m.w> : • •¦> .fes S.¦a*?5*r?** ¦«'ldustrial Goldbricking ^^jk*^. . Donald Roy W*,.*»*>%,n3 Iami if •¦$!Report on "Grand Central Terminal". . . Leo SzilardROCKEFELLER MEMORIAL CHAPELGenerousDonorshave providedthe Buildings.will you help pay for the Education and Researchwhich go on inside them?NATHAN GOLDBLATT MEMORIAL HOSPITALHARPER MEMORIAL LIBRARY We are fortunate in having buildings which make ourcampus, our equipment, among the finest in the world.And, even more fortunately, we have a faculty withoutpeer.But the cost of the University — its teaching, its research — must be met from outside sources. The incomefrom endowment and from tuition fails to meet this cost.We hope that you, believing in the importance of agreat, living, free university, with a high tradition to preserve, will help keep the University as great as it was inyour day.Any contribution will be valued. A gift of $100 ormore will enter your name in the Century Club.It is still your University. And it still needs your help.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI FOUNDATION5733 University Avenue • Chicago 37 • Illinoisft lento J-^adProgram addendumSince the reunion program in the Mayissue went to press, we have been advisedof the Quadranglers' alumnae dinner. Itwill be in the East Lounge at Ida NoyesSaturday (June 7) evening at 5:30.The Kimptons meet alumniChancellor and Mrs. Kimpton visitedour Chicago clubs at Philadelphia, NewYork, and Washington in April. Theyalso met with our North Shore alumniin May: at Exmoor Country Club in Highland Park and at Westmoreland CountryClub in Evanston.Excellent attendances and enthusiasticreports. New officers have been electedat many points. We'll carry a full directory of clubs and officers in the firstfall issue.Graham goes SouthWillard J. Graham, AM '24, PhD '34,Professor of Accounting in the School ofBusiness and Director of its outstandingExecutive Program, leayes the Midwayin September to become professor ofaccounting at the University of NorthCarolina.Look at your membership cardIf the expiration date on your membership card indicates expiration in a yearor so you may profitably read the nextparagraph.Today you can send $10 and extend thismembership 5 years. On July 1, 1952 tendollars will extend it 4 years. The annualmembership will remain at $3.00.Most members agree that Chicago givesmore for its three-dollar membership thanthe scores of schools charging $4 and $5.The current ten dollar rate for fiveyears (.$2.00 a year) is what you paidmore than a quarter of a century ago.We won't labor this point. But if youwant to send $10 now we'll extend yourmembership 5 years— 4 after July 1st.Shooting arrows in the airWhen the Magazine leaves AlumniHouse you'd never guess where it will showup next:On a Mutual network broadcast withnews commentator Hilgar Baukhage, '11,discussing our January "Why We Don'tBehave Like Human Beings" by Hayakawa.On the N.B.C. network with Leon Pearson from New York referring to our Children's book section in the December issue.In the April issue of Science Digest witha story inspired from "Soracram" in theFebruary issue.John Morrow Co., publishers of HerbertZim's popular children's book, Owls, whichappeared on the December cover, wrotefor a copy of the cover picture, for usein Publishers Weekly.Gerald H. Lovins, '34, of Colorado,where he manufactures scientific instruments and apparatus, wrote about Dr.Robert Ebert's rabbit ear chambers in theJanuary Magazine."For nearly two years I have been manu facturing the Ebert ear chamber commercially and got quite a thrill out of seeingthis article."And most important, of course, was thefollowing letter:"/ want to thank you for announcingmy engagement. Because of the noticeseveral old friends contacted me and itwas very nice hearing from them."Will you now please announce that Iwas married to Stanley Starr of New YorkCity on December 23. We are living at theWoody Hill Gardens, Carpenter Avenue,Mount Kisco, New York."Elizabeth Zamba Starr, AM'50Fun with GargWith the flood of requests for copiesof Garg, the Freshman gargoyle (see February Memo Pad) have come some clevernotes:He's wonderful! And just as startled asI was when the big wide world opened upfor me.Los Angeles Florence R. Scott, '07Garg was a particular chum of minewhile I was taking anatomy. My "stiff"was ensconced on the southeast cornertable in the third floor anatomy lab, andGarg was there, clinging about as I was,just outside my window. I loved him (orher) like a brother (or sister) .Dr. Louis E. Moses, PhD '43 (MD)Randolph Field, TexasHe was my daily inspiration in HumanAnatomy. As he appeared a wee bit timorous in his upward climb, I took heart.Hamilton, Mont. Dr. G. E. Davis, SM '22Garg came just in time to settle an argument on the decor of our den-to-be inthe new home we hope to occupy thissummer. It will be known as the ChicagoRoom.Louise Galst Wechsler, '42, AM '44Vallejo, Cal.Please send me Garg— and his goyles. Ialways wondered about the sex of thesethings.St. Paul Donald B. Smith, '31, JD '32The most delightful young thing I haveever seen. I'm turning the picture overto our freshman club at Morgan Park HighSchool. Who knows— he may turn into thetheme for their spring dance.Chicago Lillian Condit, '17, AM '38Seems like an old friend. I knew thewhole group when a medical student atthe University.Dr. R. K. Keech, MD Rush '05Cedar Rapids, Iowa.I wish to frame him for my office reception room. He is and will become moreand more the symbol of the University ofChicago.Dr. Daniel T. Quigley, MD Rush '0?OmahaPerhaps he will help to entice thechildren back to Chicago some day.Dr. Bernard Silber, MD '37Atherton, Cal.Send me Garg. I've always loved him.Cora E. Gray, '06, SM '09Salisbury, N. C. WIRTH JS STILL A MIDWAY TRADITIONLouis WirthSaturday, May 3rd, we turned on ourradio for the midnight news: "The University of Chicago's noted sociologist, LouisWirth, died of a heart attack tonight following an address at the University ofBuffalo. . ."To the entire campus it was as shocking as it was sudden. Famous in hisfield and generous with his time wherecivic improvements were concerned, Louishad friends from the campus to theOceans. They overflowed Mandel Hall atthe memorial service on Tuesday.His colleagues had elected him president of the Quadrangle Club, and hewas to have appeared in the Revels before the alumni on June 5th.Three times graduated from Chicago('19; AM '25; PhD '26) , he joined theChicago faculty in 1926. Honors, editorial and writing responsibilities, lecturing, teaching and top positions on manycommissions and boards added up to atremendous service to mankind. He was54 years of age.What after 45— or 65?Home Study will offer a course nextfall called "Making the Most of Maturity."This was developed under the generaldirection of the Committee on HumanDevelopment.It is a program for those who want toenjoy their later years by making thebest use of their physical, mental, financialand social resources.The course will be $25. If you are amember of the Alumni Association the feewill be only $20.For details drop a card to Len Stein,Director, Home Study Department, 1375 E.60th Street, Chicago 37. Indicate yourmembership in the Association.Next issue: OctoberThis is the final issue of the Magazineuntil October. Have a fine summer andwe'll start our monthly visits again inthe fall.-H. W. M.JUNE, 1952 1(LJookdby Faculty and AlumniFACES IN THE CROWD. By David Riesman. New Haven: Yale UniversityPress, 1952.This book, like others reviewed inthese pages, actually is too importantto merit so brief a reference. For thisbrevity the late publication date (May21) is responsible. We thought it betterto present the work now, inadequately,than to postpone until October, when wemigh have a fuller review, a book whichshould not be neglected for the threemonths until the Magazine's next issue.— Ed.In his newest work, a 741 -page handful,fourth in a series of Studies in NationalPolicy, David Riesman, Professor of SocialSciences in the College, carries furtherthe fascinating diagnosis of Americancharacter which he first presented inthe third volume of the Yale series,THE LONELY CROWD.By far the greatest part of FACESIN THE CROWD is devoted to presenting 21 fairly exhaustive interview-derived case studies, to show some ofthe components making up the twocharacter types he has described as"inner-directed" and "other-directed"—the one a gyroscope, the other a radar.(There is a third type, principally ofOld World relevance: "tradition-directed.")In many instances Professor Riesmanleaves unstated the vastly unsettlingsignposts in his challenging analysis oftoday's shift in character. But they remain, to disturb the complacent inthinking about politics and many anotheraspect of our civilization.For any person interested in a veryreadable, at times almost poetic, accountof a fundamental phase of research onthe frontier of social understanding,FACES IN THE CROWD, like its predecessor, constitutes indispensable reading.ECONOMY IN THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT. By Paul H. Douglas. University of Chicago Press, 1952.Speaking at the inauguration of Mr.Kimpton last fall, Trustee John McCaffrey, president of International Harvester, suggested that the social scientistsform task forces and devote themselvesto solving practical problems, as, forinstance, the biologists have done inmedicine. Although such a suggestion isnot always practicable and its putativeresults not even necessarily desirable, onesocial scientist, long an economist onthe Midway before he left for Washington and the Senate, has constitutedhimself a one-man task force. And inECONOMY IN THE NATIONALGOVERNMENT Paul Douglas gives apractical answer to the complex ofproblems involving the economy, thefederal budget, inflation, and taxes.Readers of the Magazine are awareof part of this answer, for it was presented in the January issue, following Senator Douglas' series of WalgreenFoundation lectures, on which the bookis based.Taking a federal budget which in thecoming fiscal year will be about $10billion out of balance, as things standnow, and blueprinting ways of erasingthis deficit constitute quite a trick. ButSenator Douglas' clear and concise directions show exactly how it can bedone. (He prepped for the job bybeing a key member of the economy-minded group in the Senate which cutlast year's budget by one billion.) Theplan for repairing $10 billion worth ofinflation-loaded imbalance involves nogeneral tax increase. It is to be accomplished by cutting waste, pluggingtax loopholes, and, prayerfully, reducingpolitical pork and cupidity.This book is no smooth-flowing treatisein higher economics. It is a thought-provoking and positive primer for taxpayers, for citizens caught in the inflationary spiral, and for those despairing souls who think they cannot be heldresponsible for understanding government problems because rows of zerosmake them dizzy. There is nothingdizzying about Senator Douglas' book;there is down-to-earth urgency.— D.M.THEY WENT TO COLLEGE. By ErnestHavemann and Patricia Salter West. Harcourt, Brace 6- Co., 1952.Though it is not the practice of theMAGAZINE to review non-Universitybooks, this one seems sufficiently appositeto merit the use of part of a long reviewby the editor of Harvard's excellentalumni magazine.That elusive creature, the American collegegraduate, has long been a figure of myth.In one generation our folklore picturedhim as a well-bred snob and her as anintellectual Feminist; after the firstWorld War he used to wear a raccooncoat and drive a Stutz Bearcat, and sherolled her stockings and let her overshoesflap; in the thirties he was a wild-eyedradical and she his free- thinking partner;and then the GI Bill brought him backto college wearing his suntans, while she,like as not, was his hardworking GI bride,mixing domesticity with the Vale ofAcademe.But that large and important segmentof our population— the 6 million graduates of our 1,300 institutions of higherlearning, each one an individual— obviously cannot be typed so easily. Thenearest anyone has come to a compositeportrait is a survey, recently completedby Time Magazine and published byHarcourt, Brace & Co. This book, bymeans of 52 illustrated charts and Have-mann's very readable prose, dissects andanalyzes a considerable sampling of thissignificant stratum of American societyand discusses what it is and how itbehaves.The composite picture looks somethinglike this: the college graduate is mostlikely to be a married businessman about37 years old, with at least one child,a home-owner in a city or town in theEast or the Midwest. He may very wellcome from a college family; he morethan likely worked his way through college, in whole or in part; and whateverelse he may be, he is pretty well off incomparison with the rest of his fellowcountrymen. He's very conservative in hispolitical opinions; he believes firmly in American participation in world affairs;he's tolerant on racial and religious issues; he's a Protestant and thinks thatreligion has something to offer this materialistic age; he claims to go to churchfairly regularly. He normally votes Republican but has a tendency towardpolitical independence. If he had to do itover again, he would go back to the samecollege from which he graduated and hisonly change of mind about the placewould probably be in the courses hetook.Our composite portrait turned out tobe male because there are more of him.If the subject were female, she would, itis pleasant to report, be a full-time housewife with many of the same social characteristics as her male counterpart. She'sdoing very well at marriage; she's a regular participant in civic and social activities; she exercises her vote at the pollsand is having just as full an intellectuallife as the college career woman, andpresumably a considerably richer lifethan the non-college woman.But, of course, a composite portraitonly shows the man or the woman ofwhom there are more than any othertype in the college graduate population.In a crowd of 6 million people there are6 million individuals. Now that a college degree has become commonplace,the college graduates constitute an important bloc of American public opinionand occupy a significant place in American society. The Havemann-West studypresents many answers to such questionsas: Just what are these college graduates?What has college done to them? Andwas college worthwhile for them?—William Bentinck-Smith,Harvard Alumni AssociationAUGUSTA EVANS WILSON; 1835-1909.By William P. Fidler, PhD '47. University of Alabama Press, 1951. Pp. 251.$3.50.Augusta Evans Wilson, 19th centurySouthern novelist, was one of that"damned mob of scribbling women"which Nathaniel Hawthorne (and thecritics) scorned, but which their countrymen read avidly and religiously, buying their sentimental novels in fantasticquantities.William Perry Fidler's biography ofMrs. Wilson confronts at the outset thebasic critical question inherent in theresurrection of a forgotten literaryfigure: Why disturb the reputation ofone whose critical neglect has been a verdict of time concurred in by seriousreaders of the past?Mr. Fidler accepts the burden of proofthat Mrs. Wilson is worth serious scholarly attention, not by claiming for herany literary merit nor by asking for animpartial examination of her ideas, butby asserting that study of her life andworks will illuminate Victorian tastes—"the tastes of people who, in spite oftheir different fashions and manners,were fundamentally not unlike ourselves."One cannot help but feel, however,that there is an undercurrent of restraintrunning through the book that preventsMr. Fidler from speaking out plainly orfrom probing too deeply on occasion.It is difficult to know whether this restraint is self-imposed by a nature boundto the traditional Southern concept ofthe sanctity of womanhood or imposedexternally by a culture which is still ex-2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELS U A r-K 7 IKIVolume 44 June, 1952 MAGAZINENumber 9PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive EditorHOWARD W. MORTNews EditorJEANNETTE LOWREYExecutive SecretaryAlumni FoundationJIM ATKINS EditorDON MORRISField SecretaryJIM RATCLIFFE Associate EditorAUDREY PROBSTStaff PhotographerSTEPHEN LEWELLYNDirectorAlumni EducationRICHARD CRUMLEYIN THIS ISSUEAll, All Are Gone, the Old Familiar Theses, C. O. Houle 6Industrial Goldbricking, Donald Roy 7Fads Are Like Epidemics 11The Growth of American Literary Criticism 12Dishpan Weather, Georg Mann 14Four Score and Twelve Years Ago 16Thirty Years in Kindergarten 18Report on "Grand Central Terminal", Leo Szilard 20DEPARTMENTSMemo Pad 1 Reader's Guide 4Books 2 Class News 22COVER: What's wrong with this picture? Now that theBotany Pond and its environs are alive with greeneryagain, we thought that this view might give a pleasantforetaste of the campus to prospective reunion-goers.There's one catch. It is not a new picture, and the scenelooks different now. Can you pick out the discrepancy?If not, you'd better attend the reunion and catch up onit — and a host of other University goings-on.Photographs on pages 6, 11, 13, 16, 17, and 19 (bottom) byStephen Lewellyn. Drawings on pages 7, 8, 9, and 10 and graphon page 11 by Cissie. Photos on pages 14 and 15 by DaveFultz. Reproduction on page 16, courtesy University Libraries.Photos on page 18 and 19 (top) by Mildred Mead. Photo onpage 21 by Hedrich-Blessing.Published monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $3.00. Singlecopies, 35 cents. Student price at University of Chicago Bookstore, 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934. at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois under the act ofMarch 3, 1879. Advertising agent. The American Alumni Council, B. A. Ross, director, 22Washington Square, New York, X. Y.tremely sensitive to close scrutiny orfrank criticism of its myths. In any case,Mrs. Wilson emerges from the book almost as pure and spotless as any one ofher heroines, no doubt pretty much asshe saw herself and as her compatriotsvenerated her.Perhaps the most valuable and certainly the most fascinating portion ofMr. Fidler 's book is his last chapter,"Recipe for an Old-Fashioned Best Seller," in which he gives "A panoramicview of the people, the messages, andthe action which are common to about50 sentimental best sellers . . ." Here insuccinct statement are the values whichthe^ Victorian age liked to be told itcherished, the characters which it admired and scorned, and the situationsover which it again and again spent itstears. The reader can judge for himselfwhether or not the contemporary agehas the right to ridicule the respectableaudience for which Augusta Evans Wilson wrote.In sum, Mr. Fidler's book is a valuablecontribution to the study of popularAmerican literature and should not beignored by any serious student of theAmerican novel.James Miller, Jr.,AM '47, PhD '49Falls Church, Va.BODY DYNAMICS. By Eleanor Metheny,'28. McGraw-Hill Co., 1952. $3.50.If a reader makes conscientious application of the knowledge in this book, hewill glide through the day with thegreatest of ease, achieving maximumresults with minimum effort.This book deals with problems offitness in terms of the efficient expenditure of human energy. Scientificallysound information about the functioning of the human body and how it maybe improved is presented in simple, nontechnical language.Ways in which the physical conditionof the body may be improved by appropriate exercises are described, and modern principles of posture, movement, andrelaxation for efficiency in work andplay are discussed. Individual differences in structure and function are recognized, and all techniques for evaluation of posture and movement areadapted to individual use.Tied in with the daily life of theindividual, this text is a simple butauthoritative synthesis of the essentialsof anatomy, kinesiology, physiology ofexercise, body mechanics, and correctivephysical education.Miss Metheny is Professor of Education and Physical Education at the University of Southern California.ulietinAJohn S. Fennelly of Blore, Forgan &Co., has been named to the chairmanshipof the 400-member Citizens Board of theUniversity, to succeed Thomas D. Freeman. Election of Horace R. Byers, chairmanof the Department of Meteorology, to membership in the National Academy of Sciencebrings to 32 the number of Universityfaculty members so honored. Byers is theworld's top authority on thunderstorms. Appointment of Grosvenor W. Cooper,Assistant Professor of the Humanities inthe College, to head the University's Department of Music, was announced in Mayby Chancellor Kimpton. He will continueto serve on the College faculty.JUNE, 1952 3r\eadep5 LjuldeFor alumni readers who want to ease intosummer with some lighter reading thanthat offered in past Readers Guides, thislist on modern literature may prove instructive and provocative. If it servesto guide you into many hours of enjoyment, it will be serving its purpose well.NOVELSMORTON DAUWEN ZABEL, Professor ofEnglish, offers a detailed guide throughthe maze of recent novels. With criticalacumen, he ferrets out the weaknessesof some best sellers and underscores thestrengths of others.REQUIEM FOR A NUN. By WilliamFaulkner, Random House, 1951. $3.00.This latest novel about Faulkner's mythicalYoknapatawpha County in Mississippiwill not rank among the finest parts ofthat powerful series. It returns to TempleDrake, the heroine of SANCTUARY, totell the later stages of her harried history. The technique of the book is unusual even for Faulkner— it blends prosenarration with the acts of a play; andwhile Faulkner's experimental skill isevident throughout, the success of theventure remains questionable. But no onewho has followed the career of the mostpowerful imaginative talent now workingin America will want to miss this installment in the unfolding history ofFaulkner's Southern kingdom and itsmemorable characters.THE HOLY SINNER. By Thomas Mann.Alfred A. Knopf, 1951. $3.50.Following the monumental historical structure and epic symbolism of his fourJoseph novels and the exhaustive researchinto psychic, racial, and musical ideas inhis DR. FAUSTUS, Thomas Mann hasturned to a medieval Oedipus theme inhis latest novel. Here his mood and treatment are lighter, more lyrical, more deliberately legendary, and he has producedone of his most ingenious and seriousfantasies. At the age of seventy-six, Mannstill shows himself to be the imaginativemaster of his German and European generation, and his powers of invention remain, after half a century, among themost formidable of our time.THE CATCHER IN THE RYE. By J. D.Salinger. Little, Brown, and Company,1951. $3.00.This sensitively humorous study in American adolescence remains one of the mostappealing American novels of the pastyear— the story of a boy that merits aplace in the tradition of Mark Twain,Aldrich, Mencken, and Lardner. Salingerleaves the more portentous and tragic aspects of contemporary life to others, buthe joins humor and pathos with sensibility in a way that makes him a worthycontinuator in a classic line of Americanfolklore. He is a talent to be watchedwith particular interest.THE SHORT NOVELS OF COLETTE. ByColette. Introduction by Glenway Wescott. Dial Press, 1951. $5.00.Madame Colette today ranks as one of themost distinguished writers of France andone of that country's three foremost novelists. Her continuous subject is love,which she treats in all its subtlest varia tions and nuances. She is a poet of physical passion and of the feminine sensibility, whether encountered in women or inmen. The present collection contains sixof her books, in translations of unequalcompetence, and their characters includeanimals of both the human and the non-human varieties. CHtRI, perhaps hermasterpiece, is included in the volume,and in it Colette shows herself a complete mistress of her highly specializedand exquisitely comprehended world.THE END OF THE AFFAIR. By GrahamGreene. The Viking Press, 1951. $3.00.Graham Greene continues to prove himselfone of the most resourceful talents inSHORT STORIESPERRIN LOWREY instructs in the University College's survey program foradults, An Introduction to the Arts.Since courses in the short story arehis special province, he has up-to-datesuggestions to make for your reading.PERHAPS ONE of the most pleasantcharacteristics of the modern shortstory is its diversity; there are so manykinds of stories, done in such differentways, by so many writers. The past twoyears have certainly produced "God'splenty" for the reader.The major annual short story collections— Herschel Brickell's O. HenryAward Stories, and Martha Foley'sBest American Short Stories— reflect this:each publishes good stories, on thewhole, but the final result is usuallytwo completely different lists of "best"stories. The only thing this really proveswould seem to be that the prophetsof doom, who claim Americans are"written out", are wrong.To try to mention a few exceptionalstories or collections is therefore verydifficult. But there has been some workwhich seems to stand head andshoulders above the crowd. 