggy and unkempt it may make us appear to the tidy, arithmetical mind,is in my judgment one of the reallystrong points in the new program.Symmetry is aesthetically gratifyingbut it is no virtue if it involves educational dislocation, and I for one amconvinced that the roughness of texture here reflects an underlyingrationality.Finally, it has been suggested thatsomething of the spirit of learningand intellectuality has disappeared inour undergraduate program with thenew reorganization. This greatly puzzles me, if true, for I can only saythat we have at the University ofChicago in the new program thegreatest opportunity that exists todayin undergraduate education. Thesmall liberal arts college of high quality has traditionally done a splendidjob in the more general aspects ofliberal education, but it has lackedthe personnel and the facilities toallow opportunity for the more specialized needs and interests of itsstudents. On the other hand, themajor universities have provided opportunity for meeting the more specialized interests and concerns oftheir students, but the general phasesof undergraduate education have beenill -taught and have usually dependedupon some wretched assortment ordistribution of electives.At the University of Chicago wehave developed over a quarter of acentury a thoughtful and substantialprogram of general education inwhich there is exciting teaching anda lively sense of participation. Sinceour doors opened in 1892 we havepossessed great specialists, and todayour facilities for the pursuit of themore specialized disciplines are unrivalled. Put together, these thingspresent a great curriculum addressedto the major purposes of liberaleducation.APRIL, 1955 7What Is Hum I?By Joshua C. TaylorAssistant Professor, ArtELewellyn^Pronounced h-yoo-m one. (VERY MEMBER of the staff ofthe initial Humanities course in theCollege is familiar with the often repeated question, "Whatever is Humanities One?"It is usually asked with emphasison both words because, while theHumanities as a general and ratherlimitless body of material are normally recognized, what would acourse in such diverse material be?And granted the existence of sucha course, how would a HumanitiesOne differ from a Humanities Two orThree? While of necessity we haveframed rather hasty replies to suchqueries, a fully satisfactory explanation can be neither brief nor simple.What we do is firmly rooted in aparticular educational aim, and adescription only of subject matter ormethod would possibly be more puzzling than revealing.The title of the large red handbookwhich Humanities One students toteabout and on occasion read, is "AnIntroduction to the Arts." But such atitle simply raises questions the more.How do you introduce students to thearts? And is not the first year incollege late to be performing introductions since certainly the studenthas long since become aware of theexistence of art, music and literature?The much more usual, and probablythe most overworked, term found attached to beginning undergraduatecourses is "survey." The assumptionbehind courses so designated wouldseem to be that if the student has akind of bird's eye view of Englishliterature or European painting, hewill acquire as a matter of course aninsight into the arts which will be notonly a lasting but an ever-increasingjoy. While this may be so, it is not anassumption which the present Collegestaff cares to .make. An aerial viewof a city would seem to be a verypoor introduction into the home lifeof its inhabitants. We prefer to beginwith the individual work of art, prov-Robert Reiff, Assistant Professor ofArt History at Oberlin College, a visiting instructor on the Humanities Istaff, describes an Egyptian sculptureat the Oriental Institute to BernardAlpiner.8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEing its existence not through historicaltestimony or definition but throughexperience. It is the experience ofthe work of art, then, which is ourpoint of departure, and the broadening and deepening of that experiencewhich is our aim. But the other question then rises. What about theexperience the student already has inthe arts?While students in primary andsecondary schools possibly have lesswork in literature than once they had,certainly they have a much moregenerous exposure to art and music.Every respectable school has itsstudio and music rooms, and it is arare child indeed who has not had anopportunity to explore the possibilities of finger painting or the advantages of modern household design.The arts serve as a valuable meansof self expression and group activity,and it is every educator's ideal thatthey may continue to do so throughout the student's life.But how long can this uncriticalperformance totally fill the demandsof a growing intellect for that experience which, as adults, we find provided by the arts? At some pointmust occur an awakening to thewider meaning of the arts, to the factthat the arts are not solely recreational but that they are, in their ownways, the embodiment of humanknowledge. This is an experienceavailable only to the mature mind,and in its humble way HumanitiesOne tries to provide a bridge betweenthe unanalyzed experience of childhood and the awareness which is amark of intellectual maturity. Theintroduction, then, is to the arts atthat level on which they form a permanent part of the intellectual life ofman. The experience is a new onesince it demands the attention of thetotal complex of the student's awakening intellectual powers.It is one thing to recognize the needfor such a course, and quite anotherto frame one, and Humanities Onedid not arrive at "its present form overnight. Although its aims have remained constant, methods have beencontinually modified and changed, afact which has contributed not a littleto the vitality of the course. It wasearly in the planning, however, thata very important decision was made:that in order to keep the student'sattention on the works of art and notsimply on ideas around works of art,an organization other than that of anhistorical sequence was necessary. Asthe course stands now, it builds not Student Art Project: The CarnivalJ- HIS PICTURE representsmy interpretation of a carnivalscene. I feel that I have takenonly the most prominent features of such a setting and putthem into the picture. I may bewrong, but somehow I have theidea that some of the more subtle characteristics of the sceneare also incorporated into thepicture. I have not tried to makean exact representation, butrather, I have attempted to givejust a basic structure for theviewers' thoughts in regard tothe substance of the painting.... To begin with, I would like todescribe the direction in whichmy interest was led when firstobserving the completed painting. By far, the most dominatingpoint of interest is the unusualsun. Perhaps my thoughts wereshocked by the idea of a greensun. In any case, it immediatelycaught and held my attention.. . . Against the background ofthe milk-white sky, the sun isprojected forward to the extentof giving a real third dimensionto the picture. This effect is created by the illusion of theopaque mass of the sun beingsuspended in the transparentmass of the sky.... I added the cross-members tothe simple structure of the rollercoasters for two reasons. Thefirst was that they offered agreat contrast to the sky. The Lewellynsky is a tint of a hue of whiteof very high value. The structures are of a saturated hue offorest green very low in value.These two contrast so greatlythat their effect is to make theforms of the roller coasterstand out from the sky. I utilized this same principle ofcontrasts to make the buildingsstand out from the sky and evenfrom the roller coasters.The second reason for thecross-beams' presence is thatthey tended to heighten the effect of airiness of the entirestructure.Realizing the importance ofbrush strokes, I tried to utilizethem to my advantage. For example, in the green strip at thebottom of the picture whichleads the eye along its length, Imade the brush strokes lengthwise to reinforce this effect.Texture was another conceptI tried to employ. An exampleof this is the sun. Its effect is toproject out from the picture.Therefore, the brush strokes ofthe sun come in from its edgesand gather at the center. Ipainted the sun with thick paintand made it especially thick atthe center. These all tend toheighten the intended effect.The two dominant characteristics of the picture are thestress of structure forms andstress of color value.Stephen MichelAPRIL, 1955 9from the historically early to the historically late, but from the simple tothe complex experience.Because of their varying difficultyand the differences in level of preparation noted among the students,progress in the three arts is not quitethe same, but the pattern is similar.Music, for example, demands a rathermore technical vocabulary than thevisual arts, while literature can drawupon earlier reading and prior acquaintance with the more commonforms. But in all the arts the studentbegins with a concentration on theindividual work.Just what happens to a studentwhen he enters "Hum I?" What ishe faced with, what does he do? Howcan the development we desire bebrought about? For the past fewyears the course has begun with thevisual arts. Everyone seems to haveopinions about pictures. But somepuzzling questions arise. Why is itthat two paintings of the same subjectmatter evoke such different feelings?How can a marble sculpture make usso keenly aware of airy movements inspace? Such questions are posed bythe lecture which key-notes the fourclassroom discussions of the firstweek. But between the lecture onThursday and class on Monday thestudent must consider the questionsfor himself, and the best place inwhich to do this is the Chicago ArtInstitute. There he goes to work outhis ideas on an assigned painting. This year it was Rembrandt's Girl at theOpen Half Door. Over the week end,and on every week end throughoutthe year, there is a faculty member atthe Art Institute to meet with thestudents. Sometimes he goes withthem to examine local architecture,and sometimes the discussions areheld in the Oriental Institute at theUniversity. But although the discussions center on problems similar tothose broached in class, the specialwork assigned is left entirely to thestudent.The plan of the course calls for onelecture and four class discussion sessions a week, each class consisting ofsome twenty-five students. When thegroup is gathered around the table inclass on Monday, a great variety of.ideas on the painting studied pourforth, and in the ensuing discussion,as is so often the case, more questions become apparent than answers.Various works are brought in to helpclarify some of the problems: Chinesepaintings, drawings by Rembrandt,sculpture by Lipchitz, Bernini andCalder. By the end of the week, moststudents have decided that there ismore to seeing than they had believed.Probably many sympathetic observers were puzzled one stormyweek end last autumn by the activityof a horde of dutiful students tryingto keep out of the rain_jyynile completing drawings of the Robie Houseat 58th Street and University Ave-Joshua Taylor (left) shows slides to Humanities One class.Lewellyn nue, and Rockefeller Chapel. Theywere Humanities One students gathering material for their second weekof discussions, preparing to discusscomposition as a meaningful elementin art.At the end of the second week, justas the student feels he is beginning tosense things that he had not beforenoticed and is slowly acquiring thewords to express them, he is plungedsuddenly into the realm of literature.This program of sudden change fromone art to another has become one ofthe basic procedures of the course.It might be argued that the studentthereby loses what two weeks of concentration have achieved, but practiceshows that this is not the case.Once ideas begin to germinate theycontinue, and, although no analogiesbetween the arts are encouraged indiscussions, the different arts seem tocomplement each other happily in thelearning process. When, in fact, aftertwo weeks of close scrutiny of lyricpoetry and a like period devoted tomusic, art again comes to the fore,the student invariably has madenotable gains.Of course, at no time is he allowedto forget entirely one of the arts.From the first week he is providedwith music in listening hours andspecial sessions on musical rudiments.He is besides expected to attend theUniversity Concerts for which he getsa very special rate. If he is interestedin writing he can read and discusshis own or other students' works inweekly writers' sessions. The visualarts are always around him, in changing exhibitions in the classrooms, inthe campus studio, and at the weeklydiscussions at the Art Institute. It isthe maintenance of such a programthat has sometimes made the administration of Humanities One seem likethat of a three-ring circus. The classrooms, moreover — and we maintainthree especially equipped for thecourse — have to be supplied with projectors, screens, record players, pianosand exhibition cases, and all of therecords, slides, original works of artand reproductions to go with them.In the visual arts an importantevent occurs sometimes after thediscussions of the second week, anevent which some students admittedlyapproach with considerable apprehension. In order to consolidate many ofthe ideas discussed in class, everyoneis asked to write an essay on a workof art which he himself has created.All of the materials necessary and ahelping hand when matters get toocomplicated are available in the studio. This useful place, the bailiwick10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBernard Alpiner, 18, graduated from aCleveland high school, entered the Collegelast fall. He hopes to become an astrophysicist, is working towards a B.S. in physics.Here he tries his hand at a clay sculpture forHumanities One art project.Small room in Lexington Hall isequipped with phonographs, earphones,so students may listen to records asan aid to understanding music.(Photos by Lewellyn)Bernie braves raw March weather to sketchRobie House, project designed to teach students about composition first-hand. House,designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, is nowused as guest quarters by Chicago TheologicalSeminary.Student Art Project: The ffEL >>i HAVE FOUND Chicago afascinating place and particularly the areas around the "el"— the Loop, and close by 63rdStreet. The impression I getfrom these places is one of activity, motion and color. Thispicture is an attempt to putthese impressions on paper.For the impression of activityand motion, the line structureis important. There are manyjagged, criss-cross lines, notably in the signs to the leftand the "el" superstructure, andcomparatively few definite linesof any length. The "el" structure, street and sidewalk converge at some distant point forthe perspective effect. The twodistinguishable vehicles in thestreet and the train above tendto carry along the motion andactivity.Temporarily leaving out thesky, the dominant colors of thescene are reds and brown. Thevalue of the red ranges fairlyhigh in the signs and in theautomobile, thru varying degrees to the low values in the Lewellynstreet. Here it is combined withthe brown, giving a reddish-brown for the brick pavement.The brown in the "el" structureis very dark and almost mergeswith the black. The local brightcolors really don't quite overcome the heaviness created bythe blacks, browns and redbrowns. This is left primarilyto the brilliant blue sky whichcontrasts nicely with the darkcolors below, especially as itshows through the "el" structure. The green truck and yellow train give a certain varietyin color to the picture and, toan extent, balance the reds . . .There could be a little moreactivity in the picture by emphasizing the lines in the signsand by reducing the number ofconverging lines in the sidewalk, putting in more horizontal, irregular lines. Such detailsas these would increase theover-all effectiveness of the picture by strengthening the general impression.Stanley Crawford of sculptor Freeman Schoolcraft, oncecrouched in the corner of a dormitorybasement, but now has the light andspace of that central room in Lexington Hall which in the past has servedso many purposes — most recently asa bakery. It is open to all membersof the campus community throughoutthe week, but of course its busiestmoment is when between two andthree hundred Humanities One students set out to prove to themselvesthat the theories they have developedabout painting and sculpture reallywork.This may seem like one more "selfexpression" device of the art teacher,but the essays which accompany the"projects" are convincing evidencethat new faculties are here at work.In spite of techniques which seemchildish, the positive ideas of a matureconsciousness begin to show through.The quality of our autumn exhibitionis surprising.We have at times tried variouscreative projects in music and literature as well, but they have not contributed as much generally as theprojects in art. This is further testimony, probably, that each art mustbe approached in its own terms; otheractivities must bolster reading andlistening. New plans are afoot fornext year.If we have been successful in ourteaching, by the end of six weeks theconsciousness of the student in thearts has been aroused and he is readynow to expand his interests. This expansion takes a somewhat differentform in each of the arts. The visualarts branch forth into the special experiences of painting, drawing, sculpture, the graphic arts and architecture; music proceeds from the moreobvious aspects of listening to thecomplexities of musical structure, notsimply to increase the vocabulary ol"forms" but to sharpen sensitivity inlistening; literature moves from itsthree weeks concentration on poetryinto the problems of drama and prosenarrative. This year in literature, forexample, this second phase of thecourse was devoted to Shakespeare'sRichard II, James' Daisy Miller, Melville's Billy Budd, and Homer's Iliad.Architecture discussions ranged inmaterial from the Pantheon to recenthouses by Wright and Neutra. Noone can complain of a lack of varietyor scope, yet each work is consideredin its own right.The second "phase" of the courseruns through much of the WinterQuarter. It is followed by still a thirdpart. The brief synopsis of the coursegiven the students at the beginningof the year summarizes this as a study12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof works "seen in relation to theircreative environment." We would nothave