MAGAZINE'J. uEDU»^J#Page 12om Prison to the Armed Services. . . Joseph D. Lohman iseases of "Old Age"?. . . Solomon L. PearlmanThe Old Manembarrassed uslast year...We wrote an ad last year about theCentury Club.* And the very first person toreply, with a check for $100, was Amos AlonzoStagg.Now that advertisement wasn't intended for The Old Man. Everyone knowswhat he has contributed to the University! Itwas intended for those Alumni who are members of the Association — but who do not contribute to the Alumni Fund. And it was intended for those who do contribute, but whocould without sacrifice join the other Alumniwho have formed the Century Club by contributing $100.Perhaps this advertisement is addressed to you. We hope you'll contributesomething to the Fund. And we hope, for yoursake and ours, that fortune has favored youso that you can easily and pridefully send $100for your membership in the Century Club. I have just read the announcement for the "Century Club" on theinside cover of the March issue ofThe University of Chicago Magazine,I want Stella Robertson Stagg '96to qualify for membership. Hencethis check. She has been down witha virus infection and will not knowabout it until she sees our checkbook later.I hope you get a lot of newmembers.Sincerely,oCtfToX''"Members of the Century Club are Alumni who have contributed, during the past year, one hundred or more dollars totheir Alma Mater through the Alumni Foundation.HE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI FOUNDATION5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUE • CHICAGO 37 • ILLINOISemo f-^aOur sex problemsOne of my first official acts when Ifollowed the late Carl Beck as editor ofthe Magazine in 1946 was to announcethe passing of a prominent alumnus —who is still living.Since then the Magazine has movedalong with its normal number of errors.Then, in December, Nemesis loweredher boom. We were moving to a newprinter and an earlier deadline. Duringthe fast jam-up, copy wasn't carefullychecked.In the News of the Classes section wemade an alumna of an alumnus and tobalance this off, an alumnus of an alumna.Allen Cabaniss, PhD '39, was voted aPhi Beta Kappa from his undergraduateschool, Southwestern University. He isnow with the Institute for AdvancedStudy at Princeton.But on the note which crossed thenews desk the A looked like an H andthe first I was stunted like an e. So, toour embarrassment, Helen Cabaniss received the Phi Bet Key in the news section, and we received a letter from Allen.In the same issued under the Classyear 1922, we carried a story aboutDr. L. Dell Henry, MD '36. We said heteaches at the University of Michiganmedical school and he has a privatepractice in Ann Arbor.Two weeks later we were startled bya comment in a letter from A. BethHostetter, '08 (see class news under1908) :"... A woman as outstanding in herfield [allergies] as Dr. Henry shouldreally have a woman's credit!" Sureenough, we checked and found the L.stands for Lucy.Our sincere apologies to Doctors Cabaniss and Henry.Generally "Higher"We also reported the Bloom- Ward article on the College program (January,page 8) as having appeared in the Journal oj General Education. It was, ofcourse, in the Journal of Higher Education.Invites you to dieCleveland's December club dinner musthave been a knock-out. PsychiatristDouglas Bond of Western Reserve University was the speaker. He sounds likethe kind di psychiatrist who first throwsout the couch. From the Cleveland PlainDealer report he apparently said:Psychiatry has been somewhat oversold. As a result, it is not uncommonfor persons who have been in troublemany years to expect to be fixed up bya psychiatrist in a few days.We are also oversold from the standpoint of supply of good psychiatrists. About children he said that if theyare raised in brutal homes they cannotbe expected to come out fine. Most ofthe mind is formed in a relatively shorttime following birth. Once it is formedit is extremely difficult to go back andgive it what it lacked earlier. In fact,it is quite impossible.Should children be shielded from thestark, brutal realities of life and death?One of the most helpless creatures atbirth, the child obviously has to be protected but children are far more perceptive than you think.It may be a mistake, for instance, toshield them from the concept of death.Trees die every autumn in full view ofthe children. Grandmothers die, too.And, awful thought, often it is not avery upsetting idea to them anyway.Children from 4 to 6 are, in fact, veryapt to invite you to die. They mean foryou to go to sleep and get the heck outof their sight. They expect you to comeback.Let them have a right to their ownfeelings.Over 60 Greater Cleveland alumni attended the dinner in Stouffer's ShakerSquare restaurant.From Secretary to DeanThe Foundation's Field Secretary,James M. Ratcliffe, has moved across thestreet. Since the first of the year he hasbeen an assistant dean on the staff ofthe Law School. Jim received his JDthere early in '50.RATCLIFFE RETURNS TO LAW SCHOOLWrong birthplace?It isn't your connections — it's yourbirthplace you should select carefully ifyou are to be choosey about your profession.In the November American Magazine,Stephen S. Visher, '09, SM '10, PhD 14,breaks onto Page 50 with a career study.Checking 20,000 persons in Who's Whohe came up with some surprising majorities.His statistical conclusions: Your chances of hitting the top rung in yourchosen profession are enhanced if youchoose your birthplace accordingly. Forinstance: Most college presidents, toppoliticians, labor leaders, and distin-VISHER LIKES THICK BOOKSguished scientists were born in the Midwest. And most business leaders comefrom large Midwest cities.This will surprise you: The majorityof the U. S. Presidents were born in theSouth — not Ohio. And if you want to bea successful writer you should have beenborn in the cotton belt, lit used to bethe Midwest (Indiana, etc.) and NewEngland, you know.If entertainment is your weakness,start in New York or California. Dr.Visher has no figures on whether pushyparents help in this field.Stephen Visher is a most interestingprofessor of geography at Indiana University. Tops in his field, he has timefor this statistical hobby. He gets fascinated with foot-thick books likeAmerican Men oj Science and Who'sWho.We can see him disappearing into hisdesk-lighted den and coming up monthslater with all manner of accumulateddata. E.g., it was Dr. Visher who firstdiscovered that one in every 16 listed inWho's Who attended the University(the proportion is still 1 in 16) and that126 were college or university presidents(now 152).Editor's final requestAs Don Morris was cleaning out hisdesk to move to his new position (seeJanuary issue), Martin Gardner's bookIn The Name oj Science arrived.Don seized it and exclaimed "I want todo the story on Martin Gardner!"Don had always had respect for Martin's philosophy and talents — though kidding was rampant when they were together.With this, you can better enjoy TheShoebox Scholar on Page 9.H.W.M.FEBRUARY, 1953 1Promise of a golden futureYellow uranium ore from the Colorado Plateauis helping to bring atomic wonders to youLong«go, Indian braves made their war paint from the colorful sandstones of the Colorado Plateau.THEY USED URANIUM -Their brilliant yellows came fromcarnotite, the important uranium-bearing mineral. Early inthis century, this ore supplied radium for the famous scientists, Marie and Pierre Curie, and later vanadium for special alloys and steels.Today, this Plateau— stretching over parts of Colorado,Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona — is our chief domesticsource of uranium. Here, new communities thrive; jeepsand airplanes replace the burro ; Geiger counters supplantthe divining rod and miner's hunch.From hundreds of mines that are often just small tunnelsin the hills, carnotite is haujed to processing mills. After thevanadium is extracted, the uranium, concentrated in theform of "yellow-cake," is shipped to atomic energy plants.A NEW ERA BECKONS— What does atomic energy promise for you? Already radioactive isotopes are working wonders in medicine, industry, and agriculture. In atomic en ergy, scientists also see a vision of unknown power— whichsomeday may heat and light your home, and propel submarines, ships, and aircraft. The Indian's war paint is onthe march again— toward a golden future.UCC TAKES AN IMPORTANT PART— The people of UnionCarbide locate, mine, and refine uranium ore. They alsooperate for the Government the huge atomic materials plantsat Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Paducah, Ky., and the Oak RidgeNational Laboratory, where radioisotopes are made.STUDENTS and STUDENT ADVISERS: Learn more about the manyfields in which Union Carbide offers career opportunities. Write forthe free illustrated booklet "Products and Processes" which describes the various activities of UCC in the fields of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics. Ask for booklet B-2.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET BH1 NEW YO RK 17, N. Y.¦UCC's Trade-marked Products of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics include -Electromet Alloys and Metals • Haynes Stellite Alloys • Eveready Flashlights and Batteries • National CarbonsACHESON Electrodes • PYROFAX Gas • PRESTONE and TREK Anti-Freezes • PREST-O-LlTE AcetyleneBakelite, Krene, and Vinylite Plastics • Dynel Textile Fibers • Linde Oxygen • Synthetic Organic ChemicalsThe University is cooperatingwith radio station WFMT in Chicago in presenting a series ofcultural programs, scheduled forbroadcasting starting in February.Produced at the University,these programs will present dramatizations, documentaries, readings and commentaries mainly inthe fields of literature, art, music,history and philosophy.Two faculty committees havebeen at work in recent months tocreate programs. Ideas being developed include using UniversityTheatre to dramatize short storieslike Dorothy Parker's "You WerePerfectly Fine" Oriental Instituteis scheduled to get into the actwith a series on the ' IntellectualAdventure of Ancient Man."Committees appointedPrograms dealing with characteristic American humor in suchwritings as Plunkitt, Dooley andMark Twain, with commentary byProfessor Walter Blair (English)are in the making.Napier Wilt, Dean of the Humanities, appointed the followingcommittee to develop WFMT programs in the humanities:Viola Manderfeld (chairman),Professor of German; Edward Bas-sett, Assistant Professor of Latin;Alan Gewirth, Assistant Professorof Philosophy; Leland Smith, Instructor in Music; Robert Streeter,Assistant Professor of English;Beatrice Tourtebatte, AssistantProfessor of Romance Languagesand Literature.Ralph Tyler, Dean of the SocialSciences, has appointed the following committee to develop programsin that division:Louis Gottschalk, Professor ofModern History; Alan Simpson,Assistant Professor of English History; Reuel Denney, AssociateProfessor in the Social Sciences(College) ; Donald Meiklejohn, Professor of Philosophy (College); andAlexander Morin, Associate Editor, University Press.NAEB grantThese programs are being produced under a grant from the Na- MAGAZINEVolume 45 February, 1953 Number 5IN THIS ISSUEFrom Prison to the Armed Services, Joseph D. Lohman. . 5The Shoe-box Scholar, Don Morris 9Rivers in the Sky 12"Kind of a Clinic" 15Diseases of "Old Age"?, Solomon L. Pearlman, M. D 16100,000 Men and Women 19Account Paid — and Then Some 21An Impossible Job 22Memo PadBooks DEPARTMENTS. . 1 Reader's Guide 24. . 22 Class News 25Cover: These Panther- Jets, flying over Korea, arenot the ships mentioned in the article beginningon Page 12. The Navy will not release pictures.Cover courtesy of United States Navy. Photographsby Stephen Lewellyn on pages 1 (bottom), 4, 9, 14,through 22. Photos on pages 6 and 7 by theUnited Press, on page 11 by David B. Eisendrath,Jr., and on page 28 by Allison Lighthall.PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEditorHOWARD W. MORTExecutive SecretaryAlumni FoundationJIM ATKINS Associate EditorAUDREY PROBSTStaff PhotographerSTEPHEN LEWELLYN Associate EditorHAROLD E. DONOHUEDirectorAlumni EducationDONALD S. BARNHARTPublished monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $3.00.Single copies, 35 cents. Student price at University of Chicago Bookstore, 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinoisunder the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni CouncilB. A. Ross, director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.tional Association of EducationalBroadcasters. Through the University's Radio Office, additionalNAEB programs are also available to station WFMT. On January1st, a series of 13 half-hour programs entitled "The JeffersonianHeritage," starring Claude Rainswas begun. This is the first radioportrait in depth that has ever beenpresented of Thomas Jefferson.On January 13, a second series,"Ways of Mankind," made itsWFMT debut. This is a dramaticportrayal of the studies of cultural anthropologists. Robert Redfield, Professor of Anthropology, served aschairman of the advisory committeeof American anthropologists for thisseries.Books — See Page 22Reader's Guide —Page 24FEBRUARY, 1953 3There are men behind bars who mightprofitably be transferredFROM PRISONTO THE ARMED SERVICESby Joseph D. LohmanLecturer, Department of Sociology and the Law SchoolJ_ HE CRIME PROBLEM is amongthe foremost of the threats to the stability of our manner of living. Therecord of the post-war years revealsthe ominous harvest of the disorganizing impact of war, of reconversionto peace, and now of mobilizationagain. Figures for the nation as awhole show major crimes in a continuing upward trend. As a consequence, the cost of confining theprison population is spiraling.The post-war increase in our prisonpopulation threatens to overcrowdexisting institutional facilities. Oncemore the pressure is on, as the public, and in turn, legislatures, move forthe construction of additional prisonsand reformatories, at a time whenconstruction costs are at an all-timehigh, when the demands upon statefunds for other welfare purposes areequally strong, when defense construction demands priority over civil ian needs, and when — sadly enough —the futility of such measures in therehabilitation of the offender has become increasingly clear.In Illinois we have been struck withthese paradoxical developments. Dur-CRIMINOLOGIST JOSEPH D. LOHMANFEBRUARY, 1953 Nationally known sociologist andcriminologist, Professor Lohmanwas appointed Chairman of the Illinois Parole and Pardon Board,October, 1949. In August, 1952, hewas appointed Chairman of theNational Capital Planning Commission. He has been a frequentconsultant on police problems — inChicago, Louisville, St. Paul, Denver, New Orleans, Washington, andNew York City. Professor Lohmanis author (among many other articles) of Police and MinorityGroups, generally accepted as thedefinitive work in that field. Hehas been a member of the University faculty since 1939. ing 1945 it cost the taxpayers $487.00to feed, clothe and guard each of the7,117 inmates in the state's penal system. In 1950, with a more than 8per cent increase in the prison population, that figure has soared to over$850.00 — or nearly twice as much, andit is still climbing. These figures donot reflect the tremendous and continuing capital expenditures for theconstruction, expansion and modernization of our huge walled institutions.High cost of confinement . . .The rising costs of prison administration represent a serious drain onthe limited tax resources of the state.They compete with the needs of otherwelfare services. We must criticallyreexamine our methods employed forthe care and treatment of the criminal. The findings of experts in thefield of crime tell us that our traditional correctional systems, whichplace their major emphasis uponheavily walled and guarded maximumsecurity institutions, increase the costsof imprisonment, with no corresponding increases in effectiveness.. . . can be reducedFurthermore, these experts tell usthat we should be shifting our emphasis away from maximum securityinstitutions to improved programs ofclassification, education, training, andconditional release, as more effectivemethods for the rehabilitation of imprisoned offenders. The heavy capitaland maintenance costs of imprisonment can be reduced if rehabilitationis genuinely expedited and effected.Under our current penal practices,large parts of the prison populationare idle, or assigned to essentially unproductive tasks. It follows that therehabilitative effect of regular productive employment in jobs whichpromote desirable work habits, andprovide an opportunity for the acquisition of new skills, is lost under suchidleness. Moreover, in the presentemergency, the demands of defenseproduction require maximum utilization of all our available manpower,and this idleness of prison populationbecomes a conspicuous waste of ourlabor potential.The time has arrived when we mustreexamine our traditional prejudicesagainst so-called prison labor. Theidleness of prison inmates is an obstacle to their rehabilitation. It alsodeprives us of the