1950 sawthe publication of a large number ofWilliam Faulkner's stories (CollectedStories of William Faulkner, RandomHouse, $4.75) and that was certainly amajor event. In it are a number ofFaulkner's best— stories like That Evening Sun, Red Leaves, Wash, Turnabout—so that although it omits some realmasterpieces, such as the long versionof The Bear and some other good ones,it makes up for its lacks in a numberof ways. For it brings together a groupof stories most Faulkner readers havenever seen before; some of them storiesthat are good, some that are bad, butall of them exciting. It is one of thefew collections any one writer ever putout that can be read straight through.All of Faulkner's astonishing range canbe seen at once. Any reading of it willquickly dispel the myth that Faulkneronly writes about horrendous incidentsin Mississippi, for there are intenselyfunny stories in it, as well as storiesabout California and New York. And ofcourse there are some little-knownstories, too, that have the familiarmomentum and impact of a diesel locomotive.Another fine collection— this one cameout in 1951, and was really a surpriseto no one who knows the man's pastwork— was Frank O'Connor's Traveller'sSamples, (Knopf, $2.75) . It is a temptation to say that O'Connor, like Tos- contemporary English fiction. In his latestnovel he has departed even more radically than in THE HEART OF THEMATTER from his earlier preoccupationwith crime, mystery, international intrigue, and the devices of the psychological or political thriller. In presentingthe moral conflict of three people inmodern London, he misses some of thestriking ingenuity of his other books, buthis expert craftsmanship succeeds indramatizing a theological problem ofradical import. After twenty-five years ofincreasing skill, he shows a new dimensionin his art and some of the most vividdramatic powers now to be seen in theEnglish novel.canini, is superb as usual. Perhaps itis the quiet, unassuming quality ofO'Connor's work that keeps him frombeing better known. He is certainly amaster of the short story in every respect, so much so that one feels fairlysure in saying that in twenty-five yearshe will assume his rightful place as aclassic.Perhaps the thing that best revealshis special kind of Irish wit is the factthat Frank O'Connor is only a penname; the man's real name is MichaelO'Donovan! He has an uncanny knackwith short stories; he simply does notseem to be able to write a bad one.It is impossible to say just what heis like, though, for he is always different. The New Yorker began bringingout his stories in this country a whileback. Crossroads, in their February 23,1952 issue, is a good one, and ThePretender, which appeared in 1951, isone of O'Connor's best.After talking about so accomplisheda writer as O'Connor, some new talentshould be mentioned; there are thelusty years of youth as well as the middle years of perfection. Harper's magazine seems to have discovered a veryrobust artist in Glen Haley (77/ CallYou Eager; Harper's August 1951, andThe Queens of the Flowers; Harper'sJanuary 1952) . If Mr. Haley lives upto the promise of these two stories, hisname will sound more familiar beforevery long. Clay Putman (stories inFurioso, Tomorrow, Stanford ShortStories) is another young writer witha lot of talent. William Humphrey(stories in Sewanee Review, Accent) isequally talented and equally untried.To choose these three men as realwriters is about as reliable as choosinga yearling to win the Kentucky Derbyin two years time, but they are all exceptional. A slightly more maturewriter, J. F. Powers, whose collectedvolume Prince of Darkness is now fairlywell known, should probably be mentioned as well.Another established writer, almost asable, and just as disarming as FrankO'Connor, is Jessamyn West. For two orthree years now she has been bringingout one minor classic after another ina variety of magazines. Her volume ofconnected stories, The Friendly Persuasion, which came out a few yearsago, is still delightful reading. One ofher most recent best efforts is TheLesson (New Yorker, August 11, 1951).There is a lot of the joy of being alivein Miss West, and her stories alwaysget right along, without any dilly-dallying.-ITHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHE. STRANGE CHILDREN. By CarolineGordon. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951.$3.50.The distinguished artist who wrote PEN-HALLY, NONE SHALL LOOK BACK,and GREEN CENTURIES here departsfrom her earlier preoccupation withSouthern history and large-scale socialdrama. As in THE WOMEN ON THEPORCH and the stories of THE FORESTOF THE SOUTH, she now presents amore intimate study in family relationsand adolescent conflict. Her new bookcombines its domestic drama with a religious theme, and while it lacks the forceof a fully focussed, imaginatively concentrated drama, it shows Miss Gordon'scustomary skill in language, form andsymbolic subtlety.THE CAINE MUTINY. By Herman Wouk.Doubleday and Company, 1951. $3.95.Wouk's novel, which has just received thePulitzer Prize in Fiction as the "bestAmerican novel" of 1951, is another bookthat originates in the higher journalismof our time, but it shows virtues that liftit above the usual level of that order offiction. Its story of a rebellion on anAmerican ship in World War II is toldwith a straightforward fidelity to fact andspeech, an honesty of narrative method,and a sense of the moral issues involvedin its central conflict that brings it withinthe reach of a serious comparison withthe art of Conrad, Richard Hughes, andother chroniclers of maritime life. Itshows weaknesses of style and structurethat keep it from being a first-rank workof literature, but it represents a seriouscollaboration between reportage and narrative artistry, and makes Wouk a talentwhose future development will bearwatching.DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. By John DosPassos. Houghton, Mifflin Company, 1951.$5.00.Fifteen years after John Dos Passos published his first trilogy of novels on lifein Twentieth Century America— U. S. A.—he offers this second collection of threenovels which appeared serially during thepast thirteen years; ADVENTURES OFA YOUNG MAN, NUMBER ONE, andTHE GRAND DESIGN. His theme hereis political rather than social. The personal and moral radicalism of his earlieroutlook has been tempered to a traditional American conservatism of pessimistic cast. His craft has lost the imaginative and technical boldness that madeDos Passos's earlier work a significant contribution to American fiction. He maintains, however, his rank as one of theexceptional novelists of his time, and hestill demands the respect of those whorecognize the important part he onceplayed in contemporary American literature.DOTING. By Henry Green. The VikingPress, 1952. $3.00.Ths is the latest of Henry Green's books,the seventh to appear in America. Likehis English contemporary. Ivy Compton-Burnett, he produces a highly specializedcommodity— a shrewd, deftly satirical,highly calculated, elusively poetic studyof manners. The reader will not alwaysfind it easy to tell one of his books fromthe others after reading them in succession; but all these tales-L OVING, BACK,CONCLUDING, PARTY GOING, andthe rest— show a talent of unmistakableindividuality and completely controlledcraftsmanship. In spite of the extremes to which he has carried a highly personalconvention, Henry Green has a placeamong the five or six outstanding fictional talents of the past twenty years inEngland.THE GROVES OF ACADEME. By MaryMcCarthy. Harcourt, Brace and Company,1952. $3.50.Miss McCarthy is another American talentwhose gifts of wit, satire, and social observation have never wholly surmountedher tendency toward sophisticated cleverness and contrivance. As in her earlierbooks, THE COMPANY SHE KEEPS,THE OASIS, and CAST A COLD EYE,she shows in this new novel— an unsparing satire on progressive education in anEastern experimental college— all herusual skill in devastating portraiture andscathing moral analysis. Her action, likeher style, is too static, too calculated, tobring a genuine sense of life into herpages. Her brilliance dazzles rather thanilluminates, and it leaves the reader coldinstead of warmed to the full reality ofher subject.THE KATHERINE WHEEL. By Jean Stafford. Harcourt, Brace, and Company,1952. $3.00.Miss Stafford's new novel— a story of familylife and emotional conflict during thequiet days of a New England summer-is a firmer book than her BOSTON ADVENTURE, but it does not show the skillin poetic suggestion or intimate symbolism that marked her second novel, THEMOUNTAIN LION. It is, however, thework of one of the most talented and resourceful younger novelists now working in America; and although it resortsto unconvincing violence in working outits plot, it exhibits a genuine insight intothe lives of privileged Americans in atime of insecurity and moral uneasiness,and its style and craftsmanship are always under the full control of a seriousintelligence.THE GRASS HARP. By Truman Capote.Random House, 1952. $3.00.Capote also deals in fantastic and legendarymaterials, but he is essentially an artificer, and in spite of pronounced gifts oflanguage and invention, he has not yetovercome the drawbacks of the artificiality inherent in his subject matter. InTHE GRASS HARP he attempts to combine the whimsical with the sophisticated,the fanciful with the astutely aestheticeffect. The mixture never wholly comesoff, and it remains a question whetherMr. Capote will eventually be able to correct his liabilities of self-consciousnessand stylish artfulness. With one handhe writes as a clever and resourceful artist; with the other he writes for thereader of Vogue or Harper's Bazaar. It isstill too early to tell if he will survivethis division of aims.CONJUGAL LOVE. By Alberto Moravia.Farrar, Strauss, 1951. $1.00 (Reprint) .Among the remarkable talents in fiction,poetry, criticism, and film-making thrownup by wartime and post-war Italy, Moravia is outstanding. His art is grim, desperate, sordid, and unflinching; its honesty is unquestionable; and it is capableof achieving powerful effects of sincerityand passion. Moravia shows a vitalitycomparable to that of the best films ofpost-war Italy— Open City, Shoe-Shine,The Bicycle Thief; and he takes his placein the tradition of Italian realism withsuch past and present masters as Verga,Silone, Berto, and Vittorini. POETRYMAURICE CRAMER, Associate Professorand Chairman, Humanities Staff (College) and two of his staff members,EDWARD ROSENHEIM and HENRYRAGO, submit these three commentariesabout modern American verse which arean eloquent testimony to their enthusiasm about modern poetry.IN COUNTRY SLEEP. By Dylan Thomas.New Directions, 1952. $2.It is time for a wider public to assert itsrights to the poetry of Dylan Thomas,and this small volume, containing ahandful of his most recent poems, is anexcellent sampling, according to Mr.Rago.Those who have not read him yet willbe surprised to find here an unabashedlyricism which they had supposed impossible in modern poetry. He is energetic, boisterous, and even tender, hereally sings.CAPE HORN AND OTHER POEMS. ByErnest Kroll. New York: E. P. Dutton& Co. $2.75.Mr. Kroll's verse, here collected for thefirst time, Mr. Rosenheim informs us,is richly representative of an importantcurrent in modern American poetry. Therange of his poetic concerns is great;it embraces, among other things, themores of the suburban commuter, aGothic narrative of decadence and deathin the South, and a number of intenselypersonal lyric responses to places, people,and events.Yet, despite their diversity of substanceand structures, these poems are almostuniformly characterized by a qualitywhich can only be described as wit.Poetry of this sort makes clear what fartoo many of us forget— that the cool, controlled handling of contrast, shift, andsurprise can lend -itself to more important matters than mere "light verse."The bogus "problems" of literary controversy tend to disappear in the faceof living verse like this, and we realizethat genuine poetry can no more be"meaningless" than it can be servilelyorthodox.THE OXFORD BOOK OF AMERICANVERSE. Chosen and xvith an Introduction by F. O. Matthiessen. Oxford University Press, 1950. $5.Mr. Cramer writes that this is a handsome book of over 1,000 pages, half athousand poems, and half a hundredpoets, attractively printed and bound inthe familiar blue and gold of these Oxford books.The poems were selected by the latefamous Harvard professor, F. O. Matthiessen, with a freshness of taste anda liveliness of critical intelligence thatshine out with such constant brightnessfrom beginning to end of the volumethat anyone who has been indifferentto or taken for granted the poetry ofthis country will be led to look at itagain with new eyes.This book is the most interesting anthology that I have recently perused.One feels confidently that here are mostof the best poems of the best Americanpoets, and that little or nothing hasbeen admitted that does not have init the life of true art.JUNE, 1952 5ALL, ALL ARE GONE, THE OLD FAMILIAR THESES(As a measure of economy, thesis titles are no longer to be printed inconvocation programs, beginning 1951-2)Sing ho! sing hey! sing a mournful layFor black-robed scholars on a moist, hot day!Marching up the steps with gowns held high,Marching down the aisle with steadfast eye,Edging to their seats in straight-backed pews,Settling under hoods of vivid hues,Picking up their programs eager-eyed,Chuckling at the thought of what's inside:"The Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions of One Hundred Servicemen's Wives(World War II)";"The Dawn of Manufacturing in Peru";"A Sociopsychological Analysis of One Type of Love";"The Ancestry of 'The Wings of the Dove' ";"The Effect of Partial Lesions in the Striate Cortex on Pattern Discriminationin the Cat" ;"A Study of the Possible Effects of the Drug Cantharadin on the ReproductiveSystem of the Rat";"Functions of the Assistant Director of Nurses at Night";"The Emissaries of Divine Light";"Some Derogatory Words in the Libro de buen amor";"The System CaAl20s-Ca,Al2Si07-NaAlSi04" ;"Slow Introductions in Beethoven First Movements and Their Relation toMovements as a Whole";"Radiative Equilibrium in an Atmosphere in Which Pure Scattering and PureAbsorption Both Play a Role";"An Analysis of the Form of Act II of Italo Montemessi's Opera L'Amoredel tre re" ;"The Theological and Literary Requirements of a Contemporary ChristianPassion Play";"The First Twenty Years of the Municipal Visiting Nurses' Association ofSt. Louis";"The Concept of Habit in the Philosophy of John Dewey";"The Expression of Feeling in the Tone of Voice";"The Influence of Social Class on Children's Choice of Probable Occupationand Their Reasons for Choice";"An Analysis of the Process of Therapy Through Counseling in Terms ofCreativity, with Implications for a Pastoral Theology";"A Social -Psychological Investigation of the Belief in Astrology";"Genesis and Structure of Balzac's Splendeurs et miseres des c our tisane s" ;"Some Aspects of the Conflict of Culture in Introducing Girl Scouting inJapan";"Study of the Reactions of Primiparous Mothers to Giving Their Babies theFirst Bath"; and"The Hormonal Control of the Mammary Gland."Fast goes the gaze through the pages drear,Where are the theses of yesteryear?Thin is the program for stern decreeSacrificed fun to economy.How are the learned to fill the breach?Nothing to do but to hear the speech!For black-robed scholars on a moist, hot daySing ho! sing hey! sing a mournful lay.— Cyril O. Houle,Dean, University CollegeIndustrialGOLDBRICKINGIf you haven t ever worked in anestablishment where goldbrickingand quota restriction are common,you may be surprised to learn howwasteful — and tiring — loafing isBy Donald RoyEVEN THOSE sociologists whonurse a distaste for studies ofindustrial administration, either because the problems involved are"practical" or because they fear managerial bias, will recognize that studyof restriction of industrial output mayyield knowledge free of both taints.One may learn about the "humangroup" by studying behavior on aproduction line as well as in an interracial discussion group. And, if someone should find the knowledge useful,even for making a little money, perhaps its scientific value will not becompletely vitiated.I here report and analyze observations of output restriction made during eleven months of work as a radial-drill operator in the machine shop ofa steel processing plant. I noted downthe data from memory at the end ofeach work day, only occasionally making surreptitious notes on the job. Irecorded my own production openlyin the shop. I did not reveal my research interests to either managementor workers. I remained "one of theboys on the line."As a member of the work group, Ihad access to inside talk and activity.As a machine operator, I could putvarious operations under the microscope. These were great advantages, for restrictus vulgaris is a wary littlething. He does not like to be studied.From November 9, 1944 throughAugust 1945, I worked 1,850.5 hours.Of these, 73 per cent were "production-piecework" hours. The remainderwere taken up with time study, rework, and set-up. In slightly* less thanhalf of the production-pieceworkhours, I "made out." That is, I produced enough pieces of work to"earn," at the piece rates, at least the85-cents-per-hour "base rate" whichwe received for every hour spent onthe job. Obversely, about half thetime, work done and turned in fellbelow the base rate standard.My hourly earnings on productionpiecework varied from $0.09 to $1.66.Further, this considerable spread ofhourly earnings came to two peaks.Although the work done at rates below 85 cents varied from 9 cents toThis article is a condensed version of a paper which appeared inthe March, 1952, issue of the American Journal of Sociology. The issuewas devoted to phases of the sociological study of work, being carriedon at the University under theguidance of Professor Everett C.Hughes. Sociologist Roy now is atDuke University. 84 cents, almost half of it was performed in the middle range, from 35to 54 cents.In the hours spent at hourly ratesof 85 cents and above, there also wasa pronounced peak; three-fourths ofit was at the level of $1.25 to $1.34.This bi-modal distribution of "operations" performed suggests the presence of two types of output behavior.This, it turned out, was the rule inthe shop. An outsider might believethat it reflects the struggle of workerswith two kinds of jobs, hard and easy.But one sophisticated in shop waysand aware of all the devices of time-study men would hardly credit themwith either the ability or the will toturn up anything so improbable as abi-modal distribution of hard and easyjobs.It could be, instead, that the machine operators, ignoring finer distinctions in job timing, sort jobs intotwo bins, one for "gravy" jobs andone for "stinkers." That is, althoughtwo jobs may be rated only a nickelapart, an operator discovering that hecan earn $1.00 an hour on one willthen put forth extra effort and ingenuity to make it $1.25. Finding,however, that he can earn only 95cents an hour on another job, herejects that amount and drops to aJUNE, 1952 7level of effort that earns only 50 centsan hour and relies on his 85 -cent base-pay rate for his "take home."This pronounced dichotomy in theproduction behavior of the machineoperator suggests that restrictionmight be classified into two majortypes, "quota restriction" and "gold-bricking."Liberal definitionQuota restriction has received themost attention. The Mayo researchers observed that the bank-wiringgroup at Western Electric limited output to a quota or "bogey." Mayoattributed this activity to the existence of a "lower social code" resulting from failure of the workers tograsp the economic logic of management. He thus joins those who consider the economic man a fallaciousconception.Now the operators in my shop madenoises like economic men. Their talkindicated that they were canny calculators and that the dollar sign fluttered at the masthead of everymachine.Their actions were not always consistent with their words; and such inconsistency calls for further probing.But it could be precisely because theywere alert to their economic interests— at least to their immediate economic interests — that the operators didnot exceed their quotas. To do somight result in piecework rate cuts.The consequence of these would beeither reduced earnings from the sameamount of effort expended, or increased effort to maintain the sametake-home pay level.When I was hired, a personnel department clerk assured me that theradial-drill operators were averaging$1.25 an hour on piecework. He wasusing a liberal definition of the term"averaging."At the start I was to watch askilled operator named Jack Starkey.When I told Starkey that I had beenworking in a shipyard for somethingmore than $1.00 an hour, he" exclaimed, "Then what are you doingin this place?" I replied that averaging $1.25 an hour wasn't too bad,and he exploded:"Averaging, you say! Averaging?Dont you know that $1.25 an hour isthe most we can make, even when wecan make more? And most of the timewe can't even make that!"8 "What do you suppose would happen if I turned in $1.25 an hour onthese pump bodies?""Turned in? You mean if you actually did the work?""I mean if I actually did the workand turned it in.""They'd have to pay you, wouldn'tthey?""Yes! They'd pay me— once! Don'tyou know that if I turned in $1.50 anhour on these pump bodies tonight,the whole God-damned Methods Department would be down here tomorrow? They'd re- time this job so quickit would make your head swim. Andwhen they re-timed it, they'd cut theprice in half. I'd be working for 85cents an hour instead of $1.25."Starkey's beliefs concerning techniques of price-cutting were those ofthe shop. Leonard Bricker, an old-timer in the shop, Willie, the stock-chaser, and Joe Mucha, the day manon my machine, all affirmed that management, once bent on slashing apiecework price would stop at nothing.In the washroom before I startedwork, Willie commented on my gravyjob, the pedestals."The Methods Department is goingto lower the price," he said."I hope they don't cut it too much,"I said. "I suppose they'll make somechange in the jigs?""They'll change the tooling in some way. Don't worry; when they makeup their minds to lower a price, they'llfind a way to do it."