Art RCH, 1 953 MAGAZINEpiitg Dong! — TV Nursery School. . . Page 11 That A Man Can "Get Ahead". . . W . Lloyd WarnerThe Old Manembarrassed uslast year...We wrote an ad last year about theCentury Club.* And the very first person toreply, with a check for $ 100, was Amos AlonzoStagg.Now that advertisement wasn't intended for The Old Man. Everyone knowswhat he has contributed to the University! Itwas intended for those Alumni who are members of the Association — but who do not contribute to the Alumni Fund. And it was intended for those who do contribute, but whocould without sacrifice join the other Alumniwho have formed the Century Club by contributing $100.Perhaps this advertisement is addressed to you. We hope you'll contributesomething to the Fund. And we hope, for yoursake and ours, that fortune has favored youso that you can easily and pridefully send $100for your membership in the Century Club. I have just read the announcement for the "Century Club" on theinside cover of the March issue ofThe University of Chicago Magazine,I want Stella Robertson Stagg '96to qualify for membership. Hencethis check. She has been down witha virus infection and will not knowabout it until she sees our checkbook later.I hope you get a lot of newmembers.Sincerely,dsrv^/*''Members of the Century Club are Alumni who have contributed, during the past year, one hundred or more dollars totheir Alma Mater through the Alumni Foundation.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI FOUNDATION5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUE • CHICAGO 37 • ILLINOISemo l-^aSelling Wedgwood and GargIt's fun watching the tentative ordersfor Wedgwood cross my desk (see backcover) .One alumnus writes simply: I musthave one of those Garg Griffin ash trays.Then comes the legal mind: Pursuantto the notice . . . tentative order forfive (5) . . . mentioned therein . . . subject to conditions as stated in the ad.The I will probably wantone set . . . and one or more trays —depending on how much I like them,(frankly).Finally the close-the-deal operator:Let me know when you want payment.Or: You needn't send illustrations . . .Will they come C.O.D.?Actually, we're looking forward to thefinished products as keenly as any of you.William Robinson, who is impressed withour Oxford-like architecture, flew infrom Wedgwood's American headquartersin New York, to direct the photographing. From these pictures will be madethe artist's sketches for the plates.When Robinson saw Garg Griffinclimbing the Hull Court gate, he insistedhe must do a matching ash tray withthe young scamp. We said O.K. butonly 500. (How wrong can one be!We have orders for nearly half thatnumber already. Of course the orderwill be increased.)And on the limited edition of the dinner plates little Garg will appear inminiature as part of the backstamp.The committee decided on four platesto the set. This will hold the cost downso that it isn't out of range for Christmas presents or "beginning" alumniwith limited budgets. Those who wantservings for eight can simply order twosets.The next generationsClaude E. Hawley, '35, PhD '39, hasbeen impressed with two related experiences in his life: 1) the sacrifices hisparents made to see him through a Chicago, and 2) his Chicago education.Within the past two years, his parentspassed away. In their honor he has established an annual full tuition Chicagoscholarship, which will appear in theAnnouncements hereafter as the WilliamJ. and Myrtle N. Hawley Scholarship.William and Myrtle must have gottenmuch satisfaction from their investment.In the years following his PhD Claudewent immediately into university teaching, first at the University of Missouri,then the University of Florida, Northwestern, and finally U.S.C.In 1948 he moved to Washington withthe U.S. Office of Education and in 1951 he joined the National Security Resources Board.During the War he was commandingofficer of the psychological warfare fieldforces in the Southwest Pacific underGeneral MacArthur.Claude credits his father and mother(who gave him what neither of themhad: a college and university education)and Chicago's top training, for the satisfactions of his life.HAWLEY, '35, SETS UP TUITION FUNDHe hopes these annual scholarshipswill help bring similar satisfactions tonew generations.Cleveland Club CalendarGuess we might as well dedicate thisspace monthly to the Cleveland Club.On January 17 the Club entertainedDr. Mildred Danklefson, a TV lecturer.She showed colored slides on a trip tofive Newfoundland ports reached only byboats.On March 3, Ruth U. Nobel will givea dance performance: "UnderstandingOthers Through the Dance."There will be Club luncheons onApril 18 and May 16.The eight o'clock mail"I was interested and amused by theclever selection 'The Den of Shadows'by John Spangler which appeared inthe January issue of the Magazine. Theessay reminded me of the following passage from Plato's 'Republic'"I suppose you have noticed that whenever boys taste dialetic for the first time,they pervert it into an amusement, andalways employ it for purposes of contradiction, and initiate in their own persons the artifices of those who studyrefutation —, like puppies, inpulling and tearing to pieces with logicanyone who comes near them . . ."Hence, when they have experiencedmany triumphs and many defeats, they fall, quickly and vehemently, into anutter disbelief of their former sentiments: and thereby both they and thewhole cause of philosophy have beenprejudiced in the eyes of the world."Chicago Jack Beem, '52300 miles to a partyMolly Felker didn't get back from St.Louis in time to tell us about her Christmas party until after the February issuehad gone to the printers (January 2nd).It was something she and brotherLanse, Terry Lunsford, and MatthewDillon — all students — cooked up beforethe holidays. Molly's and Lanse's folksare alumni (Ray Felker, '20 and AddieThompson, '23). There was nothing theycould do about Molly and Lanse invitingthe gang down for the Holidays, eventhough the Felkers were moving to another part of St. Louis January 1st.Molly was always doing something likethis and they were used to it — enjoyed it.The Judge Holts (Ivan Lee Holt, Jr.,'35, JD '37) got involved. Lee is president of our St. Louis Club, his wife isa good scout and they have a lovelyhome — and weren't moving January 1st.So Molly's Chicago gang threw a partyat the Holt's the night of January 2ndwith some of the local alumni as hostsand prospective future Chicago studentsas guests.The hosts (not already mentioned) :Floris Rottersmann, '37, Lester Mouscher,'47, SB '48, Joel Honigberg, '48. Therewere 11 high school students and someparents.The real hosts, of course, were theHolts who did a superb job, accordingto Molly.Sharing in the future profits: ourAlma Mater, of course.The late Merriam and BorgeseCHARLES MERRIAM AND G. A. BORGESEIn the summer of 1951 the Charles E.Merriams celebrated their golden wed-MARCH, 1953 1MY QUESTION TO THE G-E STUDENT INFORMATION PANEL:"How does your business trainingprogram prepare a college graduatefor a career in General Electric?"...Charles o. Billings, Carnegie Institute ofTechnology, 1954The answer to this question, given at a student information meetingheld in July, 1952, between G-E personnel and representative collegestudents, is printed below. If you have a question you would like answered, or seek further information about General Electric, mail yourrequest to College Editor, Dept. 123-2, General Electric Company,Schenectady, New York.R. J. CANNING, BusinessTraining Course . . . GeneralElectric's business trainingprogram offers the collegegraduate the opportunity tobuild a career in the field ofaccounting, finance, andbusiness management in oneof the most diversified companies in the country.Since its beginning in 1919, more than 3,000 studentshave entered the program — one of the first trainingprograms in business to be offered by industry.The program's principal objective is to develop menwell qualified in accounting and related business studies,men who can become administrative leaders in the financial and general business activities of the Company.Selection of men for the program is based on interviews, reviews of students' records, and discussions withplacement directors and faculty members. Selection isnot limited solely to accounting and business administration majors. A large number of men in the program areliberal arts graduates, engineers, and men with othertechnical training.When a man enters the program he is assigned a full-time office position in accounting or other financial workand enrolled in the formal evening education program.This planned classroom work is a most important phaseof the program. The material presented is carefully selected and well integrated for the development of an adequate knowledge of accounting and business theory, procedures and policies followed by the Company, acceptable accounting and business practices of the modern economic enterprise, and as a supplement to the practicalexperience provided by the job assignment.In general, the program trainee is considered in training for three years during which time advancements aremade to more responsible types of accounting work. Aftercompleting academic training the trainee's progress andinterests are re-examined. If he has demonstrated an aptitude for financial work he is considered for transfer tothe staff of traveling auditors or to an accounting andfinancial supervisory position. From here his advancement opportunities lie in financial administrative positions throughout the Company. Trainees showing aninterest and aptitude for work other than financial, suchas sales, purchasing, community relations, publicity, etc.,.are at this time considered for placement in these fields.Today, graduates of the program hold responsible positions throughout the entire organization. Managementpositions in the accounting and financial field throughoutthe Company, such as Comptroller, Treasurer, financemanagers, secretaries, and others, are held in large partby graduates of the course. Men who have transferred toother fields after experience in financial work includepublic relations executives, managers of operating divisions and departments, presidents of affiliated Companies,officials in personnel, employee relations and productiondivisions, and executives in many other Companyactivities.This partial list of positions now filled by former business training men is indicative of the career preparationoffered by the business training program, and of theopportunities that exist for qualified men interested inbeginning their careers in accounting and financial work.c/ou can /??//yoirt, cc?yw&nce i#i GENERAL ELECTRIC2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMAGAZINEVolume 45 March, 1953 Number 6IN THIS ISSUEThat a Man Can "Get Ahead," W. Lloyd Warner 5Ding Dong! The TV Nursery School 11Charles Edward Merriam, Leonard D. White 15When the Twain Have Met, Ali Othman 18DEPARTMENTSMemo Pad 1 Reader's Guide 24Books 22 Class News 26COVER: The two intent young men are Danny Calef, 4'/>, and RickyBlock, who is 4. They are seated before Ricky's TV setwatching "Miss Frances" conduct her "Ding Dong School,"as they and millions of other pre-schoolers do most morningsat nine. For a report on this nation-wide phenomenon, andthe alumna responsible for it, see page 1 1.Cover and photographs on pages 1, 4, 12, 13, and 21 by Stephen Lewellyn.Photos on pages 11 and 14 by Toivo Kaitila. Photo on page 19 (top right)by Richard Johns.PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEditorHOWARD W. MORTExecutive SecretaryAlumni FoundationJIM ATKINS Associate EditorAUDREY PROBSTStaff PhotographerSTEPHEN LEWELLYN Associate EditorHAROLD E. DONOHUEDirectorAlumni EducationDONALD S. BARNHARTPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $3.00.Single copies, 35 cents. Student price at University of Chicago Bookstore, 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinoisunder the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council,B. A. Ross, director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.ding anniversary at the Quadrangle Club.One of the guests was G. A. Borgese(standing in picture) , Professor Emeritusof Italian Literature. Both men recentlyclosed their careers. See page 15 for anaccount of Charles E. Merriam. Anappreciation of G. A. Borgese will becarried in the next issue of the Magazine.Theodore G. SoaresTheodore G. Soares, BD '97, PhD '94,died at the age of 83 in Pasadena. For24 years he was on the faculty of theDivinity School, University chaplain andchapel preacher.In 1930 he became professor of philosophy and ethics at California Institute ofTechnology and the minister of theNeighborhood Church in Pasadena. Mrs.Soares passed away a year ago.In a rutWhen Charles T. Holman, BD '16,reached retirement, he left his chair ofpractical theology and moved, with hiswife, to Guatemala. There they ministered and built a commodious whitestucco, Spanish-type church.Job completed, the Holmans returnedto the States last spring. We saw thembriefly at the Quadrangle Club. Thenthey disappeared again. Guess what?They've been discovered in Wauwatosa,Wisconsin, building a new UnderwoodMemorial Baptist Church.The eve of February 7At 9:30 P.M. the telephone rang."This is Harvey O. Werner (PhD '34)of Lincoln, Nebraska. I'm in town foryour Open House tomorrow. They tellme everything is filled up. If so I'lltake the 9 A.M. train back to Lincoln."His information was correct. But ofcourse we made room for Dr. Werner.On Saturday, February 7th, 550 alumnisplit into 11 backstage tours to visitlaboratories and meet the faculty atwork. Three hundred additional alumnicould not be accommodated.Four hundred and twenty-two alumnihad dinner at the Quadrangle Club. Inspite of the fact that every availableroom on the second floor of the Clubwas used, 80 last minute applicantscould not be accommodated.Thirteen hundred alumni visited thestudent exhibits. They were interviewedby Radio Midway — to be used later fora Midway broadcast over this student-campus station; saw the students' workin ceramics, water, oil, and film.Mandel Hall was jammed (with 400turned away) for the all-student program. It began with the student symphony; continued through a one-act playand the student glee club; ended withthe spectacular acrotheatre. It was our most successful midwinterOpen House. Full credit for its smoothsuccess goes to College Division's Student-Alumni Committee.From the time the alumni arrived onthe quadrangles they were the guestsof the students, who guided them ontheir tours; were hosts at the exhibits;ushers and performers at the eveningshow, with one of their members servingas master of ceremonies.The next big alumni event on thequadrangles: Reunion, June 3-6. Markyour calendar and make your plans toreturn to the Midway in June. Note to '13ersJim Donovan already has plans underway for your fortieth reunion. Markyour calendar for lunch at the Quadrangle Club on Saturday, June 6th.H.WM.Books — See Page 22Reader's Guide —Page 24MARCH, 1953 3That a Man Can "Get Ahead"is the very fabric ofthe "American Dream"by W. Lloyd WarnerProfessor, Departments of Anthropology and Sociology_T OR THE LAST twenty yearsthere has been an increasing feelingof disquiet and concern in the mindsof many Americans about the well-being of the social and economic system in which they live — a system thatmaintains them as a people, providesthem with a life that is satisfying,and gives meaning to their lives.Most Americans believe that theirfree -enterprise system is a productivemechanism that is second to none andcapable of producing abundance forall their people.U.S. OF A. EXPLORER W. LLOYD WARNERMARCH, 1953 Most Americans believe that theirfree society provides men with spiritual values which help to maintainindividual self-respect and individualfreedom. But none of them can failto read the evidence that the massesof their people are losing the greatfaith they once had in free enterpriseand in the leadership of businessmen.Evidence of their dissatisfaction canbe