students believe that works ofart exist in a peculiar vacuum orcome into being by proclamation. Inconsequence, several works of oneartist are looked at in relationship toeach other to gain some sense of thecreative mind behind them. Thisstudy is complemented by an examination of works by the artists's contemporaries, and in some cases theworks of those who immediately preceded and followed him.This new study assumes a very important function. Art begins to takeshape as a deep-seated and highlyserious human endeavor, and a recognition of the creative force behind thework adds to it a new seriousnessas well as a new dimension of communication. But this is in no sense atotally new approach. The studentmust draw on the full experience ofthe course to carry meaning this onestep further. The parts of the courseare not separate but accumulative.As an example of how this studyprogresses, literature this year centers on the poetry of Keats. First theindividual poem must be studied, thenothers, until not only the meaningsof the single poems emerge, but alsosomething of that quality which isKeats. Comments by Keats on poetryare brought into the discussion forcomparison with ideas derived fromthe poems. Then poems by contemporaries of Keats are studied to un derstand more clearly what is ofKeats and what of his time. To besure this two week concentration onlyopens the problem of the poet in hisenvironment, but the rudimentarytechniques are set forth for gaining amore penetrating understanding.In the visual arts, works of a succession of French nineteenth centurypainters — admirably represented atthe Art Institute — are examined; eachpainter represents a very differentviewpoint, and each either clearlybuilds on the work of his immediateforerunners or rebels boldly againsthis artistic patrimony. Music providesan opportunity for studying the complex background of a composer, thisyear Stravinsky. And with the musicof Stravinsky, the course brings tobear its accumulated body of techniques and insights on selected worksfrom our own time. This spring willfind our students arguing over interpretations of Eliot's Murder in theCathedral, and analysing the disarming simplicity of Matisse's pristinechapel at Venice. These final weeksdevoted to modern works are amongthe most interesting and challenging.If we have been successful the student will have much to say, for hewill be alive to qualities of art andalive as well to the creative environment of his own time.But what in terms of quantity doessuch a course cover? Does it reallysubstitute in coverage for three onequarter survey courses in the variousBernie and roommate, Gerry Norman, discuss Shaw's St. Joan.Lewellyn arts? To be sure we cannot coverall of the masters and masterpieceswe should like, but the material isconsiderable in extent. In literaturethe student will have studied withcare from three to five plays ofShakespeare; a generous selection ofEnglish verse from the sixteenthcentury to the present with specialconcentration on the work of one poetand his contemporaries; two or threemodern plays; four or five novels; anda lengthy major work such as theIliad or the Odyssey of Homer. Aslater testing has shown, these carefully selected works are not forgottennor lost in a general mass of "movements" or theories, but remain as afirm foundation of experience onwhich the student can build. It isconsistent with the aim of the coursethat we examine principally on new,not remembered material, but we expect the student to call to mind as heneeds them the works and experiences from the entire range of thecourse.The task of teaching in such acourse is a rather special one. No,we do not suddenly change instructors with every change of art. Oneinstructor takes his group throughan entire year, and we are convincedof the resultant advantage in theguidance of students. Of course thestaff is made up of specialists eitherin art, music or literature — we aresuspicious of the universal dilettante— but all have strong secondary interests in the other fields. The lectures are given by professors withintheir major field of interest, and themusical scholars guide the planning inmusic, the art members the planningin art, and so forth. But the balancedstaff (ten this year, three of whomare members also of Divisional faculties) keeps the course from becomingin any of its fields too professionalto reach the general student. Besidesstaff ties with Divisional teaching,Humanities One shares much of itsstaff with the other Humanitiescourses in the College, insuring aclose relationship in the building ofan effective sequence.Did you miss Humanities One? It'snot too late. The College Humanitiessequence is being offered now atUniversity College by members of ourregular staff. Or stop in to see thecourse in operation on campus — butbe prepared: you may find yourselfengaged in an argument on the innocence of Daisy Miller or the relative merits of Picasso and Matisse.And if the modern in music hasbothered you, beware of the SpringQuarter!APRIL, 1955 13LewellynDr. Hildebrand shows actual size of bubble chamber.In A TINY GLASS chamber measuring one inch in diameter by fourinches in length, physicists may solvesome of the basic laws governing thefundamental particles of which allmatter is composed.Exploring the mysteries of theatomic world in a minute hydrogen"bubble" chamber are Drs. Roger H.Hildebrand and Darragh E. Nagle,assistant professors in the Departmentof Physics. Both are staff membersof the Institute for Nuclear Studies.Physicists have for some time beenattempting to identify particles andforces at play in the fantastic worldof the nucleus of the atom. These particles consist of electrons, protons,neutrons and mesons, the smallestconstituents of matter. Scientists feelthey have reached the ultimate inbreaking the electron apart, but thestructure of the proton, for example,must still be explored. Mesons, discovered just after the war, presumably have a great deal to do withnuclear forces. Physicists think themeson plays a role in holding thenucleus together, but just how it doesthis they have yet to discover.Scientists probe the nucleus bybombarding it with particles fromcosmic rays, particle accelerators, andnuclear reactors. When a nucleus is hit by a highenergy particle any of several thingsmay happen: The particle may bounceoff and leave the nucleus unchanged;it may break the nucleus into fragments; or it may give birth to entirelynew particles.Until recently, there have been twoways of observing and measuringthese various events, a cloud chamberor photographic emulsion.A cloud chamber consists of a boxsupersaturated with alcohol vapor, soit is on the verge of "raining" inside.When a particle from a cosmic ray orother source is sent through, a rowof tiny drops forms along its pathshowing exactly where it went. (Atthe University, research with cloudchambers is being carried on by Dr.S. Courtenay Wright, Research Associate at the Institute for Nuclear Studies and by Dr. Carl York, AssistantProfessor of Physics in Professor Marcel Schein's Cosmic Ray Laboratory.)There are limitations to this method,since in the low density gas nuclearcollisions are rare. Besides, after oneparticle has passed through, it takesa comparatively long time to clearthe chamber for the next event.The second device used for recording nuclear events is a special photographic emulsion, called a nuclear Probing the lawsof Matter in theHYDROGENBUBBLECHAMBERemulsion. In going through a photographic emulsion a particle leaves atrain of "exposed" silver grains onthe photographic plate which showup on development.Because it is small and compact, anuclear emulsion can be used in manyplaces, and is sometimes sent into theupper atmosphere attached to balloons or rockets to study the primarycosmic radiation from outer space.(Work of this type is being done hereby Professor Marcel Schein of thePhysics Department and the Institutefor Nuclear Studies.)This method, too, has its limitations,since one can rarely trace the particlefor more than a fraction of a millimeter through the emulsion and sincethe many different types of atoms inan emulsion often make it difficult tointerpret the events which are seen.About two years ago Dr. DonaldGlaser of the University of Michiganbegan experimenting with a thirdmethod for viewing the paths of nuclear particles.The gadget used in this method iscalled a bubble chamber, because aparticle moving through liquid in achamber leaves a track of tiny bubblesin its wake. In principle the bubblechamber is somewhat like a pressurecooker since the liquid in it is heated14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEabove its normal boiling point underpressure. When the pressure is released the liquid is left superheatedso that it will boil violently if disturbed in any way. In particular theboiling can be started by a nuclearparticle passing through the chamber.Small bubbles can be either photographed or seen by eye if a light isflashed a few thousandths of a secondafter a particle has passed by. At thistime the bubbles will still be smalland will lie in a row along the pathof the particle so that they reveal itshistory in passing through the apparatus.Encouraged by the success of Dr.Glaser's invention, Hildebrand andNagle decided to see whether abubble chamber could be made usingliquid hydrogen. (Dr. Glaser usedether.)Their interest in hydrogen was dueto the fact that a hydrogen nucleusis the simplest of all nuclei and givesthe best chance of understandingwhat is seen.The use of hydrogen introducedtechnical difficulties since hydrogengas cannot be liquified until it reachesa temperature of 20 degrees absoluteor minus 460 degrees Fahrenheit.With the help of Dr. Lothar Meyerand Dr. Earl Long of the Low Temperature Laboratory at the Institutefor Metals, Hildebrand and Naglebuilt the necessary apparatus to conduct their experiments.Currently the most exciting experiment is a study of the behavior ofnegative mesons in hydrogen. It isknown that a negative meson oftenchanges its identity, becoming a neutral meson. This in turn decays afterliving an extremely short life, turning into gamma rays or electrons.The bubble tracks which will appearin the liquid hydrogen in these vari ous events may help to explain thenature of this short-lived particle.In studying these reactions thephysicists will not be limited by thelow density of the cloud chamber orby the fixed composition of the nuclear emulsion. It will also be possibleto take successive pictures faster thanin the cloud chamber.Students of Hildebrand and Nagleare also doing experiments with pen-tane-filled bubble chambers.In another part of the Physics Department, Dr. Mark G. Inghram, Professor of Physics, and Dr. RobertGomer, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, have developed a technique forthe combination of mass spectrometryand field ionization.In principle, a mass spectrometeris a simple device. It makes use ofthe fact that electrically charged particles are deflected by a magneticfield, the deflection being greater forlight particles than for heavy ones,other factors being equal. Thus amass spectrometer can sort outcharged particles according to theirweight (more strictly according totheir mass to charge ratio) and yielda great deal of information about thesubstances from which they were derived.Since magnetic fields have onlyvery weak effects on uncharged particles, it is necessary to convert atomsor molecules into charged particles,called ions, before mass spectrometricanalysis becomes possible. This isdone by removing or adding electronsfrom the neutral atoms or moleculesto be examined. The most commonmethod of doing this consists of bombarding them with moderately fastelectrons, which go completelythrough the molecule and in so doingknock out one or more of the latter'selectrons, converting it into an ion. Unfortunately it is impossible topinpoint the bombardment in such away as to do nothing more than knockout an electron. In most instancesenough additional energy is impartedto the bombarded molecule to smashit into a number of fragments, any ofwhich may be charged, so that a largenumber of different ions is usuallyproduced from one parent molecule.It is obvious that this complicates theanalysis of mixtures.Field ionization, a phenomenon firstdiscovered by the German physicistE. W. Muller, works quite differentlyand often can be used to produce ionswithout breakup of the parent molecule. If a very finely pointed metallicwire is positively charged to severalthousand volts, gas in the vicinity ofthe tip becomes ionized. The tip radius must be of the order of onehundred thousandth of an inch inorder to provide sufficiently highelectric fields for the process. Onemay think of electrons as being suckedout of molecules into the metal tip bythe high electric field (about 40 million volts per inch) existing near itssurface. Since this method of removing electrons from molecules does notimpart energy to them, no break upinto fragments occurs. Inghram andGomer utilize this fact to create anovel ion source for the mass spectrometer free from the disadvantagesof conventional ionization methods.There are other, even more excitinguses of field ionization combined withmass spectrometry. While moleculescan become ionized by merely approaching the tip, ions can also beproduced from gas that has becomeadsorbed on the latter. Frequentlyadsorption is accompanied by dissociation or rearrangement. This in factis essential in catalytic surface reactions. Since the ions coming fromThree meson tracks are visible in this photo of particles being sent through a hydrogen bubble chamber. One of themesons has knocked two electrons off of atoms which were in its path. The electrons then had sufficient energy to maketracks of their own; these are short and wavy since the electrons are light and easily deflected.Hildebrand & Naglethe adsorbed state show what fragmentation or rearrangement, if anyhas occurred, Inghram and Gomerare able to tell in the most directfashion yet devised what variousmetal surfaces do to adsorbed molecules, and thus to gain insight into themechanisms of catalysis. It is possibleto distinguish between ions producedfrom adsorbed molecules and thosearising from gas in the vicinity of thetip but not actually adsorbed bymethods somewhat too involved fordetailed description. Thus the applications to catalysis and analysis of gasmixture do not interfere with eachother.In practice the mass spectrometerbuilt by Inghram and his studentsis a large and very complex affair(see photo.) The metal tip, whichforms the heart of the new method isso tiny, however, that it would stillbe completely invisible if the machine shown were enlarged to the sizeof the United Nations Building.This instance of cooperation between members of different depart ments — Inghram is a physicist, Gomera chemist — typifies a new trend amonguniversity scientists since the end ofWorld War II. The University, according to Dr. Andrew W. Lawson,Chairman of the Physics Department,was the leader in the movement.Before the war, he explained, eachdepartment worked independently ofthe others, following a time-honoredclassical setup."If you were a physicist and wanteda chemical analysis of a substance,"said Dr. Lawson, "You generally wentoff campus to get it done, at a commercial laboratory, rather than approach a chemist, even though he wasa fellow faculty member."The University set up the Institutesfor Nuclear Studies and Metals immediately after the war. Fundamentalresearch in nuclear physics and chemistry is carried on at the Institute forNuclear Studies, and in metallurgyand solid state physics and chemistryat the Institute of Metals. Here, ledby the late Enrico Fermi, scientistsfrom various disciplines began to drop their traditional barriers and worktogether. Chicago was the first to setup such institutes; several universities have followed suit.The Institutes are supported in partby private industry, including suchcompanies as U. S. Steel Corp.; Westinghouse Electric Corp.; General Motors Corp.; E. I. du Pont de Nemours& Co.; Aluminum Corp. of America;Aluminium Laboratories, Ltd., ofCanada; Crane Co.; American CanCo.; Motorola Corp.; and PittsburghPlate Glass Co.Since the Institutes have been setup, the departmental structure amongscientists engaged in research has lostits meaning, Dr. Lawson said. However, he feels it must be kept forteaching purposes."If you abandoned it in teaching,students would get only a sampling ofmany sciences, on top of a layer ofgeneral education. In graduate workin science, a student must go downdeep, and do some hard thinking onone subject, to get an idea of whatdiscipline is. If he gets only a thinslice of a subject, he doesn't knowwhat research really is," he said. AtChicago, the teaching load of PhysicsDepartment professors is kept lowenough to allow them plenty of timefor research. Moreover, of the 120graduate students in the department,some 60-odd are engaged in research,which gives them closer contact withinstructors than in a formal lecturestyle teaching program. The averageprofessor here teaches three hours aweek, for two quarters a year, putting in a total of 60 hours of teachingper academic year. In addition to thishe sits in on several doctorate examinations. However, he usually hascontact with students engaged in research from three to five hours daily.At many universities the teachingload in a physics department may runup to as much as 15 hours a week.Dr. Lawson feels the new changein the College program which leadsto a bachelor of science degree afterfour years "is a step in the right direction.""A student going into any of thesciences needs more mathematics andconcentrated study in a science at thecollege level than the old plan provided," he said. In addition to givingscience departments a chance to instill needed disciplines at an earlierstage in a student's career, the newplan cuts the time required to earna master's degree from six or sevenyears to five.Since the new degree has beenoffered, enrollment in the PhysicsDepartment has shown a significantincrease.Drs. Robert Gomer (1) and Mark Inghram with mass spectrometer they builtto use in combination with field ionization work.16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEUniversity NewsNew Clinic forDisturbed ChildrenTo train pediatric psychiatrists, social workers;William Carlos Williams to speak hereA. $60,000 clinic for the treatmentof emotionally disturbed children isgetting underway in Bobs RobertsHospital.Extensive remodelling of the fourthfloor has provided a 