APRIL, 1953 MAGAZINErElving Atomic "Piles"John A. Simpson As If Men Were Equal. . . Lawrence A. KimptonREWARDiHIS is a most unusual reward: First of allyou don't receive it — you give it!By doing so you become a welcomed member of the Century Club.Your name is then inscribed on the CenturyClub Honor Roll, hung permanently in Alumni House.Your University adds your gift to its unrestricted funds with which it meets emergencies, fendsoff further deficits — and provides for others the kindof education which you enjoyed.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI FOUNDATION5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUE • CHICAGO 37 • ILLINOIS1/lHem.o J-^adWhy drag things out?Walter R. Bimson, '18, President of theValley National Bank, Phoenix, Arizona,publishes a monthly report on "ArizonaProgress." It has the usual businessindex, etc. But the opening editorial ison most anything, cleverly written byWalter himself. Here's February's:If afflicted with an inferiority complex, don't bother to consult a psychiatrist. Just give up smoking. When andif successful, and provided you are nottaken away in a strait jacket, your Egowill start popping buttons all over theplace. . . .We accomplished the feat a couple ofmonths ago and were pretty difficult tolive with for a while . . . It was theonly way we could think of to becomea man of distinction. . . .Actually, we deserve little credit . . .The cigarette advertising did it. Neverbefore has an industry spent so muchmoney to talk itself out of business.Every hour on the half hour we arereminded that tobacco contains tars,resins and other bronchial abrasives.Smokers are quite obviously committingslow suicide. . . .Any day now we expect to hear orsee statements such as these: "Scientific tests show that Old Dromedariespoison you more slowly than brandsA, B, & D." "X number of peoplesmoked Dunghills for 30 days and livedto tell about it." "Stenchies may makeyou cough, but so does mustard gas. . . ."FASTEROut of the depths of our experience,we have come to the conclusion that theworst thing about smoking is the uncertainty. There is absolutely no assurance that it will do for you what it hasdone for others. According to competentmedical authorities, you can get faster,surer results with one good whiff of cyanide gas — or sulphur dioxide. Why dragthings out?We confused San FranciscoTo keep us humble, herewith a publicapology to our San Francisco Club. Theinvitation we wrote read: a dinnerhonoring Harold C. Urey on Sunday LAWYER CHARLES F. McELROY (LEFT) PORTRAYS "SHYSTER" IN TV DRAMAevening, March 15. That was correct.But the reservation card enclosed wentberserk. The date was given as March10 and — of all things — reservations mustbe in by March 16!Flash corrections were mailed but 500Bay alumni are wondering how far youcan carry academic freedom.Portland. Dean Edward H. Levi of theLaw School spoke before a committeeof the Oregon State Bar AssociationMarch 7th; at a U. of Chicago dinner onMarch 8; and then moved on toSeattle for a meeting with our ChicagoClub on March 31; and the weekly session of the Seattle Bar Association thefollowing day.Washington, D.C. The Washington Clubhad as guest speaker on March 3rd,Trustee Philip L. Graham, publisher ofthe Washington POST. He discussed theCongressional investigations of highereducation. This was followed by a socialhour and refreshments.Davenport, Iowa. Joseph D. Lohman(Sociology), until recently head of theIllinois Parole Board, spoke before theDavenport Rotary Club on March 30th —followed by a dinner with our Quad-City Club in the evening.McElroy vs. LincolnWhen the Ford Foundation's TV Omnibus staff arrived in Springfield, Illinoisto shoot a Lincoln episode at New Salem,they were looking for a local "shysterlawyer."A Springfield lawyer, albeit no shyster, was Charles F. McElroy, AM '06,JD '15. Springfield applause had not dieddown from Charlie's lead in "ChickenEvery Sunday" produced by the localTheatre Guild. So Charlie was tagged by Omnibus tooppose Royal Dana (Lincoln) in the caseof the two boys who stole the cow.Charlie, a Lincoln scholar, knew hewouldn't win against Lincoln, but hewon a million TV viewers in Omnibus'fifth episode on the early life of Lincoln.On the Sunday of the TV showing,Mrs. Mort and I were Charlie's guests —with thirty other friends — at Chicago'sUnion League Club. After the programwe adjourned for cocktails and Charlie'sstory of how it all happened.At the party were Thurlow G. Essington, JD '08, and wife Sara Davie Hendricks, '08. Senator Essington told aboutthe circumstances surrounding the acceptance of the New Salem site fromHearst for a state park. Essington waschairman of the committee to considerthe offer.Next on the agendaNo sooner had the Student-AlumniCommittee put over the best Open Housein history, then they met to take up thenext item on their working agenda: vocational bull sessions for students aboutto be graduated.A survey among these College studentshad been made. Among the top vocational interests were politics and advertising-public relations.The plan: over coffee in AlumniLounge, successful alumni in these fieldswould discuss the practical aspects ofthese vocations with the students planning to enter them.To dispel any idea that there wouldbe speeches or formal panels the committee decided to call these coffee hoursVocational Bull Sessions — and so be it.The first, Advertising and Public Re-APRIL, 1953 1Wlttyo«helpthemgtoW«Pin a safer world t¦ u-M and you know theAsk a man if he loves ta, ^ ^Jt0^ - ¦*from cance-so- ^^j.^^ andCancer can K1"can rob themterrible scourge- ^ or both. fecare of a mother- ^ ^^ tnisWon't you help us^^scourge? s ^ weeds ino» y-.siffSs^41 sufferin6ScC^v^- Qurdottars and cents-,the victoryOur weapons ^ef ^ chUdren. tis a better world fOoCancer>c/oy0SendiC° Thank you-Post Oftce. Thank y^THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMAGAZINEVolume 45 April, 1953 Number 7IN THIS ISSUEFlying Atomic "Piles," John A. Simpson 5Balloons on The Loose, Georg Mann 8As If Men Were Equal, Lawrence A. Kimpton . 9Saving Premature Babies, Edith L. Potter, M.D 12Sis! Boom! Bah! 15Giuseppe Antonio Borgese, Charles G. Bell 19DEPARTMENTSMemo Pad 1 Reader's Guide 25Books 23 Class News 26COVER: All basketball games begin the same way, but they do notalways end the same way. For the last three years theUniversity's team did not win a game. The reason for ourunusual cover may be found starting on page 15.Cover and photographs on pages 5, 10, and 15 through 18 by StephenLewellyn. Photos on pages 6 and 7 courtesy of John Simpson, on 13courtesy of the New York City Metropolitan Museum of Art, on page14 courtesy of the Chicago Daily Tribune, and on page 20 courtesy ofMartha Golde.PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEditorHOWARD W. MORTExecutive SecretaryAlumni FoundationJIM ATKINS Associate EditorAUDREY PROBSTStaff PhotographerSTEPHEN LEWELLYN Associate EditorHAROLD E. DONOHUEDirectorAlumni EducationDONALD S. BARNHARTPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $3.00.Single copies, 35 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the PostOffice at Chicago, Illinois under the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: TheAmerican Alumni Council, B. A. Ross, director, 22 Washington Square, New York N. Y.lations, will be the afternoon of April8th. Alumni for this session will beEarle Ludgin, '20, of Earle Ludgin & Co.,advertising; Fairfax M. Cone, Trustee,of Foote, Cone & Belding; Julian J.Jackson, '31, public relations; and Lawrence H. Selz, '24, of Lawrence H. SelzOrganization, Inc.On April 15 the Bull Session will beon politics with three Chicago aldermenwho are making exceptional records:Robert E. Merriam, '39, AM '40, 5th Ward;Archibald J. Carey, '29, 3rd Ward; andHerbert F. Geisler, '27, JD '29, 34th Ward.Your Show of ShowsReaders of this column must know bynow how enthusiastic I am about ourstudent Arcotheatre.They did it again at our Februaryalumni Open House. And that makes athousand more enthusiastic alumni.Now they are staging their own annualshow: ACRO ANTICS, at Mandel Hall.An evening performance, Saturday, April25th (8:30 P.M.) and a matinee on Sunday, April 26th (3:30 P.M.).By all means bring the youngsters.Turn off Super Circus and come over.It's better — even without elephants andMary Hartline.Reserved center seats $1.85; generaladmission: $1.50. It's a two-way benefit:for the Scout troop in the Universityarea and for Arcotheatre's saggingbudget.The show? Action every minute fromjuggling and tumbling to ballet andcomedy skits.Mail orders: Bartlett Gymnasium, TheUniversity of Chicago, 5640 UniversityAvenue, Chicago 37.Magazine halts baldnessHaving only subscribed to the MAGAZINE for a few months, each new issuesurprises me anew with the superiorquality of the photographic and literarymaterial to be found therein.Due to the paucity of magazines onboard, the V. of C. MAGAZINES that Ihave husbanded and pored over willsoon be donated to the wardroom magazine rack.On board ship where the usual peakof intellectual activity is attained witha game of bridge, studying French orItalian, planning the next operation, orcrossing off the days on the calendar,the U. of C. MAGAZINE, in my humbleopinion, does much to stimulate one'sstuporous brain cells, regenerating theatrophying academic circuits, and likeintellectual hair tonic, halting the growing bafdness of thought.More power" to you.(Lt.) Melvin H. Tennis, Jr.U.S.S. Carter Hall LSD 3Gershwin FestivalThe University Settlement Board ispraying for good weather and a fullhouse on the night of May 9 when theysponsor a benefit performance of the Gershwin Festival at Orchestra Hall.Proceeds will be used to put some elasticity into a tightly stretched Settlementbudget.The full range of George Gershwin'smusic will be interpreted by orchestra,conducted by Lorin Maazel, and soloists,including pianist Jesus Sanroma, sopranoCarolyn Long, and baritone TheodorUppman. ...Class reunionsSaturday, June 6, is Alumni Day. Thefollowing classes are making plans:1903 — Members of this 50-year classwill be honored at an Emeritus Club luncheon. Agness Kaufman is workingon other plans for the class.1913 — Jim Donovan has plans rolling.1918— This is the 35th; bigger andbetter than the annual reunions.1928 — Ken Rouse has plans under way.—H.W. M.Books— See Page 23Reader's Guide —Page 25APRIL, 1953Flying Atomic "Piles"Locate and measurecosmic ray changesby John A. SimpsonAssociate Professor, Institute for Nuclear StudiesI^INCE THE DISCOVERY, over 40years ago, that cosmic rays come fromoutside the earth's atmosphere, theirorigin has remained an unansweredquestion. Do they come from distant galaxies, our own galaxy, or fromour sun?We know that the incoming particles carry electric charges and possess enormous energies. The particleshave been identified; they come fromall directions in space with aboutequal intensity. But the intensitychanges from one period of time toanother. If we discover the origin ofthese intensity changes we are hopeful that we may also learn about theorigin of the cosmic radiations. Ourexperiments at the Institute for Nuclear Studies have been concentratedon this problem. A preliminary report is presented at this time.As observers we are bound close tothe earth's surface with the atmosphere above us. The atmosphere isThis article was written forthe Magazine by ProfessorSimpson after we asked him fora report on cosmic ray researchat the Institute for NuclearStudies.< BALLOONS WILL GO UP 90,000 FEET a layer of nitrogen and oxygen atomswhich the incoming cosmic radiationspenetrate. They break up the nucleiof the atoms into nuclear particles,which stream downward along withsome of the more energetic particlesof the original radiation. Since weare able to detect different kinds ofparticles in this secondary radiation,we can measure their intensity variations under the air absorber and describe the variations of the originalor primary rays on top of the atmosphere. But, to measure intensityvariations continuously, we need observing stations. Where should weCOSMIC-RAY DISSECTOR SIMPSON, AT locate these stations to obtain themost information?We know that the cosmic ray particles have a wide range of energies,as white light has a wide range ofcolors — each part of the spectrumbeing equivalent to a different energy. We required, to follow thisanalogy, a prism to measure therange of cosmic ray particle energies.Since the particles bend in the earth'smagnetic field — which extends thousands of miles out from our planet —we use that field as our cosmic ray"prism." The portion of the earth'sfield which selects cosmic ray par-INSTITUTE, SITTING ON SMALL "PILE"APRIL, 1953 5B-29 PLANE RAN COURSE FROM FAIRBANKS, ALASKA, DOWN TO PERU. JET-PLANE FLEW DOWN MIDDLE OF THE COUNTRYtides is strongest at the equator, anddecreases as we go toward the Northor South poles. Therefore, our analyzer covers a range of 90 degreeslatitude on the earth's surface, and torecord cosmic radiation of differentenergies, we must distribute our stations along this quadrant.Using the earth's field as the analyzer, we had to decide which particlesto observe. At Chicago we have beenfortunate in finding, for the first time,that the neutron radiation is themost sensitive for measuring variations of particle intensity. Large neutron detectors were constructed whichare somewhat similar to nuclear reactors. They are also called "piles."These "piles" are capable of providing information which tells us aboutthe cosmic ray intensity variations on top of the atmosphere, even thoughthey are situated on mountain topsor at sea level.The map (above) shows the locations of our stations containing the"piles." Each station also containssmall