service of a sizablemanpower resource in the presentemergency. In Illinois, we are ex amining ways and means by whichprison industry may be geared to thetwo-fold objective of individual rehabilitation and defense production.The manpower potential representedby the total of all convicted offendersis far greater than the labor lost tothe nation as a result of prison confinement. Thousands of convicted offenders, both in and out of our penalinstitutions, are presently excludedfrom participation in the ArmedServices. Many of these men are notonly capable, but are eager, as well,to render useful and responsibleservice to the nation.A reexamination of Defense Department policies as they affect convictedoffenders, and as they may relate tostate prison release procedures, wouldbe in the national interest. Our Illinois Parole Board is currently carrying on investigations designed tothrow light upon ways and means offurther encouraging the successfuladjustment of certain classes of released offenders through militaryInto the Armed ServicesOur findings to date seem to indicate the advisability of relaxing presently restrictive policies in the direction of the acceptance and inductionof carefully selected offenders. Weare convinced that such policies wouldmake available a sizable number ofmen who are excluded under presentregulations. Their availability wouldAFTER A PRISON RIOT. "LARGE PARTS OF THE PRISON POPULATION ARE IDLE" help to alleviate the increasingly serious problem of military recruitment.Furthermore, such policies wouldlead to a substantial saving in thecosts of incarceration and parole supervision, since they would bringabout the earlier release of many menwho are capable of making a successful adjustment in the Armed Services.Opportunity to offset stigmaBut equally important, it would afford these carefully selected offendersan opportunity to join with their fellow countrymen in discharging oneof the highest obligations of citizenship. It would permit them to offsetthe stigma of their criminal record byvirtue of honorable service in theArmed Forces.It should be clearly understood thatwe in Illinois do not regard theArmed Services as a possible "dumping ground" for intractable offendersfrom correctional institutions. On thecontrary, we are of the opinion thatthe wealth of experience which hasbeen acquired iii the scientific selection of men for civilian parole can aidin determining those best qualified tosucceed under the conditions of military service. In parole practice it hasbeen clearly demonstrated that it isfeasible to screen out of the prisonpopulation those cases in which earlierrelease under supervision is preferable, both for the individual and forsociety.Furthermore, there is ample precedent for the induction of felons intothe military service. Large numbersof these men served in the ArmedForces during World War II. Over3,000 men were paroled to militaryservice from Illinois. In cooperationwith the Selective Service System, theDepartment of Defense, and the Russell Sage Foundation, we have undertaken a study and analysis of theperformance of these men.Our purpose is to secure adequatecriteria on the basis of which it willbe possible to select in advance thoseoffenders who are capable of adjusting successfully to military life. Withsuch criteria it will be possible forthe Armed Services to draw men fromthose groups in which the probabilityof successful adjustment is highest.As the pressure of manpower needsincreases, the Armed Services mayfind it expedient, in accordance withpast practice, to delve deeper into themanpower pool by changing standardsof acceptability.I iTrfm '"THE DISCIPLINED ATMOSPHERE OF THE ARMY— COMMON INTERESTS AND GOALS— RELATIONSHIPS WITH NON-DELINQUENTS"Some measure of the size and significance of the felon population as amanpower resource is revealed in ourpreliminary investigations. Notwithstanding the shortcomings of criminalstatistics, it has been possible to estimate the numbers involved. The average population of federal and stateprisons and reformatories, exclusiveof institutions solely for juvenile offenders, is approximately 120,000 men18 to 35 years of age.When allowance is made for therate of recidivism, it is further estimated that there are approximately255,000 additional men, aged 18 to 35,outside of prison who have had oneor more commitments to a federal orstate prison or reformatory, exclusiveof juvenile institutions. Thus, at anygiven time, the felon population in theage group 18 to 35 constitutes a manpower resource of about 375,000 men.At least one half of these men meetthe Armed Forces' standards as tomental, physical and educationalqualifications.Manpower resource: 400,000This estimate does not include thefelons who are serving on probation,or who have successfully completed aprobationary sentence, and for whomthe policies are also presently restrictive. Furthermore, it does not includepersons whose criminal records consist solely of commitments to juvenile institutions, jails, workhouses, orstate farms for misdemeanors. Thesegroups are also affected by the present moral standards for induction.Upwards of 400,000 men come underthese various categories. It is apparentthat these persons represent a substantial untapped resource for military service which we can ill afford toignore in these times.Past experience encouragingOur investigations further disclosethat the occurrence of physical, educational and psychological deficienciesamong the felon population is notsignificantly greater than the incidence of these defects in the generalpopulation. Thus, apart from moralconsiderations, the felon population is,on the average, as well qualified formilitary service as comparable socioeconomic groups in the general population.The major problem relating to therejection of felons, therefore, reducesitself to a determination of those casesin which the moral and behavioralfactors are such as to make a successful adjustment improbable. To makepossible their determination, a factualrecord is being obtained of the actualperformance in military service of the3,000 men paroled to the ArmedForces from Illinois.Furthermore, an analysis is beingmade of the problems of adjustment which they encountered during theirperiod of service. The procedures employed to select these men duringWorld War II are also being evaluated. In the light of that experience,it should be possible to provide auniform administrative framework forthe careful screening and selection ofthese men best qualified for militaryservice, notwithstanding the manydifferences in correctional administration and practices among the several states.In addition to the criminal andArmy service records of the 3,000 menwho entered military service fromIllinois, we have gathered intensiveinformation concerning their post-service adjustment to civilian life.Taken together, these data have provided us with a detailed picture ofthe experiences of the men in theservice, the problems encountered,and the effect of military participationon their post-war adjustment.Favorable opportunityOur findings make it clear that.military service provided a favorableopportunity for successful adjustmentand rehabilitation. The violation rateof civilian parolees was nearly fivetimes that of the men paroled to theArmed Forces. This remarkable difference must be attributed in largepart to the superior rehabilitativeFEBRUARY, 1953 7conditions afforded in the ArmedServices.Neiv, anonymous startThe situations encountered by parolees in the Armed Forces contrastsharply with the conditions of lifeordinarily experienced by those paroled to civil life. These include thedisciplined atmosphere of the Army,the fact of a secure maintenance situation, the existence of common interest and identification with commongoals, the sharing of activities in closerelationship with non-delinquents.There is the additional factor ofanonymity as regards the backgroundof previous offenders, creating a special set of circumstances which contrast with those of offenders releaseddirectly to their home communities.The military situation also differedmarkedly in minimizing the constantreenforcement of a sense of community rejection to which paroleesare repeatedly exposed in civilianlife.Little has been previously knownabout the terms and conditions ofparole under military discipline, under which some succeed and somefail. Little has been known about thevariable elements among the paroleesthemselves as to personality makeupand social type, as they have beenaffected by the conditions which prevail in military service.The Illinois experience makes itabundantly clear, that among theseveral hundred thousand Americanswho have been convicted of crime,there are many thousands, nowrejected by the Armed Services,who can contribute to the nation'sstrength. Notwithstanding the crudescreening methods applied by Selective Service to convicted offendersduring World War II, over 87 percent of Illinois parolees received honorable discharges. The developmentand use of more adequate selectiontechniques would unquestionably result in an even higher proportion ofhonorable service.Battle stars — Purple HeartsAmong these men, well over halfreceived battle stars, indicating participation in one or more militarycampaigns. Thirty per cent of themen actually experienced combat, being exposed to direct and sustainedenemy fire, and 98 per cent of thesecombat veterans received honorabledischarges from the service. Manyof the parolees distinguished themselves by meritorious service, displaying qualities of leadership and hero ism far above and beyond the callof duty.Over a third of the combat veteransreceived Purple Heart Medals for being wounded in action against theenemy, and 15 per cent of themen received the Bronze ArrowheadAward for participating in initial assault landings. Other decorationsearned by these paroled combat veterans include some of the most distinguished commendations of ourgovernment and its allies, namely,Silver Star Medal, Bronze Star Medal,Croix de Guerre, Air Medal, and Belgian and Holland Fourragere.Measure of devotionSome measure of the devotion anddedication of the parolees is indicatedin the fact that the percentage ofthose killed in action was one and onehalf times greater for the paroleeG.I.'s than for the Army as a whole.Here is an instance of the kind ofheroism displayed by one of our Illinois parolees, as reported in the citation which accompanied his posthumous award of the Silver Star:"When Co. F, Infantry, withdrew from the forward slope of ahill, several seriously woundedmen were left behind. PrivateO , Company Aid man, without regard for personal safety andwith full knowledge of the dangerinvolved, went up past the frontlines through a field of heavy machine gun and mortar fire, administered first aid, and evacuatedtwo of the wounded men to safety.He then turned back throughthe heavy enemy fire, renderedfirst aid to two other seriouslywounded men, and was on his wayto help another soldier when hewas killed. Private O 's devotion to duty and exemplary performance of a hazardous serviceupholds the highest tradition of themilitary service."Another citation for heroic conductby a parolee who has returned tocivilian life as an honored possessorof the Bronze Star Medal reads asfollows:"For heroic conduct in action . . .Private T was a member ofthe Demolition Platoon, Hq. andHq. Co. With two demolition menfrom his platoon he directed a detail in laying a mine field whileunder heavy artillery fire from theenemy. Several times, when nearhits from artillery caused his detail to become disorganized, Private T quickly restored control, and caused the detail toresume its mission. At all times during this action, this area wassubjected to heavy artillery firewhich caused four casualties. Themine field was successfully completed, and later proved an important obstacle in the path of theenemy units attacking positionsalong the regimental MLR."In our Illinois studies we haveclearly demonstrated the feasibility ofselecting from the felon populationthose persons who can adjust successfully in the Armed Forces. We havea wealth of experience, acquired inthe application of scientific methods tothe selection of men for parole tocivilian life. This experience we areadapting to the problem of selectinglikely candidates for military service.It is already apparent that one ofthe most critical shortages in the defense program relates to the scarcityof the available manpower reservesfor military service. The AssistantSecretary of Defense has stated before the Senate Appropriations Committee that ". . . in 1953, we reachthe bottom of the pool. ... we areusing every man we can get out ofSelective Service." This critical condition has been further pointed upby the general counsel for the Selective Service System. He indicatesthat the available military manpower,inadequate to begin with, is beingreduced each month because of ashortage of eighteen-and-one-half-y ear- olds entering the manpowerpool. He further notes that largerdraft calls and fewer deferments areinevitable, since "military manpoweris the scarcest wartime commodityin America."Lowering barreVs bottomIn the light of this critical manpower situation, the use of qualifiedpersons from the felon population toenlarge the military manpower pool,and the more effective use and development of the productive skills ofprison labor, deserve serious consideration as an integral part of theprogram for national defense.We are firmly convinced that sizable reductions in the population ofour penal institutions can be broughtabout through a liberalization of opportunities for conditional release.Shorter prison terms and constructive release procedures mean lesserexpenditures for confining convictedoffenders, as well as reduced recidivism. The rehabilitation of large numbers of convicted offenders throughliberalized release procedures andopportunities can help satisfy the increased manpower needs of the nation.8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMartin Gardner debunksthe crack-pot scientist TheShoeboxScholarBy Don Morris, '36MORRIS SOLVES A FRIENDLY PUZZLE M.ARTIN GARDNER, '36, was arather quiet operator when he wasa student at the University, thoughhe did serve as editor of Comment,the literary magazine of that era.There were, however, any number ofquiet operators on the Midway atthat time; the thing that was distinctive about Gardner was not thathe was quiet but that he was puzzling. He was puzzling from the firstsession of his 8 o'clock class in freshman Greek right down to his lastpre-graduation issue of Comment, andhe continued to be an enigma formore than 16 years thereafter. Thiswinter, at long last, he took a coupleof steps out into the clear. If he isnow not exactly an open book, stillhe is less enigmatic than ever before.Part of the puzzle of gimlet- eyed,ascetic-looking Martin Gardner hasbeen conscious. He has a consciouslove of magic and a wry sense of the bizarre. For many years a memberof the Society of American Magicians,he has delighted in mystifying hisfriends with sleight of hand feats likesmoking a cigarette lighted at bothends. In undergraduate days hehelped pay school bills by mystifying toy department customers atMarshall Field's.When, a number of years agopublished a smalldinner-table tricksDessert, it pleasedquotation containing this title, andattribute the quote to Shakespeare.But a taste for the bizarre wasbuilt into him well below the conscious level. This taste certainly is notimmediately traceable to any elementin his quite orthodox upbringing asa member of a quite respectable Tulsafamily.Gardner, for instance, early becamefascinated with that odd branch oflearning known as topology, or analy-hecompendium ofcalled After thehim to invent aFEBRUARY, 1953 9GARDNER AS SEEN BY '36 "PHOENIX"sis situs, a branch of mathematicswhich ignores such ordinary properties of form as shape and size, beingconcerned rather with those geometrical attributes remaining constantwhen a figure is "in continuous motion in a fluid medium." In topology,for instance, a sphere is more closelyakin to a cube than it is to a doughnut-shaped object, in spite of thecircularity of the latter. Topologistsare the gentlemen who have workedout a thoroughgoing analysis of theMobius strip, named for the Germanmathematician August Mobius (Derbarycentrische Calcul. Leipzig, 1827).This strip can be approximated bypasting together the ends of a stripof paper, incorporating one twist inthe paper loop. mathematically fascinating, because it has only oneedge, and hence is a two-dimensionalfigure.From psychiatry to VeblenLater on Gardner began to makeuse of his unusual intellectual interests by writing a series of short stories which appeared in Esquire. Theywere based on such non-esquireansubjects as psychiatry, shaggy doghumor, and Veblen's theory of conspicuous consumption.Always a curious combination ofthe esoteric, the profound and theintensely practical, Gardner oncegave a great deal of consideration tothe subject of gloves. He concluded —and the theory would have dismayedthe nation's leather goods industryhad it become widely known — thatgloves are an unnecessary