University of Utopia. . . Robert Maynard Hutchins . . Philip L. Graham\ v \ i I v i i I j I ' I i / /'••/ / fnHave you beenmeasured foryour Halo? /vThe Alumni Foundation has a complete anddazzling array of Halos for contributors tothe 1953 Fund.Our $5, $10, $25, and $50 Halosare beautifully burnished, brilliant, and veryflattering.But have you ever seen yourself in our Special $100 Halo? Can be paidfor in installments. Includes membership inthe Century Club, all of whose members wearthem proudly. .^For a mere $1,000, you can have thethree-tiered Circumambient model at the right— so effulgent it has been confused with a flying saucer.We have a Halo for you. Send a checktoday, and look and feel resplendent in anycompany.Don't just IMAGINE how you'dlook in a three-tiered Halo — send$1,000 and SEE.the university of chicagoAlumni foundation5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUE • CHICAGO 37 • ILLINOISftf/emo f-^adLet's go back to AprilRemember that cigarette story: "Whydrag things out?" We credited it to Walter Bimson, '18, president of the ValleyNational Bank of Phoenix.That credit line had only 3 errors:1. Walter is no longer president; he'schairman of the board.2. He didn't write the story; it waswritten by Princeton graduate HerbertLeggett, editor and V.P.3. Walter hasn't stopped smoking; Herbof Princeton has.This Arizona crow is eaten throughthe courtesy of Margaret Ponder, '43, ofthe same Bank, who took time tostraighten (not lay) me out.And if it is any satisfaction to all youfolks in Phoenix, I haven't touched acigarette since April 14.Great New HavenWith the annual Alumni Gift campaignin full swing, we are happy to receivea note and picture (right) from theUniversity's Alumni Association Committee of Greater New Haven. That active group has helped the chapter excelits quota for the last three years. Theyare shown meeting in the home of MonnaTroub Gratenstein, AB, '44, (seated farleft). Others are (left to right) JuliaHoneywell, SB, '42, Allene Jackson,AM, '47, Florence Stevens, AM, '38, NEW HAVEN'S ALUMNI ASSOCIATION GIFT COMMITTEE PAUSES FOR A PICTUREDoris Sponenberg Bartle, ex '23, andElizabeth Wells Watson, SB, '26. Standing are Robert Bartle, ex '26, RichardMezzotero, ex '33, Charles Lindblom,PhD, '45, and Henry Manne, JD, '52.Ave, New Haven!We never have typosWe quote from our May issue, Hem-REUNION HIGHLIGHTSWednesday, June 3O & S Convention and Dinner 6:00 P.M. Quadrangle ClubThursday, June 4Alumni- Varsity Baseball Game 3:30 P.M. Stagg FieldOrder of the C Dinner 6:00 P.M. Quadrangle ClubW.A.A. Awards Dinner (Women) 6:30 P.M. Ida Noyes HallFriday, June 5Class of 1918 35th Anniversary Dinner Quadrangle ClubClass of 1928 25th Anniversary Dinner Quadrangle ClubSaturday, June 6Hospital Tour 10:00 A.M. from Alumni HouseAlumnae Breakfast (for Women) 12 noon, Judson Court Dining RoomCitation Luncheon 12:30 P.M. Quadrangle ClubEmeritus Club Luncheon 12:30 P.M. Quadrangle ClubClass of 1917-18 annual luncheon Coffee ShopAnnual Alumni Assembly 3:30 P.M. Mandel HallChancellor Kimpton reports to the AlumniChancellor's Reception 4:30 P.M. Hutchinson CourtStudent Awards Dinner 6: 00 P.M. Quadrangle ClubClass of 1901 50th Anniversary Dinner Quadrangle Club43rd Annual Interfraternity Sing 8:45 P.M. Hutchinson Court ingway's Hero, page eleven: "Its hero isconstantly reminded that the humancommunity, which at best is in dire condition, ironically subjects itself to gradual self-preseruation. when it resorts towar." Our embarrassed apologies toauthor Halliday who had written "self-destruction." He also volunteered toread proofs of the article. "Oh, no," wesaid, "we never have typos. . . ."Wedgwood reportThe Garg Griffin etching has been completed and O.K.'ed. Ash tray deliveriesshould be ready in July.The Wedgwood dinner sets will bemuch later. Three of the four etchingsare complete; the other will be readyin a few weeks. Delivery of plates willprobably be in early November — in plenty of time for Christmas.Next Magazine: OctoberThis is our last issue until October.Meanwhile, you will receive TOWERTOPICS in July reporting on the Reunion; and in September with the HonorRoll of fund contributors. Then theOctober Magazine."/ am not renewing . . ."I have just received your letter requesting renewal . . . Since it is possiblethat others feel as I do, I thought itmight be well to drop you a line to explain why I am not renewing my subscription.It. appeared to me, when I first subscribed, that a magazine of this naturewould reflect and cater to a variety oftastes.You can imagine my disappointmentJUNE, 1953 1Things are different— up there!You would be amazed at the tricks nature plays in the stratosphereAs aviation progress has carried man farther into the upperair, he has found that nature has many tricks up her sleevein the stratosphere. Many things that worked well on theground wouldn't do as well, or failed completely, in thespace beyond the clouds. Things are truly different up there.CARBON BRUSHES ARE AN EXAMPLE— These brushesare the contact points that carry electricity between moving and stationary parts of motors and generators. They'rein electric razors, sewing machines, huge diesel locomotives— and in modern aircraft.THEY COULDN'T STAND ALTITUDE— Today's high-flyingplanes require literally hundreds of small electric motorsand many carbon brushes. Here was one of nature's quirks,for brushes which worked well on the ground and at loweraltitudes couldn't take the thin, dry air of the stratosphere.They'd spark and quickly disintegrate. And if the brushesfailed, the motors also would fail. UCC FOUND THE ANSWER— The people of Union Carbideattacked this problem. Through research they developedspecial carbon brushes that worked uniformly well at allaltitudes, making stratosphere flying a practical reality.OTHER AIDS TO FLYING— Better carbon brushes that keepmotors and generators running, alloy metals that stand theterrific heat of jet engines, plastic insulation for high-altitude wiring, and oxygen that provides the breath of life inthe upper air— these are but a few of the many UCC products that are helping aviation reach new heights.STUDENTS and STUDENT ADVISERS: Learn more about the manyfields in which Union Carbide offers career opportunities. Write forthe free illustrated booklet "Products and Processes'' which describes the various activities of UCC in the fields of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics. Ask for booklet C-2.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET QH3 NEW YORK 17, N. Y. UCC's Trade-marked Products of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics include NATIONAL Carbons • ACHESON Electrodes • EvEREADY Flashlights and Batteries • PRESTONE and TREK Anti-FreezesELECTROMET Alloys and Metals • HAYNES STELLITE Alloys • PREST-O-LlTE Acetylene • PYROFAX GasDYNEL Textile Fibers • BAKELITE, Krene, and VlNYLITE Plastics • LlNDE Oxygen • SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMAGAZINEVolume 45 June, 1953 Number 9IN THIS ISSUEUniversity of Utopia, Robert Maynard Hutchins 5"BS" Equals Bachelor of Science, William L. Doyle,and Benson E. Ginsburg 9Behind the Crocus and the Trees, Robert M. Strozier ... 11Our Tory Government, Philip L. Graham 14Practical Theorists In Action 16DEPARTMENTSMemo Pad 1 Reader's Guide 21Books 19 Class News 23COVER: Of course it is Garg Griffin. He last appeared on the coverin October, two years ago. We show him again as awelcomer for the Alumni Week End, June 6. He neverchanges. For news of the doings see Memo, on page one.There is another picture you will recognize on the back page.Cover and pictures on pages 4 through 11, and 15 through 17. Photoon page 1 by C. T. Alburtus. Photo of Joan Brennard by Joe Wolf,courtesy of Cap and Gown.PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive EditorHOWARD W. MORTExecutive SecretaryAlumni FoundationJIM ATKINS EditorHAROLD E. DONOHUEStaff PhotographerSTEPHEN LEWELLYN Associate EditorAUDREY PROBSTDirectorAlumni EducationDONALD S. BARNHARTPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $3.00.Single copies, 35 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the PostOffice at Chicago, Illinois under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: TheAmerican Alumni Council, B. A. Ross, director, 22 Washington Square, New York N. Y.when, month after month, I found perhaps one of four articles which mightinterest an alumnus from Humanities orSocial Science. The Magazine seems almost entirely directed toward scientificinterests.I am pleased to admit, of course, thatthere were months when the majority ofarticles were of interest to me, but theseissues were too few.In closing, I should like to say howsorry I am to be forced to drop mysubscription. I feel that there is definitelya place for such a magazine, for one likesto have a tie, however small, with hisschool.Marion Hecht, '48, AM '51ChicagoMarion has been reading our obsession,not our Magazine. With the greatestbiological, physical, and chemical research laboratories just across the street,we have always feared their influenceon our editorial balance. Any month,any four laboratories would provideenough drama for any issue.Every editorial conference fights offthis temptation. Let's look at the recordfor 1953 (January through May) :In five issues two Physical Science articles: Rivers in the Sky (on weather),and Flying Atomic Piles, including thehalf-page called Balloons on the Loose.Three major stories in the BiologicalSciences: Diseases of Old Age; SavingPremature Babies; and Thought forFood. The first and last of these articlescertainly have sociological implications.There were four Humanities' articles: The student essay on The Den ofShadows; G. A. Borgese; the Chancellor'sAs If Men Were Equal; and Hemingway'sHero.And in the Social Sciences we wentoverboard with seven articles in five issues: everything from Thought Control(legislative investigations) by Laird Bell,to a story about counseling called TheClient Sees Himself.At the same time, almost all of ourbook reviews have treated the Humanities or the Social Sciences.Of course, at the reader- end, it can'talways be as ideal as my Saturday Evening Post subscription. My wife readsall the fiction; I read nothing but thearticles — and we clean the platter.Eight o'clock mailOff and on today I have been readingand re-reading "Thought Control" byLaird Bell in the May Issue . . .It strikes me as far the best of severalon the* general subject which I have readin recent years.More power to you in spreading thegospel.Wellington D. Jones, '08, PhD '14Harbert, MichiganSince I was so very critical when yourMagazine went "modern" ... I think itis only fair to say that I find the Aprilissue the very best of any college magazine I have ever seen. The article by the Chancellor and the one on ProfessorBorgese alone are worth the year's subscription.Florence R. Scott, '07Los Angeles"Seven-league" bootsIsn't this a fine letter with which toclose our publishing year?In herewith renewing my subscriptionfor another four years, I can't adequatelyexpress my admiration for and enjoyment of the Magazine since its long-overdue transformation from a predomi nantly, often embarrassingly parochial"house organ" into a publication at onceeminently worthy of its source, andcomparable in general interest (that is,far beyond its Alumni subscription) withthe best, long -established periodicals devoted to the dignified popularization andhumanization of Science and Education.My heartiest congratulations to youand your associates, both for what youhave accomplished, and for somehowacquiring the "seven-league" editorialboots with which to do it so quickly!Charles Breasted, '20Tucson, Arizona H.W.M.JUNE, 1953 3ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS — "just as my mind is beginning to go — "A report on theUNIVERSITY OF UTOPIA"They could not imagine themselves being afraid of ideas/or of fa Mr, or of discussion."by Robert Maynard HutchinsIHE GREAT NEW term of reproach, nowadays, is "controversial."The dream of the public relations manis that all the people of America willdiscern in his clients the perfect combination of all the popular stereotypesof the day. Hence the tendency towardflat conformity to what the publicrelations man discovers, through aseries of careful polls, to be the prevalent opinion of the moment. Hencethe elimination of men, ideas, books,and opinions that may attract unfavorable notice as differing from theprevalent opinion.In many quarters during the lastpolitical campaign, a man becamecontroversial by being for Stevenson.Professors who said they were forhim were held to endanger the publicrelations of their universities, thoughthose who were for Eisenhower wereof course not controversial at all.I think I do not exaggerate when Isay that, in a democratic society, controversy is an end in itself. A university that is not controversial is not auniversity. A civilization in whichthere is not a continuous controversyabout important issues, speculativeand practical, is on the way to totalitarianism and death.Such a society may be said to beunited, but it cannot be regarded asstrong. We do not think it is a signof strength that the rulers of Russiafind it necessary to seek out and punish dissent. On the contrary, wehave sense enough to see that thesecret police and the Iron Curtain andthe universal program of indoctrination practiced in Russia amounts to aconfession of weakness. The rulersof Russia do not have enough confidence in the adherence of the peopleto the principles of Communism or inthose principles themselves to permita free continuing discussion of them.If we want an example of a strongsociety, all we have to do is to look atthat association of thirteen strugglingstates which, at the outset of itscareer, as it faced a sea of troubles,adopted the Bill of Rights of our Constitution. The United States of thatday may have looked weak and disunited. Actually it was strong because it was not afraid. It was notafraid to have its principles submittedto critical examination. It was unitedin the conviction that strength andprogress lay not in the social andpolitical conformity, but in the constant exercise of individual judgment,in independent thought and criticism.Perhaps I should not say that thedrive toward social and political conformity that we are witnessing todayis un-American. I will say that it isun-Utopian. In Utopia, if there werea House Committee on un-UtopianActivities, as of course there is not,it would dedicate itself to seeking outand exposing those elements in the community which were trying to putan end to difference and hence to thatdiscussion which the Utopians regardas the essence of true Utopianism.In Utopia the rich and the conservative agree that, looking at mattersonly in the terms of their own selfishinterests (something that is hard fora Utopian to do), the preservation offree discussion and criticism is thebest guarantee against violent attacksupon Utopian institutions. Becausethe University of Utopia symbolizesthe highest aspirations of Utopiancivilization, it naturally receives thesupport, the almost automatic support, of all classes of society. Theonly kind of university that could bepopular with the Utopians is one inwhich the most lively controversywas continuously under way. Theaward for the Most ControversialPerson, which is bestowed with greatceremony on the anniversary of theday on which the Utopians declaredtheir independence of the Philistines,is usually won by a professor at theUniversity of Utopia.In Utopia the public relations menare closely related to the priesthoodand are usually called public dutymen. Their job is to point out to theirclients what their public duty is. Thepublic duty men of Utopia are, together with the lawyers and priests,the conscience of their clients. Theyshow them not how they can lookJUNE, 1953 5better than they are, but how theycan be better than they look. It isassumed that with the steady advancement of education in Utopiaperfect Utopianism will eventually beachieved, and that the class of publicduty or public relations men willwither away.The University of Utopia has menwho serve to remind it of its publicduty. They are called the Trustees.Their job is not to operate the University, but to criticize it. They criticize it in terms of its purpose. Sincethey believe that if it seeks to achieveits purpose, it will not fail to receivepublic support, they are not muchconcerned with the management ofits property or with raising moneyfor it. The Board of Trustees of theUniversity of Utopia was created bylegislation resting on the propositionthat every autonomous body of menrequires criticism and that it is not usually capable of self-criticism.The Utopians recognize that professors are people. They accord themthe usual privileges of people, whichis Utopian in itself. But the Utopiansknow that professors have the ordinary failings of people, the principalone of which is an inability to seebeyond their noses where their owninterests are involved. The Board ofTrustees is a means of keeping theprofessors up to the mark. In Utopia,of course, the professors are in nosense employees. They are membersof the educational corporations constituting the University of Utopia.They manage their own affairs, electtheir own colleagues and officers, anddetermine their own programs ofstudy and research. But they do allthis under the constant criticism,public and private, of the Trustees.One question formerly much agitated in Utopia was what the limits of the discussion permitted to thepeople and more particularly to theeducational system and the University were to be. In answering thisquestion the Utopians had certainhistorical advantages. They had neverheard of the celebrated dictum of Mr.Justice Holmes about crying fire in acrowded theatre or of the remark ofMr. Chief Justice Vinson that freedomof speech was not an absolute, sinceabsolutes were a ruined relic of theDark Ages.Do not like spiesThe Utopians approached the matter with their usual common sense.They asked themselves what theywere afraid of. They concluded thatwhat they were afraid of were acts.They could not imagine themselvesbeing afraid of ideas, or of talk, or ofdiscussion. They therefore decidedthat any Utopian could say anythinghe liked on any subject at any time.They never let poetic imagery carrythem away into thinking that thismeant that a man could cry fire in acrowded theatre, and -they did notpermit the pseudophilosophy of eventheir distinguished judges to deludethem into supposing that a principleshould be abandoned just when theyneeded it most.The Utopians do not like spies andtraitors any better than anybody elsedoes. The Utopian Bureau of Investigation is supposed to be competentto discover them; the Utopian Houseand Senate would be surprised tolearn that it was any part of theirduty to hunt spies and traitors, too.Spies and traitors are not welcome as teachers in the University ofUtopia. But in view of the efficiencyof the Utopian Bureau of Investigation the University is not expectedto devote its energies to the search forspies and traitors among its staff.The Utopians think that what matters is what the individual man himself is like. They do not deny that aman's tendencies may be suggestedby his associations; but they insistthat organizations being what theyare — Utopia is full of organizations,all of them rather loosely held together by statements of principle thatare both voluminous and vague —membership in an organization is ofvery slight