electronic computers. The results are recorded on motion picturefilms and forwarded to our laboratoryat the University each week.We also collected important data byplacing a miniature "pile" detector inthe nose of a jet plane, and flyingit over the North- South course shownin the map. From 1950 through 1952,we have had over 320 flights with aRF-80 jet. In 1948 and '49 we builta laboratory in a B-29 plane and conducted studies between Lima, Peru,and Fairbanks, Alaska.These observations have led to four general conclusions. First, it is nowclear that cosmic ray changes are notdue to the atmosphere or the earth.They are actual intensity changes inspace, that occur with time. Second,the changes each month are muchlarger than had been suspected fromearlier measurements. From 3% to30% of the total cosmic radiation maychange within a 30 -day period. Third,the intensity variations are of severalkinds with at least one of the variations related to the rotation of thesun. We call some of the variationsthe "solar component of cosmic radiation." Fourth, it now appears thatsome of these variations are closelyrelated to regions on the sun aboutwhich we know very little.From what we have learned so far,it is becoming clear that these studies6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEare 'related to investigations of theorigin of cosmic rays. Our new experiments in the Institute laboratoriesare based in general terms, on onequestion: Are cosmic rays producedoutside of our solar system, with oursun influencing the number that reachus; or is part of the cosmic radiationproduced by the sun?Another analogy may illustrate ourcurrent problem. Suppose one is looking through a window into a lightedroom, but the source of light cannotbe seen. The room grows lighter ordarker. Question: Is the light a singlebulb, growing dimmer or brighter;a series of bulbs, one or more of which is turned on and off; or isthere a screen moving in front of thelight or lights, and then moving awayagain?We must decide which of thesecases is the true situation, before wecan continue our search for the cosmic ray source. How we decide thisis part of our current research problem.Balloons are being added as carriers for our equipment in order tomake measurements at the top of theatmosphere. These balloons willcheck our earlier work and extendour measurements in our studyof the incoming radiation. As a re sult of our new knowledge about theintensity changes, we can predict thebest times for these flights. We haveconstructed a non-metallic structureon top of the Institute, containing radio equipment which determines thedirection of the balloon at any time,receives all the technical informationfrom the equipment in the balloon,and computes the results with electronic circuits or "brain."Our experiments continue to be directed toward the basic questions:Where do the cosmic ray particlescome from; and how do the particleswe measure acquire such enormousenergies?SMALLER VERSION OF NEUTRON DETECTORS (OR "PILE"), PLACED IN NOSE OF JET, MEASURE INTENSITY VARIATIONSAPRIL, 1953 7TRACKS ON PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATE RECORD POWERFUL NUCLEAR COLLISIONBALLOONS ON THE LOOSEJ? IFTY-THREE YEARS AGO aGerman physicist named Geitelreported that air, normally a nonconductor of electricity, actuallyhad some conductive ability. Thiswas particularly true, he added, ofair confined in cellars and caves.From this clue came the study —ten years later — of cosmic rays,those mysterious irradiations fromouter space that bombard ourearth.The University — as usual — entered this new field of physicsearly, and has stayed in it, as Professor Simpson's article indicates.Back in 1913, two former students of Robert Millikan, begantheir basic observations of thethen only dimly understood radiations. Millikan, at Chicago, grewinterested, later transporting hisresearches to the balmier climateat Caltech. Then came ArthurHolly Compton, and the start of the traveling-period of cosmic -raystudies. Early counters — cloud chambers, Geiger-Muller counters — weretaken to the depths of caves anddunked in lakes, to find out how farthese penetrating irradiations couldreach.Today, the experimental observations of cosmic rays include the jet-plane studies of Simpson, and alsothose of Marcel Schein, professor ofphysics. Schein's group has been interested more in the nuclear reactionsof the rays that are traced in specialphotographic emulsions, rather thanthe origins of the rays. Nevertheless,Schein's studies have indicated thatheavy nuclei of carbon, neon, iron,and oxygen, are more abundant incosmic radiation in the daytime, thanat night.Wandering balloons, sent up bySchein from Stagg Field, routinelytravel 90,000 or more feet up inthe atmosphere. Sometimes they carry items such as seeds, as wellas emulsions, to get bombarded onhigh. The balloons have recordedcollisions of atomic particles at energies of 30,000 billion electronvolts. They have also been thecause of minor collisions when returning to the ground.Civilian Air Patrols trackedthem over Gary and Hammond assuspect flying saucers from anotherplanet. Canada's red-coated Northwest mounties were aroused by afull-fledged A-bomb scare, by theticking of the clock-work timingmechanisms. Expectant observers,on a Canadian campus, have calmly caught the balloons as theyfloated down. But once they fellinto mountain hideouts of moonshiners, and certain channels hadto be explored before the suspicious entrepreneurs would returnthe precious instruments.— Georg Mann8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWe must act andthink and judge-As If Men Were Equalby Lawrence A. KimptonChancelloro' VER 2,000 YEARS AGO Socrateswandered the streets of Athens insisting to all who would listen that theunexamined life is not worth living.He was killed for his pains, as thosewho point out the truths of humannature and destiny usually are. Mostpeople deny Socrates' statement,sometimes by words, but oftener bythe lives they lead. I happen to agreewith Socrates, and I would go so faras to say that the truth of the statement can be proved if one is willingto accept proof in ethics and religion.I also think that in the process ofdiscovering the validity of the dictumone arrives at an explanation of thathuman behavior we call good andevil, and even an appreciation ofone facet, at least, of religious faithand conviction. In order to make abeginning at an understanding of thestatement that the unexamined lifeis not worth living, let us look at thenature of man.Man clearly differs from the loweranimals, although biology demonstrates conclusively, in my opinion,that he is descended from them andrelated to them. If man has a differentiating characteristic which setshim apart from the lower animals, hehas the obligation to live up to thischaracteristic which sets him apart. To phrase the matter in a differentway, if "manness" is set apart on theevolutionary scale from animality,then we play the role to which destinybe assigned us only to the extentthat we abide by these distinctive features of "manness."But how do we differ from thelower animals and what is it that setsus apart? Aristotle insists that it isrationality, and if rationality be properly understood I agree with him.If by rationality he means only theability to think, then I deny his definition. My dog certainly thinks, andthese processes of cerebration becomerather complex in the higher animalforms. Kohler's work with apesshows definitely that they are ableto think in complex ways in order toobtain a desired result. It is not rationality, then, as thus narrowly defined, which constitutes the differentiating characteristic between manand his vertebrate cousins. The differentiating characteristic is not theAlthough Chancellor Kimptondelivered this address last December, the Editors feel thatit still should appear in theMagazine. ability to think, but the capacity tothink in a certain way — and let meenlarge upon this.I am convinced that my dog lacksthe power to recognize that he is adog among other dogs. It has neveroccurred to him to say, "I am I, different in my way from the dog nextdoor, and yet the same, too." He hasnever phrased to himself that "I ama dog among other dogs, with myown thoughts and feelings which Ican stand apart and observe and atthe same time project into the persons of others." This faculty is calledself-consciousness. It is an awarenessof oneself as something that one canobserve as distinct and separate. Itis also an awareness of other selveswho are at once different and thesame. It is self-consciousness as opposed to consciousness that man andman alone possesses.This strange ability is the kind ofrationality that is peculiar to man.He and he alone among all of theanimal kingdom is able in some mysterious fashion to see himself, to observe his own thoughts and actionsand feelings with a certain measureof perspective and detachment. He isable to place himself in the positionof others and take a look at himself from their viewpoint. This isAPRIL, 1953 9the characteristic which differentiatesman from the lower animals, and itis man's supreme responsibility tolive up to this differentiating characteristic. If he and only he can observe himself objectively and withdetachment, then he must so observehimself as the highest of all ethicalimperatives.When Socrates said that the unexamined life is not worth living, hewas only saying, therefore, that wemust be men as differentiated fromour brutish cousins. Since we uniquely have the power to examine ourlives, we must examine them, andhe who does not remains among thelower animals.As we look further into this capacity which man alone possesses, itbecomes even more interesting andcomplex. The power to see ourselves from the viewpoint of others has aconverse implication: we are alsoable to see others from the viewpointof ourselves. We are able to projectour feelings and our thoughts into theminds of others and in some realsense understand and appreciatethem.Herein lies the basis of the greatestof the virtues that can be describedas strictly human. It is the basis ofsympathy, for example, for sympathyinvolves our ability to feel as othersfeel, suffer as others suffer, and enjoyas others enjoy. If I have suffered agreat loss, I am able to project thissense of loneliness and desolation into the mind of another when he issimilarly suffering. If I have felt pain,I sense and appreciate the agony ofothers under similar circumstances.My dog may be sorrowful, too, when I am sorrowful, but I doubt that heis consciously projecting an experience of his own into an attitude ofmine, or that he is consciously feelingas I feel.Tolerance?If we have this power of sympathetically comprehending the thoughtsand emotions of others, then we donot have as a positive responsibilityby reason of our station in the life'sprocess the obligation so to do? Thisobligation I designate by the wordtolerance. But there is a meaning oftolerance which I wish specifically toreject.Tolerance is no mere acceptance ofeverything, a vegetable willingnessto live and let live. We are all toofamiliar with the wishy-washy person who agrees with everybody andeverything. Tolerance is a positiveand affirmative virtue demandingthat we undertake thoroughly to appreciate a way of life or a system ofthought very different from our own,and through such understanding andappreciation incorporate it into ourown way of life and mode of thought.This is the obligation of self-consciousness. It demands on the onehand that we see ourselves from theviewpoint of others: it demands onthe other hand that we determine inadequacies in ourselves by comparingourselves with others.Challenge to growFrom this viewpoint, an attitude ofmind which is not understood, the setof ideas of another which is not appreciated, become not a basis formere disagreement but a challengeto grow through wider apprehensionand understanding. It is said that tounderstand is to forgive, but it shouldbe added that thoroughly to understand a viewpoint different frcm one'sown, to incorporate it within one'sown thinking, is to live up to thehighest obligation and responsibilityof being a man. Perhaps this is whatis meant by growth and development,and, in the last analysis, education.It was what Spinoza was talkingabout in his Ethics when he said thatman's highest obligation is the intellectual love of God. By intellectuallove he meant this process of understanding, and by God he meant allthat is. It was what Hegel was talking about in the great upward movement of his dialectic, whereby thinking, as it moves through thesis andantithesis to synthesis, gradually encompasses, reconciles and understandsall things. It was what ImmanuelKant referred to in the ¦Critique ofCHANCELLOR KIMPTON: "—-THE UNEXAMINED LIFE IS NOT WORTH LIVING—"10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"—THE KINGDOM OF GOD . . . HERE OR ELSEWHERE ... A WORLD OF TOLERANCE—"Practical Reason when he said thatthe only absolutely good thing in theworld is a good will. By good will,he meant a willingness to tolerateand, through positive tolerance, to understand and appreciate the thoughtsand feelings and actions of all men.All these philosophers were tryingto phrase in their own way the highest responsibility of man — to live upto his station in life — and I ventureto say that all the things that all ofus admit as good follow from thissupreme obligation.Individual dignity and worthThe system of English common lawwhich governs relations among menis based upon the dignity and worthof each individual, and this in turnis the result of each individual valuing himself and of his projecting thisvalue into everyone who is. The lawof contracts is framed so that no