EDUCATORS SAVE TV? Page IR "COUNTERFEIT" DEGREE, Page 8Come back to the MidwaySaturday, February 7for the annualMid- Year Open HouseBackstage tours tolaboratories and research centersDinner at the CommonsStudent exhibitsAll-student evening programat MandelIncludingAcrotheatreStudent chorusUniversity theatreStudent symphonyMark your calendaretno l-^aThen the roof fell inI had just settled back to bask in thereflections from the silver Magazine-of-the-Year plaque when the first crack inmy smugness appeared.Editor Don Morris, who brought theaward to Chicago, accepted a top editorial job with the National CrippledChildren's Society. While I scrambledfor a new editor, Don remained throughthe December issue. Harold Donohuemoved in to move up.Before I could lean back in my chair,a notice arrived with the blunt information that our printer was folding. Thisdumped a hundred magazine accountsinto a limited number of Chicago plants.The crisis is passing. This issue (aswill future issues) rolled on the Webb-Linn presses. And now everything is inthe University family.Owners of the Webb-Linn Printing Co.are Abraham L. Weber, '07, JD '09, andLouis S. Berlin, '09. Our account salesman is Abraham J. Falick, MBA '51,while a second salesman is G. GeorgeFox, AM '48.February memoOn that brand new 1953 memo calendarmark SATURDAY, FEB. 7, with a "I maywant to see this!"It will be alumni open house on thequadrangles. Laboratory and back stagetours in the afternoon; dinner in Hutchinson Commons; reception and studentexhibits after dinner; and an all-studentprogram in Mandel with a welcome byChancellor Kimpton in the evening.TV faculty starsSunday, after Thanksgiving (Nov. 30)seemed to be University of Chicago dayon television.Dean Bernard M. Loomer (DivinitySchool) opened a series of talks on "AnInterpretation of Religion" on NBC'sLive and Learn program.Harold C. Urey, Distinguished ServiceProfessor and Nobel Prize winner, madean exceptionally fine appearance on"Meet the Press." Although he is unhappy about the need for using our bestatomic scientists on weapons he thinkswe must keep ahead in the race to insure the present peace.But the big show was at 5:30 P.M.(CST) when CBS moved us to the WestStands squash court for Ed Murrow'sSee It Now program.It was the tenth anniversary of theAtomic Age. Most of the top scientistsof 1942 were back to help re-enact theday. Arthur Compton told the dramaticstory with fill-ins by Fermi, Urey, Allison and others. They showed how theybuilt the walls with graphite bricks. Thecameras were all over the squash court.It was a good show.It should have been. The week before,this stellar cast had gathered in thesquash court at noon — worked throughthe dinner hour to 9 P.M. for Ed Murrow's 20 minutes the following Sunday. Business graduatesA university in northern Ohio recentlyrequested a list of graduates from theSchool of Business who live in theCleveland area. Purpose: part-timeteaching.One went to HelsinkiOne of the most popular activities inthe University's athletic program isAcrotheatre.Acrotheatre is the attractive daughterof the old family: Gymnastics. Thisfamily has brought 15 Big Ten and 2national championships to the Midway.When Bud Beyer became coach ofgymnastics he decided the sport neededa new wardrobe and backdrops designedfor Chicago's new College. Girls werewritten into the script.In this new setting, tumbling, parallelbars, rope climbing, the side horse, andthe flying rings were joined by thetrampoline, ballet, and juggling to makea spectacle challenging circus acts. Inthis new form, gymnastics became acrotheatre.Students lined up to register for thiscourse. As the program got off theground it attracted attention beyond thecampus. The students appeared on TVand in national picture magazines.High schools asked for demonstrationswhich developed into programs for students and their parents. Of course itbecame student promotion in dramaticform.A by-product was the selection of oneof the team members for the HelsinkiOlympics: Ruth Grulkowski. Ruth isnow graduated and is a member of theSenate of the Alumni Association.The Acrotheatre calendar is alreadycrowded with high school dates for thisyear.Members of the group will appear before the alumni at the annual AlumniOpen House Saturday, February 7th, inMandel Hall.RUTH— AN OLYMPICS STAR M.B.A.The A stands for alert.When a student earns his Master ofBusiness Administration he is on hisway. Everywhere I travel I find theseyoung people going places in big companies or running their own. They arean alert group of alumni.Of course this rubs off on the Schoolof Business division of the Alumni Association.President of the School of Businessalumni division is Edward R. Williams,'37. (His wife is Ruby Howell, '37, MBA'38.) Ed is Wage and Salary Coordinatorfor the Visking Corporation, Chicago.Under Ed's administration the Schoolof Business association is off to anotheractive year, which began with a bighomecoming reception and dinner at theQuandrangle Club last fall.EDWARD WILLIAMSIn December the second program washeld in the Loop with Beryl Spinkle,Economist from Harris Trust, doing a"Business Outlook for 1953."Invitations went only to dues-payingBusiness alumni in the Chicago area.But this is an impressive group: 472.Actually there are over 1800 in the Chicago area. But budgets are such thatdues will not stretch that far.This leads naturally into what thetrade calls a "blurb" for keeping yourdues paid up. I'll duck this!Club meetingsThe Law School Alumni Associationheld a 50th anniversary dinner at thePalmer House on December 19, 1952.Speakers were The Honorable LearnedHand, Chancellor Lawrence A. Kimpton,and Dean Edward H. Levi.The Denver Club had Robert Redfield(Anthropology) as their dinner guest onNovember 16th.Charles C. Erasmus, '28, JD '29, president of the Milwaukee Club, called anexecutive committee meeting in December to make plans for a January meeting.H.W.M.JANUARY, 1953 1THE NEAR AND MIDDLEEASTEven a casual reading of newspapersthese days is enough, to convince onethat trouble, long brewing in the Nearand Middle East, is making daily headline copy. Few newspaper accounts,however, can deal adequately with thecomplex problems of that area. In response, therefore, to our request forsome "recent and readable" background in this field, Mr. Bert Hoselitz,Associate Professor, Social Sciences,and Director of Studies Committee inInternational Relations, offers thesetitles:CHALLENGE AND RESPONSE IN THEMIDDLE EAST: The Quest for Prosperity, 1919-1951. By Hedley Cooke.Harper & Bros., 1952.This is a survey of the current economic,social, and political conditions of thevarious countries of the area. The emphasis is on the recent achievements ofeconomic planning and future prospects in that field. Though the workis not characterized as "easy reading"it embodies a valuable compilation ofinformation.Mr. Cooke, PhD '51, was for 17 years inthe foreign service, as American consul in Turkey and Palestine, and hasuntil recently been a member of theMiddle East Planning Staff of ECA.He is now Professor of Political Science at the University of Alabama.CARAVAN: THE STORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST. By Carleton S. Coon.Henry Holt, 1951.Written by an anthropologist, this bookis a valuable source of geographicaland cultural information for Americans who have an interest in the Arabcountries of North Africa and the Middle East. The emphasis is on understanding the aspirations and ways oflife of the people who inhabit thisregion.REPUBLIC OF ISRAEL. By Joseph Dun-ner. McGraw-Hill, 1950.This volume is an historical account ofevents leading to the formation of theState of Israel. The author traces themigrations of the Jews from the beginning of the Christian era, then concentrates on the specific diplomatic andpolitical struggles of the late 1940's.This is followed by an analysis of theState itself with regard to geography,ideology, and especially foreign relations. Though written by a pro-Zionist,the work is, on the whole, an objectiveaccount.MODERN TRENDS IN ISLAM. ByH. A. R. Gibb. University of ChicagoPress, 1947.The Haskell lectures in comparative religion, given at the University, areherewith presented in book form. Itcontains an analysis of modern trendsand doctrines of Islam, pointing out both its historical justification, and itsinner weaknesses. It is a valuable andscholarly work for general reading.THE UNITED STATES AND THE NEAREAST. By E. A. Speiser, Harvard University Press, 1947.This is an informative work on the areafrom the point of view of Americanforeign policy. Contemporary problemsare examined in the light of their historic, cultural, and economic background. The work is comprehensiveyet concise, and easily readable.THE UNITED STATES AND TURKEYAND IRAN. By L. V. Thomas andRichard Frye. Harvard UniversityPress, 1951.Written as two volumes, this book examines Turkey and Iran from the pointof view of American foreign policy inthe current cold war. Though the twocountries are sympathetically treated,the emphasis is on their value as military, economic, and ideological bastionsagainst Soviet expansion. This is anexcellent informative work for thegeneral reader.LAND AND POVERTY IN THE MIDDLE EAST. By D ore en Warriner.Royal Institute of International Affairs,London, 1948.A "pleasantly readable" account of information on economic and social conditions in the area. Attention is givento prevalent land tenure and utilization, two problems which are subjectedto lucid analysis and explanation.For those who want a study "in depth"of the Near and Middle East, theserecent titles dealing with the ancientand archeological history of that areamay be of interest. They are takenfrom the bibliography submitted byRobert Braidwood, Associate Professor, Oriental Institute, for the Alumnilecture series on "Prelude to Civilization."PREHISTORIC MEN. By Robert J.Braidwood. Chicago Natural HistoryMuseum, 2nd ed., 1951.Sketches in the outline of present knowledge on prehistoric times and the typesof evidence available for reconstruction of the more remote extinct cultures.THE NEAR EAST AND THE FOUNDATIONS FOR CIVILIZATION. By Robert J. Braidwood. University of OregonPress, 1952.An essay on the transition from cave-life to town-life in Iraq.NEW LIGHT ON THE MOST ANCIENTEAST. By V. Gordon Childe. Routledgeand Kegan Paul, London, 1952.A new edition of Childe's standard description of the pre-, proto-, and early-historic archeological materials of theNear East. The author is a great British prehistorian who uses a franklyeconomic-deterministic cultural reconstruction in his interpretation.THE BIRTH OF CIVILIZATION IN THENEAR EAST. By Henri Frankfort.University of Indiana Press, 1951.Another thoughtful interpretative studyin which the philosophic backgroundof the author is directly opposed to thatof Childe. (J*Soomby Faculty and AlumniSTATISTICAL METHODS FOR SOCIALWORKERS. By Wayne McMillen. University of Chicago Press, 1952. $6.75.This volume should be particularly welcome to social work students andpractitioners for whom other texts onelementary statistics have too rapid apace, take for granted too much mathematical proficiency or seem to be remote from their interests.With painstaking care, Professor McMillen has described the fundamentalconsiderations and procedures in collecting, editing and tabulating data. Hetakes the reader step by step throughthe process of constructing the mostused types of tables and charts, weighsone form of presentation against another and illustrates how they shouldbe read and their content communicated to others.There are explicit directions for computing ratios, averages, measures of variability, the simpler coefficients of correlation and contingency and some ofthe measures for analyzing time series.The misuse of measures is stressed andthe circumstances under which onemeasure is to be preferred to anotherare considered.Recognizing that the practitioner is sometimes called upon to assume reponsi-bility in the handling of data for whichhe is untutored, Mr. McMillen introduces the reader to sampling and theestimating of population but sets upthe necessary warning signals on thecomplexities of the tasks. One valueis that the venturesome will becomeaware of pitfalls and seek aid of persons with greater experience.A final section on reports and studieswill be of particular interest to thosecoping with annual reports. Purpose,content, and the necessity of advanceplanning are considered.Social workers using this text will appreciate the fact that all illustrativematerial is drawn from the field ofpractice. Moreover, if they wish totest their grasp of the methods presented they will find exercises preparedon subjects with which they are likelyto be familiar.Wayne McMillen is a professor in theSchool of Social Service Administration and chairman of the ChicagoHousing Authority. Years ago he pioneered in developing the use of statistics in social work and is a pioneeragain in tailor-making a statistical textfor the social work profession.Barbara WallaceDirector of Research,Welfare Council ofMetropolitan ChicagoPARADISE ISLAND. By Charles Cisna,'14, JD '16. Exposition Press, 1952.Although this book is described as anovel of romance and adventure, it ismore accurate to say it is a moraltreatise on the meaning of happiness.Mr. Cisna's hero, Roger Sherwood, ayoung and disillusioned attorney, isconcerned throughout the book withanswering the question, What is the se-2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEcret of happiness? Sherwood's searchfor a satisfying answer leads him frompersonal defeat and frustration at home(Peoria, 111.), to adventure in theSouth Seas, where a shipwreck andsubsequent enforced stay on ParadiseIsland finally lead him to understandthat the "treasure of happiness is to befound . . . deep in the heart within. . . whether one be in Pago Pago orPeoria."Mr. Cisna is himself a Peoria attorneyand a judge of Probate Court in PeoriaCounty.A. P.CHILDREN AND THE CITY. By OlgaAdams, '29, AM '32. Reginald Isaacs,Planning Staff, Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago. 1952. $1.Olga Adams has probably seen morecities come and go than any otherliving American. More than that, shehas been responsible for their creationand their destruction. Never underestimate the power of a woman, especially if she is a school teacher. Andwhat difference does it make if thehouses are only cardboard; if the shelvesof the stores are stocked only withempty cans; and if all the inhabitantsare no bigger than 5's and 6's ordinarily are? For the cities which MissAdams had been making these manyyears with the kindergarteners in theLaboratory School were more real tothem than the so-called real cities ofadults.In a comparatively few words of her own,supported by photographs and drawings, Miss Adams tells the story of thisannual project in this booklet. (Don'tbe misled: "booklet" sound smalls, butthe idea is big.) Frankly, it took somelittle effort to persuade her that tellingher story was something important todo. After all, anyone who for weeksat a time each year wanders throughmounds of cartons, badgers her friendsto bring in their old hats to stockMarshall Fields- on-59th- Street, andleaves each day with clothes spatteredwith house paint (poster variety) maytake the operation for granted.Fortunately, however, a few city planning authorities, adult type, learned ofMiss Adams and her cities and wiselythought that teachers and parents andother city planners, adult type, shouldknow what she was up to. To put thematter over — simply, they succeeded inpersuading her to tell her story.Miss Adams did not invent the idea ofchildren playing house or store, andcardboard cartons have probably beenlived in ever since the paper industrybegan to influence modern living. MissAdams' real contribution lies in theskill and the vision with which she hasused an ordinary, everyday interest ofyoungsters to help them begin to buildan orderly understanding of the complexities of modern existence.A paper-box city brings at least a partof his world down to somewhat morenearly a child's own size. And becausehis city grows from a hint to an ideato a plan to a reality, a kindergartenermay see more clearly than most adultsthe part that planning can and mustplay in the development and redevelopment of modern urban life. C^upeUc^ 'e/J&Aicaa&Volume 45 January, 1953 MAGAZINENumber 4PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONEditorHOWARD W. MORTAssociate EditorAUDREY PROBSTExecutive SecretaryAlumni FoundationJIM ATKINS Associate EditorHAROLD E. DONOHUEField SecretaryJIM RATCLIFFE Staff PhotographerSTEPHEN LEWELLYNDirectorAlumni EducationDONALD S. BARNHARTIN THIS ISSUEWill Our Universities Save TV? George E. Probst 5Our "Counterfeit" Bachelor's Degree 8The Client Sees Himself, Carl R. Rogers 10Summary of Fall, Robert M. Strozier 14The Den of Shadows, John Spangler 16American Security, Edward A. Shils 18DEPARTMENTSMemo Pad 1 Reader's Guide 2Books 2 Class News 22COVER: At this season Chicago can expect snow tocover her world. This "world" is above the HarperLibrary Court entrance to Rosenwald Hall.Photographs on page 1 (below), 4, and 9 through 19 byStephen Lewellyn. Photos on pages 6 and 7 courtesy ofWOI-TV, Iowa State. Photo on page 22 by Horace Heley.Published monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $3.00.Single copies, 35 cents. Student price at University of Chicago Bookstore, 25 cents.Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinoisunder the act of March 3, 1879. Advertising agent: The American Alumni Council,B. A. Ross, director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.Should there be teachers or city plannersin your family you can brighten theirlives by sending them copies of Children and the City. And if you are aparent who still has the idea thatkindergarten isn't really school — thatit starts a year later — this bookletshould go a long way to convince youthat you badly underestimate whatspending a year with a gifted teachercan mean to your five-year-old.