(John Mills, one-time research engineer in telephony and for five yearsengaged in personnel work for theBell Telephone Company, has recently indicated the possibility thatthere were factors involved in thebank-wiring situation that the Mayogroup failed to detect. "Reward," hewrote in The Engineer in Society, "issupposed to be in direct proportionto production. Well, I remember thefirst time I ever got behind that fiction. I was visiting the Western Electric Company, which had a reputationof never cutting a piece rate.("It never did. If some manufacturing process was found to pay morethan seemed right for the class oflabor employed on it . . . that particular part was referred to the engineersfor re-design. Then a new rate wasset on the new part.("Workers, in other words, werepaid as a class, supposed to makeabout so much a week with their bestefforts, and, of course, less for lesscompetent efforts.")The association of quota behaviorTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwith expressions about price-cuttingsuch as those listed above, does notprove a causal connection. Such aconnection could be demonstratedonly by instituting changes in thework situation that would effect asubstantial reduction of "price-cutfear" and by observing the result ofsuch changes.Even if such a causal relationshipshould be indicated, testing of alternative hypotheses would still be necessary. It may be that "economic determinism" may account for quotarestriction. It may also be that factors such as Mayo's "failure to understand the economic logics of management" are involved.Whatever its causes, such restriction resulted in appreciable losses oftime in the shop. I discovered earlythat the more experienced operatorshad time to burn.One evening Ed Sokolsky, commenting on a job, said:"That's gravy! I worked on those,and I could turn out nine an hour."I was surprised."At 35 cents apiece, that's over $3.00an hour!""And I got ten hours," said Ed. "Iused to make out in four hours andfool around the rest of the night."If Sokolsky reported accurately, hewas "wasting" six hours per day."Old Pete," another old-timer, confided in me:"Another time when they timed meon some connecting rods, I could havemade $20 a day, easy. I had to runthem at the lowest speed on the machine to keep from making too much.I had a lot of trouble once when I wasbeing timed, and they gave me $35.00a hundred. Later they cut it to $19.50a hundred, and I still made $9.50 aday."He was "wasting" four hours a day.It wasn't until March, when I experienced a sudden increase in skill,that I was capable of making outearly, on any job but the pedestals.By April 7, I was able to enjoy fourhours of "free time." I reached mypeak in quota restriction on June 27,with but three and a half hours ofproductive work out of eight.By extending effort past quota limits to find the earning possibilities ofthe jobs, I discovered that on 16 ofthe 20 jobs on which I was able tobetter $1.25 an hour, I could haveearned more than $1.30. I ran fourof the jobs at a rate in excess of $2.00an hour. All but three of the 16 yielded possible earnings of over $1.75an hour.Given a quota of $1.25 an hour, or$10.00 an eight-hour day, and a jobthat will yield $1.25 an hour but notappreciably over that rate, the operator will have to expend a full eighthours of effort to achieve the quota.But if the job will yield earnings atthe rate of $2.50 an hour, it will takethe operator only four hours to earnhis $10.00.Why kill yourself?A $2.50-an-hour job is thus a four-hour job, and the remaining fourhours of the work day may thus beconsidered wasted time. If the operator were to extend himself for thefull eight hours on a $2.50-an-hourjob and were permitted to turn in theresults of his efforts, his earningswould be $20 instead of his quota of$10.Thus there is incurred a financialloss to the operator as well as a loss ofproduction time to the company whenthe quota is observed.On "gravy jobs" the operatorsearned a quota, then knocked off. On"stinkers" they put forth only minimal effort. Either they did not try toachieve a turn-in equal to the basic wage rate, or they deliberately sloweddown.Jobs were defined as "good" or"bad" jobs, not in terms of the effortor skill necessary to making out at abare base-rate level, but of the feltattainability of a substantial premium.Earnings of $1 an hour, in relationto a $1.25 quota and an 85 cent baserate, were considered worth the effort. Earnings of 95 cents an hourwere not.The attitude basic to the goldbrick-ing type of restriction was expressedsuccinctly thus: "They're not goingto get much work out of me for thispay."Complaints about low pieceworkrates were chronic and universal inthe shop. The possibility of covering"day rate" was ordinarily no spur tothe machine operator to bestir himself on the job. A remark of JoeMucha's was characteristic: "I couldhave made out," he said, "but whykill yourself for day rate?"Gus Schmidt, regarded as the bestspeed drill operator on the secondshift, was timed early in the eveningon a job, and given a piece rate of $1per 100 for reaming one hole, chamfering both sides of three holes, and filingburrs on one end of one hole. All thatfor one cent!"To hell with them," said Gus.He did not try to make out.JUNE, 1952 9Operators on "non-piecework" or"day work" jobs followed almost uniformly a pattern of restriction of thegoldbricking type.Non-piecework jobs in the shopwere of two kinds: "time study" and"rework". "Time study" operationswere those that either were so newlyestablished that they were not yettimed and priced, or were jobs whoseprice had been "removed.""Rework" was the reprocessing ofdefective pieces that were regarded assalvageable.By no stretch of the imaginationcould my accustomed pace on timestudy be regarded as other than easy.But under McCann's expert tutelage,I discovered that there were degreesof goldbricking, and that for timestudy, a mere "punking along" exceeded worker standards.Even after my pace had beenslowed by McCann's help, it lookedtoo fast for Gus Schmidt, whowatched from the next machine.Later in the evening, Schmidt said,"Aren't you going too fast with thattime study?"I did not think I was going very fastand told him so."Well maybe it just looks fast because you're going so steady at it.You've got to slow down on time studyor you won't get a good price. Theylook at the record of what you do today and compare it with the timingspeed when it's timed. Those time-study men are sharp!"Toward the end of the evening Iraised the speeds of the taps and chamfer from 70 to 95. It was going toosIoav for me and actually tired me outstanding around waiting for the tapsto go through. My legs were tired atthe end of the day. Yet I had notworked hard.Goldbricking on time study may beindistinguishable, even to a fellow op erator, from quota restriction. Onone occasion I noticed that Tony, thespeed-drill man, was "fooling around."I asked him if he had made out already. Only through information supplied by Tony did I become awarethat my neighbor was goldbrickingon a time study job and not relaxinghis efforts after achieving quota.In order to classify operator behavior when an operator is "doingnothing," one must have access toadditional facts not provided by casual observation.What am I doing?There are times when an operatormay be mistaken in classification ofhis own restriction of output. He maythink he is loafing on time study whenhe is in reality loafing on piecework.Waste by operatives in pieceworkmachine shops is great. If my ownwastage of 2 hours a day on quotarestriction is accepted as characteristicof the behavior of more seasoned operators, efficiency would be 75 percent, with immediate possibilities fora 33.3 per cent increase in productionon quota jobs.From observations of the work behavior of fellow operators, I was ableto speculate with some objective evidence on the degree of slowdowngoldbricking practiced on non-make-out piecework. Efficiency on one caseinvolving four workers, had been 56per cent, with 3.5 "waste" hours outof 8, with, therefore, immediate possibilities for a 78 per cent productionincrease.In addition I essayed an estimateon daywork goldbricking, first cousin to piecework goldbricking and easilymistaken for the latter. This estimatewas obtained by comparing output ona job before and after it was timed.The "before" efficiency was determined to be at least as low as 40 percent, possibly 35 per cent, with 150per cent improvement in productiona "cinch," and 186 per cent improvement an immediate possibility.But, in practice, the switch in bothpiecework and daywork goldbrickingwas to quota restriction; so possibilities were never realized.Since these appraisals were confined to the behavior of machine operators, the loss of time accountableto the sometimes remarkable restraintexercised by the "service" employees,such as stock chasers, tool-crib attendants, and inspectors was not considered. Likewise unmentioned were thevarious defections of shop supervisors.A more complete record might alsoinclude the "work" of members ofmanagement at higher levels, whoseseries of new rules, regulations, orders, and pronunciamentos designedfor purposes of expediting productionprocesses actually operated to reducethe effectiveness of the work force.Confining scrutiny to the behaviorof machine operators, the observersees output restriction of such magnitude that the "phenomenal" resultsof the organizational innovations triedin the steel industry under the guidinggenius of Joe Scanlon do not seem atall surprising.The concept of "cultural drag"might be more descriptive than "cultural lag" in depicting the trailing ofsome of our industrial practices behind technological advance.Tewf6Ar\Tu*e<S£)]10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFadsAre Like EpidemicsMeasles and yankee caps are not deductible,Yet both, it seems, are ineluctablePREDICTABILITY, it has frequently been pointed out, is oneof the important aims of science. Ithas also become almost a cliche thatthe physical scientists have mademuch closer approaches to this particular goal than have the biologicalscientists. The biologists, in turn, frequently have been credited with beingbetter able to make predictions thanthe social scientists.It is generally agreed that thishas been so, in part because of thenature of the data, in part because ofthe state of development of the available research tools, and in part because of the absolute chronologicalage of work in the respective fields.Forecasting what people will do isby all odds the most difficult kind ofprediction. But some new encouragement has been given to workers inthis sphere by the entrance into itof a group of mathematicians at theUniversity.Work in the field known as mathematical biophysics was established atthe University more than a dozenyears ago, under the leadership ofNicolas Rashevsky, who had come tothe Department of Psychology in1935. It is just ten years since theMagazine carried an account of thework at that time.Since then, this unusual group ofscientists, now organized as the Committee on Mathematical Biology, hasdemonstrated that such biologicalproblems as membrane permeabilityand rate of cell division not only aresusceptible of mathematical formulations, but that mathematical biologycan be made to form a coherent and significant body of knowledge. Andthe group has begun to turn tobroader problems.Among these are a series of phenomena which can be classified asmass behavior of humans. The operation of rumor is one form of massbehavior under examination. TheCommittee already has shown that itis able to construct a mathematicaldescription of the spread of a rumorin a given population, and from itpredict with good accuracy. Theformulas, which have been confirmedin one clear-cut test case, tell howfast the rumor will spread.H<&•>•* 9 „<?..... s$-;T§.' I-*<v •y«#/<$?%¦'&'<¥'1 •;T<rPREDICTED & EMPIRICAL CURVESSHOW RUMOR & EPIDEMIC PARALLELThe Committee also has demonstrated that it can perform similaroperations in connection with thespread of fads, advertising slogans,and other phenomena which havehitherto been the exclusive provinceof social scientists and, of course, businessmen who have been involved, onan empirical basis through necessity.It has been shown that, once thefactors have been correctly assessed,it can be predicted whether a givenform of headgear will "catch on,"HERBERT LANDAHL GIVES SEMINAR PAPER. AT RIGHT, FRONT: RASHEVSKY CIVIL WAR CAPS BECAME THE RAGEand, if so, where and how fast. Itcan be determined whether a givenproduct will sell on the basis ofnovelty alone, or whether its salesmust be given an added hypo of advertising.The two most important factorsbearing1 on mass behavior in thesecategories, are the "internal" reactionsinvolved, such as imitativeness ; andthe "external" influences, such asadvertising, prices, etc. Esthetic appeals, which a decade ago were shownby Dr. Rashevsky and his colleaguesto be susceptible of mathematicalanalysis and prediction, also mayconstitute an "internal" factor. Andof course a factor which is internalin one situation may become an external factor in another. A fad, forinstance, may be stimulated by theexistence of a rumor.As preliminary work proceeds inthe Committee's blackboard-equippedlaboratories, one curious fact becomesclear: the spread of a fad or a rumoris closely akin, mathematically, to thespread of an epidemic.Both rumors and epidemics involvea ratio between the number of individuals who have succumbed, andthe number not yet affected. Theimitation factor, important in thesocial phenomena, corresponds approximately to the degree of contagiousness of the disease.It may not be possible, when allmen start to wear bow ties, all womento adopt a heretofore strictly caninehair-do, and all children to appear inCivil War forage caps, to instituteany measure so simple as a quarantine. But with the development ofsuch new methods as those of themathematical biologists, the oft-deplored lag of social understandingbehind material knowledge is beingsystematically cut down. — D. M.11After Poe the Deluge:The Growth of American Literary CriticismLast year, Morton Dauwen Zabel, PhD'33, Professor of English at theUniversity, published a new and much enlarged edition of his collection of twentieth century American critical essays: Literary Opinionin America*. The London Times of March 14, 1952, devoted the honoredfront page of its Literary Supplement to a discussion of the book. Wereprint here excerpts from the Times' article, of special interest asan appraisal of literary and critical study in American universities.THERE HAVE BEEN few developments in literature duringthe last half-century more remarkable than the "coming-of-age" ofAmerica, and in no department ofAmerican letters has there been moreactivity than in criticism.Professor Morton Dauwen Zabel,the initial edition of whose book,Literary Opinion in America, was oneof the first exhibitions of the "new"criticism, has revised his collection togive a complete picture of Americancriticism over the last 60 years. Hisbook in its present form is not merelya treasury of excerpts. It is a scholarlybiographical and bibliographicalguide, and provides evidence enoughthat the American literary scene haschanged radically since Henry Jamessaid, "If the tone of the Americanworld is in some respects provincial,it is in none more so than in this matter of the exaggerated homage rendered authorship" — a phenomenon thatMatthew Arnold had earlier broughtto the attention of the lady from theState of Ohio. The stages of thischange, admirably documented inProfessor Zabel's choice of essays andso often lost sight of in England, mayperhaps be recapitulated.In the last years of the nineteenthcentury the American artist and criticalike hovered bewildered between theemotional fecundity of Whitman andthe genteel restraint that the Brahmins represented. If Poe had calledfor "plain speaking" about Americanletters, his admonition had done nothing to encourage that close cooperation between artist and critic whichis characteristic of a mature society.*New York: Harper and Brothers. Even Melville said, "I feel an exilehere."Of the few who pointed the wayto literary health only Henry Jameshad the perseverance, the craft, andthe sensibility to "lend himself, toproject himself and steep himself. . . .to be a valuable instrument." But he,disillusioned by his reception in theUnited States, withdrew to Europe,leaving the budding American criticism in the hands of two realist critics, William Dean Howells and William Crary Brownell. . . . But it wasJames Huneker, admirer of GeorgeMoore and Arthur Symons, who wasresponsible for that dislike of the word"taste" which so many literate Americans share even today, for, unsupported by the European line of development, the American manifestation of Art for Art's Sake was driveninto mere shallow mannerism by theearnest weight of realistic opposition.Early gropingIn the early years of the twentiethcentury a group of young critics decided that it was time to follow theadvice of Whitman and Poe, to demolish the "genteel tradition" andrediscover the American spirit.Paul Elmer More had spoken forthem when, in the first volume of hisShelburne Essays, he said: "Before wecan have an American literature wemust have an American criticism."But More's particular combinationof aestheticism and Humanism wascondemned as "unpractical."Van Wyck Brooks, the leader of thegroup, spoke of "creating a usablepast.". . ; . H. L. Mencken satirized the "booboisie" and the pieties of theBible Belt, but he took care, as Edmund Wilson has said, to show "thepositive value of our vulgar heritage."Lewis Mumford also "debunked," buthe was both prophetic in his call for"fresh forms into which our energiesmay be freely poured" and painstaking in his studies of American artand architecture. ... A new confidence was felt.But the pursuit of America,particularly in the hands of WaldoFrank and Ludwig Lewisohn, was becoming increasingly mystical in tone.The antidote to this was provided bythree new forces. The first was theSouthern regionalism of the "Fugitives," the Nashville group of critics,headed by John Crowe Ransom. Thesecond was the radical, social criticismof Upton Sinclair and V. F. Calver-ton. The third, and most important,was a new aesthetic criticism derivingfrom the work of Ezra Pound andT. S. Eliot and stimulated by contactwith the professional world of letters.* « #The success of the Dial [in the1920's], which saw the need for bothclose textual reading and aestheticdisciplines, encouraged the foundationof those other critical magazines —substantially augmented in recentyears — which are the delighted discovery of English visitors. The Houndand Horn and the Symposium werechiefly remarkable, but have beensucceeded by the Kenyon, Sewan&e,Hudson, and Tale Reviews, and 30 @rso others of less eminence but of greatseriousness and perceptivity.It was the Dial which introducedEdmund Wilson and Kenneth Burke12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto a wider public. ... In the late1920's Professor Irving Babbitt ofHarvard launched an attack on thosenew critics who had so seriously followed Spingarn's precepts as to have"done with all moral judgment of artas art." ....But more often than not Humanismdid not so much correct and guidethe modern consciousness as ignoreits conflicts, so that — in the brutalyears of the Depression — it faded as avital force from the American criticalscene.* * flit is over the past 15 years thatcriticism has become so marked afeature of American literary life asto resemble an industry. . . .English publishing has no parallelto the university presses of America.We do not have the dozens of criticalmagazines, nor do our universities andcolleges support the teeming thousands who make literature their studyin the United States. We do not havehundreds of well-paid universityprofessors teaching and creating amarket for modern literary criticismalone. . . .Into his introductory survey of thiscrowded present-day critical sceneProfessor Zabel has sought to bringsome clarity by making five categories.First there are, he says, those whohave investigated "the social and cultural bases of literature," as a sequelto the critical realism which beganabout 1912. Lionel Trilling, F. O.Matthiessen, and Edmund Wilsonwould be in this group, which alsoincludes the young editors of thePartisan Review and Alfred Kazin.The second category includes thosewho integrate "the study of craftsmanship with metaphysical or philosophic elements in literature." Professor Zabel here cites those who havebeen concerned with "order," whethermoral, as in the case of Yvor Winters,or "ontological," as in the case ofJohn Crowe Ransom. Allen Tate,Cleauth Brooks for his studies of tradition and irony, and Austin Warrenalso come in this category.Professor Zabel's third group comprises those who have concentratedon "the discipline of formal and textual analysis" but who have rejectedDr. I. A. Richards's methods in favorof "aesthetic wholeness as a correctiveto monistic emphasis." Kenneth Burke and R. P. Blackmur are citedhere, together with Dr. R. S. Craneof Chicago.The fourth category is devoted tothose who have applied criticism tothe practical business of education,from the universities down. Clean thBrooks and Robert Penn Warren arechiefly notable here. But KennethBurke, John Crowe Ransom, andYvor Winters have also participatedin this widespread program of criticism as an essential prop of liberaleducation.Finally, there is a miscellaneousgroup concerned, on the one hand,CHAUVINISTIC CRITICISM IS WANINGwith interpreting literature in termsof psychology or anthropology, and,on the other, with rectifying suchspecialization by a broader criticismon the basis of "human and realisticvalues."