oneshall ever use his fellow man as ameans but must treat him always asan end. Every man, in principle atleast, is equal before the law and isentitled to judgment by a jury ofhis peers.Our Bill of Rights guarantees toeach person the right to be heard,the right to assemble peaceably withhis fellow men, and the right to resist forcible entry. Even our manners and mores, as differentiated fromthe requirements of our laws, arebased on a recognition of the dignityand respect to be accorded to allindividuals.Democracy is a recognition in government of this same great humantruth. Each man has certain fundamental rights which are guaranteed.Every one of the governed has a voicein determining who shall govern.Even though the majority rules, theminority is protected from coercionand even encouraged to voice its dissonant opinion.We reject totalitarianism becauseit fails to recognize the equality anddignity of all men. This is not to sayempirically that all men are equal;it is only to say, in Kant's categoricalimperative, that we must act andthink and judge as if they were. Thatgovernment is good which is highlydedicated to the recognition of theequality of men.Equal statusThe ethical teachings of Jesus weaccept as true because they are basedupon this unique characteristic wepossess of being able to see others asbeings like ourselves, having all thedignity and status and worth that weaccord ourselves. Do unto others as you would be done by is a statementof this truth. In the Gospel of John,when the crowd asks Jesus if theyshould stone this woman taken inadultery, he calls upon them tolook within themselves to find ananswer to their question. And perhaps what is meant by the Kingdomof God is a heaven, here or elsewhere,in which everyone acts always in accordance with his highest nature — aworld of understanding, of tolerance,of eternal peace. It would be a kingdom in which everyone was accordedequal status and dignity as children of God and in which, again to useKant's phrase, everyone treated everyone else as an end and never as ameans.In our present world it is apparentthat man is not living up to his rightful position. That he should do this,that this is the highest of all ethicalimperatives, can be proved. That hewill do this, that we believe that theKingdom of God is attainable, is anact of faith. It is the meaning of faiththat man can and must live up to hisown real nature, the highest that isin him.APRIL, 1953 11Saving Premature Babies"Every additional ounce improves the odds"by Edith L. Potter, M.D.Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyN,OT MANY YEARS AGO, mostpremature babies, especially thesmaller ones, were not expected tolive and no one paid much attentionto them. Gradually, however, wehave become more aware of the needless loss of life during birth and inthe first few days. We have becomeespecially concerned over the premature infant.More than three and one-half million babies were born in the UnitedStates during 1948. In Chicago, with78,367 births, 5271 were reported aspremature. If this rate held throughout the country, then more thanThis article has been adapted andrevised from an essay of the sametitle, which appeared in the December, 1952, issue of Today'sHealth.Besides being Chief Pathologistof the Chicago Health Department,Dr. Potter is the author of fourbooks, Fetal and Neonatal Death(1939), Rh (1947), Fundamentals ofHuman Reproduction (1948), andPathology of the Fetus and Newborn (1952).Among her many awards is theElizabeth Blackwell Award, fromthe New York Infirmary and Hospital for Women. Her husband isthe well-known artist, Alvin Meyer.One of his works is pictured onpage 13. 243,000 infants were born prematurelythat year. Since many places reported a higher percentage than Chicago, the estimate of a quarter millionis probably conservative. While thisis only six to seven per cent of allbabies born, more than half the newborn deaths are in this group.What is a premature baby? Howdo you tell when a baby is premature?A baby is said to be premature ifit is smaller and less well developed —at the time of birth — than the averagechild, primarily because it remains inthe uterus too short a time. Buterrors are often made in the dateof the last menstrual period— babiesweighing as much as twelve poundshave been erroneously recorded aspremature because they were bornbefore the anticipated time. Again,sometimes growth is unusually slowand the infant is underweight in spiteof having been in the womb for theaverage 38 weeks. So the division between mature and premature is ordinarily based on the weight of thebaby at birth.The average birth weight of infants in the United States is aboutseven and a half pounds. Some mayweigh as much as two pounds lessthan this, and still be able to establish themselves as independent individuals. But they cannot be muchsmaller without finding life extremelydifficult.In the best obstetric hospitals inthis country, more than 99 per cent of babies who weigh over five and a halfpounds — consequently considered mature — live and are entirely normalbabies. In the same hospitals only85 to 90 per cent of those under thatweight survive.The reasons for failure to surviveare much the same in the two groups.But the premature is unusually susceptible to disturbances of all organs,especially of the lungs. There is alsothe increased danger of infection.(Other reasons are injuries incurredbefore birth either as a result ofmechanical surgery to the head during delivery or because of inadequateoxygen supply; abnormal development, producing a malformation,which occurs during the first eightweeks after conception; and RH incompatibility.)According to an old wives' tale —or at least an old midwife — a sevenmonths baby has a better chance ofsurvival than one of eight months.Many myths of this sort have somebasis in fact, but this one has none.At the end of seven months, theaverage baby weighs slightly morethan two pounds. Few babies weighing less than this survive simply because their lungs cannot take in oxygen. Until the fifth month the lungair sacs are lined with a solid layerof cells. About this time, small bloodvessels begin to penetrate this celllining. When enough blood vesselshave grown through to take oxygenfrom the air, the infant can breatheThis happens at the end of the sev-12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEenth month — the beginning of thetime when survival outside the uterusis possible.Since the premature baby is underdeveloped, breathing is not established as readily as in larger infants.Because of this, drugs given to themother during labor must be kept toa minimum. (No hardship results forthe mother, since labor is generallyshorter than when it occurs later inpregnancy.) During the actual delivery, a local anesthetic can be injectedinto the lower part of the spinal canal— a "saddle block"- — or into tissuesaround the nerves supplying theuterus. This does not harm the baby.But a general anesthetic, putting themother to sleep, may affect the infantas well, causing considerable delay inthe establishment of breathing.At birth a premature baby is immediately placed in a heated crib oran incubator to protect it from chilling. The mouth, throat, and air passages to the lungs are cleaned outcarefully and — if necessary — an extrasupply of oxygen is added to the airit breathes. Almost all hospitals havespecially equipped nurseries for premature infants. They are usually keptin this special nursery until theyweigh five and a half pounds, if theirweight is less than this at birth.Without sufficient strength to nurse,the small "premie" is fed with a medicine dropper or through a soft rubbertube passed into its stomach. Evenlarger prematures are often fed thisway the first few days to conservetheir strength.Before birth, the infant is protectedagainst infection and normally doesnot come in contact with bacteria.Consequently it has no resistance,and any bacteria — even those harmless for adults — may be dangerous forthem. In prematures this danger ismultiplied, so they must be carefullyprotected.The most common entryways forbacteria are the lungs, stomach, andskin. Bacteria in the lungs can causepneumonia, therefore the nose andmouth of every person coming incontact with the newborn infant mustbe covered. All other persons arecompletely excluded from the nursery.All food and water are sterilized toprevent bacteria gaining entrancethrough the stomach. (Larger orolder prematures may be able tonurse directly at the breast — thesuperior food and method of feeding.)No one with any kind of infection,especially diarrhea, should touch anyinfant or anything that may go intohis mouth. To protect the skin, allbedding, diapers, and gowns are steri- "MATERNITY," BY ALVIN MEYER, WELL-KNOWN SCULPTOR, AND AUTHOR'S HUSBANDlized and handled as little as possible. Soap and water often are notused, since the skin can easily bebruised again causing infection. Alittle sterile oil will do.With such precautions and attention — a warm, moist, atmosphererich in oxygen, proper feeding, andprotection from infection — the premature baby has an excellent chance of survival if it is not too tiny whenborn. For an infant, normal at birth,cared for under these conditions, survival is directly related to birthweight. Every additional ounce improves the odds.Most "premies" who live are nothandicapped by their prematurity.They may seem to develop a littlemore slowly than other babies, butAPRIL, 1953 13much of , the apparent differencedisappears when one realizes thatsix months after birth a sevenmonths baby is actually three monthsyounger than one born at the expected time. Occasionally they mayweigh slightly less than mature babiesof the same postnatal age for severalyears. But inside of three or fouryears it is impossible to notice anydifference. This holds true for mentaland general physical development.Babies are born earlier than expected for a number of reasons, butin more than one-third of all premature births no cause has been found.About ten per cent are twins. Beinga twin is a definite hazard. Becausethere are two infants instead of one,the uterus enlarges more rapidly thanusual, and labor often sets in whenthe combined weight is that of onechild ready to be born at the usualtime.Hard physical work during the latter months of pregnancy may cause early delivery. For this reason, manycompanies require women to stophard work well in advance of thetime the baby is expected.If a baby does not develop normally, nature may institute laborearly, almost as if to get rid of a poorpregnancy in order to start another.Hormones, produced by the ovariesand placenta, are sometimes deficientand may prevent pregnancy fromprogressing normally.General health and dietRecently it has been shown thatwomen who are under weight at thebeginning of pregnancy — and who donot gain normally during the firstfew months — are several times moreapt to deliver prematurely than women of normal weight.A few women appear to have someinborn hyper-irritability of the uter us which causes the expulsion of thebaby prematurely in all pregnancies.In most instances, even though awoman may bear one premature infant, her other babies are likely tobe born at the expected time.In general, the healthier the motherand the mere complete her diet inrequired minerals, vitamins, and proteins, the less likely she is to havea premature infant.Through research we hope to findreal means for preventing prematurity. Research is also constantlybeing carried on to find the bestways to help the premature babyadjust to his new surroundings andattain normal babyhood.At present, in spite of the greatreduction in the number of deathsbrought about in the last few years,prematurity is eighth among the leading causes of death at all ages. Tofurther decrease the mortality amongpremature infants is one of the goalsof modern medicine.DR. POTTER AND HER HUSBAND ARE COMPLETING THIS SUMMER HOME OUTSIDE OF CHICAGO. HE STANDS IN STUDIO.