seen in the workers' separationfrom management; in millions ofworkers' turning to unions and unionleadership; in worker hostility to, andconflict with, management; and in thecommon people's turning to the staterather than to free enterprise to solvean increasing number of their economic and social problems.It is clear to those of us who have This article is a condensation ofthe fifth chapter of Professor Warner's book American Life: Dreamand Reality, which will be published April 1st by the Press.Professor Warner, who has beenteaching at the University since1935, is the author of the Yankee City Series — analyses of thesocial structure of Newburyport,Massachusetts.Professor Warner is at presentcarrying on research in the studyof occupational mobility in American business and industry. Working with him on this study is JamesAbegglen, of the Committee onHuman Development.made studies in many parts of theUnited States, that the primary andmost important fact about the American social system is that it is composed of two basic, but opposite, principles. The first is the principle ofequality; the second, the principle ofunequal status and of superior andinferior rank.The first declares that all men areequal and that all men must haveequal opportunity to get the goodthings of life. The second, seldomopenly stated but nevertheless potentand powerful, makes it evident thatAmericans are not always regarded asequal and that many of the valuesthey treasure, that provide them witha will to do and to achieve, can continue to exist only as long as theyhave a status system.Motivation to excel# I wish to affirm that, paradoxical asit may seem, both these antitheticalprinciples, when properly balanced,are necessary for the proper functioning of contemporary American democracy.The principle of equality is necessary to provide all men with a senseof self-respect and to establish thesecular essentials of the Christian belief in brotherhood. It is also necessary to give each citizen the right toparticipate in making the decisionsabout the destinies of all.The principle of rank and status isnecessary to provide men with themotives to excel by striving for positions of higher prestige and powerfor themselves and for their families.It is also essential to equip the nation,communities, and their institutionswith responsible leadership hierarchies which co-ordinate and regulatethe lives of their inhabitants and helpmaintain an orderly way of life, inwhich their citizens can cultivate themorals and manners of a high civilization."A man of the people"The life of the greatest of allAmericans, Abraham Lincoln, clearlyexemplifies both principles. He wasborn "a man of the people" andgave his life "to make all of us freeand equal." But he was also the manwho, aspiring to greatness, rose froma log cabin to the White House, leaving the lower reaches of Americansociety and climbing to the high levelsof power and prestige. In the storyof Lincoln, and other similar successstories, all Americans find themselves,for such life -stories are symbolswhich combine the antithetical Amer ican virtues of equality and status.Status systems must always existfor people to accomplish the worknecessary for their survival as agroup. The only possible choice forAmericans is not between their statussystem and a perfect system of equality, but between their kind of hierarchy and some other — more likely,one that could not work satisfactorilyin a democracy. The Russians wentthrough an "equalitarian" revolutionin the hope of establishing a puredemocracy and succeeded in exchanging the status system of czarist Russia for the more rigid soviet systemof status and castelike inequality.The most significant characteristicof the American class system — andthe reason Americans think of it asbeing democratic — is the firm beliefthat there must be equality of opportunity for all and a chance for everyone to have his turn at bat. Such abelief means that the system mustprovide for the rise of men and theirfamilies from lower to higher levels.They believe that a man, by applying himself, by using the talents hehas, by acquiring the necessary skills,can rise from lower to higher statusand that his family can rise with him.The opportunity for social mobilityfor everyone is the very fabric of the"American Dream." It is the basic,powerful, motivating force that drivesmost of them and makes all Americans partners in the well-being ofeach, since each feels that, althoughhe is competing with the rest, he hasa stake in the common good. Whenthe principles of social mobility in theUnited States are not operating, thereare troubles ahead not only for thosewho do not experience mobility butfor every American.Routes of mobilityLet us briefly examine the routes ofmobility. Although American socialclasses are a rank order, placing people and their families in higher andlower levels, they do not permanentlyfix the status of either the individualor his family. Despite the fact thata man inherits the class position ofhis family, his inherited position isnot necessarily the one he will always occupy. Each social class is opento properly qualified people below it.Since the individual's social positionis not necessarily fixed, he can moveup or down by his own efforts or theefforts of others, or he can be bornto a family moving up or down, ormarry into one that is climbing fromanother class level. Social-class systems permit vertical movement of theindividual or his family. But thereare always exact rules and social sanctions which regulate how this canand cannot be done. Such rules apply not only to upward but also todownward mobility. Knowledge ofthem arouses anxiety in mobile individuals and families, but also oftenprovides security for them. Whenthey know what the rules are, theycan depend on them as guides forsafe conduct to prevent loss of position and to achieve higher status.(Downward mobility, by the way, issomething more feared than anythingelse in a class system.)Sources of social powerVertical mobility in the UnitedStates is accomplished by most people through the proper use of certainrecognized sources of social power.The principal sources are occupation,education, talent, sexual attractiveness and marriage, and the exerciseof skill in a variety of social andtechnical activities, such as the successful manipulation of highly prizedsymbols.A young man of lower status maywin a fellowship to a liberal artscollege, or earn his way throughschool, spend a year or two in a professional school, then enter a largeindustry and work his way to thetop. Meanwhile, he has changed hisbehavior and unlearned much of whathe was taught in the family of hisbirth. Later he may marry a girl froma social level far superior to the onein which he began his career. Or, asan alternative, a young man or womanmay develop a talent, become an author or an artist, and use these highlyvalued artistic symbols to acquire thenecessary prestige for higher socialacceptance."Social climbers"In the United States it is commonlyassumed that it is necessary only toaccumulate money for an individual6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto increase his own and his family'sstatus. This is only a partial truth.Those who acquire more money, superior occupation, or education, orachieve control over any other sourceof social power, must transform it intoother highly valued symbols and behavior acceptable to the superiorlevels, in order to achieve the approval and social acceptance necessary for social advancement.The manners and morals of social Anxiety and fear, always present,must be kept under constant controland directed, or the competitive raceand its prizes are likely to be lost.Industrial hierarchiesAt one time occupation, particularly in business enterprise, was theprincipal route used for the upwardclimb of those who were ambitious.Our studies at the present time in-mobility demand that those who areinvolved in it always give good economic, moral, and strong democraticreasons for what they are doing. Ifthey are, too open and direct in theirefforts to increase their status, theyare likely to be branded as "socialclimbers," and, if the term is madeto stick, it is often sufficient to blockadvancement.UnlearningThe directives of social class demand that mobile individuals be highly flexible in their behavior. Theymust learn new behavior, which isnever easy, and also do somethingmore difficult — unlearn old behaviorwhich is no longer appropriate fortheir advanced position. This meansthat they must be highly adaptableemotionally and intellectually, and beable to tolerate continuing uncertainties and to live in insecure situations. dicate that something has happenedto this route to success. Occupationas a means of mobility is diminishingin importance. In fact, it no longeris the principal form of mobility. Thestudies that we have made show thatthe occupational routes are not soopen as they once were and ihat incertain industries the chances for theworker to move out of his status intothe lower range of management havealmost ceased to exist.Since the period from the firstWorld War to the present time, anumber of new enterprises have developed in the United States, and certain changes have taken place in thetechnology of some of the older industries, whichc act as counteractiveforces to those of closed mobility.Such new industries as the airplane,radio, television, and certain serviceenterprises have produced hierarchiesin which there is very rapid mobility.A survey of some of their top managerial groups shows that many of the individuals are young, in their middlethirties or early forties. Furthermore,the mechanization of other industriesand increasing mass production havebrought forward a larger proportionof people who belong to the class ofclerical and kindred workers, sometimes referred to as the "white-collarclass." Most of these new people arebeing recruited from the workingclass, and from a small farmer class.In social- class terms, there hasbeen considerable mobility from theupper-lower to the lower-middleclass, since a considerable proportionof these people have translated theireconomic rise into higher social position. Consequently, many of themfeel rewarded, particularly those whocome from the class of workers whosemobility had been blocked.Competition keenerOn the other hand, there has beena decrease in the number of smallbusinesses and in the number successfully started, and an even greaterdecrease in the proportion of theamount of business handled by suchenterprises in the economy of theUnited States. Such ventures noware becoming increasingly hazardousand difficult for those whose backgrounds are insufficient to providethem with the body of skill necessaryfor success. Furthermore, competitionis keener, and the market, accordingly, less receptive to new enterprise.But, above all, there is an increasingtrend in the United States towardbig business and greater centralization.This centralization is not merely amatter of a large enterprise becominglarger in a particular industry, but ithas all the earmarks of what wouldbe called a "cartel" if it belonged toa European culture. Large monolithicbusiness enterprises now interlockscores of industries into tightly knithierarchies, making it almost impossible for certain kinds of new businesses to be started with any chanceof success and rendering it extremelyhazardous for many others to trytheir chances against such competitors.Poorly prepared for workSince occupation and business enterprises are no longer the surestroutes by which young men canachieve the rewards of success, preparation by education has become theprincipal route for those who aresocially mobile. Young people enterthe public schools available for everyone, eager for an opportunity to ac-MARCH, 1953 7quire the skills necessary to traintheir varying talents for purposes ofachievement.Our findings do not provide encouragement to those of us whowould like to believe that, since theoccupational route no longer is asfree as it once was, education is providing an adequate substitute.We have learned that the childrenof parents belonging to the lowersocio-economic levels are not takingcourses that prepare them for collegeor for better positions.Exact studies of the I.Q.'s of students who dropped out of school havebeen made. There seems to be nonecessary difference between thosewho drop out and those who stay in.As a matter of fact, it can be demonstrated that the child who has a veryhigh I.Q., and who comes from thelower-lower class, may drop outearlier than the one with a lower intelligence. He is likely to be the veryperson who uses his intelligence insolving problems that do not haveanything to do with good academicrecords, but with "bucking" the schoolsystem and finding ways and meansof successfully avoiding going on tohigher grades.Social logicsMany children, even when theyhave the economic wherewithal— andthe brains— do not have the necessary motivations within them and thepressures from without, to keep themin school long enough to give themthe training which they need for advancement—or, for that matter, foradequately doing many of the jobs necessary for the proper functioningof business and industry.Americans — devout advocates of individualism — believe that individualism means that each man has withinhimself the right to make his ownchoices and to make or break hislife -career on the basis of his ownjudgments. If a man makes a decision and it does not turn out right inthe American system of social logics,we, more often than not, believe thatit is his own fault. We may feel sorryfor him, but still we feel that it islikely to be his own fault. On theother hand, if he makes good decisionsand does well, we think he shouldbe rewarded.Playing the gameWhen American workers equipthemselves with the skills necessary,and play the game according to allthe conventional rules, and almost noone wins, then the individuals playing no longer blame themselves.Rather, they blame the system. Consequently, they tend not to act asindividuals with separate decisionsand separate consciences, but feelthemselves to be a group which hasa common grievance against "thosewho run things." They act as theythink. The consequences of thischange may be disastrous for theproper functioning of a free society.The effects of blocked mobility onthe society are numerous. Obviously,blocked mobility reduces the competition between the bright and ableyoung men who are pushing theirway to the top and the sons of families who are already advantageouslyplaced in the economic and social or der. It can be argued that, when thishappens, the competitive system doesnot function so well as when theroutes of mobility are open and permit those who are on the way up tocompete with people who are alreadythere.The political implications of blockedmobility are exceedingly important.The present ideologies of mobilelower-class people in the UnitedStates tend to approximate the beliefsand value systems of the mobile people in the higher classes. On theother hand, fixed status tends to produce an ideology fitted to the needsof a particular class level. Where thepolitical ideologies of classes tend tobe purely on the basis of socioeconomic levels, there is greater opportunity for conflict and less for accommodation between the severalclasses of the society.It is my opinion that the class conflict which Marx describes is essentially one that does not take accountof social mobility, of a system inwhich families move up and down,where mobile people in the lower-middle class have many of the samevalues, hopes and fears, and politicaland economic beliefs that one findsamong mobile individuals in theupper-middle class.When mobility is not operating,there is a greater likelihood of thedevelopment of a totalitarian statewith a political elite — such as theCommunist party — playing the role ofa dedicated priesthood, which explains, interprets, and administerswhat is believed to be the sacred ideology of one class. This does notmean that there will be one classwithin such a society. Quite