15-room clinic,which will be equipped to handle upto 100 patients a week when fulloperation is reached, probaby by midsummer. Dr. John F. Kenward headsthe new clinic.The clinic has been decorated, furnished and equipped with toys andtherapy equipment purchased with a$6,150 gift from the Service Club ofChicago. Facilities of the new clinicinclude two children's playrooms builtwith one-way glass observationscreens and inter-com systems, to assist the doctor in diagnosis by watching the child patient at play.Long-range plans for the clinic involve both the treatment and diagnosis of disturbed children, and themedical training of pediatric psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers.Poet to speakWilliam Carlos Williams, famouspoet-pediatrician, will be the featuredspeaker at the four- day Festival ofthe Arts, April 14-17.Dr. Williams, who has been awarded the National Book Award and theBollingen Prize for his poetry, willspeak in Rockefeller Chapel at 3 P.M.,Friday, April 15.The festival is being sponsored bywives of trustees of the University,with Mrs. George A. Ranney, Jr. andMrs. Charles H. Percy as co-chair men of the sponsoring committee.Students, parents, faculty members,trustees and their wives will don gaycostumes for the Beaux Arts Masquerade Ball, to be held in the medieval setting of Hutchinson Commons, Saturday night, April 16.Alumni are invited.Prehistoric digUniversity archeologists on theIraq-Jarmo expedition in the MiddleEast have discovered another prehistoric settlement in Iraq, which theydate at pre-5,000 B.C., making itman's earliest known permanent settlement yet uncovered.Dr. Robert Braidwood, Professor ofOld World Archeology and directorof the expedition, unearthed Jarmotwo years ago, which until this latestdiscovery, was thought to be the oldest settled village unearthed by archeologists.The new settlement at M'lefaat innortheastern Iraq, is considerablysmaller and more primitive thanJarmo. Test diggings indicate a smallcommunity of "pit houses" with floorsand hearths, but without walls. It isbelieved the pits were covered withtents, or sod, similar to our westernsod houses.Its inhabitants apparently had nopottery, but did have good flint tools,heavy ground stone mortars, pestles,rubbing stones, and axes. No sickleswere found in the test diggings, whichindicates to the expedition's scientists that the inhabitants had not begun to cultivate grain. The main object of the expedition,a joint project of the Oriental Institute and the Department of Anthropology, is the study of the dawn ofcivilization in the Middle East 7,000-10,000 years ago. It was during thisperiod that man turned from a nomadic existence to one in a settled,food-growing community.This present expedition is the mostcomprehensive one ever sent to theMiddle East. It teams anthropologistsand archeologists with natural scientists in an effort to study on thewidest possible scale the natural environment in which the change inman's living habits took place.Medical scholarshipsMembers of the Solomon Cittermanfamily have established a medicalscholarship fund in his memory forstudents in the University's MedicalSchool.The fund was created by an initialgift of $7,500 from Mr. and Mrs. Marvin Citterman, Dr. Leonard Harrisand his wife, the former Cecile Citterman, '28; and Bernard and AnneCitterman Cahn, both alumni of theUniversity.Solomon Citterman was founder ofthe Manufacturers' Ticket and LabelCo., in Chicago. He had limited formal education himself, but during hislifetime made numerous gifts toyoung men and women to financetheir education. His children established the scholarship as a memorialclosely related to his life -long interest in helping ambitious young people.APRIL, 1955 17ArgonneTwo Stateville inmates breathe into special respiratory helmets as Dr. AndrewStehney of Argonne adjusts a valve on the air line.Faculty appointmentsDavid G. Moore, Assistant Professor of Business Administration, hasbeen appointed director of the University's Executive Program, andZelman Cowen, of the University ofMelbourne, has been appointed Professor in the Law School.Moore, who succeeds H. EdwardWrapp as director, is also a staffmember of the Industrial RelationsCenter and an assistant professor ofsociology. The Executive Program isnow in its twelfth year of offeringjunior business executives a two-yearevening program of graduate study inbusiness management.Mr. Cowen, formerly Dean of theFaculty of Law at the University ofMelbourne, was a visiting professorat the University of Chicago LawSchool in the summer of 1949 and atHarvard University in 1953-54. Hisprincipal fields have been international law, conflict of laws, evidence,constitutional and administrative law.He is the editor of the sixth editionof Dicey's Conflicts of Laws, the authoritative work on the subject.Study Radium IntakeThe first phase of a study of therate at which radium is incorporatedinto the human body from the smallamounts present in natural drinkingwater and food has been completedby Argonne National Laboratoryscientists.This element, similar to other natural and man-made radioactive elements, is a bone-seeker, like calcium,and once lodged in the bones is difficult to remove.The study is part of a large research program at Argonne concerning the retention of radioactive elements in the body. One of its majorpremises is that of establishing safelevels of exposure to radioactive isotopes. This, in turn, may conceivablylead to substantial savings in operation of nuclear installations and inindustrial applications by eliminatingunnecessarily stringent exposure anddisposal levels.The first phase, just completed, involved measuring the amount ofradioactivity in the breath of fiftyvolunteers, inmates of the IllinoisState Penitentiary, Stateville, 111.Stateville was chosen because thenatural concentration of radium inthe drinking water of that region,although small, is one hundred timesgreater than the concentration inChicago water, and because subjectswho have been drinking that waterfor known lengths of time are available. The measurements at Stateville were devised and conducted by Dr.Andrew F. Stehney and Henry F.Lucas, Jr., (chemists) of the Radiological Physics Division of the Laboratory.The procedure for measuring theamount of radium in inmates utilizedthe fact that radium gives off a radioactive gas called radon. By measuring the amount of radon expired inthe breath, the amount of radium inthe body could be determined. Extremely sensitive techniques weredeveloped at the Laboratory for thiswork, because the level of radium wasmuch lower than had ever beenmeasured in living humans. Sinceradon is a natural gas present in theatmosphere (natural radium in rocks,soil, and water gives off radon), inmates participating in the tests wererequired to breathe purified air forsixteen to eighteen hours in order toremove from their bodies atmosphericradon which had previously been inhaled. At the end of this period, theradon which continued to be produced by radium in the body was extracted from large volumes of breathby charcoal contained in glass vials(charcoal traps). These vials werethen taken to Argonne where theradioactivity of the radon was measured. From this it was possible tocalculate the amount of radium in thebody. A comparison of the amountof radium in each inmate with thq.length of time served at Statevillewas used to indicate the rate of accumulation. The research has shown that theamount of radium in inmates atStateville is increasing at only one-half of the rate expected on the basisof previously published data. Although the natural radium contentof the water is one hundred times thatin Chicago water, inmates at Stateville after fifteen years have only fivetimes as much radium in their bodiesas have Chicago residents.The research further indicated thatthe largest amount of radium foundin any Stateville inmate is two hundred times less than the amount considered to be safe by the NationalCommittee on Radiation Protection.MemorialCarl Henry Grabo, Associate Professor Emeritus, Department of English, died February 20 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, at the age of 73.Mr. Grabo was graduated from theUniversity in 1903, and joined thestaff four years later. Since his retirement in 1947 he had been residingin New Mexico.An authority on 19th cenutry English authors, particularly PercyBysshe Shelley, Grabo was the author of thirteen books, and for manyyears the associate editor of the Chicago Jewish Forum.Mr. Grabo is survived by his widow,Eunice, and two daughters, CynthiaGrabo, '36, AM '41, who resides inArlington, Va., and Mrs. CarolineBoyer, '41, of Longmeadow, Mass.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMIDYEAROPEN HOUSETHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONplayed host to eleven hundredalumni at the annual Mid- Year OpenHouse on February 26.The visitors toured laboratories, clinics, the cyclotron, the OrthogenicSchool and other interesting campusspots, later viewed student exhibits atReynolds Club. After dinner at theQuadrangle Club they packed MandelFlail to watch an all-student show.Plans are underway for an evenlarger Open House in June. We'llsupply details later.Watson Boyes, (1,near statue) Secretary of the OrientalInstitute, guides visitors on tour.X*.I ^^Hr ¦*¦_,^k J^. 1Wi . t*$* H^m m ' Robert Giffen, '36, of Atlanta, Ga.,chats with two of his hosts, (1 tor) Howard Mort, Alumni Secretary, and Sam Horwitz, '34, President of the College Division ofthe Alumni Association.The Coffee Shop makes a nicegathering spot, just as in the olddays. Getting re-acquainted are (1to r) Dan McNaughton, '35,Santa Ana, Calif. ; Gerald Westby,'20, Tulsa, Okla.; and GiffordMast, '35, Davenport, la.Comparing notes at all-studentshow in Mandel Jjall are (1 to r),Trustee Harold Swift, Mrs. Paul(Carroll Mason) S. Russell, '19,John J. McDonough, '28, AlumniFoundation President, and Mrs.McDonough, (Anne O'Brien, '34).Dr. R. D. Moseley (1),radiology instructor, showsvisitors special chair used intreating cancer patients atVan de Graaf electrostaticgenerator. Student exhibits in Reynolds Clubattract (1 to r) Lawrence MacGregor, '16, Charles and Frances(Henderson) Higgins, both '20.and William H. Rothermel, '09.Mrs. Eleanor Ewert, clinical instructor at Lying-in Hospital,shows how exercises for naturalchildbirth are taught. Post-gradnursing student Dorothy Bzduch isthe model.(Photos by Lewellyn) Alumni peek at a "preemie" atLying-In's Premature Baby Clinic.Mrs. Mildred Mitchell, (r) assistant superintendent, is the tourguide.Willard Webber, (r) of cancer training programstaff, shows alumni newest operating room at Goldblatt Hospital, with three television camera lensesabove operating table, to enable students to watchclose work from a separate room.3Js.gAlive,Lord Randall, My Son: "Oh make my bed soon for I'm- sick to my heartand fain would lie doon ..." By Martha Bennett King, '24Illustrated byIrene Friedman, '54J. HE HOMEY FOLKSONG has hitthe big time. Walk into Chicagonightclubs such as the Blue Note orthe Black Orchid, and you'll catchJosh White or Harry Bellafonte; visitNew York's Town Hall for a concertby Richard Dyer Bennett; turn onyour TV set and you'll see Burl Ivesor Win Stracke, strumming and singing. In any case, the folksong hascome a long way from the hills ofWest Virginia.Folksongs have lived a long andmodest life far from the spotlight.They have been the close companionsof women who washed the dishes,cared for the children and sat by thefire in quiet homes. They havecheered men in lonely occupationsand filled the long evening hours foryoung and old in isolated communities.There are many definitions of afolksong but most scholars agree thatit has no known author and travelsword-of-mouth from singer to singer,generation to generation. Text andtune change subtly and quite unconsciously as each singer colors the songwith his own personality. By contrast, a popular song is consciouslycomposed and arranged according toaccepted musical forms and sung intrained concert, opera or entertainers'style.22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWhen a folksong is revamped intopopular style it usually loses thesimplicity, directness and naturalbeauty which has been its mark ofdistinction. It becomes another popular song, identified with the mannerisms of a particular singer. It nolonger seems like a song for an ordinary person to sing. This does notmean the new song is void of charm.It may have great appeal even to onewho champions the traditional styleof singing folksongs. It simply meansthat part of the melody and some ofthe words of an old song have beenpressed into foreign service. The folksong has turned "pro."We could argue that folksongs bytheir very nature have no place in amodern world where everything iscomposed, printed, geared to professional standards of entertainment. Butfolksongs are very much alive andthe interest in America's wealth offolk music — an interest which hasbeen growing for thirty years — isstronger than ever.We are turning back to our cultural roots, trying to understand whywe are as we are and why we willnever be any other way. Old songsare striking a nostalgic chord, givingus a comfortable feeling of identitywith those who have lived before us.Our modern world has little resemblance to the wilderness world whichfaced America's first settlers, but weourselves have changed little. Thesame drives for freedom, the samedesire for personal expression, thesame deep loneliness which hauntedour ancestors still travel with us. Insinging old songs we find some of thehumor and courage which havehelped others to face their worldswith equanimity.Folksongs have played many rolesin the lives of men. They have servedas newspaper, novel and movie, telling absorbing tales of love, intrigue,murder and disaster. They havepainted fanciful pictures of the livesof the rich and powerful, dispensedadvice and warnings to the love-lorn,kept the children happy, and praisedGod in the highest. Folksongs alsohave played a lyric role allowing aman to express every emotion fromprotest and hate to love withoutspeaking too loudly.When the Spanish came to explorethe rivers of America, when theFrench came to trade in furs, whenthe English, Dutch, Germans, Irish,Scandinavians and many others cameto settle the land, they brought theirfolksongs with them. Songs becamea link with all that was left behindand a shield against hunger, bone-weariness, boredom, terror and des- Martha Bennett King, '24, is afolk-song specialist, who operatesout of Chicago to spread her enthusiasm for folksongs and folklore. With her guitar, she makespublic appearances to talk aboutand sing folk music. One of herspecial interests is to show the vividways folksongs contribute to anunderstanding of American history.She is also a reviewer of children's books for the ChicagoTribune, and for the past two yearshas been program director of theMiracle of Books, a book fair forchildren sponsored annually by theTribune and Chicago's Museum ofScience and Industry. She writeschildren's plays, and won theSeattle Junior Programs NationalPlaywriting contest with her "PapaPompino and the Prizefighter."Mrs. King has also prepared theReader's Guide for this issue, inwhich you can further indulge aninterest in folksong by followingup her list of books on folksongsand folklore. (See page 28.)pair. The very act of singing released tensions, renewed courage, andcreated an illusion of balance betweenhuman helplessness and the menacingpowers of a magnificent nature.As the stream of trappers, traders,farmers, speculators, raftsmen, soldiers, actors, preachers, medicine menand settlers poured over the mountains and down the rivers toward thewest, folksongs went with them.Singers from many countries unconsciously adopted each others' songsand many new versions of old songswere born from twists in melodies,words misunderstood, verses transferred and new verses spontaneously added. Barbara Allen acquired somehundred different melodies and manychanges in text in her travels acrossthe country.One of the interesting phases ofstudying folk music is collecting asong's variants. Many have run thegauntlet of mockery and come out theworse for wear. A desire to make funof anything which had been left behind obsessed many who followed thefrontiers and ballads often foundthemselves handled with rough disdain for their original beauties.Springfield Mountain, claimed asAmerica's first native ballad, began asa song of mourning for a young manwho died of poison from a snake's bite.It ended as a bit of slap-stick comedy.The song tells of the twenty-twoyear old son of Lt. Thomas Myrick ofSpringfield Mountain (now Wilbra-ham) Mass., who was killed August 7,1761. The original version has notrace of caricature or clownishness. Itstarts off:On Springfield mountain there did dwellA handsome youth was known full wellLieutenant Merrill's only sonA likely youth, near twenty-one.On Friday morning he did goDown to the meadow for to mowHe mowed, he mowed all round the fieldWith a poisonous serpent at his heel.When he received his deathly woundHe laid his scythe down on the groundFor to return was his intentCalling aloud, long as he went.The ballad goes on to relate how hiscries for help went unheeded untilnight came and his father went tolook for his son:He took him up and he carried him homeAnd on the way did lament and mournSaying, "I heard but did not come,And now I'm left alone to mourn."In the month of August, the twenty-firstWhen this sad accident was doneMay this a warning be to allTo be prepared when God shall call.In the late 1830's, a barnstormingactor turned the ballad into a mocktragedy, calling it "The Pesky Sar-pent, A Pathetic Ballad," adding anirreverent, jingling refrain:Ri tu di nuRi tu di naAs the ballad traveled west it developed many nonsense versions. I grewup on the following:On Springfield Mountain there did dwellWith a ri ting a tu and a tide a nad a nayAPRIL, 1955 23On Springfield Mountain there did dwellTurn, a rowOn Springfield Mountain there did dwellA love-lye youth and I knew him wellWith a ri ting a tu and a tide a nad anay.This love-lye youth was sixty-one(refrain)He was Davy Crockett's only son(refrain)This love-lye youth one day did go(refrain)Down to the meadow for to mow(refrain)He mowed awhile and then did feel(refrain)A poisonous sarpent bite his heel(refrain)He laid his scythe upon the ground(refrain)And then let out an awful sound(refrain)The neighbors heard him far and near(refrain)But thought it was a workman's cheer(refrain)He then went home to