item ofapparel, since even in the coldestweather, a man can keep his handswarmer in his overcoat pockets thanin the heaviest gloves. In discarding' his gloves, Gardner thus took onemore step toward simplifying his life,having one less thing to lose one of,one less encumbrance in shakinghands or performing sleight of hand,and 64 less cubic inches of drawerspace to provide.Gardner has spent quite a lot ofeffort on simplifying things. For atime he recorded every worth-whilethought, from every book he read,on a card, keeping the cards inshoeboxes in a closet. Once a year, heriffled through the cards, discardingthose whose thoughts seemed to havepaled in significance.It seemed likely that eventually hemight reduce the entire card file toone shoebox containing the kernel ofman's wisdom, and perhaps at last tothe one card, representing the onegreat thought. Not having seen Martin for some time, I do not knowwhether this project is still in prog-gress, or, if it is not, whether it wasabandoned for reasons of epistemo-logical theory or for lack of closetspace."Hermit Scientist"In conversation, Gardner remainedfor a long time a puzzle to his friendsas a result of adhering generally toa sort of Socratic repartee. Usingthis, he could keep a conversation going for an entire evening by askinga series of searching questions. Sometimes it seemed that by following theline of the questions, one could findout the intent behind them and soestablish Gardner's view on the subject under surveillance. But this too would prove tricky, and one wouldoccasionally run across people whohad been through such an evening,engaged in spirited debate as to whatGardner really thought about, say,Aquinas, science, Protestantism, orRobert M. Hutchins.A couple of years ago, Gardnerwrote a piece for the Antioch Review on what he called "The HermitScientist," which foretold the beginning of the end of Gardner- as -an -enigma, at least in several importantcategories.Last fall, his personal life alreadyhad begun to lose some of its mysterious overtones when he took aregular salaried job with ParentsInstitute, publishers of, among otherthings, Parents' Magazine. (Gardneronce told me that the ideal job fora philosopher was that of dishwasherin a restaurant because it (a) was nottime-consuming; (b) what time it didconsume created no drain on the intellect, so that the washer could consider Plato along with the plates;and (c) even in hard times it assuredthree square meals a day.)No more bachelorhoodPreviously Gardner had been working on a free-lance basis for the Institute, and especially for its publication Humpty Dumpty, supplyingverse, tricks, puzzles, and the like.When the Institute decided to bringout a pair of additional children'smagazines, Gardner was hired to editthem. The first, Piggly Wiggly already is on the market, and thesecond, Polly Pigtails, is to appearshortly.Gardner also surprised friends dating back to his days in Tulsa, on theMidway, and in the Navy, by endingwhat appeared to be a firmly established bachelorhood. He was marriedin October to the erstwhile CharlotteGreenwald, in New York.But the coming-out with which weare concerned here is less with jobor marriage than with things of themind, and this brings us back to "TheHermit Scientist." A publisher, seeing this article about those pseudo-scientists who labor in isolation —usually futile anachronisms in themodern world — asked Gardner to expand it to book length. After thefirst three chapters had been completed, the publisher lost interest, butanother and larger firm, G. P. Putnam's Sons, snapped it up, and itwas published at the end of 1952,titled In the Name of Science.The book is a popular but amazingly thorough compendium of hermitscientists. It ranges devastatingly10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEamong well-known prophets, fromWilbur Glenn Voliva (who thoughtthe earth was flat) to ImmanuelVelikovsky and Trofim Lysenko;from L. Ron Hubbard to GayelordHauser and Frank Scully. It is evenmore fascinating when it picks outthe amazing doctrines of more obscure scientific quacks, such as Capt.John C. Symmes, who thought theearth composed of five concentricspheres, their surfaces connected bylarge openings at the poles; orGeorge McCready Price, who attributes all geologic history to theworkings of the Great Flood; or Col.Dinshah Pestanji Framji Ghadiali,whose cure for any ailment consistsof diet and a proper combination ofcolored lights shining on the patient.Gardner also discusses Reich's "or-gone energy" theory, Rhine's "extra sensory perception," flying saucers,Roger Babson's anti-gravity program,dowsing, the experts on Atlantis andon the Great Pyramid and a raft ofother curious doctrines, and he evenpokes an occasional hole in the worksof more respectable workers, including Alfred Kinsey, Mortimer Adler(for anti-evolution pronouncements)and Robert M. Hutchins, (for indications of anti-scientism).QuacksThe book is probably most interesting when the subjects are soobviously ridiculous that Gardner canindulge his ability to write humor.But the passages in which indignationreplaces humor — the ones dealingwith doctrines Gardner thinks actually or potentially dangerous — are the ones in which Gardner at last revealswhat he had been thinking about, allthose years he was asking questions.And in these sections — on Velikovsky,on Lysenko, on medical quackery, onreligious bigotry — he is impassionedand sometimes eloquent. He concludes:The modern crank insists thathis isolation is not desired on hispart. It is due, he claims, to theprejudice of established scientificgroups against new ideas. Nothingcould be farther from the truth . . .It would be foolish to deny thathistory contains many sad examples of novel scientific views whichdid not receive an unbiased hearing, and which later proved to betrue . . .The modern pseudo-scientiststands entirely outside the closelyintegrated channels through whichnew ideas are introduced and evaluated. He works in isolation . . .He speaks before organizations hehimself has founded, contributes tojournals he himself may edit, and— until recently — publishes booksonly when he or his followers canraise sufficient funds to have themprinted privately. . . . [He alsoexhibits] a tendency toward paranoia.. . . We, perhaps, may learn torecognize the future scientific crankwhen we first encounter him. Andencounter him we shall. We canexpect a wide variety of these men,with theories yet unimaginable, toput in their appearance in theyears immediately ahead. They willwrite impressive books, give inspiring lectures, organize exciting cults. They may achieve afollowing of one — or one million... It will be well for ourselvesand for society if we are on ourguard against them.Recent workHaving provided a handbook forthe guidance of persons who wouldbe thus on guard Gardner has, in asense, reverted to form. For his mostrecently published work is a shortstory in a science fiction collectioncalled Future Tense, just published.Its protagonists: two hypotheticalmembers of the University's faculty.The story is a sequel to a previousGardner story, "The No-Sided Professor." This brings us around totopology again, and in view of Gardner's interest in this discipline, injuvenile literature, in philosophy, fantasy, and science, it would be a foolhardy person who could refer to himas no-sided man. Or maybe that'swhere the magic comes in.GARDNER IN '53— SHINES CRUEL LIGHT ON OLD AND NEW "HERMIT" SCIENTISTSFEBRUARY, 1953 11Navy Jets trackRivers In The Sky.A.FTER A STORM wrecked theFrench and British fleets during theCrimean War, almost everybodyblamed it on the weather. One scientist, however, the distinguished Frenchastronomer Leverrier, blamed poorforecasting. He said, and later proved,that if there had been rapid relayingof weather data gathered throughoutEurope — they used the mails in 1854— the admirals would have knownbetter than to look for the Russianson the Black Sea.From that point on, Samuel B.Morse and weather forecasting weretaken seriously. Today, with thetelegraph an assumed tool, forecastingis taken so seriously that the U. S.Navy is lending a hand. The Navy'slatest jet planes are being used forthe University's meteorological department. The jets track down andanalyze "jet-streams."Discovered in 1947 by Carl G.Rossby (then Professor of Meteorology at the University, now at theUniversity of Stockholm), the jet-streams are 300-mile-wide bands ofair, six to ten miles up. They cruisealong at 150 miles per hour, sometimes hit 300. The globe circuit takessix days.From Denver to PhillyDuring our winter, the main streamof the northern hemisphere — anotherrides in the arctic circle — crosses theUnited States around latitude 40. It goes over Salt Lake City, Denver,Kansas City, Indianapolis, Columbus,and Philadelphia. In summer it goesto latitude 55, crossing North America near Ketchikan in Alaska, Edmonton in Alberta, the foot of HudsonBay, across Labrador, and out acrossthe North Atlantic.But from these principal locations,the jet-stream has a long term side-drift pattern lasting two or threeweeks. Then it fluctuates north orsouth. These serpent-like meander -ings are considered a major cause ofour weather changes.Cause of storms?Ground level weather (what everyone talks about) is affected by thestreams as they swing from Canadato the Gulf of Mexico. The patternof lower air movements is changed.Jet-streams cause lower air to rise,pulling it along in its wake. As thisair climbs, it expands and cools. Andits moisture condenses in the form ofrain or snow. As the old saw goesabout "nature" permitting no "vacuums," other air is pulled in to takethe place of the air pulled up by thestreams. Horizontal air movementsare created, which can become low-pressure areas, storms, and cyclones.Rain and snow storms are alwaysfound under or to the north of thejet-stream. Thus in winter there arelong gloomy periods of snow andclouds over much of the U. S., be cause the jet- stream has shifted downtoward the Gulf of Mexico. Conversely, "Indian Summer" and winterthaws are always to the south of thestream.Sometimes the jet-stream splitsover the Rockies or plain states, withthe main stream continuing on itsnormal course. Then there may beheavy rains in the southern states,clear weather in the middle states,and more rain to the north of themain jet path.The jet-stream itself is influencedby the sun's heat from above anddifferences in land and sea massesbelow. In the winter it is affected bythe wind stream in the Arctic Circle,which seems to disappear in the summer time. A corresponding set of airstreams exists in the southern hemisphere. The big one stays around latitude 30, crossing Australia, SouthAmerica and South Africa. The lesserstream stays inside the AntarcticCircle.Planes pushed backDiscovery of the jet streams resulted after bomber pilots, returningfrom runs over Japan, complained ofbeing held still in the air. Some ofthem swore that their planes wereactually pushed back — at certainheights and latitudes.Dr. Rossby, working with theArmed Forces weather forecasters atthe time, believed the pilots and in-12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEON NOV. 2, 1950, STREAM (HEAVY LINE, LEFT MAP) CURVED OVER NEBRASKA, HAD SWUNG FAR SOUTH IN TWO DAYS (RIGHT)vestigated after the war. Workingwith Rossby was Dr. Herbert Riehl(PhD '47), now Associate Professorof Meteorology.Balloons & radiosondesDr. Riehl gathered information aboutthe streams by using radar and radiosondes. The radiosonde is a tiny radiotransmitter, linked to a barometer,a thermister (pin-sized thermometer),and a hygrometer (moisture indicator). Carried aloft by giganticplastic balloons, the progress of theradiosonde is checked through radiodirection finders. The finders locatethe transmitter, and its position canbe pin-pointed at any time. Builtinto the finders is a recorder for theradiosonde's three signals.In addition to the balloons releasedat the University, over 200 stationsthroughout the northern hemisphere(including stations behind the IronCurtain) send up radiosondes.Through international cooperation alldata gathered are exchanged. Andfrom these data, Dr. Riehl has chartedthe path of jet streams, from seasonto season and — in some cases (seemaps) — day to day.Having mapped the streams withinstruments carried by balloons, Dr.Riehl wanted a better method offurther investigation. Obviously, thebest carrier is one that will cut acrossor stay with the stream as it is speed ing along, drifting north or south,splitting up into smaller streams, andreforming. But balloons are balloons.They cannot be aimed, so that manytimes they do not get into the interesting part of the jet stream. All thatthey can record is data about thefringes of violent air masses. Otherwise they are knocked around andsometimes destroyed. To get inside ofa jet-stream, Dr. Riehl had to getinside of a jet plane. He called onthe Navy.Navy interestedWith the Crimean War still freshin their minds (or perhaps the Spanish Armada, or even the experienceof Ghengis Khan when he sailedagainst Japan) the Navy has alwaysbeen interested in more accurateforecasting. And since the Battle ofMidway, 1943, when the ships neverfired on each other, the Navy hasbeen especially interested in accurateforecasting for its planes. They gladlyassisted the Professor and his studies.The Navy Bureau of Aeronauticsdecided to pay for the research fromits AROWA (Applied Research, Operational Weather Analyses) budget.With Captain F. A. Berry, U.S.N., incharge, the job is the 15th of 20 research efforts of the AROWA project,and the second contracted to theUniversity. Navy coordinator an alumWorking the Navy's end as "TaskLeader" and coordinator is Lieutenant George V. Owens, who receivedhis Bachelor of Science degree fromthe meteorology department in 1947.He had been a research assistant inthe department for three years beforehe was recalled to active duty in 1951.As coordinator, Owens has to "procure" the planes, pilots, and radiomen.He also has to plan flights, and directthe design and installation of the instruments to be used.The two planes used, Douglas SkyKnights, are unlike most jets whichare supposed to look slim and sleek.The Sky Knights (or F3D-2's) are fatand stubby because the radar mansits beside the pilot, instead of behindhim. The resulting fuselage is filledwith extra gas tanks, necessary forthe planes to fly the jet-streams.Clear-air bumpinessInstead of radiosondes, the planescarry two visual omni-range radios,which receive the planes' positionsfrom ground transmitters. A vortexthermometer does the temperaturereading work of the radiosonde. Itwas especially designed by the NavalResearch Laboratory to indicate airtemperature at the terrific jet planespeeds. Another important addition isthe turbulence recorder, furnished byFEBRUARY, 1953 13the National Advisory Committee forAeronautics. While the air in andaround the jet-streams is cloudless,planes are still banged around by"clear-air turbulence." The recorderindicates the degree of these air gusts.On the day of a "run," Dr. Riehlgoes to the Weather Bureau — now oncampus — about 4 A.M. and checks upon the jet stream. If he decides thata run will be practical that day hecalls up Owens, at Norfolk, Virginia.Owens has the planes, pilots, andtechnicians standing by. When hegets the word from Chicago up theygo.Beginning last December the twojets, working out of the Navy Aviation Test Center, in Maryland, were flying over most of the eastern states.They find the streams where Dr. Riehland his maps tell them they will be.Then they fly straight through andacross them.Long-range forecasting?From the data gathered and analysed, Dr. Riehl hopes to learn moreabout the streams and the conditionswhich affect them. "Weather followsthe earth's rotation," says the Doctor,"with the general pattern being fromwest to east. We know that there aremany localized swirls and undulations, but — until the jet-stream wasdiscovered — we could not explainmany of these differences. Nor could we forecast weather over long periodsof time so well. Now we hope thatlong-range forecasting will improvewith the knowledge we pick up fromthe Navy's plane trips."Since the jet-streams are considered the hatchery for much of ourweather, new knowledge about them— and extended forecasts — will begood news to others as well as theNavy and Dr. Riehl. Knowing whatweather is coming far in advance willbe an immense boon to farmers, public utilities, transportation firms, themovie industry, outdoor sports sponsors, and grain and cotton brokers.Nor will the general public mind withtheir picnics, car washings, fuel bills,and personal dispositions.LIEUTENANT OWENS (LEFT) CONFERS WITH PROFESSOR RIEHL, WHO PLOTS PATHS OF STREAMS. MAP IS OF THE NORTH POLE.PROFESSOR PETTERSSEN (LEFT) AND DEPARTMENT HEAD BYERS (RIGHT) CHECK MAPS WITH WEATHER-MAN DUNN"Kind of a Clinic1'ogy Department would be close at Through constant contact withhand. other university -housed weatherSharing the building is the Univer- services — such as those alreadysity's Weather Forecast Research set up in Stockholm, Oslo, andCenter, under the direction of Dr. Great Britain — the scientists andSverre