evidential value in showing what a man is really like. If, forexample, a man has taught with satisfaction to the University and to hisstudents for twenty years, the factthat he belongs to some organizationthat has been shown to contain somespies and traitors does not strike theUtopians as very impressive.,.In Utopia a professor is a citizenThis article is the complete second half of Mr. Hutchins' fourthlecture, "Social and Political Conformity," of his series "Hazards toEducation in the United States."The first three lectures were "Industrialization , " " Specialization , "and "Philosophical Diversity." Theseries, sponsored by the WalgreenFoundation, will be published bythe Press next Fall. Mr. Hutchins' opening remarks were as follows:"It is an honor of a special kindto come here on the WalgreenFoundation. After a somewhat inauspicious start, Mr. Walgreen andI became very close friends. Inour meetings in the last years ofhis life, this foundation was hisgreat pre -occupation. I am grate*ful to him that, through it, I havethe satisfaction of meeting youagain."It is a pleasure to be able toappear on this platform for thefirst time with a complete sense ofirresponsibility. Those of you whowere here when I was will probably not notice any difference. ButI assure you that whenever I spokehere before, I was at all times trying to get votes, even thougfi, mymethods of soliciting them weresometimes so artful that peoplethought I was trying to insultthem. Now at last I can tell youwhat I think without fear that Ishall endanger the public standingof the University or alienate frommy administration the faculty,trustees, alumni, and newspapers. In fact, the more outrageous myremarks, the better it will be forthe University, for all hands willfeel renewed gratitude to the FordFoundation."There is a sort of poetic justiceor tragic irony in my having thisopportunity after having lived twoyears in Southern California, inmy having it, that is, just as mymind is beginning to go. Those ofyou who were here when I waswill probably not notice any difference. But the preparation ofthese lectures has convinced methat there is one. In the old dayswhenever a professor at Chicagoreceived an invitation to a sisterinstitution in California, I wouldsay, 'What do you want to go therefor? There is no challenge from theenvironment. You will buy anacre of land and start growingdahlias and never be heard ofagain. Your mind will go.' It isno satisfaction to me that I haveturned out to be an accurate prophet in my own case. In my owncase the predicted intellectual deterioration has manifested itself ina kind of involuntary mellowness."So here I am with the chance,at last, to tell you what I reallythink, and I find myself full ofthat saccharine sweetness whichcharacterizes the overripe fruit ofmy adopted state. I shall do mybest to struggle against it. Butperhaps I should ask you to remember that if I say anythingpleasant about American education it is California speaking."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESTANDING-ROOM AUDIENCE FILLED CHAPEL FOUR STRAIGHT NIGHTS FOR HUTCHINSand as a citizen may engage in anyactivity, public or private, in whichany other citizen may legally engage.The reason why the law sets thelimits of a citizen's conduct is that theUtopians are determined that thoselimits shall not be set by the shiftingprejudices of the time. They see noalternative but the law. The real academic crime is indoctrination, whichis only slightly worse in Utopia thanthe crime of refusing to discuss. Forthese crimes a Utopian professor canbe removed after a hearing by theacademic body. I am told that thesentence of removal, followed by theceremony of disgowning, is often visited upon a Utopian professor fortrying to inculcate the principles uponwhich the Utopian constitution isgenuinely based in the common opinion and for failing to bring otherinterpretations of the Constitutionand of the common opinion to theattention of his students. The Utopianprofessor is supposed to have convictions, the deeper the better. He is notsupposed to pump and pound theminto his students, even though hisopinions are shared by the overwhelming majority of the population.The reason why the University ofUtopia is so Utopian is that the peopleof Utopia are Utopians. The peoplewant the kind of university they have.The educational tradition in Utopiais such that it would make no difference whether the educational systemwas operated by the state or by private persons. The educational systemis supposed to be a continuing discussion of important subjects. The peoplewant this discussion continued. Theysee no limits that must be set todiscussion. Therefore the questionwhether the educational system isdiscussing improper questions doesnot arise. The only question thatarises is whether the discussion isbeing conducted with sufficient vigorand sufficient representation of different points of view.Know thine enemyI have indicated earlier that therepresentation that a point of view isentitled to is determined by its intellectual rather than its political pretensions. . The point of view of anyenemy state is neither included norignored because it is the point of viewof any enemy state. It is included ifit has some intellectual claim to consideration, and it is ignored if it hasnot. The Utopians believe that a pointof view can be presented only bysomebody who has it. When the pointof view of any enemy state is entitledto intellectual consideration, the Uto pians appoint a professor who has theenemy's point of view to set it forthand participate in the discussion concerning it.This may be one of the reasons whythe Utopians have never been takenunawares by the doctrine of an enemystate, as the South was at the timeof the American Civil War. At thattime the presentation of the Northernposition by one sympathetic to it hadso long been forbidden in the Souththat the young men of that regiongaily went to war in ignorance of thepossibility that there was anotherposition that could be seriously entertained, so seriously, indeed, that otherpeople might be willing to lay downtheir lives for it. The Utopians, as Ihave said, are disturbed by enemyacts, not by enemy ideas. They wantto be as fully informed as possibleconcerning enemy ideas. They thinkany other course is folly.You may wonder how the Utopians,in a world full of dangers, are willing to run the risk of exposing theiryoung people to the ideas of theirenemies. How can they be sure thattheir own young people will not adoptthese ideas, particularly if they areexpressed by a competent man whoholds them and who is entitled tointellectual respect?As you may have gathered, the essence of the Utopian Way of Life isthat it is rational. The Utopians dono think that they know it all. Ifthey can learn from anybody, theywant to do so, and they think it particularly intelligent to learn fromtheir enemies. Since nobody who hadever lived in the Utopian atmosphereof freedom would ever want to liveanywhere else, and since the Utopiansare perfectly adapted to peacefulchange, they are prepared for anychange that the discussion of otherpeople's ideas may bring about.Moreover, the Utopians do notshare the prevailing prejudice thatthe young are so many sheets ofJUNE, 1953 7blank paper upon which their teachers may write anything they please.Utopian family and religious life isexpected to leave, and does leave, itsmark upon the young. The concernof the Utopians is not that their youngpeople will be too receptive to newideas, but that the effects of Utopianfamily and religious life will be sodeep that the young will not be atall receptive to new ideas from anyquarter.Finally, remember the tone andcontent of Utopian education fromthe kindergarten through the University. The whole object of this system is to train the young Utopian toappraise theories and programs. TheUtopians are perfectly willing toabide by the result. A population sotrained, and experienced in practicalaffairs, is as wise as any people canbe. The Utopians believe that a wisepeople will not make unwise choices.If the people in their wisdom want achange, that change, the Utopians believe, is necessary and desirable.The question is, then, whether it ispossible to have the University ofUtopia without having Utopians. Theanswer would seem to be in the negative. Education is a secondary, dependent subject. Yet let us looksomewhat more closely into the matter. If we conclude that we cannothave the University of Utopia without having Utopians, we shall be indesperate condition indeed; for howshall we ever get Utopians unless wecan produce them through the educational system?Education irrelevant?In the first place, just how Utopiandoes a people have to be in order toestablish the educational system andthe University of Utopia? Apparentlythey have to be only this far alongthe road to Utopia: they have to wantto get there. If they want to get there,they will decide that the kind of educational system and the kind of university they want are the kind thatUtopia has. These institutions aredesigned to produce wisdom. A country that wants them needs to wantnothing more than to be wise.History suggests that the otherthings a country is likely to want* areriches and power. It also suggeststhat riches and power are not enough.At this moment Korea and the atomicbomb provide all the evidence weneed. Being rich and powerful is notthe same as being wise; unless acountry wants to be wise it may notbe rich and powerful long.I do not think it possible to saythat education is irrelevant. The ex ample of Prussia after the NapoleonicWars and of Denmark after 1864shows that it is possible to achievegreat social and political resultsthrough education. It also shows thatit is possible for a country to makeup its mind to have a kind of education that it never had before and tolift itself by its own bootstraps into adifferent spiritual world. This doesnot mean that the educational systemcan achieve these results behind theback of the population or against itswishes. It does mean that if a country decides to move into a differentspiritual world it can use the educational system to help it get there.The educational system is a meansto the achievement of the country'sideals. The decision as to the idealsis made by the country, not by theeducational system.The Utopians decided that theywanted to be wise and established aneducational system and a universityto help them become so. They decided that what they needed was aneducational system that trained themin the critical comprehension of important issues and a university thatacted as a center of independentthought. The content of their curriculum, the organization of their education institutions, and the freedomof their teachers are the necessaryconsequences of their fundamentaldecision. Though Utopia is a perfectcountry, no Utopian thinks it is: it isnot wise to believe in your own perfection. The educational system andUniversity of Utopia, therefore, farfrom being devoted to tribal self-adoration, are directed to throwingthe clearest possible light upon theproblems of mankind and of the conduct of Utopia with regard to them.In the United States, that richestand most powerful of countries, is itpossible to have the educational system and the University of Utopia?Not unless the people want them. Dothey want them? It is hard to say.I think that in a kind of basic, unconscious way they do. In a kind ofbasic, unconscious way everybodyeverywhere would rather be wise thanfoolish. But think of the cost of thejourney to Utopia. Think of thethought, the effort, and the drasticreorganziation of our educational institutions. The most formidable taskof all is that of persuading Americansto believe that they ought to want tobecome Utopians. The example ofPrussia and Denmark suggests thatthoroughgoing educational redirection may be possible only in a periodof national humiliation. But progressby catastrophe is a repulsive doctrine: only a nihilist would favor ca tastrophe as a means of social reform.Still I suggest that the imminenceof catastrophe and the insolublecharacter of such problems as Koreaand the atomic bomb might be sufficient to shock us out of our complacency, to set us wondering whetherriches and power are enough, and tostart us on the journey to Utopia.America was to beIf we can start, what will sustainus on the way? I answer, the spiritof our country. The deepest valuesof the American tradition are thedeepest values of the West. They arethe values of Utopia. Jefferson's resolution about the management of theUniversity of Virginia must be regarded as the hasty act or momentarylapse of a politician bearing the scarsof heavy fighting. Support for thisview of his resolution is found in allhis teachings from the Declaration ofIndependence onward. To JeffersonAmerica was to be Utopia. We can seenow that he had not thought throughthe kind of university that Utopia required. But we can reach our owndetermination on that point in thelight of the body of political doctrinethat he left us.The leading articles of the American faith are universal suffrage,universal education, independence ofthought and action as the birthrightof every individual, and reliance onreason as the principal means bywhich society is to be advanced. Tothe extent to which the Americanpeople have now forgotten or distorted these ideas, to that extent theyhave strayed from their own path.This was the path to Utopia.When the history of our era iswritten it may be that the last fiftyyears will be seen as a mere transitional period, during which a countryrose suddenly to overwhelmingwealth and power, built the framework of a vast educational system,committed may aberrations becauseof the size and complexity of itsundertakings and the novelty of itsproblems, but always cherished theunderlying convictions that were tocome to flower in the next phase ofits development. In that phase substance will be given to the "forms, direction will be given to the machinesthat have been designed in the transitional era of construction and expansion. That substance and directioncan be drawn from the deepest valuesof America and the West.In the long painful journey toUtopia the American people will havetheir own tradition, their own genius,their own spirit* to guide them.8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"BS" Equals Bachelor of ScienceGeneral Education joined tospecialization in the Collegeby William L. Doyle, Professor of Anatomy,Biological SciencesandBenson E. Ginsburg, Associate Professor and Chairman,Natural Sciences, the CollegeJL HOSE familiar with this University will recognize that the bachelor'sdegree at the University of Chicagohas come to stand for a basic education in the liberal arts available to allstudents, regardless of the number ofyears of formal schooling they havehad, provided only that they are ableto demonstrate a reasonable competence to embark upon and benefitfrom such a program. The principleof knowledge gained has replaced thatof time served both as the standardfor admission, and the basis for advancement and graduation. There hasbeen a genuine emphasis upon qualityof teaching, and upon the development of curricula of intrinsic meritrather than of purely conventionalcontent.A newly approved curriculum leading to a Bachelor of Science degreeawarded by the University upon thejoint recommendation of the Collegeand the Division of Biological Sciences, represents a combined attemptby the two faculties concerned to incorporate the advantages of the present College program, which, on theaverage, is completed in three yearsby a high school graduate, into a fouryear program (again, for the averagehigh school graduate) that includessufficient planned specialization tomeet the needs of the student seekingcertification for employment in industry or government, or for purposes ofgraduate study elsewhere. This hasnot until now been met, for students interested in the biological sciences,below the level of the master's degree.If existing programs in the Collegeand the Division of Biological Scienceswere simply added together the objectives that both College and Division consider essential could be realized, but would require more timethan is appropriate to attaining thebachelor's degree. Such programswould also lack coherence. Advantages inherent in the new degree depend upon the feasibility of combining College and Divisional objectivesin a joint curriculum having unityand continuity, and normally lastingfour years for. the high school graduate and up to five for the non-highschool graduate. Where this is possible, a superior baccalaureate degreeof solid professional standing can beawarded and the program leading tothat degree can make use of all present accelerative devices permittingthe superior student to progress ata pace in advance of the average.During the past year representatives of the faculty of the Division ofBiological Sciences and the faculty ofthe College met in an effort to developsuch a curriculum, entailing themodification of present courses anda closer and continuing liaison between both groups. This committeesubmitted its proposals independentlyto both faculties in order to ascertainthe degree to which the objectives ofeach promised to be met in the newprogram. The proposals received overwhelming approval from eachfaculty and are now being implemented so that the new program maybe put into immediate effect.Students who elect this programwill have joint residence in the College and the Division of BiologicalSciences and will receive counsel inmapping their course of studies. Theseprograms will include basic sciencecourses beginning in the first yearand will lead to specialized departmental courses in the fourth year.These specialized courses may be inany of eight departments accordingto the area of concentration which iselected. Throughout the programthere will be courses meeting the aimsof the College curriculum in generaleducation, and these courses will beplanned with counsellors on the basisof the student's previous experience,hence, his individual educationalneeds.Most of the non-specialized courseswill occur early in the program, andbiology will begin in the second year.The first course in biology follows thepattern developed by the College forall students. A second one-year coursein biology is presented by the divisionfor the student who wishes to specialize, in order to provide insightinto the more advanced subjects ofthe various departments. This courseis intended to furnish the student withan informed basis for the election ofa department of final concentration.Programs in the Biological SciencesJUNE, 1953 9will vary with the preparation andpreference of the student but a typical outline would be as follows:1st year — Physics, Humanities,Social Sciences, and English;2nd year — College Biology(Nat. Sci. 2), Language orMathematics, Chemistry, andSocial Sciences;3rd year — Divisional Biologysupplemented by a Collegeseminar, Humanities, andOrganic Chemistry or anelective;4th year — History or CollegeOMP, plus two departmentalcourses in each quarter depending on the departmentof choice.Programs of specialization may beelected in: Anatomy, Bacteriology andParisitology, Biochemistry, Botany,Pharmacology, Physiology, Zoology,Home Economics or under the program for preparation of teachers.Since this degree terminates at theconventional level of American bachelor's degrees, it should facilitate theinterchange of students between thisprogram and those of secondaryFACULTY proposals