Sally dear(refrain)And said "I feel most awful queer"(refrain)Then Sally used her ruby lip (refrain)And from the wound the poison did sip(refrain)But Sally had a hollow tooth (refrain)And so the poison killed them both(refrain).Folksongs retained their ancestralforms only when a homogeneousgroup moved into the mountains orisolated pockets of land and remainedthere, cut off from the pulsing beat ofa growing country. In 1916 Cecil J.Sharp, English scholar and collector of folksongs, discovered a wealth ofBritish ballads and songs in the southern Appalachian Mountains whichhad the true ring of their Elizabethanforebears. But even as he trudgedthe rocky foot paths and tirelesslywrote down old songs, he knew thatcivilization was soon to make roadsinto the mountains which wouldchange the character of life there.Jean Ritchie of Viper, Kentucky,tells how old ways succumbed to newin her book, Singing Family of theCumberlands. In the 1930's the Ritch-ies were still singing the songsbrought from England by great-great-great grandfather James in 1768.Then the radio introduced hillbillysongs and the old songs went underground, embarrassed by their gappedscales, their minor modes, their romantic stories.Hillbilly songs were not native tothe mountains, according to Jean."We had never heard anything quitelike them before." But everyone began to like them. "It got to be ifyou asked any young person to singBarbry Allen, whoever it was wouldlook at you and laugh and lookashamed of you. That old fashionedthing? Why I don't even rememberhow it goes, it's been so long." Finally the term hillbilly itself began tohave a belittling tone and Jean foundherself ashamed of singing either theold songs or the hillbilly songs. Shetook to singing "slick city music" andit was a long time before the cityfolks' interest in old songs persuaded her to recall them again.The perfection of the gramophonedisc in the late 1880's made it possibleto capture and preserve many songsof a traditional nature. Commercialrecordings of hundreds of folksongswere made between 1926 and 1932before regional singers were influenced by the movies or radio. In 1927,the Library of Congress establishedan Archive of American Folksongswhich today holds over 50,000 ballads,songs, banjo and fiddle tunes recordedwherever traditional singers could befound. Recordings from this collection have been made available to thepublic. They begin to fulfill CarlSandburg's dream of a new kind ofhistory which he describes in an introduction to The American SongBag. "The song history of America,when some day it gets written, willgive the feel and atmosphere, the layout and lingo, of regions, of breeds ofmen, of customs and slogans, in amanner and air not given in regularhistory."The Helen Hartness Flanders Collection of Balladry and Folk Music,Middlebury College, Vermont, contains over 9000 ballads and folksongsrecovered through oral transmissionin New England. They have issuedtheir first 12-inch LP record, EightTraditional British- American Ballads,in which the singers use no accompaniment and sing the many verses ofthe long stories in simple, straightforward style. Traditional singingoften sounds strange, even boring, toSpringfield Mountain: "And so the poison killed them both . .ears that have heard only modernradio styles. Singers are apt to be oldwith voices past the prime. Recordings made on the spot never can becompared with those made in well-equipped studios. Still there is ahaunting power to the old styleswhich comes from the sincerity of thesinger. After listening to popularversions of a song, the traditionalstyle has surprising appeal.There are, of course, many contemporary singers of folksongs whocombine the sincerity and simplicityof the old time singers with theirown modern way of singing. Oftenthey have wandered the land, livingmany kinds of lives, learning songsfrom acquaintances made on "thelonesome road." Their repertories aremade up of songs genuinely loved,not of songs chosen and arranged bya producer with an eye to businessonly. If you haven't heard these recordings, they may strike a spark inyou: Darling Corey, sung by PeteSeeger with a five -string banjo(Folkways LP); Kentucky MountainSongs, sung by Jean Ritchie withdulcimer (Elektra LP); Listen to OurStory, edited by Alan Lomax, sungby Uncle Dave Macon, Buell Kazee,Doc Boggs, The Reverend Dr. Edward Clayburn, Furry Lewis, DickReinhart, and Bascom Lamar Lunsford.Bascom Lamar Lunsford is a uniquefigure in the folk music field. Bybirth a North Carolinian, by profession a country lawyer, he is widelyknown as a collector of mountain ballads and songs, as a traditional singerand as a skilled performer on the5 -string banjo. His repertoire isprobably the largest of any livingfolk singer. At one time he recordedfor seven continuous days at theLibrary of Congress. He also gave a"Command Performance" at theWhite House before the late KingGeorge V and Queen Elizabeth. Mr.Lunsford has the added distinction ofhaving founded the annual MountainDance and Folk Festival which for25 years has been in session in Asheville, North Carolina, during the firstweek of August.Recently a visitor to the UnitedStates asked me to recommend tworecords which would represent America's folk music to friends back inSwitzerland. I took a deep breath andin that pause I heard Mr. Lunsfordsinging I Wish I Wuz A Mole in theGround. I could hear another manof the mountains singing Old Blue, agirl singing The Little Sparrow, BurlIves singing Old Dan Tucker, PeteSeeger singing John Riley with his5 -string banjo rippling like a moun tain stream, Sam Eskin singing AShantyman's Lije is a Wearisome One,Ledbelly singing The Grey Goose, apastry cook singing Swing Low, SweetChariot. I also could hear my fathersinging Go Tell Aunt Rhody, mygrandmother singing I Am Bound ForThe Promised Land, a Wisconsin lumberjack singing The Little BrownBulls, a cowboy singing a Night Herding song, a group of dancers singingverse after verse of Skip To My Lou.Which represented America? Theyall did — spirituals, play party songs,sacred harp songs, animal songs, ballads, blues, nonsense, the songs knownto men of a dozen trades.The music of particular regions,groups or periods in American history may have special appeal for you.Many volumes of songs from different states and different occupationalgroups have been collected and editedby scholars. Records may also sendyou on your way. Music of the Siouxand the Navajo was recorded in Indian country by Willard Rhodes incooperation with the U. S. Office ofIndian Affairs, (12 -inch Folkways).Songs and Ballads of the AnthraciteMiners were recorded by George Kor-son (Album 16, Library of Congress,78 RPM); Hymns and Carols, EarlyAmerican folksongs are sung by Andrew Rowan Summers, with dulcimer(12-inch LP Folkways) and Old HarpSinging by the Old Harp Singers ofEastern Tennessee (12 -inch LP Folkways); Ballads of the Revolution sungby Wallace House with lute (10 -inchLP Folkways). Comparing various styles of singing the same song is another absorbing angle of the folksong game. Barbara Allen becomes four differentsongs when sung by Rebecca Tar-water on a Library of Congress recording, by Richard Dyer-Bennett, byJohn Jacob Niles, and Jo Stafford.The ballad of "that steel-drivingman," John Henry, takes on a widerange of coloring when sung by JoshWhite with a fast, effervescent, glittering ring of guitar notes; by Ledbelly with a relentless, powerfulstroking of the 12 -string guitar; orby Brother John Sellers with an accompaniment jangling from an oldpiano.Folksongs are still traveling word-of-mouth in 1955. They are still sungby average folks in a modern city andmany a folksong admirer has a sharpear out for every kind of current folkexpression. You can get an idea ofthe fascinations of pursuing contemporary folklore by listening to a12 -inch Folkways LP, Neio York 19,produced after Tony Schwartz hadspent a summer wandering the streetsof Postal District 19 in midtown Manhattan, tape recorder in hand. Hepaused wherever he heard childrenchanting or singing as they played inthe streets. He recorded songs inchurches, homes, basement playroomsand shops. People of many races,nationalities, and occupations live inDistrict 19. Their songs, recalled fromchildhood, blend with traditional callsof street vendors, spiels of pitch men,the city cacophony of whistles, sirens,gongs and bells.The pure pleasure of singing is thething which really keeps folksongsalive. When you've listened to records, gone to hear your favorite singers in concert, looked at a dozenbooks, turn to the heart of the folksong world and sing out yourself. Acquire your own repertoire, songswhich have particular appeal for youand sing out soft and low or, like theold timers, try to make yourself heardon "yonder hill." Don't stop to wonder whether you can sing. The songis the thing. Open your mouth andlet it flow through. You'll find songsyou like in The American Song Bag;The Fireside Book of Folksongs; BurlIves Song Book; American Folksongsfor Children; or in books of songsfrom various regions and occupations.As you sing, you'll find a new feelingfor the past, much new pleasure inthe present, and a refreshing hope forthe future.APRIL, 1955 25(Book*by Faculty and AlumniThe Intelligent Heart. By Harry T.Moore, '34. Farrar, Straus, and Young,New York, 1954.There is a special pleasure in reading a book whose author has beentalking about writing it for close to aquarter of a century. And it becomessheer joy to find the work has beenworth the wait — solid, substantial,and living.Harry T. Moore and I were fellowresidents in Burton-Judson Courts,the year they opened. Even thenthere was but one god — D. H. Lawrence — and Harry was his prophet.As a student here, Harry attendedthe classes of Thornton Wilder, whocreated a not-to-be-repeated sensation by behaving in his lectures as ifthe classics really meant somethingto him, as if they only lived whenthey moved his emotions. Harry introduced me to the late Philip Schuyler Allen, who loped across the rangesof man's cultural past like a cowboyon a cayuse, pointing out the majoritems of scenic interest, savoring whatwas important in the University ofParis when Abelard taught, examining Heine's long torture on his Ma-tratzengruft, or exalting the greatdays of our own University when theaborginial giants trod the Quadrangles. (Contrary to current vocal student opinion, there were great menon the campus as long ago as 1892,and equally contrary, there is at leasta statistical chance there will beagain. In fact, there may be some as Harry T. Mooreof this writing.) In Allen's classroom,there was a constant sound of trumpets and drum rolls, and only thosecertifiably "dead on arrival" did notmarch to his beat. Meantime Harrylistened, wrote, talked, and met andcorresponded with many first-ratepeople beyond the campus; his talentsfor people have also contributed tothe success of this Lawrence biography.Since winning his degree, there hasbeen journalism, a book on Steinbeck,a pause at Northwestern Universityfor teaching and the acquisition of an M.A., a long haul in the Air Force,the editing of Lawrence criticism andcorrespondence, and the acquisition ofthe academic working permit at Boston University, which resulted in anearlier Lawrence biography. I stillremember a graphic description of anAmerican Legion convention entitled"Army Without Manners," which trodhard on the heels of Ernie O'Malley'sautobiographical story of the Irishrevolution called Army Without Banners.Throughout these years of activepublic disinterest and only sporadicapproval — even when Aldous Huxley's edition of the Lawrence correspondence won him a few converts —the bearded toothy Englishman rodeastride Harry's shoulders, not so muchlike the dead weight of the Old Manof the Sea, but rather as a persistentdun, reminding him of a debt thatneeded paying. Now the accountbooks can be closed with a stamped"Paid in Full." Perhaps he will return to his fiction which twenty yearsago aroused the approval of the lateMaxwell Perkins, a novel describingthe impact of the geography of theBritish fenlands and the politics ofthe time of Cromwell and the Levellers upon a strangely winning youth.The main task of this biography hasbeen to establish the tightly woveninterconnections between Lawrence'sown life and the content of his writing. The task is essential becauseLawrence shamelessly plagiarized hisown emotions, experiences, and acquaintances for his novels. Step bystep, the biography integrates theevents, the scenery, the reactions, thepeople met, and even the books readinto the pattern of the finishednovels. Unpublished letters, some twohundred of them, are called upon toSbargeMargaret Anderson, (left)beams as she hears she'sbeen chosen Wash PromQueen. Rosemary Galliand Mary Lieberman aregraceful losers.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdescribe Lawrence's life in his ownwords wherever possible.This task is accomplished so well itneed not be attempted again, particularly in regard to the process bywhich the raw material of Lawrence'sexperiences are altered into finishedart.The difficulties were enormous. Forone thing, Lawrence was the twentieth century's man in perpetual motion (and emotion, too, for that matter.) A Micawber of geography, hesuffered from a mania, a wagon-litsthat helplessly hurtled him — oftenunder conditions of considerablephysical distress — from one locationto another. He was a modern Jonah,as he himself admits, fleeing fromwhere he ought to be. As a result,the places in his life required investigation, which Harry has attended toin this book.Secondly, Lawrence had a gift foracquaintanceship which he and hisfriends mistook for friendship. Hegobbled up new people as he gobbledup new landscapes. The world inwhich he found himself attracted amotley crew of emotional cadgersabout him. Some were individuals ofgenuine stature, an Aldous Huxley,and, briefly, a Bertrand Russell. Somewere quiet, helpful friends. But astaggering proportion were the mostemotionally and intellectually self-indulgent exhibitionists that eversurrounded a man of genius. Theprinted versions of their memories ofLawrence required the painstakingand skilled disentangling which theyreceive in this work.This is an age in which sociologistspresent only people to us, not persons.Lawrence, for all his faults, was aperson — full of native fun, outrageously oversensitive, kind, intemper-ately angry, vastly just yet incrediblyunfair. Lawrence as a person becomesalive in these pages as a man seekinglonesome fulfillment — though in vain— in Sardinia, Etruria, Mexico, Australia; and in a host of acquaintances,the majority of which were left behind like baggage purposely forgottenin a railroad express office. Evenmore important, we catch glimpses ofthe conscious artist, the pushing andpulling that ensues before experiencebecomes translated into the printedpage. And almost overtowering thefigure of the main hero is his wifeFrieda, certainly one of the most satisfactory women ever described onthe printed page, a Hemingwayheroine translated into reality —breathing, living, loving and courageous.Furthermore, the biography establishes Lawrence as a man committed relentlessly to his own emotions, regardless of the pressure of his age.Contemporary Miniver Cheevys, withtheir ability to translate themselvesbackward through time into an agewhich might have passed a kinderjudgment on them, are eulogizing Edward's England. Not so D. H. Lawrence. He saw it as an age of chalkand water intellectualizing, of accepted and arid emotional strait-jackets, and of the insane eccentricities that were the inevitable result.Lawrence lived through it withoutself-pity, but with a mounting anger.He honed himself against it until thecollier's son became what E. M. For-ster called "the finest imaginativenovelist of his age."Emotionally, Harry gives full justice to his Old Man of the Sea. Intellectually, he is too generous. Lawrence's politics require more thanoff-hand apologies. And his hero istoo prone to fall into the cheap jackmysticism of a kind that also entrapped Yeats — the intoxication of theBerserker on the bow of the Vikinglongboat, hopped to the ears of hisown rhetoric, and confident that researches into man's savage past willcreate a new reality. The secondhand clothing of myth and legend, thetalk of the dark gods, is simply running off at the copy book.It is Lawrence the fighter thatHarry brings to us — Lawrence thefighter for our own age in whichcombat is regarded as vulgar, as injurious to professional advancement,and as likely to bring on the attentionof the police as it ever was in Lawrence's own day. One fight happilyhas been won, and Lawrence helpedmightily in the winning. If Ulyssescan be published in this country, wecan credit Lawrence with havingbroken down some of the barriers,even though the expurgated LadyChatterly is now part of the modernnewsstand, and the original still languishes in what the censors wouldlike to think is outer darkness.There are many minor virtues inthe book. The photographs and theircaptions are an illuminating delight.The index is good, the acknowledgements are where they belong. Thestyle at its worst does what it is attempting to do; at best, has some ofLawrence's own strong and sootyevocation of mood.There is one lack, which requiresperhaps another entire volume toremedy. There is periodically a hint,with first an early draft, then a laterone, of Lawrence's actual writingtechniques. The basic question forthe study of any writer is still essentially, "How well does he pull the rabbits out of the hat? Why does heput this down in the first place, andshift it around in this draft? Why isthis phrase moved around in the sentence, this added, this left out?" Harryshows us where the phrase camefrom, but we could have many moredemonstrations of how it was mortised into the framework.This, of course, is no serious criticism of the work at hand. The actualmechanics of writing is as unexploredas Hispaniola in 1491. Scientists havetraced eye movements of people looking at pictures, but they have donelittle in tracing the psychological involvement of words and the reader.It may be that on Judgment Day anumber of otherwise occupied scholars and critics will be asked whythey haven't.Georg Mann, '34Public Relations OfficeUniversity of ChicagoCorrectionThe review in the March issueof Oscar Riddle's book, The Unleashing of Evolutionary Thought,was written by Anton J. Carlson,whose name was left out througherror.just published . . .THE TVAby Gordon R. Clapp". . . as timely as today's newspaper, written by the nation'sbest informed man on TVA."