Petterssen, distinguished Nor- weather-men can keep in touchwegian forecaster, and former head of with current weather throughoutthe Meteorology Department at M.I.T. the northern half of the world. AtStudents of the Center will have con- the same time the University's sci-stant access to the daily weather entists will continue their elaboratecharts and machinery of the Bureau. theoretical experiments from whichThey will be able to check their the forecasters will continue tostudies with the weather reports that benefit.come in every six hours, from all over As Dr. Horace R. Byers, Chair-the Northern Hemisphere. man of the University's Meteorol-On the other hand, the Government ogy Department, put it, "The Re-Center — one of the sixteen in the search Center will be kind of acountry— will be able to take advan- clinic, where students can see thetage of the University's advanced end-product of weather study, andcourses in forecasting. Given by Dr. how it affects the consumer— orHerbert Riehl since 1950, the courses people. The Bureau will profit behave been taken by government cause it will be where the researchweather-men from other District Cen- goes on, and the government fore-ters as well. Last year forecasters at- casters can catch up on what uni-tended from the Washington, D.C, Los versity meteorologists have beenAngeles, and Rocky Mount Centers. doing."I OINCE the early 1800's theUnited States has had weather reporting. In those days the ArmySignal Corps stations mailed eachother weather observations. Around1900 the service was transferred tothe Department of Agriculturewhen the Weather Bureau wasestablished. Only since 1928 hasthe science of Meteorology beenpart of an American university(first at M.I.T.) . But last fall thepractical plyers of the forecastingtrade moved in on the young science. The Chicago District Forecast Center of the Weather Bureaumoved to the University.Weather Bureaus have been allied' with university departmentsbefore — in Europe. This move tothe Midway is the first of its kindin the United States. Located at5730 Woodlawn, the Center, headedby Chief Forecaster Gordon E.Dunn, was moved from the loop sothat the research of the Meteor ol-FEBRUARY, 1953 15Diseases of "Old Age"?"There is no such thingas being sick simplybecause one is older."By Solomon L. Pearlman, M.D.1VL_ LATURING, or the process ofaging, is a dynamic and natural process, which starts with childhood. Indeed, it is probably more correct tosay that aging starts nine monthsbefore birth. Furthermore, there isno such thing as being sick simplybecause one is older. The older person may be entirely well, and remainso.The diseases often called diseasesof age actually start in early youth.Many symptoms are minor and, unlesslooked for, may be overlooked. Theaccumulation of these minor changesmay appear full-blown in later years.Poor dental hygiene, for example, re-Dr. Solomon L. Pearlman is onthe Medical Staff of Michael ReeseHospital in Chicago. His essay isadapted from an article entitledThe Physical Side of Aging whichappeared in Good Living AfterFifty, the syllabus for "Making theMost of Maturity"— a Home -Studycourse in Human Development.The course grew out of a two-year research project under thejoint auspices of the University'sCommittee on Later Maturity andthe Michael Reese Hospital's Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Institute.Dr. Pearlman received his Bachelor's degree from the College in1932. His wife, Margaret Herman,took her Master's degree in SocialService Administration, 1951. quiring many older people to havesome or all teeth extracted, does notstart in later maturity.Again, different people, and different parts of the same people, matureat different rates. It is entirely incorrect to presume that an individual istotally aged because one part of hisbody has reached that point. Otherparts of his body may be young.Treatment may be as hopeful as itis for the younger person. We nolonger say, "Well, Grandma has alittle heart trouble — but what can youexpect at her age,?" or "Grandpa hasa little cigarette cough, but — after all— he's been smoking all his life." Today we take Grandma and Grandpato the doctor for diagnosis and treatment, just as we do the younger person. We should not resign ourselvesto thinking that treatment when weare older is useless. It has now beendemonstrated conclusively that themore mature can live longer and beactive longer.Almost any disease may occur atany age, but certain diseases occurmore often after the peak of maturity.And we Americans can expect to livelonger: 67 is the average, instead of49, as it was in 1900. Each year welive, our life -expectancy increases alittle more. Today the average personof 65 can expect to live another 13years. So the often repeated motto ofa complete physical examinationevery 6 to 12 months is even moreimportant for the more mature. As the older person is not sicker simplybecause he is older, neither is hehealthier because he does not sufferso severely. This last is a fooler.Older people have essentially thesame blood chemistry as youngerpeople. The older, however, do notshow the dramatic symptoms in infections, such as high fever or theother signs which we see in theyounger. And older people do notbounce back as fast to the normalstate after the infection is over. Theirreaction is more severe, and theirconvalescence longer.Since certain symptoms are not asapparent, a careful history taken bythe physician — at the regular examination—is as important as the examination itself. The examinationshould also include a complete checkof all parts of the body — whether ornot they show symptoms — and a laboratory work-up. Furthermore, oncea "'diagnosis has been made — perhapsdeciding if one can continue work —we must not think that they are permanent or irreversible conditions.Medical and psychological conditionsmay be changed or improved.To that end, a description followsof conditions which may occur in latematurity — and what we can do aboutthem. None of these things may everhappen. But it is wise to know aboutthem. We have less fear of what weknow than of what we don't know, orabout which we have wrong information.16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDR. PEARLMAN DOES NOT LIKE THE TERMHeart disease in its various formshas become the nation's number onekiller today. It is estimated that atleast 25 million people are over age50 in the United States. Of these, 15million, or 60 per cent, will die ofdiseases of the heart and blood vessels or their complications.This great increase may not havebeen caused primarily — as we havebeen led to believe — by the so-calledpresent day stress and strain of living. Rather, it may be due chiefly tothe fact that we are living longer today. Living longer permits the progressive degenerative changes inblood vessels, which contribute toheart disease. "OLD AGE." HE PREFERS WORD "OLDER"Arteriosclerosis, or as it is popularly known, hardening of the arteries,is usually more common in the oldergroup, although it may involve theyounger and skip the older entirely.Arteriosclerosis is a disease, notmerely an inevitable symptom of aging. It involves thickening of the inner wall of the artery. Age in itselfis not the cause of these changes. Wedo not know the detailed causes.The presence of arteriosclerosis itself is not a threat to health unless itcauses specific symptoms. Arteriosclerosis may cause no symptom unless it causes a block in or a ruptureof a blood vessel, as in apoplexy(stroke); or unless it causes a limita tion of the oxygen supply to any ofthe body organs, as in coronary heartdisease.We are not sure how arteriosclerosis can be prevented. Gradual reduction of weight in all overweight persons may be a factor in reducing theincidence and severity of the disease.Heart diseaseCoronary heart disease is usuallydue to arteriosclerosis of the coronary vessels. These vessels supply thenutrition to the heart muscle. Thesymptoms of coronary disease aredue to the insufficient nutrition of thismuscle. The disease may cause chestpain, if the heart muscle demandsmore nutrition or oxygen than thevessel can supply at that time.Persons with coronary disease mayhave severe short lasting pressingpain in the mid-chest on exertion,known as angina pectoris. These persons are relieved by resting. Moresevere coronary disease may causedestruction of the heart muscle. Thesepatients usually complain of longerlasting chest pain. Early diagnosis andearly treatment may help controlcoronary disease and help control thecomplications.Abnormal blood pressure is anotherproblem in the blood vessel diseases.Blood pressure may remain normalregardless of the age of the person.Blood pressure reading is made up oftwo numbers. The first is called systolic, the second diastolic. Rise in systolic pressure alone is commonlyfound in older people. This is nottrue of high blood pressure. It is dueto loss of the elasticity, or stretch, ofthe major blood vessel.True high blood pressure, or hypertension, is often associated with hypertensive heart disease and with itsmany complications. The cause of thiscondition is usually unknown. Theolder patient with hypertension maylive many years regardless of the degree of rise in his blood pressure.High blood pressure arising late in lifeis usually much less serious. However,it must be looked for, and if found,treated.Diseases of the bloodAnemia due to lack of iron is notat all uncommon in the more mature.It may explain some of the causes ofmarked weakness. It may be causedby poor diet, or by a tumor in thebody associated with chronic bloodloss. Treatment is usually satisfactory.Pernicious anemia, a different typeof anemia, is a relatively uncommonFEBRUARY, 1953 17condition which almost always occursonly in the more mature. About 70per cent of cases occur after age 50.Diagnosis is determined only by careful medical examination. Treatmentis very satisfactory.The second most common cause ofdeath is cancer, although it is far lesscommon than heart and blood vesseldisease. It is estimated that of the 25million people over 50 today, about9 per cent will die of cancer. Canceris not a disease of age, although it ismore common in the older group.Cancer grows more slowly in olderpeople. Therefore, they have a betterchance for cure after extensive surgery.We are not sure of the cause ofcancer. It may be curable if diagnosedearly. Only if enough people are examined often enough can we be surethat cancer is discovered soon enough.Early diagnosis and adequate treatment of cancer is a lifesaver. This iseven more true in the older patient.Diseases of the chestFifty years ago tuberculosis was infirst place among causes of death inthis country. By 1950 as in 1940 ithad fallen to seventh place. The mostimportant factors in this decline wereimprovement of living standards, better nutrition and housing, improvedworking conditions, and earlier diagnosis and treatment.More than 40 per cent of the peoplewho die from tuberculosis are over45 years of age. This disease oftenshows itself differently in this groupthan in the younger. It is morechronic, with relatively minor symptoms. Because the diagnosis is oftennot made early, persons who havetuberculosis are permitted to circulate freely in the community.It is usually a surprise to familyand friends to learn that the grandfather sitting quietly in his comfortable chair, with no complaints at all,except only for a "cigarette cough,"may be the source of the tuberculousinfection of his grandchildren. Theelderly tuberculosis patient maytherefore be a serious source ofinfection.The fact that tuberculosis in theolder group may exist with only minorsymptoms is another vital reason forcomplete, and, if necessary, repeatphysical examination with chestX-ray. The treatment for this condition after diagnosed can often resultin complete arrest. It can save thepatient's life and protect the lives ofmany younger persons.Cancer of the lung is becoming a more and more commonly diagnoseddisease. This does not necessarilymean that this disease is on the increase. It may mean only that we arerecognizing it more often now thanbefore. Cancer of the lung is morecommon in men than in women.The earliest symptom may be acough, which is often bloody. Thissymptom can be another type of theso-called "cigarette cough," which wementioned earlier. Early diagnosis —and diagnosis must be made early tobe of any value — may be lifesaving.It may also save much unnecessarysuffering. In most cases the only successful approach is surgical treatment.Diseases of the stomachPeptic ulcer, or ulcer of the stomach or duodenum, is not uncommonin the more mature group. The treatment is usually medical except forthe complications, which may have tobe treated surgically.Cancer of the stomach in its earlystages is difficult to recognize. It ismore common in men than in women.Among the early symptoms are mid-abdominal pain and poor appetite,especially for meat. If the disease isdetected early, surgical treatment maybe life-saving.Cancer of the lower bowel (colonand rectum) is not an uncommonform of cancer. Among the earliersymptoms are change in bowel habits;blood in the stool, showing up aseither black or red; and weight loss.Physical examination including a rectal exam and X-ray are diagnosticmeasures. Here, too, surgical treatment may be life-saving.Diabetes Mellitus, or as it is popularly called, sugar diabetes, increaseswith age. Most of the cases appearafter 40, the greatest number between50 and 60.It is thought by some authoritiesthat there are about 2 million cases ofdiabetes in the United States. Abouthalf of these people do not know thatthey have the disease. The earlierthe diagnosis is made, the better thechance for controlling the associatedcomplications of the disease.Most cases of diabetes occur inobese (over- weight) persons, andespecially where there is a familyhistory of diabetes. The diagnosis isa medical problem.It is important to be sure that thepatient does not have a focus of infection anywhere in his body. Thereis a great tendency in this diseasefor the body to develop infections.Infections in diabetes, when they develop, are much more serious than ordinarily. Therefore, a major part ofthe treatment is careful and frequentcleansing of the skin.Proper treatment varies with eachcase of diabetes. Examination of thechest, as well as chest X-ray, is always valuable in cases of diabetes,because tuberculosis is not unusualin these cases.Diseases of the bonesAs people mature, their bones undergo a weakening. Resistance to infection and to injury is lowered. Thisweakening is due to both decreasedblood supply and to glandularchanges.Fractures on even slight injury aremore common in the older group because the bones are more brittle.Symptoms of fracture may be muchmilder. Tissue recovery from any injury is much slower in the more mature. Therefore, it is wise to be careful about avoiding accidents. Whilethis is important all through life, itis even more important in the moremature. We mean by this only theexercise of wise precaution, not undue concern over ourselves. We donot want to protect ourselves so wellthat we stop living. We want only tobe sensible about what we do.Arthritis is the most commonchronic disease of the older group.While it is not generally a cause ofdeath, it is important because of itsincapacitating and limiting symptoms.The osteo-arthritis, or hypertrophicvariety, is common among olderpeople. It affects particularly theweight-bearing areas, as the hips,spine, and sacro- iliac joints. Prolonged bed rest is not often necessaryin this type of arthritis, but this is adecision to be made by your doctor.Exercise helps overcome musclespasm; and heat may be effective inrelieving symptoms.The too easily available magic curepills are usually useless.Sex and ageThe stopping of the menstrual flow,or the menopause, occurs in the 45-56th year for most women. It doesnot ordinarily come on abruptly. Asa rule, irregularities in the menstrualperiod may continue for 3 to 24months before the periods stop completely. Most women pass throughthis period with no severe symptoms.They may have mild symptoms — occasional hot or cold flashes. Difficultyin sleeping, emotional instability, fa-18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtigue or headache are symptoms ofpsychological origin. They may beaggravated because of many ¦ — thevery many — exaggerated stories thatare overheard about the alleged dangers of the menopause. By believingsuch stories, one may build up immeasurable fears about this naturalprocess in the normal body changes.Symptoms may vary with culturaldifferences, heredity, and generalhealth. But most women go throughthese menopausal changes with nosevere symptoms! The menopause isa normal process of maturing. Symptoms must not be anticipated.Social life should not be interruptedbecause of this further step in thematuration process. The old wives'tales about the dangers to oneselfwhen in this condition are best discounted. The most serious danger ofthe menopause is the decision thatthis means the end of everything —that there is nothing to do now butquit. This life of enforced self-retirement, because