for additional College-Divisional bachelor degrees were approved May7th (as this issue was being locked-up) by the council of the Senate,academic ruling body of the University.Under the plan adopted, the College and graduate divisions willjointly award the Bachelor of Artsor Bachelor of Science degree, depending on the respective Division.The council's action came as itaccepted a report of its Subcommittee on the Bachelor's Degree,which states in part, "that for eachnew division desiring it new programs for the bachelor's degree,normally to be completed withinfour years after graduation fromhigh school, be instituted not laterthan the autumn quarter, 1954. . . .In the curriculum for each of thefour-year programs at least halfof the content should be acceptableto the College as general educationand at least half should be acceptable to the division or departmentas specialized training."Students will be accepted beforethey complete high school, as atpresent, and the College will awarda Bachelor of Arts degree based onwork in general education in theCollege. schools, as well as simplifying thetransfer to other graduate institutions,to industry, teaching or governmentalemployment.From the parochial point of view ofthe biologists, a continuing problemin American colleges and universitieshas been the content of a first coursein biology. Such a course usually hasto meet the needs of non- specialistsin biology who are taking it as required science, as well as the needsof the biology majors. At most institutions the bias is usually in favorof the pre-professional group. In suchpre-professional courses the goals offirst year work are usually morelimited than is desirable for the non-science major; and there are in addition dangers that the biology majormay never achieve a proper, broadperspective of his field, that undecided students who might become attracted to biology if shown somethingof its scope and problems, will not beattracted by courses of this type.For more than a decade the University has experimented with methods for meeting the aims of bothgroups of students. Through the workof a College -Divisional committee forAfter the defeat of an amendment by College Dean F. Champion Ward, that the College shareof the new programs should notbe limited to two years, the motionto accept the report was carriedby a vote of 29 to 16.After the meeting Mr. Wardstated that he would resign.Chancellor Kimpton issued the following statement the same day:"Mr. Ward and I share a deepconcern about the dignity and continued development of the program of general education in theCollege, which can best be preserved under the leadership of Mr.Ward. I do not accept his resignation."That same week-end, when college students at other institutionswere pushing each other throughdrug store windows, College students on the Midway who disagreedwith the faculty action, held well-ordered protest meetings.As this issue of the Magazinegoes to press, it appears that themajority of the University Facultyhave, decided that the approvedcourse is the best one, for both theUniversity and the College. Ournext issue — October — will carry acomplete report on the new programs. this program, courses in general biology are now being presented at twolevels. All students will take a laboratory biology course (Natural Sciences 2) given in the College, inwhich the scope and methods of thebiological sciences will be illustrated.Non-biologists may elect a secondcourse in the College (Natural Sciences 3), designed to probe moredeeply and technically into a few ofthe major biological theories. Pre-professional biologists will take, astheir second course, a divisional biology sequence which is closely integrated with the first year course, butis designed to serve a pre-professionalpurpose. Students taking the BS inBiological Sciences will, in portions ofthe two courses, cover topics whichare similar in title but which will contain a minimum of duplication in actual detail of subject matter or treatment. For example, some of thequalitative aspects of physiology developed in the College will be dealtwith quantitatively in the divisionalcourse. Each of the courses has laboratory work, but this receives an increased emphasis in- the divisionalcourse.The program of studies in the College is computed in terms of comprehensive examinations. College coursesare therefore offered in preparationfor these examinations. Divisionalrequirements are stated in terms ofcourses which have been satisfactorilycompleted. Throughout the typicalprogram outlined above, the wort ofeach year satisfies some of each ofthese requirements. It should benoted that two courses are specificallydesigned to simultaneously satisfyboth types of requirement. In thecase of the first year requirement inphysics, the course will provide thestudent with the type of backgroundin physics which is prerequisite tolater divisional courses as well asprepare the student for a comprehensive examination in the College inthe area of the physical sciences. Inthe case of the divisional biologycourse, a College seminar will roundout the specialized work to equate itwith the three year general sequencein the natural sciences for which students not specializing in biology areheld. The student will thus be enabled to meet the objectives of general education in the sciences asdeveloped by the College programwhile pursuing his divisional workwith no loss of time. The programindicated provides the student with10 College comprehensive examinations, each covering three-quarters ofwork, and 18 one- quarter divisionalcourses.10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBehind the Crocus and the TreesThe University acts less andless like an ivory anythingby Robert M. StrozierDean of StudentsDEAN STROZIER STILL BELIEVES IN A SENSE OF HUMORo.'NE OF THE unfortunate byproducts of the dust-storm currently raised by all of the Congressional and investigative activity in thefield of education, is the perpetuationof false stereotypes. It is amusingthat the stereotypes frequently arecontradictory. One line depicts TheAmerican Student, 1953 style, as asaturnine, long-haired radical, hellbent on adopting any new "ism"which comes along. But another lineportrays a crew-cut, panty-raider,frolicking through his college yearsoblivious to the grave issues of ourtime.The fact is, our students are human,quite unpredictable, and far too ingenious to be confined by any stereotype. They can be quite conservativewhen one least expects them to be;and sometimes they can be moreserious than the Dean of Students, when he perhaps should be moreserious than he is.The campus discussions this springconcerning the bachelor's degreeserve to prove one of my points.Though our students pride themselves for their membership in a University noted for its willingness toexperiment and change, the uncompromising attitude of many who seemto resist change in the status quo, is inthe strictest spirit of conservatism.Grimness and SpringChanges have, of course, been going on in the College program year byyear. The two-year curriculum ingeneral education became a four-yearprogram; the Ph.B. degree was abolished; Natural Science sequencessupplanted sequences in Bi. Sci. andPhi. Sci.; a History course was added.Now a large change is contemplated with the marriage of the general education program to some form of specialization. Entrance by tests, acceleration, admission before graduationfrom high school, placement incourses by tests- — all of the maintenets upon which the College isbuilt, are and have been great accomplishments, and are not under attack.Yet, the faculty, in its traditionalexperimental spirit, has plunged intodiscussions, where, in a curiouslyconservative mood, many of thestudents apparently are reluctant totread.While I do not look forward to anyraids upon the dormitories, I sometimes think our students are too grimand humorless. I especially get thisfeeling when the students' gravitymakes me ashamed of my own levity.Recently a student was arrested forattempting to counterfeit ten-dollarJUNE, 1953 11HARD-WORKING MAROON EDITOR JOAN BRENNARD: "MUCH TOO YOUNG AND PRETTY"bills. When a Maroon reporter askedme for a statement on the subject, Ireplied that it seemed obvious thathigh tuition costs at the Universityhad caused the students to start making their own money. This is, ofcourse, a very loose remark from aDean of Students, but one attemptedwith good humor and with a basicunderstanding, I hope, of the greatdifficulty many of the students haveat the present time. The shock on thepart of the student made me feelguilty of a gross lack of sensitivity.In any event, I found once again thatone should not swallow whole anygeneralizations about your off-springtoday.May is the month that springtimebursts out on the Quadrangles, butmore than the crocus and the treesare blossoming forth this spring. Owland Serpent is resurgent, Cap & Gownis making its first postwar appearance,a fraternity is considering re-establishment on the campus. Acrotheatrehas given another splendid performance, students are busy helping in theUniversity's recruitment program,WUCB is expanding, and believe it ornot, the Maroon seems to have gainedenthusiastic campus approval! To some, many of these things aredistasteful parts of a "trend," anti-intellectual, and part and parcel ofthe discussions concerning the BAdegree. But to others, events like therecent pep rally and victory of thebasketball team are not really ofprime importance.Owl and Serpent was for manyyears a good and important organization on the campus. Without fanfare, it worked effectively for thebest interests of the University at alllevels. Such men as Harold Swift,Harold (Kitty) Gordon, Art Baer,and countless others were active during their undergraduate days andhave, through the years, maintaineda staunch loyalty to the organizationand, of course, to the University as awhole. When the West Stands werebuilt, O & S was given a club roomthere in perpetuity by the University. When the Stands were assignedto the development of atomic energyat the beginning of World War II, theroom was lost for club use. When theclub was reorganized after the war,it was without a home of its own,and a lessening of influence and prestige for the club followed.Now, fortunately, it has been pos sible for the University to assignO & S a home in Mitchell Tower, inline with the University's commitment to it from a former day. Theevent was celebrated on May 13 witha dinner given by the Dean of Students and attended by the presentmembers as well as the alumni council. In addition Harold Swift, KittyGordon, Art Baer, and ChancellorKimpton attended the dinner.Indicative of the spirit of our students, was the sacrifice by several ofthem of their spring vacation to remain on the campus to complete theeditorial work on the new issue ofCap & Gown, which will be publishedthis month. A group which workedlong and hard last year finally abandoned plans to publish in 1952, inorder to make this issue a really bigcomeback. The whole Universityhopes that this will be only the first.Bud Beyer came through with another brilliant performance of hisAcrotheatre in late April. This timehe was co-sponsored by the scouttroop of the Hyde Park BaptistChurch, which shares in the profitsof the performances. Bud and Vera,his wife, Jimmy Jackson, Ruth Grul-koski (Olympic star), and dozens ofothers have given short performancesin many high schools in metropolitanChicago and have appeared on television several times. The climax ofthe year was reached in their MandelHall performances which every alumnus should have seen. Bud also findstime to work with the Boy Scoutsand the Neighborhood Club. He isalso one of our best teachers ofphysical education.Another investigation?The spectre of another possible investigation of the University by oneof the Congressional committees or bythe state legislature disturbed the administration, faculty, and studentbody. The students responded intelligently to the situation by establishing an All-Campus Civil LibertiesCommittee (ACCLC), truly representative of campus opinion. Drawnfrom every type of student organization and lead by steady and intelligent young men and women, thecommittee has served the campus andthe University well.Even the, extremists on campushave co-operated with ACCLC tointerpret the majority's sentiments.There have been no incidents to embarrass the University administration,which announced at the outset thatit would not make statements of issues before the issues were defined.Matthew Dillon and Marlin Smith, aschairman and vice-chairman, have12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIDA NOYES HALL FRIEZE: "THE SPLENDID FACILITIES OF IDA NOYES A RESIDENTIAL UNIT FOR WOMENdone the University a great serviceby their intelligent and temperateleadership.Extremists in student leadershipare less in vogue locally and on thenational scene, and the last year hasseen a real maturation of responsiblestudent leadership. The National Students Association, with which ourstudent body is associated along withthe students at 225 other colleges anduniversities, speaks for a majority ofthe students in the country on manycontemporary issues which concernstudents. Its leadership has been uneven in quality, but at the present itseems to be in good hands.Electing Bill Birenbaum (Directorof Student Activities on the Midway)to the chairmanship of the nationalfaculty board of NSA, has been a stepin the right direction for this organization, which, at times, perhaps reflecting the national student body,has taken itself too seriously.The improvement in the Maroonthis year has been the subject of widecomment. Joan Brennard, fourth-year student in the College, looksmuch too young and pretty to leadeffectively such a group of literate,young individualists. Yet she hasdone so. The Maroon has expanded insize, it has covered the campus newsmore fully, and it has maintained asane editorial policy, especially asthe year has progressed. This doesnot mean that the staff is usually inagreement with administration policy.Far from it! Since the majority of the staff comes from the College, theyhave been concerned about the discussions centering about the Collegecurriculum and the degree. And theyhave made their views well known.New home for women?Plans are being drawn for a newresidence hall for women between IdaNoyes and Dudley Field, although theproject is not yet financially assured.Last spring the College faculty votedapproval of a residential college,along the lines of the colleges in English universities. Attempts to adaptthe idea in this country have beensomething less than successful, yetas Deans Ward and Northrop ablypointed out, the experiment hereshould be more meaningful sincethere is a basic curriculum, and thereare many common interests amongthe College students.If the project reaches fruition, ahead master's house for a Collegefaculty member and his family willbe constructed adjacent to a series offour units, to house about fifty each.The Cloister Club would be reopenedto serve as a common dining room.The splendid facilities of Ida Noyeswould greatly enhance the value ofa residential unit for women in thisparticular spot. When the barracksnow on Dudley Field are no longerpermitted to stand (because of cityregulations which were relaxed forveterans), the Dudley Field will againbecome the women's athletic field. Ican think of no finer setup for wom en college students in the country.I think one of the finest tributes tothe spirit of our College students hasbeen the enthusiastic help of manystudent leaders in bringing the meritsof our education to prospective students. Recruitment of new studentshas been greatly expanded under theable direction of Ruth McCarn, MacHazlett, and Harold Haydon, alongwith several other men and womenwho have given this activity new direction. Alumni, particularly youngerones who have recently had the College experience, and many studentscurrently enrolled, have worked actively with Mrs. McCarn in this program. Since we are usually atypicalin what we do at the University, thebusiness of interpretation is always adifficult problem.It's hard to believe that this academic year has almost run its course.But Alumni Week End, with its colorful Sing, is upon us. We are involvedin making our annual selection of theoutstanding students in the extra-curriculum during the year 1952-53.Comprehensive exams already havethe students burning the midnightoil. Each year at the University seemsto evaporate more quickly than thepreceding, and the years vie with oneanother for their color and interest.While one hates to see the time fly byso quickly, these busy days are reassuring that your Alma Mater is nota cloistered ivory tower, but remainsthe bustling, dynamic, ever-changingplace you will remember so well.JUNE, 1953 13Our Tory GovernmentThe challenge to the new Republicanadministration is a challenge to theAmerican businessman who put it thereBy Philip L. Graham,Trustee of the University,Publisher of the Washington Post1JEFORE CONSIDERING the problems and the prospects of the newRepublican administration, we shouldtry to place it in its political setting.While it is peopled rather heavilywith a number of nonpolitical fellows,it is — in large measure — a politicalenterprise.This is the first conservative government to be in national office intwenty years, and it took a nationalhero to put it there. It took a manof unique military experience, at atime when military skills were feltto be relevant by a considerable proportion of our population. It alsotook what was probably the country'smost unpopular Democratic regimeof many, many years. With this combination of advantages for the conservatives, it is important to keep in mind whathappened. The Republican Party didcapture the presidency of the UnitedStates, but the Republican Partytoday has exactly forty-eight of theninety -six Senate votes. The marginin the House is almost as thin, andthere will be elections for all of theHouse and one -third of the Senatewithin two years.Another thing to remember is thatwhen a party is twenty years out ofpower, it — and the people in it —acquire certain characteristics. Oneof the more notable characteristics islack of experience. For instance, thereis in the Senate today not a singleRepublican senator who served undera Republican President. Arthur Van-denberg was the last Republicanmember of the Senate who had thatexperience. Serving anything butopposition is a totally new experiencefor all of the forty- eight men on theRepublican side of the aisle.Because of this, it seems to many ofus in Washington (who laughinglydescribe ourselves as "observers")that sometimes we are watching thecurious phenomenon of the "ins" acting very much like the "outs." Thereis too much individual, thoughtless,shooting-from-the-hip, statement -making on the part of a party that isnow in power and in control. But thisis neither surprising nor particularlyalarming. They have had to shoot from the hip, and shoot wildly, fortwenty years in a stumbling, staggering effort to get back in. They don'tbreak those reflex habits quickly.Another aspect of the current political atmosphere should be borne inmind. That is that campaigning andthe fun and fascination and gaietyand joy and ease of campaign oratoryare profoundly different from the cold,gray dawn of dealing with the practical realities of governmental problems. We can assume that the President will have more freedom, andgrowing flexibility, as the sounds andechoes of some of those orations —about one-hundred per cent parity,and a few other things — grow dimmerand dimmer.The final thing to keep in mind is athought about the Democratic Party.The Democratic Party has manycharacteristics, but two of them areespecially relevant at the presenttime. One is that its members areexperienced in being in power andknowing the burdens of responsibility. The second is that the Democratslike to eat, to have jobs, to be inpower. They are restive. They areanxious to regain their power; and,since the new Congress convened lastJanuary, they have conducted themselves with consummate skill. Theynot only have allowed Republicans todevelop intraparty difficulties, theyhave carefully exploited them. At thesame time, for the moment at least,they have minimized the very livelyThis article is an adaptationof Mr. Graham's speech given atthe Management Conference,sponsored by the School ofBusiness and the Executive Program Club the last of March.Besides being a Trustee of theUniversity and Publisher of theWashington Post, Mr. Grahamis a trustee of the Committeeon Economic Development, amember of the Advisory Committee on Advertising to the Department of Commerce, Chairman of the Advertising Council,and director of several corporations.