—David E. Lilienthal"No person is better qualifiedthan Gordon Clapp to speak onTVA . . . This book should berequired reading not only forevery student of governmentbut for every citizen."—Senator Lister Hill$3.50 from your bookselleror fromThe University of Chicago Press5750 Ellis AvenueChicago 37, IllinoisAPRIL, 1955 27J\eader£ GuideFOLKLORE ANDFOLKSONGSA Treasury of Railroad Folklore.By B. A. Botkin and Alvin F. Harlow.544 pp. $4. Crown: New York, 1953.A noted folklorist and a railroadhistorian have joined forces to capture the excitement, romance andpersonality of a great industry. Historian Harlow spotlights the earlydays of railroading with dramaticpersonal narratives of superhumanachievements, bitter defeats, miraculous escapes and violent disasters.Engines become human in the epicera of time tables and tough schedules. Men who run the engines takeon the tough, reliable qualities of ironand steel. Folklorist Botkin, wellknown editor of A Treasury of American Folklore and other regional volumes, contributes tall tales, jests,yarns and legends swapped in roundhouses across the country. Workchants, ballads and blues also are anintegral part of High Iron lore, for the"lonesome" whistle touches lives instrange ways and arouses deep emotions.The Soup Stone. By Maria Leach.Drawings by Mamie Harmon. 160 pp.$2.75. Funk & Wagnalls: New York,1954.The editor-in-chief of the two volume Standard Dictionary of Folklore,Mythology and Legend has compileda delightful small volume on themagic of familiar things. Moderns liketo disclaim belief in fairies and magicbut, according to the author, we useit every day. If we don't "see magicto the right and left of us, it is onlybecause we have forgotten humanity'sMIRA-MAR HOTEL350 Rooms— BathCoffee Shop, Valet, etc.Lovely Accommodationsfrom $4 to $66220 Woodlawn Avenue"Just three blocks from campus"PLaza 2-1100HAROLD BISHOP, Manager long past." Magic always has beeninvoked for guidance, comfort andpower, to combat evil and misfortune,cure disease, win love, conquer deathand make wishes come true. It stillis. Cards and stars and numbers areconsulted for clues to the future.Formulas and charms for luck abound.Painted eyebrows and nails are allabout us. We consume penicillin, thewonder drug, little thinking of its honorable ancestors, bread mold and soilfungi, used by witch women to cleansewounds.Sing and Dance with the Pennsylvania Dutch. By Ruth L. Hausman.112 pp. $2. Edward B. Marks MusicCorporation: New York, 1953.The arts and crafts of the Pennsylvania Dutch long have been admired,but the beautiful traditional musicused for worship, work, play, courting and holidays has been littleknown. The author, a music supervisor in the Philadelphia PublicSchools, has devoted years to collecting songs from the three principal groups, the "Plain People," the"Church People," and the Moravians,distinguished by their differences inreligious beliefs. Mrs. Hausman includes a brief history of each groupbut creates an atmosphere of friendlyliving with her description of meetings, Schnitzing parties, weddings,kitchen gatherings and festivities. Shegives directions for dances and games.Notes on individual songs, on musicians and their instruments and onthe remarkable musical activities ofthe seventeenth and eighteenth centuries make this book an importantaddition to regional folklore.The Ballad Tree. By Evelyn KendrikWells. Illustrated with photographsand reproductions. 366 pp. $4.50.Ronald Press: New York, 1950.This excellent, very readable studyof British and American ballads whichincludes sixty traditional texts andtunes first gives background for RobinHood, Scottish Border Raid, Historicaland Romantic ballads, then turns tothe American scene where the oldsongs have been handed down fromgeneration to generation. The author,an Associate Professor of English,Wellesley College, discusses the folklore elements in ballads and the partsplayed by minstrels, broadsides, collectors and the nursery in keepingsongs alive. A careful reading of thiswell diversified scanning of a specialarea of folksong is apt to start readerson a long term pursuit of traditionalsong. Down East Spirituals and Others.Collected by George Pullen Jackson.296 pp. $6. J. J. Augustin: LocustValley, New York, 1953.A fascinating phase of Americanfolklore is exposed in this collectionof 300 religious ballads, folk hymns,and revival spirituals. Spirituals longwere thought to be of Negro originor to belong to the body of composedchurch music. The author's scholarly research first established the factthat hundreds of religious songs inAmerica used traditional folk melodies and that many Negro spiritualswere adaptations of white songs. Revival meeting hymn books, shape-notebooks, which flowed through thesouthern states and followed thewestern frontier after 1800, containedhundreds of folk tunes. Continuedresearch revealed a similar singingtradition in the "Deep North" andturned up new evidence to help theauthor revise his theories of songorigins. Historical notes, notes on individual songs, analyses of the modelcharacter of tunes, make this volumeparticularly interesting to studentsand musicians, but all singers willfind an undreamed of wealth of haunt -ingly beautiful melodies.English Folksongs from the Southern Appalachians. Collected by CecilJ. Sharp. Edited by Maud Karpeles.Two Volumes, 901 pp. $13.50. OxfordPress: New York, 1952.Traditional tales and songs thrivein communities cut off from the bustling world and forced to turn totheir own resources for entertainment.Such communities still existed inAmerica in 1916. English folkloristCecil J. Sharp, searching a five-statearea in the southern Appalachians,discovered a rich heritage of ancientScottish and English songs.Martha Bennett King, '24TheHOTEL SHERRY53rd and the Lake — FAirfax 4-1000BANQUETS — DANCESOur Specialtyalumni are alwayswelcome at theHotel Del PradoFifty-Third Street andHyde Park BoulevardHYde Park 3-960028 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHistoryDepartmentNewsletter* OPTIMISM is the word," RobertStrozier, Dean of Students, wrote in theMagazine in January. "The Chancelloropenly admits he has it; the faculty aretalking about it; the staff and administration are full of it. It is, in fact, abright, new day."There were forty percent more entering undergraduate students than ayear ago and the over-all enrollment ofthe University increased. The new fouryear A. B. program — mentioned in lastyear's news-letter — got underway. Tohelp him with student activities, DeanStrozier has brought Arthur Kiendl,formerly assistant dean at DartmouthCollege.The Humanities Division has continuedto expand its staff and program underthe leadership of Napier Wilt. To thedeanship of the Social Science Divisionin March, 1954, came Morton Grodzins,Editor of the University Press and Professor of Political Science. After sixmonths of constructive leadership Mr.Grodzins had to retire because of health.At the present moment, Chauncy Harris, Professor of Geography, is servingas Acting Dean.The bright new day is reflected in theHistory Department in a number ofways including the addition of newfaculty members. Next fall William McNeill joins us from the College staff tooffer graduate instruction in Europeandiplomatic history and Balkan history.From Columbia University come EricMcKittrick and Stanley Elkins as Assistant Professors of American history.Some of you may have seen their jointarticles on the Turner Frontier Thesisin the September and December issuesof the Political Science Quarterly. Nextfall, too, we will have a new assistantprofessor of Ancient History, MortimerChambers of Harvard University. Thispresent academic year with both LouisGottschalk and Hans Rothfels in Europeon leave we brought in Gerhard L.Weinberg as lecturer in history. He received his PhD from this department in1951 and since has been working withthe War Documentation Project at Columbia University. Both Gottschalk andRothfels will be back in residence in theFall, 1955.This past year we brought a numberof distinguished visitors to the campus.Professor A. H. McDonald, Clare College, Cambridge, lectured on Ancienthistory during the Spring Quarter, 1954.Dr. H. N. Sinha, Dean at Nagpur University (India) and Professor of Historythere, offered a course on Indian history and politics in the Spring Quarter,1954. Asa Briggs of Worcester College,Oxford; George Kitson- Clark of TrinityCollege, Cambridge; Michael Postan,Professor of Economic History, Cambridge; and Professor W. H. B. Court,University of Birmingham, all lecturedon the campus under the sponsorship ofthis Department.Charles Mowat and Alan Simpson organized a conference on British historyon our campus. The conference wasattended by sixty scholars from thirty -two institutions including Canadian uni versities. The Midwest Conference onBritish History was founded at the meeting and next year the conference willagain be held in Chicago in November,1955. Anyone wishing information onthis organization can write Mr. Mowat,who was elected secretary. The Department and the University were happy toplay host to this meeting and gave aparty for the participants.As most of you undoubtedly know,Ferdinand Schevill died on December10, 1954. The Department held a memorial service at Bond Chapel on January14. Professors Arthur Scott, James L.Cate, and Norman MacLean spoke. TheDean of Rockefeller Chapel, John B.Thompson, conducted the service. Mr.Schevill was an original member of thefaculty of this University, meeting hisfirst class in the Fall of 1892 in Cobb Hall.He retired in 1924 but returned to headthe new humanities course in the Collegein 1930. Five years later he completed histeaching at this University. Arthur Scotthas written an article about Mr. Schevillfor an up -coming issue of the Journalof Modern History.Members of the FacultyDaniel J. Boorstin published "Americaoder das Unbehagen in der Demokratic"FORUM, I Jahr, Heft 9, Wien. September 1954; "Democracy and its Discontents: IV The U.S.A." ENCOUNTER,III, No. 1, July, 1954; "La PsicologiaPolitica Americana," RELAZIONI INTERNATIONAL^ 7, February 27, 1954.He was a participant at a Harvard Conference on Law and the Liberal Artsunder the auspices of the CarnegieFoundation and at the Midwest PoliticalScience Conference at Iowa City. Heserved as a consultant to the Committeeon American Civilization of the American Council of Learned Societies. Atthe Mississippi Valley Historical Meetingat Madison he delivered a paper on"American Nationalism and the Imageof Europe." George Barr Carson, Jr., delivered apaper at the American Historical Association Meeting entitled "The ProperScope of History" and he published "TheVanishing Historian" in the Bulletin(Vol. 39) of the American Associationof University Professors, an article whichwas reprinted in part by Time. In addition to editing the Journal of ModernHistory and teaching he is co-directorwith Acting Dean Chauncy Harris andProfessor Bert Hoselitz of a special project at this University on the SlavicPeoples of Europe for the Human Relations Area Files, Inc.James L. Cate has co- edited withW. F. Craven Men and Planes, Vol. VIof The Army Air Forces in World WarII and he has written "The Crusade of1101" for the Pennsylvania History ofthe Crusades. He is again a member ofthe Committee of the Council of theUniversity Senate. He and CharlesMowat are the members of a Departmental Committee to recommend anappointment in Ancient History.Robert I. Crane has been appointed tothe Committee on South Asia Studiesand is a member of the Policy Committee of the Research Committee on Economic Development and CulturalChange, both at this University. Hegave three public lectures on the campuson Modern Indian Nationalism. He published "Strata Disruption and SocialChange in South Asia," in United Asia(Bombay), 1954; "Urbanism in India" inAmerican Journal of Sociology, Spring,1955; "The U.S. and the U.N." in Lutheran Companion, Oct. 1954; and "Onthe Dynamic Role of Cities in Social andEconomic Change" in Economic Development and Cultural Change, Spring,1955.Gustav E. von Grunebaum was electedvice-president of the American OrientalSociety. In the Fall he lectured at Bordeaux, Hamburg, and Frankfort. Hepublished "Islamic Studies and CulturalResearch" in Studies in Islamic CulturalHistory, ed. G. E. von GrunebaumAPRIL, 1955 29("Comparative Studies in Cultures andCivilizations," No. 2, The American Anthropological Association, Memoir 76),(Menasha, Wis., 1954); "Three ArabicPoets of the Early Abbasid Age. Pt. IllAbu 's-Samaqmaq," Orientalia, n.s., XXII(1953); "Firdausi's Concept of History,"Melanges Fuad Koprulu (Istanbul,1953); "The Spirit of Islam as Shown inIts Literature," Studies Islamica (Paris),I, 1953; "The Literary Views of Ibn abiAun (d. 934), "Westoostliche Abhandlun-gen (Festschrift for A. Tschudi), Wiesbaden, 1954.Louis Gottschalk is spending the yearin France on a Guggenheim and a Fulbright Fellowship doing research on hisvolume in the UNESCO history of mankind. He was awarded a D.Litt. byAugustana College, Rock Island, Illinois,on June 7, 1954. He lectured at theState University of Iowa at the HistoryConference on April 9, 1954.W. T. Hutchinson is continuing hisservice on the Advisory Committee, Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S.Army. On the Campus he is active inthe University Committee on HonoraryDegrees, the Chancellor's Committee torecommend a Dean for the Social Science Division, the Curriculum Committee of the Social Science Division, theUniversity Council on Teacher Education, and the College Council on TutorialStudies. He is Chairman of the Rosen-berger Medal Committee and on theSenior Advisory Committee of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.Walter Johnson taught at Universityof Hawaii, Summer, 1954. He gave aseries of six lectures on the WalgreenFoundation which have recently beenpublished in book form under the title,How We Drafted Adlai Stevenson. Hehas been re -appointed Chairman of theDepartment for another term.Donald F. Lach has published withLouis Gottschalk Vol. 2 of Europe andthe Modern World. He served as ActingChairman of the Department during thesummer. He is a member of the Committee on the History of Culture and theCommittee on Far Eastern Civilization.He brought out a revised edition ofModern Far Eastern International Relations (co-authored with the late HarleyF. McNair).Margaret Maddox has received an appointment as a research associate on theLafayette Project which is under LouisGottschalk's direction. In the Winter,1955, she taught a seminar entitled"Problems in Early Modern History."William H. McNeill joins the Department in the Fall of 1955 as AssociateProfessor of Modern History. He published Past and Future (University ofChicago Press) and America, Russia andBritain; Their Cooperation and Conflict, 1941-46 (Oxford University Press).During the present academic year heholds a Ford Foundation Fellowship. Hetaught last summer at the Universityof Washington.Sidney E. Mead delivered four lectureson the Walgreen Foundation entitled "The Shape of Protestantism in America." He published "The AmericanPeople: Their Space, Time and Religion,"in Journal of Religion, XXXIV (October1954) and "Denominationalism: TheShape of Protestantism in America," inChurch History, XXIII (December 1954).He is a member of the Committee on thePublication of the Works of JonathanEdwards which is headed by Perry Millerof Harvard.Charles L. Mowat spent the summerin England. He gave a lecture at theOxford Summer School on literature andpolitics in the 20th Century entitled "TheGeneral Strike" and he attended theAnglo-American Historical Conferenceat the University of London. He gave apaper at the American Historial Association meeting on the "The Taming ofLabour, 1919-1929." He has been appointed to the Board of University Publications and to the Policy Committee ofthe Division of Humanities.Earl H. Pritchard spent the spring andsummer at the India Office in Londondoing research on the relations betweenEngland, India and China. While inEngland he attended the InternationalCongress of Orientalists held at Cambridge.J. Fred Rippy published three articleson British overseas investments inInter -American Economic Affairs; twoarticles on the same subject in HispanicAmerican Historical Review; and anarticle on H. E. Bolton in SouthwestReview. He was made honorary lifemember of the Texas Philosophical Society and honorary life advisory editorof Hispanic American Historical Review.Alan Simpson was promoted to therank of Associate Professor. He gavesix lectures on the Walgreen Foundation entitled "Puritanism in Old andNew England." His article "Saints inArms: English Puritanism as a Studyin Utopianism" appeared in Church History, Spring, 1954, and the William andMary Quarterly is publishing his article"How Democratic was Roger Williams?"Richard J. Storr has been re-appointedAssistant Professor of American History,and he is heavily engaged in research onthe history of this University. He isserving as Chairman of the Social Science Divisional Committee on specialsummer courses to be offered for teachers.Ilza Veith published Perspectives inPhysiology, Washington, The AmericanPhysiological . Society, 1954. Among thearticles she published are "Plague andPolitics," Bulletin of the History ofMedicine, Sept.