the contrary; there must be several. But theclass order of such a society is likelyto be closed, with status fixed forthe individual and mobility availableonly for that small fraction that learnshow to enter the priestly elite.Frustrated workersThe effect of blocked mobility onthe inner world of the individual canbe observed in many situations amonga variety of people. Frustrated workers who find opportunity unavailableoften cut down on work output. Somebecome "troublemakers," who areconstantly on the alert to find situations that they can exploit to preventsatisfactory adjustments for the othermen on the job. Others may take amore positive stand, join a union, andbecome union leaders who use theunion hierarchy to satisfy their aspirations.I had the opportunity of studying8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe development of a strike in a community in New Engjand where therehad not been strikes before and wherethere had been no union organization.During the course of our study twothings happened. The strike was wonby the workers, and, during this period, all the factories in the town inthis particular industry were completely unionized.Blocked mobilityWhen we examined why theseevents happened, a number of thingssoon became apparent. Among thevariety of reasons given to explainthese two results, one essential fac tor stood out far above all others:the old skill hierarchy for the advancement of workers was gone. Theroutes of mobility were closed. Theroute for "getting places" was nolonger there for those who worked inthe factories. It was not difficult toorganize the workers' discontent andfocus it against management. Theaspirations of these men were nolonger entirely invested in the opensystem of equal opportunity, onceprovided by the factory hierarchy, butwere now more in the world of unionorganization.When large numbers of talentedmen and women — who have committed their careers to industry with out first obtaining a higher education— try to acquire the skills and knowledge thought necessary for advancement and, through no fault of theirown, either fail to get them or fail tobe rewarded when they do, they necessarily lose faith. Since many peoplein our civilization pay lip service tothe creed of success and make littleeffort to advance themselves, thesepeople, too, blame the system ratherthan their own lack of initiative.To strengthen the American people'sbelief in their way of life, and tocontinue their faith in a traditionallyfree society, it is necessary that thetwo basic routes of mobility — occupation and education — be open, so thatMARCH, 1953 9the aspirations of workers for themselves and for their children can berealized, at least for those who areambitious and have a will to succeed.There are a number of efforts nowbeing made to widen and improve thesuccess channels, the routes of socialmobility, in the United States. Thereare programs to increase public educational opportunities for the youth,by early discovery of real talent andof the urge for success among youngpeople, and by making special effortsto keep outstanding lower-statusyoung people in school through better guidance and counseling. This willprevent many young people from going to work before they have preparedthemselves with the necessary educational skills to compete for advancement.A number of plans to keep theroutes of mobility open in businessconcerns have been put into effect.Since blocked mobility is a majorcause for some of the decline in a worker's faith in the capitalistic system where such a blocking exists itis believed by many to be the dutyof management to do all that it canto free this system, to make the worker realize that opportunity does existfor him and that management is alertto help him.A way upMobility channels can be kept openmuch better by a corporation's making careful inventories of job specifications and the skills of workersalready existing in the company. Jobrequirements should be specific, andevery effort should be made to leteveryone know about them; theyshould be fair and considered so byeveryone. Information about a worker's background should be obtainedfor every employee in the plant, withspecial emphasis on learning aptitudes, social skills, specialized expe rience, and abilities that might helpwrorkers to qualify for better jobs.The knowledge that managementhas such an interest, and is trying todo something about helping theworker to help himself, encourages allambitious workers to believe thatfree enterprise provides a way up forthem. Each company should have apolicy of promoting from withinwherever possible and should let theworkers know that such a policy exists and that it works. Each companyshould provide facilities througheither the community or its owntraining program for a worker to obtain the necessary training for any jobhe has the talent for and aspires to.It should be clearly recognized that alarge percentage of workers willnever take advantage of these educational opportunities, but the mere factthat they know they are available willmake a great difference to all of them.Clearly, such programs must dealwith the question of economic security. Critics hostile to managementwill complain that open channels ofmobility do little good while widespread economic insecurity exists.Economic security cannot be guaranteed by any single company or anysingle union. Such security dependsupon the health of the economic system generally. As long as the systemis strong, anxiety about economicsecurity will always be low, and atsuch times interest in advancement byworkers who wish to succeed willalways be very high. If the workersgenerally believe that opportunity isavailable for those who really wishto try, and for those who have thenecessary brains and talent, theirfaith in the present system will continue strong because it will then be"paying off" for them in the sameway that it does for management.Americans are usually willing toapply new knowledge to new and oldsituations and, from this application,develop a better way of life. We havedone this in the physical and biological sciences and have re-created ourworld to make it a better place formen to live their lives. Today, thesocial sciences are contributing theirshare of precise and exact knowledgeabout the private and public worldswhich we all inhabit. The social sciences are giving us the knowledgewe need to apply to the old and newsituations which confront us. I believe it is probable that we will usethis knowledge to solve our presentproblems with the same enterpriseand with the same success that wehave had in using the knowledge ofother scientific disciplines.© University of Chicago Press10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERINGING HER FAMILIAR BELL, "MISS FRANCES" OPENS ANOTHER TELEVISION CLASS FOR MEMBERS OF THE TRICYCLE SETThe TV Nursery SchoolWhere mothers rest, merchantsscream, and children see a palJ\ NEW REVOLUTION has brokenout — this time in Chicago. This revolution threatens no one except, possibly, Arthur Godfrey. It is a benignrevolution which goes by the name ofDing Dong School and its perpetratoris Frances Rappaport Horwich, '29,now better known simply as "MissFrances."This revolution — child of the electronics age — is a half hour television show beamed to the needs and interests of the tricycle crowd. It startedquietly last fall when Frances Horwich sat before the cameras of WNBQwith a large school bell in her hand.At exactly nine o'clock on the morning of October 3, she rang the bell,looked straight into the camera,smiled, and said to Chicagoland viewers, "Hello boys and girls. Welcometo Ding Dong School. My name is Miss Frances, and we're going to havea lot of fun together."Miss Frances carries on a slowpaced, but animated conversationwhich convinces her youthful audience that she's talking not to them,or down to them, but with them aboutthings that are fun to do, in school orout. She gives doll Susie a bath, orpulls Raggedy Andy around in thewagon. She tells a story, or fingerMARCH, 1953 11DANNY, 41/2, AND RICKY, 4, GET POINTERS FROM CONTEMPORARY ON WATER-PLAYpaints, or introduces a guest musicianwho has come to play the slide trombone.Fun is only a part of the story ofwhat's happened in the five monthsthat Miss Frances has mistressed DingDong School from an unheralded localprogram to a sponsored network show.She has won the hearts of millions ofmoppets, the praise of their, gratefulparents, the acclaim of educators, thestunned surprise of the TV industry,and the consternation of Arthur Godfrey's sponsors who have seen for thefirst time on either TV or radio, another program top Godfrey's heretofore unchallenged rating.No one is more surprised by thishappy upheaval than Miss Francesherself. She's still wearing that "I-can't-believe-it's-true" look. Butwhen she has to pile out of bed inthe morning with the birds, get to thestudio to smooth out the day's program and do a complete rehearsal(using no script) all before nineo'clock, she finds Ding Dong School astrenuous but exciting reality.Miss Frances' husbandIt's been an exciting fact for herfamily and friends, too. She jokesthat her husband, Harvey Horwich,'23, JD '25, became so bewilderedabout being introduced as "MissFrances' husband" that he fled toJapan. (Actually, Mr. Horwich, acivilian technical consultant with the Air Force, went to Japan to write ahistory of the Air Force in the Korean theatre of operations.)Anyone familiar with Mrs. Hor-wich's personal and professional qualifications in the field of education isnot surprised to find her playing therole of America's Number One Nursery school teacher. In fact, it's quiteapparent that Miss Frances, unlikethe Old Woman Who Lived in theShoe, does know exactly what to dowith her outsize TV family. For her,it's a matter of playing an old andexperienced role in a new setting.After leaving the University shewent on to earn a master's degree ineducation from Columbia's TeachersCollege, and a PhD from Northwestern. She has piled up many years ofexperience as a nursery and kindergarten school teacher, a student teacher counsellor, an administrator, andprofessor of education. She was serving as dean of the department of education at Roosevelt College in Chicagowhen television abruptly catapultedher into a new career.235,000 at firstIn fact, Mrs. Horwich was just getting the department launched into itsfall term late last September when aphone call from the Chicago NBC station interrupted her academic duties.Would she be willing to stop over atWNBQ to give her advice about aproposed television program for preschoolers?Mrs. Horwich is well qualified togive such advice. Besides, she's thekind of person who likes to be helpful, and the idea of a TV nurseryschool was an intriguing one. Overshe went to talk with Miss JudithWaller, NBC midwest director of public service programs, and GeorgeHeinemann, program director forWMAQ-WNBQ. It was his concernover the 235,000 pre-schoolers in theChicago area that had kindled thisinterest in creating a program just forthem.Mrs. Horwich put her ideas into thehopper and then departed for herEvanston home. She continued thenext few days to mull over ideas forsuch a show when another phone call,this time at home, interrupted her,again from WNBQ. Would she bewilling to come down the next dayand do a closed circuit audition onwhat she thought a TV nursery schoolshould be like?With some ideas about what theprogram should be like, but with noidea at all about what a closed circuit audition meant, she trudged to12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe loop the next day. She arrived atthe studio to be greeted by hernewly-made TV friends, a crew oftechnicians, and a make-up expert.In no time at all she found herselfsitting in a bare room, slightly dazed,with the admonition of retreating officials, "Now just go ahead and do ashow. Just start in," they advisedbreezily.30,000 love lettersFrances Horwich has only a hazyrecollection about what she said ordid in that audition, but her performance convinced Miss Waller and Mr.Heinemann of one thing — they wantedsomething more than Mrs. Horwich'sideas. They wanted her. The cozy,closed circuit deal lasted one day. Thenext day Was October 3, and therevolution was on.Twenty-five parents phoned in immediately after that October debut tovoice their approval and express thehope that the show would be a regular feature. Now the mail for DingDong School has to be brought in bybox loads and every day Miss Frances'office is deludged with letters, postcards and packages — over 30,000 todate.This mail is the eloquent testimony of the nature of the program's appeal.It tells, first of all, that Ding DongSchool has scored a tremendous hitwith the children who view it fromcoast to coast. One letter reveals theconfidence of a four-year-old in MissFrances, "that lady who loves me likeanything." Or the comment of oneChicago pre-schooler who summed upher enthusiasm with the phrase,"Miss Frances makes me feel good."Another mother tells of her youngsterwho jumps up and down before theTV set when the program comes onand shouts, "This is for me, this isfor me."3,000 monkeysOne youngster stripped her piggybank of its last penny to send to MissFrances in appreciation of the helpshe had given, using dolly Susie as amodel, in executing a somersault. Thiswas just the demonstration the littlegirl needed to accomplish the featherself. Since a recent Ding Schoolsession when Miss Frances showedher ethereal class how to make ahand print in clay, there has been asteady inpouring of clay prints — ofhands, chubby feet, a doll's dainty impress, and one youngster's attempt to immortalize her dog by submittingthe pup's paw print.This response has come from children in all parts of the United States.It has come from all economic classesin urban centers and from youngstersin rural communities where nurseryschools simply do not exist. WhenMiss Frances asked children to sendin pictures of monkeys for a scrap-book over 3,000 illustrations swampedthe studio. In one of the Ding DongSchool sessions she asked what theyought to name their monkey puppetwho is one of the regular attendantsof the school. The name of Jocko wasdecided upon after 5,000 suggestionswere received. Likewise, coast-to-coast enrollees of the class have participated in the naming of the fish- —Wynken, Blynken and Nod, and indeciding that Lucky was the rightname for the stuffed rabbit.Mothers warnedThis emphasis on participation hitsat one of the basic aims Mrs. Horwichhas in mind when she thinks of whatshe wants Ding Dong School to accomplish in the lives of children. Withso many TV shows catering only topassivity in its viewers, this consciouseffort to elicit the active response ofRUTH BLOCK, HOLDING DAUGHTER ILENE (l>/2), JOINS DANNY AND SON RICKY TO HEAR LAST FIVE MINUTES FOR MOTHERSMARCH, 1953 13her lively audience is one of its outstanding merits.When Miss Frances finger paintsshe wants the children to be fingerpainting right along with her. In fact,she warns them, and their mothers,the day before, that they should beready with their paints, or crayons,or clay. Then they can be creative participants in experiences that broadentheir skills and increase their appreciation of what she regards as the"happy values of life."That parents are partners in thisventure is another commandment ofDing Dong School. To judge from thehundreds of letters mothers, andfathers, too, have written, this shared-experience aspect is one of Ding DongSchool's most appreciated rewards.The last few minutes of every classsession are aimed right at motherswho are called to attention by theorgan playing of Miss Helen, themusical assistant. In her brief chatswith parents Miss Frances mightdemonstrate how to make finger paintat home, or offer suggestions aboutweek-end excursions that would befun for the whole family, or any number of pointers on how to makeparent-child relationships the happyexperience all want it to be. Someparents have testified that viewingDing Dong School with their children helps make the whole morning gomore smoothly as projects