* * *The English reader cannot fail tobe struck by the extent to whichAmerican critics have taken methodstentatively proposed in other countriesand, by intelligence and hard work,have adapted, transposed, and hammered them into individual forms. . . .The wealth of applied criticism in theUnited States, and its continuingspate, has been partly directed to thesignificant figures of American literature.That so many intelligent mindsshould be devoted to native figureshas given American literature a greater validity in the eyes of Americansthemselves. The result has been thatthe chauvinistic tendency noticeablein earlier years has disappeared.The Americanism of American lit erature is now therefore a quality tobe appraised rather than insistedon. . . . The focus of a trained criticalsensibility on a single poem and theexploration of every facet of itsmeaning and background is not a newthing, but the depth and number ofsuch studies is remarkable.It has been noticed that the greatcritical industry of the last decade hasbeen dependent on university patronage — stimulated as always by thegreat philanthropical institutions. Oneof the bad features of this has beenthat the work of certain critics hastended to become more and more alaw unto itself. But the United Statesis vast enough to contain contradictions, and it is found that not only domany of the "graduate school" criticsdevote their time to practical criticismin public seminars and conferencesbut that their work has seeped downalmost to high-school level throughthe enthusiasm of their disciples whoproduce those extraordinary and mostuseful compilations, the Liberal Artsanthologies. ... If there are morespecialized than general critics on theAmerican scene, it is because of thenature of American society.Even the briefest survey of ProfessorZabel's book could not fail to convince the reader that American criticism, like American literature, haslong passed the period of its "coming-of-age." A century's development hasbeen crowded into four decades sincethat year of years, 1912, when "everyone suddenly burst out singing."True, the jargon criticism of themass-produced Ph.D. or the super-Jamesian convolutions of the moreesoteric critic do, in fact, threatendanger, but Professor Zabel does notallow such barbarism here.To teachers like himself Americaowes a great deal. Many thousandsof students pass through the Englishdepartments of the many hundredsof American universities and colleges,most of them briefly and perforce.The serious scholar is therefore facedwith a practical problem, as he isnot in England. It is greatly to hiscredit that he does so much to insiston standards and, through the liberaleducation of criticism, tells [as HenryJames said] "the ladies and gentlemen, the ingenious inquirers, to consider life directly and* closely and notbe put off with mean and puerilefalsities."JUNE, 1952 13POLAR CAP , ROTATING IN A SECOND LIQUID, FORMS FRONT -LIKE WAVESm s 11 1» \ \WEATHERWater is substituted for air, aslaboratory methods today open upvistas in meteorological researchBy Georg Mann, '34HISTORICALLY, meteorologylargely consisted of observationwith a gradually increasing body ofFULTZ FILMS LABORATORY WEATHER theories. These theories only begangrowing in earnest in the latter halfof the nineteenth century. The controlled laboratory experiment, such asguides theory in other sciences, hasbeen a rarity, save for work on certainrelatively specific small-scale problems, and for a very few scattered investigations which had been almostcompletely forgotten until recently.During the last five years at theUniversity, Dave Fultz, '41, PhD '47,Assistant Professor of Meteorology,has been devising laboratory systemsthat give experimental insight into thefundamental large-scale air movements that make our weather. Theimpossibility of obtaining systems completely similar to the atmosphere isone reason why previously such workhad been neglected. However, sev eral of the most important effects,such as the rotation of the earth, thevariations of density of the fluid airdue to unequal heating of the earthby the sun, and the shape of theatmosphere as a thin spherical layersurrounding the earth, can be reproduced experimentally in various simplified ways.The most important factor whichcannot be reproduced properly is thecentripetal effect of the earth's gravityon the atmosphere. On the earthitself, the effect of gravity is to pullthe air down toward a point near thecenter of the earth. In the laboratory,the pull of gravity is straight downthroughout the fluid and is not directed toward the center of an experimental sphere.Pint-size climateThe results of these experimentsso far show quantitative similaritiesnot only with aspects of the motionsof the atmosphere itself but also withcertain simple theories, particularlythose concerned with the "long-wave"studies initiated by Professor Carl-Gustav Rossby of the University.These theories have proved to beof practical value in actual weatherforecasting and thus must containsome kernel of general truth. In addition, certain quite unsuspected phenomena (so far as the classical discussions of the reasons for atmosphericcirculation are concerned) have beendiscovered and are being further investigated.The aim of the investigations is toisolate the influence of such thingsas the earth's rotation in as simpleexperiments as possible, whether ornot the actual experiment looks muchlike what happens in the atmosphere.By studying the data so obtained, it ishoped to provide clues to interpret theisolated factor's influence under themore complicated conditions that exist in nature. These results are expected to apply in detail, not to day-to-day weather changes, but to thelong-range air movements that guidethe smaller weather patterns. Certainof the experiments apply also to theanalysis of smaller size systems suchas tornado and cyclone winds and tcthe passage of air across mountairbarriers.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN!Dr. Fultz has developed severalspecial devices for the purpose ofcarrying out these experiments. Thesimplest form is little more than arotating dishpan which can be heatedin specific areas in order to generatemotions in the contained fluid. Wateris usually used as the fluid, and tracerchemicals such as dyes, aluminumpowder, or a chemical resemblingpermanent snowflakes enable the motions caused by the temperaturechanges to be detected. The entirepan is observed through a "roto-scope," which in effect stops the rota-ing motion of the pan in order to allow the slow movements of the fluidto be observed and photographed.Studies with this simple piece ofequipment have shown that rotatingfluids behave in strange ways whichare certainly only partially understoodat present. For instance, even if noheat is applied to the pan, the fluidwhen slightly disturbed shows a tendency to "tower" straight up anddown. If a quantity of ink is poured¦ into a rotating saucepan of water,the ink immediately arranges itself invertical towers and walls exactly likecolumns of a Greek temple, withgently curved hangings connectingthem.If a small obstacle (for example,a cylinder) is placed at the bottomof the layer of water in the rotating pan, rotation will cause motionsof the fluid throughout the panexcept in a vertical, similarly shapedmass of "dead" fluid above the object.Such experiments will ultimately helpto illuminate the way in which upperlayers in the atmosphere influence thelower, and vice versa.Some of the most important experiments involve use of a pan heateduniformly around the rim. In thiswork, an especially striking propertyof the surface movement — in additionto the observable pattern of "highs" and "lows" — is the presence of narrow, rapid "jet" currents (see shadingin diagrams below), also typical ofatmospheric and oceanic motions.A more complicated device consists of two glass half-globes set oneinside of the other and rotated inunison. The behavior of fluids placedbetween the inner and outer globescan be observed when motions areproduced by local application of heator other means. Currents can betraced by the same means as in thedishpan. Wave motions of the "longwave" type studied by Rossby havebeen produced in this apparatusthrough the purely mechanical effectof various obstacles.This result tends to confirm certaintheoretical suggestions that a mountain range like the Rockies may helpto produce and fix the average position of the "long waves" and thusvery greatly influence the weather-over North America.The newest series of experimentscarried out by Dr. Fultz and his coworkers in the University's Hydrodynamics Laboratory have constitutedan attempt to duplicate a "polar cap,"by using two liquids, sightly differentin density, both rotat.-.g in the pan.Since the denser liquid is colored,it is possible to observe at varyingrotational speeds, the interface between the liquids and to watch theformation of waves at the edges ofthe "cap," as well as its variations inform, from a high dome to a "doughnut."These experiments appear to havedemonstrated on a laboratory scalewave motion phenomena closely resembling the "polar-front" theory onwhich most middle-latitude weatherforecasting is based. Careful studyof these motions may well help tosolve some of the still remaining difficulties in the use of this theory. water layer in twin hemispheresshows "trade winds", "westerlies" ;in k moves right ( top ) , left ( below )when heat is applied at bottomWAVE FORMATION BY OBSTACLE MAYTELL HOW TERRAIN ALTERS WEATHERWHEN CHARTED, PATTERNS OF FLOW IN RIM-HEATED ROTATING PAN STRONGLY RESEMBLE FAMILIAR WEATHER MAPStJUNE, 1952 J5FVTHE FIRST TIME CHICAGO PLAYED HOST TO A NATIONAL POLITICAL CONVENTION WAS 'WAY BACK WHEN THE 27-YEARS-Four Score and Twelve Years Ago . . .Newly opened Lincoln Room in Harper Libraryrecalls political campaign of many years agoIN 1860, CHICAGO'S city fatherswelcomed with "boyish enthusiasm" the prospect of playing host tothe national convention of the Republican Party, for that was the first yearNEW HOME OF LINCOLN COLLECTION any national political convention hadventured so far west.Although the convention backershadn't figured out how they'd pay forit, they ordered nonetheless the construction of the Wigwam, a huge,barn-like structure, dominating thesoutheast corner of Market and Lakestreets, which was to serve as the convention hall.The conventions of 1952 have faroutgrown the 10,000-seat capacity ofthe historic Wigwam, which shookwith the cries of "Honest Abe, therail-splitting candidate," though itlacked the air-conditioning and television facilities of 1952's InternationalAmphitheater.But present-day Republican bigwigs may be able to get some point ers from the campaign literature of1860, for this shows that then as nowthe Republican conventioneers hadone major concern — how to bootthe Democrats out of office.Any politicos inclined to undertakethis sort of research will find mosthelpful the University's collection ofLincolniana, now housed in a refurbished three-room suite in the westtower of Harper Memorial Library.Students and scholars have been usingthis valuable collection to advantagesince 1934, when it was establishedunder the impetus of the purchase bythe University of the Wiliam E.Barton Collection of Lincolniana.Dr. Barton, famed Lincoln biographer and collector of extensiveLincolniana,«wanted his collection to16 .THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE¦OLD CITY TOOK PART IN LINCOLN NOMINATIONbe a working library, "a useful tool tobe used in the labor of Lincoln research," in the words of his son,Robert Barton, '16.By bringing together a vast amountof materials the Lincoln Library atthe University is serving just such apurpose. Students are again findingit useful and accessible, after a time-gap, in which war-time demands forspace claimed the rooms originally reserved for the collection."This new suite is an attempt tobring together in one place several ofthe valuable and unique historicalmaterials in the University libraries,"Curator Robert Rosenthal explains."The Lincoln Library is quarteredhere, as well as the UniversityArchives, and our Manuscript Col-JUNE, 1952 lections. These include the papers ofStephen A. Douglas and the ReubenT. Darrett Collection."To the Barton library the University has added valuable Lincoln manuscripts, together with the remainderof the Osborn Oldroyd Collection.This adds up to a library of nearly5,000 volumes, more than 600 manuscripts aside from the Barton fieldbooks, a large body of photostats, perhaps a thousand pictures, and some40 lineal feet of shelf-space filled withpertinent pamphlets.The Lincoln Collection proper becomes even more valuable to scholars,in relation to the substantial collection of books in the stacks on Southernhistory and slavery.Of particular interest in this political year is the wealth of material inthe Lincoln Library dealing with theconventions of I860 and 1864.To any 1952 political camp still insearch of a theme song, the Libraryoffers for adaptation, for example,this chorus from "The Bobolink Minstrels" of 1860:Hurrah! Hurrah! did you hear thenews?The Democrats have got the blues;They're puzzled now and all afraid,Because we've nominated Abe.In all their ranks they can not findA candidate to suit their mind;They kick and squirm, but 'tis no use,. .Their game is up, their platform'sloose.The Republicans in 1860 wrote intotheir platform several planks whichmight conceivably be used verbatimby this year's platform committee.Herewith one sample:"That the people justly view withalarm the reckless extravagance whichpervades every department of thefederal government; that a return torigid economy and accountability isindispensable to arrest the system ofplunder of the public treasury byfavored partisans; while the recentstartling developments of fraud andcorruption at the federal metropolisshow that an entire change of administration is imperatively demanded."The stratagem of packing the galleries is a lesson politicians havelearned well. One eye-witness observer at the 1860 convention, TheHonorable Elbridge Keith, has giventhis account of how well it workedfor Lincoln: "The arrangements for the convention were in the hands of Lincoln's friends, and they had beenmade with special reference to securing the largest possible concourseof his immediate neighbors and politi-"cal supporters."It was easy to see that the thundering shouts which greeted everyvote given for him impressed whatMr. Greeley called 'the ragged columns forming the opposing hosts,'with the conviction that he was theonly man with whom Mr. Sewardcould be defeated."But the Seward delegates andfriends . . . prolonging for effecttheir march, reached the Wigwam todiscover that the most availablespaces were taken up by the heartyshouters of Lincoln. It may bedoubted if these demonstrations areever of much avail in influencing thedelegates; yet Mr. Raymond, freshfrom that scene, says, 'The nomination was decided far more by theshouts and applause of the vast concourse which dominated the convention than by the direct labors of anyof the delegates'."Delegates to the 1952 conventionswill swarm into the InternationalAmphitheater under the glaring lightsof television. But aside from suchmodern innovations, Republicans andDemocrats alike will doubtless discover that today's conclaves still havemuch in common with their forerunner, that first national convention inChicago, four score and twelve yearsago. — A. P.LINCOLN OWNED, READ THESE BOOKS17GENERATIONS OF OLGA ADAMS' CHARGES HAVE FOUND HEN FASCINATINGThirty Years in KindergartenOlga Adams leaves the Lab School,concluding an epoch for both, but1,200 former pupils will rememberAT ABOUT THE TIME thatRobert M. Hutchins was a kindergarten-age toddler in Brooklyn,John Dewey was chairman of theUniversity's Department of Philosophy. One of his creations while onthe Midway was the LaboratorySchool, including a kindergarten, whose faculty, past and present, hasmaintained the national reputationguaranteed by its eminent founder.J. Olga Adams, who retires thisJune as director of the Lab School'ssenior kindergarten, spent 21, of hertotal of 30 years at the University,under the Hutchins administration. But she cheerfully admits that shecame to the University, to study andto teach, because of John Dewey'sideas about education.To judge from the response of the500 people who honored her at a reception on April 25, they didn't mindat all that such an heretical admissionshould be so openly expressed on thecampus. Indeed, there was warmagreement with the tribute expressedby Professor Robert Redfield. Speaking on behalf of the parents of children whom Miss Adams has taught,he said, in part:"I understand that Miss Adams hassomething to do with education. I suppose she is to be listed as a professionaleducator. If so, she is the one whoshows that education remains a joyous mystery."More than once I have watchedstudents struggle with the question,what is good teaching? In every case,after the student had tabulated theresults of his questionnaire and collated his notes from Plato and JohnDewey, good teaching turned out tobe most convincingly defined as whatever it is that Miss Adams has beendoing all these years."Olga Adams came to the University in 1921, after 12 years of kindergarten teaching in her home town ofJoliet, 111. During her first decade onthe Chicago campus, she added A.B.and A.M. degrees to her titles; taughtscores of student teachers in her methods courses in handicrafts, gamesand rhythms in the School of Education; and assumed directorship of thesenior kindergarten.Colleagues of Miss Adams havenoted her ability to "make the goodin each child grow," a capacity whichchildren, parents, and teachers alikefind most reassuring.During 30 years at the Lab School,Miss Adams has nurtured some 1200five-year-olds on a subtle blend ofspontaneity and careful attention towhat educators call reading, writingand number readiness. To these maybe added the arts of telling andlistening. (For- a person who admitsthat she can't add a column of figures,she has contrived, nonetheless,through a variety of experiences, tointroduce her young charges to theintricacies of the number system.)Many of these "readiness experiences" have involved a steady streamof furry, scaly, and feathered animals,18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBUILDING A MINIATURE CITY PREPARESincluding the famous hens who everyspring hatch their chicks before theenraptured eyes of urban youngsters.Children and the City written byMiss Adams and illustrated by photographs of children in the variousstages of planning and building a citywithin the confines of the kindergarten rooms, is soon to be published.This account will immortalize one ofher most memorable class room devices, as well as, of course, the countless child-hours of energy and ideasthat have gone into the constructionof the series of clapboard-, orange-crate-, packing-case- and block-cities.Miss Adams has directed such activities year after year without theslightest trace of boredom or staleness.The reason for such unflagging en-thusiam is summed up in what shesays about the stories she has toldand retold, "The stories are the same,but the children are always different."By her insistence that kindergartensare an integral part of the educationalladder, Miss Adams has allayed thesuspicions of occasional unconvincedparents. She also has made convertsamong parents afflicted with the beliefthat kindergartens are a kind of academic appendix which can be removed and never missed.Childhood skillsThe range and effectiveness of heroutside educational activities is demonstrated, in part, by her active rolein the Association for ChildhoodEducation, International, of whichshe was president in 1939-41. Shealso was a two-year term as presidentof the Illinois ACE. She was a delegate from ACE to the White HouseMid-Century Conference on Childrenand Youth.To her reputation as one of thebest-known kindergarten teachers inthe United States, Miss Adams canadd a recent honor which contributesto her international recognition.Her portrait will hang in a room,dedicated to her, in the Dr. Jose Gustavo Guerrero Kindergarten, of SanSalvador. This has come aboutthrough the efforts of the International Information Service, Departmentof State, to export a fitting and timelysymbol of the best in American primary education.Miss Adams' own childhood hasfrequently helped her in her work with succeeding generations of five-year-olds. Some of her earthy skillsin handicrafts derive from the ingenuity her grandmother used to keepyoung Olga quiet in the church pewson Sunday mornings. The May baskets which the children in her kindergarten make each spring are of thesame construction taught to her byher Aunt Jess way back when littleMiss Adams was getting the feel ofmanaging children by bossing theneighborhood small fry around.With the intuitive touch of a master chef, Olga Adams has brewed aneducational potpourri in which shecan take justifiable pride. For as sheALDERMAN BOB MERRIAM RETURNS TO CHILDREN TO LIVE IN A REAL ONEsaid' at "the reception, "When youstart with five-year-olds and end upwith a party like this, you know therecipe is good."At the reception, friends and formerstudents presented her with a pair ofhigh-powered binoculars as a usefulaid in her hobby of nature study.She claims facetiously that they willbe used to keep an eye on the LabSchool from her lakeside home inDune Acres. It is more likely, however, that her friends will be the onesto need the binoculars, to keep an eyeon her as she continues to travelabout, taking