-Oct. 1954; "CAELIUSAURELIANUS: On Acute Diseases andon Chronic Diseases," Classical Philology, Oct. 1954; "CAELIUS AURELIANUS: Gynaecia," Classical Philology,Oct. 1954; and "Reader's Guide in theBiological Sciences," University of Chicago Magazine, January 1955. She waselected President of the Chicago Societyof Medical History and. a member of theOsier Medal Committee of the AmericanAssociation of the History of Medicine. She attended the XlVth InternationalCongress on the History of Medicine inRome and Salerno and delivered a paperat the University of Rome on "Psychiatric Thought in Chinese Medicine."Gerhard L. Weinberg published Germany the Soviet Union, 1939-41 and hehas forthcoming articles in the Journalof Central European Affairs and theJournal of Modern History.Retired Faculty MembersBessie Louise Pierce received an honorary Litt.D. degree from Northwesternin June, 1954. She is working full timeon her history of Chicago. Arthur P.Scott spoke at the memorial service toFerdinand Schevill and wrote articlesabout Professor Schevill for the American Historical Review and the Journalof Modern History. J. A. O. Larsen wasSather Professor of Classics at the University of California during the Spring,1954. His lectures will be publishedunder the title, Representative Government in Greek and Roman History. Hetaught on this campus in the Fall, 1954,and Winter, 1955. He is spending theSpring, 1955, in Europe as a Guggenheim Fellow and will lecture at theUniversities of Paris, London, and Liverpool. He published "The Judgment ofAntiquity on Democracy" in ClassicalPhilology, 49 (1954). Avery Craventaught at the University of Colorado,Summer, 1954, and at the Salzburg Seminar in American Studies, September,1954. He taught at our University College in the Fall, 1954, and Winter, 1955.Next year he will teach at UniversityCollege in the Fall, Winter, and SpringQuarters. Bernadotte E. Schmitt delivered a testimonial to FerdinandSchevill at the University of Chicagobreakfast at the American HistoricalAssociation meeting.Doctors of Philosophy1897-1930Charles Truman ('97), retired Dean oithe College and Professor of History atBradley University, continues to enjoygood health at 94 years of age and is stillresiding in Los Angeles.Walter F. Caleb ('00), retired bankeiand author, now lives in Austin, Texas.Among his publications are: The SpanishMission in Texas and The Burr Conspiracy Recast. His latest work, TheConquest of the West, was published byPrentice-Hall in 1947.Derwent Whittlesey ('20), Professor ofGeography, Harvard University, waselected Honorary President by the Association of American Geographers for1955. In November, 1954, he gave twolectures at the Naval War College wherehe had chaired a set of round table conferences on political geography earlierin, the year. His article "Kenya, theLand and Mau Mau," (Foreign Affairs,XXXII) was reprinted in AmericanGeography: Inventory and Prospect,sponsored by Foreign Affairs. An article30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEon "The Regional Concept and the Regional Method: A Critique for Critics,"appeared in The Professional Geographer (1954).Louis Martin Sears ('22), Professor ofHistory, Purdue University, publishedan article on "Bret Harte as Consul" inthe Mark Twain Journal for Summer,1954. He will retire in June of this year.Frank L. Owsley ('24), Professor ofHistory, University of Alabama, published articles on "The Teaching of LocalHistory" and "The Education of an Alabama Frontier Girl." He completed research on the diplomacy of the AmericanCivil War and the problem of the freedom of the seas during the Civil War.During the past summer he taught atColumbia University, summer session,and will teach there again this comingsummer.Loren C. MacKinney ('25), Professorof Medieval History, University of NorthCarolina, spent several months in Europe, listing and microfilming medicalminiatures in Medieval manuscripts witha view to compiling a catalogue. Helectured on "Early Medieval Medicineas Seen in Manuscript Illustrations" before the Spoleto Settimana Internazion-ale di Studi Altomedievale, and read apaper on "Medical Education in theEarly Middle Ages" at the InternationalCongress of the History of Medicine inSalerno. Together with Edmond Faraland others, he published "Giudizi sullaseconda settimana internazionale de studialtomedioevale" in Spoletium: Rivistadi Arte, Storia Cultura of August, 1954.He was elected a member of the Commission on Bibliography of the AcademieInternationale d'Histoire de Science.Vernon F. Schwalm ('26), is Presidentof Manchester College, North Manchester, Ind.Edmund A. Moore, Professor of American History and Chairman of the Department, University of Connecticut,read a paper at the April meeting of theMississippi Valley Historical Associationmeeting in Madison, Wis., on religiousand related issues in the 1928 presidential campaign. He is at present workingon a book on that subject which hehopes to publish before the 1956 election.L. Ethan Ellis ('27), Professor andChairman in the Department of History,Rutgers University, was named VoorheesProfessor of History in May, 1954.B. A. Pershing ('27), Professor ofHistory and Chairman of the Department, Wittenberg College, published anarticle on "The Admission of Ohio to theUnion" in the July issue of the OhioState Archaeological and HistoricalQuarterly.Clifton Edwin Van Sickle ('28), Professor of History, Ohio Wesleyan University, published an article on "TheSalarium of Claudius Gothicus, Viewedas Historical Document" in LAntiquiteClassique in 1954.Watt Stewart ('28), Professor of History, New York State College forTeachers, Albany, received a grant-in- aid from the National Social ScienceResearch Council for research in CentralAmerica on a projected biography ofMinor C. Keith. He spent last Augustdoing research in Guatemala and CostaRica. A Spanish edition of his HenryMeiggs: Yankee Pizarro was publishedby the University of Chile Press in 1954.Philip Davidson ('29), President of theUniversity of Louisville, was awarded aLitt.D. by the University of the Southin June, 1954.Sr. Eucharista Galvin ('29), SuperiorGeneral of the Sisters of St. Joseph ofCarondelat in St. Louis, Mo., publishedarticles in local and institutional journals. She lectured on "Russian AreaStudies" at the Hill Reference Libraryduring the academic year 1953-54. During 1954, she served as a member of thecommittee on College Self- Study, St.Catherine College.Fred B. Joyner ('29), Professor of History, Miami University, is working on abibliography of Robert C. Schenck.Florence Edler De Roover ('30), livesin Brookline, Mass., where her husband, Raymond de Roover, is teachingat the Graduate School of Boston College. She published an article, "Per lastoria dell'arte della stampa in Italia:come furonno stampati a Venezia tredei primi libri in volgare" in La Bibliofilia (1953).Mary Elizabeth Cochran ('30), Professor of History, Kansas State TeachersCollege, Pittsburg, was elected Vice-President of the local A.A.U.P. chapter.She presented lectures on "ReligiousObservations in Europe" and "CriticalAnalysis of the Works of Henry SteeleCommager" before local groups.Annia M. Topper ('30), Associate Professor of History, Florida State University, translated and edited "Gaspard deColigny; a lecture given by Erik Marcks"which was published in the FloridaState University Studies series in 1954.1931-1940Stuart R. Tompkins ('31), ResearchProfessor of History, University of Oklahoma, published an article on "Significance of Soviet Culture and its Relationto the State" in the Revue de la SocieteEuropeenne de Culture (Venice) and isworking on his forthcoming second volume of The Russian Mind. He will givea course on the history of Soviet Russiaat the University of Alberta next summer.Charles T. Leavitt ('31) is AssociateProfessor of American History at IowaState Teachers College at Cedar Falls.E. Wilson Lyon ('32), President cfPomona College, gave an address on"France: Microcosm of the World's Political Conflict" before the Institute ofAffairs, Riverside, California, in December. He also addressed the Western College Association in November, in a talkon "Appraising College Teaching." Atthe annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciencein December '54, he presented a paper on "The Shortage of High School ScienceTeachers and the Liberal Arts College."Saul K. Padover ('32), Dean, NewSchool for Research, New York, andVisiting Professor of International Relations, Columbia University, publishedThe Complete Madison (1953), Asia inFerment (1954), and is preparing TheWashington Papers for publication in1955. He received a Phi Beta Kappacitation in 1953, and Wayne UniversityAlumni Award in 1952. In the fall of1953, he made a lecture tour in SoutheastAsia for the State Department.Wood Gray ('33), Professor of American History, George Washington University, read a critique on Civil Warhistoriography at the April meeting ofthe Mississippi Valley Historical Association, and presented a paper on "WilliamE. Dodd, American Historian of theSouth" at the annual meeting of theSouthern Historical Association, Columbia, S. C, in November, 1954.Edwin W. Webster ('34), is Professorof History and Chairman of the department at Ripon College.Cornelius D. Penner ('35), Professorof History and Chairman of the Department of History and Political Science,Baldwin- Wallace College, Berea, Ohio,continued to lecture on current topicsbefore civic and church groups.Harold W. Thatcher ('35), Professorof History and head of the departmentat Wilkes College, Wilkes-Barre, Pa.,also lectured before local groups.Raymond O. Rockwood ('35), Professor of History, Colgate University, waselected president of the New York StateAssociation of European Historians for1954-55.Bertha R. Lea ('35), Professor of History and Chairman of the Division ofSocial Sciences, West Liberty State College, West Liberty, W. Va., served forthe third year as president of the Wheeling branch of the AAUW and attendedthe biennial meeting of the South Atlantic Region of AAUW, Richmond, Va., inJune. She lectured on international affairs in various neighboring towns andcities.Lucy Lucile Tasher ('38), is AssociateProfessor of Social Science at the IllinoisState Normal University.Cairns K. Smith ('36), Professor ofHistory, Oregon State College, Corvallis,spent the summer of 1950 in GreatBritain and France, studying politicaland economic conditions.M. L. Wardell ('36), Professor of History, University of Oklahoma, receivedthe University of Oklahoma's Distinguished Service Citation in April, 1953.Margareta A. Faissler ('36), is Chairman of the History Department at theRoland Park Country School in Baltimore.William H. Gray ('37), is Professor ofLatin American History, PennsylvaniaState University. As chairman of theUniversity Committee on InternationalUnderstanding, he edited a World- Affairs Survey of the Pennsylvania StateUniversity under the auspices of theAPRIL, 1955 31Carnegie Endowment for InternationalPeace. He took a motor trip down thePan-American Highway from Mexico toHonduras, including a visit to the Mayanruins at Copan.R. V. Burks ('37), Associate Professorof History and Chairman, East EuropeanStudies Program, Wayne University,published an article on "The Emergenceof Fascism, and Communism" in GreatProblems in European Civilization, ed.Kenneth M. Setton and Henry R. Winkler. During the summer, he taught atthe Graduate School of New York University. An article on "The StatisticalProfile of the Greek Communist" is toappear in the Journal of Modern Historyin 1955.J. Wesley Hoffmann ('37), Chairmanof the Department of History, Universityof Tennessee, spent the summer travelingin Western Europe.Albert Parry ('38), Professor of Russian Civilization and Language, Chairman of the Department of RussianStudies, Colgate University, publishedarticles on Russia and foreign affairs ingeneral in The Reporter and The NewYork Herald Tribune, as well as bookreviews in various scholarly journals.He addressed lectures on Russia andforeign affairs to the University Club inRochester, the New York State YoungAdult Civic Council annual conference,the annual convention of the New YorkState Teachers Association and othergroups. Among his forthcoming publications are articles on: "American Doctorsin the Crimean War;" "D. H. Lawrenceand Marxist Criticism," and "Marriageand Class in the Land of Marx."Robert L. Nicholson ('38), AssistantProfessor of Social Sciences, ChicagoUndergraduate Division, University ofIllinois at Navy Pier, traveled in Europeduring the summer of 1954. As a memberof the Chicago chapter of the AtlanticUnion Committee, he addressed AtlanticUnion groups in Norway and Denmark.Leland H. Carlson ('39) spent the summer in England, doing research on further volumes of his Elizabethan Non-Conformist Texts. In September, heassumed his new office as President ofRockford College, 111.F. Rogers Dunn ('40), Professor andChairman, Dept. of Social Studies, StateUniversity Teachers College, Potsdam,N. Y., was elected a member of theexecutive committee, American StudiesAssociation of New York State, for 1954-55.Allan B. Cole ('40), Professor of FarEastern Affairs, Fletcher School of Lawand Diplomacy, and director of "Research Studies on Japan's Social Democratic Parties," and his wife, MarjorieDaniel Cole ('35), have just returnedfrom two years of research in Japan onFulbright and Ford Foundation grants.He is now coordinating a research project and preparing a bibliography on theSocialist movement in Japan as well asstudies of Japan's pre-war non-Communist proletarian parties and Japanesesocial democratic parties after the war. Arthur L. Funk 040), Associate Professor of Social Sciences and Humanities,University of Florida, is on leave ofabsence from the University of Floridato do research in France and Englandon a Fulbright grant.1941-1950Frank L. Esterquest ('41) is Chairman,Department of History, Weston College,Oxford, Ohio.Lawrence Lee Howe ('41) is AssociateProfessor, Department of History, University of Louisville.Gordon K. McNeil ('41) is AssociateProfessor, University of Arkansas.Frances D. Acomb ('43) is AssistantProfessor of History, Duke University.Sidney Harcave ('43), Assistant Professor of History, State University ofNew York, Harper College, Endicott,N. Y., wrote a review article in Problems of Communism (U.S. InformationAgency); an English edition of his book,Russia: a History was published by theCleaver-Hume Press. He was electedvice-president of the New York StateAssociation of European Historians for1954-55 and was a member of the Colgate University Foreign Policy Conference panel on Eastern Europe. He published Structure and Functioning of theLower Party Organizations in the SovietUnion under the auspices of the Air Research and Development Command.Godfrey Try ggve Anderson ('44) ispresident, College of Medical Evangelists,Loma Linda and Los Angeles, California.Raymond G. Carey ('45), Professor andChairman of the History Department,University of Denver, was visiting professor during the past summer at theUniversity of Alberta.Helen I. Greene ('45), Professor ofSocial Science and History, GeorgiaState College for Women, spent a monthof this past summer in Savannah studying family papers and census records ofearly Georgia.Jack B. Pfeiffer ('45) is economist onthe staff of the Council for Economicand Industry Research, Inc., Washington, D. C.George H. Faust ('46), Attorney atLaw in the firm of Lustig and Faust,Cleveland, Ohio, served on the Disbarment and Americanism Committees ofthe Cleveland Bar Association.David M. Pletcher ('46), Associate Professor of History, Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, is to participate in theLatin American program of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association Convention; he held a Fulbright researchgrant at University College, London(1953-54) where he did research onAnglo- Mexican diplomatic and economicrelations in the nineteenth century. Heis presently writing a book to be entitled, Rails, Mines and Progress: American Promoters in Mexico, 1867-1911,which he hopes to complete this year.Harry R. Stevens ('46), Assistant Professor, Duke University, wrote articlesfor the journals, History News (August,'54) and Duke University Library Notes (April, '54), and spoke before the NorthCarolina Society of County and LocalHistorians at the 1954 session held atRaleigh, N. C, in December on "TheProgress and Future of Local HistoryWriting in North Carolina." He tookresearch trips to Chicago, Madison, andKansas City, Mo., to analyze privatefamily archives bearing on the openingof the Santa Fe Trail.Gale W. McGee ('47), Professor ofHistory and Chairman, Institute of International Affairs, University of Wyoming, Laramie, was appointed Directorof a new Carnegie Corporation grant todevelop a foreign policy program at theUniversity of Wyoming. During the pastyear he delivered foreign policy lecturesin 15 states and directed a group of students on a tour of Western Europestudying "Problems of Allied Unity." Healso delivered a series of lectures onboard ship and contributed an articlefor the South Atlantic Quarterly, July,1954, entitled "A China Policy for theUnited States."Rev. Peter J. Paul ('47) is AssociateProfessor of History, Villanova University, Villanova, Pa.Henry R. Winkler ('47), Associate Professor of History, Rutgers University,edited with K. M. Selton a volume entitled Great Problems in EuropeanCivilization (Prentice-Hall, 1954) andpublished an article on "The UnitedStates and the United Nations" in Yearbook of World Affairs, 1954. He had aFulbright Research grant, London Schoolof Economics, 1953-54, and addressed theRecent History group of Oxford University in February on "The LaborParty and the League of Nations, 1918-29," at A.H.A. Convention in December.Hudson T. Armerding ('48) is Dean ofGordon College, Boston.Karl H. Dannenfeldt ('48), Professorof History, Chairman, Division of SocialSciences, Elmira College, N. Y., was onthe panel "The Problems of the Renaissance" at the October, 1954, meeting ofthe New York State Association of European Historians.James F. Doster ('48), Assistant Professor of History, University of Alabama,held a post-doctoral research fellowshipin business history at Harvard, 1953-54.He contributed articles for the AlabamaReview (April, July), The Historian(Spring, 1954), Journal of Southern History (August), and Business HistoryReview (December). He spent the summer in Washington, D. C, studying theSouthern Railway and Steamships Association, 1875-95.Clyde E. Hewitt ('48) is Professor ofHistory, Aurora College, Aurora, Illinois.James Rabun ('48), Associate Professor of History, Emory University,Georgia, contributed an article for theAugust issue of Emory Sources andReprints.Rhea A. Taylor ('48), Assistant Professor of History, University of Kentucky, read a paper "The Frontier in theAmerican Revolution" at the SouthernHistorical Association convention and is32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpreparing a textbook on the AmericanRevolutionary Period.Norman A. Graebner ('49), is Associate Professor of History, Iowa StateCollege. He contributed two articles,"Farm Welfare, 1954" and "The FarmIssue," for Current History (February,October) and has completed a monograph on American expansion in the1840's, entitled "Empire on the Pacific."Davidson B. McKibbin ('49), SpecialCollections Librarian, University of NewMexico, is also Chairman of the Historical Records Committee, New MexicoLibrary Association. He contributed anarticle on "Revolt of the Navaho, 1913"to the New Mexico Historical Review(October) .Jerome R. Reich ('49), Instructor,Wescott Vocational High School, Chicago, has passed the Principal's Examination.Elbert B. Smith ('49), Professor ofHistory, Youngstown College, is