(See June, 1952 Magazine for story onOlga Adams' retirement. Ed.)Warren SeyfertDirector, Laboratory SchoolTHE CIVILIZATIONS OF ANCIENTAMERICA.ACCULTURATION IN THE AMERICAS.Both of these volumes are edited by SolTax and published by the Universityof Chicago Press, 1952. $7.50 each. Eminent anthropologists from all overthe world have contributed essays tothe first volume, which is the most recent and comprehensive treatment ofthe pre-Columbian civilizations of Central and South America. The papersdescribe newly excavated sites, interpret and evaluate recovered artifacts,fix chronology and relate archeologicalto documentary records.The second book includes sources of newmaterial in dealing for the first timewith mixed European, African, andaboriginal American cultures. The reality of Afro-American problems — boththeoretical and practical — the importance of modern Latin-American cultures, and the difficulties which besetreservation Indians are fully recognized in this selection of papers fromthe International Congress of Americanists. A.P.JANUARY, 1953 3Will our universitiesSAVE TV?by George E. Probst, '39Executive Secretary, Radio OfficeJL HE ICE AGE of television hasended. With this phrase, Paul Walker, '05, .chairman of the FederalCommunications Commission, described the Commission's order— lastspring — to "unfreeze" the allocationof new television channels. With thisaction came the heart-warming newsthat 209 channels for television stations, throughout the nation, wouldbe reserved for non-commercial, educational programs. By this allocationeducational institutions, public andprivate, were presented with the opportunity to join in the cooperativeuse of these outlets.This thaw, effective as of April 14,1952, has been of particular interestto educators. They fought for a principle before the FCC. They arguedit was in the public interest thatchannels be set aside for the exclusive purpose of educational TV. Andthey won. By winning that battlethey have cleared the first barricadein the struggle to have TV used forthe educational welfare of the American people.The stern realities that remain are:the financing of educational TV; andthe production of first-rate programming. These two hurdles are moreformidable than the first.To these problems is added the urgency of time. These channels willnot be held indefinitely while educators make up their minds whetheror not to use them. Even though thechannels represent only 10% of allTV assignments in the United States,commercial interests are naturallyeager to secure these potentially big-money stations.Educators are now tackling thetremendous problems of educationalTV with Mr. Walker's admonitionpounding in their ears: "This isBROADCAST DIRECTOR GEORGE PROBSTJANUARY, 1953 American education's year of decision. What you do this year maydetermine for a long, long time therole of education in television . . .I fear that you may find this year ofgrace the shortest year of your lives."In this year of grace, 1953, whatare the issues and alternatives whichface American educators who acceptthis great challenge? To tackle thebiggest headache first: How can wepay for educational programming?There are those, both in and outof the educational field, who argue forthe "status quo" in TV. Educatorswho believe schools and collegesshould not be concerned with themass media find nothing wrong withthis arrangement, and recommendonly some instruction in program discrimination. Such persons point totelevision broadcasts of importantpublic events which have civic significance and argue that this is ofsufficient value to the public.Many educators wish to turn theirbacks upon television as being aBesides being Assistant Professorof Social Sciences in the College,as well as Director of the University's Round Table, George E.Probst is chairman of the AdultEducation Committee of the National Association of EducationalBroadcasters, in charge of administrating a grant of $450,000 fromthe Fund for Adult Education forthe development of educationalradio.Last August, as Chairman of theCommission of Educational Broadcasters, he was invited to Europeby the BBC, the RadiodiffusionFrancaise, and Radio Italia.In the attempt to have the FCC"unfreeze" TV channels he was incharge of the money-raising committee for the Ad-hoc Joint Committee on TV. If that group hadnot existed there probably wouldnot have been any channels allocated for educators. problem for which they have no responsibility and no power of action.Maintaining the status quo demandsthe least adjustment by the educatorsand the television broadcasters. It isthe cheapest thing to do. And theyclaim that the existence of criticismby the educators, along with the individual feelings of responsibility bysome television broadcasters, will leadto attempts in the future to provide aniche for educational programs.Others propose that educational institutions work out agreements withcommercial TV stations and networksto solve the educational broadcastingproblem.The educators' experience with network radio, however, has led to theconclusion — and it is arrived atwithout rancor — that it is uselessto attempt education by commercialnetwork broadcasting. Educationalprograms are handicapped by frequentshifts in time of broadcast. The besttime is sold; it brings the best price.But the hours that are best are bestbecause most people are not free atother times. The finest educationalprograms in the world will not diffusemuch education if the people whowant it are occupied earning a livingwhen the programs are on the air.Truly educational programs, whichare necessarily aimed at giving arather complete account of the factsand problems of our lives, do notcoincide with the present policies ofnetworks. Nor does an agreementwith the network mean that the educator can count on the network affiliate stations carrying the programs.Twenty -five years of radio broadcasting experience and five years of television experience with this cooperation alternative have shown that nocontinuing service can be achievedadequate to the public demand andneed.An additional alternative for thefinancing of an educational station isto have educational institutions ownand operate stations as commercialundertakings either for profit, or ona non-profit basis. In the latter case,all advertising income to the stationwould be plowed back into the costsof educational programs.WOI-TV, the commercial stationowned by Iowa State College, operates under this proposal. It meetswith constant opposition from thebroadcasters, however. The broadcasters are very active in lobbyingbefore the state legislature for a reduction of the Iowa State Collegebudget, as a means of retaliationagainst the commercial undertakingsof the College station.Most large educational institutionssimply will not vote to put themselvesinto business. The educationally -owned station, in its commercial operation, would be under the same pressures as the commercial station. Andthe problem remains of the basic conflict in principles between the goalsof an advertiser on television and aneducator who uses television. The fact is that most educators areagreed upon taking a non-commercialapproach to television station operation.They believe that the educationaltelevision burden can be supportedin the long run only out of tax funds,and that this is the most desirablesolution. They further believe thatthe American tradition of equalityof educational opportunity, and theprinciple of public education at public expense, will win the support oflegislators. The claim that the hopefor this public tax support is seriously endangered by any policy whichmakes educational television stationoperation appear to be commercial inany way.Mr. H. B. McCarty, president ofthe Wisconsin State Radio Counciland head of a group making plans foreducational television in Wisconsin,says that at a cost of one dollar perperson a statewide television networkof eight stations can be built in hisstate. Wisconsin has a precedent fordoing this in the existing statewide FM radio network, which was builtout of tax funds at a cost of ten centsper person. It is no more expensiveto build a TV station than a highschool gymnasium.The same approach of a state-widetelevision service is being taken inMichigan, Minnesota, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and New York.In addition to financial supportfrom city and state taxes, other avenues of revenue include the followingproposals:Gifts — from individuals, civic organizations, etc;Endowment — from foundations (theFund for Adult Education of the FordFoundation has already made a number of construction grants, includingone to the Chicago area committee toutilize Channel 11, now reserved asan educational station for Chicago);Corporation contracts;Subscription — on a voluntary basis,or the use of Phonovision or Skiatron;Federal funds — through such existing means as the Agricultural Extension Services (in Illinois, for example,three million dollars a year is nowdevoted to giving farmers the latestscientific agriculture information);Tuition — a charge, as for a regularUniversity course, for the instructionand for printed and other materialswhich the viewer may need for enrollment in a TV course.There is a Chicago committee ofeducators, representing the variouseducational institutions in this area,at work now. With Chancellor Kimpton as chairman, this committee hasadopted the concept of a communitytelevision station, with the educatorsfrom twelve institutions acting astrustees for the community in initiating the project. The educators willcontribute their best programmingresources; the community along withthe educational institutions, mustcontribute financial support. Theproblem is to secure outstandingbusiness and civic leadership for theeducational station.St. Louis and Pittsburgh are twoexamples where a community aspecthas been given to the plans for educational television. These are two ofthe major cities that have been givenVHF assignments, and they appearat this point to be among the firstcities that will put educational programs on the air.In St. Louis, while the drive foreducational television has had finesupport from the educational institutions in the area, the active, dynamicleadership has come from a youngbusinessman, Raymond Wittcoff, '42.IOWA STATE SELLS TIME — PLOWS INCOME BACK INTO PROGRAM EXPENSE6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHe subscribes to the belief that largenumbers of people in a democracycan and should participate in thehighest cultural values of civilization.TV, he believes, can be the means ofgiving citizens the information theyneed to make democracy work.But more than money is needed.Special resources and talents arenecessary to master the programmingrequirements of television.Unless educational television isfirst-rate television as well as first-rate education, it will fail. The crucialquestion is whether local educationalinstitutions can marshall the moneyand the men required to producefirst-rate television several hourseach day the year around. (Mosteducators are thinking in terms ofschool television broadcasts in themorning and afternoon, with culturaland adult features in the evening.)Even if they had all the money theyneeded, is there enough talent available for continuous high quality programming?In a few communities there is agreat wealth of educational and cultural resources from which to drawfor building programs. In a fargreater number of localities, however,one or two institutions must bear theburden. This disparity applies, as well,to the problem of programming costs.Educational stations, therefore, arefaced with the necessity of developing the central program service of anetwork. What is needed is the establishment of two or more production centers for the creation of educational programs. In addition, thenetwork should serve as an exchangecenter for programs which local stations originate, and function as a film(or sight-sound tape) library. Aphysical coaxial linkup of educational television stations is not contemplated.The advantages of national educational service affiliation for a localeducational station are manifold. Alocal station would require a less expensive physical plant, because manyof its programs would be producedelsewhere. The quality of the programs should be much higher becausethe network could draw on the educational talent of the entire nation.In fact, negotiations have been successfully completed to tap international resources on an exchangeprogram basis linking up Canada,England, France, Italy and Switzerland.Already a National EducationalTelevision Program Exchange Centerhas been organized, and endowed toprovide for the development and exchange of the best educational tele- SCHOOL TELEVISION DURING THE DAY — ADULT FEATURES IN THE EVENINGvision programs among the greatuniversities and schools of the nation.It should be made clear that thecreation of a national educationaltelevision programming service doesnot, according to the FCC, relieve thecommercial telecasters of their responsibility to continue and expandtheir present public service and cultural programs.The impact which such an educational service might make on education itself is awesome. The NavySpecial Devices Center tested television thoroughly and found it aseffective as traditional classroomteaching. Programs from the IowaState College TV station proved thatan agricultural expert could reachmore farmers in a 30-minute telecast demonstration than in weeks oftravel across the countryside. Western Reserve University's psychologycourse given for credit on televisionat 9 o'clock in the morning (the onlytime available) actually outdraws thepopular network program at thathour. For the first time the goal ofequality of educational opportunityfor all who want it might be realized.The American dollar is worth 52cents, more or less, in all communities in our country, but there is afar greater range in the worth oftheir educational resources. And people in various communities are conscious of this discepancy when itcomes to tackling this problem. Theyrealize that the principle of equalityof educational opportunity has no meaning when their local educationalresources are so poor.Television could be the greatestmeans of realizing national equalityof educational opportunity that hasever been created. How else canareas of cultural impoverishment secure the same treatment and benefitsavailable to those areas most developed culturally?Through television, the finest teachers, the most rewarding educationalopportunities, might become the common portion of all.A civilization is more than a standard of living. It is a set of idealsand ideas which must be the commonpossession of all. A satisfactory civilization, according to Alfred NorthWhitehead, has the qualities of art,beauty, truth, peace, and zest. JohnDewey has talked at length aboutthe importance of play in moderncivilization.But from the Platonists to thePragmatists, all are agreed on the importance of a civilization's havingthose qualities of the arts and thehumanities which enable the individual to live a satisfying life.Educational television stations canbe lighthouses for standards of tastein the arts and humanities and theinstruments of civic education whichwill make possible a community lifein the modern metropolitan labyrinth.Through educational TV the massmedia could be used to put an endto the mass man.JANUARY, 1953 7Our "Counterfeit"Bachelor's DegreeWe accept a challengeand prove a pointCOLLEGE EXAMINER BLOOM REPORTSI N 1942 CHICAGO decided to awardthe Bachelor's degree upon the completion of a four-year college programwhich began at the end of the tenth(high school sophomore) year ofschooling. This break with traditionstirred up a storm of opposition andevoked the type of emotional -loyaltyto the B.A. which is usually reservedfor family and church.In the heat of the argument W. P.Tolley, then president of AlleghenyCollege, said:"In view of the experience that Chicagohas had with achievement tests andcomprehensive examinations, I am surprised that Chicago finds it either necessary or desirable to offer a counterfeitBachelor's degree.The students at Chicago are well selected. They do not compare unfavorablywith the students in other colleges. Thefaculty has already parted with timeserving and has substituted evidence ofintellectual achievement for the old-fashioned class attendance requirements.The logical next step is to give allcandidates for degrees the GraduateRecord Examination developed by theCarnegie Foundation for the advance-This article is an adaptation of areport by Benjamin S. Bloom, Associate Professor in the Departmentof Education, and College Examiner,and F. Champion Ward, Dean ofthe College. Their full report appeared in the December issue ofThe Journal of General Education, entitled The Chicago Bachelor of Arts Degree After TenYears. ment of teaching. This test is now givenin many graduate schools and four-yearcolleges of liberal arts. If Chicago students do well at both the general andadvanced level, they might be given theBachelor's degree, regardless of theirtime in residence.Few would object if the Bachelor's degree were awarded on the basis of exceptional achievement on a nationallyknown, nationally used, and nationallyrespected test for college seniors."In the spring of 1952, ChancellorTolley's proposal was put to the test.All students who expected to begraduated from the College in Junewere invited to take the GraduateRecord Examination. A third accepted. Fortunately these studentsdid not differ significantly in academicachievement as measured by gradesearned in College comprehensive examinations. They were our typicalCollege graduates.On the General Education Index,which is an average of the performance on the eight tests, our Collegegraduates are unusually high. Thistable (1) speaks for itself.Each student was also invited totake two of the Advanced Tests. But,since the curriculum of the Collegeis essentially the same for all students (most colleges have "majors"and "minors"), the selection presenteda problem.It was suggested that the studentselect tests on the basis of his interestin the general field covered by thetest, his plans for further work in thefield, or because his better gradeswere in that field. Apparently the students made their selections for avariety of reasons.The Graduate Record Examinationwas administered just after the students had completed their comprehensive examinations. Pressure ofother activities, fatigue, and a generalweariness with examination-takingresulted in failure by a few studentsto complete the entire battery of theTable 1101 Chicago students took theGENERAL EDUCATION TEST„_ .. The same number aboveMedian: : — z <\(\cLas below ou '»99% above in General Education Index99% above in the Arts99% above in Vocabulary99% above in Biological Science98% above in Social Studies92% above in Literature90% above in Expression Effectiveness88% above in Physical Science86% above in General Mathematicstests: General and Advanced. Sincethe general picture .of test performance is a very consistent one, there isgood reason to believe that these imperfections in the administration ofthe tests did not seriously affect theresults.In view of the nature of our Collegecurriculum and the controversy overthe Chicago Bachelor of Arts degree,the results of the Advanced Tests willbe of greater interest.These Advanced Tests exhibit alevel of competence in a number of8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEspecific disciplines which is usuallythought to be attainable only throughthe usual undergraduate "major." AtChicago there are no "majors." Allstudents are held for the same program of requirements in the College —unless placement tests permit them towaive some of the requirements. Itshould also be remembered that ourCollege graduates average about 20years of age while students in theusual four-year college average about22 at graduation.There are 20 subjects in the Advanced Tests. They are to test seniorsin their "major" fields. Five of these20 were selected for their relevanceto the subject matters which are mostpervasive in our College curriculum.Each student took two of these Advanced tests. Table 2 indicates howthey rated with the nation.Apparently, students in a rigorouscurriculum of general studies do acquire substantial knowledge and competence in particular fields.Biology: 100% above national median. In the biological test all ourstudents rated above the national median of students who have majored inbiology. Work in our biologicalsciences stresses not only informationabout the living world but an activeunderstanding of methods used bysome of our major biologists in attacking the problems of this field.These problem-solving skills are reinforced by related competences acquired elsewhere in the curriculum.Thus the performance in any oneexamination is the result not only ofthe work in one appropriate subjectmatter but of other portions of thework taken in the College.Sociology: 95% above national median. At Chicago no single course insociology as such is in the curriculum.In the social sciences there are threecourses dealing with problems fromthe sociological viewpoint. But thesecourses also deal with the same problems from the viewpoint of psychology, anthropology, economics, political science, and history.Philosophy: 94%, above nationalmedian. Again, no one course in theCollege could be regarded as exclusively philosophy. Philosophy is notan isolated branch of study. It occurswidely in the curriculum.Formal 'logic and its uses are especially stressed in mathematics andEnglish courses. Philosophical basesfor particular views are emphasizedwidely. The works of particular philosophers are encountered, where rele-vent, in the social sciences and thehumanities and in the terminal historycourse.History: 86% above national me dian. There is a one-year course inthe history of western civilization.Otherwise, we find these experiencesdistributed throughout the College.History is encountered extensively inthe social science courses and, to someextent, in the humanities and naturalsciences.Literature: 80%, above national median. Works of literature are givenspecial emphasis in the humanitiessequence of three courses. However,Table 2THE ADVANCED TESTSChicago students exceeded the nationalmedian as follows:100% above in Biology95% above in Sociology94% above in Philosophy86% above in History80% above in Literaturemuch of the College program is devoted to the reading of original writings, many of which are of the highestliterary excellence.The kinds of analyses of literaryworks which characterize the humanities courses are reinforced bydistinct but related kinds of analysesof works of social science, history andnatural science.The authors are careful to point outthat the results cited above need tobe interpreted in the light of the following facts: The students in the College are superior in scholastic aptitude to the average college seniorwith whom they are