are initiated and suggestions picked up thatspice conversations and activities.Nurses trainedA third thrust of Ding DongSchool's revolution is its influence onteacher training programs and desirable nursery school practices. Manykindergartens use the program as adefinite part of their school day.Teacher training institutions are usingit as a demonstration of what makesa successful nursery school. Medicalschools, too, are finding it useful innurses' training, and it most certainlyhas the endorsement of pediatricianswho prescribe it along with theirmedications as a sure cure for thatshut-in feeling that afflicts both ailingchildren and their harried mothers.One of the completely unforeseenconsequences of the school has beenthe unpredictable and devastating depletion of inventories in many storesof such items as finger paints, clay,pipe cleaners, clothes pins, and records which Miss Frances plugs astools of her trade.One merchant saw his entire Christmas stock of puzzles for pre-schoolersvanish from his shelves in early No vember after one program when DingDong School featured a particularlyalluring fire-engine puzzle. Mrs. Horwich went into a drugstore on Chicago's North Side one afternoon andoverheard a disgruntled clerk complaining to a male customer, "I justcan't hang on to my supply of pipecleaners. Some woman on a TV showis telling mothers to buy the stuff fortheir kids." Mrs. Horwich left thatstore quietly by the side door andhas not ventured back.Merchants dismayedAnother harassed merchant phonedafter a program to complain that hewas completely swamped for requestsfor a particular children's record."Why didn't you warn me you weregoing to play that record," he demanded. Miss Frances hasn't yetfigured out how she can give storekeepers advance notice that theirshelves are about to be denuded onany given day of any number of vitalitems that have been trotted beforethe TV camera.It so happens that Ding Dong Schoolhas turned out to be one of the mostpowerful weapons which Chicago TVprogram directors can marshal intheir campaign to undermine themonopoly which New York and Hollywood claim as TV program centers.For Jack Gould of the New YorkTimes, the program is further demonstration that "where there is both thewill and the opportunity to do a fineand intelligent job, commercial TVcan do it."The program has already won theTV Forecaster Magazine's award asthe best children's program and recently received the "show of themonth" citation for January, from thenational TV Review Board. It is nowbeing mentioned as a likely andworthy recepient of the coveted Peabody award.Her TV career has brought FrancesHorwich a number of affectionatelabels — a modern Pied Piper, an angelsent by television, and simply, "thatwonderful lady." It is notable thatshe deserves them all. But brown-eyed, friendly Frances Horwich accepts such acclaim with- deep humilityand a tremendous sense of the greatresponsibility that she owes to somany in her role as Miss Frances ofDing Dong School.She has probably never dreamed ofherself as a leader of a revolutionarymovement. But if this be revolutionthere are indeed millions of loyalAmericans who will say, "Good! Let'shave more »f it." . — A.P.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECHARLES EDWARD MERRIAM1874-1953by Leonard D. WhiteProfessor, Department of Political ScienceV>lHARLES EDWARD MERRIAMwas born in Hopkinton, Iowa, November 30, 1874, and died in Rockville,Maryland, January 8, 1953. He was amember of the faculty of the University of Chicago from 1900 untilhis retirement in 1940. As a teacher,author, speaker, consultant, and member of many official and unofficialbodies he had a great and constructive influence upon his generation,spreading from the campus to thecity, the state, and the nation.His first plans for a career werelaid in law and politics, but graduatework at Columbia under Dunning andin Berlin under Gierke and Preussconfirmed a growing interest in political theory and an academic life. Asthe years unfolded he combined auniversity career of great distinctionwith active participation in publicaffairs, both local and national.In succession he was an adviser toPresidents Taft, Wilson, Hoover, andFranklin Roosevelt; and to GovernorsLowden and Horner, and Mayor Cer- mak. In addition he was the principalleader in organizing research in thewide range of the social sciences on anation-wide scale.Professor Merriam became a member of the faculty of the University ofChicago in 1900 and was associatedwith it for a full half century. Hebecame Chairman of the PoliticalScience Department in 1923 and wasits head and guiding spirit until hisretirement in 1940. He displayed uncanny skill in detecting emergingtrends and putting young men to workon these new problems.As a teacher he had a rare capacityto combine theory and practice. Hisstudents listened to Merriam onMachiavelli in the morning and in theevening watched him do battle withAlong with Chancellor Kimpton,Senator Paul Douglas, and LewisBrowrilow, Professor White spokeat the memorial for Charles E.Merriam, in Rockefeller Chapel. the "gray wolves" of an earlier day inthe Chicago City Council. They werenever sure whether he enjoyed himself more on the first shift in the classroom, or on the second shift in committee rooms and on the council floor.Certain it is that the statesman-philosopher made a profound impression upon their young minds, as hishigh art of teaching took its course.His academic interests shifted fromtime to time in well-marked periods.His first specialty was municipal government which put him squarely inthe middle of the principal businessof the first decade of this century —the reform of cities. After militaryservice abroad he returned to theUniversity and gave special attentionto the field of political parties. Duringthe twenties he was also deeply engaged in bridging the gap betweenpolitical science and its sister disciplines, sociology, anthropology, andeconomics. All the while he kept alivehis underlying preoccupation with thehistory of political ideas, and in theMARCH, 1953 15last decade of his teaching he was atwork examining and defending thetheoretical foundations of democracy.Professor Merriam's voluminouswritings ran through the whole rangeof his academic interests. Their scopeand variety may be illustrated byselected titles: The Report of theCouncil Committee on Crime (1915);Chicago: A More Intimate View; TheAmerican Party System; New Aspectsof Politics; Political Power; Systematic Politics; and The New Democracyand the New Despotism. He was endlessly pushing forward frontiers; hisown uncompleted five-year plan included a study of the relation ofpolitics and economics, a new analysisof American political theory, and thework which his friends especiallywished him to undertake, The Lifeand Times of Charles E. Merriam.Master contriverHe was often in demand as a speaker at forums, professional meetings,citizen organizations, and periodicallyat political rallies. It was throughscores, if not hundreds, of such occasions that he exerted his influence forthe improvement of government andpolitics: the short ballot and electionmachinery reform; primary electionsin lieu of party conventions; the initiative and referendum; the city manager plan; city planning and planningfor the most effective use of nationalresources; charter revision and constitutional reform; state and federaladministrative reorganization. WithT. V. Smith and Harry Gideonse orAvery Craven he made a brilliantteam on the University Round Tablebroadcasts.Teaching and writing and speakingcomprised only one aspect of CharlesMerriam's rich and varied life. He wasa master contriver in the organizationof social science research both at theUniversity of Chicago and on a national scale. At the University he tooka leading part in setting up the LocalCommunity Research Committeewhich for nearly twenty years carriedforward the study of the Chicagometropolitan community — its geography, economy, politics and administration, its history, and its social institutions. Nationally, he was thefounder and first President bi theSocial Science Research Council, andremained one of its most influentialmembers. He was President of theAmerican Political Science Associa-FAMED PROFESSOR CHARLES E. MERRIAM16tion in 1925, and for many years wasactive on its committees."1313"He was also the principal figure inbringing together in Chicago thegroup of public service organizationswhose national headquarters areknown collectively as "1313." As amember of the Board of the SpelmanFund he fostered and encouragedthese organizations, the range andimportance of whose functions aresuch as to entitle them to be knownas the national capital of state andlocal government.While occupied with these mattershe was busy off the campus in theaffairs of the city, in consultationwith public men of both politicalparties, in service on national committees — public and private, and intravel abroad. Among his major public contributions were his services onthe Commission of Inquiry on Public Service Personnel (1934-35); theHoover Commission on Recent SocialTrends (1931-33); the National Resources Planning Board (1934-43); thePresident's Committee on Administrative Management (1936-37); andthe Loyalty Review Board (1947-48).His political career was both stormyand spectacular. He became a member of the Chicago City Council in1909, and in 1911 defeated the Republican candidate ¦for mayor in the primary election, only to lose a hard-fought campaign against Mayor CarterHarrison by the narrow margin of18,000 votes. He supported TheodoreRoosevelt in the Bull Moose campaignof 1912 and campaigned actively forhim. Merriam returned to the CityCouncil in 1913, but was unsuccessful in efforts to resume an activepolitical career in Chicago at the closeof World War. I. He continued a livelyinterest in politics, which had a never-ending fascination for him, and exerted a strong influence in the electionof Anton J. Cermak as mayor in 1931— an event marking the end of thepolitical career of William HaleThompson.Ferrying mankindMayor Cermak offered him one postafter another in his cabinet, but Merriam was now more concerned withnational issues. On different occasionshe advised T. V. Smith, Paul Douglas,and others in their political campaigns.The fulfillment of his own politicalinterest came in the election of hisson, Robert, to his old seat in the CityCouncil.These widespread activities revealed one of his most striking qual ities: his concern for the future andhis belief that intelligence and determination could in some measure shapethe future. His eye was always on thenear, or distant, horizon; and he wasforever contriving ways and means offerrying mankind to a happier destination. His confidence in the powerof reason and his unshaken optimismin the face of disaster spoke out inpassages in the Prologue to Politics:"In a moment of widespread treason, I seem to see the inexorable andinevitable triumph of intelligence overignorance and error."In a moment of values often measured by the standards of a pecuniaryorder, I seem to see a rising scale ofhuman values richer than riches in aregime of social justice."I see the stately structure of thenew commonwealth, a temple of ourcommon justice, a center of our common interest, a symbol of our commonhope."Shy jesterMerriam's host of friends and former students will remember him as aman whose personality warmed andenlivened any gathering of which hewas a member. His irrepressible senseof humor and his lively wit were always in play. Around the Social Science Round Table at the QuadrangleClub he loved to jest with his friends,to tease them about their work andproblems, and to exchange good-natured quips and barbs. At heart,however, he was reserved — some ofhis friends would even have said, ashe once said to me, that he was shy.This unknown Merriam, who couldexperience moods of depression, waswell hidden behind another Merriamequally genuine — warm, friendly,genial, loving company and conversation, always helpful and understanding, contriving good things forhis younger colleagues, and inventingodd nicknames with which he wouldaddress them. He had an extraordinary capacity for commanding therespect, the loyalty, and the affectionof those who worked with him andfor him.In the book of essays which waspublished in his honor when he retired from active teaching, he contributed a whimsical chapter entitledThe Education of Charles E. Merriam.In the last sentence of this characteristic piece, he wrote, "Some moreconvenient day these scrolls may beunrolled, or possibly they may notbe." They were destined not to be,for his inner reservations and his innate modesty held his hand from whatmight have been a fascinating accountof a rich and varied life.17EAST is East and West is West/Mr. Kipling said, but a youngArab scholar takes issue with himWHEN THETWAIN HAVE METby Ali OthmanStudent^ Committee on Social Thoughto*UR PRESENT AWARENESS ofwhat has happened to the Arab mindas a result of the sudden, powerfulinvasion of Western concepts and culture is little better than guesswork.What knowledge we do have is obscured by propaganda from outsidegroups interested in the Middle East,on the one side, and from Arab apologists, on the other.Yet a clear understanding of themodern Arab world is necessary, ifwe are to anticipate — and appreciateThirty -two -year -old Ali IssaOthman was born near Bethlehemand trained to be a shepherd. Fortunately he went to a missionaryelementary school instead, and thento the American University inCairo. From there he went toSyracuse University, where he received his Master's degree. In 1951he came to the University on a fellowship and is with the Committeeon Socal Thought, working for hisPhD in Islamic Philosophy. He willthen return to the middle east withhis wife, Evelyn Adams (PhB '45;SB, '46; MD '49), and their sonOmar, who is now three monthsold.This article is revised and condensed from a paper which hewrote for the Committee. It appeared in two parts in the RoundTable, August 1952. — changes in the human and politicalframework in the Middle East today.To appreciate the result of the recentcrossing of Arab and Western cultures, we must know something of theArab past along with the Westernpresent.In the old, pure Arab culture theindividual was subject to two systemsof coercive authority. One was thefamily, clan, or tribe. The other wasthe foreign government occupying theterritory at the time. Each had itsown formal systems of rewards andrestraints, but those of the clan wereolder and stronger.At the head of the clan were a fewelders who had proved their loyaltyand wisdom in conducting its affairs.Each clan had its own Madafah, orcommon guest house, where — nightly— all the male members met. Problems about property, marriage, divorce, disputes between members ofthe clan, between husband and wife,father and son, brothers — all weresettled in the guest house by theelders, before the whole clan. Decisions were reached through valuespreserved by the oral teaching ofwhat anthropologists today call legends and myths. Obedience by theindividual to a decision was taken forgranted.This obedience was more than blindacceptance of the tradition. The advantages gained by the individual from membership in his clan were soessential in his life that he could notafford to rebel or detach himself fromhis clan allegiance. Protection fromoutside interference depended onmembership in a strong clan. In timeof need the rest of the memberspooled their services and goods forwhoever happened to be in distress,giving prompt, wise and effective aid.The individual's personal friendswere friends of his clan, and his enemies were enemies of his clan. Thehorizon of the individual was so narrow that his world was more or lessclearly divided into traditionallyfriendly and enemy clans. It was hisunquestionable duty to support anydecision by his elders, whether thatdecision was morally (that is, religiously) right or wrong. Islam made avigorous effort to eradicate this tradition but obviously did not succeed,as is most plain in the survival of theimpious interclan blood feud.In blood feuds, revenge could betaken upon any member of the hostile clan regardless of whether he wasthe actual offender or not. Likewise,any offense committed by a memberagainst an outsider made the wholeclan responsible. Interclan relationswere regulated by custom and tradition built up through the long agesof unchanging agrarian life, the solemn procession of the unchanginggeneration.