a very un-retired role ineducational circles.KINDERGARTEN FOR ADAMS FAREWELLJUNE, 1952 19Report on"Grand Central TerminalBy Leo SzilardProfessor of BiophysicsYOU CAN IMAGINE howshocked we were when we landedin this city and found it deserted.For ten years we were travelingthrough space, getting more and moreimpatient and irritable by our enforced idleness; and then, when wefinally land on the earth, it turns out— as you have undoubtedly heard —that all life is extinct on this planet.The first thing for us to do was, ofcourse, to find out how this came topass and to learn whether the agentwhich destroyed life — whatever it mayhave been — was still active and perhaps endangering our own lives. Notthat there was very much that wecould do to protect ourselves, but wehad to decide whether we should askfor further expeditions to be sent hereor should advise against them.At first we thought we were confronted with an insoluble enigma.How could any virus or bacterium killall plants and all animals? Then,before a week had passed, one of ourphysicists noticed — quite by accident— a slight trace of radioactivity inthe air. Since it was very weak, itwould not in itself have been of muchsignificance, but, when it was analyzed, it was found to be due to apeculiar mixture of quite a largenumber of different radioactive elements.At this point, Xram recalled that,about five years ago, mysteriousflashes had been observed on theearth (all of them within a periodof one week). It occurred to himthat perhaps these flashes had beenuranium explosions. and that the present radioactivity had perhaps originated in those explosions five yearsago and had been initially strongenough to destroy life on the planet.This sounded pretty unlikely indeed, since uranium is not in itselfexplosive, and it fakes quite elaborateprocessing to prepare it in a form inwhich it can be .detonated. Since the earth-dwellers who built all thesecities must have been rational beings,it is difficult to believe that they shouldhave gone to all this trouble ofprocessing uranium just in order todestroy themselves.But subsequent analysis has in factshown that the radioactive elementsfound in the air here are preciselythe same as are produced in uraniumexplosions and also that they aremixed in the ratio which you wouldexpect had they originated five yearsago as fission products of uranium.This can hardly be a chance coincidence, and so Xram's theory is nowgenerally accepted up to this point.When he goes further, however,and attempts to explain why and howsuch uranium explosions came about,I am unable to follow him any longer.Xram thinks that there had been awar fought between the inhabitantsof two continents, in which both sideswere victorious. The records show,in fact, that the first twenty flashesoccurred on the Eurasic continent andwere followed by five (much larger)flashes on the American continent,and therefore, at first, I was willingseriously to consider the war theoryon its merits.I thought that perhaps these twocontinents had been inhabited by twodifferent species of earth-dwellers whowere either unable or unwilling tocontrol the birth rate and that thismight have led to conditions of overcrowding, food shortage, and to aOne of the key figures in the efforts which led to the establishmentof the atomic research program ofWorld War II, Dr. Leo Szilard nowis Professor in the University's Institute of Radiobiology. In this story,previously printed in the transcriptof the University of Chicago RoundTable of March 27, 1949, Dr. Szilardundertook an imaginative piece ofliterary creation which seems fullyrelevant today. life-and-death struggle between thetwo species. But this theory had tobe abandoned in the face of twofacts: (1) the skeletons of earth-dwellers found on the Eurasic continent and on the American continentbelong to the same species and (2)skeleton statistics show that no conditions of overcrowding existed oneither continent.In spite of this, Xram seems tostick to his war theory. The worstof it is that he is now basing all hisarguments on a single, rather puzzlingbut probably quite irrelevant observation recently made in our study of"Grand Central Terminal."When we landed here, we did notknow where to begin our investigations, and so we picked one of thelargest buildings of the city as thefirst object of our study. What itsname "Grand Central Terminal" hadmeant we do not know7, but thereis little doubt as to the general purpose which this building had served.It was part of a primitive transportation system based on clumsy engineswhich ran on rails and dragged carsmounted on wheels behind them.For over ten days now we havebeen engaged in the study of thisbuilding and have uncovered quite anumber of interesting and puzzlingdetails.Let me start with an observationwhich I believe we have cleared up,at least to my own satisfaction. Thecars stored in this station were labeled— we discovered — either "Smokers" oras "Nonsmokers," clearly indicatingsome sort of segregation of passengers.It occurred to me right away thatthere may have lived in this city twostrains of earth-dwellers, a more pigmented variety having a dark or"smoky" complexion, and a less pigmented variety (though not necessarily albino) having a fair or "non-smoky" complexion.20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAll remains of earth-dwellers werefound as skeletons, and no information as to pigmentation can be derivedfrom them. So at first it seemed thatit would be difficult to obtain confirmation of this theory. In the meantime, however, a few rather spaciousbuildings were discovered in the citywhich must have served as some unknown and rather mysterious purposes. These buildings had paintedcanvases in frames, fastened to thewalls of their interior — both landscapes and images of earth-dwellers.And we see now that the earth-dwellers fall, indeed into two classes— those whose complexion showsstrong pigmentation (giving them asmoky look) and those whose complexion shows only weak pigmentation(the nonsmoky variety). This is exactly as expected.I should perhaps mention at thispoint that a certain percentage of theimages disclose the existence of athird strain of earth-dwellers. Thisstrain has in addition to a pair ofhands and legs also a pair of wings,and apparently all of them belongedto the less pigmented variety. Noneof the numerous skeletons so far examined seems to have belonged to thiswinged strain, and I concluded therefore that we have to deal here withimages of an extinct variety. Thatthis view is indeed correct can nolonger be doubted, since we have determined that the winged forms aremuch more frequently found amongthe older paintings than among themore recent paintings.I cannot of course describe to youhere all the puzzling discoveries whichwe made within the confines of the"Grand Central Terminal," but Iwant to tell you at least about themost puzzling one, particularly sinceXram is basing his war theory on it.This discovery arose out of theinvestigation of an insignificant detail. In the vast expanse of the"Grand Central Terminal" we cameupon two smaller halls located in arather hidden position. Each of thesetwo halls (labeled "men" or "women") contains a number of smallcubicles which served as temporaryshelter for earth-dwellers while theywere depositing their excrements. Thefirst question was how did the earth-dwellers locate these hidden depositories within the confines of "GrandCentral Terminal."JUNE, 1952 An earth-dweller moving about atrandom within this large buildingwould have taken about one hour (onthe average) to stumble upon one ofthem. It is, however, possible thatthe earth-dwellers located the depositories with aid of olfactory guidance,and we have determined that if theirsense of smell had been about thirtyto forty times more sensitive thanthe rudimentary sense of smell ofour own species, the average timerequired would be reduced from onehour to about five or ten minutes.This shows there is no real difficultyconnected with this problem.Another point, however, was muchharder to understand. This problemarose because we found that thedoor of each and every cubicle in thedepository was locked by a rathercomplicated gadget. Upon investigation of these gadgets it was foundthat they contained a number of roundmetal disks. By now we know thatthese ingenious gadgets barred entrance to the cubicle until an additional disk was introduced into themthrough a slot; at that very momentthe door became unlocked, permittingaccess to the cubicle.These "disks" bear different imagesand also different inscriptions which,however, all have in common theword "Liberty." What is the significance of these gadgets, the disksin the gadgets and the word "Liberty"on the disks?Though a number of hypotheseshaVe been put forward in explanation,consensus seems to veer toward theview that we have to deal here witha ceremonial act accompanying theact of deposition, similar perhaps tosome of the curious ceremonial actsreported from the planets Sigma 25and Sigma 43. According to thisview, the word "Liberty" must designate some virtue which was held inhigh esteem by the earth-dwellers orelse their ancestors. In this mannerwe arrive at a quite satisfactory explanation for the sacrificing of disksimmediately preceding the act ofdeposition.But why was it necessary to makesure (or, as Xram says, to enforce)by means of a special gadget, that sucha disk was in fact sacrificed in eachand every case? This too can be explained if we assume that the earth-dwellers who approached the cubicleswere perhaps driven by a certain LEO SZILARD WRITES WRY FANTASYsense of urgency, that in the absenceof the gadgets they might have occasionally forgotten to make the disksacrifice and would have consequentlysuffered pangs of remorse afterward.Such pangs of remorse are not unknown as a consequence of omissionsof prescribed ceremonial performancesamong the inhabitants of the planetsSigma 25 and Sigma 43.I think that this is on the wholeas good an explanation as can begiven at the present, and it is likelythat further research will confirm thisview. Xram, as I mentioned before,has a theory of his own which hethinks can explain everything, thedisks in the gadgets as well as theuranium explosions which extinguished life.He believes that these disks weregiven out to earth-dwellers as rewardsfor services. He says that the earth-dwellers were not rational beings andthat they would not have collaboratedin co-operative enterprises withoutsome special incentive.He says that, by barring earth-dwellers from depositing their excrements unless they sacrificed a disk oneach occasion, they were made eagerto acquire such disks and that thedesire to acquire such disks made itpossible for them to collaborate inco-operative efforts which were neces-21sary for the functioning of their society.He thinks that the disks found inthe depositories represent only a special case of a more general principleand that the earth-dwellers probablyhad to deliver such disks not onlyprior to being given access to thedepository but also prior to being givenaccess to food, etc.He came to talk to me about allthis a couple of days ago; I am notsure that I understood all that hesaid, for he talked very fast, as heoften does when he gets excited aboutone of his theories. I got the generalgist of it though, and what he saysmakes very little sense to me.Apparently, he has made some elaborate calculations which show that asystem of production and distribution of goods based on a system of exchanging disks cannot be stable butis necessarily subject to great fluctuations vaguely reminiscent of themanic-depressive cycles of the insane.He goes as far as to say that in sucha depressive phase war becomes psychologically possible even within thesame species.No one is more ready than I to admit that Xram is brilliant. His theorieshave invariably been proved to bewrong, but so far all of them hadcontained at least a grain of truth. Inthe case of his present theory thegrain must be a very small grain indeed, and moreover, this once I canprove that he is wrong.In the last few days we made aspot check of ten different lodginghouses of the city, selected at random. We found a number of depositoriesbut not a single one that was equippedwith a gadget, containing disks — notin any of the houses which we checkedso far. In view of this evidence,Xram's theory collapses.It seems now certain that the disksfound in the depositories at "GrandCentral Terminal" had been placedthere as a Ceremonial act. Apparentlysuch ceremonial acts were connectedwith the act of deposition in publicplaces and in public places only.I am glad that we were able toclear this up in time, for I shouldhave been sorry to see Xram make afool of himself by including his theoryin the report. He is a gifted youngman, and in spite of all the nonsensical ideas he can put forward atthe drop of a hat, I am quite fondof him.CLASS ¦*» NEWS(Asterisk denotes members of reunioningclasses who have indicated their desire toattend the June Reunion.)1899Pearl Hunter Weber, AM '20, is still atwork collecting for the Crowell-Collierreader service in Tulsa, Okla., "but oftenhomesick for our Alma Mater. I'll haveto be satisfied to watch her grow."1901Ralph H. McKee, PhD, former ColumbiaUniversity professor and one of the organizers of the Technical Association of thePulp and Paper Industry, was honored thisspring by the nation's chemists and chemical engineers at the 121st national meeting of the American Chemical Society inBuffalo. He received a diploma certifyinga half century of loyal support and faithfulservice to the Society and its activities.Another honor was bestowed upon theeminent Chicago surgeon, Kellogg Speed,MD '04, when an award was presented tohim in December by the House of Delegates of the American Medical Associationin recognition of his 28 years of service aschairman of the AMA's fractures exhibit inthe Scientific Exhibit.News comes from James Hosic, '01, PhM,*02, and his wife, Nellie Lovering Hosic,that they are making their home in WinterPark, Fla., and "participating in the activities of church, Woman's Club, Garden Club, League of Women Voters, and theMen's University Club, as well as RollinsCollege affairs." The Hosics have twograndsons and four granddaughters.DR. KELLOGG SPEED 1902Ernest L. Talbert, PhD '09, has been appointed an associate editor of The Humanist, published in Yellow Springs, Ohio.1903Victor E. Shelford, PhD '07, writes fromUrbana, 111., that he is working on his research and writing a book.1905Carleton J. Lynde, PhD reports a brisksale of his three recently revised bookswhich deal with science experiences withinexpensive, home, and ten-cent store equipment. Published by the International Textbook Co., each book describes 200 simpleexperiments.1906Susan E. Smith (Mrs. J. Grant High) andher son have built an all-year home inSedona, Ariz.1909Eleanor Hall (Mrs. Frank Wilson) is amember of the state board, Wisconsin Federation of Women's Clubs, and chairman,division of gerontology. She was a delegateto the convention of the Federation ofWomen's Clubs, held in Minneapolis inMay.Harry W. Harriman, JD '11, tells us that"on the side, I am doing my seventh yearas justice of the town of Madison, one ofthe smallest in the country as to space, andone of the most populous. The more I seeand hear of the University, the more Ilike it."Florence Prendergast Toomer, of Auburn, Ala., is the new chairman of thealumni group, and is scheduling variousfunctions in her home to get acquaintedwith the 19 U. of C.ers who live in Auburn.Walter F. Sanders, AM '17, retired lastJune, with the title of Dean Emeritus, andis now the official college historian of ParkCollege.1910Greta M. Brown, AM '34, writes, "As oneof the district superintendents of the Chicago public schools, I am doing what I canto create among the 30,000 young people inmy district a love of learning and a spiri'22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof democratic cooperation, the ideals fostered in me by the University of Chicago."Ralph T. Gilchrist, MD (Rush) retiredin March as assistant medical director forNorthwestern Life Insurance Co., in Milwaukee, a position he had occupied since1924.1911Ralph Kuhns, Rush MD '13, has been appointed a member of the national mentalhealth week committee, sponsored by theNational Association for Mental Health andthe U. S. Chamber of Commerce.Alice Lee Loweth reports that this hasbeen quite a year in their household."Charles left for Korea a year ago, afterthree years in the Merchant Marine duringWorld War II. He has recently been homeon a 30-day furlough. This year also ouryoungest daughter, Anne, was married toDr. Robert Knox, resident in internal medicine at Colorado General Hospital in Denver. About the time Charles finishes hisleave I'll be wending my way westward tocare for the newest grandchild. Ourdaughter Jean and her husband and Margaret and Dorothy live in Alexandria, Va."Delta Jones Sterenberg invests much ofher energy in community organizations, including church work, the Chicago Councilof Foreign Relations, and the League ofWomen Voters, in which group she is international relations chairman of the Woodlawn branch. Another one of her manyinterests is attending lectures at the University. She has a grandson, born lastOctober 21.1912* Harry R. Axelson is in the real estatebusiness in Evanston, 111. His daughter,Janet, was graduated from Stanford University in 1948, and is now a resident ofSan Francisco.Mary Barton Edwards is retiring thisyear after 42 years of high school teachingof English and dramatics. She has directed95 plays.Stella Center, reading consultant, has anew book out, THE ART OF BOOKREADING, a trade publication which reflects the work she did in reading instruction with adult classes during the 15 yearsshe served as director of the reading institute of New York University.Thecla Doniat is busier than ever withwork for crippled children, particularly onthe advisory board of the Illinois Children'sHospital. She is enjoying her work on thewoman's board of the National Conference of Christians and Jews.* Isabel Jarvis writes: "Since my retirement from the Arts Club of Chicago, Iam now busy as a lady of leisure, havingturned into an artist myself and also givingmy services to the art gallery at the University of Chicago."Christena Maclntyre Hughes is a clerk inthe alumni records department of Northwestern University. She accounts for herfour children with this news: "My threesons are engineers— Robert, a Purdue graduate, is now with General Electric inOwensboro, Ky.; Edward, an Illinois Institute of Technology graduate, is with Suffolk Products in Northport, N. Y.; andWillard, an alumnus of Northwestern, iswith Hughes Aircraft in California. Mydaughter, Mary, with a full-time position,still finds her big interest in horsemanship.Besides my work at the University, I enjoymy superintendency of the primary department at our church, which has 115 children."* Davis McCarn is president of the Nev-erub Corp., in Chicago. Mrs. McCarn isassistant dean of students at the University. Their two children are Davis, a 1951 Hav-erford graduate, and Sarah, who earns herBS degree from Northwestern Universitythis June.* Margaret Tingley Hobbs sends newsfrom Wilkinsburg, Pa., where her husbandis an official of the Westinghouse Corp.,that their daughter, Maurine, is married toa medical student who has had severalyears of service in the medical corps allover the world. "My hobby is Spanishwhich I have been studying for the pastseven years. Another hobby is Florida.Maurice and I own some pieces of property in Ft. Lauderdale and expect to retirethere before too long."Eleanor Verhoeven is a teacher in Chicago.The Dille FamilyThe Dille family is a Chicagofamily: Dad, the two sons and theirwives.John F. Dille, '09, is the founderand president of the National Newspaper Syndicate, Chicago (BuckRogers et al).John, Jr., '35, is vice president andgeneral manager. His wife is JaynePaulman, '37.Robert, '44, is promotion manager.He is married to Virginia Nichols,'43.The latest news is about John, Jr.He has acquired an interest in theTruth Publishing Co. of Elkhart,Ind. This company publishes theElkhart Truth and owns radio station WTRC. John is now vice president, editor and general managerof the company.1915Lester R. Dragstedt, SM '16, PhD '20,MD '21, on a recent lecture trip to theUniversity of Kansas Medical School, had apleasant visit with lawyer William Davis,T5, JD '17, "but," he queries, "where wasRoy (Stubby) Burt, '16?"Henry Kraybill, PhD T7, director of scientific research for the American Meat Institute foundation, has been appointed professorial lecturer in food technology at theIllinois Institute of Technology.1917Morris Kharasch, PhD T9, has receivedthe 1952 Theodore William Richards Medalof the American Chemical Society's Northeastern section. He was cited for his contributions to organic chemistry, particularlyhis work on the organo-mercury compounds—effective germicides and disinfectantswhich have greatly increased the yields ofcotton, corn, wheat and other vital crops.Kharasch is Carl Eisendrath Professor ofChemistry at the University of Chicago.Charles A. Robins, Rush MD, is actingas medical director of the North IdahoMedical Service Bureau, in Lewiston, Idaho.1918Lillian M. Evans, Juniata College librarian, is retiring this year after 33 years ofactive interest in promoting the work ofthe library. In addition to her career asa librarian, Miss Evans became widelyknown as a collector of antique glasswareand furniture, national traveler and loverof art.1919Ernest E. Leisy, AM, Professor of Amer ican Literature at Southern Methodist University has accepted an invitation to teachthis summer at the University of Bonn,Germany. Last year he taught in the University of Vienna as exchange professor under the State Department program. He isnational president of the College EnglishAssociation.1920Ruth Mallory Smith writes from Larch-mont, N. Y.: "I enjoy baby-sitting, whenever the opportunity is afforded, for granddaughter, Jane Gaylord Roberts, born todaughter Leila and my son-in-law, RussellRoberts, last July 28."Helen Walker (Mrs. Edward Hayes) hasbeen living in Downers Grove, 111., for thepast 16 years, a housewife with two children, May Lee, 16, and Ted, 14. Her husband is a member of the Chicago law firmof Lord, Bissell and Kadyk.1921David Heusinkveld, MD '24, is presidentof the Southwestern Ohio Hospital CareCorp., and past president of the CincinnatiAcademy of Medicine.Colville C. Jackson is a rancher .in Glos-ter, Miss.Paul E. Johnson, AM, a professor of psychology of religion at Boston Universitywrites that his department has opened apastoral counseling service to serve thepublic as well as students and to providetraining in pastoral counseling for PhDcandidates in the field.Marjorie S. Logan retires this June after31 years as head of the art department atMilwaukee-Downer College. Although acreative artist herself, she has chosen to puther efforts into developing creative abilityin her students. Some indication of theesteem with which she is held by studentsand colleagues at Milwaukee-Downer isshown in the establishment of the MarjorieS. Logan picture library, a loan collectionassembled to give students, at a small rentalfee, pictures they would like to hang intheir rooms.Enid Townley, SM '25, is still very busybeing a geologist and assistant to the chiefof the Illinois State Geological Survey inUrbana, 111. She is also serving this yearas chairman of the local alumni foundationcommittee. "Sorry to have missed that30th anniversary reunion last June. Seeyou all at the 60th!"William A. Willibrand, AM, is Professorof German at the University of Oklahomaand also consulting editor of Books Abroad,a journal with which he has been associated since its beginning 25 years ago.1922Chi-Pao Cheng, AM, has joined the faculty of the Long Island University as research professor of philosophy. From 1948to 1950 he served as deputy chairman andacting chairman of the department ofeducation of UNESCO.