compared in thisstudy. The advanced tests were se lected because they deal with subjectswhich are richly encountered in theCollege.The high performance in the Biology test was in part attributed to thefact that a number of the Collegestudents had taken elective courses inbiology in the Division as well as thework in the College.It should be noted, however, thatfor the 22-year-old seniors of four-year colleges to equal our Chicagostudents rating in these tests, thoseseniors would have to take two — ¦perhaps three more years of school.These results were not obtainedwith mirrors. They deal with seriousand competent students capable ofanalyzing authentic and interestingmaterials in an orderly curriculumwhich does not isolate the subjectmatter into "majors." It is shared byall the students and gives them anunusual community of topic andmethod.An undergraduate faculty acceptsthe obligation to jointly plan, teach,revise, and teach again this curriculum of general studies.To us it is obvious that studentsunder the Chicago College plan, inChancellor Tolley's words, "do wellat both the general and advancedlevels in the Graduate Record Examination."If Chancellor Tolley was right inhis choice of means to test Chicago's"counterfeit" Baphelor of Arts degree,we hope he was equally correct whenhe predicted that few will now objectto giving appropriate academic standing to the graduates of our College.DEAN WARD DOES NOT WANT COLLEGE OVERSOLD BUT DON'T SELL IT SHORTTHE CLIENT SEES HIMSELFA progress report onclient-centered therapyby Carl R. RogersProfessor of PsychologyJLrURING THE PAST dozen yearsa growing group of psychotherapists,represented by the staff of the Counseling Center at the University, hasbeen developing a new approachcalled client- centered therapy. As anintegral part of our work, we havetried to develop objective ways ofmeasuring the results of psychotherapy and, if possible, to ascertain someof the "laws" of human nature. Bynow we can report some of our results.Client-centered therapy is built ontwo central ideas:1. The individual has within himthe capacity, at least latent, to understand the factors in his life that causehim unhappiness and pain, and toreorganize himself in such a way asto overcome those factors.2. These powers will become effective if the therapist can establishwith the client a relationship sufficiently warm, accepting and understanding.It follows that in practice we donot try to do something to the client.We do not diagnose his case norevaluate his personality. We do notprescribe treatment nor determinewhat changes are to be effected, norset the goal that shall be defined asa cure.Instead the therapist approachesthe client with a genuine respect forthe person he now is and with acontinuing appreciation of him as hechanges during the association. Hetries to see the client as the clientsees himself, to look at problemsthrough his eyes, to perceive withhim his confusions, fears and ambitions.The therapist is not concerned withjudging or making suggestions butalways strives to understand. In thisatmosphere of complete psychologicalsecurity the client can lay himselfbare with no danger of being hurt.Protected by the conditions of ther apy, he begins to reorganize thestructure of self in accordance withreality and his own needs.We take this approach because wehave found it to be a deeper andmore effective method than any in-terventive procedures we might use tohelp the individual deal with life.From the outset we sought tobring a rigorous and objective pointof view into psychotherapy.This article first appeared in theScientific American of November,1952, entitled "Client- Centered"Psychotherapy. We present it here,revised and condensed, from Dr.Roger's manuscript.But can one measure the warmfeeling that the therapist has towardhis client? Is it possible to weighthe significance of a client's sobbingor of his long silences? Is it possibleto gauge the meaning of an emotionally ladened flow of words?The literature of psychiatry andpsychoanalysis offers little in the wayof objective data. Our first step,therefore, was to begin collectingsuch material in a form that wouldpermit us to analyze it. We decidedto make machine recordings of thesessions with clients.We were told that this was unethical, that no therapist could be genuine while being recorded, that whatwe proposed would ruin therapy. Wefound the technical difficulties wereliterally incredible — especially on ourlimited budget.Nevertheless we recorded, at firstsingle interviews, then the wholeseries of interviews covering a singlecase. When we think of the struggleswe went through at that time andcompare the situation today when wemake dozens of recordings every week at the Counseling Center, andwhen many therapists throughout thecountry — of every orientation — arenow recording their interviews, werealize the significance of that firststep.To analyze the recorded material,we began by establishing categoriesto classify the client's statements orattitudes. We defined and re-definedthese categories until we found thatvarious researchers, working independently, could classify the amorphous , often incoherent statementsfrom the interviews with a high degree of consistency. The instrumentwas then ready for use.I can still recall the excitementwith which we examined the resultsof our first studies.Analyzing the several thousandclient statements in six recordedcases, we found that an orderly process was evident in this material.Client statements labeled as discussion of "problems" declined steadilyfrom the beginning to the end of thecounseling. Statements of insightrose irregularly, with an upwardspurt at the end. Discussion of plans,decisions and goals remained close tozero during the first half of therapyand increased sharply toward theend.Such work gave the proof weneeded that the unstructured materialof the interviews could be measured,that the statements both of the clientand the counselor could be reliablycategorized and analyzed. We couldthus show that psychotherapy, farfrom being just "talk," had its owndiscoverable laws.Also, though we were not thenclearly aware of it, the need for reliable categories was forcing us touse the "internal frame of reference,"the client's view, as a basis for ascientific approach. We were forcedto stay close to the client's own perception of his experience, because we10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECOUNSELOR ROGERS LISTENS ATTENTIVELY TO CLIENT (POSED BY MODEL) BEHIND WHOSE HAND IS THE RECORDERcould not agree among ourselves asto categories when we tried to makeinferences from his statements.Thus we embarked on a search forthe laws that prevailed in the client'sprivate world of perception, and thishas proved a fruitful course.Our research, based on a significantly new theory of therapy, wassoon enriched by the development ofa theory of personality which grewout of our work. This theory wasconstructed around the views whichthe person holds of himself.By this "concept of self" we mean the individual's perceptions of his owncharacteristics, his relations to others,and the values he attaches to theseperceptions. This conscious schemeof the self has a regulatory and guiding influence on behavior. When itis threatened by a dim awareness ofexperiences contradictory to it, anxiety and conscious maladjustment result.Therapy, then, is the process bywhich the structure of the self isrelaxed in the safety of the relationship with the therapist. Previouslydenied experiences are perceived and then integrated into an altered self.This theory of personality seemed tofit our subjective experience in therapy, as we lived that process withour clients. Could it be tested? Wefound that measurable patterns didindeed emerge.Julius Seeman, of the Departmentof Psychology, analyzed statementsabout the self in ten recorded cases.He discovered that the client expressed nearly four times as manynegative self-attitudes as positiveduring the beginning of therapy. ButJANUARY, 1953 11this balance shifted gradually until —during the final stages of therapy —the self was viewed positively twiceas often as it was negatively.Elizabeth Sheerer (PhD, '49)showed, in an elaborate study, thatnot only acceptance of and respectfor the self rise during therapy. Shefound that this change was accompanied by an improved acceptance ofand respect for others. The relevanceof such findings to social psychologyis evident.Do an individual's attitudes towardothers — minority groups, foreignersand the like — reflect his attitudes toward himself? And can changes insuch .attitudes come about onlythrough changes in his feelings ofself-respect and acceptance. Sheerer'swork does not answer these questions,but it clearly raises them.As our work became known, manypsychologists expressed concern because most of our research was basedsimply upon what the client said.This criticism overlooked the factthat what a client says may revealpatterns as significant as in any othermode of behavior. We were eagerourselves, however, to test the changesin clients by external criteria, and wemade several such studies. A few ofthem, in rough outline, are reportedhere.Natalie Haimowitz (PhD, '48) gavethe Rorschach inkblot test, before andafter therapy, to 56 clients. Fifteenother individuals, not in therapy, wereincluded in the study and also weregiven the test. Through an evaluationscale which she had developed for theRorschach results, and a neuroticism index developed by another worker,she found that after therapy theclients showed an appreciable decrease in neuroticism and a significantimprovement in personality factors.On the other hand, the control groupshowed little or no change.The unconscious tappedThus her study indicates that thealteration of basic personality produced by client-centered therapy canbe measured by a technique that tapsthe unconscious aspects of personality.William Thetford (PhD, '48) triedanother type of objective measurement. He devised a standard frustration experience — failure to remembera long series of numbers — and set upequipment for measuring variousphysiological functions (for example,the heart rate) of the subject. Hetook his measurements before, duringand after this simple frustration. Agroup of 19 clients was tested beforeand after therapy. Their performancewas compared with that of a controlgroup. „Thetford's finding's show that theclients developed a higher thresholdto frustration after treatment, andthat they recovered their physiological balance more quickly after theemotional stress.From necessarily crude beginningsour studies have improved steadily,both in the refinement of techniqueand in the importance of the findings.In the first place, we have improvedour controls. How does one match a client with a control subject whosepersonality and desire for therapyare substantially identical? It cannot be done. So we have overcomethis obstacle by what we call the"own control" group.A client who requests therapy istested or measured in the ways demanded by the research project weare carrying on at the time. He isthen asked to wait for a period — -perhaps 60 days — before beginning hisinterviews. He is tested a secondtime before therapy, again at its end,and finally a year later. The periodof delay between the first two testsprovides us with a control subject,perfectly matched in every detailwith the client who later enterstherapy.Another trend is the increasingbreadth and depth of our hypotheses.For example, we hypothesize that iftherapy alters the perception of self,of others and of the environment, itmust alter the whole process bywhich an individual perceives. Weare now subjecting this hypothesis toa wide variety of tests. If it is upheld, it will have implications formany fields — from optics to sociology.We are also adopting more appropriate testing methods. One of theseis the Q technique expounded byWilliam Stephenson, Lecturer in theDepartment of Psychology. We areusing it to measure the similarity ofrelationships created by therapists ofdiffering schools; the changing natureof the relationship during therapy;and — most of all — to study the process of change in the client and theclient's concept of himself.SPECIMEN PLATE FROM RORSCHACH TEST USED BY COUNSELLING CENTER MEASURES UNCONSCIOUS RESPONSE TO THERAPYV :. A12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEROGERS GAINS OUTSIDE CHECK ON CLIENTS WITH TAT-STORY ANALYSISROGERS GAINS OUTSIDE CHECK ON CLIENTS WITH TAT-STORY ANALYSISGAINSWe have printed on separate cards100 self-descriptive statements, drawnfrom many interviews, and coveringthe whole range of attitudes towardself. Some examples are: "I often feelguilty"; "I express my emotionsfreely"; "I am worthless"; "I am self-reliant"; "I usually like people";"I am afraid of sex."The client is asked to sort thesecards into nine piles, arranged - according to how closely he thinks theydescribe him. This gives us a detailedpicture of the self as perceived by theclient. His second task is to re-sortthe cards to represent the person hewould like to be, his ideal self.The client does these two jobs ofsorting before and after therapy, andagain one year later. Each time heevaluates himself, he's given a Thematic Apperception Test — a test composed of ambiguous pictures and designed to reveal the conscious andunconscious elements in his personality.These TAT responses — the storieshe makes up about the pictures, arethen turned over to a psychologistwho knows nothing about the client.The psychologist is asked to sort theQ cards into nine piles to representhis diagnosis of the client — the diagnosis he arrived at through his analysis of the TAT. We thus obtain adetailed and objective picture of thepersonality to correlate with the client's self-picture.One of the first cases to which weapplied this method was a woman inher late thirties. She had many conflicts within herself and poor relationships with her husband and daughter. During therapy the Q-sortingsshowed that she became much morethe person she wanted to be. It wasalso of interest that the psychologist'sestimate of her changed radically.A year after therapy her pictureof herself, and the psychologist's estimate of her, were substantially thesame — although, initially, there hadbeen no similarity. This last fact indicated the degree to which the unconscious portions qf herself hadbecome woven into her consciouspicture of her self.Confidence justifiedDuring our twelve years of counseling and research, we have beentesting the general view, put .in simplest terms, that confidence in thehuman organism is justified. We havehypothesized that, if a person is givena psychological climate sufficientlywarm and sympathetic to his privateworld, his perceptiveness, creative-ness, and capacity for dealing withreality will be released. Our studies to date indicate, in alimited way, that this hypothesis isvalid. There is even a hint that themost striking thing about personalitymay be — not its stability — but itscapacity for change.A moment's thought will suggestsome of the broad implications ofsuch a position. If the individual canmeet life's problems constructivelywhen a suitable psychological atmosphere is provided, can the samecapacity be expected of the group?If confidence in the individual isjustified in therapy, is it justified ineducation? In industry? In government? What does it mean in situationsof leadership? What are its implica tions for our philosophy of the natureof man? For our reliance upon thedemocratic process?Psychotherapy opens a window intothe deepest chambers of the humanpersonality. That is why many andvaried groups are watching thetheory, research, and practice growing out of our basic hypotheses.And that is why we are soberlyaware of our responsibility to test andretest each aspect of our thinking;to perfect increasingly rigorous methods; to make each study availablefor proof or disproof, by workers inour own and other fields. It is achallenging pathway of scientific exploration.JANUARY, 1953 13SUMMARYOF FALLStudents returnSo do parentsA queen is crownedMen in BeecherThe Kimpton's rateby Robert M. StrozierDean of StudentsDEAN STROZIER SENSES THE CHANGING TONE OF CAMPUS AGEo.'NE DOES NOT NEED to be aToynbee to sense the changing toneof a campus age. A year may makea vast difference in many facets ofcampus life, and burning issues ofone age become passe as new interestsand enthusiasms spring, apparentlyfrom nowhere.A new campus party wins the elections, the conservative elements in theMaroon vote an editorial censure tothe Labor Youth League, large numbers of students offer their servicesto the Settlement and the Neighborhood club, law students live inBeecher Hall, and the Chancellor notonly crowns the queen at the Interfraternity Ball, but he brushes herlightly with a kiss and honors herwith the first dance after her success.A year ago the Maroon controversywas still seething; the question ofrecognition of the Labor YouthLeague focused the attention ofmany groups, political and non-political, and the natural transitionsfrom one administration to anotheraffected the situation while many ob servers waited to see the course ofaction to follow.Enrollment has declined and theaverage age of students in the University has dropped sharply as moreveterans of the second world warfinish their graduate work. Interestingly enough, however, twenty-fivepercent of the student body is stillcomposed of those veterans. Most ofthem, however, have family responsibilities and their participation incampus life is necessarily very limited. The veterans of the Korean warare beginning to return to the campus, but the group is still so smallthat no effects of their presence areyet apparent.The new GI bill for veterans of theKorean conflict provides no paymentto colleges and universities for tuition as the last one did. Many privateschool officials fear that the tendencyof these veterans will be to choose theless expensive state institutions to analarming degree.To meet this situation the University has taken a definite step. It an nounced recently a plan by whichveterans under public law 550 (Korean) may borrow tuition from theUniversity with no interest until thestudent leaves the University, andthat then only three per cent will becharged, and that payments may be aslow as ten dollars a month plusinterest.Meanwhile, a group of private schoolofficials is making a case for anamendment to the present law. Itshould be said that many educators,both public and private, feel that thebill is particularly advantageous topublic institutions.The fall season got an auspiciousstart with an excellent program oforientation, planned and executed byJohn Davey from the administration,with the help of students from Student Union, and with heavy relianceupon our excellent staff of residencehall counselors under Carl Grip'sleadership.A special orientation program fordivisional and professional studentswas planned and executed by William14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBirenbaum and the deans of studentsof the various divisions and schools.The two programs coincided in theKimptons' reception for all new students and their parents. Not only wasthere a very large attendance for thisaffair, followed by a dance, but therewas an air of easy informalitythroughout.Parents weekendThe warm and friendly personalitiesof the Kimptons permeate all officialgatherings where both faculty andstudents are present. The effects ofthe series of teas which they are giving for the faculties of the differentunits of the University and many ofthe non- academic employees are feltsubtly throughout the entire campus.Parents weekend (for the parentsof all new students in the College)was a spectacular success.The formal dinner on Friday evening, Friday, November 8, was heldin the Quadrangle club where theChancellor greeted the guests, andwhere both F. Champion Ward andRuth McCarn spoke.The informal parts of the programwere also well attended and the manyletters of thanks we have receivedfrom parents confirm our belief thatthe whole venture is eminently worthwhile. Parents could talk privatelywith the advisors of their children,visit the institutes for nuclear studies,attend a concert, have dinner in aResidence Hall with their childrenand participate informally in campusevents.Clement Mokstad of the instituteshas taken one afternoon of everyweek this autumn to conduct tours ofhigh school teachers and studentsthrough the institutes. With the cooperation of such distinguished menas Raymond Zirkle, William Bloom,and