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEROOTERS ON THE MARCH IN B-J COURT SHOUTING "COME OUT! COME ON OUT!" HAD ONLY BEGUN TO GET UP STEAMSIS! BOOM! BAH!J\ STARTLING RUMOR sweptacross campus early in February. Thebasketball team had set a record theplayers weren't happy about: 45 consecutive losses. The rumor: maybethe handful of gloomy students in thestark stands weren't providing theinspiration.The solution: a giant rally.But how do you start a rally? Wholeads the cheers? Where do you get a band? How do you accumulate acrowd? All this had gone with BigTen football and the marching feetof World War II.When in doubt ask Dean Biren-baum, director of student activities.He was from a generation of bonfiresand rallys.The Dean laid it on the line withenthusiasm. One "but" remained:Who would lead the cheers? The Dean threw up his arms in desperation."You pass the word and if you'restuck for a yell king, I'll lead them."The students rushed out and passedthe word. They got the crowd (above)and the cheer leaders. The Deanjoined the pack with nothing to dobut cheer and look pleased (above,foreground center facing camera atcorner of Chicago banner). Turn thepage for more details.APRIL, 1953 15RAH!YEA TEAM!THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE(9it. IWAVE THE FLAGSinkingThe PierINTERMISSION |m ¦ w **n* aH Vjm ft kK&w^l ' ^m jfl 1 VJ .y ^f%^^kJ~ •2L m^r V/'m u 1FOUL!APRIL, 1953then Foster. At each house the chantchanged from "Beat Navy Pier" to"Come out; come out; wherever youare." Out the girls came."On to Burton-Judson," was thecry. At the Midway waited two policecars. Enemies? No, friends. Theybecame the escorts.The band blared "C Stands forCherished Courage" and the boysfrom B-J found themselves behindthe drum headed for the Field House.Down fraternity row they marched,adding strength, finally packing thestands for the game.It was a carnival spirit of yesteryear. Assistant deans waved broomsticks flying Chicago pennants. Cheerleaders in maroon and white didrusty handsprings but gave good accounts of themselves.Chicago shot the first basket andwas never once behind.Cap & Gown, the year book, experiencing a revival after a decade,paraded across the court at the halfproclaiming, from right to left, thatit would cover everything.If the score is important, Chicagowon 65 to 52. The late sportcasterson TV and radio had a welterweightchampionship to announce. But thebig news came first: The Universityof Chicago won a basketball game!The students rushed back to theirstudy tables, trying to analyze justwhat happened to them. They werestill a little dazed five days laterwhen, without benefit of rally, Chicago lost again.SURROUNDED BY FOUR FOES, GUARD ROBERT E. MANN LAYS TWO MORE POINTS INCHICAGO 65 NAVY PIER 52The game was with the Navy Pierof the University of Illinois. They already had contributed one of the current defeats. This time Navy Piershould not pass.The students started with the topbrass: Did George Watkins, '37, Secretary of the University, know wherethey could find band instruments?George picked up the telephoneand called his classmate, CharlieGreenleaf, '37, in Elkhart, Indiana, thehome of Greenleaf's Conn Instrument Company.Charlie called the Conn -Chicagooffice and the instruments were readyfor the rally. .The night was cold and dark butthe torches and flares reflected on the"Sink the Pier" signs painted by someof the fraternity men.Forty students gathered in the circle, the bland blared "Wave the Flag"and all' trooped to Green, then Kelly, WITH THEIR TEAM LEADING ALL THE WAY, THE CROWD SENSES VICTORY AHEAD18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGIUSEPPE ANTONIO BORGESEPoet-Seerby Charles G. BellAssistant Professor of Humanities, CollegeOn TUESDAY, December 2, 1952,Giuseppe Antonio Borgese, ProfessorEmeritus at Chicago, was giving hisregular university lecture to a largeclass in Milan. Four years had passedsince he had staged his triumphal return, the anti-fascist exile, greeted bylarge headlines in all the papers ofItaly, actively reinstated at the University of Milan. Four years of commuting had passed, commuting between the New World and the Old,reluctantly gravitating to the publiche was here increasingly denied.America had meant as much to himas anything in his life — Chicago, too,in its raw boldness, as he said: "Thiswild shore where I was to strand."But, more and more, it seemed goodto him to close life together like a fullcircle, a classical containment, to goback to the native ground. He was buying a house aboveFlorence, which he said would benear to his grave. He was writingthe long-planned book on Christianity. After ten years, when heshould be eighty, he would have theright to relax and do his autobiography. Then death might haveits way.Croce, Sforza, OrlandoSo here in Milan he was talking, aprophet in his own land. His earlyA close friend as well as colleague of Borgese, ProfessorBell adapted and revised, forthe Magazine, his original article, which appears in the Aprilissue of Poetry: A Magazine ofVerse. Italian works — criticism, poetry fiction — were being republished and re-acclaimed. Eleven books were thenin print. The Magazine Realta haddevoted most of its July -August issueto him, with selections from his workand testimonials by more than fiftymen of letters. In Rome he had recently received a prize of two millionlire as the most distinguished Italianwriter. On November 27th, in Padua,he had given a lecture on aesthetics,that theme-subject of his life, talkingfor two hours without a manuscript,to an enthusiastic crowd of two thousand people.But there were painful shadows.The old liberals were disappearing.Croce, first his friend and champion,then a life-time opponent, was dead.Sforza, symbol of the free way, hadgone before. And now Orlando, near-APRIL, 1953 19G. A. BORGESE IN ITALY, SPRING 1952— SCHOLAR, PHILOSOPHER, AND POETest of all, under whose PremiershipBorgese had been head of the pressand had organized the Congress andPact of Rome in 1918, Orlando hadjust died. Deeply moved, Borgesedismissed his Tuesday class with atribute to the three, and with these,as it proved, prophetic words: "Thereis an epidemic of death among thegreat Italians.""o/ the fatal beauty'' "His wife and their family had beenin Switzerland, visiting her father,Thomas Mann. They joined Borgesein Milan on Wednesday and returnedtogether to Florence, and up the hillto the villa they had rented for thewinter.One entered through a garden onthe hillside, walked over the waxed terra cotta tiles, came out in the mainroom with pictures and Venetian furniture, the huge antique table andMajolica service. One could standthere at the modern view-windowwhile the tenderest landscape in theworld took the evening, the roombehind darkening in the twilight, theoil lamps flickering on the tiles andbeams. Perhaps he stood there thatnight, looking at the homeland thathad heightened so much the poignancies of his life, that Italy which anearlier poet had called "of the fatalbeauty." Perhaps he drained off thatlighted valley like a last cup. Then,tired, he went to bed.He also waked tired. After breakfast he said he would rest. When hiswife came in the late morning he wasunconscious and breathing heavily. The doctor was called. It was cerebralthrombosis. With treatment he revived, opened his eyes and spoke. Hesaid he was better; leave him a whileand he would be all right. Of coursethey did not leave. Then, slowly, whathe had long before described occurred.December 4thHe had written of it in English,that adopted tongue which he mastered as few natives had done, inwhich he wrote poems, virtually unknown, but monuments of the language. He had written of it in 1945— "a staircase of marble. ... I wentdown step by step and was alone" —in his poem "Dream of a DecentDeath." Now, with that same mysterious quiet, it came true. He grewweaker. At 11: 40 that night, the nightof December 4th, he died, as his wifewrote, "with a smile on his face, asthough inspired by a beautiful dream."He had always been inspired by abeautiful dream. The function ofpoetry, he wrote ("An Outline of aPoetics"; Poetry; Dec. '39, Jan. andFeb. '40) is to unite through symbols— with rhythm and proportion — thesuper-world of art, which is spirit, tothe world of nature. In his ownwords: "The absolute, formulated byphilosophy and revealed by religion,is made real by art through symbols.Art is prayer."He was, then, first and foremost anartist, a poet. But he wished to be apoet in every field, in criticism, inphilosophy, and last (but taking moreenergy than anything else in his life)in politics.The curious feature of his politicalactivity, and what made it incomprehensible to some, is that he conceivedit — as he conceived poetry — as visionand prayer, the effort to wed spiritto the world of things. This was thedistinguishing thread which ranthrough the whole fabric of his life.Aesthetics and CriticismBorn in Sicily, in the province ofPalermo, November 12, 1882, he wasin Florence early in the century,studying and writing for newspapers.In the course of his journalistic workhe went to Germany, absorbing German culture as few Italians have.Before long he was writing poetry inthe new tongue. From 1910 to 1917he was Professor of German Literature at the University of Rome.During these years he purposelyneglected creative work, devotinghimself to aesthetics and "militant"criticism, especially of his contemporaries. Some poems emerged, the un-20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdeniable utterances, to be gatheredwith later ones and published in 1922.In 1917 he moved to the Universityof Milan where he was Professor, firstof German Literature, then of Aesthetics and History of Criticism. Inhis writing, however, he entered abroader field, summoned to it, as itwere, by the crises of war and peace.As foreign editor of the Corrieredella Sera of Milan, and as head ofthe Press and Propaganda Bureau(1917-18), he became the leader ofdemocratic opinion in Italy, a strongadvocate for Wilson and the Leagueof Nations. Like Plato in Sicily, hetried to advance his Republic, whichhe conceived of more and more as arepublic of the world.Literary criticism he now neglected,but without abandoning literature assuch. As he writes of himself in theEncyclopaedia Britannica: "The bulkof his work as a novelist, a poet, anda dramatist belongs to the secondperiod of his literary career, between1920 and the early '30s. Best knownis the novel Rube (1921), a picture ofthe moral and intellectual disintegration out of which fascism was soon togrow." From the same time come theshort stories, like moments of rest inthe workings of enormous energy.March of FascismThe rise of Mussolini was a time oftrial to Borgese. It ended in 1931 withhis refusal to take the Fascist oathand the exile which he sometimescalled the fate of creative Italians.He came through Canada with anAmerican immigration card datedOctober 3, 1932. The usual time ofwandering followed — from Californiato New York to Smith College — until1936 found him settled at Chicago asProfessor of Italian Literature. Hereas in Italy, and on an increasing scaleas the world- crisis intensified, he gavehimself to ideal politics.In 1937 came Goliath, The Marchof Fascism, its rise from the historyand character of the Italian people,its operations, and its destiny ofviolence. Borgese wrote the bookdirectly, in his adopted language.Arthur Livingston, in the New YorkTimes review of December 12, 1937,said: "In Borgese our country hasgained possession of Italy's leadingpublicist and intellectual. . . . Fewwriters of our day in America can useEnglish with such utter mastery.Goliath is an important event in"American literature."The Epilogue reveals the Borgesedream, a humanistic vision of thefuture, ending:"This is Utopia. But what is man's earth if not the place designed forUtopia? Time indeed, hardly is in thehand of man. Time is the inmost substance of what men call God. But whatmen have dreamed and willed, in goodor evil, God and time have fulfilled."American CitizenThe problem then was to will anddream for the good. But to dream involved belief of some kind, and abelief so high was sure to end in bitterness. First was America. Alwaysgrasping the ideal, he took us at thelevel of our democratic proclamations.There is something touching in the pride with which he received hiscitizenship. He went to the ceremonyin a frock coat. For a dinner to whichhe was invited that evening, he sentan enormous table decoration — anAmerican flag woven of coloredflowers. To the children of his American friends he gave gala gifts, whileeveryone he knew at all received aprinted card in the mail: "G. A. Borgese, American Citizen, Chicago, April12, 1938."Inevitably his demands were ashigh as his dreams. It was fine whenan Italian exile crawled on the Fascists in Goliath; it was another thingwhen the increasing fervor of mission— G. A. BorgeseDream of a Decent DeathIDid you deserve a quiet death? did you —at least since you heard those flutes of the night —live your life without greed or fear, sloth orwrath, an unbroken day that earned its sleep?And did you trust the undisclosed tomorrow?Then Death will stand by your bedside with foldedwings, ready to receive your last breath, long,full-drawn, ascendant, like the word expire.Then dying will be easier much than wasbeing born, a choice not yours yet willed byacceptance mild, and there will be crying,your name burning past you like a pure lamp.III dreamed that Death was a staircase of marble,deep-toned, not black, with fluorescent lusterfar-kindled lambent on its massive rails.I went down step by step and was alone.I even had asked my young wife to goto a party where she might hear music andpass bright drinks on unvacillating trays,then to report to me late at bedside.Thus solitary I went the spiral way,dim but not dark, neither hurrying norremiss nor leaning on the stately rails,self-guided earthward to the large low floorand bed to lie on and take sober leave.I thought that everybody in that mansionlived and died as I did, tuned to the hours,until he hears the call of his midnight.APRIL, 1953 21drove him in the book Common Cause(1943) to lash America to its greatideals:"This American crisis will be overcomeas soon as America, 'chastely just,' restores to its purity the universal message, above nations and classes, on thestrength of which it rose, last in timeand first in hope, among nations. . . .And there is no wisdom wiser than thequestion and proposal of the Nisei childwho said to her Jap Crow mother in theAmerican concentration camp: "Why arewe here, Mother? Let us go back toAmerica."This whole war period was his mostactive one politically. Out of a seriesof conferences with seventeen otherthinkers grew the The City of Man,published in 1940. Borgese, as secretary, wrote the book. Meanwhile, aconstant series of articles was appearing in the Atlantic Monthly, Nation,and The American Scholar. He wasoften on the University's Round Tableof the Air.The last great effort of his visionaryplanning was the Committee to Framea World Constitution. The City ofMan conferences had explored theway. A new group was organized byBorgese and Professor RichardMcKeon, with the backing and chairmanship of Robert M. Hutchins. Theycalled on Hutchins less than a weekafter the atomic bomb had hit Hiroshima. Borgese was named secretary.Eleven exceptional minds took partin these discussions. The documentthat finally emerged was based onBorgese's first draft. He