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAs far as the individual was concerned, the other authority — the government- — acted in three main spheresby simple and directly understoodprocedures. It collected taxes, eitherthrough its own agents, or throughfarming taxes to private individuals.It intervened in interclan feuds, onbehalf of the codified law, acting asconciliator, time-saver, so that clanscould submit to their own proceduresfor settling the conflict without bloodshed. And it conscripted men whoreached army age. Any mind couldsee and understand these three functions: taxes, peace, and external war.Flattery and briberyThese three functions were always associated with, and executedthrough, the gendarmery — a traditionally brutal police force of strangers, who, at the least provocation,used the whip. The Arab saw nobenefit to be gained from the taxeshe paid. It was legal pillage, a mulct.Thus public government, in the mindof the usual individual, was an imageof brutality and compulsion.Avoiding the government and whatever might bring contact with it wasthe wish of all citizens who were notin a position of influence. And theinfluential pious avoided it because ofthe personal wickedness of its officials.But where it was impossible toOTHMAN IN '47, BORN & RAISED UNDER. . . avoid it, the individual conducted hisbusiness through his clan elder. Eventhese elders, however, did not dealdirectly with government agents. Theysought the favors of the sheikh in theregion, or of other influential people,to mediate between them and thegovernment. To reach the desiredconclusion in this chain of negotiations, flattery and bribery were indispensable.Thus the government was far removed from the direct reach of theindividual. He felt no sense of thegovernment belonging to him or acting for him. He felt no sense that heowed personal moral allegiances tothe state. What was his own vividpersonal experience of this "government"?He saw the gendarmery ridehaughtily into his village on goodhorses, with special, glittering uniforms. If he were lucky enough tosee public festivals, he saw the splendor and pomp of the high governmentofficials who led the procession ingilded uniforms and with awe-inspiring solemnity. These impressions offorce, of uniforms, of splendor, ofgrandeur, and of processions becamefor him the symbols of authority. Andhe could not conceive of authoritywithout them.Those who acted as mediators acquired a kind of dual personality. Topreserve their influence, to get thefavors of those higher than they inthe ladder of influence and power,they abased themselves through flattery, bribery, and servitude. To thesuppliants seeking help they actedwith arrogance, the concealment ofreal facts in the situation, and theranking bombast to which they subjected themselves in the court situation.The balance of power between thedifferent clans, the different sheikhs —or other aristocrats — formed the pattern of politics until the beginning ofthis century. But even today the traditional leader and this pattern ofpolitics are still major forces in theArab governments. Under the mandatory regimes of different foreigngovernments, the position of the Arabaristocrat was in fact reinforced. Themandatory powers found it more convenient to handle their "colonial" affairs through him. Therefore, it isnot surprising that this traditionalleader is the least adjusted, in comparison with the other classes in theArab society, to the idea of beingmerely a citizen equal to all the restin privileges.On the people's part, the majorityare not yet sufficiently emancipatedpsychologically to accept leaders from WEIGHT OF CENTURIES OF EXPERIENCEtheir own ranks. So the inheritedpsychology of oppression and authority is still operating in both the selection and the behavior of most presentleaders — a situation created by theweight of centuries of experience.Today, under the pressure of Western culture, both the clan and theArab governments are changing. Theveneration of the clan and its principles, while not lessened, has beenallocated to a sphere more of respectthan fear, more of family relationsthan court of law.The old household — of the parentsand the several families of the brothers — rarely remains a unit today. Inmost cases, the young man is unlikelyto marry before he believes he is ableto establish his own individual household. Young men and women nolonger submit blindly to their parents'choice of life-mates. They begin toquestion the whole structure of theold traditions. With these questionings come a deep restlessness and ayearning for basic changes in the social order.Education for womenWomen have been greatly emancipated. A large majority of the younggeneration in cities have gone toschools. In large villages, and in villages close to the city, many villagegirls have completed the primarylevel of school construction — an extraordinary and symptomatic phenomenon.At the same time the functions ofgovernment have expanded extensively. In theory several Arab countries today have constitutional monarchies or republics with responsiblecabinets. They have representativeparliaments whose members areelected periodically. The will of thepeople is assumed to be the basis ofcivil authority. Freedom of speech, organization, and assemblage are guaranteed in principle with specificstated exceptions. All citizens areregarded as entitled to equal protection before the law. Executive authority is seen as determined by law,and administrative discretion is, onthe whole, subject to review.Western pressureThe theoretical framework is fairlycomplete. Public revenues and expenditures are to be regulated bydetailed budgeting. Appointment andpromotion in the civil service is to beprimarily based on merit. In brief,there are a few Arab countries thatalready possess a democratic framework of government.Other effects of Western culture areas apparent. Education has begun toreach the remotest of villages. Moderntransportation — dramatically used lastyear to fly Moslems to Mecca — nowcan connect all parts of a country,and carry masses of people out of aworld which most of them have neverleft before. (For most Arabs the"world" was an area of about fivesquare miles.) Mass communicationsthrough the press and radio displayproblems of national and internationalimportance for the growing numberof literates. (The tremendous volumeof Arabic publications, old and new,has revived the almost forgottenpast.)Foreign trade has become a force,presenting all kinds of "new" commodities to the Arab market. Thepresence of many European communities in the Arab's midst hasgiven the Arab a concrete contrast ofan apparently more "respectable" anda certainly more comfortable way ofliving. The meager self-sufficiency ofa merely local environment has beensuperseded by nation-wide economicactivity.New skills and new professionscome into increasing demand. A widefield of opportunities releases newambitions, destroying the rooted contentment with a precarious living. Theordinary individual begins to see thathe could be freed from his traditionalclass occupation.The Arabs' increasing contacts withthe outside world, the spread ofEuropean — and American — ideals ofnationalism, and recently, competingideologies among them, have onlyhelped to intensify their desires forfreedom and self-identity. At the same time, the Western world looksonly at the restlessness and dissatisfaction of what is referred to as"under -developed" areas. Fear thatthe Arab nations will choose communism has only increased the attention — and pressure — of the Westernworld.American reasoning tends to attribute dissatisfaction in underdeveloped areas primarily to their economicconditions. This reasoning — an extension of the Western outlook — considers poverty and misery as theconditions under which communistideology can best flourish. Democratic values cannot attract a peopleas long as hunger is the daily experience of their majority. In order toremove the danger of exploiting theseconditions for communist ends, thecauses for them must be removed.The obvious remedy is to help thosepeoples produce more, and thus raisetheir standards of living. Only thenwould democracy be appreciated.This type of thinking misplaces theemphasis in the situation and is,therefore, very dangerous in its implications. The American statesmanis likely to give too much weight toeconomic conditions — which certainlyare important — in calculating his policies. He forgets that the peoples'struggles in these areas were evidentlong before they became familiarwith "more production," "a higherstandard of living," or other suchphrases. Their struggles began as agroup -identity reaction to an aggressive outsider. He forced himself uponthem, suppressed their oppositionruthlessly, exploited their resources,and endangered their traditions.Their struggles have lasted longenough to make freedom from outsideabuse their deepest sentiment. Anynew idea or concept is understoodmainly in the light of its possible contribution to the achievement of thisbasic aspiration.Group dignityThe average Arab is too readyto sacrifice any material welfare forthis end. If communism appeals tohim, its appeal is not unlike that ofnaziism before it. The Soviet powerseems the strongest enemy to thosewho have abused him. Communismappears to recognize the Arabs' national aspirations and apparentlypresents itself full of the physical andmoral strength necessary to liberatethem from their age-old enemy — imperialism. (This is surely an oddposition for the most imperialisticnation on earth.) They are not choosing between acommunist or democratic way of life.They, with their history, are not in amind to do so. They are so muchpossessed with the idea of their groupdignity that they are willing to accept the support of any power whichthey believe would lead them to theirgoal.A few years back the expectationsand the hopes of most of these peoples centered around America. Butsince then America's day-to-daypractices in Asia and in Africa havebeen almost contradictory to America's stated ideals. She has not provedby deed that her ideals have a solidbasis. And she has very quicklyidentified herself with the interestsof the colonial powers.Weak nations tend to have a verykeen sense of justice. Their securitylies in a strict application of international justice. Hence, general declarations of freedom and equalityamong nations carry a very vividmeaning to them. By these declarations they measure the movementsof big powers and test their actions.It is thus very damaging to the prestige of America when she proclaimsher principles one day and repudiates them the next.Democracy's appealDemocracy has a better appeal thanthat of communism because it has theextra advantage of guaranteeing theright of weak nations to maintaintheir values and traditions. It guarantees them the right to act independently in their inter-dependencewith other nations.Colonial powers, on the other hand,acting from inertia, seem ) unable toadjust to the present. They have traditionally held their interests by theforce of arms, and do not seem toappreciate any other method. Theirlong rule of subject peoples has beenassociated with superiority and prestige, which they are unwilling toforego. A colonial power rarely responds to the will of her subjects unless the latter express it with as muchviolence as possible. And colonialpeoples have learned that little shortof force can bring them their freedom.America, in such situations, unfortunately, seems to thrust herself intochoosing between one party at theexpense of losing the friendship ofthe other. She usually feels safer (insome cases, compelled) to side withthe colonial power. This position lacksboth insight and leadership. One ofthe most important, and certainlywisest, roles of America is to recon-20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE...NOW, WITH WIFE, EVELYN, AND SON, OMAR, STUDIES IN AND ABOUT THE WESTcile the lingering master-attitude ofsome European states with the growing will for freedom in Asia and inAfrica. The containment of communism in the latter would be an inevitable by-product of this role.Unless America supplies this leadership, Europe will continue to fightfor her colonies, and consequentlythe appeal of communism in thesecountries will increase. No amount ofdollars alone will check this trend.But for some reason, America isafraid of her own ideals. She attendsto every crisis as and when it occurs.Her statesmen seem to be guided bythe European methods of diplomacy,rather than by the principles of democracy. Her statesmen lean to "realistic" or "expedient" approaches to aproblem, which usually means avoiding the ethical ideals involved. Theythus lack the firmness which is necessary to reflect their faith in democracy. And the harm done to the personality of America in the eyes ofthe world is far greater than thetemporary gains achieved.Every international problem in Asiaor in Africa should be seen in thelight of the struggle between democracy and communism. In every problem which arises, the two continentswatch the respective roles of Americaand the Soviet Union. What is atissue in every problem is the impression it adds to the respective composite picture of each of these twomajor powers.We must remember that most ofthe changes in the Arab world wehave mentioned came about withinthe last three decades. Constituentelements of the present are still contradictory and unrelated in many respects. They spring from many roots:the recent past, the revival of theearly Arabic-Moslem culture, and theimpact of the West. These diverseelements have not yet been transformed into aspects of wider pointsof view, into a unity of approach tothe problems of life and society. Theyhave not yet produced what we mayexpect to be both necessary and inevitable: the necessary attitudes fornational social cohesion, a healthypublic responsibility, and a satisfactory way of life.Here lies the danger of the immediate future. It constitutes one ofthe greatest challenges to the statesmanship of both the Soviet Statesand the democracies of the West.Neither group of states can solve theproblem of its relationship to the new,emerging, still disjointed Arab culture until they have convinced thelong-oppressed, deeply suspiciouspeople of the Arab world that they come as true friends, and not as exploiters or oppressors.America is, therefore, limited in herbehavior more by the principles ofdemocracy, than by the exigencies ofa particular case.America's behavior in colonial affairs should flow from her true nature. Her objective in Asia and Africa should be radically different fromthat in Europe. While in Europe the objective is to preserve the politicalinstitutions against the pressing danger of communism, in Asia and Africait is to enable the people to emancipate themselves from their presentpolitical conditions, to assist the peoples in their national aspirations.America's best (and surest) chanceto compete with Russia is to showthat her actions flow from the ideals;of democracy.MARCH, 1953 21(J~>oote5by Faculty and AlumniTHE COMMONWEALTH OF MAN:AN INQUIRY INTO POWER POLITICS AND WORLD GOVERNMENTby Frederick L. Schuman, '24, PhD'27. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952.Pp. 494. $5.J^EVEN YEARS AGO the author ofan inquiry into world governmentwould hardly have devoted 420 of 494pages to a discussion of power politics.But seven years ago Americans ingeneral — and American liberals inparticular—had little first-handknowledge of the tragic and inescapable character of rivalry amongnations. Power politics were attributed to the unreconstructed characterof Europeans and European society.Most Americans felt that we stood onthe threshold of a brave new world,where the common enlightened purposes of all mankind would soon replace selfish national interests as theguides for a nation's conduct.Since 1945 this optimism has passedand many Americans appear resignedto an indefinite continuation of thecold war with its mounting despairand frustration. The one effectivegroup of dissenters is an especiallyaggressive and vociferous minoritywho have called periodically for apreventive war to settle things withthe Russians once and for all. Thefalse optimism of 1945-6 has bred itsantithesis in a spirit of helplessnessand deep pessimism. Finding bothviewpoints unacceptable, Mr. Schuman has undertaken to mediate between them in this provocative andchallenging volume.Federal Union?In doing so he presents three basicpropositions. Whatever this reviewermay have to say about Mr. Schuman'sfundamental theses, the scope of theauthor's research and scholarship andthe richness of his insights and reflections must inevitably be an objectof admiration. Any informed studentof world politics cannot but recognizewide areas of agreement with theauthor of INTERNATIONAL POLITICS, perhaps the pioneer text in thefield. But the purpose of this reviewwill not be to enumerate agreementsbut to suggest areas in which ques tions arise. With this in mind we shallturn to his general propositions.First, he maintains that international relations in the modern worldhave always been characterized byanarchy, rivalry, and violence. Secondly, he adds that all of the currently popular or historic approachesto peace, whether peace through worldempire or by means of the UnitedNations, will in the long run lead towar. Finally, Mr. Schuman proclaimsthat only federal union for all thenations can bring about enduringpeace.The first of his theses is unexceptionable as far as it goes, although heequates the struggle for power rathertoo simply with the modern statesystem, sometimes appearing to forgetthat it results more profoundly fromman's inherent nature. The secondproposition is valid in the sense thatall established human contrivancesfor peace and order have been faultyand imperfect. However, it has beencharacteristic of men of political wisdom to make the best of arrangementswhich were morally and politicallyhazardous.Sometimes Mr. Schuman appearsimpatient with Edmund Burke's firstprinciple of politics that: "It is one ofthe greatest objects of human wisdomto mitigate those evils which we areunable to remove." Mr. Schumanwould obviously have nations do thebest they can under unfavorable circumstances. But his towering liberalphilosophy makes him unhappy withprograms that merely alleviate present ills. For example, the reader looksin vain for a systematic discussion ofthe accommodation of rivalries amongnations through diplomatic negotiation. He finds that the author considers collective security under existing world conditions an inevitableblind alley. By contrast The Times(London), despite its misgivings aboutreckless police actions everywherehas pleaded for a "pragmatic approach to collective security." A more pragmatic approach wouldlead to the conclusion that the historicapproaches to peace have failed manytimes, but they have also succeededfor long periods when wisely andjudiciously applied. Thus in the nineteenth century there were onlyeighteen months of general warfareinvolving the five or six major nations,if the Crimean War is considered acolonial struggle. Mr. Schuman, however, gives short shrift to the nineteenth century and to its regnantprinciples. In the same way, he showshimself an unwilling traveller in ourpresent morally ambiguous international society, when he rejects theconcept of "peace through strength."Military men are told that "there canbe no articulated military doctrine, notrustworthy strategic program" in thepresent cold war.Therefore, the essence of my criticism is derived from the fact thatthe author neglects a dimension of international relations between junglewarfare and federal world government — the dimension of managingproblems which cannot be solved, andof mitigating the struggle for powerwhich shows no signs of disappearing.Here great statesmen like Mr.Churchill are entirely at home, but inthis realm Schuman appears uncomfortable and unsure of himself. Forwhile he describes the unceasingpower conflicts among nations withunrivaled insight and knowledge, heprefers to emphasize ways of eliminating or transforming this strife,rather than means for ameliorating orrelieving it."Intolerant inquisitors"Because he is sometimes excessively preoccupied with his vision of thedistant and far-away hills, his discrimination and judgment on immediate issues is less helpful than itshould be. He fails to distinguishclearly the essential choices to bemade in the sphere of proximate orrelative political goals. Thus, when heasks whether either Russia or America possesses the moral resources toestablish a world empire, he replies inthe negative and gives as his reasonthe fact that: "Russia is dominated byintolerant inquisitors and unscrupulous fanatics, and America by unthinking sybarites and irresponsibleneurotics." His own utopianism interferes with his interest in the proximate achievements which differentiatesane from corrupted political movements. And in another context hemaintains that any nation is held22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtogether not primarily by its traditions and values but by the ability ofits rulers "to deflect the resentmentsof the multitudes away from thosewho rule them and against foreignfoes and domestic pariahs [which] hasever been the most efficacious means... of reinforcing the bonds of sharedemotion without which no communitycan function."This puts too low an estimate onthe dignity of certain national andparochial values. In the same terms,there has been talk among advocatesof world government about encouraging the erosion of national values,thus freeing us from the more destructive passions of crusading nationalism. However, some wise leadershave asked whether this might notcreate a great void within the statein the same way that the breakdownof religion left the larger politicalcommunity without moral consensus.Yet nationalism for Mr. Schuman ismerely a disease and a passing phasein international society, and notsomething to be studied for its intrinsic, if limited, merits.Mr. Schuman's third proposition —the need for federal union— is bothalluring and somewhat misleading. Asare most men of goodwill, Mr. Schuman is for ultimate world government.But for him the objective is morevisible and less remote than for otherserious observers. Since the breakdown of the Christian commonwealth,and more especially in consequence ofthe emergence of revolutionary worldcommunism, the essential moral andpolitical foundations of world com munity have virtually disappeared.However, Mr. Schuman rediscoversthem in the fact that tfee gulf betweencommunism and democracy is not sogreat as is sometimes imagined. Communism after all "... is a fusion ofthe ways of the Mongols with a dogmaconceived .... [by] a German Jew,exiled from France and Belgium,working in the Library of the BritishMuseum . . . . " On this he founds hisA ^\\x'AHX!#'|V'/j T^CfVbelief that one world is an existing ifsomewhat fragile reality.Yet the fact that Naziism was contrived in central Europe hardly lessened its demoniac character or diminished its impact on the West.Indeed, whether Marx had lived andworked in London or darkest Africawould be irrelevant to the influence ofcommunism today. For the claims and aspirations, not the ancestry, of communism are what threaten the Westand even more the Orient. Its fusionof the certainty of science with thefervor of a religion, providing its ownmoral valuations, give it a furiousand intransigent character in thepursuit of its ultimate aims, on theideological level. And as Schumanhimself points out, the absolute claimsof universal democracy only confoundthe problem.Neither communism nor democracyas doctrines can afford to retreat.Therefore, only at the diplomatic levelin practical and provisional terms isany form of compromise or accommodation between East and West conceivable or possible. A settlement onoutstanding political issues must precede the establishment of a viableworld community. And this can bebrought about not through noble incantations on world federalism butonly, as one of the recent Presidentialcandidates bravely observed, whenboth sides agree to examine theirvital interests and objectives, and seriously explore the basis for a politicalsettlement. This may be impossible.But if it is impossible, then war anddevastation are probably inevitable.The area to which we might hopeMr. Schuman would turn his thoughts,in his next book, would lead him toask whether or not — through prudence and wisdom — we can find ourway out of the present impasse.Kenneth W. ThompsonAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Political Science(Advertisement) (Advertisement) (Advertisement). . . and records show that, throughoutthe length and breadth of the nation,there are few communities indeedwithout a policyholder, annuitantor beneficiary of the Sun LifeAssurance Company of Canada...Branch and agency service in strategic key centers around the globe,including 100 Sun Life offices throughout the United States and Canada.MARCH, 1953 . 23MUSICFor the "thinking" musician, hereare some recommendations of recentbooks in music. From Mr. V. HowardTalley, of the Department of Music,come these suggestions:COMPOSER AND CRITIC — TwoHundred Years of Musical Criticism.By Max Graf. W. W. Norton & Co.,1946.This tome recounts the ever-recurring battles between critics and composers from the time of Bach to thepresent age. The author describes atfirst-hand some of the great musicalpersonalities in Vienna: Brahms,Bruckner, Hanslick, Mahler, andothers. Graf also gives some details ofthe great controversies over the musicof Beethoven, Wagner, and Liszt, andreviews the work of the leading musiccritics in Europe and the UnitedStates.A COMPOSER'S WORLD. By PaulHindemith. Harvard University Press,1952.This is a highly literate and thoughtful book. It contains chapters on aphilosophical, intellectual and emotional approach to music and the materials with which a composer works,as well as the instruments for whichhe writes. It includes some pungentcriticism of the twelve -tone techniqueof composition and of the youngAmerican composers who use it.There is a provocative chapter on thestate of music education in thiscountry.JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH:Heritage and Obligation. By PaulHindemith. Yale University Press,1952.This is an address delivered in September, 1950, at the Bach commemoration of the city of Hamburg,Germany. Hindemith gives a contemporary composer's views on thequalities of Bach as man, musician,teacher and composer. The authoralso brushes away some of the cobwebs of misconception and misunderstanding that have obscured thelineaments of Bach as a human andmusical personality.MUSIC AND SOCIETY. By Wilfred Mellers. Dennes Dobson Ltd.,London, 1946.This volume deals with the influence of the culture of Europe and theBritish Isles on English music fromthe Middle Ages to the present day, —From JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH, courtesy of Yale PressBACH'S OWN SCORE OF HIS WER NUR DEN LIEBEN GOTT LASST WALTENand includes a chapter on Americanmusic in an industrial community. TheAmerican reader may be bewilderedby allusions to English matters aboutwhich he may be unaware. The authorhas a jaundiced view of the attitudeof the public toward contemporarymusic. He says, in effect, that ourmechanistic civilization has been efficient and successful in everything except in making it possible for peopleto live creative lives, that they preferersatz music to the genuine product.STYLE AND IDEA. By ArnoldSchoenberg. New York: PhilosophicalLibrary, 1950.This discussion gives the author'spersonal reactions to the music ofMahler and Brahms. It is also anexposition of his method of composingwith the so-called twelve -tone system. The book contains essays on avariety of subjects more or less related to music, some of them fantasticin theme and treatment.WORLDS OF MUSIC. By CecilSmith. J. B. Lippincott Co., 1952.This is a frank, first-hand accountof the whole world of serious musicin the United States. It throws lighton the motives and the manipulationsof the gigantic New York music -management corporations who conduct a 4 million dollar business a year. Smith surveys the worlds of the symphony orchestra, the opera, the composer, the dancer, and the realm ofradio, television, and recordings. Hegives an account of the state of musicChicago, and concludes with a critical chapter on music education inAmerica.From 1929 to 1947 Mr. Smith wasassociated with the University of Chicago Music Department, as instructor,professor, and finally head of thedepartment.POETICS OF MUSIC. By IgorStravinsky. Translated by ArthurKnodel and Ingolf Dahl. HarvardUniversity Press, 1941.After the opening "lesson" or chapter presenting his philosophic approach to music and defining terms,Stravinsky, in the succeeding lessons,discusses the nature of music as hesees it. He presents his processes ofcomposition and musical style. Hethen inserts a lesson on the state ofmusic in Russia, past and present;and the final lesson is devoted to conditions in the performance of music,followed by an epilogue affirming hisartistic credo. In the course of thesesix lessons he pays his respects to thedecadent romanticism of Wagnerismon the one hand and to modernismon the other.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWhat does Atomic Energy really mean to you?Dramatic new developments in medicine, agriculture,and industry promise long-time benefits for us allScientists have long known that the secret core of the atomconcealed vast stores of concentrated energy. Evidence thatman had unlocked the secret came with the atomic bomb.Then came the task of developing methods to release thisunbounded energy slowly, gradually, in ways of lastingbenefit to all of us.ISOTOPES AN EXAMPLE-When uranium atoms are splitthey emit a barrage of highly active particles. Certain chemicals placed in this barrage become radioactive and shootoff particles from themselves. Substances thus treated arecalled radioactive isotopes.When these chemicals are made radioactive their pathscan be traced through plants and animals, showing the organs they affect. This may increase our understanding ofthe processes of life itself.FUTURE UNLIMITED— Atomic energy is also proving useful in industrial research and production. It promises to beeven more valuable, however, in providing concentratedpower for transportation, home, and industry. UNION CARBIDE'S PART-From the beginning UCC hashad a hand in the mining and treatment of uranium ores,the development of engineering processes, and the production of special materials for the atomic energy program.Under Government contract Union Carbide manages andoperates the huge research and production installations atOak Ridge, Tenn. and Paducah, Ky.All of this activity fits in with the continuing efforts ofthe people of Union Carbide to transform the elements ofthe earth into useful materials for science and industry.STUDENTS and STUDENT ADVISERS: Learn more about the manyfields in which Union Carbide offers career opportunities. Write forthe free illustrated booklet ''Products and Processes" which describes the various activities of UCC in the fields of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics. Ask for booklet D-2.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET QH§ NEW YORK 17, N. Y.UCCs Trade-marked Products of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics includeSynthetic Organic Chemicals • Eveready Flashlights and Batteries . National Carbons . Acheson Electrodes . PYROFAxGasELECTROMET Alloys and Metals . HAYNES Stellite Alloys • Prest-O-Lite AcetyleneDynel Textile Fibers . Bakelite, Krene, and Vinylite Plastics . Linde Oxygen . Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes1903John B. Matthews, MD, writes from St.Petersburg, Fla., that he is "still in practice and enjoying good health."1906Elizabeth Munger retired as superintendent and warden of the ConnecticutState Farm and Prison for Women in1947, after 21 years during which theinstitution developed into one of themore progressive institutions of its typein the country. She is now living quietlywith her sister in Old Lyme, Conn.1909Mary E. Courtenay, AM '37, retiredJanuary 30 from her post as assistantsuperintendent of the Chicago publicschools in charge of special education.Miss Courtenay has served the childrenof Chicago for more than 40 years. Sheis a former principal of the GompersSchool for Crippled Children. A numberof teas and receptions have been heldin her honor recently in recognition ofher many years of devoted service. Shereceived the Alumni citation in 1943.1911Cola G. Parker, JD '12, president of theKimberly-Clark Corporation (paper) inNeenah, Wis., has been appointed apublic interest director of the FederalHome Loan Bank of Chicago.1912Looks as though it doesn't pay to knowthe editor too well. He knew months agothat Nell C. Henry, SM '15, had retiredfrom teaching at the Glenville HighSchool, Cleveland. But he forgot to reportthis to the Class News Editor. Nell hasalways generously given of her time forher Alma Mater, has been cited by theAssociation, and even in retirement sheis the efficient and conscientious secretary of our Greater Cleveland Club.She's doing other interesting things aswell. Actually, no one can tell us thatNell will ever retire!1913Herbert Bebb, JD, decided upon full-time teaching last September. He is installed now in a quiet, sunny office onthe fourth floor of the John MarshallLaw School in Chicago ancf teachesIllinois civil practice, partnership, andtorts. Mr. Bebb continues this year asco-leader of a seminar group on American Foreign Policy.Jiuji G. Kasai, '13, was the University'srepresentative to the SeptuagenarianConvocation of Waseda University inTokyo. He is president of the America-Japan Cultural Society, and sends thisnews of the convocation ceremony andof himself:"On Oct. 21, I attended the Septuage- Auld Lang SyneWhen Grace Williamson Chamberlain '07, (Mrs. R. Randolph) comes toChicago on her biennial trips fromPrescott, Ontario, Canada, her chiefdelights are to visit with her son,Howard Willet, Jr., and his family andto renew friendships among her University classmates.Last December she and her husbandentertained many of their friends atthe Drake. One of the parties was aluncheon where a group of MortarBoards had a chance to "catch up onthe news."In this picture we see, from left to right, Theo Griffith Newman, '17;Margaret Haas Richards, '11; HarrietRichardson Todd, '07; Miss MadelineWilliamson, sister of the hostess; SaraHendricks Essington, '08; Ruth Newberry Thomas, '11, AM '12; MargaretMonroe MacPherson, '17; and GraceWilliamson Chamberlain, '07, the smiling hostess.Among the others who were invitedto the luncheon but who didn't arrivein time to have their pictures takenwere Elizabeth Walker, '20; and EdithMatheny, '05, who came down fromMilwaukee for the reunion in Chicago.narian Convocation and it was a most impressive ceremony. I was very happy tohave had the pleasure of representingmy Alma Mater."Some of my classmates of '13 havebeen writing to me that they are preparing to hold the 40th anniversary thisyear. I should like very much to attend."We have just finished parliamentaryelection for the members of the LowerHouse. I was coaxed to run this timebut I postponed to run for the UpperHouse in June."Please convey my best wishes to myclassmates. A special greeting toLawrence Whiting, '09-'ll; Harry Rosenberg, '13, JD '15 and B. Franklin Bills,'11, JD '14."1918Arthur F. Turman is chief petroleumengineer with the Standard Oil Co., ofCalifornia, with headquarters in SanFrancisco.1920Coleman Clark, who became famousfor his table tennis accomplishments, issetting records in another field — life insurance. Provident Mutual of Philadelphia recently honored Coleman "forachieving leadership in the amount ofnew business and for bringing to the organization policyholders of a high standard." Mr. Clark lives in Wilmette, 111. 1922Bessie Boyd Bell, AM, writes fromGlenville, W. Va., where she is in her35th year as a member of the facultyof Glenville State College, teaching history. "My biggest thrill of 1952 was beinga delegate to the Democratic NationalConvention, having been chosen by popular vote."Mattie M. Dykes, AM, is writing ahistory of the Northwest Missouri StateCollege at Maryville, Mo., where she isa teacher of English. She expects to attend the annual convention of the National Federation of Press Women inHollywood this June. Her two-yearterm of office as president of the Federation expires this June.1925Harold R. Nissley, AM '35, presidentof our Greater Cleveland alumni clubis a "registered professional engineer."This is the modern term for efficiencyexpert — improving production and personnel relations in industry.Harold, who now operates on his own,has quite a record. He has been on thefaculty of three universities, teachingfactory management, marketing, or economics. In addition to Chicago, he studied at the University of Berlin and at theIllinois Institute of Technology.He has been sole arbitrator of a number of important labor disputes and hasrescued maify a sick business.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1926Simon Agranat, JD '29, is a memberjudge of the Supreme Court of Israel inJerusalem.Adrian Albert, SM, '27, PhD '28, Professor of Mathematics at the University,has been elected to a correspondingmembership in the Brazilian Academy ofSciences.Edward C. Ames is director of employee and public relations of Calumet &Hecla, Inc., in Chicago. He was formerlypublic relations director of Owen- Corning Fiberglas Corp., in Toledo.Joseph Werlin, AM, PhD '31, directorof the International Summer Centers ofthe University of Houston, is hard atwork detailing the plans for this summer's study-tours to Mexico and to Europe. In its tenth year of operation, theCenter will offer its Mexican Centerfrom June 8 to July 13, and its Franceand Western Europe Center, in affiliation with the Sorbonne, from July 8 toSeptember 3.1927Leo A. Diamond, JD '29, is in the private practice of law in New York City.1928Harry E. Parker, AM, DB, '30, is nowminister of the Kitsilano United Churchin Vancouver, British Columbia, Can.1930Lillian Egerton, MBA, '45, is executive secretary of the Citizens' Association ofChicago. One of the Association's newestactivities is the publication of "Spotlight," a mimeographed sheet givingmonthly summaries of the activities ofthe Chicago city council.1931When Mr. Hutchins left the Universityto join the Ford Foundation in Pasadena,so did Esther J. Donnelly, where she continues as secretary to the ex- Chancellor.1933Walter Giersbach, PhD, President ofPacific University, was appointed statesenator in Oregon to succeed GovernorPaul Patterson.1934Perry E. Gresham, who was a studentin the Divinity School around 1934, hasbeen named the 12th president of Bethany College, Bethany, West Virginia. Anordained minister of the Disciples ofChrist church, Dr. Gresham has beenminister of the Central WoodwardChristian Church in Detroit since 1947.He is a prominent figure in the worldMovement of Churches.Howard G. Winebrenner is director ofadmissions at Roosevelt College in Chicago.1935Charles A. Bane is now with the Chicago law firm of Isham, Lincoln & Beale. Robert Diefendorf is now a residentof Cincinnati, Ohio, where he is budgetdirector of the Baldwin Co.Daniel Eisler is an assistant researchbacteriologist with the Naval BiologicalLaboratory, Oakland, Calif.1936Friends of the Robert Dubins will beinterested in the news from them.(We're sorry this didn't get passed alongto our Class News readers sooner, butthe information got sidetracked into thefiles by mistake.)On March 13, 1952, a daughter, LucySarah, was born in the Dubin household.Last June 4, their oldest child, ThomasJoseph, died of leukemia at the age of7%. The Thomas Joseph Dubin Memorial Fund has been established at theUniversity of Chicago for support of research on leukemia.Robert, AM '40, PhD '47, and his wife,Elisabeth Ruch, '37, AM 39, PhD '46,are living in Urbana, 111., where Robertis now Associate Professor of Sociologyand of Management at the University ofIllinois.The Dubins' younger son, John Robert,is 5y2.Robert Giffen, executive secretary ofthe Atlanta Christian Council, has beengoing places with his radio program, ThePastor's Study. The program has received two national awards: one from theOhio State Institute, and a joint citationby the Peabody committee. The ChristianCouncil is now producing 37 weeklyradio and television programs. Bob isteaching radio and TV production atAre YouIn the Top Third?The University's Committee on Aging has discovered that. . . one-third of the people over fifty consider their yearsbeyond the half-century mark as the happiest, the mostsatisfying of their lives. Out of this research has come anew, unique, Home-Study course . . .MAKING THE MOST OF MATURITY. . . designed to help you join that top third. This courseoffers you an opportunity, under skilled guidance, to developyour own plans for your later maturity. Topics includefinances, health and nutrition, family relations, leisure-timeactivities, where to live, and — most important — a philosophyfor the later years.MAKING THE MOST OF MATURITY is one of over a hundred courses in Home-Study's unique program of continuing education for adults. For full information,write for the Home-Study Announcements. Alumni Association members may enroll for only$20.00, which includes text, syllabus, supplementarypamphlets plus instruction for a year. (Tuition forothers, $25.00.) Ten lessons; no final examination;non- credit.j The Home-Study Departmentj The University of Chicagoi 1375 East Sixtieth Street, Chicago 37, Illinoisi Please enroll me today in MAKING THE MOST OF! MATURITY, at the special Alumni Association rateof $20.00. My (check, money order) is enclosed.(Make payable to "The University of Chicago.")tvt Mr.Name Mrs. Address ..^fct. ^aarTi^eers^ear^^aars^agrii^Bartw1FOR SPRING AND SUMMERsuits of blended rayon, acetate and Dacronmade exclusively for uson our own distinctive patternsDacron is the noted Du Pont polyester fiber thathas unusual resistance to wrinkling, stretchingand abrasion. Blended with rayon and acetate itachieves a material that is cool, lightweight andunusually attractive . . . suitable for wear in townor country from early Spring right into Fall. Thesuits themselves are made on our exclusive patterns, in dark blue, medium brown or grey, greyor brown with a fine hairline stripe, and a greyGlenurquhart plaid with blue overplaid. $52ESTABLISHED 1818l^ens furnishing, ff ate ^Jphoes346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N. Y.74 E. MADISON ST. NEAR MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 2, ILL.BOSTON • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO Columbia Seminary. News of Bob's family notes that son Bobby is a fifth grader,Phoebe is a freshman in high school,and John is headed for nuclear physicsand college in '53.Mildred McCullough was awarded herEdD degree last October from the University of Southern California.Robert T. Whittenberger got hisMaster's from Northwestern and his PhDfrom the University of Pennsylvania. Heis now with the Eastern Regional Research Bureau in Philadelphia.Dorothy Ulrich Troubetzkoy, a residentof Richmond, Va., won the $50 firstprize last year in a contest sponsored bythe Poetry Society of Virginia for herlyric, "The Small Deaths." She is a television and radio script writer and alsodoes feature articles for the Richmond"Times Dispatch." She also contributesarticles on historical and industrial subjects to the "Virginia and VirginiaCounty Magazine."1937It's Number Six for the Dan Smiths.Their fourth daughter and sixth child,Rita Louise, arrived January 6, 1953.Dan, JD '40, and Louise (Hoyt) writethat they are greatly enjoying life in theNorthwest and like their home in Tacoma.James L. Whittenberger, MD '38, is director of the physiology department ofthe Harvard School of Public Health.NEWSWEEK of August 18, 1952 carrieda story about him. He is also a government consultant. James, who playedclarinet in the Chicago band and orchestra, did not have the time to join theBoston Symphony, which, of course, hewould have enjoyed.1939Arnold Andersen is an official with theUnited Nations in New York City.1940Irwin Biederman, MBA '42, informs usthat Robert W. joined the Biedermanboys on October 22, 1952. His olderbrothers are Jerry, 6, and William, 2.The Biedermans and their growing family are "nicely settled" in their Glencoe,111. home.1941"It's a girl" in the home of Irving andBernice Blum Sheft. Judith Ann arrivedon November 20 at Lying-In Hospital inChicago.1942Bertha Hensman, AM, PhD '47, returned several months ago to Englandfrom Szechuan, China, where she hadbeen Head of the Department of Western Languages at West- China UnionUniversity. She would welcome newsfrom the University at her address, 6Salisbury Square, London EC4. In spiteof hospitalization in late September, MissHensman remains keenly interested inliterary pursuits. She's working on aBiblical drama, and for relaxation, iscooking up a mystery story.1943Charles Folio, AM, who is supervisorof the Upper Peninsula Area for the28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEUniversity of Michigan Extension Service, is also president of the school boardin his home town of Escanaba and wasrecently elected state president of theHistorical Society of Michigan.Robert L. Wegner and his wife, Parm,are in San Antonio, Texas, after fouryears and three degrees at Harvard.While Parm takes care of Bob, Jr., bornlast September, Bob, Sr., works asplanning analyst with the city.1944Jack A. Batten, MBA '50, sends newsfrom Lawton, Okla., where he has assumed new duties as assistant executivedirector of the Wichita Mountains EasterSunrise Service and director of the year-round program of the association.Folks who remember Elbert and AgnesBlack and the fine job Elbert did running faculty exchange at the Universityfor so many years, will be interested toknow that the Blacks are now establishedat Rossmoyne, Ohio, a small community(Advertisement )Retiring to sunny Florida? For abeautiful home in a city of lakesnear Rollins College, settle in Orlando or Winter Park. See or writea University of Chicago alumna,Edna M. Feltgas, with the HaroldShepard Realty Co., 20 E. Washington St., Orlando, Florida.Telephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL to826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 15, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLT. A. REHNOUIST CO.