many others, Mokstad has takentime from a busy schedule to participate in. the broad program announced by the Chancellor at hisinauguration — a fuller interpretationof the University to the broad community.Greater understandingMr. Kimpton's thesis then, andoften reiterated, is that those whoknow the University both like andadmire it, but that we have oftenbeen both misunderstood and resented with reason. The faculty andstudents have accepted the sincereplea which the Chancellor made and greater understanding of the University has resulted.It is at first shocking to the oldgrads to see law students roamingabout in Beecher Hall, but the experiment has been so successful thisfall that the skeptics have becomeboosters for the plan.Ed Levi has given brilliant leadership to the law school, and the resultsare immediately apparent in the student body and faculty of the lawschool. Beecher itself appears to bean experiment in international livingas well as in co-operative living oflaw students. There are young menfrom England, Germany, and Denmark housed there. The first president of the group is a young Englishman.Residential colleges?Dean Ward and his faculty haveproposed that the University sponsorresidential colleges, somewhat alongthe lines of the colleges in Englishuniversities. American experimentsalong these lines have so far fallenshort of their goals partly, Mr. Wardthinks, because of a lack of one thingthe college here possesses, a commoncurriculum and a common body ofmaterial to form the basis for communication among groups.Aristotle is still king of conversational topics among college students,and Dean Ward says lightly that hefeels he must always quote him atleast once in any public talk.Women need housingThe Committee on Student Interests is discussing with administrativeofficers the College proposals, whichwould entail the erection of alreadybadly needed new housing for collegewomen, adjacent to, or near IdaNoyes. To the Committee which hasretained the faithful Trustees: Sherer,Tenny, Goodman, McConnell, Axelsonand Quantrell, have been added twoyounger men, George Ranney andChuck Percy. The limits which inflation puts on the budget delay thedefinite plans for erecting residencehalls, but the discussions are proceeding.The controversy about the LaborYouth League has particular relevance at this time.As the University has long believedthat students should be able to express their views and listen to allshades of opinion which they choose,it has often been criticized for allow ing the facilities of the University tobe used by groups which are considered left of center politically.A recent exhibit of the rebuildingof Warsaw was sponsored on campusby the LYL as a cultural exhibit.Much criticism of the University ensued by students, faculty membersand patrons who expressed the beliefthat the exhibit was more in the nature of propaganda than of pure culture. The wisdom of the administration in its policy seems to be justifiedwhen the Maroon staff itself applaudsthe University for its allowing theexhibits but takes the LYL to taskfor the nature of its presentation.Here is the end result, in clear outline, of articulate, intelligent studentsoperating in an atmosphere of freedom, but clearly able to make distinctions of their own. How muchbetter that the affair should end inthis manner than that the administration should have forbidden the sightof pictures of Warsaw rebuilt for theeyes of its young men and women. Itsstudents are highly discriminating.It is our firm belief that they willbecome responsible and informed citizens when they leave us.Clubs and fraternitiesTo some it might seem trivial butto the girls' clubs and their alumni itseemed exciting that for the first timethe pledges who hid out on Mondayevening and were to be found by themembers could not be found. At easein the splendor of the Home Room ofInternational House, the pledges wontheir first ordeal with their sistersand feel a singular mark of distinctionfor their cleverness.The fraternities, encouraged by there-interpretation of the limits of theirpledging as of last spring, are as active as ever on campus. Their ball,preceding Thanksgiving, was held atthe Congress Hotel and was as resplendent as usual. John Nuveen,whose son entered the College thisyear, and several faculty membersserved as chaperons.What is the new tone alluded to atthe outset? It is a subtle feeling of anew kind of responsible leadership onthe campus, exemplified by manyphases of student life. It is a kind ofmaturity that does not exclude gaietyand pleasure; it is a kind of spirit ofbelonging to a team that is worthsupporting; it is a good and healthyspirit, without any maudlin featuresof false sentimentality and loyalty,but rather one of belief in somethingthat is of great importance.JANUARY, 1953 15The Den of Shadowsby John SpanglerCollege A monologue by two GreeksAnd NOW, GLAUCON, I said, letme show you in an analogy how ournature should or should not be enlightened: In a den a number of menare chained in such a way that theycan turn their heads neither to theright nor to the left, so that theymust forever gaze before them at thewall of the cave upon which are casttheir shadows and the shadows ofpassing men. You are familiar withthe whole arrangement, as you have,no doubt, heard me describe it before.Yes, Pocrates, I have.You realize that these men wouldnaturally not realize the source ofthe shadows and would think thatthey are reality instead of mereimages of reality.This would be most natural.Now, suppose that these men conversed among themselves and madegreat sport of observing the shadowson the wall. They could discuss thesefigures as they passed and perhapsplace wagers as to which would comein first. At any rate, they would beperfectly happy at their station, fortheir needs would be taken care ofand they would have each other'scompanionship to enjoy.All this is quite conceivable.And now suppose that one of thesemen is taken with the desire to leavethe cave. He manages to get free ofhis chains, and he goes out into thesunlight. After a period of time hiseyes would grow accustomed to thebrightness of day. He would then behold things as they really are.Naturally.He now considers the objects andmen whose shadows he once supposed to be real and realizes thefolly of the men in the cave.Certainly.He would wonder at the stupidityof his associates and wonder how he,in the past, and they, now, could be AUTHOR SPANGLER, COLLEGE STUDENT, LIKES MR. PLATO AND HIS FRIENDS16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEso fooled into living under such falsities.Assuredly.It would be most natural for himto be filled with a great pity for hisignorant companions.Of course.Surrounded by this new world, hewould then spend all his time observing and trying to understand allthe new wonders he beheld.Undoubtedly.And now, my argumentative friend,what, under these circumstances,would be the most natural thing tohappen to a man who has spent allhis years in a dark cave?I fail to see what would befall him.He would explore and examine this new world for a short length of timebefore the intensity of the sun, towhich he was not accustomed, wouldblind him. Just that, then, is whathappens to our man from the cave.Quite logical, Pocrates.In addition, would it not be likelythat he would be physically unfit togo forth into the world after livingall his life in a dark cave? For in ashort time the powerful rays of thesun acting on his weakened bodywould surely drive him out of hismind as it would a man lost in thedesert.Anything but surprising.Our man would then return to thecave totally blind and utterly de mented. His former friends wouldbehold this sad case and come to theconclusion that their lives are trulyideal and that to ascend from thecave would mean to return shortlywith their eyes and mind equally outof order. Surely no one, it wouldseem to them, could be so foolish asto want to leave their comfortablecave.Most assuredly.What was this poor man's rewardfor seeing his folly and that of hisfriends? Only misery. He left thecave with a rational, though limited,mind and returned a man that hadnot enough wits to understand whathe had seen or even wits enough totake part in that ideal life he hadpreviously led. His life was ruinedby his desire to leave the cave.Quite true.Now, Glaucon, do you see the pointof my analogy?The method in which you used themen, the cave, the brightness of day,and the ideas for which they standwas a most ingenious way to explainyour point. You have made yourthoughts most clear.Since your comprehension is socomplete, Glaucon, would you be sogood as to explain the analogy'smeaning.I would, Pocrates, but I feel thatI have been monopolizing the conversation too much. It would be morefitting for you to explain it.Very well. The men in the caveare representatives of us mortals andthe den of our material world. Thelight of day stands for absolute truth,the abstruse, basic truths of metaphysics. The whole point, then, isthat those who seek absolute truthwill only be blinded by what theysee, blinded to an appreciation of thejoys of life. Absolute truth is so completely unintelligible that those whotry to understand it will surely become insane in trying to fathom theunfathomable. It would be far betterto let man continue to live as he has,busying himself with mundane affairs, than to search for the deep,underlying principles of the universeand lose sight of the pleasures ofliving that lie within his grasp.You astound me with your wisdom,Pocrates.But then, if I am right, certain professors of education must be wrongwhen they say that metaphysics is adesirable and practical subject of inquiry.Very true.J. HE ESSAY beginning on theprevious page originally appearedin the second number of the Student Essay Annual.Published by the faculty of theCollege, the purpose of the Annualis to furnish examples of superiorCollege writing for the benefit ofthe College students. The volumesare sold for $1.25 at the UniversityBookstore.The first issue, published lastJune, contained 166 pages of wellwritten essays. There were eightarticles, ranging from "The Meaning and Use of Myth in Nietzsche'sThought" to "Punishment as aFactor in Learning." Included inthis issue was a 20 -page work on"The Theory of Transfinite Cardinals." All the articles in the June number were submitted for specialhonors at graduation, or written aspart of the comprehensive examinations in "preceptorial" classes.The second number, which appeared in October, is composedof papers written by studentsthroughout the College.The author of "The Den ofShadows," John Paul Spangler, isa six-foot nineteen-year-old fromFort Lauderdale, Florida. He followed his brother to Chicago.John will receive his Bachelordegree in June — after two yearson campus. He wrote "The Den"for an English assignment andreally likes Mr. Plato and hisfriends.JANUARY, 1953 176 6 TF our security arrangements are as-*- poor as the McCarran Act and theState Department imply, then we certainlyshall find little additional safety in measures preventing contact between Americanand European scientists and scholars whoare neither spies nor political agitators.'9AMERICAN SECURITYalso depends onSCIENTIFIC PROGRESSby Edward A. ShilsProfessor, Division of Social SciencesJL HROUGH the two McCarran Acts— the Internal Security Act of 1950,and the Immigration and NationalityAct of 1952 — and their excessivelyrigid, indiscriminate application by theState Department, the United Statesgovernment and the American peopleare undoing with one hand what theyare so laboriously and expensivelyaccomplishing with the other.While one part of American policygenerously and farsightedly hassought to defend the free societies ofthe West through the Marshall Plan,the North Atlantic Treaty, and othermeasures, these two Acts, and particularly the clauses bearing on theentry into the United States of foreignscientists, scholars, and educators, inconjunction with the sheer ignoranceand unconcern for consequences insome sections of the State Department, alienate our allies, comfort ourenemies, enfeeble our free institutions,and traduce the principles of liberty.In the past few years a very largenumber of distinguished Europeanscientists, almost all of them anti-Communists and deeply devoted tothe freedom in which scientific truthis sought and discovered, have beenfrustrated in their efforts to come tothe United States to share theirknowledge with their American colleagues. Their applications for visas have inmany cases been refused, usuallyafter long delay; in other cases thevisas have been finally granted, butonly after delays so long that thescientific meetings to which they wereinvited had taken place, or the teaching appointments for which they hadbeen engaged had lapsed through theirfailure to arrive in time to fulfill them.In still other cases the applicantshave received no decision whatsoever,from the American consular officersto whom they applied.Why does America act this way?Is there any advantage to be gainedfor the United States? The answer isclearly: No. The United States is, onthe contrary, being severly harmedby its visa policy.Communist ammunitionOur claim to be the leader of thedefense of the free society of the Westis falsified by our refusal to allowforeigners to discuss unclassified scientific matters freely with Americanscientists and by our efforts to prevent some of our own scientists whohave no classified information fromgoing abroad where they can meetEuropean scientists.One of the main communist tacticsin their campaign to disrupt the NorthAtlantic alliance is to show America as the enemy of Western Europe. Ourvisa policy gives them the evidencethey seek. By our visa policy we playinto the hands of the neutralists whoargue there is no significant differencebetween the United States and theSoviet Union and that WesternEurope should, accordingly, avoid involvement in a quarrel between thetwo paranoid, freedom-hating, barbarian regimes with which they haveno common interests.The refusal of a visa to an educatedEuropean applicant not only raisesdoubts in his mind about America'sdevotion to freedom of thought andabout the calm sanity of its foreignAs Special Editor of the October,1952, issue of the Bulletin of theAtomic Scientists, Professor Shilswrote the lead editorial entitledAmerica's Paper Curtain. This article was adapted from parts of itfor the Magazine by the editors.Professor Shils, who is ExecutiveSecretary of the Committee on Social Thought at the University,served as a research staff memberof the Rand Corporation. He is theauthor of Present States of American Sociology (Free Press), and—with Talcott Parsons — Toward aGeneral Theory of Action (Harvard).18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpolicy as a whole, it also causes himgreat and often costly inconvenience.If he is a scientist who plans to spendseveral months in the United States,he must arrange for the conduct ofhis laboratory and the performance ofhis teaching duties during his absence. He usually arranges to sublethis house or apartment.Personal resentmentThese arrangements must be madein most cases well in advance, and theuncertainty of the date when a decision will come forth, if ever, adds tothe difficulty. In some instances, menhave resigned their positions preparatory to receiving a visa which nevercomes, to take up an appointmentwhich they had already accepted froman American institution. It is easy tosee why personal resentment shouldbe added to the intellectual doubtswhich American visa policy is creating about the good faith and sobrietyof American actions.American visa policy cannot butweaken the arguments of our foreignfriends against their communist andneutralist countrymen. Indeed, suchis the the situation that those whoactually succeed in getting visas atpresent are sometimes suspected bytheir irritated fellow-countrymen ofbeing sycophants or American agents.Thus as a result of our present visapolicy as a whole, even when, underthe present law, we overcome ourfears and prejudices and grant a visa,we nonetheless weaken the positionof our friends and strengthen ourenemies.As long as the law retains its present form, and as long as its administration is unchanged, even our morereasonable actions in the visa field donot offset the bad impression causedby our unreasonable actions.The effect at homeOur visa policy places a great strainon the democratic European scientist'sown faith in the soundness of thecause which he has hitherto believedhe held in common with AmericaThose who retain their faith in America do so in spite of their experiencewith the representatives of the American government. They do so becauseof their close friendships with American scientists and scholars and, insome cases, their deeper political convictions that, in the long run, thePROFESSOR SHILS PREFERS STANDING19moral substance and good sense ofAmerica will reassert itself and wewill discard this rough-handed andfrivolous policy.Not only does the McCarran Actimpede cur efforts to block the communist attempt to dominate the mindof Europe and to break the NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization, it alsoweakens our security here at home.In the past years, even the smuggestof the gross enemies of the intellectualprofessions have come to appreciatethe importance of science for our national security. Vast expenditures forscientific research on defense problems have been authorized with theconfidence that our scientists wouldfind the answers which the more conventional and less ingenious minds ofour soldiers and statesmen could notdiscover. But out of arrogance andignorance it has been overlooked thatAmerican science is not omniscientand self-sufficient.Scholars cannot meetDespite our vastly greater wealth,our bigger and newer laboratories,and our much larger bodies of postgraduate science students, our largernumber of science professors, oldEurope still goes on producing greatand valuable scientific discoveries.American scientists know that theycan still learn very much from personal discussion with their Europeancolleagues. But the State Department,acting on its interpretation of Congress' ill-conceived efforts to safeguard America from subversion, andmoved by its own fear of abusiveattacks from the more vociferous elements in Congress, stands in the wayof these contacts.The holding of international scientific congresses in America — an honorfor Americans and a great advantagefor American scientists since it allowsthem, with relatively small expenditure, to meet and hear the most important foreign scientists — is becomingmore and more difficult. The TwelfthInternational Congress of Pure andApplied Chemistry which met in NewYork in September 1951 was markedby the absence of many of its important foreign members who had beenunable to attend because of visa difficulties.The American Psychological Association has decided to waive its opportunity to play host to the International Congress of Psychology in1954 because it did not want to subject 600 foreign psychologists to the humiliation which is now almost always encountered in seeking entryinto the United States.In 1950 the University, planningto hold an International Congress onNuclear Physics in September 1951,and hoping to avoid embarrassmentto foreign scientists, first submitted alist of desired participants to the StateDepartment to determine whether ithad any objection to any of them.This was in December 1950. When,despite further requests, no reply wasreceived from the State Departmentby March 1951, invitations were sentout. After the invitations were posted,the State Department telephoned theUniversity to declare that eight toten of the twenty -four foreignerswould have difficulties in obtainingvisas.It should be noted that the Officeof Naval Research, which is presumably concerned with American security, was a co-sponsor of this conference. As a result, a high official ofthat Office has asserted that he willnot again attempt to sponsor an international conference as long as theMcCarran Act and the State Department's administration of it continueunchanged.A number of foreign scientists whohad been invited to the ElectronPhysics Symposium of the NationalBureau of Standards in November1951, were unable to attend becauseof visa difficulties. The list could begreatly extended.Threat to scientific progressIn self-defense, international scientific organizations are beginning todecide not to schedule any meetingsin the United States as long as ourpresent