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE¬¶*!111!1 I^AJ JMi*\-PUBLISHER, TRUSTEE PHILIP L. GRAHAM SPEAKING BEFORE MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE SPONSORED BY SCHOOL OF BUSINESSintraparty difficulties in their ownparty. There is one rallying cry thatwill bring all Democrats into harmony: the quest for those committeechairmanships back again. They arekeeping their eyes on 1954.Besides the political atmosphere ofthe new administration, there are thesheer administrative and organizational problems to be faced. We makesuch careful and easy analogies between government and business, thatwe sometimes forget the exceedinglygreat differences that exist betweenthis sort of government and businessenterprise.This government spends somethinglike 78 billion dollars a year. Thegovernment payroll has a direct employee list of about two and one -halfmillion people. The military employees on the payroll total three andone-half million. Then, like the hidden part of an iceberg, there arebetween seven and eight million indirect federal employees, such asthose who work for private companiesor institutions which have contractswith the government.Now, compare the size of thisenterprise with that run by the Cabinet member who ran the biggest private company in the world: Mr. Wilson's General Motors Corporation.General Motors has slightly overhalf a million employees. As Secretary of Defense, Mr. Wilson finds thatthe Army Department — which is only one of his three branches — has morecivilian personnel than he had onthe whole General Motors payroll.Imagine, however, that you couldreduce the organization even to thesize of Mr. Wilson's rather smallGMC. Suppose, further, that youwere picked out and told to go get anabsolutely clean slate of fellows, andcome in and get the thing runningin sixty days. Multiply your problemin that case by one -hundred, and youwill have some idea of PresidentEisenhower's problem.Add to that the fact that you arenot allowed to hire vice presidentsfor the Chevrolet or Buick Divisionsolely on the recommendations of expert management engineers. Youmust also be sure their senators likethem, and that their wives never belonged to socialist clubs at the University of Chicago.In addition to this, you find thatyou are operating this organizationunder a uniquely American set ofrules called Civil Service. As CarlSandburg has told us, we are an exuberant country with high purposesand mighty goals. We had a goodpurpose some 70 years ago in tidying up the spoils system, formingthings like the Civil Service ReformLeague and putting that kind of reform into operation. As is customarywith an exuberant country, however,we sometimes carry things a little bitfar. The result is that the Civil Serv ice System has changed a good ideainto a complex thing that in somecases amounts to a sort of built-intenure organization for mediocre, andsometimes lazy, people. An adjunctof this system is peculiarly American,known as the Veterans Preference.Again, Veterans Preference is oneof those exuberant, good ideas. Wewanted to welcome the boys home,and those of us who were cominghome were glad to be welcomed, andnothing was too good for us. So weset up Veterans Preference.You are a veteran with some disability. You apply for a job in thecompetitive Civil Service. You takean examination. A passing grade forthe job is seventy. You make sixty.You pass. You pass because Congressgives every such veteran ten pointsfor free. Having now made seventyby making sixty, you find that younot only passed — you are on top ofthe list. You are on top with yoursixty even if a non-veteran, a PhiBeta Kappa, has made ninety-nine,and you will get the job first becauseveterans have an absolute preference.This is probably the only countryin the world that allows its exuberance to go that far. The Canadians,as usual, have a more sensible approach. Veterans Preference in Canada today lasts a few years, then youare on your own for the rest of yourlife. Of our two and one-half million federal employees, we now haveJUNE, 1953 15FAMED ECONOMIST SUMNER H. SLICHTERalmost fifty per cent veterans, andwe are producing veterans faster thanwe are automobiles. Obviously wewill lose all flexibility of operation,unless some amendment is madesoon.The combination of these two acts— Veterans Preference and Civil Service — confronts the Eisenhower peoplewith serious problems of administration. Oveta Hobby, Secretary ofHealth, Education and Welfare, hasabout 40,000 people under her. Whenshe arrived in office she found thatshe could make only one appointment.Every one in her department, including her deputy, was snugly tucked inunder the Civil Service blanket. Afterhard work and legerdemain, it wasannounced that she now can appointfifteen.There is another aspect of government that I think many people inbusiness don't appreciate. It has ledto quite a few broken hearts leavingin the quiet of the night on the Capitol Limited and the Congressional togo back home. This one was spelledout the other day by Mr. Dodge, thenew Director of the Budget. He saidhe would like to explain to some people that in government you find almost no clear-cut managerial decisions such as you are used to makingin business. In business, you prqbablydon't even know that you make clear-cut managerial decisions, because youhave so much freedom and flexibilityin running your affairs — despite Mr.Reuther, Mr. Meany, and others.In government, of course, none ofthis is true. All decisions taken arenegotiated. They are negotiated between two big departments, or between members of the House or Sen ate committees, or all of the Houseand Senate. Finally, they are negotiated with the citizens of the UnitedStates, each of whom is a rather outspoken stockholder of the enterprise.While it becomes clear that onecannot exactly equate governmentalwith business affairs, it is also clearthat there is plenty of room for theapplication of better business management and better organizational principles in the conduct of our governmental affairs.One place where this can already beseen is in the White House. Heretofore the President has had a largearray of special assistants, secretaries,and administrative assistants. Mostof these aides managed to report directly to him, thus increasing theproblems which end up on the WhiteHouse desk. Mr. Eisenhower's approach has been as different as itis healthy.Sherman Adams is the Chief ofStaff of the President. All the specialstaff works under, and reports to,him; and he is succeeding in gettingbetter staff work up to the President.The President is having to make lessroutine decisions. He is being allowedmore time to think, more time to dealwith major decisions than prior presidents have enjoyed.Those major decisions center aroundthe key problems in the lap of thisadministration: the Soviet Union andthe American Budget. Of course, thatis actually one problem, because ifthere were no Soviet Union ourbudget problem would be on a verydifferent level, and of much moreminor proportion.The administration is faced withthis immediate, broad policy decisionregarding the Soviet Union: Whatmove should our diplomatic arm makein response to Stalin's death?One move, open to us, is to put ourdiplomatic energies into a program offinding out if Malenkov wants to alleviate some of the tensions in theworld today. The trouble with thisapproach is that Malenkov, at the moment, may be enjoying very realproblems in the Soviet Union. As aresult of trying to work out the succession of Stalin, he may be in themiddle of a shaky situation; and, perhaps, any overture on our part torelieve world tensions, would actuallyhelp him unify his country andstrengthen his internal political situation. But we should not deny ourselves the opportunity of at leastlooking into such a possibility.The other approach would be toforget Mr. Malenkov and his confreres, leaving them to what we mightContinued on page 18 Practical Th%When chancellor kimpton welcomed almost one-thousand businessmen to the Management Conference late in March, hespoke of two ten-year anniversaries: that of the first atomic"pile," and the University's Executive Program. The success of thelatter, he said, "must be rankedwith the major developmentscredited to the University in theera just past." In the present andthe future, he added, as "the requirements of our modern societymake many demands on a University, one of them — and a major one— is the need of business and ofsociety as a whole for intelligent,capable, trained executives." Hencethe Conference.Sponsored by the University'sSchool of Business and the Executive Program (Alumni) Club, theConference opened at ten on aSaturday morning and lastedthrough five-thirty that afternoon.In addition to Mr. Graham's luncheon address (see page 14), therewere three major speeches in themorning session which was openedby Business School Dean John E.Jeyck and chaired by former DeanGarfield V. Cox.Sumner H. Slichter, PhD, '29,Lamont University Professor atHarvard, spoke on the subject of"What Lies Ahead?" (Answer: Ifthe country stays on its toes, generally good things.) ProfessorSlichter was followed by John A.Stephens, Vice-President, Industrial Relations, the United StatesSteel Company, whose talk wasentitled, "Is Industrial Peace Possible?" (Item: "Having reconciledourselves to the acceptance ofunions and collective bargaining,"Mr. Stephens said, "I assert thatrelative industrial peace can beattained by men who want it andwho, aware of each other's objectives and the workings of our profitsystem, seek it within the framework of equitable law, protectingrights, privileges, and freedom ofall individuals.") The third speakerin the morning session was John S.Coleman, President of the Burroughs Adding Machine Companyand Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, speakingon "A New Era for Business?""Sometimes we seem to argue asif the number of our automobiles16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfists in Actionor of our television sets were enoughto rally the free world around us."Mr. Coleman said. "We believe inspiritual things, but we point toour material achievements. On theother hand, the communists believe in material things but theyoffer something to fight for. What,then, is our cause? Certainly it isnot baseball or hotdogs or television.It is not even our cities and towns,our homes and schools. We are defending more than the hills and valleys and rivers of America. For whocan deny that ultimately our causeand the cause of the free world is thesanctity and dignity of the humanspirit?"Four panel discussions took up theafternoon. Held simultaneously — andlasting three swift hours — the panelsdiscussed "Human Relations in Perspective," Maintaining and Improving Market Position," "Business Research and Policies," and "ExecutiveDevelopment."Robert K. Burns, PhD, '42, Professor and Executive Officer of theUniversity's Industrial Relations Center, chaired the discussion on the careand feeding of executives, with speakers Arch Patton, Consultant for Mc- Kinsey and Company; John W. Rie-gel, Professor and Director of theUniversity of Michigan's Bureau ofIndustrial Relations; and W. WallaceTudor, Parent Personnel Manager forSears, Roebuck."Business Research and Policies"were discussed by William EdwardVogelback, MBA, '52, President andChairman of the Union Gas and Electric Company; W. Allen Wallis, Professor of Economics and Statistics ofthe University's School of Business;and Willard J. Graham, AM, '24, PhD,'34, former Professor in the Schoolof Business, and now Professor ofAccounting at the University of NorthCarolina. (As Mr. Kimpton pointedout, Professor Graham was largelyresponsible for the founding and theearly success of the University's Executive Program. The chancellor alsocommented that there was every indication that this deserved successwould continue under Mr. EdwardWrapp, who was appointed AssociateDirector last Fall.)Carl J. Dueser MBA, '48, chairedthe discussion of "Maintaining andImproving Market Position." Thespeakers were George H. Brown, PhD,'45, Professor of Marketing at theUniversity; Joel Dean, PhD, '36, Professor of Business Economics at Columbia University; and Harold Webber, AB, '38, who is Vice-President of Foote, Cone and Belding, Inc.The discussion- question periodfor "Human Relations in Perspective" was chaired by Eugene P.Berg, MBA, '45, General Managerof the Link-Belt Company. Speakers were Richard Donham, Professor and Director of the GraduateDivision of the School of Commerce at Northwestern University;Burleigh Gardner, ProfessorialLecturer at the University andExecutive Director of Social Research, Inc.; and Donald R. Booz,Director of Advertising for JewelFood Stores.All of the discussions were both"theoretical" (for example, Mr.Donham defined human relationsin industry as "an attitude ofgeneral respect for the wants andabilities of the other fellow") and"practical" (particularly on thequestion of the market position ofa product). The success of thismeeting indicates the use and needfor annual conferences, which havebeen planned, and seems to bearwitness to Mr. Kimpton's wordsthat the University "must trainthe business leaders of the future,and do so with the same highstandards which a university mustimpose on any scholarly or professional education."CHANCELLOR KIMPTON GREETS ALMOST ONE-THOUSAND BUSINESSMEN WHO EXCHANGED DATA ON AMERICAN ECONOMYJUNE, 1953 17TORY, continued from page 16hope would develop into a nice, internecine warfare. At the same time,our diplomatic energies would be directed toward the satellite nations,starting with China and the EasternEuropean appendages, to see whetherthe loss of Stalin could be used tojiggle some of them loose from thetight embrace of the Soviet Union.The other problem, the budget, isnot (as some people in this countryimagine) how to keep our personaltaxes down for the sake of our personal joy. The problem is to keepour taxes down for the vitally important security aspects of our freeenterprise economy. Doing this is notgoing to be an easy trick for President Eisenhower.Tax reduction hope dimMr. Truman set up a budget, in thelast days of his administration, whichcalled for expenditures of some 78billion dollars in the fiscal year ending in June, 1954. Whack out a fewbillions for air and looseness, andeven then there is a sizable problemleft, because Mr. Truman's budgetcalled for a budget deficit of almost10 billion dollars, or a cash deficit of6.6 billion dollars.There is some possibility that wemay see a balanced budget in fiscal1954, if people do not cut taxes tooquickly, and if the government carries out its planned economies. Buta prospectus of future years, made bythe Bureau of the Budget, casts lighton how difficult it is going to be tohave a balanced budget and a cut intaxes at the same time.In fiscal 1955, two years from now,if we allow all of the automatic taxrepealers to come into effect (suchas the excess profits, personal income,corporate income taxes and excises)the estimated cash deficit will be almost 12 billion dollars — assuming aspending level of 77 billion dollars.Now, we can reduce our spendinglevel; but we will have to shrink itby 11 billion dollars if we are to havethe taxes cut along with a balancedbudget.This prospectus looks forwardthrough 1958, and does not show abalanced budget until that year, ifwe allow for all tax reductions. Itshows it in that year, however, onlyby assuming that the over-all budgetis down to 63 billion dollars; that is,when the defense spending, nowaround 50 billion dollars, is droppedto something below 38 billion.One does not have to be Douglas MacArthur or Marshall Foch to knowthat 50 and 38 are not equivalent interms of buying power. One does nothave to be Clausewitz, or the Chancellor of the University of Chicago,to know that the world situation isnot static, that it could get worse aswell as better. It is a highly optimistic idea to assume that we can cutthe defense budget by some 13 or 14billion dollars (some twenty-six percent), and still be absolutely confident that we will be as strong as,or stronger than, the Soviet Union.So, the immediate future for a taxreduction and happier days, it seemsto me, is neither too bright nor toogood.There are many people who talkabout reducing the budget by cuttingdown on the domestic expenditures,which is an easy thing to talk about,and which most tax reducers do talkabout. But, if we look into the matter, we find that it is not quite assimple as we would like to think itis. Mr. Sinclair Weeks, the Secretaryof Commerce, has recently receiveda double pat on the back from thePresident, for announcing a fifteenper cent cut in the budget of theCommerce Department. That fifteenper cent adds up to 170 million dollars. Mr. Benson, in Agriculture, hasdone a terrific job and has made acut of nine per cent, or 70 milliondollars. Add those two up and youhave 240 million dollars, or one-fourth of a billion dollars, or one-two-hundred- eightieth of a budget of70 billion dollars.At the same time, back at the placewhere I was raised — South Florida —the government of the United Statesis spending 240 million dollars on aflood control project. There are otherflood control projects, throughout theUnited States. Why not cut them?Federal servicesThe point that I am trying to makeis that we are not going to reducegovernmental expenditures merely bycutting the other guy's budget. Thatis, only when we are willing to havethe services that we are used to getting from the federal government cutdown (I get some from second classmail, I don't know how you getthem), only when we are willing tosee flood control projects — for instance— cut down, only then are we goingto come anywhere near keeping thisbudget in line with the demands ofa free economy.There is another problem involvingbalance: trying to be strong on oursecurity front at the same time beingstrong on our spiritual front. In the area of freedom of spirit that problemof balance is manifested at the moment by a somewhat lively series ofinvestigations that are going on inthe city of Washington.Social programsI am rather tempted, if I could doneedlepoint, to do a little thing tohang on the wall and send to a fewsenators. It is a quotation from Mr.Winston Churchill. It was made inthe darkest days of his country. Mr.Churchill calmly pointed out, whenpeople wanted to go back and see hownaughty Chamberlain had been, "Ifwe are going to spend the presentinvestigating the past, we are goingto lose the future." I think that happylittle motto would be of value in someof these investigations, which wereundoubtedly motivated by good purposes, but are now getting just plainsilly.The future should not be lost, because the future holds the politicalpossibilities of this administration.Those possibilities are much harderto realize than some thought in thehappy forty -eight hours after November 4th.It is not going to be easy to keepa conservative government in powerfor a decent spell in this country.The figures in Congress are evidenceof the closeness of the country's political thinking. It is not going to beenough just to deliver the mail ontime, and to cut taxes, and to be efficient.You cannot keep a Tory governmentin office simply by saying, "It is lesswasteful." The challenge to conservatives in America — and that meanslargely the challenge to AmericanBusiness — that challenge is to showthat there can be conservative socialprograms. Business must demonstratethat all the twenty years of objections and wails and yells over thingssuch as housing, health, and socialsecurity programs, were objections tomethods, management, and procedure.And if this conservative party is going to be honest, then it is going tocome up with a truly sound, well run,conservative social program — one thatwill affect the people, one that willdo something for their betterment.If, however, the predominant majority of American Business begins toregard social responsibility and goodworks as merely a sort of obsolescentadvertising campaign which wasneeded when those Democrats werein, therefore no longer needed now,then I think the tenure of this administration is going to be extremelybrief.