of the mistakennotion that retirement is inevitable,is very dangerous. Such inactivity,merely because we are afraid to continue to act, or because we are surethat we are expected to quit, is psychologically as well as physicallyharmful. Social, intellectual, and professional life, as well as domestic life,should continue with no interruption.The menopause is not the signal forcurtains!After the menopauseSexual life does not have to endwith the menopause. It is still possible to enjoy a full life after themenstrual periods have stopped, andafter it is no longer possible to bearchildren. There is no time table whichdetermines exactly when sexual lifemust close. A great deal can be accomplished with the psychologicalpreparation we make in anticipatingthis process. A mental attitude ofconsidering this period the end of sexlife may actually result in the end.But an attitude of regarding thisprocess as normal, which need notinterfere with established sexual relations, will do much toward accomplishing this end. (If contraceptiveshave been used throughout marriage,it will be wise to continue their usefor several years after the menopause.)Too frequent, or prolonged bleeding, during the menopausal period orContinued on page 20 100,000 Men and WomenX ART VII of the University'sOfficial Bulletin, No. I, January,1891, listing "The Work of the University," says in part: ". . . University extension work . . . will include. . . correspondence courses . . . forstudents in all parts of the countrywhose circumstances do not permitthem to reside at an institution oflearning during all of the year."That, along with the University"Proper," and the "University Publication Work," or the Press, madeup William Rainey Harper's idea ofwhat a University should be.The following October, in 1892,the University opened its doors.True to the original Charter, theHome-Study Department was organized at the same time. It wasthe first in America. Since thenover fifty colleges and universitieshave followed Chicago's lead incorrespondence courses.According to Director LeonardS. Stein (above with part oj his office staff), almost 100,000 men andwomen from all over the worldhave enrolled with the University'sHome-Study Department duringthe past 60 years.Among the courses offered areAesthetics, Architecture, Business,Drama, Foreign Languages, Human Relations, Investment Banking, Music, Philosophy, Statistics,and Writing. One course in Hu man Development is called "Making the Most of Maturity." It is a"program for adults who want toenjoy their later years by makingthe best possible use of theirresources — physical, mental, financial, and social." One of the assignments — from which the previous essay is adapted — is "ThePhysical Side of Aging." Others are"What It Means to Retire fromWork," by Professor Robert J.Havighurst, and "Changing Relationships with Family and Friends,"by Mary Hollis Little. Miss Littlewith Margery J. Mack — of the University's Industrial Relations Center — edited the 96-page book, entitled "Good Living After 50."(While the regular tuition for theMaturity course is $25, members ofthe Association can enroll throughthe Department for $20.)"Through the progress reports,written to our students by our instructors, we have been trying tomake the program as personal aspossible," says Stein. "And ourstudents seem to appreciate whatwe are trying to do."One student, middle-aged andmarried, wrote for an extra catalogue. She had given a number toher friends. "Now I'm ready to enroll in a new psychology course,"she wrote. "I'm having the timeof my life."FEBRUARY, 1953"OLD AGE"Continued from page 19after the periods have stopped, is notnormal. These symptoms require athorough gynecologic examination.This bleeding may be caused by serious medical problems which requireearly diagnosis and treatment. Whensuch bleeding occurs, see your doctorimmediately.Many other conditions may occur atthe same time as the menopausal period — conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, obesity, high blood pressure,etc. The conditions are not caused bythe menopause. They require a careful, medical examination and treatment entirely independent of themenopause.The male climactericMen may also have a similar periodafter involution, probably best calledthe male climacteric. However, allmen do not age at the same rate. Inany case, there is absolutely no settime when this period is supposed tostart and when it must be consideredclosed. There is no obvious physicalfinding which is supposed to introducethe period. Potency and fertility — theability to perform the sex act and toproduce children — may continue indefinitely. Sex relations are basic ina normal marital relationship. Couplesmay continue this relationship at thesame level indefinitely. Or they mayfind that they may wish or have tomake some adjustments in the relationship with advancing age.One of the important factors thathelps to aggravate this period is theacceptance of the many fables thatgive a fixed timetable in the processof living. This stuff is really hooey.There are no scientific, absolute standards that decide when discontinuingsex life is inevitable. We help to makeour own time table. The decision thatwe can continue may make it possibleto continue in a full life longer. Thisis true equally in both sexes.Potency and fertility are not necessarily bound together. This is truefor either sex.After the climactericThe prostate is a small gland whichsurrounds the neck of the bladder at,the beginning of the urethra. Thisgland often increases in size in lateryears. In so doing, it may obstructthe passage of urine. This condition,known as prostatic obstruction, orprostatic hypertrophy (enlargement), may require medical or surgicaltreatment.Cancer of the prostate is usually asilent, painless growth, until it causesobstruction of the urinary flow. Earlyexamination and treatment are necessary. Surgical treatment may be life-saving.Health habitsNormal bowel movements are associated with regular timing, adequatevitamins, water, proper diet, and atleast moderate physical activity. Anysudden changes in bowel habits, aswell as rectal bleeding, should be investigated immediately. Such changesmay be caused by a serious conditionsomewhere in the intestine.There are no absolute and generalrules about how much anyone shouldexercise. Exercise should not be restricted merely because of age. Thekind of exercise engaged in dependsin large part upon the past habits ofthe individual. It also, of course, depends upon any medical restrictionswhich may be present. Continuingwith one's accustomed habits of exercise, within the limits of comfort, isnot likely to be harmful in itself.AlcoholSleep or rest is even more important in the more mature. Older peopleget tired more easily. They shouldnot hesitate to take a nap during theday if they desire. Insomnia is notuncommon among older people. Thismay be psychological, although acareful examination is necessary torule out other possible causes. Sleeping medication is usually not necessary.Alcoholic drinks may be continuedaccording to past habits. Alcohol isnot harmful in moderate amounts, butit must not be permitted to replaceany of the necessary foods. Smoking,too, to a moderate degree, is usuallynot harmful. It may be undesirablein some medical conditions, but thiswill be an individual medical decision.Nutrition and dietAdequate nutrition is a basic requirement for adequate living. Thisis as important for the older person asfor the growing child. But caloricrequirements- — the total amount offood needed — do decrease with age.This is due to the fact that the olderperson is less active than the hyperactive youth; and also to the fact thathis basal metabolic rate — the rate at which his body burns up food forenergy — is lower.It is difficult to readjust long-established eating habits to thesechanged needs of the body, but it isimportant to do so. It may also benecessary to change food preferencesbecause of dental changes. But thoughless food is needed and changes inkinds of food may be necessary, thesame principles in adequate nutritionare still basically valid. In otherwords, the diet must continue to be awell-rounded one.The basic diet includes daily intakeof minerals, as calcium and iron; protein, as meat, fish, cottage cheese,eggs; butter or margarine; milk; vegetables; fruit. During disease or convalescence, protein and carbohydrates(starch) may be increased at the expense of fats.Vitamins are of course essential. Anadequate diet can usually give enoughvitamins for most people. This willnaturally vary with the ability ofeach individual to absorb and digestthe food, and with individual needsfor additional vitamins. Water is veryimportant for the more mature. Theability to concentrate urine is decreased in the older person. Thus,water is useful in helping with theformation of sufficient urine. It is alsovaluable in assisting with normalbowel movements.It is generally best to eat three lightmeals a day, with small meals in between, such as fruit, or a glass of milk.This avoids the over-eating caused bythe more heavy meals. Also, overeating — as well as undereating — is nottolerated very easily by older persons.ObesityObesity, or excess fat, is alwaysharmful. It is even more so with age.It has undesirable effects upon theheart and blood vessel system. It reduces life-expectancy. Obesity is controlled not by occasional spurts ofstarvation, but by restricting high-caloric foods, such as pie and cake.Fruits can be used as desired.Our best protection in our lateryears consists of: 1) a once or twiceyearly physical examination by aphysician who is interested in us aspeople; and 2) a sensible way of life —which means proper attention to ourdiet, rest, exercise; and sufficient interests and activities to keep us feeling stimulated and useful. Physicaland mental needs are inseparable. Thefulfillment of both are necessary toour health and happiness throughoutlife.20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWALLACH (LEFT), LEO WALLACH (SECOND FROM RIGHT) VISIT LAB WITH DRS. KIRSNER, COGGESHALL, PALMERAccount PaidAnd Then SomeKJARLY IN 1947 a young man,fresh out of medical school, went toBillings Hospital as a patient. Hestayed there for more than a yearand a half. The disease which almost killed him was ulcerativecolitis. Not much was known aboutit. It was expensive. No singlestudy had been made of it, becauseno funds were available for a staffand laboratory. Last December theex-patient and his father, LeoWallach, were present when theUniversity Clinics opened its thirdulcerative colitis lab. Through contributions from LeoWallach, his son, Howard, and over100 friends, Doctors Joseph Kirsnerand Walter Palmer have been able tocarry out extensive studies of thisdisease which is as crippling as it ismysterious. ACTH and cortisone hormones have been used and been foundbeneficial. Patients who cannot affordthe necessary drugs get them free.Because of Wallach's financial aid theresearch shall continue.Described as a "chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine,"ulcerative colitis attacks young men and women. Hospitalization alonecosts from $800 to $5,000. Since 1949Wallach, one of the owners of theFort Dearborn Hotel, has given hisown money. And he has gone tohis many friends for contributions,for more labs, more technicians,more drugs.In his one-man fight against thedisease, Leo Wallach has returnedten-fold the care and attention thathis son received from Billings as amatter of course. But now Wallachis fighting the disease for all whohave it, and anyone, anywhere,who may get it.FEBRUARY, 1953 21An Impossible JobMl UBLISHING 75 TITLES a yearalong with 26 scholarly journals isa big enough job for any press.But the University Press did something more last December. Besidesthe books, and the journals, andbesides arranging for translationsof George Kennan's "AmericanDiplomacy" into seven languages(including Japanese), the Pressproduced a 966-page tome in fourmonths instead of the usual fourteen.The book, "Anthropology Today," presents the papers given atan international symposium sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. Once called the VikingFund, the foundation wanted topresent the results of its 1952 Symposium in 1952. They asked PressEditor Morton Grodzins to publishand deliver the book by December31st. The Press did not deliver bythat date. The Press delivered twoweeks earlier: on December 17th.In order to meet the deadline,Grodzins went to New York Citywith the edited copy of the manuscripts. There he received legalconsent from each of the authorsbefore the meeting began. Andthere the Wenner-Gren staff worked over the edited manuscriptswith the distinguished authors —who had gathered for the meetingfrom all over the world. None ofthe authors was permitted to leavethe city until he — in two cases she— had made all final revisions.According to Paul Fejos, Director of the Foundation, they wantedto break the vicious lie that academic papers cannot be publishedwhile they are current. The appearance of "Anthropology Today,"edited by A. L. Kroeber, does justthat.As Grodzins put it, "because ofthe marvelous work of Mr. Fejos'staff at the meeting, and the cooperation of the participating scientists, the Press was able to dothe 'impossible' job of producingthe book ahead of time. The bookis also a tribute to the skill of thePress' production staff."The essays? They report thepresent state of anthropology,ranging from "Dating Fossil Human Remains," by Kenneth F.Heizer, to Professor Redfield's article which ends: ". . . anthropologists come to entertain the question: Whar>then, is the good life?"Price: $9.00. dSoORiby Faculty and AlumniCHALLENGE AND RESPONSE IN THEMIDDLE EAST. By Hedley V. Cooke,PhD '51. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1952. Pp. xiii 366. $4.00.Here is a book that fulfills the highestexpectations of the reader. Whetherone's interest be in the Middle East,as such, or in the complicated problems faced by any attempt at rapideconomic development and inducedchange, Mr. Cooke has much to sayand says it well.The Middle East is, for most Americans,an exotic region replete with bafflingtensions, cross-currents and problems.Generally speaking we are probablyaware of the importance of oil in thearea, of the current Russian threat,of the overt manifestations of an xenophobic nationalism, and of the Jewish-Arab struggle. Put together, the wholebecomes confused and complicated,too complicated, in fact, for our understanding.Generally, most Americans probably feelthat induced economic development,under the Point Four formula, is beneficial and should create situations ofpeace and stability. By and large weassume, perhaps naively, that the importation of American "know-how"along with a dollop of American capital will turn the trick. But beyondthese innocent assumptions, neitherour interest nor our knowledge permit us to go.Finally, even the adept in economicdevelopment techniques faces quitehonestly the fact that our skilledknowledge of how to make economicdevelopment is not matched by ourability to foresee or to cope with alliedsocial change. Nor are we at all clearon the non-economic barriers to rapideconomic development.Prior to this there has been no singletitle that could be referred to for guidance and insight into the manifoldproblems faced by those who go forthto develop a "backward" economy.Volumes of material and hundreds ofspecial studies have been produced,but almost all have been of a piecemeal or highly specialized character.Some gave brilliant insights into minortechnical matters while others castinteresting but murky light on thelarger issues of social change.Thanks to Hedley Cooke we now havea solid beginning on the task of producing a meaningful and comprehensive understanding. This is not to saythat Mr. Cooke has covered every issueand every problem in the fashion ofa well-ordered encyclopedia. He hasnot. But he has given us an accountof the problems facing any development effort in the region of the MiddleEast and of the direction in which22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsolutions will have to be sought. Hehas done this with so much diligence,scholarship, insight and mature judgment that the reader can begin to graspthe nature and scope of the total effortrequired for any rapid economic development program. With this enterprise, Mr. Cooke combines a knowledgeof events and trends in each MiddleEast nation that has seldom been excelled.Mr. Cooke begins by setting the problem out in its major dimensions, raising most of the technical and otherissues that plague each developmenteffort. From that the author passes toa detailed but highly readable studyof the efforts at development that havebeen made or at least projected ineach of the Middle East countries inthe past few decades. After thiscountry-by-country study is completedhe turns to the important issue of regional planning and then concludeswith a summary chapter that tiestogether the various strands that weresorted out in the course of the book.Perhaps the most rewarding part of thebook is the careful survey and analysis, contained therein, of every