visa policy exists. Thus American scientists, already harried bynecessary and unnecessary securityrequirements in their research and intheir discussions with American colleagues, now encounter, thanks to theMcCarran Acts and the State Department, additional obstacles to learningof the ideas and results of theirforeign colleagues. And, if Americanscientists seek to go to Europe, thesame anxiety about communism whichhas gone far beyond the requirementsof reality, threatens to interferethrough the denial of passports.Fortunately, American scientistshave more opportunity to make theirgrievances heard in America thanEuropean scientists. Consequently, thePassport Division, although sometimes arbitrary and unrealistic in theassessment of the consequences of itsactions, is not as abitrary or unreal istic as the Visa Division in Washington and our consuls in foreign countries. And now, as a result of criticismand a court decision which checkedits arbitrariness, the State Department has established a Board ofPassport Appeals to review its refusals of passports.The real advantage for science offree informal contact, the exchange ofimpressions and interpretations, thecomparison of results and proceduresin face-to-face conversations remainsas great as it ever was. Apparatus andvast expenditures and large administrative bodies do not replace it, andwithout it scientific progress movesmore slowly and haltingly. An improvement in our visa practices cannot guarantee that science will advance. If, however, our visa practicesremain what Senator McCarran andhis associates have made them, anindispensable ingredient of Americanscientific progress will be lost.The loss to American scienceOur legislators and our State Department, as concerned as they arewith our national security, act, however, as if they are unaware thatAmerican security depends not juston economic power but on our scientific progress as well. They insist onblinding themselves to our gains fromforeign scientists. American scienceand American greatness gain morefrom foreign scientists than just theirstimulating presentations at international congresses and their short visitsto our universities.The ranks of American science havebeen raised beyond measure by foreign scientists who have immigratedto this country. Many great scientistshave come here as nonquota immigrants for whom — thanks to the Immigration and Nationality Act — nospecial provision now exists beyondthe uninformed discretion of a consulwho must decide whether they aresufficiently important to America togo into the upper 50 per cent of theirnational quota.Our responsibility to freedomProfessors Einstein, Bethe, Fermi,Szilard, Franck, Wigner, von Neumann and a host of others, to whomAmerican science and security aregreatly indebted were born andtrained in Europe and came here asimmigrants. Our native-born scientists are among the first to acknowledge how much they owe to theseeminent men and to numberless others20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEless well known, who have come hereas immigrants or as visitors or whomthey have met in their laboratoriesand homes abroad.Finally, even if we disregard theinjury which our visa policy does usin the implementation of our largerforeign policy, and even if we overlook our scientific loss, we still mustbe true to our moral responsibilitiesas free men in a free society. A freesociety is an open society, permittingand encouraging the unhamperedpursuit of truth, facilitating the freeinterchange of ideas. But are we living as free men should, if we are notallowed to have personal contact withour foreign colleagues because theyare not allowed to enter our countryand some of us are not allowed toleave our own country?The very crime against freedomwith which the Soviet Union is rightlycharged — the refusal to permit itscitizens to meet foreigners and to hearthe ideas of foreigners — is one whichwe too, in a less thoroughgoing fashion, are committing.The American way of life is builtaround the ideal of personal and intellectual freedom. By affronting thatideal, the supporters and the executors of the McCarran Acts are contradicting the principles by which ourcountry justifies its existence.Nothing classifiedDo the prohibitions called for bythe McCarran Acts and applied bythe State Department, even beyondthe extremes called for by the law,really meet American security needstoday? It is obvious that if thesemeasures are necessary, then all ofthe elaborate precautions taken toprotect our secret research and installations must be functioning verypoorly indeed. The whole system ofsecurity clearance, guards, classification, etc. — must be utterly ineffectiveif foreign scientists could, if theywished, break through it.The scientists who have been turnedaway have wished to come to scientific congresses where classified information was not being disclosed. Theywere invited to teach and do researchin universities where they would nothave been, engaged on classified projects. No more than American scientists who are not employed on secretprojects would foreign scientists haveaccess to secret projects or their results.We accept the system of securitycontrols in certain areas of our life inorder that the rest of it may be free,not that controls should be indis criminately, overzealously extendedto spheres where there is no evidentneed for them.Do our legislators and our StateDepartment think so poorly of oursecurity arrangements that the entryof foreign scientists into the countrywould in itself help the Soviet Unionto acquire our precious military secrets? If our security arrangementsare as poor as the McCarran Act andthe State Department imply, then wecertainly shall find little additionalsafety in measures preventing contactbetween American and European scientists and scholars who are neitherspies nor political agitators.Nervousness and ignoranceThe only reason for banning anyone on political grounds is because itcan be realistically expected that hewill attempt to perform acts of espionage or subversion. To ban others issimply nervousness and ignorance toa degree unworthy of grown-up educated men or of a powerful government with a great tradition to maintain.The Internal Security Act and theImmigration and Nationality Act, bothof which were vetoed by Mr. Trumanand sustained by Congress over hisveto, must be revised in many respects.It is obviously necessary to protectthe government from subversion byCommunists or any other subversivegroup. This, however, must be donein a way which deals realistically withthe danger, which, though genuine, isboth more specific and more subtlethan the crude controls provided bythese Acts.Changes needed in the lawAs far as the law itself is concerned,it is very definitely necessary tochange that part which declares thatpersons who "at any time have beenmembers" of Communist parties ortheir affiliates, subsidiaries, etc., mustnot be admitted to the United States.This requires a consul to deny a visato those who as long as ten to twentyyears ago were members of somecommunist or quasi- communist groupseven though they might now be completely apolitical or even wholeheartedly anti- communist.In Europe in the 1920's and the1930's, as in America in the 1930's,many young people — wrongly, butwith good and humane intentions andwith the enthusiastic idealism of youth— embraced one sort of communism or another. They had been appalled bypoverty and unemployment, by thedisorder left by the First World War,and the menacing advances of Mussolini and of Hitler. Knowing nothingof the reality of the Soviet system,they accepted the propagandist viewof that country as a land where justiceprevailed and where there was no unemployment. Especially in France,where there was a great tradition forscientists and scholars to interestthemselves in civic affairs from ahumanitarian point of view, Communists were able to exploit the traditional attitudes.For the majority of those who joinedthe Communists before the SecondWorld War, the relationship ended indisillusionment, bitterness, and evenhostility against communism. Yet theexisting American law requires thatthese past memberships and activitiesbe treated exactly as if they weregoing on at present, when the applicants are mature men who have outgrown the romantic political enthusiasms of their youth.Report to CongressThe escape clause which the Immigration and Nationality Act offers isinsufficient. It enables the AttorneyGeneral to grant a visa to those who"since termination of such membership or affiliation" are and have been"for at least five years prior to thedate of the application for admissionactively opposed to the doctrine, program, principles, and ideology of suchparty, branch, or affiliate or subdivision thereof" when "the admission ofsuch alien into the United Stateswould be in the public interest." TheAttorney General is required to makea prompt and detailed report to Congress in the case of each alien who isadmitted into the United States underthis clause.This does not meet the requirements for a policy which will separatesubversives and spies from those whowill do no harm. It is too slow forthose scientists and scholars who wishto make visits on fairly short notice,and its requirement of active opposition to communism does not apply tothose whose political interests haveeither vanished or become a minorpart of their lives.Return to common senseThe law should be changed so thatthose who have not been members ofcommunist groups for the past fiveyears should be able to enter thecountry for scientific purposes withoutJANUARY, 1953 21any conditions. It should also bechanged to allow consuls more discretion in the assessment of the significance of memberships in or association with communist groups over thepast five years. Distinction should beintroduced into the law to allow somediscrimination to be made betweenparty membership and front-organization membership, between inactivemembership, ordinary active membership, and leadership in communistactivities.Above all, we need more specific,more particularized defense againstalien subversives, and less diffuse fearof foreigners and of scientists. Wemust be less preoccupied with thethought of subversion, while providing fully for counterintelligence andWyant spots errorThe Rev. Andrew R. E. Wyant,'97, an octogenarian, is still practicing medicine in Chicago. He hasalso submitted proof that he stillfinds time to read his Bible.In a letter from Dr. Luther A.Weigle of Yale Divinity School,chairman of the new RevisedStandard Version Bible committee,Dr. Wyant was informed that hewas the first to call attention to atypographical error in the new edition, in Acts 4:6, which will becorrected by the publishers in future printings.In 1889 Dr. Wyant won a Bucknell essay prize on "The Authorized Version as a Literary Model."This essay was published in theUniversity of Chicago Magazinewhen Wyant was Coach AmosStagg's first football captain for theMaroon team.1898John P. Mentzer has been elected national president of the Chi Psi fraternity.1902Robert Goheen, MD '05, and his wifehave settled in Orlando, Fla., after hisretirement from 40 years as a medicalmissionary of the Presbyterian Church security services. We need laws andlegislators who will allow administrators to free their minds from the constant and obsessive preoccupation withcommunist subversion whenever theydeal with a foreigner or a scientist. Weneed administrative facilities and provisions which will allow consular offices and the visa division to getthrough their work with dispatch.We need laws and a legislative atmosphere which will allow consuls thediscretionary power to grant as wellas to refuse visas. We need the possibility for rejected applicants to appeal to some higher body than theconsul, whether it be a Review Boardwithin the State and Justice Departments, or a Review Board, composedof eminent laymen, lawyers, scientists,to India, and five years in the AssociatedMissions Medical Office in New YorkCity.1903Agnes R. Wayman of Brille, N. J., received the William G. Anderson Meritaward last spring at the annual convention of the American Association forHealth, Physical Education and Recreation for "long years of meritorious service to the Association and her chosenprofession."1904Ovid Sellers has completed his 30thyear as Professor of Old Testament inMcCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago.Anne E. Floyd (Mrs. Channing Wallace) sends this news of her family: "Myson, Channing, and his wife have adaughter, born last February 3, in LosAngeles. He is an industrial designer.My two daughters live nearby."1906Cora E. Gray, SM '09, a retired schoolteacher, is working two days a week asa receptionist for visitors at the localhospital in Salisbury, N. C.1907Arthur Gibbon Bovee, after teachingFrench at Chicago for nearly 40 years,retired in 1947. The University ofGeorgia immediately snapped him up for political scientists, etc., who can tellthe difference between a subversiveforeign agent and foreign scientists,making its recommendations to theState and Justice Departments, without the need to report to Congressevery favorable decision on an appeal. We need above all a return tocommon sense and to common humanity.The preparation of proposals for therevision of the Immigration and Nationality Act is now the special chargeof the Commission on Immigrationand Naturalization. On the product ofits labors, and on the speedy action ofthe new President and Congress earlyin 1953, rest the good name of America in Europe and the efficient growthof American science.a five-year contract. With the famousBovee enthusiasm, Artie and familymoved into a home on a hill overlookingAthens and became a part of the community. He wrote a football song for hisold new school and inspired anothergeneration of students in the field ofFrench literature. He gathered otherhonors, ineluding the French Chevalierde la Legion D'Honneur. Now he has22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEexperienced his second retirement, whichwill give him time to see two new manuscripts through the press. This will make21 books for Artie. Over 1600 schoolshave used these books.1909Mary E. Courtenay, AM '37, assistantsuperintendent of Chicago public schools,was one of the principal speakers at thenational convention of Delta KappaGamma held in Chicago last August. Shespoke on "Changing Values in a Changing World."1910Mabel Claire Stark, SM '20, is a resident of Carmel-by-the-Sea and activein various organizations, including theA.A.U.W. and the Carmel Women's Clubof which she is chairman of the booksection. She is also chairman of the national public affairs committee of PiLambda Theta for the biennium 1951-53.1911Conrado Benitez, chairman of thePhilippine Rural Reconstruction Movement, has been elected a member of theInternational Committee of the Mass Education Movement, Inc., which includessuch members as Ralph Bunche, ArthurCompton, David Lilienthal, ChesterBowles, and Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt. Conrado recently attended the InternationalLabor Organization meeting in Switzerland. His daughter, Helen, is back oncampus.Ralph H. Kuhns, Rush MD '13, isengaged to Mrs. Helen S. Steele of Chicago.Gertrude Perry Keats keeps a busyschedule with "grandchildren, gardening,League of Women Voters, Library Club,Three Village Garden Club, TheatreGuild, and all drama in New York Cityin the winter."Harlan Trumbull, PhD, sends newsthat he and Mrs. Trumbull have enjoyedtraveling since his retirement in June,1951, from the B. F. Goodrich Co. "Forestry, agriculture, the National Parks,and monuments — especially the relics ofancient cultures in Mexico — have beenof absorbing interest." Mr. Trumbullcontinues to serve as a research consultant.1913Frank E. Brown, PhD '18, reachedthe retirement age of 70 at Iowa StateCollege last spring. His outside intereststhis past year' have included being councilor of the American Chemical Societyand a member of the council committeeon membership affairs; president of theIowa Academy of Science, and chairmanof its committee on science talent search.Mary E. Howland, who has been teaching in the Chicago public schools since1924, is principal of the ;Dewey Elementary School.Alan Whitney has sounded off withthis lively newsnote: "Same occupation(investment advisor), same home (inWinnetka, 111.) , same family (only growing older) , same view of the world ingeneral (still expecting something explosive to occur), and same old-fashioned and uncompromising attitude toward loose public morals, 'fluid' publiceconomy and guaranteed safety foreveryone, at home and abroad. Am en joying the Great Books and only regretgetting acquainted with them so late inmy life."1915George W. Sherburn, PhD, is nowProfessor Emeritus of Harvard University, and is living at Middlebury, Vt.1916Orwood J. Campbell, MD '22, a Minneapolis surgeon, is president of the Minnesota State Medical Association. Inrecent years he has been chairman of, thecouncil of the state medical associationand delegate to the American MedicalAssociation. Dr. Campbell has three children: Janet, 17; James, 15; and Jill, 11.Raymond Dart, Rush MD, formerlywith the Army Medical Museum inWashington, D. C, is now in Beaumont,Texas, with the Southeast Texas DefenseBlood Center.Helen Hatten (Mrs. R. F. Hyde) is ahomemaker in Flossmoor, 111. A teacherof Latin and French, Mrs. Hyde wasformerly head of the Latin departmentof York High School in Elmhurst, 111.Claude L. Williams, AM, since hisretirement from the Chicago PublicSchools as principal of the WentworthSchool, has been serving as the Chicagorepresentative of the educational department, Charles Scribner's Sons.The Rev. Olav H. Walby writes fromWinnipeg, Can., that his daughter is acandidate for the master's degree at theUniversity of Chicago, and that "sheshares with me the love and admirationof a great institution."1917Bernice Klausner (Mrs. William Newman) sends news of her family: ''Oneson, Sol, '47, MBA '49, is now a corporalat the Army Chemical Center in Maryland; another, Edward, is a World War IIveteran and an alumnus of the University of Illinois, '50. My daughter, Arline,attends Miami University and Rosalind,now at Hyde Park High School in Chicago, may yet become a second generation Chicagoan."Harold P. Huls, JD '21, is a memberof the State Public Utilities Commissionof California.Myron Jacobs operates the Ellis Flower Shop hear the University campus.Miriam Libby Evans attended a WorldMission Conference at Willingen, Germany, last July, representing the UnitedChurch Women of the National Councilof Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. Afterthe conference she visited with WorldDay of Prayer chairmen in Berlin, Frankfort, Cologne, Geneva, Paris and London.Mrs. Evans is director of Christian WorldMissions and World Day of Prayer forUnited Church Women.1918Grace Phillips, AM, DB '23, has forsix years been a librarian, on a part-timebasis, of Temple Emanuel in Denver. Sheis an ordained minister of the ChristianChurch and spent two years in Chinaassisting in the organization of the libraryat Wuchang.1920Gail Blocki, vice-president of JohnBlair and Co., has resigned to join Broad cast Advertising Bureau as manager ofthe Chicago office.Frances Hundley Houston, AM, reports that she and her husband keep upan active interest in civic affairs as wellas participation in art, musical and literary work of the Norfolk, Va., community.The Houstons celebrated their 25th wedding anniversary last year.Myron Jolidon was elected presidentof the Wisconsin Council of Safety lastJune. He is a resident of Milwaukeewhere he is with the Standard Oil Co.Stella Johnson has been an elementaryschool principal in Chicago for 13 years.1921Ruth Brown (Mrs. Lawrence Kahn)writes from Dallas, Texas, that her interests are traveling (Europe two successive summers), gardening and civic affairs. Her daughter, Joan, is living inChicago and is an editorial assistant forthe National Congress of Parents andTeachers Magazine. Her son, Victor, whoreceived his LL.B degree from StanfordUniversity last spring, is now living inDallas.M. Elizabeth Cochran, AM, PhD '30,arrived home last August after spendinga year abroad on a sabbatical. She spentmost of her time in Europe, but madesome visits to Africa and Asia.Harold Hoick, PhD '28, Professor ofPharmacology at the University of Nebraska, sends this news about his sons:"Our older son, Alfred, and his wife,Joanne, and our grandson, Eric David,are now located at New Orleans