VisitingFulbright Lecturer in American Historyat Ochanomizn Women's University andthe University of Tokyo, Japan, for thecurrent academic year. Besides the Fulbright appointment he was chosen chairman of a session of the Ohio PoliticalScience Association (April, '54) anddiscussant before a session of OhioAcademy of History (April, '54).Herbert Spielman ('49), Historian inthe Historical Division of the Department of State, contributed research materials for the 1953 volume of TheUnited States in World Affairs.Robert D. Warth ('49) is AssistantProfessor of History, Newark Colleges,Rutgers University.William R. Braisted ('50), AssistantProfessor, University of Texas, contributed articles on "The Philippine NavalBase Problem, 1898-1909" and "Nationalism in Eastern Asia" for the Mississippi Valley Historical Review (June)and The Journal of Modern History (December), respectively. He read a paper"U.S. Navy's Dilemma in the Pacific,1906-09" before the Pacific Coast Branchof the American Historical Associationin December.Harris L. Dante ('50), Associate Professor, Kent State University, Ohio,contributed articles for the October andNovember issues of Social Education;directed an economic education workshop in Youngstown, Ohio, and waschairman of the sectional meeting at the34th annual meeting, National Councilfor Social Studies, Indianapolis, November 25-27.Howard S. Greenlee ('50), AssociateDean and Associate Professor of History, Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa,held a faculty fellowship (Ford Foundation) and undertook study at UnionTheological Seminary and ColumbiaUniversity.David Lindsey ('50), Associate Professor of History, Baldwin- Wallace College,Berea, Ohio, reviewed books for American Historial Review (October) andOhio State Archaeological and HistoricalQuarterly (July and October) and con tributed articles for Names (March),Public Welfare in Ohio Today (March),and the Columbus Dispatch. He haswritten several articles, as well as theforth-coming book, Ohio's Western Reserve, which will appear this year.Stewart Irvin Oost ('50), AssociateProfessor of History, Southern Methodist University, has written Roman Policyin Epirus and Acarnania in the Age ofthe Roman Conquest of Greece (S.M.V.Press); an article for the April, 1954,issue of American Journal of Philologyentitled "The Fetial Law and the Outbreak of the Jugurthine War," and hasprepared an article for the April issueof Classical Philology.Edward R. Tannebaum ('50), AssistantProfessor of History, Colorado A. andM. College, was elected secretary-treasurer of the Colorado-Wyoming SocialScience Associate. He wrote "The Reactionary Mentality of the Action Fran-caise," The Historian (Autumn) andwas preparing his forthcoming historyof twentieth century France whilespending the summer in Mexico City.Ralph R. Tingley ('50), Chairman,Social Studies Division and Head ofHistory Department, Sioux Falls College,Sioux Falls, South Dakota, attended theHazen Foundation Conference, LakeGeneva, Wisconsin, July, 1954, and represents his college on the Sioux Fallscouncil of Social agencies.Robert W. Twyman ('50), AssociateProfessor of History, Bowling GreenState University, has had the first volume of his projected two-volume work,History of Marshall Field and Company, 1852-1906, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press.Roger H. Van Bolt ('50) is Director,Research and Information Section, HenryFord Museum and Greenfield Village,Dearborn, Michigan.1951-1954Henry A. De Wind ('51), AssistantProfessor at Wisconsin State College,published an article on "Italian Hut-terite Martyrs" in the Mennonite Quarterly Review, July 1954. Two furtherarticles on "Anabaptists in Thessalonica"and "A Sixteenth-Century Descriptionof Religious Sects in Austerlitz, Moravia"are to appear in the January, 1955,number of the same Quarterly. He isalso at work on some revisions of articlesfor the Mennonite Encyclopedia.Don E. Fehrenbacher ('51) is AssistantProfessor of History at Stanford University.Henry Milton ('51), Professor of History, Austin Peay State College, Clarks-ville, Tenn., is at work on an article on"Why Did Tennessee Revolt in 1861?"David S. Sparks ('51) and his wife,Phyllis Bate Sparks ('48), live in College Park, Md., where he is AssistantProfessor of History at the Universityof Maryland. They have two children.Lo-shu Fu ('52) lives in New York.She published an article on "The twoPortuguese Embassies to China duringthe K'ang-hsi period" in T'oung Pao. FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts. Silverware.Golden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)FLATWARE & HOLLOW WAREWhole sets and open stockCOMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDingo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, III.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSince 7885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best In placement service for University,College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us ai25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.ZJheCxcluAive Cleaner*We operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608APRIL, 1955,*,*•lllH(0'<•,,nBROOKS BROTHERSCASUAL CLOTHES FOR EVENING(a whole new group of clothing thathas never been available before)Here is the first new concept in men's clothing inyears... clothes distinctively designed for casualevening wear at home. More informal than a dinnerjacket, far more appropriate than sportwear, youwill feel well-dressed and at ease in them... forcocktails, informal dinner or an evening with friends.They are made on our own models... of finelightweight, Swiss -woven Lanella* flannel ... thejackets in red, green, yellow or black . . . the trousersin black with green-black Tartan stripes, narrow alternating stripes and attractive checks.tJackets, $37. 50 • Trousers, $22.50*50jg Wool, 5o;5 Cotton tWrite for complete descriptionsESTABLISHED 1818lien's furnishings, Pats ^$hoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N. Y.BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO Stephen V. Fulkerson ('52) is Associate Professor of History at Youngstown College, Youngstown, Ohio.Richard G. Hewlett ('52) is programanalyst with the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington, D. C.E. P. Panagopoulos ('52), Instructor inHistory, Wayne University, spent thesummer in St. Augustine, Fla., doingresearch for a book on the history of theNew Smyrna colony in Florida, 1767-77.John E. Pixton ('52), Instructor in History, Pennsylvania State University,addressed the Pennsylvania State chapter of Sigma Tau, engineering honorary fraternity, last December. An article on the campaign of 1896 has beenaccepted for publication in the fall of1955 by the Journal of the Illinois Historical Society.Robert R. Roberts ('52) is AssistantProfessor of History, Mankato StateTeachers College, Mankato, Minn.Donald S. Barnhart ('53) is Dean ofMen at Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa,and also does part-time teaching inhistory.David M. Behen ('53) is AssociateProfessor of History at YoungstownCollege, Youngstown, Ohio.Pearl Lu-Yong Hsia Chen ('53) isinstructor at the American School, Chicago, 111.J. G. Hall ('53) does business researchfor General Motors in Detroit.Robert Kreider ('53), Associate Professor of History, Bluffton College,Bluffton, Ohio, was appointed Dean ofthe College in 1954.George C. Rogers Jr. ('53) is aninstructor at the University of Pennsylvania.Hans A. Schmitt ('53), Assistant Professor of History, University of Oklahoma, published an article on "Peguya l'etranger" in Feuillets Mensuels(Paris) in 1953. He is at work on abook on European foreign policy whichis almost finished in manuscript.Dean A. Arnold ('54) is Assistant Professor of History, Anderson College,Anderson, Indiana.John L. Bells ('54) is chairman, SocialStudies Department, Niles TownshipHigh School, Skokie, Illinois.Vern L. Bullough ('54) is AssistantProfessor, Youngstown College, Youngstown, Ohio.Richard Herr, ('54) is Instructor inHistory, Yale University.Archie H. Jones ('54) is Assistant Professor of History, Hastings College,Hastings, Nebraska.Elmo M. Robberds ('54) is AssociateProfessor of History, Bethel College,McKenzie, Tennessee.Prince E. Wilson ('54) is Chairman,Department of History, Morris BrownCollege, Atlanta, Georgia. During thepast year he has reviewed articles forPhylon and chaired a session of the Association for Study of Negro Life andHistory meeting at St. Louis, Mo.10(* Indicates those planning to attendJune reunion.)* Mrs. Beulah Armacost Hess of Baltimore, Md., writes that she is still quitebusy and very active in the League ofWomen Voters, serving as vice-presidentin charge of finances for the StateLeague. During the Christmas holidaysher two sons, and their wives and children, came from Philadelphia and Hartford, Conn., for a short visit.Ernest G. Fischer, of Pembine, Wis.,sends news of his sons' careers: Philipis pastor of the Evangelical and Reformed Church in Manly, la.; Karl operates a filling station in Elmhurst, 111.;and Harold is an electrical engineer forthe Magnavox Corp., in Fort Wayne, Ind.Harry O. Latham of New York city hasbeen a member of the Wall Street investment firm of Merrill Lynch, Pierce,Fenner, and Bean since 1938 and a businessman in that city since 1912.Abigail C. Lazelle, AM '31, a highschool and college teacher of modernlanguages for more than 40 years, retired in 1952, returning to Springfield,111., to live.Leverett S. Lyon, AM '18, PhD '21,chairman of the Executive Committee,Chicago Association of Commerce and Industry, has recently published a book oflight verse entitled "Nothing But Nonsense." While he was serving as chairmanof the Chicago Home Rule Commission, a422 -page report by that organization wasput into book form, published by theUniversity of Chicago Press, and distributed to public officials and studentsof political science and public administration. He has two sons: Richard Lyon,'38, Chief of Engineering Research, Reactor Experimental Div., Oak RidgeNational Laboratory, who married Barbara Kennedy, '39, daughter of Walter,'00, and Agnes Chambers Kennedy, '02;and David Lyon, sales engineer for theElectro-Motive Division of GeneralMotors.15(* Indicates those planning to attendJune reunion.)* Harold L. Allsopp of Pittsburgh is taxsupervisor for the Jones & LaughlinSteel Corp. H# and his wife, Phyllis,have one son, Charles, who holds therank of full commander in the U.S.Navy.Merrill Dakin is now working in industry after more than a "quarter of acentury in the educational field." He isa screw machine inspector for the TricoProducts Corp., Buffalo, N. Y. New VeepThe election of Oliver O. Smaha,'24, as executive vice-president ofTallman, Robbins & Company,Chicago, producers, designers ofbusiness forms and coordinatedfiling equipment, has been announced.Mr. Smaha recently retired after30 years of service with the Borden Co. He was president of itsChicago Milk Division, and wasdistrict chairman of the ChicagoCentral District at the time of hisretirement.Mrs. Doris MacNeal Moore, a residentof Hinsdale, 111., writes that she is beingkept busy with gray lady work for theAmerican Red Cross, and board workfor a local social agency. "During thesummer months I garden vigorously andenjoy four lively grandchildren."20(* Indicates those planning to attendJune reunion.)* Mrs. Louise Mammen Bowen of Cleveland, O., now has four grandchildrenand is expecting a fifth in June. Herthree married children, two sons, and adaughter, are living with their familiesin California, North Carolina, and Ohio.25* Theodore F. Fruehling, AM '34, wasrecently appointed supervisor-coordinator of the Department of Business Education for the Hammond, Ind., publicschools. He is serving his second termas vice-president of the HammondChamber of Commerce and is directorof the Brooks House of Social Service. Highest civilian awardHarold S. Stewart, '35, receivedin January the Navy's highestcivilian award for his scientificwork in connection with the nation's program for nuclear weapons. Dr. Stewart is a physicist atthe Naval Research Laboratory inWashington, D. C, where he ishead of the radiometry branch.Any Insurance Problems?Phone or WriteJoseph H. Aaron, '27135 S. LaSalle Street • RA 6-1060Chicago 3, IllinoisPhones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueSARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 1 00 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoHyde Park Chevrolet5506 Lake Park AvenueComplete FacilitiesNew & Used Cars and TrucksCall DO 3-8600Satisfaction GuaranteedB-Z AUTOMOTIVECOMPLETE FRONT SYSTEM CHECK ANDESTIMATE: $1.50 (APPLIED TO REPAIRBILL). QUALITY BODY AND FENDERWORK AT REASONABLE RATES: FREEESTIMATE. LUBRICATION AND ROADSERVICE. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONSADIUSTED-REP AIRED.MOTOR TUNE-UP SPECIALAIR FILTER AND PLUGS CLEANED • TESTVOLUME AND PRESSURE IN FUEL PUMP •TEST COIL • SET TIMING AND CARBURETOR • COMPRESSION CHECK • POINTSAND CONDENSER INSTALLED • 6 CYLINDERS $5.50, MOST 8'S $6.50 PLUS PARTS.MOTOR AND CLUTCH OVERHAULINGBRAKES ADJUSTED AND RELINEDDO 3-0100 • 5547 HARPER AVE.APRIL, 1955AJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, LA 2-8354BEST BOILER REPAIR& WELDING CO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoSince 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180Wasson -PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: Butterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 210 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, Illinoisa el a a a " L_a bl a Sail ® ® 'r'ivi o ri. t 6 n s5487 LAKE PARK AVE.CHICAGO, ILLINOISZ/or JCeservatlons Call:BUtterfield 8-4940 His wife, Emma, is teaching a biblecourse at the local YWCA and is an instructor of a teachers' training course atthe First Baptist Church Sunday School.They have two sons, Royal, a freshmanat Northwestern University, and Earl,a high school sophomore.* Kathryn A. McHenry of Trenton, N. J.,writes: "Delighted at the prospect ofattending the reunion (June 1-4)."Stephen McPartlin, Jr., has been appointed general sales manager of IdealMetal Products, Inc., in Detroit. He willhead the sales activities of the company'snew Paramount Home Workshop in Chicago.30(* Indicates those planning to attendJune reunion.)* Mrs. Rosalind Hamm Harman informsus that her son John, a Navy ReserveOfficers Training Corps scholarship student at the University of Missouri, ismajoring in psychology.* Mrs. Ruth Foster is assistant head ofthe circulation department at HarperMemorial Library.Professor Shlomo Marenof, AM '32, ofBrandeis University at Waltham, Mass.,was recently elected president of theNational Association of University Professors of Hebrew. His wife, MarthaFriedman, '35, is director of the TempleShelom of Newton Religious School.Their daughter, Arnona, is a teachingfellow of dance at Brandeis University.Mrs.- Eleanor Kempner Freed of Houston, Tex., and her husband, Frank, havebeen actively associated with the exhibition committee of the ContemporaryArts Association. "Frank has been chairman for the past two years," she writes."We are now chairmen of the art rentalservice of the Contemporary Arts Museum. Recently we assembled and exhibited a very large collection of contemporary Mexican paintings. Frank paints-asan avocation — and quite well, too. Hehas exhibited regionally and nationallyas an amateur." * Robert Lawrence Nicholson, AM '31,PhD '38, an assistant professor of SocialScience at the University of Illinois (Chicago branch), writes that the Universityof Illinois Press recently published oneof his works — a biography of the life ofthe 12th century crusading leader, Josce-lyn I — entitled Joscelyn 1, Prince ofEdessa. A second work, entitled "TheGrowth of the Crusading States 1118-1144," will be included as a chapter involume one of the Pennsylvania Historyof the Crusades soon to be published.* Dorothy M. Pines of Evanston, 111., isengaged in education in schools affiliatedwith the Board of Jewish Education inChicago. A teacher of Hebrew from1930 to 1942, she served as principal from1942 to 1950. Her husband, HermanPines, PhD '35, is the Vladimir IpatieffResearch Professor and Director of theIpatieff High Pressure and CatalyticLaboratory at Northwestern University.The Pines have one daughter, Judith,who is married to Stephen H. Levin, '50,SM, '53.* Horace A. Smith, of Des Moines, Iowa,is a representative of the bank insurancefirm of Scarborough and Co. He has a17-year-old daughter.* Gordon H. McNeil, AM '37, PhD '41,and his wife, Mary Ogden, '36, AM '38,are "enjoying life in the Ozarks." Gordonis an associate professor of history at theUniversity of Arkansas.Dr. John R. Tambone, Woodstock, 111.,physician and surgeon, and his wife areexpecting their seventh child this spring.* Jerome L. Wenk, executive advertisingconsultant for the Chicago firm of Brown& Bigelow, reports that his oldest daughter, Leslea, 18, has entered the University of Missouri as a freshman. He andhis wife, Geraldine Manaster, '33, havetwo other children: Roxane, 11, andBrian, 6.Last October John Gustafson was promoted to merchandising manager of thefarm supplies department of the Mc-Millen Feed Mills, Fort Wayne, Ind. Hejoined the company as a salesman in1947.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE35 46* William H. Bergman, vice-president ofS. A. Bergman, Inc., Chicago paint andwallpaper company, has been in thepaint business ever since graduation. Heis a past president of the Paint and Wallpaper Ass'n. of Greater Chicago; pastpresident of the local Chamber of Commerce, and Director of the National Retail Paint and Wallpaper Dealers Ass'n.He and his wife, Janet Lewy, '38, havethree children: John, 10, James, 6, andJane, 1.