* Mollie Hirsch (Mrs. Harry Appelman)is a school teacher in Highland Park, 111.Her husband is a certified public accountant. They have two children. Their son,Evan, is attending the University on a two-year Ford Foundation pre-induction scholarship.Louise Putzke retires this June after 26years as a special teacher at the UniversityLaboratory School. In her capacity as aneducational "trouble shooter" she hashelped hundreds of youngsters over therough spots of the learning process in various subjects. She came, to the Universityafter receiving an MA from Columbia University and serving as a critic teacher inCedar Falls, Iowa.JUNE, 1952 23Local and Long Distance MovingStorage Facilities for Books,Record Cabinets, Trunks, orCarloads of FurniturePeterson FireproofWarehouse Inc.1011 EAST 55th STREETBUTTERFBELD 8-6711DAVID L. SUTTON, PresidentWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2 II 6-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's HotelIn *heUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women etModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave. TelephonePLaza 2-33 IBVerne P. Werner, DirectorAuto LiveryQuiete unobtrusive sen?J€®When you want it, as you want ItCALL AN EMERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery, inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4-6400 Ruth McCracken, of Waukegan, 111.,writes, "I now have two darling adopteddaughters (from opposite ends of the country, yet born on the same day and theyare the same age, 12 years old). One is abrunette and the other a honey blonde. Iam district manager of a national firm, sokeep plenty busy, but love it."1923George H. Hartman, president of theG. H. Hartman Co., advertising agency.traveled to Pearl Harbor this spring' witha group of business and professional men,aboard the aircraft carrier PRINCETON.to see the Navy at work. He visited Navyinstallations on the island of Oahu andwas briefed by Navy and Marine Corps officers on the operations of the Pacific Fleet.Archibald T. McPherson, PhD, was recently appointed associate director of theNational Bureau of Standards in charge ofcalibration, testing and specifications. Hiswife, Margaret Willcox, PhD '24, is a part-time member of the staff of the chemistrydepartment of George Washington University. Their older daughter, Frances Burk-am, recently received her MA degree inhistory of art, while the younger daughter,Jean, is a graduate student in physics.Herbert Stewart, AM, sends news that heis feeling very spry at the age of 77, andis busy making speeches; a recent one delivered before the Kiwanis Club of Highland, Kansas, was on capitalism.George E. Wakerlin, PhD '26, MD '29,and Miss Ruth Billings Coleman of Chicago were married in February.1925Jennie S. Jenkinson, AM '35, has been retired for six years, but she writes, "amstill going strong in work of home, gardenand in church activities. Each year I takeup a new type of creative handicraft."Mary Sleezer White, a resident of Kent,Ohio, says: *'I can count my blessings— inthe last two years, a grandson, Bobby, anda granddaughter, Mary Margaret."1927* Harriet Borman High is an elementaryschool teacher in Blue Island, 111., and herhusband, Oscar High, '25, is a high schoolteacher. Their son, George, is a junior atDartmouth College, planning to studv law.Gail M. Dack, PhD, MD '33, Professor ofBacteriology at the University of Chicago,has been appointed a professorial lecturerat the Illinois Institute of Technology.Mabel Eneborg (Mrs. Willis Gutzler)writes that she is "mother, homemaker andsubstitute teacher in Kirkland, Wash., apart of the United States which I preferto my native Illinois." She has two sons:Ralph, 16, and Ivan, 12. She is presidentof the local P.T.A.Adele Fried Stamm is a housewife inBloomington, 111., where her husband is theowner of a men's clothing store. Theirdaughter, Judith, is a junior at the University of Illinois, and their younger daughter, Caryl Jane, is a high school sophomore.Hannah Friedberg Horvitz, an executiveat Macy's department store in New YorkCity, has been with the store for 22 years.Her husband is a salesman of women'scoats.William J. Gillesby is a surgeon inSpringfield, Mo.Bernard Goodman, a wholesale jeweler inChicago, is active in Jewish and communalorganizations. He is president of the HydePark Hebrew Center. He has a son, Arthur, IL* Elizabeth Graham (Mrs. Claude Granger) is a housewife in Kankakee, 111., whereher husband is an attorney. They have two children: Joan, 22, and David, 17. Mrs.Granger is serving her tenth year as avolunteer for the American Red Cross.Since World War II she has served aschairman of her local blood bank programand is now blood program chairman of thechapter's participation in the nationalblood program.Chris Gregory, JD '29, is a lawyer in Chicago. He is married and has three children.James B. Griffin is professor of anthropology and director of the museum of anthropology at the University of Michigan.He has three sons: John, 12, David, 9, andJames, 7.* J. Parker Hall is treasurer of the University of Chicago. His home is in Highland Park.Theodore Harley works for the HarrisTrust & Savings Bank in Chicago. Hisdaughter, Margaret Ann, is a student atRipon College. His son, Theodore, Jr.,is 13.Hinman A. Harris, SM '28, MD '35, is aphysician in general practice in Bloomfield,Mo. His three children are Allen, 12,Barry, 7, and Howard, three.* Charles Wynn Hayes is head of the advertising company which bears his name inChicago.Hope Henderson Grimwade is keepinghouse for her father on a farm near Baxter,Iowa.Arthur J. Hickman, SM '31, is a highschool teacher in Milwaukee, Wis.Ernest L. Hoge is chief of the classification branch in the Federal Security Agency,personnel division. During World War II,he served with the Bureau of Ships. Hehas two daughters: June, eight, and Ellen,six.Alfred Holmberg is a geologist in theU. S. Engineer's Office, War Department,Great Lakes division.Grace Hoyt is a retired school teacher,residing in Lake Mills, Wis.Hannah Johnson (Mrs. Henry Howell,Jr.) is a librarian at the Frick Art ReferenceLibrary in New York City. Her husband isvice-president and director of the real estate company, Cushman and Wakefield.Albert Lepawsky is teaching at the University of Alabama and serving as a consultant to the United Nations. His fourchildren are Martha, 15, Michael, 14, whois attending the University High School,Susan, 9, and Lucy, 8.* Maurice F. Lip ton has his own firm,Kwasha, Lipton & Clark, of consulting actuaries in New York City. He has two children: Doris, 17, and Betty Sue, 11. Hewrites: "We shall plan to attend the 25thAnniversary on June 6. It is a happycoincidence that our 21st wedding anniversary (we were married in Chicago) will beon June 7."* Anita Meinders (Mrs. Ira Van Hise) retired from teaching at Hyde Park HighSchool in Chicago last June.Henry F. Otto is a securities salesman inDayton, Ohio. He and his wife will celebrate their 25th wedding anniversary in August. They were married in Bond Chapel.They have two children: Sanda Lee, ajunior at Ohio State University; and Douglas, who plans to enter Ohio State in thefall.* Helen Smith Guy is a Chicago resident,where her husband, Chester Guy, '21, MD'23, is a surgeon. Their son, Chester, Jr.,was returned to the U. S. last fall after being wounded in action in Korea with the1st Marine division. Their daughter, Suzanne, is completing her freshman year atMiami University.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELeo S. Stafford is employed by the U. S.Naval Electronics Laboratory, San Diego,Calif. He is a lieutenant commander inIhe Naval Reserve.* Cecil Stark is a retired high school teacher, living in Urbana, 111.William Stephenson is a utility consultant and president of the Broquindo Corp.,in St. Petersburg, Fla. He has three daughters: Harriet, 14, Nancy, 12, and Sally, 11.Donald Sterling is a Congregational minister in Spring Valley, Wis. He has threesons: Alfred, 13, William, 12, and David, 11.* Edith A. Stevens is principal and associate professor of elementary education atMiss Woods School, Macalester College, inSt. Paul, Minn.Ve Nona Swart/ Swaney sums up her activities since graduation with this report:"Twenty years as home economist for Washington State College, the American MeatInstitute, and Quartermaster Corps, followed by marriage June 4, 1950 to Rev.Stockton Swaney, Methodist minister inBatavia, 111."Beulah Temple (Mrs. Clifford Wild) AM'29, who is executive secretary of the healthcouncil in Houston, Texas, writes, "I'mstill trying to be of service to mankind."Lawrence E. Tenhapen is minister of theFirst Congregational Church in South Haven, Mich. He has four children: Carol, 18,Helen, 16, Alice, 12, and Laura, seven.* Oliver G. Vogel, PhD '30, is a researchchemist with the Hotpoint Co., Inc., inChicago.* John S. Vavra is a partner of Figge-Vavra & Co., in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and amember of the Midwest Stock Exchange.Janet Wallace Ullmann, a resident ofLake Bluff, 111., reports that her husbandis vice-president of the Chicago RawhideCo.* Blanche F. Walsh is a teacher in theChicago public schools.Charles S. Watson is a teacher in HydePark High School in Chicago.Gilmer R. Webber, of Decatur, 111., is withthe Farm Management Service.* Vera Whinery is a teacher in the SeniorHigh School in Marshalltown, Iowa.* Joseph H. White is operating his ownmarketing consultant firm in Chicago. Heand his wife, Eleanor Frank, '32, have ason, Joel, three.G. Donald Whitehouse is a lawyer inChicago.1928Dr. Paul H. Holinger has received a certificate of merit from the American College of Surgeons for his film, "The Endoscopic Appearance of Diseases of theTrachea." This has been recognized asthe best teaching film of the year.Coyle E. Moore writes from Florida StateUniversity that during the past three yearshe has been Dean of the School of SocialWelfare. "In addition to granting the twoyear professional degree of MSW, the schoolparticipates in an interdivisional graduateprogram leading to the MA and PhD degrees in marriage and family living."Roselle Moss Isenberg has been servingfor the past two years as chairman of theCommunity Fund reviewing committee forday nurseries, and has taken an interest invarious other community activities. Hertwo sons are Jon, 15, at Hyde Park HighSchool, and Steven, 10, at Ray. "I'm looking forward to our 25th reunion in '53."Luella A. Newell, teacher of art at SchurzHigh School in Chicago began a year oftravelling in Europe. She has written toher friend, Ruth Blankmeyer, '31, that "creative travelling on ones own has its advantages and its disadvantages." *Jtfa^ jaar~&-*aer?Lj6Bri,^ear&jB77)^Beri>wfor a man's Summer wardrobeBROOKS BROTHERS' ODD JACKETSmade exclusively for us on our own patternsOur good-looking Odd Jackets for warmweather wear are cool, lightweight andcomfortable. They are made on our ownthree-button, single-breasted patterns ... ingood-looking cotton stripes... in solid colorimported linens. . . and in attractive hounds-tooth patterns.Lightweight Odd Jackets, $18.50 to $30Imported Linen Odd Trousers in light blue,yellow or toast, $ 1 3.75Swatches and order measurement forms ufon request.ESTABLISHED 1818liens furnishings, ffats ^fboes74 E. MADISON ST. NEAR MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 2, ILL.NEW YORK • BOSTON • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCOJUNE, 1952 25BOYDSTON BROS., INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and licensed attendantsW. B. Conkey Co.Division ofRand M9Nally & CompanyCHICAGO • HAMMOND • NEW YORKSince 1885ALBERTTeachers1 AgencyThe best In placement service for UniversityCollege, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, IllinoisTelephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL FhrVt826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 15, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLTREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DealerforCHRYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMUseum 4-4500AfteGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Aufomobi/e Repair.Body, Paint, Simonize, Washand Greasing Departments Helen C. Williamson, AM '32, a publicschool teacher in Philadelphia, has recentlybeen appointed chairman of PhiladelphiaCounty for the State Folklore Society, subsidiary to the State Historical Society andMuseums.1929Howard Y. McClusky, PhD, is the firstpresident of the Adult Education Association of the United States, founded at Columbus, Ohio, in May, 1951, as a mergerof the American Association for Adult Education and the Department of Adult Education of the National Education Association.1930Miriam Hardy was married on December1, 1951, to Dick M. Hood, an officer in theMerchant Marine. Mrs. Hood will continue her teaching of French and Germanat Anacostia High School in Washington,D. C.Edith E. Swank, SM '36, was married onMarch 8 to William J. Long, in New YorkCity.William R. Sype of Stanolind Oil andGas Co., has been named a staff geologistin the general office of the company atTulsa, Okla.1931Emphia Fisher Goldsmith reports thather husband, Dr. Norman Goldsmith, isauthor of the chapter, "Multiple Sclerosis"in the recently published book, WHENDOCTORS ARE PATIENTS.Edmund N. Walsh, MD '36, is engaged inprivate practice of dermatology in FortWorth, Texas.1932Robert A. Bentley, AM, PhD '51, is nowpastor of the First Congregational Churchin Hancock, Michigan.Corinne Fitzpatrick is a secretary, publicity writer and economic analyst in SanRafael, Calif. "I occasionally work withBen Draper, who took work at the University, on his TV project, analyzing publicity. I thoroughly enjoyed our recentalumni meeting at the Mark Hopkins andmeeting the new Chancellor. He reac-quainted us who are so far from home basewith the high points of the University'spost-war years and a few of the promisingoutlooks for the coming years."Paul E. Johnson is a chaplain at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Knoxville,Iowa.* Elaine M. Jost is with the Crowell-Col-lier Publishing Co., in New York, andliving in Irvington-on-the-Hudson.Elizabeth Lamb Sheffield writes, "SorryI can't be with you on the 20th Anniversarygraduation from the University. I'll be inNew York City then on a speaking missionat Columbia University. You surely havea splendid list of trips, and I wish I mightbe with you."* Mildred Shaffer Buchsbaum, MS '33,sends in a newsy resum£ of a busy life:"After getting my master's degree in 1933,I spent the next 17 years at the Universityof Chicago as a faculty wife, a research fellow in zoology, a teaching assistant in theHome Study Dept., and as an assistant tomy husband in his research and his writing.We came to the University of Pittsburghin 1950, and now feel very much at homehere. We have a son, Monte, 12, and adaughter, Vicki, nine, both of whom, ofcourse, are very fond of photography, oftraveling with us in our house trailer tobiological stations on both coasts, and ofmarine invertebrates and practically allother animals." 1933Martin D. Kamen, PhD '36, AssociateProfessor of Radio Chemistry at Washington University, has been named an associateeditor of an Annual Review of Nuclear Science, which will be published beginningthis year, by Annual Reviews, Inc., a publishing firm with headquarters at StanfordUniversity.Anna D. McCracken, who has been onthe faculty of the University of Kansas for30 years, took a long anticipated vacationlast fall, visiting art galleries in severalEastern cities apropos the teaching ofaesthetics.Stanley A. Walton has been promoted tovice-president of the Lake Shore NationalBank in Chicago. Since 1948, Stanley hadbeen in charge of the consumer credit department of the bank.1934William H. Bessey joined the faculty ofthe University of Missouri School of Minesand Metallurgy in February as associateprofessor of physics.Linton J. Keith is still editor-in-chief forWilcox Sc Follett, book publishers, in Chicago.1935Miriam G. Buck, PhD, writes, "I am nowwith the technical information service,atomic energy division, explosives department, of duPont, in Wilmington, Del. Itis quite a change from college teaching,but I like it. I've been here since Dec.1st."Keith E. Hatter works in the office ofDouglas Aircraft in Tulsa, Okla.Ronald L. Oakman is research directorfor Airline Pilots' Association, with headquarters in Chicago.Meyer Resnikoff, SM '37, is an aeronautical research scientist, Ames Laboratory,Moffett Field, Calif.1936Willard Wayne Foreman is teaching atthe New Mexico Military Academy in Ros-well, N. M.Bernard L. Horecker, PhD '39, receivedthe $1,000 award in enzyme chemistry ofthe Paul-Lewis Laboratories, Inc., of Milwaukee. A senior chemist in the NationalInstitute of Health, Horecker was honoredfor his research in the digestive enzymesgoverning metabolism of sugarlike substances that are the building blocks of living cell structure.1937Florence Becher Dewey, a housewife inGranville, Ohio, has three children, themost recent addition being Richard LeRoy,born last November 9.Theodore Fox, MD '37 (Rush) is continuing in the private practice of orthopedicsurgery but is spending half-time on thefaculty at the University College of Medicine and was recently appointed assistantprofessor of orthopedic surgery.Mayer Hyman, MD, is engaged in thepractice of internal medicine in Tucson,Ariz.Walter Pilkington, AM, founder and editor of American Notes & Queries has beennamed the new librarian of HamiltonCollege, Clinton, N. Y.Donald G. Stannus, MD, continues in hispractice of internal medicine in Miami,Fla.1938Herman B. Chase, PhD, has been promoted to the rank of full professor in thedepartment of biology at Brown University.His wife is Elizabeth S. Brown, PhD '37.They have tfiree daughters. '26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERoslyn (Fleishman) and Sidney Collen-der, '38, are the parents of a baby boy,born January 12.Roy Dubisch, SM '40, PhD '43, has beenon leave this year from Fresno State College with a fellowship from the Fund forthe Advancement of Education. He spentspring quarter at the University of Chicago.His book, THE NATURE OF NUMBER,was published this spring by the RonaldPress, (see book section of the MAGAZINE,May issue).George D. Monk, SM '40, has left his postat Los Alamos, and is now working inWashington, D. C. The Monks, includingone-year old, George L., reside in FallsChurch, Va.New job for WagnerClassmates who remember whatan avid cameraman Paul Wagnerwas in his undergraduate days willsee that his recent appointment asexecutive director of the Film Council of America is a logical culmination of a long-time interest.A specialist in the field of visualeducation, Paul will direct the Council in the production, distribution,and utilization of quality films forinformational purposes. Supportedby grants from the Ford Foundation's Fund for Adult Education andfrom contributions by the film industry, the FCA will cooperate with25 national organizations in an effort to obtain wider use for "ideafilms" in television as well as intheaters, classrooms, and communitycenters.The recent appointment followshard on the heels of other goodnews for Paul— the announcementthat he has been paid $50,000 in anout-of-court settlement of a libel andslander suit in which he claimedsome members of the Rollins College faculty and Board had maliciously defamed him in the controversy over an economy drive ordered by the Board of Rollins College last spring when Paul waspresident of the College.1939News of Judson W. Allen, who is treasurer of the Cairo Station of the Board ofForeign Missions of the United PresbyterianChurch, is furnished by his father, Jay B.Allen, '14, who writes, "The office of theMission is located across the street fromShepheard's Hotel, which was very severely damaged during the rioting which occurred January 26 last. In a recent letter,Jud said, 'We had a front seat for theevents at Shepheard's. It is the grace ofGod that saved us.' In view of the censorship of mail in Egypt, I interpret this cryptic reference to a 'front seat' to mean thathe and his associates were anxious on-look-ers while the rioting was in progress,wondering if the surging mob might decideto vent its fury on the Mission property.What he went through might well betermed a '$64 experience'."Thomas F. Dunn, PhD, Professor andHead of the Department of English atDrake University, has been awarded a fellowship from the Fund for the Advancement of Education for the 1952-53 schoolyear during which he will study at Harvard. Edward Schlies, MD '42, is chief residentand the only pediatrician at the hospitalin the gulf-coast town of Orange Texas.His two children are Tanya, nine, andEdward, seven.1940Betty Hawk Hartwell is living in Detroitwhere her husband is with the Ford MotorCo.John Kendrick is now the acting chiefof the national economics division in theoffice of business economics of the U. S.department of commerce.Mary and Jerome Styrt, MD '45, writeenthusiastically about their seven-monthsold daughter, Barbara Ann, who "grinsjoyously and frequently," but they are notso enthusiastic about their life in FortWorth, Texas, where Jerome is stationedat the U. S. Public Health Service Hospital,where he will be for another year.1941Letitia Ferree Ayers, AM, is a nutritionist with the school lunch program of theCalifornia department of education. Herhome is in Riverside, Calif.William Burbanck, PhD, known in biology circles for his research in micro-organisms, has been named chairman of thebiology department at Emory University.His research assistant is his wife, MadelineBurbanck, PhD '41.Joseph L. Fleming, MD '44, has a son,Christopher Hutchins Fleming, born December 25, 1951.Alvin M. Goldman, a dentist in NewYork City, was married on January 27 toRhoda Hiller.Jennie Kahl continues as director of education at Deaconess Hospital School ofNursing in Freeport, 111. "As we havejust recently opened a new wing, with 90beds, we are extremely busy. The shortageof nurses is as great here as elsewhere."Meyer Rolnick, MD, is a physician at theLong Beach Veterans Hospital in California.John R. Russell, SM '42, MD '45, hasbeen serving since last July as instructor ofneurosurgery, School of Medicine, IndianaUniversity. His wife is Jane Bureau, '41.James B. Watson, AM '45, Associate Professor of Anthropology at Washington University, was named president of the Central States Anthropological Society at theorganization's 28th annual meeting in Mayat Ohio State University.Louis M. Welsh opened his law office inLos Angeles on January 1, after serving forfive years in the law department of theA. T. & S. F. Ry. He writes that he andhis wife are expecting their first babyaround the last week in July.1942Betsy Abraham Goodall has been in NewDelhi, India, this year with her three-yearold son, Randall, and her husband, Merrill Goodall, recipient of a Fulbright research fellowship.