whereAlfred has accepted a position with theCalifornia Oil Co. Our younger son,Gunnar, has enlisted in the Air Forceand is at present with the 802 Food Service Squadron at Smoky Hill Air ForceBase, Salina, Kan."Dana Kelly retired last spring fromteaching in the Utah School for the Blindat Ogden. Special tribute was paid to herin recognition of the many years of loyalservice she gave to the education ofhandicapped young people.1922Alfred W. Brickman has been nameda director of the Great Lakes Dredge &Dock Co. He is president of the IllinoisMeat Co., and a director of the AmericanMeat Institute.Cynthia Jones is an assistant in theCommunity Adult Education ExtensionService at the University of Michigan.Ferd Kramer was recently awarded aplaque for his outstanding service in thehousing and redevelopment field in Chicago during the past year. The NationalAssociation of Housing Officials madethe presentation in Buffalo, N. Y. Mr.Kramer, president of Draper & Kramer,Inc., Chicago mortgage broker and realestate firm, is also president of the Metropolitan Housing and Planning Council.Mary Alice Sinn Hall writes that sheis living an enjoyable retirement inJacksonville, Fla.Hermann H. Thornton, AM, PhD '25,is head of the Department of ForeignLanguages at Michigan State College inEast Lansing.1923Rose Baker (Mrs. Charles Hopper)writes that she and her husband havesold their Twin Spruce property in SantaJANUARY, 1953 23Cruz, Calif., and are now living in Wasco.Calif.Frederick Frost is vice-president incharge of research for the Warren PaperCo., in Portland, Me.James Jackson, AM '24, PhD '27, isteaching economics to U. S. Air Force officers at the USAF Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Base, in Ohio.Daisy Kilgore is the homemakingteacher in the Willits Union High School,Willits, Calif.Monta Wing, PhD, is in Chile this yearwhere he is assisting with geologicalinvestigations of potential minerals resources. He is working under the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, a regionalarm of the Technical Cooperation Administration.Allegra Nesbit, AM '37, is guidancedirector of the Lew Wallace High Schoolin Gary, Ind.1924Russell E. Pettit is manager of boththe San Jose, Calif., Chamber of Commerce and the Santa Clara County Fair.He is also secretary-treasurer of theAmerican Chamber of Commerce Executives and president of the Western FairsAssociation.Ruth A. Daggett, SM '25, (Mrs. KarlTerzaghi) is working on problems of concrete deterioration. She is a member ofthe executive committee, structural section, of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. "I have 'discovered' skiing, whichtakes up all my spare time and thensome."1925Lucile Evans, SM, was married onJune 7, 1952, to Harold L. Swendsen. Thecouple is living in Milwaukee.Mary Louiise Fulton Jones reports fromBakersfield, Calif., that it's good to be-building a new home after years of moving around the United States.Ethel Hollingshead John proudly reports that their 17-year-old son, Richard,is carrying on the U. of C. tradition intheir family and is now in the secondyear of the College.Kathryn McHenry has sent news ofthe trip she had last spring to PuertoRico as part of her assignment as adietetic representative of the VeteransAdministration. "It was a splendid experience to meet again and have the advice of Dr. Lydia Roberts, '17, PhD '28,formerly chairman of the Home Economics Department of the University ofChicago, who is now at the University ofPuerto Rico. I was awed by the taskof improving nutrition in that part of theworld, and even more awed by the tremendous contribution Dr. Roberts ismaking."1926Robert E. Landon, PhD '29, is a regional geologist for General PetroleumCorp., in the states of Idaho, Utah,Nevada, Arizona, and part of Colorado,with headquarters in Salt Lake City "Ioften see two other Chicago geology department products: Edward Lammers,PhD '36, of Standard Oil of Calif., andVictor Peterson, PhD '41, of Equity OilCo.Eliot Porter, PhD, is a chaplain in thePresbyterian Hospital in Denver, Colo.Abraham Schultz, MD '30, and hiswife, Sarah Melnick, '32, are residents of Oak Park where they are raising threechildren: Carol, 15; Richard, 13; andRosalyn, 8. Dr. Schultz is practicingophthalmology, after a five-year tour ofactive duty in the service which endedin 1946.Erma A. Smith, PhD, MD '33, is nowchief of physical medicine and rehabilitation service at the VA Hospital inDublin,, Ga.Mayme V. Smith writes that she isenjoying the opportunity of spending sixmonths in California and the summermonths at her permanent address inFriendship, Wis.Anastasia Theiss (Mrs. Keith Springer) writes from Elmwood Park, 111., thatshe is "happily occupied with Michael, 6,and Barbara, 2." Attendance in a worldpolitics discussion group has been one ofher extra-maternal interests.Guy R. Vowles, PhD, is president thisyear of the Davidson, N. C, Lions Club.Can you beat this?Virginia Everett, AM '27, PhD'40, (Mrs. Lowell Leland) may besetting a record for the Class of '27.She writes, "The news of theClass of 1927— grandparents, retired, and what not, makes me feelas if a time machine has been operating in reverse in our case. Cananother member of the Class of '27present a family as young as ours(our own, too, not adopted) — Johnny, 2, and Will, 1? They're happy,healthy youngsters, and I spend mytime trying to keep them thatway!"1927Edith Fisher, AM, is now living inSan Pedro, Calif., and is teaching in theLos Angeles public school system.William J. Gillesby is chief of surgical services at the Veterans Hospitalin Hines, 111.Lillian Haas Alspaugh is a member ofthe National board of the American Association of University Women, and vicepresident from the Northeast- Central region. Her home is in Cincinnati.Pearl Hogrefe, PhD, has been grantedthe A.A.U.W. Founders' Fellowship of$3,000 for a year's study, during whichtime she hopes to complete her book onthe dramatic influence of the Sir ThomasMore circle.Matthew Lewison, MD '32, is a pediatrician in Chicago. He has three children in his family, ages 10, 12, and 14.Emily Rawlings, a retired school teacher, is in the resort business. She operatesMany Pines Resort in Chetek, Wis., during the summer months. This winter sheis at home in Eau Claire, but usually sheheads for Tacoma and Gig Harbor, Wash.,before the snow flies.1928Dr. Lloyd B. Harmon, PhD, is pastorof the First Presbyterian Church inWesterville, Ohio.Glenn Kelly, AM, retired last springafter more than 30 years of work as aschool administrator. Last July Glennand his wife started for the west coastin their 27-foot Trotwood house trailerand have now parked it in Salem, Ore.,where Glenn is teaching graduate courses in school administration on a part-timebasis in Willamette University.John W. Parker is Professor andChairman of the Department of Englishat Fayetteville State Teachers College inNorth Carolina. He has contributed manyarticles, editorials, and reviews to journals and newspapers. In recent yearshe has taught classes for Army personnelat Fort Bragg, N. C.William Tuach, SM '29, is easternsales manager of the A. J. Nystrom Co.,educational map publishers. His homeis in Westport, Conn.Allen Wikgren, AM '29, PhD '32,spent several months this past summerand fall in research on Greek and otherNew Testament manuscripts in variouslibraries and collections in Europe. As amember of the executive committee ofthe International Greek New TestamentProject, he attended a joint session witha British committee in Oxford last June.1929Henry E. Allen, AM, PhD '30, is coordinator of student religious activitiesat the University of Minnesota.Stanley Furguson has resigned fromthe superintendency of City Hospital,Cleveland, to become superintendent ofUniversity Hospitals in the same city.Howard Y. McClusky, PhD, is the firstpresident of the Adult Education Association of the United States, a new national organization combining the formerAmerican Association for Adult Education and the department of adult education of the National Education Association.Rudolf Osgood, MD, is a pathologistat the Massachusetts Memorial Hospitalin Boston, and an assistant professor ofpathology at Boston University MedicalSchool.Dorothy B. Smith, AM, has beengranted a sabbatical leave from LongBeach, Calif., City College for work ona subject index to poetry, commissionedby the American Library Association.Adolph J. Toigo has joined a newadvertising agency, Lennen and Newell,Inc., in New York, as vice-president,general manager and member of theboard of directors. He resigned as vice-president of William Esty Co. to assumehis new post. The Toigos have two sons,Oliver, a student at the University ofChicago, and Alfred.1930Sophie V. Cheskie, MBA '46, madeher third trip to Europe last summer withthe Wayne University study tour in comparative education. She is collecting material during these trips, via conferences,etc., especially in England, in the fieldof adult education.Virginia C. Farinholt, AM, PhD '36,had a "wonderful" trip to Spain thispast summer.Margaret H. Waters is employed bythe elementary schools of Oak Park towork with emotionally disturbed children. She is a lecturer on children'sproblems and family living, and a familycounselor at the Austin MethodistChurch. Her hobbies are music, traveland nature study.1931Norman Johnson, PhD, is ResearchProfessor of Religion at Union Collegein Schenectady, N. Y.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWilliam S. Minor, DB, Associate Professor of Philosophy at West VirginiaUniversity, presented a paper on "Teaching as a Professional Art" at the meeting on the teaching of philosophy in conjunction with the Western division ofthe American Philosophical Associationlast spring.Russell L. Palm, AM '38, is in hiseleventh year as principal of the ParkElementary School in La Porte, Ind., butthis is his first year in the handsome newschool building which was completed lastFebruary.Charles H. Sevin, MBA '41, formerlywith the U.S. Department of Commerce,is now with the Office of Price Stabilization, in the consumer goods distributiontextile and apparel division as a divisioneconomist.Mina Rees, PhD, has been appointeda U.S. representative on UNESCO's international panel on applied mathematics.Julian D. Weiss, JD, and his familyare at home at 1230 Stone Canyon Road,Bel-Air, Calif. Julian's article, "Outlookfor Business and the Securities Markets"made the cover page of the Commercial& Financial Chronicle, Sept. 11 issue.1932E. H. Pritchard, AM, is president ofthe Western Materials Co. (sand andrefractories) in Chicago.James Quinn, PhD, is contributing anarticle commenting on Dr. RadhakamalMukerjee's work in social ecology, aspart of a volume being prepared by theUniversity of Lucknow to honor the Indian sociologist.Nann Slade is Assistant Professor ofBusiness Administration at the University of Houston.Ethel E. Smith, AM, (Mrs. RalphHoeber) has resigned from her positionas director of elementary education inthe department of public instruction ofHawaii, after five years' effort to improvethe curriculum and to develop threemajor curriculum publications. Her husband is chairman of the Department ofEconomics and Business at the University of Hawaii.1934- Lucia Dean, AM, has resigned fromher position in Springfield, 111.Esther Fenchtwanger Tamm writesthat she is active in PTA, Scouts, andWorld Fellowship Projects. She hasthree children: one boy, 13; and twogirls, 8 and 4%. "I'll try to attend our20th Class reunion in June."The Rev. John Koehler is presidentof the Rhode Island Council of Churches.James Dudley Parsons joined theKeith Parsons family on October 21,1952. Dad is president of the AlumniAssociation and a member of the lawfirm of Milliken, Vollers & Parsons inChicago. Mother is Lorraine Watson,'34, AM '38.Jessie Lucille Warren, AM '44, is nowteaching in Warren, Ohio.1933Beatrice Achtenberg, AM '36, (Mrs.Sigmund Gundle) is a resident of Law-"ence, Kan., where she finds that raisingthree children— Michael, Ruth and Barbara—is a full-time job. Her husbandJs a psychiatrist as Kansas University health service and Associate Professorin the Medical School.James Duncan, who was formerly assistant treasurer of Chicopee Manufacturing Corp. in New Brunswick, wasappointed controller of Mark & TilfordDistillers Corp., in New York City lastspring.Looks as though Hance F. Haney'stwin sons, Robert and William, are following in their father's medical footsteps.They are now second-year pre-med students at the University of Oregon.Albert Levi, AM, PhD '38, formerlyon the faculty of Black Mountain College,has been appointed Associate Professorof Philosophy at Washington University.Last year he studied at the Universitiesof Graz and Vienna under a Fulbrightfellowship.H. O. Werner served last year as president of the Nebraska chapter of SigmaXi. He is engaged in breeding potatovarieties that, it is hoped, will havesuperior culinary quality combined withresistance to one or more of severaldiseases.1935Veronica Camutz is teaching in theDavis Elementary School in Chicago,with time out periodically for sabbaticalleaves which are spent traveling. "Mysister, Elizabeth Camutz, '28, and I havea joint hobby of taking and showingcolor movies of our travels." Veronicawas recently elected chairman of theelections committee of the Chicago division of the Illinois Education Association.Leah Dushkin Eisenstaedt is a Chicago housewife with two children, Richard, 4, and Lore, 5 months. Her husbandis a pathologist.Samuel Hair is owner of the InterstateAdvertising Co. in Charlotte, N. C, andpresident of the Charlotte AdvertisingClub. 5Robert Livingston, JD '37, has beenelected vice-president and member ofthe general executive staff of Walter E.Heller & Co., investment bankers andfactors of Chicago and New York. Livingston was formerly a member of thelaw firm of Ryan, Condon & Livingston.Julia F. Tear, SM, who retired fromMichigan State College in 1950, hasserved as Visiting Professor in Textilesand Clothing at the University of Miami.Louise Viehoff Molkup, AM, writesthat she is still enjoying a "hecticallybusy life" as a commuting housewife."I'm keeping our home in Chicago andone 'on the job' wherever Joe happensto be." Louise is as busy as ever in theRed Cross organization and has recentlybeen elected first vice-president of thenational organization, American Overseas Association. The Molkups have beenspending much of their time in PuertoRico lately.1936Edward B. Cantor, MD, has completeda three -year residency at Chicago Lying-in Hospital, Stanford University, and theWomen's Hospital in Detroit, and is nowpracticing obstetrics and gynecology inLos Angeles.Jeannette M. Cochrane has been theexecutive secretary of the Illinois Society of Certified Public Accountants forthe past three years.John E. Cornyn, MBA, is a certifiedpublic accountant and a partner in the firm of Williams, Stangle & Cornyn, inChicago. The Cornyns' fifth child (fourthdaughter) was born last February.Fred M. Fowkes, PhD '38, a researchchemist, has been appointed a supervisorof research in Shell Development Company's catalysis and surface chemistrydepartment, in Emeryville, Calif.Martin Gardner was married in October to the former Charlotte Greenwaldof New York City. Martin is a contributing editor to a new magazine for children called Humpty Dumpty's Magazine,published by Parents Institute. Martinis also engaged in editing two morechildren's magazines, Piggly Wiggly,which first appeared on November 25,'and Polly Pigtails, scheduled for anearly 1953 debut.Bernard Meltzer, JD '37, Professor ofLaw at the University of Chicago, hasrecently been named a Hearing Commissioner for the National ProductionAuthority, Department of Commerce. Hewill preside at public hearings intocharges of violations of NPA orders andregulations in the Chicago area.Edward J. Preston is in a supervisoryposition in the customers' department ofthe Southern Counties Gas Co., of Calif.,in the San Gabriel Valley division.Rae E. Rips, AM '38, is chief of thehistory and travel department of theDetroit public library. "Some enjoyabletravel for me has been financed by theroyalties from my revision of the book,United States Government Publications."Charles C. Roby, PhD '40, is supervisor of the research laboratories atBoston Lying-in Hospital and researchassociate in obstetrics at Howard Medical School.Mary E. Ryan is teaching U.S. historyand current world affairs to high schoolstudents in Prescott, Ariz. She is alsopresident of the Society of Social ScienceTeachers of Northern Arizona.Hubert G. Schmidt, AM, has returnedto his teaching duties at the NewarkCollege of Rutgers University. A specialist in economic history, Dr. Schmidthad been serving for the past three yearsin high posts in military government andthe State department in Germany. Threeof his studies, on German foreign trade,economic assistance to Berlin, and German food and agricultural problems havealready been published in book form. Afourth, concerning the Ruhr industries,will be published soon.Martin F. Young is with the Freyn-Koppers Steel Co. Martin's outside interests extend in the direction of a GreatBooks course in his home town of Lombard, 111.1937Melvin Salk, SM '38, is now an instructor in medicine at the Chicago Medical School. He was certified in internalmedicine in April, 1951.Jonas E. Schreider, SM '38, MD '43,opened an office in Walnut Creek, nearOakland, Calif., last spring for the practice of dermatology. He writes that hequite often sees Franz W. Wassermann,'41, MD '43, who is also practicing medicine in that community.Ruth Visher Smalley reports that sheis "laboring at labor" as a lawyer for theNLRB in Washington, D.C.Catherine B. Cleary has been electedpresident of the Association of BankWomen, national organization of womenJANUARY, 1953 25executives in banking. Miss Cleary istrust officer of the First Wisconsin Milwaukee. She was appointed inJune to the board of regents of theWisconsin state colleges for a term ending in 1957.Elizabeth Ellis (Mrs. Fred Reed) is aconsultant in the home safety divisionof the National Safety Council, andeditor of a "little, but little magazine!"she says, entitled, Home Safety Review.Sigmund Danziger, Jr., is presidentof the Homak manufacturing company inChicago.Lillian Feldman writes that her husband, Herbert Greenwald, has been the"dynamo" behind much of the recentmodern building in Chicago. "Most newsworthy is the '860' Lake Shore Drivebuilding of steel and glass, and others include the South Side Promontory Apts.,the Algonquin, Chippewa, and TwinTowers." The Greenwalds have twosons, Michael, 4, and Bennett, 10.Ralph Heuse, SM, is now at the Louisville Works of the DuPont Co. TheHeuse's third child, a daughter, will bea year old on March 25.1938Marguerite M. Iknayan, AM '39, wasawarded a $1,500 fellowship by theAmerican Association of UniversityWomen for research in Paris on thecriticism of the novel in France in thefirst half of the 19th century.Lyle Spencer, president of ScienceResearch Associates, has been electedchairman of the Young Presidents' Organization in Chicago. This organizationis open only to executives who, by theage of 39, have become presidents offirms with at least $1,000,000 annual sales.The group numbers 428 presidents acrossthe country, of whom 72 are in the Chicago region.1939Mrs. Bertha J. Catt retired on September 30, completing 25 years of service inthe field of social work. Since 1944 shehad served as a psychiatric social workerat Elgin State Hospital and has playedan active role there in developing socialcase work services to the patients. Sheand her husband have a home in Elgin.James Glasgow, PhD, and his wife,Ruth Adams, '27, are in Honolulu thisyear where James is Acting Head of theDepartment of Geography at the University of Hawaii.Robert E. Kronemeyer, AM '47, wasmarried last June 14 to Nancy M. Davis,a graduate of Mills College.Charles I. Longacre is now with theOffice of Defense Mobilization, AdvisoryCommittee on Production Equipment,Washington, D.C.G. L. Messenger, Jr., AM, is pastorof the First Christian Church in Stillwater, Okla.Robert R. Moyer has become a member of the sales department of MonsantoChemical Company's plastic division inSt. Louis, Mo.Robert Reynolds is back in the employ of Calumet & Hecla ConsolidatedCopper Co., as a geologist after an absence of 15 months during which timehe was in Nigeria, Africa, studying thelead-zinc resources under the ECA PointFour program. He is now dividing his time between the Shullsburg zinc area(in Wis.) and the Calumet, Mich., copper district.David