consideredhis work with this committee thesupreme labor of his life, and — likeall the rest — it fulfilled his theory of poetry. It reached out to embody inideas and words the shape of thechosen future. But it proved more andmore a sacrifice for a lost cause. Hewas fighting against the tide. It couldnot move him, but it left him anisland, marooned.There are those who regrettedBorgese's preoccupation with worldgovernment. For several years it became the dominant force of his life,seeming to crowd out everything else.How much more he could have denecreatively had he spared himself thisdedication to what he knew was anunachievable goal, no one can say.Certainly the book on Christ and thechurch, which he had planned as hiseffort, was constantly postponed.In a letter of October 4, 1943, havingfinished the proofs of Common Cause,he wrote from Puerto Rico: "I havestarted for the twelfth — and I trustlast — time Haggia Sophia, my long-bred book on religion." But it wasonly in the last years, after the worldhopes and labors had withered, thathe returned to it again; and it wasin the midst of this work that he died.In the meanwhile, he had shouldered that other Common Cause, themagazine. It began as a journal ofthe Committee to Frame a WorldConstitution, but broadened anddeepened itself as it slowly lost itssupport, dying in 1951 nobly, like ahero in old tragedy.Perhaps the profoundest pagesprinted in it were Borgese's own,selections from what will be his lastEnglish book, Foundations of theWorld Republic, to be published this June by the Press. Here we see howa philosophical and poetic mind canfind a way, through world politics andpolemic, to ultimate wisdom, expressed in prophetic and singing form.Mysteries of consolationFor the creative was never suppressed or spoiled in Borgese, whatever the dedication to the worldconstitution, or frustration of its in-effectuality. The disillusion of smallminds may produce bitterness; that ofthe great opens to mysteries of poignant consolation.There was plenty of disillusion. Thepolitical reversal and hardening of thepost-war period forced Borgese moreand more out of public life. The deathof Common Cause, itself, for a manwho had formed policy in Europe withsimilar writing, was a blow. For several years he fought through whatseemed no less than an ideal foreclosure. Then slowly he inclined toItaly, to influence and honor, a lastrich contentment, unexpected death,entombment as cne of the nation'sgreat.But there was a deeper consolation.As the prose of Foundations of theWorld Republic attests, Borgese neverlest his dream. Most of all, it wasthrough these years, from 1944 on,that the English poems took form.The Montezuma, it is true, is earlier.It is a long poetic play, intended fora screen opera, at present with RogerSessions for musical setting, mentioned in a letter of 1938 and finishedby 1945.A passage from it was published inthe Saturday Review, July 21, 1951,with a few of Borgese's other Englishpoems, the first to be printed. DavidDaiches, in introducing them, writesthat Borgese "brought to the Englishtongue polyphonic echoes of the wholestream of European literature . . .handling the language with a civilizedcunning, yet always subordinatingechoes to central meaning . . . "Daiches considered the MontezumaBorgese's English masterpiece.But the later lyrics are of a darkerand more personal beauty. Theyspring from the creative isolation ofthe last American years and are theultimate answer to whatever thoseyears could bring. These almost neglected English poems, wrung from theheart of world-tragedy and personaltranscendence, are — of all Borgese'sexpression — perhaps the most massively forged. Here is the giant voiceof his prose, but purified to simplicity — a giant speaking softlyassuaging truths.BodhisattvaThe wisher's wish a magnet of repulse,his urge's brunt removed what it demanded.Between him and the thing a gulf was fixed.Thus he sat still at last and wished no more.Small birds lighted on him, blooms graced his lap,of wake and dream a costly cloth was made,whereon were limned the hieroglyphs of bliss.And listen, said the Voice to his inner ear,of all you gave up is a treasure made,Your hand does not move, supine floats your will,the wave of Being will not let you sink.— G. A. Borgese22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEby Faculty and AlumniTHE NATURE OF GAMBLING. ByDavid D. Allen, AM '51, Coward-Mc-Cann, Inc., 1952, p. 249. $3.50.Bookstore browsers may be confounded by the title of this volume.Gamblers will find it no aid to bringing in a long shot. Reformers willfind it insufficiently passionate. Itattempts to tell people how to thinkabout gambling.Mr. Allen claims that arguments ongambling, which he quotes at length,can be reduced to three issues. Thefirst is whether gambling is "a fundamental human activity." He arguesthe affirmative because it is widespread, as well as ancient, althoughnot universal.The second issue is whether gambling is harmful. He contends that itis, pointing to personality breakdownswhich follow gambling losses, and tothe tendency of criminals to takeover gambling enterprises. Becauseof this tendency he considers publicgambling much more harmful thanprivate gambling.The crux of the book is the thirdissue: Can gambling be suppressed?Allen concludes that either an arousedpublic opinion, adequate laws or efficient law enforcement machinery willassure suppression. He reports success in several areas, as Minnesotaand California, but we note that nowhere has suppression yet been long-lived.While dealing with suppression hetouches on legalization. "Simple"legalization, as in Nevada, is foundto promote gangster activity and increased relief rolls, either there orin adjacent states. "Sophisticated"legalization, as in Sweden and someother European countries, yields satisfactory control. Here the state accepts bets on sporting events anddivides a percentage of the total receipts among those who correctlypick the outcome.Since no one knows in advance howmany have picked any particular outcome, odds cannot be anticipated andcorrect predictions may not yieldmuch gain. For this reason, he states,Swedish gambling does not attractlarge speculation or professionalgamblers, and remains a relatively innocent diversion. He dismisses itspotentialities for the United Statesbecause of what he calls "the American variable" of organized crime, andbecause of the tremendous administrative task which would be involvedin establishing it here.Some readers may be alienated bystatements not essential to the analysis of gambling. The book opens withthe logical-positivist philosophy thatmoral assertions are "meaningless"because they cannot be verified. Instead it proposes to evaluate gambling by its contribution to "thelong-term growth and well-being" ofour society. Those who disagree withthis philosophical position claim thatmoral judgments are involved in distinguishing between social growthand social decay, and in determining"well-being."There are also excursions into several social sciences which specialistsmay question. Examples are thedesignation of Western society as"the only society that has continuedto evolve," and the assertion: "It wasin the period of the Greek city-statesthat individuals developed self-consciousness." An appendix, "The Social Psychology of Gambling," hardlybegins to cover the questions whicha social psychologist could address tothis topic.THE NATURE OF GAMBLINGprovides a systematic approach to animportant social problem on whichliterature is limited. It is valuablebecause it delineates most of thearguments regarding alternative solutions to this problem. While itsconclusions are presented as incontrovertible, we were left still pondering many questions. Does the suppression of existing gambling formslead to the expansion of private gambling and to the development of newtypes of public gambling? Is gambling especially furthered where, asin urban society, life is highly competitive and great importance is attached to pecuniary gain? If suppression is likely to be imperfect, would sophisticated legalization beless harmful?Is not the real dilemma the conflictbetween our Puritan verbal creeds,which provide ideological bulwarksagainst legalization, and our seculartolerance of private vices, which prevents effective suppression?Daniel Glaser, '39, AM '47Sociologist-Actuary, IllinoisState Penitentiary, JolietTURBULENT ERA, A DIPLOMATIC RECORD OF FORTY YEARS,1904-1945, by Joseph C. Grew, editedby Walter Johnson, assisted by Nancy Harvison Hooker (2 Volumes,Houghton-Mifflin Company, Boston,1952).Joseph Grew was a very conscientious and very industrious diplomat. From 1904, when he enteredthe Foreign Service as unsalariedDeputy Consul -General in Cairo, to1945, when he retired as Under Secretary of State, he kept a diary commenting on events, day by day, withthe exception of some periods whenhe was too busy. The result was 39bound volumes of about 1000 typewritten pages each. In addition, Mr.Grew accumulated 129 bound volumes of his letters and papers andsome unbound papers of the last fiveyears of his service.Professor Walter Johnson, editorof papers of former Secretary ofState Edward Stettinius, is to be congratulated, along with his assistant,Nancy Harvison Hooker, on producing from this mass of material tworeadable volumes. To reduce over150,000 pages of manuscript to 1500pages of print requires excision ofsome 99 per cent of the material. Butwhat is presented gives an impressionof continuity and at the same time ofpublic importance. Evidently much ofthe manuscript dealing with personaland routine matters was eliminated.The portion retained is significant fordiplomatic history.Mr. Grew thought it a responsibility of diplomats to aid subsequenthistorians by recording "what one isthinking at the time it is written" toprovide "color and atmosphere to aparticular scene of the past." He adds"a diary is of no real value unless itis thoroughly indiscreet, and mine, inBerlin, at Lausanne, and elsewhere,left nothing to be desired in thatrespect."Interest will center particularlyupon Grew's mission to Japan. Whenhe went there in 1932 American relations with Japan were alreadystrained and Mr. Grew, as an experi-APRIL, 1953 23enced diplomat, was then less vulnerable to the influence of localopinion than he had been in 1914.He has, however, been criticized forover friendliness to Japan, and therecord shows that he maintained anattitude of detachment and understanding in the Japanese-Chineseconflict.The volumes under review do notduplicate the publication of 1944 although they do give a resume of theperiod by publication of additionalmaterial, especially AmbassadorGrew's history of his mission to Japanfrom 1932 to 1937 included in a dispatch to the Department of State ofSeptember 21, 1940, and discussingat length the China incident of 1937(Chaps. 30-32). A letter written inSeptember, 1941, to Count MichimasaSoyeshima, who lectured at the University of Chicago under the HarrisFoundation in 1925, presents a careful resume of United States-Japaneserelations at that time, with a suggestion of the steps which Japan mighttake to open a "new era" of friendship between the two countries. Inthis letter Grew was more optimisticthan he had been in his letter toPresident Roosevelt of December 14,1940, expressing the opinion that a"showdown" was inevitable and "the principal question at issue is whetherit is to our advantage to have thisshowdown soon or to have it late."While detained in Japan after PearlHarbor, awaiting return to the UnitedStates, Grew began a detailed statement of the events leading to PearlHarbor which he subsequently elaborated. Although convinced that the"war guilt must rest, and does rest,exclusively upon Japan," he felt hisgovernment has been too inflexiblein not accepting the proposal of PrimeMinister Konoye for a conferencewith President Roosevelt in September 1941.Grew attributed this attitude to theconviction in Washington that noJapanese government could carry outa commitment that opposed the ambitions of the Japanese army leaders.Secretary of State Hull in his Memoirs says that such a meeting wouldresult "either in another Munich orin nothing at all unless substantialagreement was achieved in advance."Grew believed that sufficient agreement in principal had been achievedand continued to regret that this lasttry for peace was not made.The last part of the volumes narrates Mr. Grew's service as Directorof the Far Eastern Office and UnderSecretary of State from 1942 to 1945 and was written by him in 1950. Hismost notable stands during this period were for preserving the institutionof the Japanese Emperor after thew^ar, in which he was successful, andfor modifying the "unconditional surrender" demand in order to facilitateJapanese surrender before Hiroshima,in which he was unsuccessful. Publicpressure, because of the interpretation of these stands as "pro- Japanese"may have contributed to Mr. Grew'sresignation in August 1945, but as hewrote a month later "our plan forthe post-war treatment of Japan wasa great deal more drastic than theplan finally sent by Byrnes to Mac-Arthur. The 'Japan crowd' and the'soft-peace boys' wanted to go a lotfarther than was finally done."Grew says he was the last "politicalappointment" in the Foreign Service,but he did much to establish that service as a professional career with traditions of non-partisanship and opportunities to reach the highest postsunder administrations of either party.Few if any men in American history have such a record of significantnon-partisan service in conductingAmerican foreign policy.Quincy WrightProfessor, Political Scienceare you under 30?• A man who wants to relocate to a better position?