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE(/->OOk3by Faculty and AlumniERRORS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY.By Sebastian de Grazia. New York:Doubleday & Co., 1952. $3. tThe author of this book is a political scientist, formerly on the facultyof the University of Chicago. Thethesis of his book may be put in thisway: modern psychotherapy is, forthe most part, a snare and a delusionbecause it will not admit its moralnature, evades rather than uses therapeutically its moral authority, forgetsthat its aim is to restore the personto community on behalf of which itacts, and wholly denies the religiouscharacter of its aims and context infavor of the prestige of a sciencewhich it lacks.The author turns to this subject because political science deals with thewhole "political community," in hisview, and not merely with an "encapsulated thing called government."The "prominence of mental disorder"of all kinds must be of concern to thepolitical scientist. And it is just here,he believes, that psychotherapy'shands are, if not empty, at least upsomebody's sleeve. One might hope,he implies a bit wistfully, that religious leaders had not sold out theirmoral authority; but they, on thewhole, appear to be worse than thesecular psychotherapists.Despite the fact that this book islikely to be indignantly repudiated,if not entirely ignored, by most psychotherapists, its basic thesis can notbe set aside so cavalierly. There aremoral factors involved in any psychotherapy, and they can not be excludedby the mere act of paying them noattention. There is a factor of authority in any psychotherapeutic relationship. The psychotherapist does actin some sense on behalf of a community whether he so realizes or not.That is to say, even if one does notaccept the author's conceptions of themoral, or of authority, or of psychotherapy, he would have to concedethe, practical and theoretical significance of the questions raised.The difficulty with the book hasbeen foreseen by the author, whonotes, near the end, that it is a"lengthy polemic" and at times"fiercely partisan." In an attempt tobe prophetic, it tends to become iconoclastic. In reaching toward a broadvision, it falls into a kind of ironicarrogance. I would guess that the author's mind's-eye models were theRepublic (for vision), and Amos orIsaiah (for tone). Such a combination is important but never easy.The author is genuinely learned,although his learning about psychotherapy does not always seem to include an "interior" dimension. Heseems to know comparatively littleabout current trends in pastoral care.The tragedy of the book does not lie,however, in minor deficiencies of thiskind, of which any author is likely tobe guilty. It lies, instead, in the probable fact that the pertinent questionshe raises are likely to be brushedaside, rather than considered with theseriousness they deserve, by the wayin which his thesis is treated. As thebook stands now, it is likely to giveaid and comfort chiefly to the obscurantist enemies of all psychotherapy, despite what I am sure isthe author's positive intention.Seward HiltnerAssociate ProfessorFederated Theological FacultyGENERAL EDUCATION INSCHOOL AND COLLEGE. A Committee Report (Harvard UniversityPress, Cambridge, Mass., 1952) 142pp. $2.00.This suggestive book is a testimonyboth to the continued interest ofAmerican teachers in the problems ofdesigning a program of liberal education, and to the difficulty of such aneffort in the face of one of the eccentricities of the American educationalsystem. Since at least the time whenJefferson identified the age of "fifteenor sixteen years" as dividing the period of "memory" (to be devoted toacquiring languages and "useful factsand good principles") from that whenthe mind is^ capable of "laborious andclose operations," there seems to havebeen no theoretical doubt expressedas to when in a child's developmentgenuine intellectual work shouldbegin.Henry Adams and his classmateswere sixteen when they entered college in the '50's, but since then twoyears have been lost in the shuffle.If the anomaly of the four year highschool following upon the eight yearelementary school is accepted, a program of liberal education must beshared by school and college unlessschooling is to be unduly prolonged.Not surprisingly, considering its placeof origin, this committee (made up ofrepresentatives of six Eastern preparatory schools and universities) doesnot challenge this anomaly. It proceeds, then, to identify the "weaknesses and failures" existent (in large part because of this anomaly) in thepresent "program;" goes on to presentgeneral principles which should directliberal education, outlines suggestedprograms of study in specific areasand ends by recommending an "articulated" seven year program formore capable students.This is a rewarding book both forteachers and for those who simplymaintain an intelligent interest ineducation. The customary mode ofdiscourse in American education ishortatory. Here, fortunately, the authors temper their enthusiasms forimpressive educational ends by somestraight thinking on the subject ofthe difficulties in the way of achievingthese ends. Of most general interestwill be the committee's outline of arational curriculum. Many will bedisappointed that limitations of timecompelled the committee to do littlemore than note the complexity ofcertain problems. The organizationand content of general courses in thesocial sciences is one of these; theteaching of values is another.The committee is guilty of twoheresies: A confidence that educationinvolves subject matter and that students must be challenged to their utmost. In this context the authorsobserve with appropriate dismay thedecline in the quality of teachingwhich occurs between the final yearsof a good school and the first yearsof a good university.Prep and high schoolsThis book is a commendable attackon some genuine problems, but itmust be noted that it suffers from itsself-imposed limitations. There aretwo isolable tasks confronting thoseinterested in the promotion of generaleducation in this country: (1) Theestablishment of circumstances whichwill promote thinking about and experimentation with programs of general education; (2) consideration ofthe substantive problems of coursecontent. This book makes a beginningat each of these tasks. It is likelythat this report will initiate conversation in each of the six institutionsconcerned and that general educationwill be substantially advanced. Butwhat is the equivalent device for theother institutions of the country whichcontrol half the number of years necessary for a general education? Itcannot be denied that a substantialnumber of public high schools possesstalent equal to any preparatory schooland thus are in a position to profitfrom such conversations as the committee carried on. But how are suchconversations to be carried out on aJUNE, 1953 19mass scale? The committee opposesthe two dogmas that are at presentobstructing even the consideration ofthe problems of general education:The notion that in a democratic schoolsystem no one can be taught anythingINVENTIONS. By James L. Weil,'50. Vantage Press, 1952. $2.(In this essay, Mr. Richard WeaverAssociate Professor of English(College) comments on the avoca-tional interests of one of his formerstudents, whose creative talents,since graduation, have been appliedto both business and poetry. Despite the demands of establishinghis career with the Sun ChemicalCorp., Mr. Weil has found timeto pursue an interest in writingwhich was fostered during histhree years in the College. His firstvolume, which combines an essayon "An Attitude Toward Poetry,"with 23 of his own poems, promptsthe following remarks by Mr.Weaver.)By its very nature modern poetry is an issue, and we shouldexpect reasoned attacks upon it.Despite its undeniable brillianceand despite the devotion of itsadherents, it stands questionableon two counts: its radical break,in many respects, with tradition;and its restriction to a small groupof elites.Mr. Weil's essay can hardly besaid to take the measure of modern poetry, and it does not indicate alternative paths of poeticdevelopment. But it shows a youngman thinking earnestly about thenature of poetry and probing forweaknesses in the peculiarly modern form of this art.The author begins by insistingthat poetry be recognized as a distinct species of the genus art."There is reason enough to assertthat one of the chief difficultieswith modern poetry is that thepoet cannot get it through his headthat he is a poet, not a musician,sculptor, painter, dancer, novelist,or philosopher."With this point made, the author's next step is to find the identifying medium of poetry, whichwill properly set it off from theother arts, and in so doing help thepoet to recognize his true vocation. Mr. Weil regards metaphoras the essential means. that everyone is not taught, and thenotion that education is adjustment.But it advances no strategies for overcoming these retrograde influences.Clearly, it must be said that thoughthis is a thoughtful book it does notSince for me Metaphor is theessence of poetry, it is necessaryto state what it involves. Thepoet is not limited to one sense,but let us imagine that he onlysees an object. For the poet thatobject becomes significant. Atfirst it merely obsesses the eye.But the obsession is curious aboutitself, and makes an analysis ofthe object. The analysis finallydiscovers something about theobject which reminds the poet ofanother object. That linkage isa synthesis which explains to thepoet why the first object was significant, and the significance oftenlies in his having related twoordinarily unrelatable objects . . .So the comparison embodied inMetaphor is born as Obsession,grows with Analysis, and flowersinto Synthesis — the comparison.The poet is now seen as a contributor to the world because ofthe way in which he alters whatever he works upon. Of particular importance is the fact thatthe poet often works through"transmodality of imagery." Thisphrase names a method in whichimages furnished by one categoryof experience are presented inlanguage conventionally used forimages out of another category.Thus in the two lines which Mr.Weil quotes from Keats' Ode to aNightingaleI cannot see what flowers areat my feetNor what soft incense hangsupon the boughs . . .the poet speaks as though seeinga fragrance. It is a transformationof the world through a breakingdown of the cliches of sense. Aconsequence is that words themselves become things for whichsymbols have to be found. For thisreason it can be maintained thatpoetry gives to words a new status,and this is in itself a kind of creation added to the world.Whether Mr. Weil's own poetrybears out his theoretical demonstrations is arguable, as is oftentrue in the case of poets who produce a theory. But that concernwith theory has not choked offpoetry may be seen by turning tothe second part of the volume andMr. Weil's 23 poems. begin to take up the problems suggested by its title.Jay C. Williams, Jr.Assistant ProfessorSocial Sciences, CollegePERSECUTION AND THE ART OFWRITING. By Leo Strauss. Glencoe:The Free Press, 1952. Pp. 204. $4.00.The main problem which ProfessorStrauss discusses in this book is thequestion of how the writer or scholarwho lives in a country where the freeexpression of unorthodox or unconventional ideas is suppressed, nevertheless may write so as to give voiceto ideas which differ from those generally accepted or approved by thegovernment's censors. In principlethe method proposed by ProfessorStrauss consists in writing so thatthe wise and studious can read theheterodox truths between the lines,and that only the dull and unthinkingno not recognize that new and heterodox ideas are expressed in a garbwhich externally appears to conformto all the acceptable conventions.Professor Strauss' analysis is convincing, but his method is, alas, notlikely to be very useful in these daysof untrammeled totalitarianism. Foras he himself says, an "axiom, butone which is meaningful only so longas persecution remains within thebounds of legal procedure, is that acareful writer of normal intelligenceis more intelligent than the most intellectual censor, as such. For ... itis he, or the public prosecutor, whomust prove that the author holds orhas uttered heterodox views."I believe that anyone will fullyagree with this statement. But unfortunately the relation stated in thispassage appears to be known to theheads of the secret police forces ofmodern tyrannies, who have extendedpersecution far beyond those boundsof legal procedure which ProfessorStrauss envisages. I fear that themethod proposed by him would noteven prove very vigorous before theCongressional inquisitions carried onunder the auspices of men like Senator McCarthy and others, nor that itcould withstand the generalization ofthe principle of guilt by association.The three applications which Professor Strauss makes of his principle relate, therefore, not to writingscomposed in our day, but to twotreatises composed in the MiddleAges and one in the seventeenth century. Chapters three to five have astheir central theme the analysis ofMaimonides' Guide for the Perplexed,Yehuda Halevi's Kuzari, and Spinoza'sThe ologico -Political Treatise. In ac-20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtual execution these three chaptersare much more than the application tothese three works of ProfessorStrauss' views on persecution and theart of writing. They are introductoryessays on how to study three greatbooks. Undoubtedly three bookswhich belong to the most valuabletreasure of political philosophy of theWestern world.In a way, what Professor Strausshas to say in these chapters, notablyin the third chapter on Maimonides —which belongs to the most fascinatingpolitical writing of our time — is applicable to all truly great books. Forthe point which Professor Straussmakes is that the Guide is essentiallyan esoteric book with a secret message for those who are especiallystudious and willing to apply themselves. At the same time, this esoteric quality of the Guide is its mainattraction and the basis of its chiefvalue. It is a great book, not becauseit deals with profound topics, butbecause it presents essentially newideas on them in a way which causesthem to escape the superficial reader,and because of their essentially esoteric character to unfold themselvesto the genuine student of the work.This principle, it appears, is applicable to every great book, even to thosewhich superficially give the appearance of the utmost clarity andstraightforwardness. Take, as an example, Smith's Wealth of Nations, awork which Professor Strauss doesnot discuss, but which has the reputation of being clear, lucid, and easyto understand. Commonly the labelis applied to it that it is a plea forlaissez-faire and all this principlestands for. But if we delve deeperwe begin to discover some of the esoteric principles on which Smith'swork is built. The apparent opposition between the principles of self-interest and of sympathy as a guidefor conduct is one such instance, somealleged "confusions" in Smith's valuetheory is another, and several morecould be cited.Guide for the guideProfessor Strauss' book is thereforenot merely a treatise on persecutionand the art of writing, but also aguide for the perplexed, i.e., a set ofinstructions, on how to read, or ratherhow to study, great books. And justas Maimonides' Guide, this book hasits profoundly esoteric qualities. Although I believe I have followedProfessor Strauss on many of thebyways along which he leads, thereare some passages which remainedclosed to me, passages which wouldprobably only have become clear if I had engaged in closer and moreextended study not only of his text,but also of those on which he writes.Any reader, except perhaps one especially adept in political philosophy,and above all, the Jewish and Arabicphilosophy of the Middle Ages, willhave, I believe, a similar experience.But this should not deter him frommaking a real effort of reading thebook. It cannot be scanned, but mustbe read carefully, word for word.The reward of this study is notmerely a clearer understanding of theparticular problems about which Professor Strauss writes and of the greatworks which he tries to interpret. Itis also an exercise in following amaster interpreter of important textsthrough an analysis of the most central and most esoteric portions ofthese texts, and hence an invaluabletraining in the methods of how tostudy and interpret the great literary,philosophical, and political contributions to Western thought.Bert F. HoselitzAssociate Professor,Social Sciences DivisioneaderA LjuideEDUCATIONThe space devoted to the April'sReaders Guide allowed for only apart of the books on Education to bepresented. We devote, therefore, morespace and this month's guide to further recommendations from membersof the Department of Education.Maurice Seay, Professor and Chairman (Education), adds these titles onissues in higher education to thoserecommended in April:EDUCATION' AND AMERICANCIVILIZATION. By George S. Counts.Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1952. $3.75.Written by a famous educator, thisbook presents a vivid history ofAmerican civilization and education.In the author's words the book represents "an effort to meet in the fieldof education the challenge of totalitarianism." Its main thesis is theidea that education reflects and is toa great degree the product of thecivilization of which it is an integralpart. Available for the Americanpeople to use, if they will, are theresources to build a great system ofeducation — the doctrine of humanbrotherhood, an economy of plentyand security, the tested ideals of liberty, and opportunity for escape fromthe insanity of war. Education is it self a potent instrument which thiscountry must use in its battle to survive as a free society.HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ANDEDUCATION. By Robert J. Havig-hurst. Longmans Green and Company, 1953. $4.00.This book is an enlarged revisionof an earlier work by the author onthe concept of the developmental task.The concept has become increasinglyuseful to educators and psychologistsin considering the growth and development of people of various ages andlevels of physical and mental abilitiesin personal and social adjustments,and in learning and integration ofpersonality. The book contains bothpractical and theoretical sections explaining the meaning of the concept.There are a number of case historiesdescribing success and failure in thedevelopmental tasks of middle childhood and adolescence. The book willbe of interest to laymen as well as toeducators and psychologists. Mr.Havighurst is Professor of Education,Department of Education, and Chairman of the Committee on Human Development of the University of Chicago.EDUCATION IN THE HUMANECOMMUNITY. By Joseph Hart. NewYork, Harper and Brothers, 1951.$3.00.The author of this book has writtena penetrating and at times caustic critique of modern education. But unlikemost of the critics of public schoolstoday, Mr. Hart does not whollyblame the schools themselves; theyhave been given an impossible assignment to carry out. His main themeis that schools cannot provide norshould they claim that they providethe major portion of a' child's education. Rather it is only within thecommunity where children can worktheir way into a share of adult activities that they can develop real values,attitudes, interests and grow emotionally. While the school cannot provide the meaningful learning experiences that the community can, it isable to carry out the job of broadening the child's horizons and overcoming the prejudices that maydevelop in the community of narrowoutlook. Although Mr. Hart does notprovide answers to the problem heso clearly sets up, the book is filledwith suggestions for possible coursesof action.WHAT IS PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION? By Carleton Washburne. TheJohn Day Compay, 1952. $2.50.The author, addressing himself toparents, sets out to refute the chargeswhich critics of progressive educationJUNE, 1953 21have leveled against it. Many of thecriticisms of modern education — neglect of fundamentals, lack of discipline, the introduction of controversial issues into the social studies,exposure of children to radicalism,emphasis on utilitarian rather thanbasic values — have been laid at thedoor of progressive education. Mr.Washburne, one time Superintendentof Schools in Winnetka, Illinois, acenter of progressive education, saysthat progressive education is merelyan attempt to apply to education thefindings of science, particularly thescience of psychology. Just as medicine relies on physiology, so education relies on the findings of studiesof individual needs and differences.It is an attempt to educate the"whole" child on the basis of hisneeds. It attempts to motivate learning by making education as close tolife as possible. In answer to thequestion "What are the results?" Mr.Washburne assembles evidence tosupport his contention that progressive education is one of the bulwarksof modern democracy. This is a provocative book that may help dispelsome of the emotionalism attendingmuch of the discussion about moderneducation.THE SCHOOLS AND NATIONALSECURITY. Edited by Charles W.Sanford, Harold C. Hand, and Willard B. Spalding. McGraw-Hill BookCompany, Inc., 1951. $3.00.This book grew out of a state project in Illinois, under the auspices ofthe Superintendent of Public Instruction, which called upon twenty -fivehundred elementary and secondaryteachers and pupils, college and university professors and parents tomake suggestions and recommendations for "short term measures andlong term proposals" for the part tobe played by schools "in today'sideological conflicts." Schools arevital to the national security and aheavy responsibility is placed on themin the fight to maintain a soundeconomy, leadership, freedom, andthe "destruction of the enemy withinour gates." The jobs that face theteachers, school administrators andparent -teacher groups are herespelled out in considerable detail.The question remains whether theschools can possibly accomplish allthat they are here called upon to do.GENERAL EDUCATION IN THEORY AND PRACTICE. By John P.Wynne. Bookman Association, 1952.$3.75.The author presents a thoughtfulanalysis of the principles which he contends should characterize generaleducation wherever it is carried on.General education should be thoughtof in terms of "general personal characteristics or mind traits." Since itis thus conceived of as character education, its principles are the same atevery education level, and it is desirable for all people. The ends ofgeneral education are general traitsdeveloped within the individual andthey are the function of teachingmethod rather than subject matter.Personal characteristics are the result of general qualities of experience which the author analyzes intosix categories: functional contingency, widening sociality, pervasiveinterest, creative originality, intelligent choice and reflective purpose.Desirable qualities of experience leading to the development of the individualistic virtues of initiative, intelligence, self-reliance, co-operation canonly be achieved in general educationas the author conceives it. Attentionentirely on prescribed subject matterleads only to docility and subserviency.WHO SHOULD GO TO COLLEGE.By Byron S. Hollinshead. Publishedfor the Commission on FinancingHigher Education, Columbia University Press, 1952. $3.00.This book, one of a series of reports of the Commission on FinancingHigher Education, presents a carefulstudy of the social objectives ofhigher education in relation to enrollment. Attempting to steer a middle path between "those who arechiefly concerned to develop talentand those who are chiefly concernedwith equality of opportunity regardless of talent," the study is based onthe proposal that all youth in the topquarter in ability should have theopportunity to attend college. Thestudy indicates that approximately 60per cent of this group either do notfinish high school or do not go on tocollege after high school graduation.This situation represents a real lossto the nation in human resources.The two chief obstacles to collegetraining are lack of adequate financesand lack of motivation. Mr. Hollinshead indicates that the solution to thisproblem lies in improved identification of the talented, improvement ofinstruction so as to provide motivation for youth of top ability, and financial assistance for those unable topay. In addition there is the problemof providing more physical facilitiesand greater accessibility to highereducation. Included in the volume isa chapter on "The Role of Motivationin Attendance at Post-High School Educational Institutions" by RobertJ. Havighurst and Robert R. Rodgers.Maurice Hartung, Associate Professor (Education) has a special interestin the problems of curriculum, particularly at the secondary schoollevel. He suggests these two volumeswhich deal with that area of concern:DEVELOPING THE CORE CURRICULUM. By Roland Faunce andNelson Bossing. Prentice-Hall, Inc.,New York, 1951.The core curriculum is a promisingdevelopment in the direction of making secondary education more meaningful and useful to young people.This book is the most comprehensivedescription of the movement that hasthus far appeared. It shoud be of interest to any intelligent citizen whowants to be informed on modern educational trends, and particularly toparents whose children either are inhigh school now or will be soon.ADAPTING THE SECONDARY-SCHOOL PROGRAM TO THENEEDS OF YOUTH. The 52nd Yearbook of the National Society for theStudy of Education, Part I. Distributed by the University of ChicagoPress, 1953.Nineteen authors, all chosen because of their special competencies ineducational theory and practice, havecontributed 16 chapters on differentaspects of the modern high schoolcurriculum. The term "needs" is interpreted very broadly, and the bookas a whole is likely to become a majorreference on what the schools shouldbe, and to some extent are now, doing.Jacob Getzels, Assistant Professor,is a specialist in educational psychology, and suggests these two booksin the field of child developmentwhich he feels might be of interestto the lay reader:ONE BOY'S DAY. By R. G. Barkerand H. F. Wright. Harper & Bros.,New York, 1951. ONE LITTLE BOY.By Dorothy Baruch. Julian Press,New York, 1952.These two books make a rathersuggestive combination. The first is anintensive study of a seven-year- oldfrom the outside — from overt behavior. The second is an intensivestudy of a seven-year- old from theinside — from feelings, attitudes, andsuch. In this book Mrs. Baruch,prominent child psychologist, with themedical collaboration of her physicianhusband, presents a book-length casehistory of a child who underwentpsychotherapy. It is skillfully toldwith deep insight into the fears andanxieties of children, and adults.22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1899The world is really falling to pieces!Nothing is sure any more. Josephine Allin has moved out of the Bryson Hotel inHyde Park and has retired to 2680 Bancroft Way, Berkeley, Calif. Both theBryson and the Alumni Office are stillstruggling to survive this desertion afterall these years. Anyway, the AlumniHouse family send best wishes and astanding invitation to come back anytime for a visit.1907Carey H. Brown is manager of theEngineering & Manufacturing Servicesof Kodak Park Works, Eastman KodakCo., Rochester, N. Y.1910William D. Reeve received this springthe "Outstanding Achievement Award"of the University of Minnesota — an honorbestowed upon former students of theinstitution who have "attained higheminence and distinction." Mr. Reevewas for many years head of the department of mathematics and principal ofthe University of Minnesota High School,until he went to Teachers College, Columbia, in 1923. He is now ProfessorEmeritus of Mathematics at TeachersCollege. He was editor of The Mathematics Teacher from 1928 to 1950.J. M. F. Heumann, MD '12, writes thathe is nearly 75, but still practicing medicine and active as chairman of the boardof Doctor's Hospital in Omaha. 1911Alice Lee Loweth writes from Cleveland Heights that she's had a very interesting job this year as chairman of thedepartment of Christian World Relationsin the Cleveland Council of ChurchWomen. "It's the most rewarding job I'vedone since my children ceased to needmy help."Cola G. Parker, JD '12, has recentlybeen appointed the Public Interest Director of the Federal Home Loan Bankof Chicago. He is president of theKimberly-Clark corporation in Neenah,Wis.Nathaniel Peffer, Professor of PublicLaw and Government at Columbia University, left San Francisco on May 25for Australia and the University ofGreenland where he will be a visitingprofessor on a Fulbright grant for a year.1912Margaret Sullivan is still singing thepraises of "that remarkable class of1912" and writes from Los Angeles thatshe regularly sees Ethel Harrington, MD'17, "even though she's constantly busy,"and also informs us that Bess Peacock,SM '23, had herself a round-the-worldtrip by air in recent months. Other U. ofC.'ers on Miss Sullivan's guest list inpast months include Louise Robinson,AM '38, Christine Mclntyre Hughes, Ornoand Marie Roberts, Robert and CharlotteBaird, and Lydia Lee and Jim Pearce.1913Maude Rayle (Mrs. C. M. Slaughter)writes that her husband is operating a Kaolin Mine and Mill in central Floridaand that she is serving as laboratorytechnician.1914Julian DuBois, MD, a well-knownMinnesota doctor, was named SaukCentre's "Citizen of the Year" this spring.He was awarded a plaque by the SaukCentre Chamber of Commerce. Hisphotograph will be hung in a specialgallery in the city hall. Dr. DuBois suffered a stroke last year and has been inretirement from his medical practice. Hiscondition has improved steadily, however.Patty Newbold Hoefner became thegrandmother of a baby girl, born February 4.Erling Lunde and his wife enjoyed atrip to Mexico City and Acapulco inNovember. They are finding that threegrandchildren are a lot of fun, too.1915The Rev. John Murray Allison wasmarried last December 13 to Miss Elizabeth Fralick, in Philadelphia.LeRoy Sloan, MD '17, was recently inducted as president of the AmericanCollege of Physicians.Clara Small is welfare director forDolores County in Colorado. Her avocation is farming, and she reports, "Ingood years, the farm brings more incomethan the office, but the office alwaysbutters the bread and pays the annualcontribution to our alumni gift."1916Claude L. Williams, AM, retired fromhis principalship of Wentworth Schoolin Chicago, is in his fifth year as representative of the educational departmentof Charles Scribner's Sons.1919Eva Louise Hyde has retired after 40years as a Methodist missionary inBrazil, and will devote her retirement tofurther both understanding and friendship between the United States and theSouth American nations through writing. She volunteered for missionaryservice in 1912, and spent 32 years aspresident of Bennett College, a girls'school in Rio, which she founded.E. Marie Plapp, SM '20, writes that sheand her sister have had a busy year remodeling their home in Chicago.1920Margaret D. Yates has retired fromher position after 26 years in the fieldof social work. Since 1944 she has servedas executive secretary of the DallasCouncil of Social Agencies. "Don't callit retirement," she has said. "I'm justtapering off." This "tapering off" willgive her more time to enjoy music, todo some consulting work and conductstudies.1921Raymond Ewing, DB, AM '29, and hisJUNE, 1953 23IVlORE AND MORE individualsare finding that they can rememberand help their University in addition to giving gifts during theirlifetime. They leave bequests.Thus they can be sure that thework they appreciated will continue after they have left the scene.If they decide to leave an endowment they can be sure that theactivities of the University willcontinue in perpetuity.But most people think that abequest has to be a gigantic sumto be effective. They do not realizethat all bequests are needed andcan be used by the University.Apparently more people are finding this out. Recently the University announced the following gifts,which range from $2,500 to the income from over $100,000.The latter bequest was left tothe University by Gordon Stephenson, who went to the Universityfrom 1919 to 1921. His sister, Mrs.Vincent R. Bliss, of Barrington,111., received her PhB in 1919. James Leopold Witkowsky, PhB,'23, left the $2,500 for Mother'sAid at Lying-in. Donald Trumbull, AB, '97, left $10,000 for unrestricted uses. Curtis Manning,AB, '01, JD, '04, bequested over$15,000 to the Manning Fund,which had been set up by hismother years before. Mrs. SydneyStein, Sr. (Clara Meyer Stein) bequested $80,000, part of which wasto supplement a scholarship in herdaughter's name (Mrs. MelvilleKeim, AM, '22). Another part ofMrs. Stein's bequest was to go forcancer research. The balance wasunrestricted.Mrs. Stein, whose son Sydney,Jr., received his PhB in 1923, didnot receive a degree from the University. But she must have knownthe Midway rather well, becauseshe took courses now and thenfrom before the time her childrenwere born in 1896, until after theyhad graduated, until 1924. Now,like all the other donors her aid ishelping others go to the University.wife, Ruth Grimes Ewing, '15, AM '21,both ordained ministers, are serving fivechurches in Staples, Minn. Their son isnow studying for the ministry at theChicago Theological Seminary.James L. McCartney, MD '23, a psychiatrist and the son of a medical missionary, has written a novel about medical missionary work in West Chinaentitled FRUSTRATED MARTYR, published by Exposition Press.Irving Reynolds and Ruth HamiltonReynolds send this report of their activities: Irving is serving this term inthe Ohio House of Representatives andis a member of the finance committee.He resigned from the presidency of thedairy products company he founded withJohn Gifford back in 1921, and is nowchairman of the board, thus free to devote much of his time to public business—"if the public decides that way." Ruthis now serving on the board of theAmerican Association of UniversityWomen in the Toledo chapter.1922Elizabeth Vilas Loudon reports thatshe is a grandmother now, with the arrival of her daughter Jean's baby. Withtwo sons in high school, her major outside interest continues to be the P.T.A.John Xan, SM, PhD '26, received inMay the $1,000 James Flack NorrisAward for his outstanding achievementsin the teaching of chemistry. Dr. Xanis head of the department of chemistryat Howard College. An authority in thefields of organic and physiological chemistry, Dr. Xan joined the Howard Collegefaculty in 1930. He was one of the principal founders of the Southern ResearchInstitute. 