* Richard S. Baer, MBA writes, "Sinceyou ask particularly about business, I willgive you that information in academicterms: as my major, I am conducting myown practice as a CPA with offices in Chicago's loop; as my minor, I am a folk danceleader, and enthusiastic participant."Shirley Borman Thompson (Mrs. RobertC.) informs us that Robert is a training assistant with the Mutual Life Insurance Co.,in New York City, and that she is a housewife with two children: Joan, seven, andRobert Jr., four.* Winston Dalleck reports, "Since graduating in '42, I spent three years in theAir Force in statistical control activities. CLASSIFIED(SOc per line)RETIRING to sunny Florida? For a home ofdistinction in a beautiful city of lakes nearRollins College, settle in Orlando or WinterPark. See or write a U. of C. ahimna, EdnaM. Feltges, with McNvtt-Heasley, Realtors, 15H\ Washington St., Orlando, Florida.SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 100 YearsChicago's mosf completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoWHOLESALE RETAILLA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoOther PlantsBoston — New York — Philadelphia —Syracuse — Cleveland — Detroit"You Might As Well Have The Best"RESULTS . . .depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Adressographing - FoldingMailing - Copy Preparation - MultilithA Complete Service for Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn - Chicago 5 - WA 2-4561Phones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueT. A. REHNQUIST CO.\oyEST. 1929CONCRETEFLOORS — SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSINDUSTRIAL FLOORINGEMERGENCY REPAIR WORKCONCRETE BREAKINGWATERPROOFINGINSIDE WALLS6639 S. Vernon AvenueNOrmal 7-0433JUNE, 1952 27TheHazelHoffShopInfants' - Children's WearLingerie - HosieryNylon Hosiery — BerkshireNeumodePerfectly ProportionedShort? Medium? Tall?1377 East 55th Street— HYde Park 3-8180BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380Since 1878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholstersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180Ashjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone REgent 4-6000GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186TELEVISIONRentals — sales New & ReconditionedRADIOSRadio-TV ServiceELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators Dishwashers DriersWashers Air Conditioners - FreezersSPORTING GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSLPs & 45sFine collection tor childrenHERMANS935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTeleDhone Mldwav 3-6700Julian A. Tishler, '33 Following this I spent two years in Dallas,Texas, where I had ownership interest inthe Southwestern Commercial Services Co.,Inc. I returned to Chicago in the summerof '48 and went with United Airlines whereI've been ever since. I received my MBAfrom the Downtown College in June, 1951."* Betty Jane Debs (Mrs. Walter Sobel) isa Winnetka, 111., housewife with three children: a girl and two boys, the most recentson having arrived last December 7. Herhusband is an architect.H. Beth Fisher Sturley is a housewife inKirkville, N. Y. Her husband is a researchengineer with the Carrier Corp., in Syracuse. They have a four-year-old son.Robert Freedman sends news of the birthof his second daughter, Sino Sharon, onJanuary 27, 1952, in Rochester, Minn.* Louise Galst Wechsler, AM '44, has takena leading role in organizing a Great Booksprogram in Vallejo, Calif., as well as serving as education chairman for the localHadassah chapter. "My biggest activity iscaring for eight-months-old Marsha, andimpatiently waiting for her to grow intothe U. of C. T-shirt given to her by PatKachiroubas, '43, who visited with us."Albert Goldstein, MD, is a resident atGeneral Hospital of Riverside County, Arlington, Calif. His wife is Marie Martz, '41.Josephine Hodges Rogers is a housewifewith two children: Rhea Ellen, four, andHubert, one. Her husband is an instructorof electrical engineering at the Universityof Michigan.Joanne Kuper Zimmerman and her husband are raising three children: John, five,Jim, three, and Kathy, one year, in theirnew home in Homewood, 111.Benjamin Landsman, AM '43, is a socialworker at the Illinois Children's HospitalSchool in Chicago. His wife, Myril Hur-wich, AM '44, was formerly a social workerwith the Jewish Children's Bureau. TheLandsmans have a year-old daughter,Andrea.Bernice Levenfeld Yeracaris, is a psychotherapist in Buffalo, N. Y., working mainlywith retarded children. Her husband, Con-stantine Yeracaris, AM '50, is a sociologistat the University of Buffalo. They manageto find time in their busy schedule to headup U. of C. alumni activities in Buffalo,in addition to the work they have put inthis year on research for PhD theses.Frederick B. MacKinnon was recalledinto the Navy over a year ago. He is alieutenant commander.Raymond H. McEvoy, AM '47, PhD '50,is leaving his teaching post at the University of Illinois this month to become aresearch economist for the Federal DepositInsurance Corp., in Washington, D. C.Ruth Mortenson Sowash writes fromAlexandria, Va., that her husband, WilliamSowash, '39, AM '41, is a Panama deskofficer with the Department of State. Theyhave a daughter, Carolyn, five.* Elizabeth Munger Runyan sent thisnews from Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio: "Wehave two boys, Johnny, three, and Mac,four. I teach at nursery school severalmornings a week, which has the advantageof letting me see what little demons otherpeople's children can be! I have lost trackof most of the friends I knew at school, butwas delighted to receive a copy of theMortar Board publication recently whichbrought news of many." Her husband,William Runyan, '37, JD '39, is an attorney.* Ruth Opal Smith, a Chicago resident,is planning to attend the reunion.* Helen Polos (Mrs. George Topping) isa Chicago housewife with three children:Thalia, eight, Dean, four, and Francene, two. Her husband is assistant superintendent of schools in Cook County.Frank Pretzel, SM '48, PhD '51, is aphysical chemist at the University of California, now working at Los Alamos, N. M.* Eloise Procter (Mrs. Acton Reavill) "Iseem to be in the business of raising awhole chapter of future Wyverns. Ouroffspring now number four— all girls: Med-ith, five, Noreen, three, and the twins, Liseand Lynn, one year." The Reavill familylives in Wausau, Wris., where Acton is arestaurant operator.* Mildred M. Rees (Mrs. John Tordella)writes that she has been busy with herfamily of five children: Jimmy, eight,Kathy, six, Jean, four, Paul, two, andStephen, one. Her husband is a researchchemist with the duPont Co., in Wilmington, Del.Robert D. Reynolds, MBA '47, is withU. S. Steel Co., in San Francisco, Calif. Hehas two children: Linda, three, and John,two.* Charles M. Riley sums up recent activities by writing: "I spent three and a halfyears in the Air Force after leaving theUniversity. When I got out in 1946 I wentto Minnesota and did four years of graduate work. I received my PhD in 1950and have been teaching geology and mineralogy at the University of Nebraska eversince. I am married to a fine girl, and wehave two boys, ages seven and four."* Kurt Rorig tells us that he spends hisdays doing research in medicinal chemistry,and his nights teaching an organic chemistry course at Loyola University. His wife,Helena Yonan, teaches English, on a substitute basis, in the Chicago high schools."In our free time, we're still trying to workour way through the Great Books."* Jack J. Roth is an instructor in historyat Roosevelt College in Chicago.D. P. Rothrock is a field geologist withthe Carter Oil Co., in Denver, Colo.* Nadia Sabador is employed in the salary and wage administration division of theWhiting Corp.Calvin Sawyier, AM '42, is a lawyer inChicago. His wife is Fay Horton, AB '44.* Jane Sekema Tallon writes that sheis employed at R. R. Donnelly & Sons Co.,in Chicago. "I have worked there sincegraduation, except for one year when wemoved to Minneapolis where my husband,William Tallon, '39, AM '51, taught atthe University of Minnesota, and last year,when we lived in Paris where my husband finished work on a thesis. Nowwe're back in Chicago to stay, we hope."Shirley Silver Switzer, AM '46, is amother and housewife in Chicago, whereher husband is a physician.Sylvia Silverstein Weishaus is a publicrelations representative in North Hollywood, Calif. Her husband, James Weishaus, '39, is a psychiatrist. They have ayear-old son, Marc.Jack Steinberger, PhD '49, is AssistantProfessor of Physics, Columbia University.Harold R. Steinhauser, MBA '43, is anassistant principal of a Chicago high school.Edward Stempel is an assistant psychiatrist at the Wayne County General Hospital in Michigan.* Bernard M. Stone, MD '44, is an instructor in radiology at Stanford University, School of Medicine. He and his wife,Mary Rice, '41, are living in San Francisco.Philip C. Strick is a special agent forthe Motors Insurance Corp., in NorthHollywood, Calif.* Helen M. Thatcher, lawyer and registrar at the John Marshall Law School inChicago, writes: "Working in this schoolis like being in a University of ChicagoTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEextension school. U. of C. alumni hereinclude assistant dean, librarian, registrar, and assistant registrar, and 12 members of the faculty."* Granville K. Thompson, MBA, and hiswife, Marion Seidler, are residents of SilverSpring, Md. Granville is with the U. S.Office of Education, division of highereducation, working as a specialist in collegebusiness management.Harold Ticho, SM '44, PhD '49, and hiswife, Betty Jane Tullis, are residents ofVenice, Calif., where Harold is an assistant professor of physics at the Universityof California in Los Angeles.Henry J. Tomasek, AM '46, is an assistantprofessor of political science at the University of North Dakota.John Trebellas is a regional representative for the Pepsi-Cola Co. He writes:"Busy traveling. No, not married. Justtime enough for a little golfing, huntingand fishing."Margery Turner Whitcomb, AM '47, isa Chicago housewife with a year-old son,John. Her husband is an industrial engineer.* Cornelius Vander Laan, MD '44, hasa private practice in dermatology in Chicago, and is also a clinical assistant indermatology at the University of Illinois.* Agnes C. Vukonich, AM '51, who isbead of the department of English atCommercial High School in Ohio, 111., isplanning a trip to Europe this summer.Elizabeth Wallerscein Bingham sendsword that they have recently moved toElmsford, N. Y. "My husband has joinedthe Westchester County Planning Board.We have two girls: Carol, two, and Edith,eight months."Guido Weigend, MS '46, PhD '49, andhis wife, Areta Kelble, '40, are residentsof New Brunswick, N. J., where Guido isAssociate Professor of Geography and Acting Chairman of the department, at Rutgers University.Eugene Weinberg, SM '48, PhD '50, isan instructor in bacteriology at IndianaUniversity. He and his wife, Frances Izen,'49, have a daughter, Barbara Ann, whowas one year old on April 30.* Sol S. Weiner is general sales managerof the Printed String Co., in Chicago. Hehas three children: Judith, seven, Michael,four, and Susan, two.* Charles A. Werner is a physician inNew York City.Nancy B. Woolridge, PhD, the recipientof a scholarship from the Carnegie Fundfor Research and also one from the ZetaPhi Beta Sorority Foreign Scholarship Fundleft for London in March to matriculateat the University of London.* Robert O. Wright is city manager ofClawson, Mich. He and his wife, MarilynLeonard, '42, have two children: Alan,six, and Carolyn, who will be four inOctober.* Theodore E. Zurawic, SM '49, is a research chemist with the Dow ChemicalCo., in Midland, Mich. The Zurawics havetwins, Jacqueline and Nicholas, who willbe one year old in October.1943Alice R. Bensen, PhD, has been awardeda Ford Foundation faculty fellowship forthe year 1952-53.Herbert Berman was married in February to Miss Elaine Wiener of New YorkCity. A physicist, Mr. Berman is now withthe Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D. C.Richard Ericson, MBA '48, has beenawarded a $2,000 grant by the NationalAssociation of Investment Companies touse in completing his doctoral thesis at Indiana University on "The Taxation ofInvestment Companies in the UnitedStates."Robert L. Graves is operating superintendent of Sears, Roebuck de Venezuela,in Caracas. He has two children.Valerie Hurst, an instructor in bacteriology at the University of California,has been on leave of absence this yearto study at the University of London undera Fulbright scholarship.Harold M. Mayer was married on March23 to Miss Frances Schulson of Milwaukee.An assistant professor in the departmentof geography at the University, Haroldhas recently been appointed by GovernorStevenson a member of the seven-manChicago Regional Port District Board.Doris Nystrom Burrell is a housewife inSanta Ana, Calif., with two children, Susan,three, and Barbara Ann, 20 months.Sylvester J. Petro, JD '45, continues asassistant professor of law at New YorkUniversity in New York City.William Swanberg is managing editor ofthe Journal of Medical Education, withoffices in Chicago.Dorothy Tayler, AM, continues her careerin public health in Charleston, W. Va.Other activities include membership chairman of the State Welfare Conference, andvice-chairman of the W. Va. chapter ofA. A. S. W.1944Michael Koch, who took work in theGraduate Library School around 1944, isnow librarian of the technical library atthe U. S. Naval Supply Activities, Brooklyn,N. Y., and is working to make the libraryan integral part of the organization.Richard R. Taylor, MD '46, a major inthe Army, is stationed at Letterman ArmyHospital in San Francisco.1945Verna Schroeder, MBA (Mrs. MarvinGoessl), is a home economist with theQuaker Oats Co., in Chicago.Margaret Sheets, AM, is now at Mt. Vernon Seminary in Washington, D. C.Louis B. Thomas, MD, is at the MayoClinic in Rochester for a year's trainingin neuropathology.1946Theana Brotsos, AM '50, was awardedan assistantship in the College of theUniversity in January and during winterand spring quarters taught in the Humanities I course.Hope Casselberry Potter is a resident ofBaraboo, Wis. The Potters' little boy,Thomas Albert III, will be one year oldon June 10.Lydia Gihring is director of nursing atthe Montana Deaconess Hospital in GreatFalls.Joy Eisenberg Lipman announces thata baby boy, Harvey Bennett, joinedbrother Marc on March 18, 1952, at thehome of the Norman J. Lipmans.A July wedding date has been set forJerome Sandweiss, AM '48, JD '50, and hisbride-to-be, Miss Marilyn Glik of University City, Mo. Miss Glik is a 1951 alumnaof Vassar College.1947Harlan Blake, AM '48, has resigned fromhis position as assistant dean of UniversityCollege and in the fall will be devotingfull time to his PhD in the departmentof economics at the University. He left forEurope in May for a four-months' autotour.Hannah E. Field (Mrs. Philip Leffel) isa Detroit housewife with two children:Eileen, three, and Jim, 18 months. Ajax Waste Paper Co.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, CR 7-2668BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoGolden Dirilyteiformirly Dirigali)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID — NOT PLATEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynslay, Royal Crown Darby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal. Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSUiriiju, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4. III.Telephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON & BROS. Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributors' ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water Market^^B^^BkexctutNct in fiicntCAi rtoovcrs\fmiglewfWfl\^Felectricai SUPPLY CO.Dlitrlbitsrt, MiHfsctwsri ill Jakbers llELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500JUNE, 1952 29PARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525(Pketptf^lulp*iiiiiiiwiMiiej /in \smtnmmmmCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone HYde Park 3-6324Lunches: 45c up; Dinners: Sl.25-S2.25Catch Basin and Sawer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAIrtM 4-0IIIPENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICEOLC^xclu&ive \^leu&we CleanersWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608LOWER YOUR COSTSWAGE INCENTIVESEMPLOYEE TRAININGPERSONNEL PROCEDURESIMPROVED METHODSJOB EVALUATIONROBERT B SHAPIRO '33, DIRECTOR Joseph Friedheim, MBA, administratorat the Jameson Memorial Hospital in NewCastle, Pa., reports that the $1,250,000 addition to the hospital is scheduled for completion in September.Joan Frye has changed both her nameand address in recent months. She is nowMrs. Richard Yoken, and living in Elmhurst, N. Y., where her husband is a merchandise controller for the mail order millinery at Sears Roebuck. A graduate ofRutgers University, Mr. Yoken was a lieutenant commander in the Navy in WorldWar II.Jack Jones, AM, is secretary of the R. T.club, an organization of Indiana Baptistministers which meets four times a yearfor study and discussion.Richard Krohn, MBA '50, is now a 2ndLt., stationed at the Signal School, StudentAttachment, Fort Monmouth, N. J.Ellen Lund has left her position as office manager of the radio office at theUniversity to join the midwest office of theNational Council of Churches of Christas personnel director and office manager.Joseph Minsky, JD '51, is in law practice with the firm of Goldberg & Levin,in Chicago.Blythe C. Mitchell, AM, is now associatedwith the division of test research and service, World Book Co., in Yonkers, N. Y.Charles F. Mitchell, AM, is acting director of the Division of Mental Health, StateHealth Dept., Austin, Texas.Elizabeth H. Nicol, AM, has been transferred by the New York State Departmentof Social Welfare from Albany to Low-ville, N. Y.Ann Pinhasik Caplin is a librarian inthe Chicago public library system.John S. Rehr is assistant silver buyer forBlack, Starr & Gorham in New York City.Alvin D. Star, a retail executive withFilene's, in Boston, was married on May18 to Miss Esta Greenberg, an alumna ofSmith College.1948Carl H. Abraham, MBA, has resumedhis private practice in New York City before the Interstate Commerce Commission as traffic consultant specializing inmotor carrier, industrial and governmentregulatory agency matters.Mary Brett (Mrs. John Jr.) has beenteaching director of the Packanack cooperative nursery school since last October. "The school is at Packanack Lake,N. J., where my husband and I recentlycompleted building our home."Charles A. Campbell, AM, was awardedhis PhD degree from the University ofMinnesota in March.Robert V. Cole, AM, reports that hewill be using the psychology he learnedat the University when he teaches collegecourses to the Chicago police departmentnext fall.Albert W. Demmler, Jr., was awardedhis MS degree in metallurgical engineering at the University of Michigan in February, and is continuing his studies forhis PhD. He has recently been initiatedinto Phi Lambda Upsilon, honoraryscholastic society.Walter Ehrmann, MBA '49, has beenelected assistant vice-president of the Pullman Trust & Savings Bank of Chicago.He joined the staff of the bank in 1949.Roberto F. Fortuno, MD '50, is a resident physician at San Juan City Hospitalin Santurce, P. R.Joseph S. Mohr, Jr., is working for theChemical division of the Koppers Co., inPittsburgh where he has been since graduating from the Harvard Business Schoolin 1950. David Pearl, AM, PhD '50, has beenpromoted to the position of assistant chiefpsychologist at the VA NeuropsychiatryHospital, Ft. Custer, Mich.Virginia Rogers (Mrs. Norman Satir)AM, is a psychiatric social worker with theAssociation for Family Living in ChicagoMartin Steindler, SM '49, PhD '52, writesthat he was awarded his fourth and lastdegree at the March convocation at theUniversity of Chicago— his PhD in chemistry. At present he is working on theNavy inorganic project under Dr. Schlesinger.Mace DeBuy Wenniger, AM '51, is working with Pace Associates, in Chicago, ascity planner. He reports that the firm isbusy developing three new industrial towns,two in Minnesota having to do with theextraction and processing of taconite ore,and one in Upper Michigan to be a coppermining town.Lorene Scott Young, AM, is a medicalsocial worker at the Children's MedicalCenter in Boston.1949Capt. Wayne Bridges, AM, is with the1st Cavalry Division on Hokkaido, northernmost island of Japan, where the divisionis training in arctic warfare after 17months frontline duty in Korea.John Bridgewater, MBA, is now humanand industrial engineer for the HenryDreyfuss Industrial Design firm in NewYork City.Lt. Carl Dragstedt, Jr., is completingfive years of service in Japan. His has fourchildren, three of them born in Japan:Marsha, four, Carl III, three, Laurel, two,and Graham, one.John I. Goodlad, PhD, director ofteacher education at Emory University,has been awarded a fellowship from theFund for the Advancement of Educationfor the coming year, and will studyteacher education programs in liberal artscolleges.Frederic V. Grunfeld and his wife,Dorothy Miles, '47, are living on LongIsland, N. Y. Since last January Frederichas conducted his own music commentaryprogram on WQXR— one hour, five