* Rupear I. Chutkow is president of theHuntington Manufacturing Company,Inc., Chicago, and is a resident of Highland Park.Albert Desrosiers has been awardedone of the 50 cash prizes in the 1954Travel Contest of The Instructor. Hisprize-winning article, "A Summer inSpain," tells about a part of the Europeantrip which he took last summer. Heteaches business education at WestchesterHigh School, Los Angeles, and also servesas the school's employment coordinator.Elizabeth Christmann Marshall, AM,(Mrs. James E.), has been appointed byDefense Secretary Charles Wilson toserve for three years with a group ofleading American women on matterspertaining to national defense and womenin the service. As assistant directorof radio and television for the ChicagoBoard of Education, Mrs. Marshall willrepresent radio and television educationon the committee.40Clinton B. Basler has been appointedSoutheast Asia regional director forSterling Products International, Inc. Thepast three years he has served as thecompany's Hawaiian branch manager.His new assignment will take him toSingapore where he hopes to be joinedshortly by his wife, Mimi, and theirtwo sons. Honors for HelmerIn recognition of his outstanding contribution to research, Oscar M. Helmer,PhD '27, has been named a research associate of Eli Lilly and Co.Dr. Helmer's work with the etiologyof hypertension led to the discovery ofangiotonin, the postulated pressor substance which causes hypertension. Hehas been associated with the Lilly Research Laboratories since 1931. As department head of clinical biochemistryin the clinical research division, he hasengaged primarily in medical researchand physiological chemistry.A Fellow in the American Associationfor the Advancement of Science andan honorary member of the IndianapolisMedical Society, he is an associate professor of experimental medicine at theIndiana Universtiy School of Medicine. Dwaine and Elizabeth Worth MarvickAM '46, have a baby boy, Louis WirthMarvick, born last July 13. The Mar-vicks live in Los Angeles where Dwaineis Assistant Professor of Political Scienceat UCLA.Leroy F. Church, MBA, is manager ofthe market research department ofEmery Industries, Inc., in Cincinnati.Bates Lowry, AM '52, is AssistantProfessor of Art at the University ofCalifornia's new College of Letters andScience in Riverside. Prior to joiningthe UCR faculty he was an instructor inthe Department of Art at Chicago.Nadjia Rashevsky Pittman was marriedon September 18 to Mr. William Ellison.They are living in Sacramento, Calif.George Slater, MBA '49, is a salesmanfor the Dow Chemical Co., Midland,Michigan.Herbert Gans, AM '50, is a researchassociate at the University of Pennsylvania, working for his doctorate in cityplanning. He was married last September to Iris Lezak.47Alice Gray, '47, and John Casey, '48,MBA '51, were married recently. Theyare living in Litchfield, Conn.John Hoving, formerly director of promotion for the Democratic Digest, hasjoined the staff of Pendray & Co., NewYork public relations counseling firm.He is a counselor, writer and communications specialist for the company'sclients in the industrial, financial and association fields. He lives in Weston,Conn., with his wife and their two-year-old son, Christopher.Neda Loseff, MBA '49, was marriedlast June 6 to Myron Michels.Philip Young, AM, a personnel manager in Chicago, was married last October 16 to the former Alma Smith.•«t*N*iAre you bigger than your present job?An outstanding professional career of public service as a representative of theSun Life Assurance Company of Canada, one of the top-ranking life insurancecompanies of North America, is available to alert, ambitious men of personalityand character, ages 25 to 40.* EXPERT TRAINING * IMMEDIATE INCOME WITH COMMISSION AND BONUSES* EXCELLENT PROSPECTS * GENEROUS HOSPITALIZATION AND RETIREMENT PLANSTo learn more about the advantages of a Sun Life sales career, write toJ. A. McALLISTER, Vice-President and Director of Agencies,SUN LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY OF CANADA>iii.niii ¦!"¦«.¦ iAPRIL, 1955 Head Office: Montreal 700 branches throughout the United Stales and Canada¦hi h»i>i' linn ¦iin,.^»iii *—¦—— »^—— «—«»¦3748Robert Bidwell, MBA '50, is still traveling the country as a field auditor forProcter and Gamble. His work takeshim to all parts of the United States,Canada, and Puerto Rico.Leland Becker, MBA, has recentlypurchased the Harvey- Corboy PersonnelService in Chicago. He was formerlywith the Formfit Co., as personnel administrator. He is a member of theIllinois Board of Private EmploymentAgencies, a group which polices thepractices of employment agencies andseeks to maintain standards.George O. Braden, a field underwriterwith the Home Life Insurance of NewYork, works out of the San Franciscooffice. He has been very active in theSan Francisco Junior Chamber of Commerce where he is now executive vice-president.Frank Golay, AM, PhD '51, has received a Fulbright grant for research ineconomics in the Philippines during 1955-56. He is a member of the Departmentof Economics and of Far Eastern Studiesat Cornell. He and Mrs. Golay and theirthree children plan to leave Ithaca nextsummer.Louis Kurs, SM, is instructing in physics at the University of Illinois Chicagoundergraduate division, Navy Pier.Lucile Shepard, AM, is a teacher inthe Kansas City (Mo.) public schools.Lawrence Weiss, MBA, '50, has his ownMen's & Boys' Wear Store in Lansing,111. He and his wife, the former GertrudeLevin, have a son, Steven, born November 19, 1954.Marvin Weissman is in Chile as publicadministration advisor with the ForeignOperations Administration.George J. Worth, AM '51, who receivedhis PhD in English from the Universityof Illinois last October, is an instructorthere in the Department of English.49Joseph Bram, SM, PhD '53, has joinedthe staff of the National Bureau ofStandards' Applied Mathematics Division, Washington, D. C.E. Thomas Gumbert, MBA, managerof the Omaha Branch of Dannen Mills,Inc., was married February 27, 1954, tothe former Carol Baisden of Vero Beach,Fla.BIRCK-FELLINGERCORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380 Walter Hartmann, AM, is director ofchildren's and youth activities at theWashington (D. C.) Hebrew Congregation.E. Donald Kaye has joined the Stan-olind Oil and Gas Co., as a junior landman in the exploration department,Roswell, N. M.Morris Spector, JD, who joined theGeneral Electric Co., as a patent attorneyin November, 1953, was married lastJune to the former Carol Lager of LosAngeles, a U.C.L.A. graduate.Irvin D. Steinman and the formerCarol Mae Perlin of Manhattan Beach,N. Y., were married August 22, 1954.Their home is in New Brunswick, N. J.,where Mr. Steinman is completing workon his doctorate at the Institute ofMicrobiology at Rutgers University.After receiving his PhD from the University of Pittsburgh last summer, Marvin Taylor, AM, left the Pitt faculty tobecome minister of Christian educationat the Methodist Church of Mt. Lebanon,a suburb of Pittsburgh.50Marion Boat is at Stanford Universitythis year, a recipient of a NewhouseFoundation scholarship. He is an assistant instructor and is continuing hisstudies for his doctorate.Robert Lindblom is still with theStandard Oil Co., as a geologist, workingout of the Oildale or Bakersfield (Calif.)offices.Father David John Murphy, AM, isprincipal of Mt. Carmel High School inChicago.Hubert Neumann and the former MissDolores Ormandy of New York City,were married last June.John A. Pond, MBA, is co-author ofa new textbook for medical studentsand practitioners, entitled The Physicianand His Practice, published by LittleBrown & Co.Richard Cigledy is living in Rhine-beck, N. Y., "wondering if there are anyUniversity of Chicago alumni in thisarea, and if so, what drove them to thislast outpost of civilization."Richard and Mary Stanhagen Crumleyannounce the birth of a son, WilliamStanhagen, October 28, 1954. Dick, aformer assistant to the Alumni secretary,and his family are living in Columbia,S. C.J. Robert Ferguson, Jr., MBA, hasbeen appointed chief engineer, projectdevelopment, United States Steel Corp.The Rev. John Hoffmann is minister ofthe Community Congregational Churchin Elburn, 111. John writes, "I now feellike a real alumnus since I am awayfrom the University, although I havebeen a member of the Association since1950. My wife and I are finding life ina small town very interesting and quitea change from Chicago. (Marilyn workedin the Registrar's office prior to our leaving the University). We are looking forward to an addition to our family inearly March." Mitchell Brower, MBA, has been appointed business manager of Drama, Inc.,Milwaukee's newly organized theatergroup. He was recently staff manager ofthe Playhouse in the Park, an arena-typetent theater in Philadelphia.BOYDSTON AMBULANCE SERVICEAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of Chicagophone NOrmal 7-2468NEW ADDRESS-1708 E. 71ST ST.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS/ Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186T. A. REHNQU1ST COVOV SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433PARKER-HOLSMANC O M PReal Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFederal Deposit InsuranceCorporationTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE51-52Ornella Calabi, SM, is at the HarvardUniversity School of Public Health thisyear on a postgraduate scholarship.Arthur Moskowitz, SM, has been assigned to the chemical and radiologicallaboratories at the Army Chemical Center in Maryland.HARVEY -CORBOYPERSONNEL SERVICEPlacement ConsultantsTo Men And Women in Business20 W. Jackson Blvd. • WAbash 2-9284Leland T. Becker, MBA. '48LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERIfYou are in a 50% income taxbracket (or higher) — consider theactual profit you can make bydisposing of your marginal realestate at a paper loss.WHITELY ESTATES CORP.134 N. La Salle StreetChicago, IllinoisSTate 2-2468PURCHASERS OF UNUSUALSITUATIONS IN REAL ESTATEPHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Booh ReproductionCongress St. Expressway andGardner RoadCOIumbus 1-1420 Howard Myers is a member of the technical staff of the Radar division, HughesResearch and Development, Culver City,Calif. He was formerly employed withthe Navy Oxygen Project, University ofChicago.David Zeman has moved to Monrovia,Calif.Davice Ann Greenblatt and KennethE. Chimene, '50, MBA '52, were marriedon November 25 in Forest Hills, N. Y.Robert T. Mack, PhD, is an assistantprofessor at San Francisco State College.He teaches courses in the School ofWorld Business and in the Division ofBusiness in the College.Margaret Winthrop, AM, and KennethJ. Cofflcld, MD '53, were married lastJune in Worcester, Mass. The couple isliving in New York City.53James W. Cronin and Annette Martinwere married last October in GrahamTaylor Chapel.Hugh A. Fisher, AM, a graduate ofSSA, has been with the Chicago Officeof Travelers' Aid since 1950, when hedevoted half time there and half time oncampus. Because Chicago is a strategictransport center, the organization has alarge staff here. Hugh is a case workerwith the group.Perlita Knight, AM, was married lastAugust to Robert Gauthier. Their homeis in Denver. Perlita is teaching school.2nd Lt. Ralph Mantynband, JD, wasrecently assigned to the 2nd InfantryDivision at Fort Lewis, Wash. He is aplatoon leader in the division's 2ndmedical battalion.Philip Rector, MBA, is administrativeassistant to the chairman and chief executive officer of Peoples Gas Co., inChicago.Nadine (Mrs. Charles) Tanner hasbeen living in Tallahassee, Fla., since herhusband was discharged from the Navylast Fall. Their baby daughter, DanaElizabeth, will be a year old on May 17.54Robert E. Boydston, MBA, is a research chemical engineer with Swift &Co., in Chicago.James Byrne, PhD, is an assistant professor and assistant director of adulteducation at Marquette University.Edward Elsasser, PhD, has been appointed an assistant professor of historyat Western Michigan College for thespring semester of 1955.William Hudson, AM, was inductedinto the Army last September.William Horton is minister of theFirst Unitarian Church in Trenton, N. J.The engagement of Carol Ann Holden,of Wellesley College, to Jurgen A.Thomas, AM, has been announced by herparents. MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica-Exacta-Bolex-Rollei-Stereo1329 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259"Neighborhood Servicewith Downtown Selection"furniturelamps— fibre rugswrought iron accessoriestelevision— radiosphonos— appliancessporting goodsGuaranteed Repair* ofTV-Radio — Record Changersand electrical appliancesWE RENT TELEVISION SETS935 E. 55th St. Ml 3-6700Julian A. Tishler '33LOWER YOUR COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURESROBERT B. SHAPIRO, '33, FOUNDERRAND McNALLY & COMPANYConkey DivisionBook and CatalogPrinters and BindersCHICAGO • HAMMOND • NEW YORKCHICAGO ADDRESSING COMPANYComplete Service for Mail AdvertisersPRINTING-LETTERPRESS & OFFSETProcessed Letters • Copy PreparationImprinting • Typewriting • AddressingAddressographing * Folding * MailingQUAUTY-ACCURACY-SPEED722 So. Dearborn • Chicago 5 • WA 2-4561APRIL, 1955 39PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEHYLAN A. NOLANCONTRACTORPLASTERINGREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. LAKE PARK AVE.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S .A product C Swift A Compc7409 So. StatePhone RAdcliffiCompanyStreetRAdcliffe 3-7400Webb-Linn Printing Co.Catalogs, PublicationsAdvertising Literature?Printers of the Universityof Chicago Magazine?A. L. Weber, J.D. '09 L. S. Berlin, B.A. '09A. J. Falick, M.B.A. '51MOnroe 6-2900 MemorialRachel Henton Challis, a former high-school teacher in Peru, Ind., '03, diedNovember 16.Mary Bates Blossom (Mrs. CharlesHuston), '09, PhM '17, formerly dean ofwomen at Bradley Polytechnic Institute,Peoria, 111., died May 7.Lillian Margaret Ingram, MD '38, formerly a pediatrician in Albany, Ga., diedNovember 15.Ella Luedemann, '14, died May 7, 1954,in Chicago. She was a teacher in theChicago public school system. She wasa professor of Spanish and German atKeuka College in New York.Emma Kendall, AM '19, died October20. She had been a librarian in Spice-land, Ind.Harry G. Comerford, '20, died January1. He had been in poor health for thepast three years. He was serving in recent years as rehabilitation director forthe VA in Hawaii.Eleanor Libby, '22, a retired teacherwho had served in the Chicago schoolsfor forty years, died February 1 in Chicago.Chauncey Dowman, AM '22, died August 15. He was a retired school principal.Ellis Sparkman, AM '25, died December 30, in Lubbock, Texas. He was anassociate professor of Spanish at BaylorUniversity.Virginia E. Lewis, AM '29, died October 14, in Shelbyville, Ky.Maud E. Johnson, '29, SM '36, diedJanuary 8, in Rockford, 111. She hadbeen a teacher in that city.Ainsworth W .Clark, '99, died in Chicago January 11. He was banker, part-owner and manager of the Pinney-ClarkFarms in Valparaiso, Ind.J. Frank Goodenow, '01, president ofthe Goodenow Textile Co., Kansas City,Mo., died February 2. He was ctive inBoy Scout work and a Rotary clubleader.Harvey A. Carr, PhD '05, died June27. He was Professor Emeritus of Experimental Psychology, an author, andformer president of the Midwestern Psychological Society.Margaret Gleason, '07, died in December. She was a retired teacher of homeeconomics in Davenport, Iowa.George Anderson, '08, died August 26,in Elgin,' 111.Norman C. Paine, '13, Rush MD '19,prominent Glendale, Calif., physician,died February 12, after a heart attack.He was an All-American football playerin 1912, and served as a coach for severalyears. He was a retiring president cfthe Big Ten Club of Southern California.He served on the staff of. the Physiciansand Surgeons Hospital in Glendale fortwenty-nine years.The Reverend Dr. Vernon Benson, AM40, died March 91, 1954, in Anthony,Kansas, following a long illness. Sun-TimesRobert P. Vanderpoel, '16, internationally known financial writer,died January 20 at the age of 61.He was stricken with a heart attack while on a train en route toAshtabula, O, and died in a Toledohospital.Mr. Vanderpoel had been financial columnist on the Chicago Sun-Times since January 1, 1951.While still attending the University, he began his newspapercareer during summer vacations atthe old Chicago Journal.After his graduation he taughteconomics and English for a yearat the Ashtabula Harbor (Ohio)High School.His summer vacation work hadattracted the attention of his firstnewspaper editor, Richard J. Finne-gan, now consulting editor of theSun-Times. Mr. Finnegan felt theyoung instructor would make anexcellent newspaperman and offered him a job in 1917.Before the institution of the Securities and Exchange Commission,he fought the bucket shops andsecurity racketeers. He consistentlyopposed management "grabs,"pleaded for better co-operation between management and labor, andfor recognition of the rights ofminority stockholders.He was a relentless advocate oflower tariffs for the United States,viewing increased imports as astep toward a better balance oftrade. Since the end of World WarII he waged a battle against inflation.He strove always to write so that"the man in the street" could understand the complicated but fascinating economic problems facingthe nation.40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE•The daymy son's futurebegan""Ken knocked around quite a bit after college. Tried several jobs and did well. But hewas never really satisfied. He'd either getbored with the work or frustrated with routine advancement. I didn't worry though.He's bright, sensible, and I knew he'd establish himself soon enough."Then, about a month ago Ken breezedinto my study and somewhat breathlesslyannounced that he'd decided to go into thelife insurance business. Before I could evenlook surprised, he explained that he had always been interested in people and that thiswould give him an opportunity to work moreclosely with them. And his eyes brightened when he pointed out how, as an agent, he'd behis own boss — running a business all his own."He went on at a mile-a-minute explaininghow he'd be thoroughly trained by New YorkLife experts — with a good salary while learning. How he figured that once he was on hisown he'd be able to give his future family thesame kind of comfort and security he hadalways known at home. And he wound uptelling me how, someday, he hoped to retirewith a good income — just as I will soon myself."Then, quick as he came, Ken up and leftwithout even asking what I thought. But ofcourse he already knew. How could anotherNew York Life agent possibly disagree?"NEW YORK LIFEINSURANCE COMPANY-OAL C-The New York Life Agent in Your Communityis a Good Man to Be! MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY!New York Life Insurance Company, Dept. A-251 Madison Avenue, New York 10, N. Y.Please send your new booklet, "A Good Man To Be," with fullinformation about career opportunities with New York Life.Nome- -Age-Address-Cify- -Zone- -Sfate-Present Occupation-LOOK AT THIS CAREFULLY!"Crescat Scientia, Vita Excolatur"Let Knowledge Grow, Let Life Re EnrichedThis is the seal and motto ol' a great University. Ilbelongs to each of those who are part of the Universit)through their active support of its work.make this motto your ownby contributing toTHE ALUMNI FUNDo733 University Avenue • Chicago 37, Illinois