planor proposal for a plan that has beenprojected in any Middle East countryin the past fifty years. This gives thereader the facts on early proposalsfor change, the types of proposals thathave been made, the limitations on allprevious thinking on the subject, andinsight into the kinds of emphases thathave been typical. If for no otherreason this feature is valuable in thatit gives the contemporary planner acomprehensive picture of all that hasgone before as well as of the pitfallsthat his predecessors have met.While Cooke tackles the non-economicas well as the economic inhibitions, andhas much to say that is most pertinenton the crucial matter of political barriers to rapid development, his bookdoes suffer from one lack. There is init no adequate analysis of the problemsof creating an alert entrepreneurialclass that is willing to promote andmaintain modernization. He is, ofcourse, well aware of the lack of sucha group in the various Middle Eastnations; but he fails to give the readerthe benefit of his knowledge of andexperience in the area by way of adiscussion of how such a group mightbe generated. .It is clear from his study that the technical and economic barriers to inducedchange are not the significant issues.Rather it is the political and psychological inhibitions that prove most difficult to crack. Nor is the cracking ofthese barriers an easy or obvious matter. Tenacious vested interests, antiquated but "sticky" institutional forms,and the persistence of socio-culturaltypes, stand in the way of economicdevelopment. These issues are not merehobgoblins that can be whisked outof existence. In fact, no one reallyknows how best to exorcise them.Even granting an optimum situationfavoring the elimination of the vestedremnants of the old, no one can ensure that the bundle of changes to be "^8HEDLEY V. COOKEintroduced will not "get out of hand,"producing anarchy rather than development. Cooke makes this matterquite clear even though he cannot provide final answers.He tends to favor village development,as by the Near East Foundation, butfails to demonstrate to the wary thateven this modicum of improvement caneither be made self-sustaining or impervious to assault from the ancienregime. His bias in favor of the villagedevelopment scheme is, however, understandable. The apparent alternativeis a program so vast as to raise againstit all of the traditionalism of a conservative social structure.Dr. Cooke took his degree at Chicagoand this study, based on his dissertation, reflects credit on the universityand on its author. It will be sometime before another title of comparablequality on this subject will appear.Robert I. CraneInstructorDepartment of HistoryMEDICINE AT THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO, 1927-1952. By Franklin C.McLean and Ilza Veith. Chicago. University Press, 1952.As stated on the frontispiece, this is"a brief outline of the origins, theformative years, and the present stateof medicine at the University of Chicago." The ninety-one page, paper-bound volume was published as oneof the features of the 25th AnniversaryCelebration of the opening of the University of Chicago Clinics and ClinicalDepartments. The two authors are well qualified totell the story of medicine at the University of Chicago. Dr. McLean hasbeen an intimate part of the development throughout the full twenty-fiveyears, serving respectively as Professor of Medicine, Director of UniversityClinics, and as Professor as Physiology.Miss Veith is a professional historianand holds the position of AssistantProfessor of Medicine.In too few words the authors have described the successful implementationof a new "idea" in medical education.Their description represents the firsteffort thus far made to explain in onepublication the several features embodied in this new "idea" for medicaleducation begun twenty-five years agoon the Midway.A good historical account is given of thedevelopments leading to the openingof the Clinics in 1927. The reader isimpressed with the inevitability ofthose developments because of thenature of the University of Chicagoand the philosophy of those shapingthe course of the University. Plans fora medical school were being discussedby President Harper in 1892 — the yearthe University was founded.The major points of uniqueness of theUniversity's efforts in medical education could not be put into operationuntil the School was located on theUniversity campus. It operated one ofthe nation's outstanding medical schoolsfrom the time of its affiliation withRush Medical College in 1897. But itspioneering plans had to await a newlocation and an opportunity free ofinhibiting traditions and existing organizational patterns.The move to the Midway in 1927 was initself a major part of the new approach. This served to give the clinicalteachers the same climate as that enjoyed by those in the basic sciences.Through contiguity with all otherdisciplines of the University, jointresearch and free interchange of ideasbecame possible. A more revolutionarystep brought gains in this same areaof research. All members of the medical teaching staff were made full-timemembers of the University faculty. Themedical faculty was employed on asalary basis and all earnings from theirwork were turned over to the University. This latter fact helped anothermajor development. Full-pay patientswere utilized in the teaching and research program. This arrangement hasproven so satisfactory to both patientsand faculty that the majority of patients pay full fees.The book points out some of the greataccomplishments of the Medical Schoolduring its first twenty-five years.These accomplishments have beenequally great in the three functionsrequired of a medical school in moderntimes — the functions of teaching, research and patient care.Ray E. BrownSuperintendentUniversity ClinicsFEBRUARY, 1953 23AFRICACALVIN STILLMAN (Social Sciences,College) has devoted part of his timein recent months to setting up a College Seminar on Africa. When weapproached him for a literary safarion Africa and the portentous problemsof that huge continent, he agreed tosuggest a few recent titles, but warnedthat it is impossible to find any goodbooks about all of Africa, and difficultto find reliable accounts of even partsof it.One of the reasons he cites for thisdifficulty is the cultural bias of somany of the writers who have writtenabout Africa.At any rate, Mr. Stillman suggests thesebooks (mostly novels) as recent andinformative about parts of Africa:CRY, THE BELOVED COUNTRY. ByAlan Paton. Scribner's, 1950. $3.00.In this novel a true story is told ofwhat is happening in the Union ofSouth Africa. In short, what is happening there is disruption of an oldtribal society by the imposition of atechnically superior industrial society.The story is told in terms of the individual tragedy which seems to beunavoidable when such cultures meet.THE PEOPLES AND POLICIES OFSOUTH AFRICA. By Leo Marquard.Oxford University Press, 1952. $3.50.This view of the South African situationwas written by an English-speakingnational who sees the issues clearly,but is not able to point to a satisfactory solution. It is almost too easy forhim to point out the stubbornness ofthe Afrikaans-speaking group in thepopulation, and to suggest that theBritish-descended white South Africans could solve the problems moreeffectively. CALVIN STILLMANTHE CHOICE BEFORE SOUTH AFRICA. By E. S. Sachs. PhilosophicalLibrary, 1952. J5.75.This author has a right to speak — he hasbeen a leader in the South Africanlabor movement for many years. Hissolution is along lines of Europeansocial democracy, including ending racial discrimination. One tragedy ofsituations such as the one in SouthAfrica is that these moderate solutionsnever really are given a chance — therush of events tends to be first to oneextreme and then to another, and noextremist has use for a moderate.THE CURVE AND THE TUSK. ByStuart Cloete. Houghton Mifflin, 1952.$3.00. The scene is Portuguese East Africa, butthe problem with which it deals is stillthe same — African culture versusEuropean culture, this time with wildAfrican nature thrown in as an^xtracharacter. Earlier books by this writerthrow light on the historical setting of South Africa.MISTER JOHNSON. By Joyce Cary.Harper, 1951. $3.00.The setting here is West Africa, wheresuperficial political affairs, at least, arefar more pleasant than in South Africa, but the underlying problem of lifein two worlds still tears individualsapart. Cary was himself a civil servantin West Africa, and tells this tale withthe skill of a professional novelist.JOURNEY TO THE INTERIOR. ByLaurens van der Post. Morrow, 1951.$3.00.This is a recently published travel book.One might think that it is too late forsuch things, but the value of the bookis not the description of travel adventures so much as the thoughts of thewriter concerning Africa as it is coming to be. The author was born inSouth Africa, and presents himself asan introspective individual who is torntwo ways by the African situation. Itis revealing that this can happen towhite Africans as well as to NegroAfricans.THE FON AND HIS HUNDRED WIVES.By Rebecca Reyher. Doubleday, 1952.$3.95.This popular anthropology is evidencethat native life does not consist of unlimited idyllic life. The author is perhaps guilty of being a better suffragistthan an anthropologist; her conclusionsare at variance with those of an officialUnited Nations mission which visitedthe Fon and his wives at about thesame time. But the description ofAfrican life in the English Cameroonsis something that is not publishedevery year. Mrs. Reyher's earlier work,ZULU WOMAN (Columbia, 1948) isa more worthy effort.• . . and records show that, throughoutthe length and breadth of the nation,there are few communities indeedwithout a policyholder, annuitantor beneficiary of the Sun LifeAssurance Company of Canada ...Branch and agency service in strategic key centers around the globe,including 100 Sun Life offices throughout the United States and Canada.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECLAHonors to Miss HostetterA. Beth Hostetter, '08, has retiredfrom full-time active duty atShimer College after more than ahalf century of association with theCollege.The following resolution, adoptedby the Board of Trustees, summarizes the many posts she hasfilled, and testifies to the outstanding contribution she has made tothe life of Shimer College:"This Board hereby registers itsdeep appreciation of the invaluableservice rendered to Shimer Collegeby Miss A. Beth Hostetter. As Instructor, Dean, Registrar, Vice-President, Acting President, andSecretary of the Board of Trustees, she has contributed to theconduct and development of theCollege in a manner and to an extent to award her lasting placeamong its builders. The Boardrecognizes the profound significance of her life-long service andaccords it the highest honor."Miss Hostetter was also a student at Shimer. As a faculty member, she taught Latin and arthistory.Since 1950 the Alumni QuarterlyBulletin has received much of herattention, and she will continue aseditor.1900A letter from Laura May Love Postmareads, "I went twice to the United Statesbut was lost in the labyrinth. It wasnot possible for me to remain, for manyreasons, so I returned here, where I havelived for 45 years. The good mayor of the town kindly gave me the same roomswhere I had lived 20 years ago with myhusband and where I have at least somememories." Her address is Prins Hendrik-laan 2, Zeist, Holland.1906Horace Reed, JD '08, is special assistantto the Chief of the MSA mission toFrance, with headquarters in Paris.1907Helen Hendricks is a member of theboard of managers, Class of '55, of theWomen's University Club of New YorkCity.Alice H. Smith is a retired teacher living in Yarnell, Arizona.1908Harry H. Harper was recently installedas president of the Illinois chapter No. 6of the American Institute of Real EstateAppraisers.1910William C. Moore, PhD, had two of hiscasein water -color paintings on displayat the "Art by Chemists" exhibition, heldin connection with the National ChemicalExposition in Chicago, last September.1912Hobart R. Hunter, MD '13, is a retiredphysician living in DeLand, Fla.1914John A. Greene, president, director andmember of the executive committee ofthe Ohio Bell Telephone Co., has beenelected to the board of directors.Paul R. Pierce, AM '27, PhD '34, hasbeen assistant superintendent in chargeof instruction and guidance in the Chi- EWScago Public Schools since January, 1949.1916The Rev. Thomas A. Goodwin, AM '22,Executive Secretary of the Congregational Conference of Minnesota, waselected a member of the Carleton CollegeBoard of Trustees in October.John H. Roser is a lawyer in Chicago.His other interests include playing theviolin and harp and corresponding withfour French orphans.1917Dr. Harry T. Stock, AM, General Secretary of the Division of Christian Education for the Congregational ChristianChurches of America, was honored at adinner in December for his 30 years ofdistinguished service in the field ofChristian religious education. The occasion was sponsored by the Board ofHome Missions.1918Carl Mauelshagen, AM, writes that hespent a very profitable spring quarterlast year in research at the University ofChicago. He is Head of the Departmentof History of the Atlanta Division of theUniversity of Georgia, and is trying tofind the time to put into writing his research efforts.John Nuveen has been reelected president of the Chicago Sunday EveningClub.1920Steward Basterfield, PhD, is Professorof Organic Chemistry at McMaster University, Ontario, Can.C. E. "Red" McKittrick is advertisingmanager of the Chicago Tribune. He ispresident of Three Markets Group, Inc.,vice-president of the North Side Boys'Club, and active in civic affairs of the44th ward.FEBRUARY, 1953 25t "Inspiring Public Service"Those who know Nena WilsonBadenoch, '12, and the inspiring workshe has done on behalf of crippledchildren, need no further evidence ofher remarkable career.Recently, however, more tangibleproof was offered when McCall'sMagazine presented her with theirpublic service award — a gold miketrophy, in recognition of her distinguished service in television andradio on behalf of the nation'scrippled children.Mrs. Badenoch has been director oftelevision and radio relations for theNational Society for Crippled Children and Adults for the past sevenyears. She is one of just eight awardwinners nationwide and the onlyChicagoan who received the award inthe magazine's second annual publicservice contest for American womenin TV and radio.Through her public service programs, Mrs. Badenoch has succeededin building up a more sympatheticresponse from the public to the plightof crippled children. Perhaps it is herown deep sympathy and personal experience with the problems of crippling that have made her so successful.Her concern stems from the timeher own son broke both legs in aglider accident during his second yearat college. For more than a year shewatched him go from operating tableto wheelchair to crutches and back tothe operating table again.Her son's ordeal turned out happily, but Mrs. Badenoch's realizationClay Palmer, AM, is a minister inBloomington, Calif.1921F. Taylor Gurney, PhD '35, remainswith the American Embassy in Tehranwhere he finds his work as "interestingand as perplexing as ever." His son,Frank, was married on July 26 in Columbus, Ohio, to Margaret Louise Johnston, a graduate of Wooster College.Claudius O. Johnson, AM, PhD '27, isProfessor and Head of the Department ofPolitical Science and History at the StateCollege of Washington in Pullman.1922Edwin W. Ahern has been appointedassistant director of industrial relationsof Standard Oil Company.Ola Winslow, PhD, a retired collegeteacher, formerly at Wellesley College, isnow with the Radcliffe Seminars anddoing some writing.1923Louise Fletcher (Mrs. W. Gordon Dix)writes that her son, William, was graduated from the University of Michiganlast summer and is now doing graduatework in education.26 NENA WILSON BADENOCHthat many people are not so lucky is oneof the driving motivations in her work."What happens to those campus queensyou read about after they become —grandmothers?" is the question BettyWalker, '20, asked recently in her Sun-Times column, "No Man's Land." Shegives Nena Badenoch's career as one excellent answer.Miss Walker reminds us that the former Nena Wilson was an outstanding belle on the campus, aleader in many undergraduate activities, including Mortar Board and NuPi Sigma, and that she culminatedher University career by walkingdown the aisle with her favorite football player.The University hasn't lost sight ofher since, and three years agoawarded her an Alumni Citation forher outstanding service in "contributing to a better community."Nena Badenoch is further proof thatmarriage, child-rearing, and a careercan be happily combined.When her three children were littleshe found time to write extensivelyfor women's magazines besides severalbooks about home-making and children. As a home economics major atthe University, she put her academictraining to good practical use both inand out of her home.Later, she was initiated into radiowork