nightsa week.George Haddad, PhD, a member of thefaculty of the Syrian State University, wasmarried to Miss Fresia Garcia of MexicoCity on Dec. 9, 1951.Walter Hartman, AM, has been workingthis past year as a research associate atthe University of Illinois on a Navy projectto investigate social perception and groupeffectiveness. He spent last summer inEngland working with social scientists fromthe London School of Economics.Elizabeth Kientzle, AM, writes that inaddition to her job as gifts and exchangelibrarian at the John Crerar library inChicago, she has also been teaching twolibrary courses. One is in methods of communications in the Rosary College Graduate Library School, and the other is inbasic reference tools, given for non-professional members of the Illinois chapterof Special Libraries Association.Dan Kletnick, AM, has recently boughta new home in Park Forest, 111. He isteaching in the Chicago Americanizationprogram for foreigners.James McKeown, PhD, will be joiningthe faculty of DePaul University in thefall.Peh-hsuin ("Luther") Cheo is assistantprofessor of mathematics at Nanking University in China.Nathaniel J. Raskin, PhD, has been appointed director of research planning forTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe American Foundation for the Blind,Inc. Mr. Raskin is a member of the faculty of Hunter College, and was formerlyassociated with the counseling center anddepartment of psychology of the University.Lillian Richards, AM, social worker, isnow director of all New York City socialworkers in the department of hospitals.Albert W. Waldron, Jr., is a captainwith the Air Transport Command in Wash-*ington, D. C.Eugene A. Wilkening, PhD, and hiswife, Helena L. Emerson, '43, have beenat the University of Wisconsin this yearwhere Eugene was visiting lecturer andresearch associate in rural sociology onleave of absence from North Carolina StateCollege.1950Harvey Arnold is completing his fifthyear as pastor of the Community Churchof Fox Lake, 111. He has a year-old son,Gregory Karl.Robert Gholson has spent the past several months on a geographic survey ship,the USS Maury, working in the PersianGulf. He enlisted in the Navy in August,1950.Edgar B. Hale, PhD, reports the birthof a son, William, on November 20, 1951.Lawrence T. Hancock, AM, is principalof the Maritime School of Social Workers,Kings College, Halifax, Nova Scotia.George A. Harris is in his second yearas business economist with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, productivity division.William M. Lundberg, AM, is assistantdirector of planning for the city of Greensboro, N. C, and a leader of an interracial second-year Great Books discussiongroup.George J. Resnikoff writes from LosAltos, Calif., that he is a research assistant at the applied mathematics and statistics laboratory, Stanford University, andworking on his doctorate there.Oscar Turk, AM, is now with the National Tuberculosis Association as associatein social work, rehabilitation service.1951Ernest W. Cook, AM, is employed ashome service field consultant for the American Red Cross, his territory includingMinnesota and North and South Dakota.Fred Davis, AM, is doing research inpsychological warfare for the Air Forcewith the Human Resources Research Institute, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.Fred J. Dopheide, JD, has been raised tothe rank of first lieutenant in the U.S.Air Force Reserve.David B. Finkel is completing his firstyear of law school at Duke University.Britton Harris, AM, is acting director ofthe Office of Economic Research in PuertoRico.Irving Levine, MBA, reports from FortBenning, Ga., that he was married at International House on December 30, 1951,to Zyvia Eisenberg.Leo G. Mulhearn, MBA, is a restaurantmanager in Washington, D. C.The parents of Julia Thornton, SM, haveannounced her engagement to GlenWagoner, who is now doing graduate workat the University of Chicago.Lucille Vickers, AM, was elected vice-chairman and president elect of the schoollibrarians' section of the Iowa EducationAssociation at its annual meeting.1952Dorothea Elmer, who receives her bachelor degree this June, was recentlymarried to David Manchester Brown, whois with the Standard Oil Co. in Chicago.Dorothea is a third generation U. ofChicagoan on both sides of the family.Her grandfathers were B. G* Nelson, '02,late head of our Department of Speech;and the late Franklin D. Elmer, DB '98.Her father and mother are Franklin D.Elmer, DB '30, pastor of the First BaptistChurch of Flint, Michigan (with an impressive new church edifice); and MargaretNelson, '27, being cited by the alumni atthe June Reunion.'entoriaRichard Haley, MD '90, (Rush) diedFebruary 16, 1952.Willard C. MacNaul, DB '93, died onFebruary 23, 1952.Anna James MacClintock, '96, died ather home in Millersburg, Kentucky onMarch 27, 1952.Harris W. Manning, MD '97, died onSeptember 8, 1951, in Emporia, Kan.Willier A. Cogshall, '98, Professor Emeritus of Astronomy at Indiana University,died on October 5, 1951.Thomas R. Thomas, MD '99, a Chicagosurgeon, died on February 10, 1952.Caroline L. Ransom (Mrs. Grant Williams) AM '01, PhD '05, died on February1, 1952, in Toledo, Ohio.John Wesley Kistner, MD (Rush), '02,died on August 13, 1951, in Elkhart, Ind.Don H. Palmer, MD '03, died on March18, 1952, in Seattle, Wash.George A. Senn, SM '03, MD '04, diedon October 1, 1951.Joseph Caldwell, AM '04, PhD '14, diedin February, 1952. A retired AgricultureDepartment scientist, he was nationallyknown in the field of food processing andusage.M. Virginia Garner, '04, died on December 15, 1951, in Stephens, Ark.Robert M. Gibboney, '05, JD '07, diedon November 9, 1951, in Rockford, 111.Frances M. Krueger, MD '05, died October 22, 1951, in Blue Island, 111.Clark J. Dye, '07, died on August 4, 1951,in Ann Arbor, Mich.Thurston W. Weum, '07, died on December 20, 1951, in Minneapolis.John W. Stockwell, '08, DB '12, a Sweden-borgian minister, died on March 19, 1952,in Lakewood, Ohio.Theodora Franksen Phillips, '10, died inMarch, 1952.Robert G. Bell, '11, MD '19, died onJuly 28, 1951, in Chicago.James R. Grant, AM '14, died on November 4, 1951.Charles E. Fisher, '15, died on October11, 1951.Charles B. Stephens, AM '15, died onJanuary 8, 1952, in San Francisco, Calif.George A. Stevenson, '16, was killed ina plane crash on January 1, 1952.Wilfred W. Robbins, PhD '17, died onMarch 5, 1952, in San Francisco, Calif.John Schwarz, AM '19, Professor Emeritus of History at Bowling Green University, died March 11, 1952.Robert E. Nash, JD '20, died on December 20, 1951, in Rockford, 111.Catherine Moore Picard, '22, AM '25,died on February 22, 1952.Jerre G. Reed, '22> died in April, 1952,in Riverside, Calif. CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits its workto the university and college field. It isaffiliated with the Fisk Teachers Agency ofChicago, whose work covers all the educational fields. Both organizations assist inthe appointment of administrators as wellas of teachers.Our service is nation-wide.HYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING. BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrcheiter 3-1579RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. MOnroe 4-3192[Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliff 3-7400JUNE, 1952 31POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHeeves Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisPHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work A SpecialtyQuality Book Reproduction731 Plymouth CourtWAbash 2-8182Platers- SilversmithsSince 1917GOLD. SILVER, RHODIUMSILVERWARERepaired, ReAmhhed, RelacqueredSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ava. CEntral <-e089-90 ChicagoA. T. STEWART LUMBER CO.Quality and ServiceSince 188879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phones Vlncennes 6-9000LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS— SINCE 1906 + WORK DONE BY ALL PROCES!+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ?? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE +pRAYNER^2801 W. 47TH ST., CHICAGO. Caroline Louise Ransom Williams, AM '00, PhD '05By Barbara Grace Spayd, '07Dr. Caroline L. Ransom Williamswas a distinguished Egyptologist. February 1, 1952, she died in Toledo, Ohio,her birthplace. She was the daughterof Mr. and Mrs. John R. B. Ransomand the widow of Mr. Grant Williams,a prominent realtor. In the UnitedStates, Europe, and Egypt she wasknown and respected by eminentarchaeologists.Lake Erie College, Mount HolyokeCollege, the University of Berlin, andthe University of Chicago claim heras an alumna. After graduation fromMount Holyoke, 1896, she traveledabroad with her aunt, Miss Louise Fitz-Randolph, Professor of History of Artat Mount Holyoke. In Egypt interestin archaeology was aroused.Her teaching career started at LakeErie College. In 1905 Bryn Mawr appointed Dr. Caroline L. Ransom Assistant Professor of Art and Archaeology.In 1928 she accepted a Lectureship inEgyptology at the University of Michigan. She was an inspiration to her students, many of whom have gained recognition for scholarly attainments.She started her career on museumstaffs as Assistant Curator in the Egyptian Department of the Berlin Museumin 1903, after two years of study at theUniversity of Berlin under the eminentEgyptologist, Dr. Adolf Erman. In 1910she joined the staff of the MetropolitanMuseum of Art in New York as Assistant Curator in the Department of Egyptian Art.During this period Mount HolyokeCollege on the occasion of its seventy-fifth anniversary, 1912, conferred uponher the honorary edgree of Litt.D inrecognition of outstanding achievementsas research scholar, teacher, curator, andauthor in sixteen years since graduation.Twenty-five years later the honorary degree LL.D. was conferred on this distinguished scholar by the University ofToledo.After her marriage in 1916 to Mr.Grant Williams she made her homein Toledo. Without delay the ToledoMuseum of Art appointed Dr. WilliamsHonorary Curator of their EgyptianCollection.For the New York Historical SocietyDr. Williams, during frequent brief periods in New York, 1917-1924, superintended the conservation and rearrangement of their famous Abbott Collection.For the 1926-1927 season in Egypt shejoined the staff selected by Dr. JamesH. Breasted, distinguished director ofLena Davis (Mrs. Ell R. Henry) '25, diedon January 19, 1952.Helen Cox, '26, was fatally injured onAugust 3, 1951.Benjamin J. Sinai, '27, died last August1, 1951, in Jerusalem, Israel, while attending a summer seminar at- the HebrewUniversity.David P. Holmes, AM '28, died on October 23, 1951, in Arkadelphia, Ark.Rena M. Andrews, AM '29, PhD '33,died in February, 1929. He was Professorof History at Judson College, Marion, Ala.Forrest T. Turner, '29, died on January1, 1952. the Oriental Institute, to engage in anepigraphic survey of monuments northof Luxor. She returned to Egypt forthe 1935-1936 season to carry out research studies for the MetropolitanMuseum of Art.Archaeologists consider publicationsof Dr. Williams authentic and authoritative. She was the first woman to havean article published in the GermanArchaeological Year Book. Her doctor'sthesis, Studies in Ancient Furniture, wassuch a scholarly contribution that theUniversity of Chicago Press publishedit, 1905. Dr. Williams, versed in hieroglyphics and hieratic writing, preparedmany articles based on her epigraphicresearch in ancient Egyptian tombs andtemples along the Nile and on her interpretation of inscriptions on Egyptian monuments and objects brought tothe United States by the MetropolitanMuseum of Art, the New York Historical Society, and the Oriental Institute of The University of Chicago. Thesehave been published over a period 1912-1940 in bulletins of museums named,and in The American Journal ofArchaeology, The Journal of EgyptianArchaeology (London) .Dr. Williams was co-author of theHandbook of Egyptian Rooms, 1911.The Stela of Menthu-Weser was published 1915. Authorities consider herJewelry and Related Objects, 1924, astandard work on Egyptian jewelry.Medinet Habou, 1930, followed her research, 1926-1927, at the Chicago Houseof the Oriental Institute in Luxor.The Decorations of the Tomb of Per-Neb was published 1932.In addition to alumni associations ofcolleges and universities attended, Dr.Williams has been identified with PhiBeta Kappa, the American Associationof University Women, the OrientalSociety, and the New York HistoricalSociety.The integrity of Dr. Williams in hersearch for truth was ever apparent. Shewon and held the respect of professors,curators, and directors of the institutions with which she was associated.Throughout his life Dr. Adolph Ermanof the University of Berlin was herfriend as was Dr. James H. Breastedof the University of Chicago.The extent of the loyalty, devotion,and generous spirit of this truly gentlewoman, Dr. Caroline Louise RansomWilliams, is known by her family,church, each Alma Mater, and friendsin all walks of life.Solomon S. Kauvar, MD '34, died onDecember 25, 1951, in Denver, Colo.Elmore J. Frank, '36, MBA '48, diedApril 4, 1951.Harry E. Her, AM '36, a well-knownPeoria area educator, died on March 18,1952, following a heart attack.Ora Etta Duke, '37, AM '42, died onAugust 1, 1951, in Clinton, Iowa.Edward Robbins, AM '39, died on November 30, 1951.Christine G. Sherfey, SM '41, died onJanuary 7, 1952, in Omaha, Neb.Joseph Doorley, '49, died on March 6,1952, in Tulare, Calif.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1951-2 INDEX TO ARTICLESAdams, Olga (Retires) Je 52ALLEN, DR. J. GARROTT, Whole Blood Is Not theWhole Answer D 51All, All Are Gone, the Old Familiar Theses,CYRIL 0. HOULE Je 52American Literary Criticism Je 52Art to Alphabet, IGNACE J. GELB Mch 52Athletic Policies, Chicago's Unique, T. N. METCALF Mch 52BAER, ARTHUR, Homely Qualities of Alumnus-ship D 51Balanced Budget, Necessary and Possible? PAUL H.DOUGLAS Ja 52Berwanger, Jay N 51Bond, Donald (Spectator Papers) N 51BOWERS, FREDSON, Revolution in ShakespeareCriticism N 51Burns, Robert K. (Science Research Associates) Ja 52Burns, Robert K. (Employee Morale) F 52CARNOVSKY, LEON, I Never Enjoyed Such a Year My 52Carson's and the College Ap 52Citations, Alumni 0 52Collins, Charles (Outstanding Newspaperman) F 52Dangerous Duty of the University, ROBERT REDFIELD 0 51Dexter, Lewis (Poll Watcher) Ap 52Dishpan Weather (v. FULTZ) Je 52Donohue, Harold (Bookseller) 0 51DOUGLAS, PAUL H. (SEN.) Is a Balanced BudgetNecessary and Possible? Ja 52EAKIN, MARY, Judging Books for Children D 51Ears for Seeing With Ja 52Ebert, Dr. Robert (Ear Window) Ja 52EBRIGHT, DONALD, India: Panorama My 52EDGERTON, WILLIAM, Egyptology in England My 52Education of an Adult, CYRIL 0. HOULE O 51Egyptology in England, WILLIAM F. EDGERTON My 52Employee Morale, Finding Trouble Spots in F 52Fads Are Like Epidemics (Mathematical Biology) Je 52Family Doctor, Mr. U. S Ap 52Faulkner, Joseph (Bookseller) O 51Finding New Recipes for Rocks Ja 52Flat World (New World Projection) My 51Fool About Art, JAMES GILBERT F 52Four Score and Twelve Years Ago (Lincoln Library) Je 52FRY, HILARY, Sure Chicago Students Are Different Ap 52Fultz, Dave (Meteorologist) Je 52GELB, IGNACE J., From, Art to Alphabet Mch 52GERARD, RALPH W., Look Back to See the Future Ap 52Getting New Knowledge in the Social Sciences,ROBERT REDFIELD Mch 52GILBERT, JAMES I., A Fool About Art F 52Goldbricking, Industrial, DONALD ROY Je 52Goldsmith, Julian (Geochemistry) Ja 52Grand Central Terminal, LEO SZILARD Je 52Greatest Service, LAWRENCE A. KIMPTON N 51HA YAK AW A, S. I., Why We Don't Behave Like HumanBeings Ja 52HAUSER, WILLIAM, The Road to Rangoon My 52HODGSON, MARSHALL, India: Silhouette My 52Homely Qualities of Alumnus-ship, ARTHUR BAER D 51Hot Dogs and Supersonic Reflectoscopes,LAWRENCE KIMPTON D 51HOULE, CYRIL O., All, All Are Gone Je 52HOULE, CYRIL O., Education of an Adult 0 51HUTCHINS, ROBERT M., Popidar or Unpopular D 51I Never Enjoyed Such a Year, LEON CARNOVSKY My 52I Shall Long to Return to Florence,ELIZABETH VARDON .My 52India : Panorama, DONALD EBRIGHT I .My 52India: Silhouette, MARSHALL G. S. HODGSON My 52India : Vignette, RUBYN R. OGBURN My 52Inside Student Interests, ROBERT STROZIER Ia 52Introspective Industry (Opinion Polling) Ap 52Iran, Point Four Social Scientist in, ROBERT MINGES My 52Japan, Prexy's Report from, HIRO OHASHI My 52Johnson, John (Outstanding Young Man) F 52Judging Books for Children, MARY EAKIN D 51KIMPTON, LAWRENCE, The Greatest Service N 51KIMPTON, LAWRENCE, Hot Dogs and SupersonicReflectoscopes D 51 p. 7p 18p. 13p. 6p. 12p. 11p 21p. 14p. 7p. 15p. 13p. 11p. 12p. 21p. 13p. 13p. 24p. 19p. 7p. 8p. 14p. 16p. 7p. 10p- 16p. 16p. 9p. 21p. 12p. 21p. 21p. 11p. 15p. 16p. 18p. 4p. 11p. 16p. 11p. 14p. 11p- 16p. 7p- 11p. 7p. 18p. 20p. 7p. 20p. 15p. 8p. 14p. 7p. 6p. 12p. 9p. 13p. 7p. 9p. 8p. 11p. 11p. 7p- 19p. 22p. 9p. 10p. 7 KIMPTON, LAWRENCE, Leave It to History Mch 52 p. 18KIMPTON, LAWRENCE, We Must Make OurselvesUnderstood D 51 p. 15KURLAND, NORMAN, Two Views of the Netherlands. .. .My 52 p. 16Laves, Fritz (Geochemist) Ja 52 p. 18Lawson, Andrew W. (Outstanding Young Man) F 52 p. 9Leave It to History, LAWRENCE KIMPTON Mch 52 p. 18LIDE, PAULINE, Looking at Life in London My 52 p. 20Lincoln Library Je 52 p. 16Look Back to See the Future, RALPH W. GERARD. . ... .Ap 52 p. 16Looking at Life in London, PAULINE LIDE My 52 p. 20MANN, GEORG, Dishpan Weather Je- 52 p. 16Main Street Bookstore O 51 p. 16Marionettes, Featherweight Mch 52 p. 14Maroon Hassle, 1951 D 51 p. 20Mathematical Biology Te 52 p. 11MAYER, MILTON, The Student Prince, 1952 Edition My 52 p. 5McEWEN, ROBERT, What's Wrong with the Ivory Tower.. in 52 p. 14Mesons, Pi Mch 52 p. 16METCALF, T. NELSON, Chicago's Unique AthleticPolicies Mch 52 p. 21MINGES, ROBERT, Point Four Social Scientist in Iran... My 52 p. 19Morgan, William W. (First Model of Galaxy) F 52 p. 7MUNGER, EDWIN, The Struggle for Learning in Africa... N 51 p. 21National Opinion Research Center Ap 52 p. 7Netherlands, Two Views of, NORMAN KURLAND,SEYMOUR SLIVE My 52 p. 16Oblige Me by Referring to the Files (Collins) F 52 p. 19OGBURN, RUBYN R. (Mrs. William F.), India:Vignette My 52 p. 11OHASHI, HIRO, Prexy's Report from Japan. . . My 52 p. 22Osgood, Marion (Marionettes) Mch 52 p. 14Outstanding Young Men, America's F 52 p. 9Phemister, Dr. Dallas B., An Appreciation F 52 p. 10Philbrick, Allen (New World Projection) My 52 p. 4Place in the Galaxy (Galactic Model by W. W. Morgan) F 52 p. 7Point Four Social Scientist in Iran, ROBERT MINGES My 52 p. 19Popular or Unpopular, ROBERT M. HUTCHINS D 51 p. 9Readers Are Made, Not Born, HELEN ROBINSON N 51 p. 18REDFIELD, ROBERT, The Dangerous Duty of theUniversity O 51 p. 7REDFIELD, ROBERT, Getting New Knowledge in theSocial Sciences Mch 52 p. 7Revolution in Shakespeare Criticism, FREDSON BOWERS... N 51 p. 11RIESMAN, DAVID, Soc. II— What Is It? .0 51 p. 21Road to Rangoon, WILLIAM HAUSER My 52 p. 15ROBINSON, HELEN M., Readers Are Made, Not Born N 51 p. 18ROY, DONALD, Industrial Goldbricking le 52 p. 7Science Research Associates: A Publisher Is Helpfid Ja 52 p. 12SCOTT, ARTHUR P., Thailand— Consider It Seriously ... .My 52 p. 14Shakespeare Criticism, The Revolution in,FREDSON BOWERS N 51 p. 11Shasta Publishers Ja 52 p. 13SLIVE, SEYMOUR, Two Views of the Netherlands My 52 p. 16Soc. II— What Is It? DAVID RIESMAN O 51 p. 21Soracram F 52 p. 16Spectator Papers N 51 p. 13Spencer, Lyle (Science Research Associates) Ja 52 p. 12Stone, Charles (Carson's and the College) Ap 52 p. 13Student Prince, 1952 Edition, MILTON MAYER My 52 p. 5Students, Chicago, Sure They Are Different,HILARY FRY Ap 52 p. 11STROZIER, ROBERT, Inside Student Interests Ja 52 p. llStruggle for Learning in Africa, EDWIN MUNGER N 51 p. 21Synchrocyclotron (Pi-Mesons) Mch 52 p. 16SZILARD, LEO, Report on "Grand Central Terminal" le 52 p. 20Thailand^-Consider It Seriously, ARTHUR P. SCOTT My 52 p. 14Thirty Years in Kindergarten (Olga Adams) Je 52 p. 18Tschirgi, Robert (Soracram) F 52 p. ] 6UREY, HAROLD, World's Oldest Thermometer O 51 p. 18VARDON, ELIZABETH, I Shall Long to Return toFlorence My 51 p. 7We Must Make Ourselves Understood,LAWRENCE KIMPTON D 51 p. 15What's Wrong with the Ivory Tower, ROBERT McEWEN..Ja 52 p. 14Whole Blood Is Not the Whole Answer,DR. J. GARROTT ALLEN D 51 p. 13Why We Don't Behave Like Human Beings,S. I. HAYAKAWA Ja 52 p. 20World's Oldest Thermometer, HAROLD UREY 0 51 p. 18Yoder, Dr. Albert Ap 52 p. 15Zabel, Morton D. (American Literary Criticism) Je 52 p. 12Clearing the track of clickety- clackYou can ride in comfort on longer-lasting rails because the song of the track is being stilledLike the paddleboat whistle on the river, the clickety-clackof wheels on rails is on its way to becoming a memory.This familiar clatter and chatter has been like music tosome of us when we travel. But it's been a headache toothers . . . particularly our railroads.Wheels pounding on rail joints cause jolting and wear aswell as noise. And wear means expensive repair or replacement of rails and the bars that connect them.ELIMINATING RAIL JOINTS-'Ribbonrail" is becoming important news because it provides a way to solve thehigh cost of joint maintenance by eliminating the jointsthemselves. .RAILS BY THE MILE-"Ribbonrail" is formed by welding the rails together under pressure in the controlled heatof oxy-acetylene flames. The welding is done on the job before the rails are laid . . . and they become continuous ribbons of steel up to a mile or more in length.Mile-long lengths of rail in use may seem impossible be cause of expansion and contraction under extreme changesin weather and temperature. "Ribbonrail" engineering hassolved this problem . . . reduced rail maintenance cost, andcreated the comfort of a smoother, quieter ride.A UCC DEVELOPMENT-"Ribbonrail" is a developmentof the people of Union Carbide. It is another in the longlist of achievements they have made during 40 years ofservice to the railroads of America.STUDENTS and STUDENT ADVISERSLearn more about the many fields in which UnionCarbide offers career opportunities. Write for thefree illustrated booklet "Products and Processes''which describes the various activities of UCC in thefields of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, andPlastics. Ask for booklet B-2. tUnion CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATIONSO EAST 42 ND STREET |TJjj NEW YORK 17. W . V. UCC's Trade-marked Products of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics include Prest-O-Lite Acetylene • Linde Oxygen • Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes . Bakelite, Krene, and Vinylite Plastics • Synthetic Organic ChemicalsNational Carbons . Acheson Electrodes • Pyrofax Gas • Haynes Stellite Alloys Electromet Alloys and Metals • Eveready Flashlights and Batteries