• Just coming out of military service?• Making your career choice before College Graduation?You may qualify for an administrative or sales opportunitywith the Connecticut General LifeInsurance Company.Our growth and plans for expansion have created not only a demandfor new men, but the opportunity forthem to advance rapidly.CONNECTICUT GENERAL IS A LEADERIN A RAPIDLY GROWING INDUSTRY.300%200%s100% In the last 10 years the number ofCompany officers has increased by87% with a corresponding increasein other executive jobs. Of 261 college men hired in the 5 years from1948 to '52, 128 are in the homeoffice, 93 are in group insurance salesand service, and 40 are in life insurance sales or sales management.Salaries . . . are appropriate toyour experience and record . . . compare favorably not only with otherinsurance companies, but with companies in other fields.Approximately half the men selected in 19 58 will work in the Home Office in accounting, mathematics ofinsurance, administration, advertising, claim administration, investment, personnel, and underwriting(determining the eligibility of applicants for insurance) .If you want to sell . . . you will havean unequalled opportunity in theline of personal or group insurancesales and service.One particular opportunity thisyear is a Sales ManagementTraining Program for men in the23-29 age group. It leads to managerial positions in branch officeswith top-bracket income potentialFOR COMPLETE INFORMATION . . . Write,giving details in full confidence toMr. Philip H. Yost, PersonnelDepartment, Connecticut GeneralLife Insurance Company, Hartford15, Connecticut.1952 Connecticut General • GROUP INSURANCE• PENSION PLANS• ACCIDENT & HEALTH• LIFE24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINErCeaderd (^/uldeISSUES IN HIGHEREDUCATIONThe following books, suggested byfaculty members both in and out ofthe Department of Education, showthat the vigor of the debate over theaims and practices of higher education in America is undiminished.The first three books deal moreparticularly with a theory of generaleducation, which has been practiced —and debated — at Chicago for severaldecades now.THE IDEA AND PRACTICE OFGENERAL EDUCATION. By presentand former members of the Collegefaculty, The University of Chicago.U. of C. Press, 1950. $3.50.This is an account of the College'sefforts to control, define, and construct an intelligible and effectivecurriculum in general education. Itanswers these questions: Why doesthe College of the University of Chicago prescribe a precisely definedprogram of study for its students instead of offering them a wide varietyof electives? What is this program?How was it decided upon, and how isit taught?The book describes each subject inthe curriculum — its significance andcontent — as well as the admissions, teaching, examining, and administrative methods used in the College.GENERAL EDUCATION INSCHOOL AND COLLEGE. A Committee Report. Harvard UniversityPress, 1952. $2.This is a report of a study sponsored by three schools — Andover,Exeter, and Lawrenceville, and threeuniversities — Harvard, Princeton andYale. The committee's point of departure was the concern over weaknesses in coordination between secondary schools and colleges. Thebody of the report sets forth theprinciples and practices aimed at eliminating these weaknesses and developing a sound program of generaleducation.EDUCATION AND LIBERTY. TheRole of the School in a Modern Democracy. By James B. Conant. Harvard University Press, 1952. $3.Mr. Conant is anxious to preserveour liberties, and he sees the strengthening of the public school system,particularly at the secondary schoollevel, as one of the best ways to doit. In this slim volume he emphasizesthe need of a common core of required subjects for all high schoolstudents plus a range of elective subjects for those preparing for college.He proposes an extension of the public high school and the terminal two-year junior college.GOALS FOR AMERICAN EDUCATION. Edited by Lyman Bryson etal. Harper, 1950. $5.There are many contributors to this discussion, including some of the mostoutstanding leaders of Americanthought. They here concentrate theirefforts on the problems of higher education in a rapidly changing world.As one might expect, there is considerable disagreement, but the free-for-all discussion is one of the book'svaluable aspects.COLLEGE AND THE COMMUNITY.By Baker Brownell. Harper, 1952.$3.50.Brownell, in answering the question of what's wrong with highereducation in America, claims thatcolleges mistakenly train their students for careers, instead of for thelife of whole persons in actual communities. He feels that colleges haveforgotten that a democratic way oflife depends on the well-being ofsmall groups where people know oneanother and have a sense of belonging.EDUCATION AND THE SPIRIT OFTHE AGE. By Sir Richard Livingstone. Oxford, 1952. $2.This volume contains the lecturesdelivered by a competent British observer in America last year. He decries what he feels to be the solventeffect of liberalism and nationalismon accepted beliefs and standards. Heemphasizes the philosophical approach to studies at the expense ofthe analytical on the grounds thateveryone's conduct must be based onprinciples.(Advertisement) (Advertisement) (Advertisement)• . • and records show that, throughoutthe length and breadth of the nation,there are few communities indeedwithout a policyholder, annuitantor beneficiary of the Sun LifeAssurance Company of Canada ...Branch and agency service in strategic key centers around the globe,including 100 Sun Life offices throughout the United States and Canada.APRIL, 1953 25CLASS A NEWS1906Ellen M. Clark, AM '31, continues inher post as Chairman of the History andSocial Science Department at WisconsinState College in Superior.1913Henry F. Tenney, JD '15, a partner inthe Chicago law firm of Tenney, Sherman, Bentley & Guthrie, was elected adirector of Inland Steel Co.1914John A. Greene, president of OhioBell Telephone Co., spoke in Februaryto the Welfare Council of Chicago on thesubject, "A Business Executive Looks atHealth and Welfare Services." Mr.Greene has been an active participant inmany social service agencies. He is nowa trustee of the Welfare Federation ofCleveland and the YMCA of that city.His many volunteer activities won himthe Distinguished Service Award fromthe Cleveland Community Fund in 1944.Hunfay D. Lee, Shanghai banker andindustrialist, fled China when the Redsmoved in. He and his wife moved toNew York where they are now livingnear one of their daughters at 617 W.113th St. Five children live in thestates — from Los Angeles to Boston. TheLees dropped in at Alumni House inFebruary to revisit the campus: Theywere returning from California, visitingtheir children along the way. FromChicago they went to Ann Arbor to seea daughter before returning to NewYork. Mr. Lee is planning to return in1954 for his 40th reunion.Howell W. Murray, vice-president ofA. G. Becker & Co., has been named adirector of the Rhinelander Paper company in Wisconsin.Maurice A. Pollak, vice-president of Draper & Kramer, Inc., was reelectedpresident for 1953 of the Chicago Mortgage Bankers' association.1921Mortimer Harris is the new presidentof the Jewish Federation of Chicago. Mr.Harris is president of the Harris BrothersCompany in Chicago, manufacturers anddistributors of building material.Chalmer C. McWilliams is sales manager for the Carbon Dubbs Co., inStanton, Calif.Anna Robin is director of instructionalmaterials for the National Conference ofChristians and Jews in Chicago.Elizabeth D. Zachari, SM'29, is consultant in social studies in the curriculum division of the Louisville, Ky., publicschools.1925Josephine Pearson Strawn reports thatshe keeps busy with home duties, doingguidance work at South Shore HighSchool (Chicago), and serving as president of the Women's University Club ofChicago. Her son, Lt. James Strawn,received his degree from M. I. T. lastJune and also his commission in theArmy Engineers. He was married lastSeptember, and is now stationed inJapan.1926Edward C. Ames has been named director of employee and public relationsin Calumet & Hecla, Inc., Calumet,Michigan. The firm is now establishingits general offices in Chicago.John R. Howell is president of theschool board of Chagrin Falls, Ohio.1927Milton Mallin, JD, formerly assistant One mart's familyDexter Fairbanks, Jr., '35, andhis family are residents of Portland, Oregon. In his Christmasgreeting to his friends, Dexterpenned a lively description of hisfamily's activities and profiled eachof his three children in their respective stages of development. Seeif his descriptions don't remindyou of many another growing-upfamily:"Our cat loves Molly who is ahigh school sophomore, and thatmeans that in every sense of theword, she's a young lady and hasassumed the position of chieffamily critic. She has her ownCharge-a-Plate and, if I can livethrough the ordeal, is learning todrive a car. This year she is taking Biology but majoring in Movies. She has every magazine published on the subject and hasstudied the inner workings of eachmovie star with the same vigorshe uses in dissecting the earthworm. All her activities are financed by a thriving baby-sittingservice. If you need money, seeMolly. In the department of self-beautification, she can now applylipstick with a thin nylon brushand hopes to learn to walk in herhigh heels in another few weeks.She has also mastered severalother lady-like tricks which I'mnot supposed to know about, muchless mention.Lucy is in the seventh grade, adozen years old and no longer ourlittle girl. She has dropped herpigtails and now sports the sportiest of pony tails which she canflip at you in the most expressivemanner. She still leads a charmedlife that requires no money, justa smile and a twinkle. The boyscause Lucy no end of trouble, firstshe's for them — then against. Thisis her first year of dancing school.She's mastered the 'square' stepand the 'hesitation,' but when shedances in 'close position,' evidently that is what makes the boys'hands sweat. Lucy has developedinto quite a swimmer; her bestevent is the back stroke. She isalso expert at stirring up excitement in the locker room.Dexter III turned eight this falland has entered into the mysticorder of Cub Scouts. My sympathy is extended to all Den Mothers. He is busy now earning pointsand badgering me to sign for workdone of doubtful merit. At themoment, I am giving one point foreach ten questions he doesn't ask.Dexter is still a great sportsman.The rougher the game the better.He hated to see the football seasonend, but the basketball is alreadybouncing; This year there will beno games in the living room. Likeall little boys, he has great dreamsof glory and visualizes himself amixture of George Washington andRocky Marciano with a little ofChief Joseph thrown in for goodmeasure. He continues to provethat he is indestructible, but wewish he'd learn to read a littlebetter."26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEattorney general of the State of Illinois,has announced his return to the generalpractice of law in Chicago.1928Fred McManus, JD, is an attorney inClearwater, Fla.Lillian Sattler, AM, is a member of theEnglish faculty at Calumet High Schoolin Chicago. She is advisor for the Yearbook, and also a member of the scholarship committee.Mary Stanton, AM '42, PhD '43, hasbeen appointed program director for thesouthern California area of the NationalConference of Christians and Jews. Shewas formerly director of the CitizensAdoption Committee of Los AngelesCounty.J. R. Van Pelt, president of MontanaSchool of Mines, has been appointed byGovernor John Bonner as one of Montana's three commissioners to administerthe Western Interstate Higher EducationCompact. This agreement, among mostof the Rocky Mountain and PacificCoast states, will permit students fromany participating state to attend a medical, dental, or pharmacy school in anyother participating state without payingout-of-state tuition and without quotarestrictions.1929Stanley A. Ferguson was married onOctober 4, 1952, to Miss Margaret Wragg of Cleveland. Mr. Ferguson is superintendent of the Cleveland City Hospital.Frank B. Kille, SM, PhD '34, Dean ofCarleton College and Professor ofZoology, has been elected chairman ofthe American Conference of AcademicDeans.1930Harold L. Miller, Rush MD, attendedthe International Congress of Dermatology in London last July.Julian Towster, JD, PhD '47, is Associate Professor of Political Science at theUniversity of California.1931Daryl Chase, AM, PhD '34, is presidentof the Branch Agricultural College inCedar City, Utah.Allen R. Levin was released from military service last October and is nowserving as counseling psychologist at theVA Medical Teaching Group Hospital inMemphis.Russel B. Swensen, AM, PhD '34, ishead of the department of history atBrigham Young University in Provo,Utah.George S. Tanner, AM, is director ofthe Latter Day Saints Institute of Religion in Moscow, Idaho.1935Joseph Carbone, MD, is a pediatrician in Gary, Ind. His own family includestwo children, a boy, 5, and a girl, 9.Everett C. Parker is director of thecommunications research project at theYale University Divinity School.John R. Womer, vice-president of theGreat Lakes Mortgage Corp., is secretary-treasurer of the Chicago MortgageBankers' Association.1936Helen Pruitt was married on February27 to Justin R. Swift. The couple is living in Evanston, 111.Robert B. Schnering has been electedpresident of the Curtiss Candy Co., andhis brother, Philip, '39, has been namedsenior vice-president in charge of sales.Robert succeeds his father, Otto Schnering, '13, who died recently after headingthe company since founding it 36 yearsago.1937Verne Crackel, AM '40, is county superintendent of schools of Will Countyin Illinois.William M. Crockett, Jr., former manager of the Quadrangle Club and a confirmed bachelor, got himself unconfirmedin Florida last fall. No one you know,but they are living happily at 2951 SouthBay Shore Drive, Miami. Bill is withthe Miami Beach Federal and LoanAssociation.Gordon Gibson, AM '50, PhD '52, andhis wife, Bethune Millen, are in AfricaAre YouIn the Top Third?The University's Committee on Aging has discovered that. . . one-third of the people over fifty consider their yearsbeyond the half-century mark as the happiest, the mostsatisfying of their lives. Out of this research has come anew, unique, Home-Study course . . .MAKING THE MOST OF MATURITY. . . designed to help you join that top third. This courseoffers you an opportunity, under skilled guidance, to developyour own plans for your later maturity. Topics includefinances,^ health and nutrition, family relations, leisure-timeactivities, where to live, and — most important — a philosophyfor the later years.MAKING THE MOST OF MATURITY is one of over a hundred courses in Home-Study's unique program of continuing education for adults. For full information,write for the Home-Study Announcements. Alumni Association members may enroll for only$20.00, which includes text, syllabus, supplementarypamphlets plus instruction for a year. (Tuition forothers, $25.00.) Ten lessons; no final examination;non- credit.The Home-Study DepartmentThe University of Chicago1375 East Sixtieth Street, Chicago 37, IllinoisPlease enroll me today in MAKING THE MOST OFMATURITY, at the special Alumni Association rateof $20.00. My (check, money order) is enclosed.