Rubin, PhD '43, is on leave ofabsence for a two-year period to servein the Army. He was staff physician anddirector of amputee training at the KabatKaiser Institute in Santa Monica, Calif.,as well as visiting staff physician at theLos Angeles County General Hospitaland an instructor in physical medicine atthe University of Southern CaliforniaMedical School.Leo Seren, PhD '42, informs us thathe is finding that the Great Books courseprovides a continuous supplement to hisuniversity education. We are wonderingif Leo has made any more trips to Haiti,where he visited last winter.Ruth Tupes Scearce is a farmer's wifein Hemple, Mo. She has two sons, Jimmy, 3, and Michael, 14 months.1940John W. Bond, Jr., is working atLos Alamos in the Laboratory's theoretical physics division.William Tucker Dean, Jr., JD, reportsseveral new developments in his household this fall. The Dean's third son,Tobias, arrived in October. Bill has beenpromoted to the rank of major in theArmy Reserve and is assigned to a military government reserve unit. He hasalso recently been promoted to the rankof associate professor of law at New YorkUniversity. He continues as editor ofthe Annual Survey of American Law andthe Survey of New York Law.Elizabeth Essington stayed at Chicago House in Luxor on her recent tripto the Near East, which included Egypt,Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece,and Italy in her itinerary.Mary C. Hanes (Mrs. Herbert Gaet-jens) reports that a son has been addedto their family of two girls. Anthonywas born August 9, 1951. The girls areCarol, 8, and Catherine, 5. The Gaetjenslive in Downers Grove, 111.Betty Hawk Hartwell is living in Birmingham, Mich. Her husband is an economist with the Ford Motor Co. Theyhave two sons, Robert and John III.Nicholas Helburn is on a Ford Foundation fellowship this year, studying theagricultural geography of the AnatolianPlateau. "I hope to discover how theTurks adjust to the same problems wehave in the American Great Plains. Ihave a year's leave of absence from myposition as Associate Professor and Headof the Department of Geography andGeology at Montana State College tocarry on this study abroad. My wife,Tess, and son Stephen are along with meand we hope to do our field work in ajeep truck equipped for camping."Sophy Hess, SM '41, who has beenMrs. John Hardy since September 9, 1951,continues in the general practice of medicine in Philadelphia. Her husband isthe district traffic superintendent of theAmerican T. & T. Co. of Pennsylvania.Norman A. Holmes is Professor ofReligion and Philosophy at Dillard University.Franklin King is director of the Vermont Children's Aid Society, a privatewelfare organization.The State Department has awardedDolores Moore, SM, a Fulbright grantto serve as Visiting Lecturer in Hospital Dietetics at the National Institute ofHygiene in Paris, France. "As 'diet therapy' is practically unknown in France,I will be doing pioneer work in the fieldand will direct student dietitians whowill be studying at a hospital affiliatedwith the University."M. Frances Smith, PhD, is in her 7thyear as a faculty member at the University of Wichita where she is Head ofthe German Department.Samuel Strong, PhD, a member ofthe faculty at Carleton College, wasVisiting Professor of Sociology at theUniversity of Nevada last summer.1941Betty Evans Price has a hard easy life.She and her husband operate a DairyQueen (ice cream) store on a main highway in East Chicago, Indiana. Sevendays a week they work into the midnight hours for seven months. Then theyhang an Out-For-The-Winter sign in thedoor and spend the next five monthsfishing and things in St. Petersburg, Fla.,where they are building a home.William Friedman is second secretaryat the American Embassy, Vienna, Austria.D. Lee Hamilton, PhD, and his wife,Mary MacKenzie, '36, AJM '37, are nowresidents of Monterey, Calif., where Leeis academic dean of the Army LanguageSchool, where 24 different languages aretaught by natives to Army personnel.Mary Harney, a resident of La Jolla,Calif., has recently become the executivesecretary of the San Diego MunicipalEmployes' Association.Word comes from Alfred Pfanstiehl inTakoma Park, Md., that he is in electronics engineering, helping to developflight simulator trainers for jets andanti-submarine patrol planes. "Interesting, but I hope to get back to teachingsome day."Leona Jordan, AM, is chief socialworker at the VA Hospital* in GrandJunction, Colo.Mrs. Ruth Marshall Pierstorff, AM,is state rehabilitation consultant on thestaff of the New Jersey Society for Crippled Children and Adults. She will bein charge of case investigation and rehabilitation referral of all handicappedchildren and adults who apply to thestate society for aid.John Plunkett, MD '43, manages tokeep more than busy with his two jobs,one in the private practice of psychiatry,and the other with the Yale Universitystudent health division of mental hygiene. A resident of Hamden, Conn.,John has three children — Judy, 7; Jamie,3; and Kathy, 1.Sara Richman (Mrs. Raymond Harris) writes from Albany, N. Y., that sheis teaching an adult education class,Painting for Beginners, an experimentalproject sponsored by the board of education in cooperation witn the Community Council for Older People. "Hopewe'll discover a new Grandma Moses, orbetter. I find my art work quite recreational after chasing three-year-old Anitaand Laura Jean (16 months) all over."David L. Rubinfine, MD '44, is apsychiatrist in New York City where heis also on the staff of Mt. Sinai Hospital.He is a Fellow of the American Boardof Psychiatry and Neurology.Frantz L. Warner reports the birth ofthe Warner's fourth child, second daugh-26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEter, Eleanor, born April 10, 1952. TheWarners live in Dedham, Mass.1942Jay P. Bartlett, MD '43, who has beenpracticing medicine with his father inOgden, Utah, has been called back toactive duty in the Navy.Arthur A. Bright, Jr., AM, PhD '49,has been appointed director of researchfor the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.Martha Johnson is assistant to thedirector of the Joint Commission onAccreditation of Hospitals, with officesin Chicago.Maurine Kornfield, AM '48, is working as a caseworker at the Children'sHome Society of Minnesota, a private,non-sectarian adoption agency in St.Paul.Marcia Merrifield (Mrs. John Schenck)writes from Tucson, Ariz., that theirfamily includes two boys, one six yearsold, and one 18 months. Marcia keepsup her music by singing in the churchchoir and playing for different churchorganizations. Her husband teaches inthe industrial arts department at thesenior high school.When Eugene Pomerance, MBA '47,and his family moved recently to 561Fern Ave., Elmhurst, 111., they wantedfriends to know how to find their newhome, so they issued a clever map of thearea showing just where the Pomerancesare to be found.Mary Edith Runyan, AM '45, is headof the O.M.P. course at Shimer College(the old O.I.I, course, she explains — organization, methods, principles). She alsoteaches in the Humanities 3 course.Robert Wrigley, PhD, is a regionalgeographer with the Bureau of Census.He reports that there are two other U. ofC. PhD's working with him: RobertKlove, '32, PhD '42, who is assistantchief of the geography division; and Vin-rent Throop, PhD '48, chief of the research section of the geography division.1943Peter Carson Clark arrived on the 4thof July in the home of Johnson andLouise Harvey Clark — their fourth child.Betsy Davison has a San FranciscoAPO following her name as she is nowin Korea working as a service clubdirector with the U. S. Air Force. Shetook time off last year to get an AM inrecreation administration at ColumbiaUniversity.Daniel Fogel, JD '48, is practicinglaw in San Francisco. He has two sons,Jeremy Don, 3, and Barry Stephen, 8months.Alexander Harmon, MBA '49, assistant superintendent of City Hospital,Cleveland, has been appointed actingsuperintendent of this huge institution.He succeeds Stanley Ferguson, '29, whohas moved to University Hospitals inCleveland to become superintendent.Many will remember Alex as director ofthe Reynolds Club during his studentdays.Sherrick Kernoll, MBA '47, and hiswife, Janet Peacock, are residents ofSeattle, Wash. They have two children,Kathy, 4, and Joan, 2V2.Jesssie Obert,' SM, received her PhDin home economics from Ohio State Uni versity in December, 1951, and is nowan instructor in the Department of HomeEconomics at the University of Californiain Los Angeles.Joseph A. Parks, MD, is now practicing radiology in Pocatello, Idaho. Hesends news of other alumni in that area:"W. Richard Hearne, '42, MD '43, enjoys a most enviable reputation as ageneral practitioner. At the meetings ofthe Ogden Surgery Society in May itwas gratifying to meet so many oldfriends— Jay Bartlett, MD '43, VaughnPond, MD '43, and Russell Nichols, MD'38. Pocatello is near the gateway toYellowstone Park," Joe informs us, "sowe are expecting visits from all our U.of C. friends who might be passingthrough or near the Park."Rosalie T. Phillips (Mrs. Oliver Johnson) has a second daughter, Pamela, bornlast March 4 in Chicago. Her sister, Deborah, is now 2.Arthur E. Rasmussen, AM, was recently elected vice-president of Congo-leum-Nairn, Inc., of Kearny, N. J. Hejoined the company as assistant to thepresident in 1951. He was formerly withPhilco Corp., and Booz, Allen and Hamilton, management consultants.RASMUSSEN CONGOLEUM - NAIRN VEEPElaine Siegel, SM '51, (Mrs. MortonBerman) has a baby daughter, Susanna,born last spring.Leonard Walker is assistant directorof laboratories, Menorah Hospital Medical Center, Kansas City, Mo., workingwith radioactive isotopes. His two boysare Arthur, 5, and David, 2.1944Elizabeth R. Headland (Mrs. WilliamOostenbrug) is busy caring for her twochildren, Nancy Reed, who was a yearold last June 14, and Paul, two years oldlast April. "I'm finding a Great Booksgroup provides some much needed exercise after a day of being a mother."The Headlands live in Hinsdale, 111.Reginald Hobbah, PhD, is on leavefrom Rutgers University to undertake aspecial airways study for the Air Transport Association of America. PORTIA INMEN BECOMES WAC CAPTAINCapt. Portia Inmen was graduated recently from the Associate WAC CompanyOfficers' Course at the Women's ArmyCorps Training Center at Fort Lee, Va.Louise C. Kachel of Denver is spending this year in Mexico working for theAmerican Friends Service Committee.Robert Morrison, PhD, is AssistantProfessor at New York University, teaching and doing research in organic chemistry. His wife, Joan Wehlen, workedfor an advertising agency until last June,but is now free-lancing for such magazines as McCalls, Mademoiselle andGlamour. They vacationed in Europelast summer.Ching Cheng Shih, AM, PhD '46, isAssistant Professor at the University ofToronto, Department of East AsiaticStudies. His wife, Margaret Loh, received her master's degree at the University in 1948 in the field of socialservice.Kenneth R. Williams, PhD, wasnamed as the American member of theCommission on Secondary Education forIndia. Williams has been serving as aconsultant with the Southern RegionalEducation Board in Atlanta.1945Minnie Redmond Bowles is a librarianat Hampton Institute.A third boy has arrived in the CharlesEinstein home. He is Jeffrey Paul, bornlast July 1.Constance Graves is an anesthesiologist in Chicago.Paul Higgins, DB, is now pastor of theHyde Park Methodist Church in Chicago.The newsnote from Jerome Jacobssays, "I'm married, have a baby, and amin the printing business in New YorkCity — the Ideal Printing and EngravingCo."Gloria Schiller (Mrs. Walter Beatty)reports on what a busy time the Beattyshad last year. "Wally, AM '47, PhD '51,was released from active duty after serving 15 months. We hope he'll be able tostay out of the Army from now on. Webought a house in Silver Springs, Md.,and Wally returned to the University ofMaryland as Assistant Professor of ChildStudy. He also received his PhD at theMarch U. of C. convocation."JANUARY, 1953 27POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHeeves Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing^ AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisPHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work a SpecialtyQuality Book Reproduction731 Plymouth CourtWAbash 2-8182Platers - SilversmithsSince 1917GOLD, SILVER, RHODIUMSILVERWARERepaired, Refin'-shed, RelacqueredSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CEntral 6-6089-90 ChicagoA. T. STEWART LUMBER CO.Quality and ServiceSince 788879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phones Vlncennes 6-9000LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATES"engravers <N**— — SINCE 19 O 6 — — —+ WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES + I+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ¦ ?.. |+ ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE ?RAYNER^DALHEIM £CO2801 W. 47TH ST.. CHICAGO. Robert L. Sutton, MD, '46, is in theprivate practice of internal medicine inTipp City, Ohio. The Suttons have a son,Craig, who will be one year old on February 14.Ruth G. Wiese has joined NorthrupAircraft, Inc., at Hawthorne, Calif., as anengineering librarian.Warren Wilhelm, MD, is now medicaldirector of Research Clinic in KansasCity, Mo., after completing a 3V2-yearfellowship in internal medicine at MayoClinic. He writes, "My wife, a formernurse at Billings, and my three boys areall doing well and we're sure that wewill enjoy Kansas City."1946E. Theodore Bachmann, PhD, is Professor Elect of Church History at thenew Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary in Berkeley. Mr. Bachmann hasserved as chief of Protestant affairs, Office of U. S. High Commissioner for Germany, in Frankfurt.Frederic Cimberblatt is a stockbrokerwith the firm of Shearson Hammill &Co. He is serving on the executive staffof the civil defense program in Chicago.Melville Dalton, AM, PhD, '49, is nowAssistant Professor of Sociology andAnthropology at Washington Universityin St. Louis.Ellen Dell Bieler, AM '47, field consultant for the National Conference ofParents and Teachers, was director fora statewide series of leadership traininginstitutes sponsored by the NebraskaConference of Parents and Teachers thispast October.Eugene P. Edwinn took a year's leaveof absence from his New York City lawpractice to become a graduate student atHarvard University Law School.Stuart D. Loomis, AM, in addition tohis teaching in the Department of Sociology at San Francisco State College, isalso coordinator of the Counseling Center there. "Should you come out thisway, I'm sure you would find a heartywelcome from our Chicago 'family' whichincludes, in part: Joseph Axelrod, PhD'45; John Bergstresser, formerly in theDepartment of Education at the U. of C;Leo Cagan, AM '47 ; Frederick Feltham,PhD '51; Lavone Hanna, AM '27; LeonLassers, '33; John Schneider, AM '29;George Sheviakov; Hilda Taba; PaulAshby, PhD '49; and Jean Bunnell, AM'48".Marshall Forrest and his wife, Ernestine Unst, have built a new home inBellingham, Wash. Marshall is a representative in the state legislature. He andJack Rowles are law partners in Bellingham.Sebastian Martorana, PhD '48, is nowAssociate Professor of Education, Schoolof Education of the State College ofWashington.Patricia Monser and her husband,Ralph Graves, are both working for LifeMagazine, Pat as a reporter and Ralphas an editor.Miriam R. Murphy was married onAugust 30, 1952, to Robert Diebald. Theyare living in Cleveland, Ohio.Lt. Phillip Nexon, AM '48, has beena married man since June of '51, and onactive duty with the Navy since July ofthat year, in Washington, D. C.Richard A. Peterson has been recalledto active duty in the Navy and is serving as a lieutenant j.g. overseas. William Schlefer, MBA '49, and Her-tha M. Goose, '49, were married lastApril 19, and are living in New YorkCity.Gerald Stechler was married in September to Miss Ellen Bodner, a BarnardCollege graduate. Gerald is now studying for his PhD degree at Yale University.Alan J. Strauss has completed his experimental work and is writing his thesisfor the PhD in the Department of Chemistry. Last spring he accepted a positiondoing research for, the Chicago Midwaylaboratories, operated by the Universityfor the Air Force. Mrs. Strauss (Marjorie Abrams, '48, AM '51) is a caseworker for United Charities.1947William R. Ballard, SM, was marriedthis fall to Miss Lee Morgan, a graduatein Social Service Administration at theUniversity. The couple are making theirhome in Chicago.Capt. Richard K. Blaisdell, MD, hasbeen assigned to the surgical service section of the 343rd General Hospital inJapan. He went to Japan from a tour ofduty in Korea.Charles Bluestein, AM, recently purchased a home in Beverly Hills, Calif.The Bluesteins have two children: Markand Claudia, who was born July 12, 1952.Thomas Connolly, PhD, '51, is Assistant Professor of English at CreightonUniversity in Omaha. He and his wife,Mary Jane Gould, '46, have two sons;the second, Daniel Paul, now 18 monthsold.Elizabeth Fanck, AM, was married onJune 27 to W. Paul Strassmann of Houston, Texas. The ceremony took place inLondon, England. After a five-months'tour through western Europe the coupleare making their home in Washington,D.C.Donald R. Gerth, AM '51, is now onactive duty as a lieutenant in the AirForce.Neal Groman, PhD '50, is instructingdental students in bacteriology and keeping busy with research at the Universityof Washington. "We are enjoying theoutdoor life of the northwest, and havebecome full-fledged campers, from Elaineon down to our two children, Jo Ann, 5,and Nancy, 3."Dolores Happ will be in England thisyear as a Fulbright scholar assigned tothe London School of Economics.E. Arline Heath, AM '52, received hermaster's degree from the University lastMarch. She is a member of Pi LambdaTheta.John H. Kornblith, MBA '48, is general manager and vice-president of Samuel Spitz & Sons, Inc., in Chicago.Robert L. Meyers, who has a bachelor s degree in meteorology from theU. of C, has added an MS degree inpharmacology from Temple Universityto his accomplishments.Blythe Mitchell, AM, is in the divisionof test research and service, World BookCo., Yonkers, N. Y.James S. Myers, MBA '49, is a financial analyst with the American PhenolicCorp. in Chicago.H. Edmund Piatt, JD, is now servingas superintendent of agents for the PostalLife & Casualty Insurance Co. in KansasCity, Mo. The Platts have three young28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELocal and Long Distance MovingStorage Facilities for Books,Record Cabinets, Trunks, orCarloads of FurniturePeterson FireproofWarehouse Inc.1011 EAST 55th STREETBUTTERFIELD 8-6711DAVID L. SUTTON, PresidentWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or—Wasson DoesBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. PLaza 2-3313Verna P. Warner, DirectorAuto Livery: Quiet, unobtrusive serviceWhen you want it, a* you want itCALL AN EMERY FIRS!Emery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4-6400 Joan Reinagle (Mrs. Herbert Gill)sends news that she and her husbandhad a wonderful summer entering theirsailboat in races at various yacht clubregattas on Lake Erie. Their home is inCleveland.Irving Rimer, AM, is public relationsdirector of the Community Chest andCouncil of Worcester, Mass. He is amember of the public relations institutecommittee of Community Chests ofAmerica. For relaxation he leads a GreatBooks discussion group.Ralph S. Saul is practicing law inNew York, associated with the firm ofLyeth & Voorhees.Marvin L. Shapiro, SM '49, of Stano-lind Oil and Gas Co., has been named ageologist in the company's district officeat Lubbock, Texas.Richard S. Shaw, MD, has opened anoffice in Toledo, Ohio, for the practice ofinternal medicine.The Rev. Ralph Sundquist, Jr., is pastor of the First Presbyterian Church inFranklinville, N. Y.James H. Thompson, MBA '50, is district manager in the Minneapolis branchof the Studebaker Corp.Marion A. Trozzolo, MBA '50, is aninstructor in business administration forthe second year at Rockhurst College,Kansas City, Mo.Walter Vonnegut, a teacher in Ana-cortes, Wash., says that he is continuingto build on his land. "Am doing thework myself — not very intellectual, butsatisfying."1948Mary Ann Boucher was married onAugust 1, 1952, to Robert Dudney II.Rolf Desssauer, SM '49, recentlyjoined the technical staff of the Du PontCompany's organic chemicals departmentat the Jackson Laboratory in DeepwaterPoint, N. J.Frank J. Estvan, PhD, is AssociateProfessor of Education at the Universityof Wisconsin.Jack Ferguson returned to the campuslast summer to study with the Committee of International Relations.Roscoe P. Hankin, MBA, is an accountant with Oscar Mayer & Co. inMadison, Wis.Raymond L. Holly, who was ordaineddeacon in the Episcopal Church by BishopConkling of Chicago last May, is now incharge of the work, of the EpiscopalChurch in Iroquois and Ford Countiesin Illinois.Barbara Lipman was married September 7, 1952, to Sheldon Eugene Kent,a graduate of the University of Wisconsin. They are making their home inChicago where Sheldon, a chemical engineer, has a chemical plant.Rolland R. Lutz, Jr., AM, is studyingthis year at the University of Vienna asa recipient of a Fulbright award.Robert Mosely has joined the ShellDevelopment Co., Emeryville, Calif., andis doing research in the petroleum refining field.Kenneth Mulcahy, MBA '50, is stillwith the Atomic Energy Commission asan auditor in Oak Ridge. His little girl,Jean Louise, was a year old on December 5.David H. Pollock, MBA, is still working with the United Nations EconomicCommission for Latin America in Washington, D. C. RESULTS. . .depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Adressographing - FoldingMailing - Copy Preparation - MultilithA Complete Service for Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn - Chicago 5 - WA 2-4561BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380Since 1878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholsterersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180Ashjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone REgent 4-6000GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186TELEVISIONRentals — sales New & ReconditionedRADIOSRadio-TV ServiceELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators Dishwashers DriersWashers Air Conditioners FreezersSPORTING GOODSf-or all seasonsRECORDSLPs & 45sFine collection tor children935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Julian A. Tishler, '33JANUARY, 1953 29AJAX WASTE PAPER CO.