\o/EST. 192?CONCRETEFLOORS — SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSINDUSTRIAL FLOORINGEMERGENCY REPAIR WORKCONCRETE BREAKINGWATERPROOFINGINSIDE WALLS6639 S. Vernon AvenueNOrmal 7-0433 on the northeast border of Cincinnati.Elbert is excited about his new job asservice manager for Audio-Electronics,Inc., the franchise organization for "Musicby Muzak" in the Cincinnati area.Sanford J. Green, JD '50, is an attorney for Carson Pirie Scott & Co., inChicago. Did you know he was marriedApril 5, 1952 to Jean Eiseman?1945Claire E. Bartholomew is an assistantprofessor in the University of CaliforniaSchool of Nursing at Los Angeles.C. N. Hostetter, Jr., AM, president ofMessiah College, Grantham, Pa., waselected chairman of the Mennonite Central Committee in January. The Committee serves a constituency of 200,000 members of Mennonite and Brethren in ChristChurches in Canada and the UnitedStates.Donald McBride, MD '47, has assumedthe medical practice of Dr. Evans Perno-kis in Chicago. His practice is limited tointernal medicine.Paul S. Russell, MD '47 is a medicalofficer with the U. S. Air Force, stationedat Foster Air Base in Texas. Last August he married Allene Lummis of Houston, Texas. Paul will be out of the Armyin July and plans to finish two moreyears of surgical residency at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.Margaret Sheets, AM, returned severalmonths ago to the States from Hankow,China where she had taught in Hua-Chung University for over four years.She is currently studying at Union Theological Seminary.Anne Stowell, AM. a psychiatric socialworker in Los Angelas, was married onSeptember 6, 1952, to Mr. Ben Freedman.1946Albert Friedlander was ordained at theHebrew Union College in Cincinnati lastJune and is now serving as rabbi of theUnited Hebrew Congregation, Fort Smith,Ark. He writes that he conducted hisfirst wedding ceremony in November forclass-mate Lucian Chimene. "At a recent rabbinical convention I ran intoLouis Frishman. '45. rabbi in Spring Valley, N. Y.; and Bernard Martin, '47, rabbiin Champaign, 111. Also heard fromArnold Wolf, serving as Navy chaplainin Tokvo and from Frater Charles Berry-man. '46, who is at the Sacred HeartSeminary, Shelby, Ohio."All our readers will remember SophieJean Liebshutz if we call her "Cissie."She illustrates many of our articles withher clever cartoons. But you may notknow Richard W. Peltz, AM '49, a auietbut smart philosopher who is teachingin our Downtown College. Dick andCissie were married on New Year's Davand are now cozily established at 1225N. Dearborn Parkway, Chicago. Cissiewill continue her career in cartooning.Charles L. McKeen, MD '48, is a resident physician at the Indiana MedicalCenter in Indianapolis.1947Milo Andre, SM '48, is director ofclimatology, air weather services, atAndrews Air Force Base, Washington,D. C.Richard E. Arter is a shoe store manager in La Grange, 111. AJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, CR 7-2668BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoGolden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID — NOT PLATEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4,Telephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON & BROS., Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributors ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketCXCCllfNrf IM fICCrilCAl NOOVCTflewewtlELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Dlslrlhltm. Miinlitlofiri ail Jabbers ilELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500MARCH, 1953 29POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHaaven Typewriting MimeographingMulti graphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisPHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Co/or Work a SpecialtyQualify Book Reproduction731 Plymouth CourtWAbash 2-8182Platers - SilversmithsSince 1917GOLD, SILVER, RHODIUMSILVERWARERepaired, Refinished, Re/acqueredSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CEntral 6-6089-90 ChicagoA. T. STEWART LUMBER CO.Quality and ServiceSince 188879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phonei Vlncennes 6-9000LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERSSINCE 190 6? WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCERAYNER^• DALHEIM &CO.2801 W. 47TH ST. CHICAGO. Army reporterDavid Broder, '47, AM '51, manages to keep his journalistic fingerslimber even as a private in theArmy.Here we see him writing newsstories for "The Sentinel," theweekly news-sheet of the U.S.Forces in Austria, during wintermaneuvers in the Salzkammergutregion of the Alps.Dave was a Maroon editor in hisundergraduate days, and also areporter for the Hyde Park Herald before entering the Army inSeptember, 1951.1948Since his discharge from the Army,Robert Bidwell, MBA '50, has been withthe Procter and Gamble Co. in the internal auditing department. With thisjob he's on the road most of the time,but he's still calling Canton, Ohio, home.Henry A. DeWind, AM, PhD '51, isnow teaching in the history departmentat Wisconsin State College in Whitewater.Winifred Titus Hall is a private secretary in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, for theArabian-American Oil Co.1949A recent letter from Don Winks accounts for his personal history these pastfew years. "After a spell with the Chicago INS bureau as a" reporter, rewrite-man, etc., I went to Paris in the fall of1950 and studied for ten months at theSorbonne, followed by four months inSpain at Palma de Mallorca. This junketwas financed by the government via theGI Bill. I came home in November,1951, and went to work for the Medicaland Pharmaceutical Information Bureauas a public relations consultant in thepharmaceutical field. In October, 1952,I married Miss Patricia B. Layne, analumna of Sweet Briar College, whomI met in Paris. We are living at 240 W.75th St., N.Y.C."1950Earle Buck, JD, is now associated withHornblower & Weeks, of the New Yorkand Chicago Stock Exchange. He andhis wife, Minna Rodnon, '48, have twodaughters, Carolyn, five months, andBeverly, almost two years old.Burton N. Elam, MBA, is assistant professor of economics at North DakotaAgricultural College. In the summer of1952 he had a college -business exchange Local and Long Distance) MovingStorage Facilities for Books,Record Cabinets, Trunks, orCarloads of FurniturePeterson FireproofWarehouse Inc.1011 EAST 55th STREETBUTTERFIELD 8-6711DAVID L. SUTTON. PresidentWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wesson's Coal Mates Good — or —Wasson DoesBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's HotelIn theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave.Verna P. Warner, DirectorTelephonePLaza 2-3313Auto LiveryQuiet, unobtrusive serviceWhen you wont if, as you waul ifCALL AN £MERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4-640030 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERESULTS . . .depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Adressographing - FoldingMailing - Copy Preparation - MultilithA Complete Service for Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn - Chicago 5 - WA 2-4561BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380Since 1878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholsterersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180Ashjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone REgent 4-6000GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186TELEVISIONRentals — sales New & ReconditionedRADIOSRadio-TV ServiceELECTRICAL APPLIANCESDishwashers DriersAir Conditioners FreezersSPORTING GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSLPs & 45sFine collection for childrenRefrigeratorsWashers935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Julian A. Tishler, '33 fellowship with Sears, Roebuck & Co.Lewis Lipsitt was married June 8,1952, to Miss Edna Duchin of Newton,Mass. Lewis is now in basic training inthe U. S. Air Force and expects to receive a direct commission as a psychologist soon. He was awarded his masterof science degree from the University ofMassachusetts last June and held a research fellowship in psychology whilestudying there.Allen Williams, AM, and his wife,Madeline, '48, are globe-trotting thesedays for the Arabian-American Oil Co.1951David D. Allen, AM, writes from hishome in New Haven, Conn., that he hasa new book out, entitled The Nature ofGambling. (To be reviewed in the MAGAZINE this spring— Ed.) He has beenelected to honorary membership in theMark Twain Society.Robert H. Davenport is a sergeant withthe radar calibration squadron of theAir Force in Sioux City, Iowa. He expects to return to student status in August and will take advanced work inpsychology either at Chicago or at theUniversity of California at Los Angeles.He writes that he gets a bang out ofevery issue of the MAGAZINE — recognized three schoolmates in the Februaryissue, and wrote for their current addresses, which we sent by return mail, ofcourse.Marie K. Hardy, MBA, is giving a lotof her time to community activities thesedays. She is president of the board ofdirectors of the Girl Scouts of Chicago,a member of the budget reviewing committee for the Chicago Community Fund,on the executive committee of the Welfare Council of Chicago, and chairmanof the Alumnae Fund Committee ofStephens College.Joseph Ousley, MD, is a medical resident at Wisconsin General Hospital inMadison, Wis.Major Frederic R. Steinhauser, AM, isan intelligence officer at Far East Command headquarters in Tokyo. His wifeand son joined him there in January.1952Robert D. Best, AM, is associated withthe Freyn Engineering Department ofKoppers Co., Inc., with his headquartersin Chicago as personnel coordinator attached to the Office of Chief Engineer.His work at present concerns mainlysalary administration problems and training for supervisors.James J. Kocsis, SM, is a biochemistwith the Wilson Laboratories in Chicago.Carl Merisalo, MBA, former presidentof the Interfraternity Council, is nowsafety and training manager for theKraft Food Co., in Chicago.Fv/emorialRobert Hawkins, MD '85, died October25, 1952, at the age of 93.Dr. Lapsley C. Henley, MD '95, diedOctober 19, 1952.Laura M. Wright, '98, of Chicago, died CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field. Itis affiliated with the Fisk Teachers Agencyof Chicago, whose work covers all the educational fields. Both organizations assistin the appointment of administrators aswell as of teachers.Our service is nation-wide.HYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTESA product «l Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400MARCH, 1953 31SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 100 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoWHOLESALE RETAILPARKER-HOLSMAN* c ?.""".y"."...?.."...ih...."?^ vf?E AL TOR??Real Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEZJkeexclusive Cleaner*We operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608LOWER YOUR COSTS- WAGE INCENTIVES% EMPLOYEE TRAININGPERSONNEL PROCEDURESIMPROVED METHODSJOB EVALUATIONROBERT a. SHAPIRO *33, DIRECTOR on June 24, 1952. A life member of theAlumni Association, she was also" acharter member and one of the earlypresidents of the Alumnae Club. She retired in 1944 as assistant principal ofTilden Technical High School, afterteaching there for 44 years.Ralph E. Green, MD '00, of Medford,Ore., died on July 29, 1952.Dr. Forest Ray Moulton, PhD '00, worldrenowned astronomer and mathematician,died December 7, 1952, in Evanston, 111.Dr. Moulton had retired in 1950 as executive secretary of the American Association for the Advancement of Science,which post he had held since 1937. Hewas graduated summa cum laude fromthe University and joined the faculty inastronomy and mathematics, serving asprofessor and head of the Department ofAstronomy from 1912 to 1926. Duringthese years he won fame for his development, with T. C. Chamberlin, of theplanetesimal hypothesis of the origin ofthe earth and the solar system. He alsowrote a number of books on celestialmechanics, descriptive astronomy anddifferential equations which have becomeclassics.Carlotta Collins, '01, died on November17, 1952, in Santa Barbara, Calif.The Rev. Richard Edward Sayles, DB'03, died August 21, 1952.Calm Morrison Hoke, 10 (Mrs. T. Robert McDearman) died July 13, 1952. Achemist and engineer, she held a uniqueposition of authority in a specialized fieldof metallurgy. She was a founding Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists and editor of its earliest bulletins.She had served as chemist, vice-presidentand chief consultant with Hoke, Inc., andthe associated Jewelers Technical Advice, which her father established in 1912.She authored two books, Testing PreciousMetals, and Refining Precious MetalWastes, which are classics in their industry.Otto Schnering, '13, founder and president of the Curtiss Candy Co., died suddenly of a heart attack on January 10,1953, at his home in Cary, Illinois. Mr.Schnering was a pioneer in the candyindustry. Three years after he wasgraduated from the University hefounded the Curtiss Candy Co., namingit in honor of his mother. He is survived by his widow, Mrs. Dorothy Russell Schnering, and two sons, both alumni of the University, Robert, '36 andPhilip, '39. They are both vice-presidentswith the company.Charles Henry Borden, 17, JD 19, diedJune 9, 1952 in Chicago.Donald M. Lockett, '25, died December10, 1952. For the past 20 years he hadserved as a Sears, Roebuck & Co. employee relations manager. He was a resident of Palm Springs, Calif.Minnie L. Steckel, AM '25, PhD '29,died on December 1, 1952. She had beena Professor of Psychology at AlabamaCollege for Women for a number ofyears.Mina Waggoner, '27, died September 12,1952, in Berkeley, Calif.Herbert Stewart Leonard, '30, AM '34,died May 12, 1952, in St. Louis where hewas assistant director of the Art Museum.He served as an officer in bomb disposalwork during World War II and afterthe war was connected with the militarygovernment in Germany in the task ofrestoring looted works of art to theirrightful owners. LA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoOfher PlantsBoston — New York — Philadelphia —Syracuse — Cleveland — Detroit"You Might As Well Have The Best"Phones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOYDSTON BROS., INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and licensed attendantsW. B. Conkey Co.Division ofRand McNally & Company*Sao£ and &zfatoy'PtuttenA, and \^i*tderi4,CHICAGO • HAMMOND • NEW YORKSince 7885ALBERTTeachers9 AgencyTheCollwide best in placement service for Uege, Secondary and Elementary.patronage. Call or write us at liversity,Nation-25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, III.TREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DealerforCHRYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMUseum 4-4500AlumGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair.Body, Paint, Simonize, Washand Greasing DepartmentsTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"-Hello, Mother !(fiMef"Thought I'd call you up and findout if you arrived OK."No, it didn't take long. Seemedlike I'd just given the operator thenumber when I heard your voice."Good thing I remembered tojot down Aunt Sue's number whenyou were there the last time."YOU'LL FIND THIS IS A GOODIDEA FOR YOU, TOO...Call ^y NumberYou save time on out-of-town calls whenyou give the Long Distance operator thenumber you want.So here's a helpful hint. Write down theout-of-town numbers you already know.If there's a new number you don't have— or anold one you've forgotten— be sure to add it tothe list when the operator gives it to you.The Bell Telephone Company inyour community will gladly give you a freeTelephone Numbers Booklet.BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM. .. Local to serve the community. Nationwide to serve the Nation.THREETOWERSYOUR ALUMNI ASSOCIATION hasplaced an order with Wedgwood for a limitededition of Chicago memorial dinner plates fordelivery later this year. The pattern, Plain Traditional, was designed by Josiah Wedgwood. It wasalways his favorite pattern. BECAUSE THE EDITION is limited,we urge members of the Association to place tentative priority orders at once. You can pick up orcancel this option after we have furnished illustrations. Send no money now. Simply drop us apostal indicating the number of sets you may want.Chicago campus scenes on the famous Wedgwood dinner platesFOUR PLATES to a set, each platewill carry an artist's sketch of a different campusscene. They will feature three towers (Mitchell,Harper, Chapel) and a gate (Hull). ANOTHER WEDGWOOD ITEM nowbeing made up is a clever ash tray — again in thePlain Traditional pattern. Little Garg Griffin willbe the sole occupant — $1.25 per tray.THE PRICE: $12 per set, includingpackaging and mailing to your door. If you wanta setting for eight, you would order two sets.Artist illustrations will be furnished before youconfirm your order, of course.and aGATE TENTATIVE PRIORITY orders willbe accepted on the same basis as the dinner plates.For plates and/or ash trays send postal toThe Alumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago 37 IllinoisI'm taggin' alongin an ash tray.