(Make payable to "The University of Chicago.")Name Mrs.MissAddress . . .Born Degree Taken when?this year doing anthropological researchamong the Herero. The work is financed,in part, by a Social Science ResearchCouncil fellowship. They are accompanied by their two children.Edythe Hollender Geiger is a substitute teacher in the elementary schoolsof Albany, N. Y. Her husband, RabbiLeo Geiger, died last year.David J. Hopkins is vice-president incharge of sales and promotion of theEmerson Radio and Phonograph Co., inNew York City.John A. Mattmiller, MBA '47, was recently promoted to the position of vice-president in the operating departmentof the Northern Trust Co., in Chicago.He has been with the bank since 1937.He has two daughters, Joan and Marcia.Nettie Reeps Schmuckal sends news ofthe arrival of their third daughter, Kathryn, Lynn, born November 15.1938Lindsey Hobbs, PhD, is an associate( Advertisement JRetiring to sunny Florida? For abeautiful home in a city of lakesnear Rollins College, settle in Orlando or Winter Park. See or writea University of Chicago alumna,Edna M. Feltgas,' with the HaroldShepard Realty Co., 20 E. Washington St., Orlando, Florida.Telephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL Fhr~M826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 15, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLT. A. REHNOUIST CO.voyest. miCONCRETEFLOORS — SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSINDUSTRIAL FLOORINGEMERGENCY REPAIR WORKCONCRETE BREAKINGWATERPROOFINGINSIDE WALLS6639 S. Vernon AvenueNOrmal 7-0433 "Above and Beyond"Norman Panama, '36 (left in picture) and Melvin Frank, '34, (right)are wearing quizzical looks in thisshot as they watch Col. Paul Tibbetsdemonstrate, with actor Robert Taylorlooking on, a model of the famedEnola Gay, from which Tibbets directed the dropping of the atom bombover Hiroshima.Actually, Panama and Frank are notquizzical, but happy, about their latestsuccess as a writer-producer-directorteam which started as a pen partnership at the University. The movie,"Above and Beyond," is their latesteffort in their 15-year struggle toestablish themselves as serious screenwriters. (The movie, in case you'vemissed it, tells the story of Col. Tibbets — whom Robert Taylor portrays inthe movie — and his historic missionwith the Enola Gay from the point ofview of his wife and what it was like to be married to the man who carriedthe biggest secret of World War TJ.)The pair got started in Hollywood in1942 with a 135-page script on "MyFavorite Blonde." They served asproducer-writers for "Mr. BlandingBuilds His Dream House," and addeddirecting as well on "The Reformerand the Redhead," "Strictly Dishonorable," and "Callaway Went Thataway."The team got into producing inorder to make sure what they wroteactually got into the film. They addeddirecting to their skills when theycouldn't get the directors they wantedfor their "Reformer and the Redhead"and convinced MGM moguls thatPanama and Frank could do the job.They've been a triple-threat teamever since, and are now busy at workon another film, tentatively entitled,"The Affair," which they describe as a"frank discussion of marital relations."professor of chemistry at the Universityof Michigan.1939Jaime Benitez, AM, Chancellor of theUniversity of Puerto Rico, has been reappointed to a second term as a memberof the U. S. National Commission forUNESCO.1940Seymour Coburn is now with theAssociation' of American Railroads as achemical engineer.Lester B. Rickman, AM, has beenserving as executive secretary of theMissouri Christian Missionary Societyfor the past four years. He was sent asa delegate from the Missouri ChristianChurches to the World Convention ofChristian Churches in Australia lastsummer. His wife, Leona Nelson Rick man, '35, is teaching in the Jefferson Citypublic schools.1941Thomas A. Hart, PhD, chief, CountyDivision, Near East and Africa Development Service of Point 4, has been transferred to the Institute of Inter-AmericanAffairs and assigned to La Paz, Bolivia,as Chief of the Education Field Party.This is a return assignment for theHarts. They were previously assignedthere in 1945-46.J. Gordon Henry, JD, was recentlyelected to the position of manager ofmarket research at the Northern TrustCo., in Chicago.John Jefferson is now associated withRadio Free Europe, and gives his addressas Munich, Germany.Hyman Ratner, SM '48, was marriedlast August 31 to Marilyn Meltzer. Thecouple is living in Berkeley, Calif., whereTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHyman is research chemist with theShell Oil Co.1942Paul F. Christenson, MD, is a residentinstructor in radiology at Salt LakeCounty General Hospital in Salt LakeCity.Richard F. Dorsey, with United AirLines since his graduation from the University, has been named station groundservices manager for the company atHonolulu. During his 15 years with theair transport industry, he has been station manager at Newark and Philadelphia, and for the past year has beenstation ground services manager at Cleveland.RICHARD F. DORSEY, '42, AIR EXECDonald Foley, AM, is research associate with the Bureau of Applied SocialResearch at Columbia University.Melvin Gerstein, PhD '45, head of thecombustion fundamentals section at theLewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory ofNational Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, was in Rome, Italy, in December,attending a meeting of the AdvisoryGroup for Aeronautical Research andDevelopment. AGARD is a member ofthe North Atlantic Treaty Organization.Yi-Chuang Lu (Mrs. Tang Tsou), AM,PhD '50, is an assistant professor in thedepartment of sociology at the University of Utah. Her husband, Tang Tsou,AM '45, PhD '51, is also on the staff,teaching at the Extension Division.1943Thomas W. Anderson, MD '45, wasmarried last June to Grace A. Bartshe.They are at home in Seattle, Wash.Theodore E. Ridley, MBA '46, is citymanager of Carey, Ohio.Jacob Van Staaveren, AM, is now inTaegu, Korea, where he is continuinghis work as chief historian for the FifthAir Force in Korea.1944Laurence Finberg, MD '46, and hiswife, Harriet Levinson, '45, AM '47, announce the birth of their second child, Mary Jean, on November 20, 1952. Dr.Finberg is assistant chief of pediatricsat Baltimore City Hospitals and directorof the out-patient department.Elvira Vegh (Mrs. Jesu Gil de Lama-drid) is a biochemical assistant at theInstitute of Human Biology in AnnArbor, Mich.1945Joseph Kuney is production managerfor the four American Chemical Societyindustrial publications, with headquarters in Washington, D.C. The Kuneyfamily includes three boys, and theirresidence is in Arlington where theyhave "a bright new house."Guillcrmo Mateo, MD '48, is finishingup his two years of Army duty and expects to return to Billings Hospital inApril to complete his residency in thedepartment of medicine.Louis B. Thomas, MD, is in residencyat Memorial Center for Cancer andAllied Diseases in New York City.1946Thcana Brotsos, AM '50, has been ateacher of art at Wells High School inChicago since last September.William S. Dix, PhD, has been appointed librarian at Princeton University. He assumed his new duties inFebruary after five years on the facultyof Rice Institute in Houston, Texas, asAssociate Professor of English and aslibrarian.Albert Friedlander, newly ordained asrabbi, is serving his first congregation inFort Smith, Ark.James G. Hodgson, PhD, head of thelibraries at Colorado A. &M., was oncampus early in February renewingfriendships. He was attending the midwinter meeting of the American LibraryAssociation at Edgewater Beach Hotel.Frank G. Mangin, Jr., back from theKorean battlefront, is enjoying civilianlife in Phoenix, Ariz., where he is inthe training program of the Valley National Bank.Wallulah Ockleberry, AM, was married on December 24, 1952 to George B.Hamilton.1947Robert A. Brand was awarded his PhDdegree from the University of Minnesotaat the December convocation.John Conneely, Jr.. MBA, is management engineer with the Royal-LiverpoolInsurance Group, in New York City.Sheldon I. Cooper was released fromactive duty in the Army in January aftera two-year term of service.Stephen V. Fulkerson, AM, receivedhis PhD in history from the Universityat the autumn convocation. He is nowa faculty member of the history department of Youngstown College in Ohio.Lt. Donald R. Gerth. AM '51, is presently' on active duty in the U. S. Air Force,stationed in Washington, D. C.Benjamin C. Korshot. MBA, is one ofthe new officers elected recently at theNorthern Trust Co., in Chicago. He became an assistant secretary of the trustdepartment. He has been with the banksince 1947.Joseph K. Kostolefsky and his wife,Constance, are residents of San Francisco, where Joseph is with the AmericanOptical Co.Marshall Rosenbluth, SM, PhD '49, is a AJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pound* or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, CR 7-266SBEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED • BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoGolden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID — WOT PLATEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4,Telephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON & BROS., Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributors ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketfXCfllfHCt IN f IfCTHCiU MOMCftELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.OlslilliIMt. Miiilmiin ail Mini •¦ELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. • ENglewood 4-7500APRIL, 1953POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisPHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Book Reproduction731 Plymouth CourtWAbash 2-8182Platers - SilversmithsSince 1917GOLD, SILVER, RHODIUMSILVERWARERepaired, Re finished, RelacqueredSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CEntral 6-6089-90 ChicagoA. T. STEWART LUMBER CO.Quality and ServiceSince 188879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phones Vlncennes 6-9000LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESy ENGRAVERS \l¦'— SINCE 1906 —+ WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES ?+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ?? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE ?"iRAYNEir• DALHEIM &CO.2801 W. 47TH ST, CHICAGO. physicist at the Los Alamos laboratory.The Army caught up with DouglasStewart, Jr., after he had taught for 2%years after leaving the University. Hespent a year in Korea.Jonas Siegel has returned from Venezuela and is now working as office manager for a pipe and tool and oil concernin Tulsa, Okla. He writes that he ismarried to Miss Olga Sverkedis and thatthey traveled in Central America andthe West Indies before settling down inTulsa.Robert F. Pearse, AM, PhD, '50, servedas a U. S. delegate to the Tenth International Management Congress under theauspices of the International Committeefor Scientific Management held in SaoPaulo, Brazil, in February. Mr. Pearseis director- executive of the appraisaland development division of the HaroldHoward Co., in Detroit, — industrial andmanagement consultants. He has alsoserved the University as a past chairmanof the Alumni Foundation.1948Myron B. Goers, MBA, is a captain inthe Air Force, and is currently stationedat the Wright-Patterson Air Force Basein Ohio.David Greene, SM '49, was marriedlast August 17 to the former Cyrile Okinof Chicago. David is teaching biology atWaller High School in Chicago.Hans W. Mattick is a research sociologist for the department of public safetyin Illinois, and at present is working asa sociologist-actuary at the Illinois Statepenitentiary in Joliet.Martin Numi, AM, is teaching in theDepartment of English at the Universityof North Dakota. A son, Michael, wasborn last August.Clair B. Owen, Jr., JD, was recentlyelected an attorney in the legal department of the Northern Trust Co., in Chicago. The Owens have two children,Geoffrey and Richard, and reside inArlington Heights, 111.Cpl. David Robl was married in earlyFebruary to Miss Erika Baumgartner ofNurnberg, Ger. A military pay specialistfor the 43rd Division's 169th Regiment,David is scheduled to return to the Statesshortly for release from active duty.Donald Sebera was commissioned anArmy second lieutenant on Januaryat Fort Riley, Kan. He is now attendinga specialty school.Donald Weinstein, AM '50, is an instructor in history at the State University of Iowa.1949Charles Goldfinch, AM, is a teacher ofhistory at McCallie's School in Chattanooga, Tenn.Andy F. Henry, AM, PhD '50, is withthe Laboratory of Social Relations atHarvard.Capt. Roger Little, AM, is in Koreastudying group behavior under combatconditions. Roger is a social scientistfrom the neuro -psychiatric researchArmy medical school, Walter Reed General Hospital.Bernard Marcantel, JD, is probably theyoungest district attorney to serve inLouisiana. He was recently elected DAof the 31st district. He was admitted tothe Louisiana Bar in 1950 and has beenpracticing law in Jennings since then.He and his wife have three children,David, Nancy and Gregory. Local and Long Dlstanco MovingStorage Facilities for Books,Record Cabinets, Trunks, orCarloads of FurniturePeterson FireproofWarehouse Inc.1011 EAST 55th STREETBUTTERFIELD 8-6711DAVID L. SUTTON, PresidentWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748llackstone Ave. TelephonePLaza 2-3313Verna P. Warner, DirectorAuto LiveryQuiet, unobtrusive serviceWhen you want it, as you want itCALL AN EMERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4-640030 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERESULTS . . .depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Adressographing - FoldingMailing - Copy Preparation - MultilithA Complete Service for Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn - Chicago 5 - WA 2-4561BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380Since J 878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholsterersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180Ashjian Bros. inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone REgent 4-6000GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186TELEVISIONRentals — sales New & ReconditionedRADIOSRadio-TV ServiceELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators Dishwashers DriersWashers Air Conditioners FreezersSPORTING GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSLPs & 45sFine collection for childrenHERMMS935 E. 55th StmtAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Julian A. Tishler, '33 1950Charles E. Bidwell is working this yearas a research assistant in the MidwestAdministration Center of the Department of Education at the University. Hehopes to have his Masters degree thisJune and then enter the Department ofEducation to work for his PhD in educational administration.Frank D. Dorey, PhD, is at the American University at Cairo on a Fulbrightgrant, lecturing on social research.Marie Berry Hawkins, AM, is directorof the School of Nursing at the MobileInfirmary in Alabama.Cpl. William Kaiser, AM, was releasedfrom active duty in the Army in January after a two-year term of service.Elaine Leonarde Albright, AM, isteaching in the Darwin School in Chicago.1951Slojan Bayitch, JD, is an associateprofessor of law and assistant law librarian at the University of Miami LawSchool.Maggie J. A. Bell, AM, was married onMay 14, 1952 to Mr. Wilbur Jiles, whoteaches at the Paul Dunbar School inNew Orleans and also owns two radio,television and record shops.Marvin Bernberg, MBA, is a classification officer at the City Hall in Chicago.Beatrice Ann Gibson is working forthe U.S. Steel Supply Co., in Chicago.Marshall Hodgson, PhD, who wrote ofhis experiences on a Fulbright grant inIndia in the MAGAZINE for May, 1952,is spending some time in Frankfort,Germany, before returning to the Midway.Martin Orans, who is continuing hisstudies at the University, was marriedon December 22, 1952 to Marian Yeh.William A. Pryor was married on July3 to Helen Allen in Long Beach, Calif.He is a chemistry student at the University of California, working for hisdoctorate.1952Andrew R. Baggaley, PhD, is now atthe University of Illinois where he isdoing research work on objective measures of personality.Eugene Becker, AM, is a social workerwith Traveler's Aid Society in Chicago.Ray Davenport is assistant to the director of the Memorial Student Centerat Texas A&M. "Having a wonderfultime," according to a recent note.Edward Engberg has joined the staffof Fortune Magazine as an associateeditor.Onnolee Lockley, AM, was married onJanuary 17, 1953, to Richard W. Stevensin Williamson, New York. The coupleresides in Madison, Wis.^emoriaEsther Hedquist, '00-'02, (Mrs. SamuelStephenson) died on November 26, 1952.She was a tutor for the Peoria (111.) CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field. Itis affiliated with the Fisk Teachers Agencyof Chicago, whose work covers all the educational fields. Both organizations assistin the appointment of administrators aswell as of teachers.Our service is nation-wide.HYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. MOnroe 6-3192[T Swift & CompanyA product of \\ 7409 So. State StreetLL Phone RAdcliffe 3-7400APRIL, 1953 31SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 1 00 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoWHOLESALE RETAILPARKER-HOLSMAN)'»IA"LT"o'g"s"fReal Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEZ>heexclusive Cleaner AWe operate our own dry. cleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608LOWER YOU.R COSTSWAGE INCENTIVESEMPLOYEE TRAININGPERSONNEL PROCEDURESIMPROVED METHODSJOB EVALUATIONROBERT B. SHAPIRO '33, DIRECTOR board of education at the time of herdeath.Oliver Leroy McCaskill, '01, JD '06,died January 13, 1953, at the age of 75.A teacher at Hastings College of Law,he was widely recognized as an authorityin the field of procedure, including codeand common law pleading and trialpractice. He had taught for 20 yearsat the University of Illinois and tenyears at Cornell University before goingto Hastings in 1946.Rowland J. Rogers, '01, JD '03, diedSeptember 23, 1952, in St. Petersburg, Fla.Laura J. Cleland, '02, died January 24,1953.George R. Sylla, '03, died unexpectedlyof a heart attack in the Union Station ofChicago on November 14, 1952. He hadserved as the Elgin township supervisorsince 1939 and former township clerk.In 1939 he resigned from the bankingbusiness after 35 years with the UnionNational Bank & Trust Co. He was adirector at the time of his resignation.Rose J. McHugh, '04, internationallynoted social worker, died December 12,1953, in Washington, D.C, at the ageof 71. A consultant to the bureau ofpublic assistance, she had been employedby that agency for the past 16 years.Recently she specialized on welfareneeds of the aged.Melvin J. Adams, '09, died February 3,1953 in Chicago. A pioneer public relations counsel, he was most recently associated with the public relations firm ofO. B. Motter in Chicago. For 30 yearshe also had been associated with WalterBermingham in handling publicity forthe Chicago Automobile show, the International Live Stock expositions, dogshows, and other sports and trade events.Fred W. Waterman, '10, died January11, 1953.The Rev. George Cleaver, '13, retiredPresbyterian pastor, died February 6,1953, in Chicago.Earl L. Shoup, AM '19, died January29, 1953. He had served for 24 years aschairman of the political science department at Western Reserve University. Hewas a national authority on county government and the author of several bookson American government.Ella I. Campbell, '20, died January 16,in Chicago. She was a retired teacher ofEnglish.Hannah E. Reid, '22, (Mrs. EdwardWalker) died January 15, 1953.Laura May Johnston, '23, died in October, 1952, in Oshkosh, Wis.Arthur Whiting Wolfe, AM '25, formany years a Presbyterian missionaryin Mexico, died January 19, 1953, at hisstation in Coyoacan, D. F., Mexico. Hehad served as Professor of Bible at Emporia College, Kansas, and also as Professor of Religion at Huron College inSouth Dakota from 1939 to 1944.James R. E. Haydon, SM '32, diedJanuary 9, 1953.Herman Tate, '35, died in June, 1952.Bruce L. Jenkinson, '35, died July 12,1952 at his home in Arlington, Va. Acensus bureau statistician, he had foreight years been in charge of the annualpublication, "Statistical Abstract of theUnited States."John W. Anderson, AM '40, died September 22, 1952, in Flint, Michigan. Hehad served as executive director of theFamily Service Agency of Genesee County in Flint.Marietta Fox, '45, died very suddenlyAugust 13, 1952, of meningitis. LA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoOfher PlantsBoston — New York — Philadelphia —Syracuse — Cleveland — Detroit"You Might As Well Have The Beit"Phones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOYDSTON BROS.. INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and licensed attendantsW. B. Conkey Co.Division ofRand McNaHy & CompanyZ?oa6 cutct (Zatalaf'Ptcttt&ueutdSutd&uCHICAGO • HAMMOND • NEW YORKSince 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best In placement service for University,College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.TREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DealerforCHRYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMUseum 4-4500AIMGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair,Body, Paint, Simonize, Washand Greasing Departments32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESometimes in a storage warehouse you'll findDREAMS FOR SALEJack reed sat down at the desk in theroom he called his study, but whichNora called her sewing room and thechildren called their TV room. He lookedat the telephone for a moment and thenpicked up the directory and began thumbing through it.There were some notes on his other deskdown at the office which had been sittingthere for days. "Please call Mr. Williams,"one of them said. "Mr. Williams phonedagain while you were out," said another.He hadn't called Bob Williams because— well, it hadn't seemed exactly urgent atthe time. And he probably wouldn't bebothering about it now, either, except thatearlier that evening he and Nora had goneto the inspection down at Drexel's Storage Warehouse. They had heard thatthere were some fine old clocks among thepieces to be auctioned off the next day,and Nora was anxious to see them.Old Mr. Drexel himself had met themand shown them around. Lined up alongthe walls of the big, cold-looking roomwere some really fine things: furniture andlamps and clocks and china that had once belonged to someoTTe, somewhere, who hadshown excellent taste in their selection.Nora turned to Mr. Drexel and said, "Whyare all those loyely things being sold?"Mr. Drexel shrugged. "To pay the backstorage on them. Those things have beenhere for many years. Belonged to a womanwho used to live in town. She broke up herhome after her husband died and left allthe stuff here. She and the kids went backto her old home town. She was going tosend for it real soon, she said. But I guessshe just never got enough money to spare."Mr. Drexel looked up at the ceiling fora few seconds and then said, "The binsand vaults upstairs are full of things likethat. Busted hopes and broken dreams."He shrugged again as they started towardsthe door. "You get used to it after awhile . . ."Jack hadn't been able to get that conversation out of his mind. He turned inhis chair so he could look from the studyinto the living room. Nora was curled inher favorite chair, surrounded by her ownfavorite things. The hands on the big oldgrandfather's clock said it was not quite ten o'clock. He picked up the phone andas he dialed Bob Williams' number hemapped out what he would say:"Hi, Bob! Sorry I didn't get around tocalling you sooner, but I've been mightybusy lately. You know how it is. Anyway,I've been turning that recommendationof yours over in my mind — you know,about taking out another New York Lifepolicy— and I've decided that it might bea good idea after all. How about havinglunch tomorrow and talking the wholething over?"few occupations offer a man so much inthe way of personal reward as life underwriting. Many New York Life agents arebuikiingvery substantial futures for themselves by helping others plan ahead fortheirs. If you would like to know moreabout a life insurance career, talk it overwith the New York Life manager in yourcommunity— or write to the Home Officeat the address below.NEWYORK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY51 Madison Avenue, New York 10 N. Y.Naturally, names used in this story are fictitiousGOI7VG.' GOIJSfG!BUT NOT GONE— until you have an opportunityto place your tentative order forCHICAGO WEDGWOODDINNER PLATESThis order is subject to your approving the artist sketcheswe will mail you later. Put next month we must tellWedgwood the number of sets we want. At that point theplates becomeA LIMITED EDITION4 PLATES (4 CAMPUS SCENES) TO A SETMitchell Tower from Hutchinson CourtHarper Library from the MidwayRockefeller Memorial ChapelThe Hull Court GatePackaged and delivered$12.00DO THIS NOWDROP US A CARD indicating how many sets you thinkyou will want (2 sets for a serving for 8). Confirm' orcancel your order after we have mailed you the illustrations for the 4 plates.The Alumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago 37, IllinoisAND JUST FOR FUN— AND CONVERSATION— inmatching Wedgwood ware: a five-and-a-half -inch ash tray withlittle Garg Griffin protesting the ashes in his face. The price,postpaid: $1.25.SEND NO MONEY NOW.Simply indicate on a postal card (or the same card ivith yourplate order) the number of trays you will want. You will benotified and billed when Garg is ready to visit your home — wehope not later than June.