1923James L. Homire, JD '26, has beenelected vice president and general counsel of the Frisco Railway. He joinedthe railroad in 1949 as general attorneyand became general solicitor in 1950.Dorothy Judd Sickels writes that sheis pleased to be back in her editorialcareer — editing the bulletins, etc., forSyracuse University. The Sickels' daughter, Jane, is a landscape designer inIthaca, and their son, Robert, is in hislast year of graduate work at the University of Chicago.Alma H. Prucha is vice-president ofthe Milwaukee Teachers' Association.Edna Staudinger is now a supervisorin the Department of Mentally Handicapped Children of the Chicago Boardof Education.1924Ruth D. Terzaghi, SM '25, lists her professional activities as consultant in problems of concrete deterioration. Otheractivities, she adds, include helping offspring run a small farm in the summer,and learning to ski in the winter.1925Howard C. Briggs is assistant to thepresident of the Hoffman Radio Corp.,in Los Angeles.Anna May Jones has been active informing a new chapter of Pi LambdaTheta in the New York City area.W. Conway Pierce, SM, PhD '28, hasresigned from Pomona College to accepta position as Chairman of the PhysicalSciences division in the new liberal artscollege the University of California is setting up in Riverside, Calif. The College hopes to admit students by the fallof '54, so Mr. Pierce is a busy man nowsetting up a program and seeking staffmembers.1926Alfred H. Holt, AM, has written anovel about the early days of Chicago,entitled HUBBARD'S TRAIL. GudronS. Hubbard was Mr. Holt's great uncle,and this book is a chronicle of his adventurous life.Hugh McDonald, a lieutenant colonelin the Army, is stationed at Fort Sill,Okla. He was a fighter in World War IIwith the Haganah forces in Israel, andhas recently been assisting in the Bondsfor Israel drive. His book JOURNALFOR GENTILES is to be publishedshortly.Harry Whang's son, Arthur, is a scholarship student at Shimer College thisyear.1927Lilyan Haas Alspaugh, national vice-president of the American Associationof University Women, has been appointedas one of the official representatives tothe International Federation of University Women's Triennial Conference tobe held at the University of London inAugust.1929Harry Isenberg, AM '42, is the executive director of the Guardians of theJewish Home for the Aged in Los Angeles, Calif. He was previously with theNational Red Cross.Helen Marshall, AM, Professor of Social Science at Illinois State NormalUniversity, has been asked to write thecentennial history of the university.ISNU will celebrate its 100th birthdayin February, 1957. Dr. Marshall hasbeen a faculty member at ISNU since1935.Edwin H. Wilson, AM, is executive director of the American Humanist Association, with offices in Yellow Springs,Ohio.1930Frances R. Brown, AM, is the executive director, Central Branch YWCA,Baltimore, Md.Lillian Herman is teaching in WellsHigh School in Chicago.1931Samuel Carrington, MD, owns and operates the Carrington Clinic at Oxford,N. C, where he is the surgeon for theclinic.1932Preston M. Kampmeyer has been appointed group leader of cellophane research projects, Cellophane Division, ofOlin Industries, Inc.Dorothy R. Mohr, AM '33, is Professorof Physical Education at the Universityof Maryland.Sarah Moment Eigen for the past two24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEyears has been executive director ofthe Arlington Hospitalization Fund, anagency of the Community Chest. Shewrites that she's just about succeededin interesting son Joel in attending theUniversity of Chicago in '54.Emma O. Wisner, AM, received thedegree of doctor of education from Harvard University at the March convocation.1933Viola Heitman Goetter is justifiablyproud of the accomplishments that havetaken place in rejuvenating the educational system and the physical plant ofBlue Island (111.) elementary school,District No. 13 — the first such programto have been completed in the MiddleWest. Miss Goetter pays tribute to theprofessional ability of Dr. William Reavis,'09, PhD '25; Everett Kerr, '35, AM '40,superintendent; and Carl Geppinger, PhD'33, board member.George Pollyea, AM '40, and Bernicevon Horn, '37, were married last August1. They are both teaching at FengerHigh School in Chicago.1934Lila Lindsay Lange writes that therecruitment publicity for former teachersfinally caught up with her and she isagain teaching first grade at the Peterson school in Chicago. Her son is afreshman at North Park College, and herdaughter is a high school junior.1935Berta Cabanillas, AM, is an institutionmanagement teacher at the Universityof Puerto Rico. She is author of the firstcook book published in Spanish inPuerto Rico. The book is now in itsthird edition.1936Edmund J. Blau, SM, was awarded thePhD degree from Ohio State Universityat the March convocation.A note from David B. Eisendrath, Jr.:"Just returned from North Carolinawhere I gave two lectures, fished, anddid some industrial work. Then gotcaught in a forest fire, quick sand, andhad to hike out of Great Dismal Swamp.This is photo-journalism?"James S. Martin, JD '38, is one of threepartners who have recently formed, inWashington, D.C, the IntercontinentalInvestments, Inc., and IntercontinentalMercantile, Ltd., for the purpose ofstimulating industrial development andtrade in and with Latin America.George V. Myers has been named manager of the financial departments ofStanolind Oil and Gas Co., Tulsa, Okla.The Myers family includes two daughters, aged 3 years and 18 months.1937Mildred Carson, AM, is librarian atthe Mount Berry School for Boys inGeorgia. John J. Ballinger is practicing medicine in Wilmette, 111.Edwin P. Davis switched from medicine to law when he came to the University, and another switch put him inthe oil industry. He is now head of theland department of British-American OilProducing Co., with offices in Dallas, Tex.Donald Hartzell, AM, is executive director of the Canon Kip CommunityHouse in San Francisco. The Houseoffers general medical and dental servicein a free clinic and also a program ofgroup work and recreation to theresidents of South of Market district.Donald has been serving for three yearsas alumni gift chairman for San Francisco.Julian Kiser has received the Jaycee'sDistinguished Service Award as Indianapolis' most outstanding young citizen.Vice-president of Kiser, Cohn & Shu-maker, Inc., investment securities, Julianhas taken an active part in communityservice. He has served five years withthe community chest program and is nowchairman of the community chest budgetcommittee. Since 1951 he has been vice-president of the Indianapolis Legal AidSociety.Julian writes that he and his wife,Margot, are "pleased as punch" over thenew member of their family — Julie Ann—bom March 6, 1953. Dr. James Majarakis, MD, '40 marriedMiss Dorothy James of Indianapolis onJune 22, 1952.Edgar H. Schein received the degreeof doctor of philosophy from HarvardUniversity at the March convocation.J. Fred Weston, MBA '43, and his wife,June, '43, have been at the University ofCalifornia at Los Angeles since 1949where Fred is Associate Professor ofFinance. They have three children:Kenneth, 8, Byron, 5, and Ellen, 3. Fredhas a book out, THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN THE GROWTH OF LARGEFIRMS (Univ. of Calif. Press, March,'53).1938Latest news from Leila Anderson, AM,DB '40, told of her plans for a round-the-world trip to visit CongregationalChristian mission stations.Ralph Friedlander, MD, has been appointed director of surgery at the BronxHospital, New York.William Karush, SM '39, PhD '42, formerly an associate professor of mathematics at the University of Chicago, hasjoined the Advanced Electronics Laboratory of Hughes Aircraft Research andDevelopment Laboratories, Culver City,Calif.News comes of the well-deserved promotion of George Messmer, JD '40, fromCalifornia division manager to Westernarea manager for Emmons Jewelers, Inc.1939Frank D. Curtin, PhD, chairman of theSt. Lawrence University Department ofEnglish, has won a Ford Foundation Fellowship to do advanced research andwriting in English literature at YaleUniversity next year.Alfred DeGroot, PhD, will be conducting Texas Christian University's thirdannual study-tour on "Church Cooperation in Europe" this summer.Eugene F. Folks is now general manager of Prestressed Pipe PermanentBranches of Lock Joint Pipe Co., of EastOrange, N.J.Frances M. Hanson, SM '41, is a training officer with the Army Map Service,in Washington, D.C.Robert H. Klawans was married lastSeptember to Karly Plaut, a Universityof New Mexico graduate. Robert is employed by the Social Security Administration as a claims adjudicator.Charlotte Seyffer, SM, is Associate Professor in the School of Nursing Education of the Catholic University, Washington, D. C.Kenneth L. Skillin was promoted toadvertising manager of Armour & Co.,Auxiliaries, last July.1940Jack and Elise Young Carlson reportfrom Piedmont, Calif., that Jack JayCarlson, Jr., is a year old now, and holding his own with his nine-year-old twinsisters, Susan and Sharon, and withfour-year-old Christine.Robert Harlan, JD '42, has completed atwo-year tour of duty with the AmericanJUNE, 1953 25Flying windmillsFriends of Capt. Ellis Pickett willrecognize him at the controls of ahelicopter as he and his companionprepare for a reconaissance flight overthe flood areas of The Netherlands.During the recent tragic floods in thatcountry, Capt. Pickett was temporarilyassigned to the Helicopter FlightDetachment established at the Woends- drecht Air Field. These flying windmills proved invaluable in providingrelief and evacuating persons in isolated areas.Capt. Pickett is a group aviationofficer in the 115th Engineer CombatGroup. His wife, Maxine, and childrenare presently living in Ludwigsburg,Germany.Legation in Tripoli, Libya, and NorthAfrica, as a member of the U.S. ForeignService. He writes, we learn from theAlpha Delt Lion's Head, that he andhis wife, Lois Whiting, '41, AM '42, arevery proud of their two adopted daughters, Lucy, 13, and Heidi, 3, born inBerlin and Zurich respectively.Margaret Otis Guiton, AM, was granted a PhD degree by Radcliffe College atthe March convocation.Heber Snell, PhD, since his "retirement" in 1950, has been teaching evening school classes for Utah State College in Logan and this past year hasconducted classes in the Old Testamentfor the University of Utah ExtensionDivision. The Richard E. Wheelers of SanCarlos, Calif., have three very blondesons— Tim, 9, Fred, 4, and Bill, 2.It's four boys now in the Edward J.Winans' home in Chicago. Roger Alanwas born on February 17, joining hisbrothers, aged 9, 5, and 2.Lillian Wurzel, AM, continues in herposition as medical social service supervisor in the Contra Costa County Hospital, Martinez, Calif.1941Via Alpha Delta Phi's newsletter,Lion's Head, we snitched the news ofthe arrival of the fourth daughter inthe home of the Donald A. K. Browns.She is Diane Ryerson Brown, and wasborn January 13. Papa's comment:"Think I'll forget about having an AlphaDelt in the family except by marriage."Joseph L. Fleming, MD '44, who is onthe staff at the Henry Ford Hospital inDetroit, sends news of the birth of theirsecond son, Philip Butler, born February5, 1953.Luther Foster, Jr., AM, PhD '51, is employed as business manager of TuskegeeInstitute. His wife, the former VeraChandler, AM '50, is a social worker atthe Veterans Administration Facility inTuskegee.William H. Friedman is second secretary at the American Embassy in Vienna,after posts in Marseille, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Salzburg. He has been in theforeign service since 1946.Eloise Husmann Bergman is pleased toreport the arrival of a boy, Paul Theodore, in the Bergman household onJanuary 13.Catherine Leirer Justice writes fromLogansport, Ind., that since Novemberher family has been living in their newhome, a 100-year-old, 11-room brickhouse in the country. Their third sonand fourth child was born November 17.He is Samuel Charles Justice.Florine Phillips Carley and her husband announce the birth of a son, KeithMaxwell Carley, on February 24, 1953,at Chicago Lying-in Hospital.How Much Do You Want To Earn?Opportunities for an outstanding and successful career as a representative ofthe Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada, one of the ten top-ranking lifeinsurance companies in North America, are now open to alert, ambitious menof personality and character, ages 25 to 40. The Sun Life, established in 1865,invites you to give serious consideration to the excellent prospects offered bythis professional career of public service.• Expert training • Immediate income with commission and bonuses •• Generous hospitalization and retirement plans *The Branch Manager of the Sun Life office serving your territory will gladly discuss with you the advantages of aSun Life sales career. For a complete list of the Company's 100 branches in the United States and Canada, write theHead Office, 218 Sun Life Building, Montreal.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobert, MBA, and Eileen Zolad havea new baby in their home — James Robert,born in March, and welcome companyfor Laurel, who is now three years old.1942Erving Beauregard is an assistant professor of history at the University ofDayton.Josephine Beynon Peek is now a resident of New York City where she is apsychiatric social worker and also student supervisor in the Veterans Administration.Winston C. Dalleck, MBA '51, has beennamed staff superintendent of the newlycreated quality control division of UnitedAir Lines.Alfred J. Davis, AM, is executive director of the Community Chest andCouncil of Adams County, Quincy, 111.He has also been working on a specialproject at Ohio State University sinceleaving the general secretaryship of theYMCA in Belleville, Ont, last September.Richard I. Kahl and his wife, JoyceHahn, have a baby daughter, BarbaraElaine, born March 18, 1953.Raymond H. McEvoy, AM '47, PhD '50,is an economist with the Federal DepositInsurance Corp., in Washington, D. C.1943The Irwin Sharpes (Libby Alperstein,AM) had their fourth baby, seconddaughter, in December. Deborah Michaeljoins Peter, 3, Bonnie, 5, and Kenneth, 8,in the Sharpe household, in West Orange,N. J.Donald Cronson, JD '48, and Miss MarySharp, of New York City, were marriedDecember 25, 1952. Mr. Cronson is lawsecretary to Associate Justice Robert H.Jackson.Richard H. Custer, AM, is city manager of Kenosha, Wis.Donis Fisher was married on December 20, 1952, to Dale E. Lee. She and herhusband are at Ohio State University,Bowling Green.Lawrence Grabham says that he is"simply trying to forecast the weatherand raise a family here in ColoradoSprings. I couldn't have found a pleas-anter location."Margy Lazarus Meyerson has beenawarded a graduate scholarship in sociology and anthropology at Bryn MawrCollege for next year.Morton Oyler, PhD, is Professor ofSociology and director of the marriagecounseling clinic at Ohio State University.Sue Reading is employed in the editorial department of Scott, Foresman andCo., Chicago.1944Jane Christie Epstein reports two bigmoves in her life this past year: one toparenthood, with the arrival last October 1 of a daughter, Laurie; and theother to a huge new apartment-home onFebruary 1. ^Afa*. ^earh^eert^gg^z^eo^&^aar^jB^i)wno one else has Brooks Brothers' famousCOOL, LIGHTWEIGHT, COMFORTABLESUITS AND ODD JACKETSmade for us on our own patternsWe have long been noted for cool summer suitsand Odd Jackets. This season's selection features interesting new Dacron,* Orion* or mohair blends for suits that are good-looking,practical, and exclusive with us... as well aslinens and cottons in suits and Odd Jackets.. Suits t jrom $24.50 • Odd Jackets, jrom $15Swatches, descriptions and order form sent upon request.*Du Pont's fiberESTABLISHED 1818i^iens furnishings, Pate %$ hoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N. Y.BOSTON • CHICAGO • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCOJUNE, 1953 27Andrew J. Eaton, PhD, has been appointed director of libraries at Washington University in St. Louis.Buel Morley, MD '46, was awarded thedegree of master of medical science fromOhio State University at the March convocation.Jacob B. Robbins, AM, '49, received thedegree of bachelor of architecture fromHarvard University at the March convocation.1945Margarette Evans, AM '49 (Mrs. Robert Murphy) is a teacher of Spanish atMcKinley High School in Chicago.Winslow G. Fox, MD '48, is a lieutenant,serving in the Army Medical Corps inKorea. His wife, the former ElizabethFerwerda, '48, is in Ann Arbor, Mich.,with the big job of raising Lorraine,4%, and Carolyn, 2%.Robert Frazier, MD '47, and his wife,Ruthann Johnson, '49, will be calling( Advertisement )GLEN EYRIE FARM FORCHILDRENA FARM CAMP with all farm activities —gardening, care of animals, cows, chickens,pigs, horses, ducks, goats, dogs, cats — -orchards, berries, milking, riding. On Beautiful Lake Delavan. Red Cross Swimmingprogram. Boys and girls 8-12 years. June30th— August 25th.Director: Virginia Hinkins Buzzell, '13Delavan. WisconsinTelephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL fi^m826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 15, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLT. A. REHNQUIST CO.\ovest. miCONCRETEFLOORS — SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSINDUSTRIAL FLOORINGEMERGENCY REPAIR WORKCONCRETE BREAKINGWATERPROOFINGINSIDE WALLS6639 S. Vernon AvenueNOrmal 7-0433 Maj. John D. Arnold, MD. '46, hasreceived the Legion of Merit for hiswork in the development of the newtreatment — primaquine — for malaria.When Arnold entered the Army in1947 he was assigned to the ArmedForces Medical Nutrition Laboratoryin Chicago. Arnold was cited for hispart in supervising tests of the drugin the jungles of Nicaragua where the15 milligram dosage of primaquine innatives was verified, making it possible to assure medical authorities of its usefulness and safety.Maj. Gen. Walter D. Love (left)presented the award. Warden JosephRagen of the Illinois Stateville Prison,where many of the experiments onprimaquine were conducted, and Dr.Alf Alving (second from right) of theUniversity, chief of the research project, attended the service.Maj. Arnold returns to the Midway this summer as an assistant professor of medicine.Frankfurt, Germany their home for thenext few years. Robert is head of pediatrics at the Dispensary there. Their notereports that Ruthann is studying German and that their young son, Stephen,will probably be the one who will comeback speaking it. Ruthann writes thatthey've already run into someone whointerned with Rob, someone who wentto high school with her, and they expectto meet a U. of C.'er any day now.First Lt. Philip Glotzer, MD '48, hasrecently been assigned to the 1279th Engineer Construction Battalion at Heidelberg, Germany. He is serving as battalion surgeon.Allan V. Jay, MBA '47, reports his television rating service, VIDEODEX, hasextended reporting operations to 25 individual markets monthly in addition toits national composite index.1946Lee and Barbara Bezark Friedberghave a baby daughter, Susan Dale, bornApril 5. Their son, John, is three yearsold.Warren W. Lane was ordained anEpiscopal priest in Denver, Colo., lastFebruary. He is serving now as curate at St. Matthias' Episcopal Church inWhittier, Calif. He and his wife have adaughter, Katherine, who is a year oldon June 3.Elizabeth Nash Pittman is principal ofthe J. R. E. Lee elementary school inMiami, Fla.Sanford Weissman, MD '49, writes fromthe wheatfields of Kansas that he is stationed at Smoky Hill Air Force Base.He hopes to be out of the Army in sixmonths and will return to PresbyterianHospital in New York City to completehis residency in surgery.1947Dan M. Crabb and Robert O. Evans,'41 have collaborated on a novel, NORFOLK BILLY, published by the CometPress. Their partnership began at theUniversity, when as classmates andfellow Psi U's they discovered similarinterests. This is their first publishedventure, which they described as a picaresque novel, with BILLY a modernDon Quixote.Joseph O. Evans received his bachelorof architecture degree from HarvardUniversity at the March convocation.E. Arline Heath, AM '52, has acceptedTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa position as director of the School ofNursing and Nursing Service, Bing-hamton City Hospital, Binghamton, N. Y.Faye Higier von Mering, AM, wasawarded her PhD degree by RadcliffeCollege at the March convocation.Word comes from John, MBA '48 andMary Allen House that Margaret LuellaHouse arrived on January 30 to joinJack, Bill and Susy in their efforts tokeep the "old folks" amused.Cajsa Johanson was married on December 26, 1952, to Arpad Elo, Jr., '45.Jack E. Jones, AM, is serving this yearas chairman of the midwest audio-visualworkshop which was held at IndianaCentral College in early April. It issponsored jointly by the Indiana and theNational Council of Churches.Carol Walden McDonald (Mrs. LewisA.) AM, says it's a baby girl now in theMcDonald household: Sally Ann, bornFebruary 18. Her older brothers areJimmy, 4%, and Paul, 2V2.John M. McCrea, PhD '49, was recentlyappointed head of the analytical chemistry section of the M. W. Kellogg Petroleum and Chemical Research Laboratories in Jersey City, N. J.Sol K. Newman, MBA '49, completedtwo years of service in the Army in October, and is now working for FoxProducts, Inc., manufacturers of modernfurniture, in Chicago.Michael S. Olmsted, AM, received thePhD degree from Harvard Universityat the March convocation.Henry Remak, PhD, is an assistantprofessor of German and comparativeliterature at Indiana University. He reports that he has "one lovely wife andthree indefatigable