when she conducted a weeklybroadcast for homemakers for a public utility company.In her present position, Mrs. Badenoch cooperates with television andbroadcasting networks, advertisingagencies, and sponsors in the publicservice field. She prepares transcriptions for radio use by the more than2,000 state and local Easter Sealaffiliates of the National Society. Shealso prepares television film for spotannouncements, together with publicity packets in both fields, preparatory for the annual Easter Seal campaign.Here is a person who has both herhead and her heart in a job of contributing to the welfare of others.Lennox Grey, PhD '35, is president ofthe National Council of Teachers of English. He is Head of the English andforeign language department at Teachers'College, Columbia University.1924John A. Culbertson, SM, is manager ofthe geological department of the Continental Oil Co., in Houston, Texas.Rose Smith Kelly is director of Elementary Education at the College ofPuget Sound in Tacoma, Wash.1925Marian Taylor Boyd (Mrs. Douglas),AM, is vice-president of Family Serviceof Highland Park, 111., and a member ofthe League of Women Voters.1926Sara Boom Moore is teaching in thesixth grade in the Dinuba (Calif.) publicschools.Robert C. Thurston is a productionmanagement consultant in Sao Paulo,Brazil.1928Catherine B. Crowley is secretary and bookkeeper at the Chicago Golf Club inWheaton, 111.1929Marie Baldridge, AM, is teaching childdevelopment at the State Teachers College in Newark, N. J., and doing childtherapy at the Baldwin School in NewYork City. She is also writing a PhDthesis on "A Study in Empathy: theRelationship Between the PersonalityPattern of a Reader of Fiction and HisIdentification with Fictional Characters."Toby Kurzband is chairman of the department of art and mechanical drawingat the Bronx High School of Science, inNew York. His wife, Diana Wolin, '28,is a psychiatric social worker with thebureau of child guidance, New York Cityboard of education. They have twodaughters: Paula, 17, and Karen, 12.Alfred M. Noyes is director of industrial safety, Greater Los Angeles Chapter,National Safety Council.1930Joseph J. Gibbons has been appointedmanager of the newly formed tax andinsurance department of Blaw-Knox Co.,in Pittsburgh. He went to Blaw-Knoxfrom Mine Safety Appliance Co., wherefor several years he had been super-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJOSEPH J. GIBBONSvisor of the tax and insurance department.George, (AM) and Portia Baker Ker-nodle, PhD '33, are living in Fayetteville,Ark., where George is teaching in theT.Uphone K En wood 6- 1 352J. E. KIDWELL FhrkT826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 15, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLT. A. REHNOUIST CO.vo/EST. I?»CONCRETEFLOORS — SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSINDUSTRIAL FLOORINGEMERGENCY REPAIR WORKCONCRETE BREAKINGWATERPROOFINGINSIDE WALLS6639 S. Vernon AvenueNOrmal 7-0433 Department of Speech and Dramatic Artat the University of Arkansas.1931Quirinus Breen, PhD, Professor of History at the University of Oregon, left inJanuary to spend a year in Italy on aFulbright research scholarship. He willbe at the University of Florence.Edward Conover, AM, has joined thefaculty of the School of Social Welfareof Florida State University, where heholds the rank of associate professor. Hewas awarded the PhD degree at OhioState University last summer.1932Lawrence M. Perlman, a manufacturerin Chicago, was married on June 23,1952, to Miss Terese Roman.Theodore L. Thau, JD '34, is a deputyassistant general counsel for international affairs, Department of Commerce,in Washington, D. C.Gilbert F. White, SM '34, PhD '42, continues as president of Haverford College,Pa., an institution which specializes intraining personnel for governmental andprivate agencies engaged in refugee-relief programs and rehabilitation. In 1949he was named to the U. S. delegation toUNESCO. He was appointed vice-chairman of ex-President Truman's WaterResources Policy Commission in 1950.1933John A. Nietz, PhD, Professor of Education at the University of Pittsburgh,reports that in his collection of old textbooks he has 6500 volumes over 50 yearsold.Velma Whipple writes that she is "stillentertaining and sheltering Illinois 'refugees.' Pop and the pups continue tothrive on the New Mexico sunshine andI am now a member of the supervisorystaff of the Albuquerque public schools,being responsible for the fifth and sixthgrades in 20 schools."1934Theodore K. Noss, AM, PhD '40, isdean of students at the State UniversityMaritime College at Fort Schuyler, N. Y.Alexander Spoehr, PhD '40, is the newdirector of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu. Since 1940 he hasbeen curator of Oceanic ethnology at theNatural History museum in Chicago. Dr.Spoehr is chairman of the National Research Council's subcommittee on Pacificarchaeology and scientific consultant tothe Pacific science board. He wasawarded also this year a Guggenheimfellowship for ethnological research inMicronesia and currently is editor of theAmerican Anthropologist.Ward Stewart, AM, has been appointedAssistant Commissioner for Program Development and Co-ordination in the Office of Education. He was formerly withthe Economic Stabilization Agency, andrecently returned from South Americawhere he spent six months as deputychief of the Public Administration Mission to Colombia. The Stewarts havethree children: Richard, 9, ElizabethAnn, 5, and Philip, 2.1935J. Edward Day, director of Insurancefor Illinois, has been appointed associategeneral solicitor of the Prudential Insurance Company, Newark, N. J. AJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, CR 7-2668BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoGolden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID — NOT PLATEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, IIITelephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON & BROS., Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributors ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketIXCl UlHCt IN fitcmcoi MODI/CMleweed,ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Olttrllitm. MmlimiHS aid Jikbirs ilELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500FEBRUARY, 1953 27POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersMimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHeaves TypewritingshinHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisPHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOSRAPHYFine Co/or Work a SpecialtyQuality Book Reproduction731 Plymouth CourtW Abash 2-8182Platers - SilversmithsSince 1917GOLD, SILVER, RHODIUMSILVERWARERepaired, Refinished, Re/acqueredSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CEntral 4-6087-90 ChicagoA. T. STEWART LUMBER CO.Quality and ServiceSince 188879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phonei Vlncennes 6-9000LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERSSINCE 19 O 6 -? WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCERAYNER^DALHEIM L CO.2801 W. 47TH ST, CHICAGO. Robert L. Rice has been appointedsales manager of the central division ofAmerican Chlorophyll Division of StrongCobb & Co., Inc., with headquarters inChicago. Rice, his wife, and three daughters are residents of LaGrange Park, 111.1936George Davis is a social worker withthe Federal Security Agency in Dallas,Texas.Herbert Simon, PhD '43, Professor andHead of the Department of IndustrialAdministration at Carnegie Institute ofTechnology, is directing a study to investigate what is now known aboutthe way people behave as parts of goingorganizations, and to point out gaps inknowledge that need to be filled for moreeffective planning and operations in suchorganizations. The study is made possibleby a $30,000 grant from the Ford Foundation.1937Eileen Jennings, AM, is a social workerat the Veterans Hospital in AmericanLake, Wash.Melvin A. Robin is an economist andengineer in Chicago.Alice Zucker is director of public relations for the National Council of Catholic Men, with offices in Washington,D.C. She was formerly with the GreatBooks Foundation.William M. Taliaferro is district manager of the Detroit office of the Armstrong Cork Company Building MaterialsDivision.1938Myron T. Hopper, PhD, is Acting Deanof the College of the Bible, 1952-53 session, and is scheduled to assume thedeanship on a permanent basis in August. He was Visiting Professor at Garrett Biblical Institute at the summer session, 1952.Joseph T. Klapper, AM, is an executivewith the State Department's Voice ofAmerica. -Robert C. Upton, vice-president ofWhirlpool corporation, was elected tothe board to fill a vacancy caused bythe death of this father, Louis C. Upton.1939Pearl Lane Bristow, AM, is a counselorfor patients at the Salem Institution inOregon.Clifford C. Gramer has been namedmerchandising manager of Hotpoint Co.,in Chicago. In his new position, Gramerhas responsibility for planning and coordinating advertising, sales training,sales promotion, and kitchen planningactivities. Prior to the war he was associated with Coca-Cola Co., in varioussales capacities throughout the midwest.From 1942 to 1946 he served with theU. S. Marines. He joined Hotpoint in1950.Robert C. Hunter, MD, is now servingin the Army.Martin Shookhoff, PhD, is a chemistwith Fries & Fries, Inc., in Cincinnati,Ohio.1940Janet Geiger Pfeiffer, AM '49, is apsychiatric social worker at MichaelReese Hospital in Chicago. College of EuropeJohn A. Vieg, PhD '37, Chairman of the Department of Government at Pomona College, has accepted an invitation to deliver aseries of lectures and serve as consultant at the College of Europe atBruges, Belgium, this spring.Dr. Vieg is now on leave fromPomona College on a Fulbrightfellowship for teaching and research at the University of Oslo,and will go from there to Bruges todeliver a series of lectures in thefield of public administration ina federal government.The College of Europe has beenestablished under auspices of theCouncil of Europe to train individuals for administrative positionsin the European community. It isa post-graduate institution withabout 55 students who are selectedin national competitions.Paul Siever, MD '43, is in privatepractice in pediatrics in Highland Park,111., after closing his office in Chicago.He and his wife, Barbara Lewis, havethree children: Ellen Carol, 8, LeslieAnn, 6, and John, "16 months.Joseph Stein, JD '42, is a hotel operator in Chicago.1941Edward Bershstein, JD '49, is a graduate student in the Department of Political Science at the University. He taughtsocial sciences at the University of PuertoRico from 1950 to 1952.Thomas A. Hart, PhD, and his wifespent last summer in the Middle East.They attended a seven-week seminar onMiddle East problems at the AmericanUniversity of Beirut in Lebanon and latertraveled to Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Israel,Cyprus and Turkey. The travel was onofficial business for the Point 4 program.CLIFFORD C. GRAMER28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELowrence S. Myers, Jr., PhD '49, iswith the atomic energy project at theUniversity of California, working in thenew medical school on the effects ofradiation on biological compounds.James H. Murr is a salesman with theCleveland Twist Drill Co., in Cleveland.Elizabeth Sessoms, AM, is a socialworker at the Presbyterian Medical Center in New York.John S. Thompson is sales manager ofAdams, Inc., in Fargo, N. D.A. D. Tushingham, DB, PhD '48, is director of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem.1942Patrick Malone is assistant curator ofpainting and sculpture at the Art Institute in Chicago. He and Miss CynthiaBollinger were married on August 22,1952.Katherine Sehl, SM, is Assistant Professor of Nursing at the University ofIllinois in Chicago.Robert L. Wrigley, Jr., PhD, recentlyleft the U. S. Bureau of the Census totake a position with the area development division of the Office of Industryand Commerce, in the Department ofCommerce.1943Edward Horner, MD '45, is practicingobstetrics and gynecology at the Alham-bra (Calif.) Clinic.Stuart P. Lloyd was a member of theInstitute for Advanced Study at Princeton last year and is now in mathematicsresearch at Bell Telephone Laboratoriesin Murray Hill, N. J.Margery C. Osberg, AM, is supervisorof child welfare services in Concord, N.H.Doris Westfall was married on October25, 1952, to David S. Dodge.Panama City PfanstiehlAlfred Pfanstiehl, '40, writes ofhis recent move to 1201/2 AllenAve., Panama City, Florida."Even though it was hard toleave all my friends and activitiesin Washington, this job in Floridawas too much to resist. I am stillwith Engineering and ResearchCorp., but at our field office hereat the Tyndall Air Force Base."My job is setting up a new training school to teach the Air Forceboys how tp service and maintainour tremendous F-86D jet planeflight simulator trainers. These aremere 1300-tube electronic gadgets,weighing about 11 tons, and worththeir weight in gold for every lifethey save. I like the work, it's fun— education is my real field."Looks as though the Floridamove has blessed Al with goodluck as well as sunny weather. Hefound a bargain, soon after his arrival, in a light green, 1952 Stude-baker Commander, "with all thegadgets," and is now the prouddriver.Another bit of luck was the finding of a "delightful" cottage torent, in the Cove area of PanamaCity. 1944Holt Ashley is teaching aeronauticalengineering at Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology.Jeanne Crage, AM '52, (Mrs. RichardDoyle) is an arts and crafts instructor inthe Park Forest (111.) high school.William J. Howell, Jr., MBA, and MissBarbara Lewis, a Wellesley Collegegraduate, were married on September 13,1952. William is with the Owens Corning Fiberglas Corp., in New York City.Johan Jansen has become a member ofthe thermoplastics department of Monsanto Chemical Company's Plastics Division in St. Louis, Mo.Herman Mathesius, MBA '48, is director of the Elgin Medical Laboratory,Elgin, 111.Mildred Murstein, AM, is teaching inthe sociology department at Miami University.Hubert J. Wax, AM '47, is a psychiatricsocial worker with the mental hygieneclinic of the VA regional office in Denver.1945Robert M. Chanock, MD '47, and hiswife have a son, Foster Osgood Chanock,born November 6, 1952. Robert is a lieutenant in the Army Medical Corps.George J. Fischer, SM '50, is an instructor in mathematics and physics atCoe College.Richard Kershner, MD '47, is a physician serving in the armed forces, stationed at Camp Lejune, N. C.Donald McBride, MD '47, is on activeduty as a captain in the USAF, practicing internal medicine. He hopes to beginprivate practice in March and will return to Chicago with his wife, Patricia,and their six -month- old son.Eva Monasch (Mrs. Marvin Mass) is ahomemaker in Chicago. She has twochildren: Daniel Paul, 4, and JudithLouise, 2.Capt. Eugene A. Weber, MD '46, is inKorea and has been assigned to the 40thInfantry Division. He is serving as thebattalion surgeon in the division's 160thregiment.1946Lucian Chimene, who is in the advertising business in New York, was married on November 2, 1952, to Miss VeraColbert.June Cozine, PhD, Chairman of theDepartment of Home Economics at theNorthwest Missouri State College, wasVisiting Professor at the University ofTennessee last summer.John T. Horton is an instructor in themechanics department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in Troy, N. Y.Jerrold K. Hallam is a lawyer in Seattle, Wash.Edward A. Lange, AM, is an Englishteacher at the Luther Institute in Chicago.W. Louise Maystorovich is teaching inpractice school in Pikeville College, Ky.Eugene D. Morrow is employed by theSeaboard Finance Co., in Los Angeles.He was married on January 5, 1952, toSuzanne Salisbury Stark.Louise Walzer Willhide, AM, is a socialworker at the Child and Family Servicein Peoria. Local and Long Distance MovingStorage Facilities for Books,Record Cabinets, Trunks, orCarloads of FurniturePeterson FireproofWarehouse Inc.1011 EAST 55th STREETBUTTERFIELD 8-6711DAVID L SUTTON, PresidentWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave. TelephonePLaza 2-3313Verna P. Warner, DirectorAuto LiveryQuiet, unobtrusive serviceWhen you want it, as you want itCALL AN EMERY RRSIEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4-6400FEBRUARY, 1953 29RESULTS . . .depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Adressographing - FoldingMailing - Copy Preparation - MultilithA Complete Service for Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn - Chicago 5 - WA 2-4561BIRCK-FELLINGER CORPExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380Since 1878HANNIBAL, INCUpholsterersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180Ashjian Bros,, inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone REgent 4-6000GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186TELEVISIONRentals — sales New & ReconditionedRADIOSRadio-TV ServiceELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators Dishwashers DriersWashers Air Conditioners FreezersSPORTING GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSLPs & 45sFine collection