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. SbedroS, CR 7-2668BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoGolden Dirilyte(¦formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID — NOT PLATEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4,Telephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON & BROS., Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributors ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water Marketneutron in i iccrucAi uoDvcralewwd,ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Dlilrllitiis. Mamlielomt ind libbui tiELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500 Samuel E. Stumpf, PhD, is Professorand Chairman of the Department ofPhilosophy at the School of Religion,Vanderbilt University.John C. Watt is with the TJ. S. ForestService, presently in the Modoc NationalForest in northeast California, workingon timber stand improvements.Harry Woolf , AM '49, is attending theUniversity of Paris this year as a Fulbright scholar.1949From Juliette Dannenbaum, AM, (Mrs.Harvey Senturia) comes this greeting:"We promise a hearty welcome to allalumni at the Senturias' newly-occupiedhome, 2715 Robinhood, Houston, Texas.Added entertainment by blue-eyed, pre-toddler, Yvonne."Laurel Karges, MD, is a medical officer in the U. S. Army at Camp Atter-bury, Ind.Lillian M. Richards, AM, is the newdirector of the social service division ofthe hospitals department of New YorkCity. She heads a staff of 327 social service workers in the 33 municipal hospitals.Aldon Roat, MD, is a resident in psychiatry at Central Islip State Hospital inNew York.Peter H. Selz, AM, has been appointedto head the new graduate art educationprogram at the Institute of Design ofIllinois Institute of Technology. He wasawarded a C.R.B. fellowship by theBelgian-American Educational Foundation for study in Brussels this past summer.Harlan M. Smith, PhD, was marriedon June 21 to Miss Lois A. Capella, agraduate of Cornell University. TTiey areboth employed by the Standard Oil Co.of Linden, N. J.Frank Trovillion, MBA, has been living in Lakeland, Fla., since his schooldays and reports that he "loves it" downthere. He is working with a large citrusgrowers' cooperative, Florida Citrus Mutual, embracing some 7,000 growers andcontrolling about 80% of the citrus production. He has been married for twoyears to a girl from South Carolina."Would enjoy hearing from old Dekebrothers and Business School associates,"he says.Alexander Wilde,- MBA, is managerof the statistical division for the BlueCross Plan for Hospital Care in Chicagoafter several years with the Office ofInternational Labor Affairs in Washington, D. C.Samuel Yosim, SM, PhD '52, is achemist with the North American Aviation Co. in Downey, Calif.1950Lawrence Berlin, AM, writes fromHavana, Cuba, of the birth of a daughter, Elizabeth Barnard, on October 11,1952. Lawrence is with the Americanembassy in Havana.Richard S. Brody is a law student atthe University. He and Ann Wittchenwere married last May 2.Ezra, PhD, and Janet Cameron, '40,Solomon left last June for a vacation inIndia and Burma.Ann Collins Downey reports, "TheReserves got me." She is a captain in theArmy, stationed on Okinawa and hopesto be back in civilian life in January,1954. One man's warJames Clifton, '50, has been "upto his neck" as he put it, in theKorean battle-front since early fall.He writes that this is the way itlooks to him:"I was directly introduced to thewar when I took over Vegas, whichwe call our outpost; walked out inthe front trench, set my field glasseson the parapet, and started lookingover Chinese hill No. 139 on ourfront. What I saw was a small figure level a rifle in my direction, apuff of smoke, then the shot of theslug on the sandbag beneath mynose. Well, let us say that I startedmy post-graduate course at thatmoment."Since then I have been snipedat innumerable times, have beenknocked flying by an 81 mortarshell, have been deafened by their76mm artillery piece which knowsevery nook and cranny of our littlehill, and in some small share havefought back. One big advantage isthat the enemy is more frightenedof the Marines than the Marinesare of the enemy. Mind you, justa little, but that little is the edge."I thought I would introduce youto our war."Lucja Gliksman, AM, is a researchassistant at Harvard University.James Lessly was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Army at Fort Knoxin September. He is with the 131st tankbattalion.From Berkeley Mickelsen, PhD, comesthis happy note: "I was married lastAugust 9. There isn't any rivalry inthe family either, even though my wife,Alvera Johnson, is a Northwestern graduate, with an AM in journalism. Atpresent we are both teaching, she injournalism and I in Biblical interpretation at Wheaton College, 111. Marriageis far superior to single blessedness. Iaffirm that with enthusiasm."Thomas Rudy, PhD '52, has joinedthe staff of Shell Development Co., Emeryville, Calif., and is engaged in research on lubricants and fuels.Ray O. Traylor, MBA, assistant director of industrial relations of StandardOil Co., has been appointed to a newposition as manager of the industrial relations division in the general office manufacturing department.Mary Jane Vaden, AM, is a psychiatric social worker at the VA MentalHygiene Clinic and Hospital in Roanoke,Va. "It was nice to be in Chicago lastMay for the National Conference of Social Work, and pleasant to spend a littletime around the University — so manychanges so rapidly."Marguerite Wardlow, AM, is suburban news editor for the Pittsburg (Calif.)Post-Dispatch.Robert L. Williamson took the ABwith Honors in Slavic Languages at theUniversity of California last June, andwas elected to Phi Beta Kappa.Lester Wohlers, PhD '51, is in theforeign service as motion picture officer,U. S. consulate in Zagreb, Yugoslavia.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis— Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field. Itis affiliated with the Fisk Teachers Agencyof Chicago, whose work covers all the educational fields. Both organizations assistin the appointment of administrators aswell as of teachers.Our service is nation-wide.HYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5431 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTESBETTERWHEN IT'S.-f Swift & CompanyA product of ^| 7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliffe 3-7400 1951The engagement of Miss Barbara AnnBallou to David GrifHng Clarke, JD, hasbeen announced.Peter W. Frank, PhD, has acceptedan assistant professorship in zoology atthe University of Missouri.Second Lt. Claus Manasse, MBA, arrived in Korea in October and is servingwith the 25th Infantry Division.William A. Pryor was married on July3, 1952, to Miss Helen Ann Allen. William is a candidate for the PhD in chemistry at the University of California,Berkeley.John L. Sevcik enrolled in the medical school of Northwestern Universitvthis fall.Charles Stone, Jr., AM, resigned fromCarson, Pirie, Scott & Co., last springand is now a field representative withthe American Foundation for PoliticalEducation. This involves considerabletraveling for Charles as a discussionleader for their world politics and foreign policy discussion groups.Friends of Miss Osceola Williams, assistant director of the Carver BaptistMission in New Orleans, were doubtlesssurprised to have us refer to her in theNovember issue as "him." Our apologiesto Miss Williams.Elizabeth Wingreene, AM, (Mrs. Colbert Browne) is teaching history in aMiami, Fla., high school. She has onedaughter.1952Barbara Bender is a foreign recon-cilor with the Bank of America in SanFrancisco, Calif.Thomas Brady, MBA, is assistantagency manager for the Equitable LifeInsurance Co. in Chicago.Paul R. Davis, DB, was ordained intothe Congregational Christian ministry atthe Brentwood Congregational Church inSt. Louis last September. He has returned to the University for further studyat the Chicago Theological Seminary.Davice Ann Greenblatt and KennethChimene, '50, MBA '52, are engaged tobe married.Diana Jane Marscin was married onAugust 30, 1952, to Lowell P. Martin.Alvin Winder, PhD, is a staff psychologist at the Veterans Hospital inDowney, 111. He and his wife, BarbaraDietz, '48, has two boys, Mark, 2, andJoshua, 6 months.Eugene Uyeki, AM, is a faculty member in, the Department of Social Studies,Case Institute of Technology in Cleveland.MemorialPark Lillie, MD '91, died in April,1952, in Cloverdale, Ind.William F. Anderson, '99, died September 30, 1952. He retired in 1945 as atrust officer of the Harris Trust & Savings Bank in Chicago.Roy Cox, '02, died March 1, 1952.Herbert Mellinger, '02, MD '06, diedon October 28, 1952.Robert Trumbull, who studied at theUniversity around 1904, died September3, 1952. SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 100 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoWHOLESALE RETAILPARKER -HOLSMANlC O M P A N VHeal Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps«620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE£*xciu6iue y^leanerSWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608LOWER YOUR COSTSWAGE INCENTIVESEMPLOYEE TRAININGPERSONNEL PROCEDURESIMPROVED METHODSJOB EVALUATIONROBERT B. SHAPIRO '33, DIRECTORJANUARY, 1953 31LA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoOther PlantsBoston — New York — Philadelphia —Syracuse — Cleveland — Detroit"You Might As Well Have The Best"Phones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOYDSTON BROS., INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and licensed attendantsW. B. Conkey Co.Division ofRand MCNally& Company'PtfotenA and ^>utd&i4;CHICAGO • HAMMOND • NEW YORKSine* 1885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyIhe b*st in placement sarvice for University.College, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4. IllinoisTREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DealerforCHRYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMUseum 4-4500Alt*Guaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair,Body, Paint, Simonize, Washand Greasing Departments Lee C. Stiles, MD '06, died on October25, 1952. A well-known Greater Cleveland obstetrician, Dr. Stiles' active practice had spanned 46 years of service, withthe last 35 in East Cleveland. He diedof a coronary attack at the age of 73.Harold Iddings, '08, died August 25,1952. A former Maroon football star, Mr.Iddings was athletic coach at ThorntonHigh School before his retirement in 1946to his farm in Westville, Ind.Joseph Artman, DB '09, died on October 9, 1952, at Lakeside, Mich. Formerly a member of the Divinity School faculty, Dr. Artman had in recent yearsserved as minister of the CongregationalChurch in Three Oaks, Mich. Dr. ErnestChave, Professor Emeritus of the Federated Theological faculty conducted a memorial service at the Three Oaks Church.Calm M. Hoke (Mrs. T. R. McDear-man) who studied at the Universityaround 1911, died on July 13, 1952, following a long illness. She had achievednational recognition as a chemist andengineer.J. Elmer Switzer, '11, died May 29,1952, of injuries from a fall off a ladder.He was Professor of Geography at Indiana University from 1923 to 1947.Ruth Sherwood, '12 (Mrs. Albin Pol-asek) died on October 1, 1952, in Orlando,Fla. Her death came very unexpectedly.An artist, Mrs. Polasek taught for 10years at the Art Institute of Chicagounder Albin Polasek, a noted sculptor,whom she married in 1950.Ida A. Bengston, SM '13, PhD '19,died on September 6, 1952, in Baltimore,at the age of 71. A retired public healthservice scientist, Dr. Bengston was nationally known for her research contributions in the field of rickettsial diseases.Rebekah Lesem, '13, died on May 3,1951, in Sarasota, Fla.The Very Rev. Claude W. Sprouse,'15, DB '16, died September 8, 1952. Hecollapsed on the platform of SymphonyHall in Boston a few moments after beingunanimously re-elected president of theHouse of Deputies of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Death was attributed toa heart attack. Since 1931 Dean Sprousehad been dean of the Cathedral of Graceand Holy Trinity in Kansas City, Mo.Ellen Anderson, '17, (Mrs. AlfredMcCartney) died on March 24, 1952, inCincinnati, Ohio.Gertrude Thomas Mathes, '17, diedSeptember 23, 1952.Robert W. Brooks, AM '18, DB '19,died October 17, 1952. He had beenminister of the Lincoln CongregationalChurch in Washington, D. C.Greta Coleman, JD '18, died February3, 1952, in Cambridge, Mass.Sidney B. Harry, 19, died September6, 1952, in St. Louis, Mo.Roscoe E. Taylor, '20, died on September 15, 1952, in St. Joseph, Mo., at theage of 54. He was the executive vice-president of the St. Joseph Light andPower Co.Louis H. Sandhusen, AM '21, diedsuddenly on September 5, 1952, in hishome in New York City. He was an artteacher at Brooklyn Technical HighSchool.Anna Pearl Cooper, '22, died on August 23, 1952, in Colorado Springs. Beforeher retirement in 1940, Miss Cooper wasan assistant professor of English at GeorgeWashington University. In recent yearsshe had directed a tutoring institute inWashington, D. C, where foreigners associated with various embassies studied. Josephine B. Herron, '22, died onMarch 31 1952.Ernest V. Delcamp, PhD '23, died onSeptember 1, 1952.Joseph B. Beach, '24, JD '25, died onAugust 25, 1952.John Pieroth, MD '24, died April 14,1952, in Seattle, Wash.Ruth E. Shields, '26, died June 4,1952, in Ames, Iowa.Wallace Woehler, '26, died October12, 1952, in Monrovia, Calif.Leota Blow Boetticher, '27, died September 10, 1952, in Chicago. Mrs. Boetticher was associated with the vocationalguidance bureau of the Chicago publicschools and later joined the staff of thebureau of child study.Jerome Solomon, '27, JD '30, died onOctober 3, 1952, in Los Angeles. Mr. Solomon will be remembered by many of hisclassmates as a talented musician as wellas a lawyer. He wrote the music for theBlackfriar production in 1927, and '29,and in '30 did the entire musical scorefor "Smart Alec."Ben D. Chinn, '28, PhD '35, MD '40,died on July 9, 1952, in Washington, D. C.Edith M. Strouse (Mrs. Solomon) '32,died in June, 1952.Harriet A. Byrne, AM '33, died onAugust 25, 1952.Julius Rudolph, '33, JD '35, waskilled in an automobile accident in Germany on September 11, 1952. In hiscapacity as American District Attorneyof Area VI in Regensburg, Germany, Mr.Rudolph had earned the confidence andesteem of both American and Germancolleagues for his sympathetic and understanding service.Telephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL FhrVt826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 1 5, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLT. A. REHNQUIST CO.fEST. 192VCONCRETEFLOORS — SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSINDUSTRIAL FLOORINGEMERGENCY REPAIR WORKCONCRETE BREAKINGWATERPROOFINGINSIDE WALLS6639 S. Vernon AvenueNOrmal 7-043332 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAtyourage!If you are over 21 (or under 101) it's none too soon foryou to follow the example of our hero, Ed Parmalee,and face the life-saving facts about cancer as presented in ournew film "Man Alive !". You'll learn, too, that cancer is notunlike serious engine trouble— it usually gives you a warning :(1) any sore that does not heal (2) a lump or thickening,in the breast or elsewhere (3) unusual bleeding or discharge(4) any change in a wart or mole (5) persistent indigestionor difficulty in swallowing (6) persistent hoarseness orcough (7) any change in normal bowel habits.While these may not always mean cancer, any one of themshould mean a visit to your doctor.Most cancers are curable but only if treated in time!You and Ed will also learn that until science finds a cure forall cancers your best "insurance" is a thorough healthexamination every year, no matter how well you may feel—twice a year if you are a man over 45 or a woman over 35.For information on where you can see this film, call us orwrite to "Cancer" in care of your local Post Office.American Cancer Society *MAN ALIVE ! is the story of Ed Parmalee, whosefear weakens his judgment. He uses denial, sarcasm and anger in a delightful fashion to avoidhaving his car properly serviced and to avoid goingto a doctor to have a symptom checked that maymean cancer. He finally learns what a difference itmakes (in his peace of mind and in his disposition)to know how he can best guard himself and hisfamily against death from cancer.y/&¦MV,;,w ¦M ¦mh /\ A mfj ..Men, | \ chemistry, and coal!Science has found a new way to get valuable chemicals from coalScience has at last found a practical way to convert coal intothe host of valuable chemicals that nature locked into it.The people of Union Carbide have developed a way tobring coal and hydrogen gas together under carefully controlled heat and pressure. In minutes, this revolutionaryprocess— called coal hydrogenation— converts the coal intoa mixture of gases and liquids that are rich in usefulchemicals.A WEALTH OF RAW MATERIALS- Among them are hitherto scarce, and even completely new, chemicals. Some areraw materials for plastics and synthetic rubber, or are vitalto medicine and vitamins. Some are valuable in rocket propulsion. Others are necessary in insecticides, surface coatings, and many other important uses.A NEW SOURCE OF SUPPLY-Today, Union Carbide'scoal-hydrogenation process promises steady and vastly increased production of chemicals for these needed materials. What's more, it will provide a host of chemicals that maybecome the basis of many new products.A UCC ACHIEVEMENT-With the first coal-to-chemicalsplant of its kind in operation, the people of Union Carbideare now well on the way to making abundant coal a sourceof chemicals important to us all.STUDENTS and STUDENT ADVISERSLearn more about the many fields in which UnionCarbide offers career opportunities. Write for thefree illustrated booklet "Products and Processes"which describes the various activities of UCC in thefields of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, andPlastics. Ask for booklet A-l.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET LTH§ NEW YORK 17, N. Y. UCC's Trade-marked Products of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics include Synthetic Organic Chemicals • Bakelite, Krene, and Vinylite Plastics • Linde Oxygen • Dynel Textile FibersElectromet Alloys and Metals • Haynes Stellite Alloys • Prest-O-Lite Acetylene • Pyrofax GasEvEREADY Flashlights and Batteries • NATIONAL Carbons • AcHESON Electrodes • PRESTONE and TREK. Anti-Freezes