children: Andy, 5,Bruce, 3, and Heidi, 1."News has been received that BedfordShelmire, Jr., MD '47, and Miss LeonoraHorgan, a graduate of Finch College, areplanning a June wedding. Dr. Shelmireis now doing post-graduate work indermatology at Columbia PresbyterianMedical Center.Albert Stephanides reports that theeditorial staff of Advertising Age Magazine is a "hot-bed" of U. of C. alumni.The staff includes Albert, Milton Mos-kowitz, Jarlath Graham, and Bud Botts.Army 2nd Lt. Charles A. Whitmore,MBA '50, was recently awarded the Combat Infantryman Badge for excellent performance of duty under enemy fire inKorea. He is a member of the 2d Infantry Division.Dorothy Williams Collings, PhD, is inCairo, Egypt, where she is working forUNESCO in the field of fundamentaleducation.Edgar S. Williams, SM, is a mathematician at the Army Chemical Center inMaryland. He was formerly employed asan electronic engineer by Federal Telecommunications Laboratories in Bell-ville, N. J.1948Spencer Boise, MBA '51, is a partnerin the General Insurance Agency in Bismarck, N. D. He was married last Oc tober 11 to the former Martha JaneTavis.Padraic Burns writes that he is "enjoying" his second year of medicalschool at Yale.Grant C. Chane, AM, is a business consultant with Joel Dean Associates, economic and management counsel, in Chicago.Keith E. Chane, SM '51, PhD '52, is aresearch geologist with the CaliforniaResearch Corp., in La Habra, Calif.First Lt. Ralph Coppola, MD, recentlyarrived in Japan and is assigned as apsychiatrist at the Tokyo Army Hospital. Coppola arrived in the Far Easta year ago, and was with the 123d Medical Holding company in Korea beforehis present assignment.Catharine Cornadi, AM, is Professor ofEducation at Brenau College in Gainesville, Ga., where she is carrying on aprogram for the education of elementaryschool teachers.Lt. Col. Jay Dawley, SM, tells of abrand new daughter, Jayne, in theDawley family. The Dawleys "wintered"in Las Vegas, where Jay participated ina series of atomic tests held nearby inrecent months.Evelyn Eigelbach, AM '51, was marriedto James B. Robinson, Jr., last December 20. Patti Bilzi Steblay, and BettyWright Cagan were attendants. Robinson is a chemical engineer with degreesfrom the University of Illinois and M.I.T.William Flory is manager of the business development department of theHarris Trust and Savings Bank in Chicago.David Greene, SM '49, was married lastAugust 17 to the former Cyrile Okin.David is at present teaching biology atWaller High School in Chicago.James Keyes married Miss GeraldineTappan on December 31, 1952. Jim ispersonnel officer for the department ofimprovements and parks for the cityand county of Denver.Joseph Kruskal, Jr., SM '49, is engagedto Rachel Solomon of New York. Sheis a Barnard College graduate.John J. Malkind, MBA, has opened anoffice in San Diego, Calif., to practiceas a certified public accountant.James W. Sack, JD, is assistant tocounsel, General Electric Co., Jet Engine Division, in Cincinnati.1949Richard Bloch is at the present time anoperations officer with the 513th antiaircraft operations detachment, Swarthmore, Pa.Juliette Dannenbaum Senturia, AM,writes that she has taken a vacationfrom housework and is now a secretarywith the Tide Water Association Oil Co.,in Houston.Eric Lauter, MD '51, is a resident insurgery at the VA hospital in Aspinwall,Pa.Bernard I. Miller, AM, is an executiveproducer of television programs withthe Herbert L. Laufman Co., in Chicago.Esther Milner, PhD, is an assistant pro- AJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B.*Shedroff, CR 7-2668BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoGolden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)Complete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4,Telephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON & BROS., Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributors ofCEOERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketMCfllfNCf IN f ItCNTICAl riODUCTlfewoedELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Olttrliitin, MiiiiIkiiiiiii ill mom olELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500JUNE, 1953 29POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphirtg AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAH Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisPHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Book Reproduction731 Plymouth CourtW Abash 2-8182Platers - SilversmithsSince 1917GOLD, SILVER, RHODIUMSILVERWARERepaired, Re finished, RelacqueredSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CEntral 6-6089-90 ChicagoA. T. STEWART LUMBER CO.Qualify and ServiceSince 188879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phones Vlncennes 6-9000LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESy ENGRAVERS ^•— SINCE 1906 , + WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES ?+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ?? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE ?JRAYNERP• DALHEIM ¬£xCO2801 W. 47TH ST, CHICAGO. fessor in the Department of Educationat Brooklyn College.Walther Prausnitz, AM '50, is AssociateProfessor and Acting Head of the Department of English at Concordia College, Moorhead, Minn.1950Ralph J. Apton dropped in at AlumniHouse at the start of the spring quarter.He was just back from service in thearmed forces. The last seven months hewas stationed in Alaska where he didthe 5:57 A.M. until noon programs onthe radio station — writing much of thematerial, announcing, and coordinatingprograms. He said he enjoyed everyminute and liked Alaska. Now he hasentered the School of Business to pickup an MBA before starting the climb inthe business world.L. Howard Bennett, JD, has beenserving this past year as secretary ofthe board of trustees of Fisk University. He graduated from Fisk in 1935.Rolf W. Brandis , '50, is at presentradio -television director of Ruben Advertising Agency in Indianapolis, doinglots of sports telecasts.William E. Clark has joined the staffof Midwest Research Institute as an associate chemical engineer. He was formerly with the Socony- Vacuum Oil Co.,in Augusta, Kan.Robert T. Herz, MBA, former vice-president in charge of sales for Buckley,Dement Advertising Co., in Chicago, hasestablished his permanent sales promotion and advertising headquarters inDallas, Tex.Cpl. William J. McMillan, AM, has returned from Korea under the Army'srotation program. He served with the25th Infantry Division as a radio mechanic in headquarters battery of the90th Field Artillery Battalion.John P. Olson, MBA, is working as afood service specialist for RCA VictorCorp., in Camden, N. J.Robert L. Randall, JD, and Miss MaryPriscilla Hartley, a Vassar College graduate, were married on February 21 inWashington, D. C. The couple lives inWashington where Robert is a clerk forJustice Stanley Reed of the SupremeCourt.Henry A. Turner, PhD, has been appointed a consultant in the Bureau ofthe Budget to make a complete analysisof the McCarran Immigration Bill inpreparation for recommended changes.Turner, an assistant professor of politicalscience at Santa Barbara College, hasbeen on leave of absence this year forwork on a Ford Foundation fellowship.Lawrence H. Van Vlack, PhD, has beenappointed Associate Professor of Metallurgical Engineering at the Universityof Michigan.James L. Weil and Miss Gloria JoanRosenbaum of New York City, were married January 4, in New York City. Mr.Weil is with the Sun Chemical Corp.1951First Lt. Claus Manasse, MBA, has returned to the United States from Korea Local and Long Distance MovingStorage Facilities for Books,Record Cabinets, Trunks, orCarloads of FurniturePeterson FireproofWarehouse Inc.1011 EAST 55th STREETBUTTERFIELD 8-6711DAVID L SUTTON, PresidentWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave. TelephonePLaza 2-3313Verna P. Warner, DirectorAuto LiveryQuiet- unobtrusive serviceWhen you want it, as you want itCALL AN EMERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.551 6 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4-640030 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERESULTS . . .depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Adressographing - FoldingMailing - Copy Preparation - MultilithA Complete Service for Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn - Chicago 5 - WA 2-4561BIRCK-FEILINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380Since 1878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholsterersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180ASHJIAN BROS,, Inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone REgent 4-6000GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzIe 3-3186TELEVISIONRentals — sales New & ReconditionedRADIOSRadio-TV ServiceELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators Dishwashers DriersWashers Air Conditioners FreezersSPORTING GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSLPs & 45sFine collection for childrenHERMANS935 E. 55th Str.etAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Julian A. Tishler, '33 under the Army's rotation program. Heserved with the 25th Infantry Division.Peter G. Peterson, MBA, has beenelected executive vice-president ofMarket Facts, Inc., Chicago marketingresearch organization. He joined thecompany as study director in 1948. Atpresent he is also lecturing in marketingresearch and communication at the University of Chicago.1952Linda Argiry, AM, has been servingthis year as assistant professor of nursing in the School of Nursing at the University of Michigan. She is also supervisor of surgical specialties, nursingunits, at the University Hospital.Channing Briggs, AM, writes fromPark Forest, 111., of the arrival of afourth boy, Dean Rupert, on February26.Dorothea Elmer Brown and her husband have a baby boy, David M. Brown,Jr., who arrived March 15, 1953.Joanne Ramer is working in the Schoolof Business at the University, and has recently been promoted to the ExecutiveProgram.Kerry F. Sheeran, MBA, is an accountexecutive with W. S. Kirkland, Advertising Agency, in Chicago. He is also afree-lance market research consultant.Walter Smalakis and his wife, Laura,are the parents of a baby girl, SusanBeth, born March 4, 1953. Walter is doing graduate work at the University andis also employed by the Hyde ParkCo-op.'emoriaEmery B. Jackson, '02, died on March31, 1953. He had been a consulting architect, Cathedral of Learning, Universityof Pittsburgh.John McManis, '04, died after a heartattack on February 8, 1953.Claude A. Bennett, JD, '07, died onAugust 15, 1952, in Canton, S. D.Franc Delzell Jacobson, '08, died March4, 1953. She was a tireless worker forcivic betterment and active in such organizations as the League of WomenVoters, the Council of State Governments and the Council of Church Womenof the Church Federation of Greater Chicago. The Government of Italy gave herits second highest decoration for outstanding service with the Red Cross inWorld War I. Her war-time experiencesfound continuing expression through theyears in her concern for refugee peopleand students from overseas.Elmer W. Phelps, '09, died on April 4,1953, in Kansas City, at the age of 67.A former manager for Swift & Co., andan active civic leader, Mr. Phelps hadbeen in ill health since his retirement in1950. Mr. Phelps' energy and thoroughness in every job he undertook were aconstant source of amazement and in- CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field. Itis affiliated with the Fisk Teachers Agencyof Chicago, whose work covers all the educational fields. Both organizations assistin the appointment of administrators aswell as of teachers.Our service is nation-wide.HYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. MOnroe 6-3192YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATf Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400JUNE, 1953 31SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 100 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoWHOLESALE RETAILnPLinniilillm.nJlPARKER-HOLSMAN "uiiiihiiiii mnmniiinMim-i c o m i> an y |Real Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEZJkeCxcluHve Cleaner*We operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608LOWER YOUR COSTSWAGE INCENTIVESEMPLOYEE TRAININGPERSONNEL PROCEDURESIMPROVED METHODSJOB EVALUATIONROBERT B. SHAPIRO spiration to his friends. He organized theSaddle & Sirloin Club to boost theAmerican Royal and livestock industryand with it the many out-of-town goodwill trips. He perfected the rules of thearchery golf game which he developed.He also made a hobby of mnemonics, andhis feats of memory were top entertainment at many meetings. Since his retirement, Mr. Phelp had headed a smallplastics manufacturing concern, and hadserved as president of the Kansas CityMuseum association.Robert S. Milner, '11, died February5, 1953.Owen Jones Neighbours, '11, died June26, 1952. He was superintendent of theWabash, Ind., schools for 30 years.James Garfield Randall, PhD '11, notedLincoln biographer, died February 20 inChampaign, 111., at the age of 71. Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Illinois, Dr. Randall was theauthor of three biographical volumes onthe life of Lincoln: the first two volumes,Lincoln the President: Springfield toGettysburg, appeared in 1945; followedby Lincoln and the South, in 1946, andLincoln the Liberal Statesman in 1947.Mr. Randall was a former president ofthe Mississippi Valley Historical Societyand the Illinois State Historical Society.Oswald Blackwood, PhD '20, died onMarch 21, 1953, in Pittsburgh, Pa.Noah Fox, '20, MD '22, died in April,1953.Janet Child, '22, died in Tucson, Ariz.,on March 11, 1953, at the age of 52. MissChild had a newspaper and advertisingcareer in Chicago before she made Tucson her home. She worked there as anaccount executive with radio stationKVOA.Mark A. Penick, JD '22, died September 13, 1952.Elma M. Fry, '23, Rush MD '27, diedDecember 17, 1952.Corwin E. Russell, AM '32, died of aheart attack on February 17, 1953.Loretto A. Ryan, '32, died on September 23, 1952.Pauline Turpin '38 (Mrs. Murray Powell) died on January 31 of cancer, aftera brief illness. Pauline had worked asa volunteer with the American CancerSociety in the cause of cancer control.We quote, in part, from a tribute to herwhich was published in the Oregon Cancer Control News, February, 1953:"We did not realize until her last illness that her greatest contribution wasgallantry. Then we knew that her calmmanner, that whimsical turn of phraseso characteristic of her, were really thebadge of heroic courage. For only whenshe was hospitalized for that last desperate attempt to save her with surgery,did we know that our Pauline had knownfor some time that her days were numbered and that she had an incurable typeof cancer."Because this world needs its womenlike Pauline Powell, we dedicate ourselves anew in her name in this fight toconquer cancer." LA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoOrher PlantsBoston — New York — Philadelphia —Syracuse — Cleveland — Detroit"You Might As Well Have The Best"Phones OAkland 4-0690 — 4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOYDSTON BROS., INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and licensed attendantsW. B. Conkey Co.Division ofRand McNally & CompanyCHICAGO • HAMMOND • NEW YORKSince 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for University,College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.TREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DealerforCHRYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMUseum 4-4500AlsoGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair,Body, Paint, Simonize, Washand Greasing Departments32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1952-3 INDEX TO ARTICLESAccount Paid, and Then Some(Leo Wallach) F 53 p. 21ALLISON, SAMUEL, Ten Years of theAtomic Age D 52 p. 5American Security Also Depends onScientific Progress, EDWARD SHILS.Ja 53 p. 18As If Men Were Equal,LAWRENCE KIMPTON Ap 53 p. 9Atomic Farm, GEORG MANN D 52 p. 14Balloons on the Loose, GEORG MANN . . Ap 53 p. 8Behind the Crocus and the Trees,ROBERT M. STROZIER Je 53 p. 11BELL, CHARLES G,Giuseppe Antonio Borgese Ap 53 p. 19BELL, LAIRD, Short Step toThought Control My 53 p. 5Borgese, Giuseppe Antonio,CHARLES G. BELL Ap 53 p. 19"BS" Equals Bachelor of Science,WILLIAM L. DOYLE andBENSON E. GINSBURG Je 53 p. 9Cissie's Last Laugh My 53 p. 15Citations Honor 33 Alumni O 52 p. 16Client Sees Himself, CARL ROGERS Ja 53 p. 10"Counterfeit" Bachelor's Degree Ja 53 p. 8"Dead, or Fairly So." DAVID REISMANand REUEL DENNEY N 52 p. 5Den of Shadows, JOHN SP ANGLER ... .Ja 53 p. 16Ding Dong, the TV Nursery School Mch 53 p. 11Diseases of "Old Age"?SOLOMON PEARLMAN F 53 p. 16Divorce Law in Action,MAX RHEINSTEIN O 52 p. 7DOYLE, WILLIAM L., and BENSONE. GINSBURG"BS" Equals Bachelor of Science Je 53 p. 9Faculty Portraits: A Portfolio N 52 p. 9Flying Atomic "Piles,"JOHN A. SIMPSON Ap 53 pGRAHAM, PHILIP L.,Our Tory Government Je 53 p. 14Hemingway's Hero, E. M. HALLIDAY..My 53 p. 10Home Study: 100,000 Men and Women F 53 p. 19HUTCHINS, ROBERT MAYNARD,University of Utopia Je 53 p. 5Kevatron's Aurora D 52 p. 13KIMPTON, LAWRENCE A.,As If Men Were Equal Ap 53 p. 9"Kind of a Clinic" (Weather Bureau) F 53 p. 15LOHMAN, JOSEPH, From Prison to theArmed Services F 53 pLOVETT, ROBERT M.,Recollections of Harold Ickes O 52MANN, GEORG, Atomic Farm D 52MANN, GEORG, Balloons on the Loose. .Ap 53Martians O 52Merriam, Charles E. (A Memorial),LEONARD D. WHITE Mch 53MORRIS, DON, The Shoebox Scholar F 53 19p. 14p. 8p. 14p. 15p. 9 Navy Jets Track Rivers in the Sky F 53 p. 12New X-ray Camera N 52 p. 20Nuclear Power Generation D 52 p. 17Time and the Water(Libby -Kaufman Research) D 52 p. 20OTHMAN, ALI,When the Twain Have Met Mch 53 p. 18Our Tory Government,PHILIP L. GRAHAM Je 53 p. 14PEARLMAN, SOLOMON,Diseases of "Old Age"? F 53 p. 16Poetic Alumna (Jane Farley, '52) O 52 p. 11Poetry Is Forty O 52 p. 10POTTER, EDITH,Saving Premature Babies Ap 53 p. 12Practical Theorists In Action Je. 53 p. 16Prison to the Armed Services,JOSEPH LOHMAN F 53 p. 5PROBST, GEORGE,Will Our Universities Save TV? Ja 53 p. 5Professors Re-Tool for Television O 52 p. 13Protecting a University(from Radiation Hazards) D 52 p. 10Radioidine: Isotopes Against Disease D 52 p. 9Recollections of Harold Ickes,ROBERT M. LOVETT O 52 p. 19REISMAN, DAVID, AND REUELDENNEY, "Dead, Or Fairly So" N 52 p. 5RHEINSTEIN, MAX,Divorce Law in Action O 52 p. 7ROGERS, CARL, Client Sees Himself Ja 53 p. 10Saving Premature Babies,EDITH POTTER Ap 53 p. 12SHILS, EDWARD, American Security AlsoDepends on Scientific Progress Ja 53 p. 18Shoebox Scholar, DON MORRIS F 53 p. 9Short Step to Thought Control,LAIRD BELL My 53 p. 5SIMPSON, JOHN A,Flying Atomic "Piles" Ap 53 p. 5Sis! Boom! Bah! Ap 53 p. 15SPANGLER, JOHN,The Den of Shadows Ja 53 p. 16Speed-Up in Pre-History D 52 p. 11STROZIER, ROBERT, Summary of Fall. . . Ja 53 p. 14STROZIER, ROBERT,Behind the Crocus and the Trees. . . . Je 53 p. 11Ten Years of the Atomic Age,SAMUEL ALLISON D 52 p. 5That a Man Can "Get Ahead"W. LLOYD WARNER Mch 53 p. 5Thought for Food My 53 p. 18University of Utopia,ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS . . Je 53 p. 5WARNER, W. LLOYD,That a Man Can "Get Ahead" Mch 53 p. 5When the Twain Have Met,ALI OTHMAN Mch 53 p. 18WHITE, LEONARD D,Charles Edward Merriam Mch 53 p. 15Will Our Universities Save TV?GEORGE PROBST Ja 53 p. 5See you in Hutchinson Court for43rd Annual Interfraternity SingALUMNI DAY, SATURDAY, JUNE 6th