tor childrenHERMANS935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Julian A. Tishler, '33 1947Norman Barker, Jr., returned in Junefrom 19 months active duty with theNavy, including seven months in Korea.He is now with the Harris Trust &Savings Bank in Chicago and the Barkers are enjoying their home in HighlandPark.Walter Bohan, SM '49, is a meteorologist in the Department of Meteorologyat the University.Harold Goldman, JD, is now a partnerin the public accountant firm of ArthurA. Weiner & Co., in Chicago.David Greenberg is a rabbi, studyingfor his doctorate in philosophy at theUniversity of North Carolina.Ellis J. Horvitz is an attorney in SanFrancisco.William A. Klutts is a newspaper editor in Ripley, Tenn.Lin L. Lundgaard has been named assistant general sales manager of theIsmert-Hincke Milling C#., in KansasCity, Mo. He is married and has onechild.Robert Murray, MBA, and his wife,Miriam Petty, have a third son, DavidJonathan, born last May. Robert is inthe comptroller's department of theEastman Kodak Co., in Rochester, N. Y.Walter Murray, PhD, is principal ofthe Dunbar School in Phoenix, and isdoing research on classroom problems inthe teaching of arithmetic in the elementary school.Charles Richman is an account executive at Harshe-Rotman Inc., public relations counsel, in Chicago.Mayo Simon has a new job at Washington University as director of television activities. He was associate producer and writer for "The Whole Town'sTalking," a film series produced lastyear for Iowa State College's WOI-TV.The series received the Sylvania Television Award for best public service showof 1952.Emily A. Smith, AM, is a social workerwith the Institute of Juvenile Researchin Chicago.1948Nancy R. Bay, AM, is a graduate student in social Psychology at the University of Michigan.Maude Boucher, AM, is an assistantconsultant on case work with the Illinois State Department of Public Welfare,in Springfield.Helen Heacock Ellis, AM, is an assistant professor in the sociology departmentat the University of New Mexico, anddirector of the pre-professional curriculum of social work.George M. Kaiser, AM, is a school psychologist at the University LaboratorySchool. He was previously a teacher,research assistant and assistant principalat the Orthogenic School.Walter E. Mehlinger, SM, is a major inthe Army, serving in the Pentagon,Washington, D. C.Anthony W. Myers, DB, is assistantminister at the Country Club Congregational Church in Kansas City, Mo.Martin R. Nurmi, AM, is an instructorin the Department of English at the University of North Dakota.William H. Olson, MD, is assistant director of the department of gastrointestinal research at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago. Leo Samelson is an intern in theGrace Hospital, Detroit, Mich.Alfred Ulreich, MBA '49, who was amember of the Alumni House family(bookkeeper) during his college days,dropped us a card from Lisbon wherehe had spent a week-end recently. Al isa Captain in the Air Force.Robert L. Weiss, JD, is a lawyer inPortland, Ore.Richard Wolfgang, PhD 51, and MissAnne Butler were married on July 26.Richard is a chemist at the BrookhavenNational Laboratory in Upton.1949Anne Curry is now teaching kindergarten in Pasadena, Calif. She spent thepast summer traveling through England,France and Italy.Frank F. Gray, SM '50, is a geologistwith the Continental Oil Co., in Roswell,N. M.Bernard Holzman and his wife, Ruth,are happy to tell their classmates of thebirth of a son, Richard Albert, born onNovember 13, 1952. The Holzmans areresidents of Chicago but are busy planning a new home in Flossmoor Park, 111.Bernard is vice-president and sales manager of the Albert Given ManufacturingCo., in East Chicago.Douglas Milton Jones, SM, is a meteorologist with the State Water Survey inUrbana, 111.John A. Keyes is serving as a supply sergeant in Field Artillery. He wasin Alaska in November for the hugeArmy-Air Force arctic maneuver, "Exercise Warm Wind."Chester Luby was married last July 6to Miss Joan Ellen Sparer, a student atNew York University. Chester is attending the School of International Affairs atColumbia University.Louis Marias, AM, is an insurancesalesman with the Marcotte Agency inOmaha, Neb.Odom W. Modling is in public relations in Ogden, Utah.Antonio Sarabia, JD, has been admitted to partnership in the Chicago lawfirm of Baker, McKenzie, Hightower &Brainerd.William T. Stratton, Jr., is at presentwith the Marine Air Force in Korea.1950Saul Alford and Miss Muriel Schaefferof New York City were married lastJune. Muriel is a graduate of HunterCollege. Saul has received a teachingassistantship from Northwestern University and is doing graduate work in thechemistry department.Harris L. Dante, PhD, is an associateprofessor of history and education atKent State University in Ohio. TheDantes have three children: Susan Kay,9, Nancy Jane, 6, and John, 4.Burton D. Fried, SM, PhD '52, is amember of the physics department of theUniversity of California at Berkeley.Virginia N. Graf is secretary to theassistant treasurer of Continental Casualty Co., in Chicago.Helen G. Graves, AM, is an instructorin nursing education at the University ofChicago.Henry Knepler, PhD, is Assistant Professor of English, and dramatic coach atIllinois Institute of Technology.Pfc. James Mangan is serving in KoreaTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBronze Star AwardCapt. Jack A. Robinson, AM '50,is congratulated for being awardedthe Bronze Star Medal for meritorious service in Korea by EighthArmy Headquarters CommandantDaniel Norman. Robinson arrivedin Korea last April and is with theEighth Army Headquarters SpecialTroops.His wife and son, John, are living in Evanston, 111.with the Army's 5th Regimental Combatteam. He has been in the combat zonesince September.1951Jackson V. Burgess is an instructor atNorth Carolina Sta^e College for Women.Wen-Yu ChengfAM, is Assistant Professor of Economics at Marietta Collegein Ohio.LeRoy E. Ellinwood, Jr., PhD, is nowon the staff of the Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico. While working forhis PhD, Ellinwood did research in pharmacology and toxicology at the University and later was associated as aninstructor with the U. S. Air ForceRadiation Laboratory and Department ofPharmacology.Arnold Erxleben, AM, is the executivesecretary of parish education for theKansas District of the Lutheran Church,Missouri Synod, with headquarters inTopeka, Kan.David Finkel is a second-year lawschool student at the University of Southern California.Roland Funk, PhD, is director andcomptroller of Acme Electronics, Inc., inPasadena, and vice-"president and treasurer of Pasadena Electronics Corp. Hecontinues as director and secretary-treasurer of Royal Industries, Inc., inLos Angeles and owner of Village Products in Santa Monica.Patricia Anne Gould Solmitz is a student at the University and a secretaryfor the Chicago Midway Laboratories.Cal C. Herrmann is an engineer atradio station WGES in Chicago.Clifford S. Kuwanoto, SM, is a bacteriologist at the Oak Forest (111.) Infirmary. He was married on September 2to Dorothy Mirikidani.Harold M. Malkin, MD, is a medicalresearch worker at the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley.Pvt. Robert L. Markson is serving withthe Wurzburg, Ger., Military Post. He went to Germany last October and is amember of the post signal section.Madeleine A. McCarthy, AM, is Director of the School of Nursing and NursingService at the Memorial Hospital, Worcester, Mass.Esther Millman was married on October 11, 1952, to Morton Jay Sparks.They are living in Manhattan, Kansas.Allan O. Pfnister, AM, has been electedvice-president of Luther Junior Collegein Wahoo, Nebr., where he has beenteaching since 1949. Mr. Pfnister is onleave of absence this year to study forhis PhD at the University of Chicago.Martin Staenberg, AM, is employed inprivate industry in Omaha, Neb., after ayear of teaching at the University ofTexas in the Department of Government.Marian Sutta is a student in the Philosophy Department at Columbia University.Hubert Thurschwell is a student in theUniversity of Chicago Law School.Carolyn Wiesender, AM, is an instructor in sociology at Denison University.1952Albert D. Biderman, AM, is a socialscientist with the Human Resources Institute, Maxwell Air Force University, inAlabama.Myron G. Halperin is an executive inthe Motive Equipment Co., in Chicago.He was married on March 2, 1952, toSylvia Birch.William A. Kerr, AM, and his wife,Barbara Prosser, live in New York Citywhere Bill is a technical writer.Frederic Weinstein, AM, is an assistant librarian and an instructor in libraryscience at New Haven State TeachersCollege, Conn.Susan C. Wittman was married September 13, 1952, to Lowell M. Wilson.r v Ie mo rialDr. Samuel D. Barnes, '94, died in LosAngeles on October 19, 1952. Dr. Barneswas always an enthusiastic Chicagobooster. In the first decade of the century he was the first president of ourSeattle club. Later he went to theHawaiian Islands to work with the LeperColony, and finally retired in Los Angeles. Although an invalid in his closing years, he always kept in touch withhis Alma Mater.Warren P. Behan, '94, DB '97, PhD '99,clergyman and educator for half a century, died December 10, 1952, in Kalamazoo, Mich. He had retired as presidentof Sioux Falls, S. D., College in 1941.Edgar H. Sturtevant, PhD '01, ProfessorEmeritus of Linguistics at Yale University, died July 1, 1952. Through his research, Dr. Sturtevant found sources ofEnglish in the Hittite language, morethan 4,000 years old. He was the first totranslate into English the inscription ona Hittite clay tablet. He was awarded anhonorary degree from the University ofChicago in 1941.Roy H. Cox, MD '02, died on April 2,1952, in Elgin, 111.Clara Johnston, '02, (Mrs. Franklin H.Hitt) died on November 18, 1952.Ella Parrette (Mrs. N. A. Herring) '03,died on October 2, 1952, in Niles, Mich. CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field. Itis affiliated with the Fisk Teachers Agencyof Chicago, whose work covers all the educational fields. Both organizations assistin the appointment of administrators aswell as of teachers.Our service is nation-wide.HYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5431 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTESBETTERWHEN IT'SA product -{ Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400FEBRUARY, 1953SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 100 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoWHOLESALE RETAILPARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEC^xcludive C-t*?uAiue K^leanerAWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608LOWER YOUR COSTSWAGE INCENTIVESEMPLOYEE TRAININGPERSONNEL PROCEDURESIMPROVED METHODSJOB EVALUATIONROBERT B. SHAPIRO '33, DIRECTOR John M. Linden, DB '04, died on September 8, 1952, in Madison, Wis., at theage of 82. He had held pastorates inMichigan City, Ind., Chicago, Portland,Ore., Everett, Wash., and Pueblo, Colo.He had lived in Madison, Wis., since 1913.Russell P. Schuler, '07, MD '09, diedOctober 24, 1952, in his home at Kokomo,Ind., after an illness of several years. Dr.Schuler began his medical practice inKokomo in 1911 and retired in 1947 because of ill health. He is survived by adaughter, Lucy Schuler, who was graduated from the University in 1937.Mabel Ruth Fernald, PhD '10, directorof psychological services for the Cincinnati public schools for 31 years, died October 9, 1952, after a brief illness.James E. Dymond, '12, died on August1, 1952, in Lake Zurich, 111. He had beena fruit grower in Illinois, and Honor,Mich.Lyman H. Robison, Rush MD '13, diedJune 15, 1952, in Sherman Oaks, Calif.Jerome O. Cross, AM '14, died November 30, 1952. in Oakland, Calif.Frank B. Black, '15, died August 21,1952, in San Antonio, Texas.Clarence W. Thomas, '16, died on August 29, 1952, in Long Beach, Mississippi.Warren G. Waterman, PhD '17, diedNovember 16, 1952, at the age of 80 inFrankfort, Mich. Former chairman of theNorthwestern University botany department, he retired in 1937.Edwin Escher, AM '19, PhD '28, aformer architect, painter, and professorof modern languages, died April 20, 1952,in Milwaukee, after a long illness. Hehad been on the faculty of WisconsinState College.H. B. Siems, '19, PhD '22, died November 22, 1952. He joined Swift & Co., asa research chemist in 1924, and since1943 had served as director of research,plant food division.Eugene T. Berry, '22, died Sept. 2,1952.Adam R. Gilliland, PhD '22, died onNovember 30, 1952, of a heart attack during a hunting trip in Michigan. A nationally known Northwestern Universitypsychology professor, Dr. Gilliland wonfame by devising a system for testing theintelligence reactions of infants, and hewas a recognized authority on geneticpsychology.Richard T. Peek, '23, died April 14,1952.Mary Zahrobsky, AM '24, died on July6, 1952, in Billings Hospital. She was anassistant professor in the School of SocialService Administration. For nine yearsshe was with the U. S. Children's Bureau, working on their studies of childlabor and welfare. In 1933 she returnedto the University.Ethel M. Biehn, '27, died June 13,1952, in Port Huron, Michigan.June H. MacConkey, '27, died November 10, 1952 in Rock Island, 111. She hadbeen a teacher and principal in the Chicago public schools since 1899.William E. Dodd, Jr., '28, died on October 18, 1952, in San Francisco. An historian and author, he edited, with hissister Martha Dodd, the book Ambassador Dodd's Diary, published in 1941.Eugene P. Southall, AM '29, died onOctober 19, 1952, at the Veteran's Hospital in Kecoughton, Va. He was an instructor of history at the Norfolk Division, Virginia State College.Ernest H. Hahne, PhD '30. president ofMiami University, died November 25,1952. LA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoOther PlantsBoston — New York — Philadelphia —Syracuse — Cleveland — Detroit"You Might As Well Have The Best"Phones OAlcland 4-0690—4-0691-The Old Reliable -0692Hyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOYDSTON BROS.. INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and licensed attendantsW. B. Conkey Co.Division ofRand McNally& Company'P'tintenA eatd S indentCHICAGO • HAMMOND • NEW YORKSine. 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe b.itCollege,wide pat In placamant ••rvka for UrSecondary and Elamantary.onags. Call or wrlta ui at IvariltyNation25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4. IllinoisTREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DoalttrtotCHRYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMUseum 4-4500Guaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair,Body. Point. Simonize. Washand Greasing Departments32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE#4 /fal4£~<!Z<f </<?u pAre you in a job where promotions or raises are governedby the "seniority system" instead of by merit?If you feel your income is not growing as fast as it should,New England Mutual offers you a business of your own,and a chance to earn an income that has neither a speednor a top limit.We finance your learning period and guide you to successwith a most comprehensive training program. You'll beworking with college-trained men from schools in every partof the country. You'll make a career of helping families—and businesses— solve important financial problems.If you arc a "self-starter," can make plans and followthrough with them, New England Mutual offers you a careerwith freedom and independence — one in which you moveahead just as fast as your ambition and ability can take you.Mail the coupon for the booklet in which 1 5 men tell whythey chose a life insurance career, with . . . UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOCHICAGO alumni now achievingsuccessful careers as our agents:Harry Benner, '12, ChicagoGeorge Marselos, '34, ChicagoPaul C. Lippold, '38, ChicagoJames M. Banghart, '41, San FranciscoJohn R. Down, '46, ChicagoNew England MutualBox 333, Boston 17, Mass.Please send me, without cost or obligation, your booklet, "Why We ChoseNew England Mutual." WhyWe ChoseNew England MuiuName-Address., City. -Zone State- iThe NEW ENGLAND « MUTUAL Life Insurance Company of HostonTHE COMPANY THAT FOUNDED MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE IN AMERICA - 1835Til be seeing you soonIn An Ash TrayA WEDGWOOD ASH TRAYPOPULAR GARG GRIFFIN, the Hull Gate freshmangargoyle, will appear soon in a 5V2-inch ash tray byWedgwood. He will become a swank conversationpiece in the offices and dens of alumni and in the living rooms of many alumnae. Ready for later deliveryat $1.25. WEDGWOOD CHICAGO PLATESA LIMITED EDITION of Chicago memorial dinnerplates are on order from Wedgwood. The campusscenes: Hull Gate, Mitchell, Chapel, and Harpertowers. Sets of 4 (each plate a different scene) will be$12, packaged and delivered. Ready for delivery laterthis year.SEND NO MONEY. But for preferred listing (without present obligation) indicate by postal,sets or trays you may want. We will furnish illustrations before you send confirmation.THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION — 5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUE, CHICAGO 37, ILLINOIS