NUCLEAR TROLLEY CAR(P. 16)^tting New KnowledgeI Leave It to HistoryRobert Redfield Lawrence A. Kimptonhall we give himonly Yz of an educationbecause that's allhis tuition pays for?Or will you help pay the other J^, as someonedid for you?It has always been true that tuition fees have paidonly half the cost of an education — yours included. Grantsfrom wealthy donors maSe up the difference.Now the University is faced with the problemof giving only as much education as tuition pays for,or finding the money elsewhere. For the day of the wealthydonor is gone, and instead of one large gift there mustbe a multitude of small ones.Will you help provide for others the advantagesof a fine education which you enjoyed? Share now inthe 1952 Alumni Gift. A contribution of $100 will enteryour name in the Century Club. A gift of any sizewill be received with gratitude.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI FOUNDATION5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUE, CHICAGO 37, ILLINOISrf/emo f-^adHER SVELTE LOOK IN FORMAL DRESSDone with modern mirrorsThere were ten finalists for the queenof Washington Prom. With deadlinesthreatening we decided to be ready forlast minute coverage.So we asked each to pose in eveningclothes at Lewellyn's studio. It was announced that these would be head-and-shoulder pictures.Sara Ann Ivie, a quick-thinking Wyvern(women's club) , saw no point in lookinglike a dinner date in the late morning.The above picture is Sara Ann as shewill appear at tlie Prom. The second isthe whole truth.BELIES MORE USUAL CAMPUS ATTIRENo demotionThe listing of James Gilbert as assistantprofessor, in connection with his fine articleon modern painting in the FebruaryMacazine was a slip we sincerely regret.Mr. Gilbert of course is associate professor.-//. 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You're inbusiness for yourself in life insurance . . . with an able generalagent and a strong company guiding you to success.2* Do you like to help other people? New England Mutualmen have a strong urge to combine service to others with theirchosen career. This business provides that kind of satisfactionas few others do.3« How much income can you earn? There's no top limit—or speed limit — on the earnings of New England Mutual salesrepresentatives. After your financed learning period, your ownefforts and ambition set the pace. Many young graduates ofour training program make over $5000 in their first year. Manyof our "older hands" earn well into five figures.4. How can you tell whether you'll succeed in life insurance?New England Mutual gives you special aptitude tests and tellsyou frankly whether or not it thinks you will make good.5. Is New England Mutual a good company to represent?Its liberal, flexible policies cover every sales need and are nationally advertised— and its men are stimulating and congenialto work with. The company has been established on both coastsfor over a century, and its resources have doubled in the past10 years.6. How quickly could you get going? First, send in the couponfor more complete answers to your questions. Then, if you andNew England Mutual like each other, you can start selling underexpert supervision even while you are training.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOAlumni now achieving successful careers asour agents:Harry Benner, 'II, ChicagoGeorge Marselos, '34, ChicagoPaul C. Lippold, '38, ChicagoJames M. Banghart, '41, San FranciscoJohn R. Downs, '46, ChicagoNew England Mutual would like to add several qualified Universityof Chieago men to its sales organization which is located in theprincipal cities from coast to coast. If you are interested, send inthe coupon today.lew England Mutuallife Insurance Company of BostonTHE COMPANY THAT FOUNDED MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE IN AMERICA-1835 These two booklets will give you a good idea whetheryou'll find what you want in life in life insurance work.SEND FOR THESE INFORMATIVE BOOKLETSNew Encland MutualP. O. Box 333, Boston 17, Mass.Send me, without cost or obligation, "A Career withNew England Mutual" and ."Training for Success."Name-Address-City -Zone— State-2 . THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE(J*Sook±by Faculty and AlumniBriefly notedA collection of essays and reviews byErnest L. Talbert ('02, PhD '09) has beenbrought together in one volume, THESPIRIT OF JEFFERSON, and is a livelyand lucid discussion which asks, and answers, some of the most interesting andprofound questions of modern society.Steeped in the liberal philosophy of Jefferson, and borrowing freely from thewritings of Emerson, William James,Oliver Wendell Holmes, and John Dewey,Mr. Talbert addresses himself in this bookto whether or not national and personalrivalry are rooted in human nature, tothe possibilities of promoting peace andgood-will by the deliberate application ofthe science of sociology, and the relationship between the science of sociology andthe political philosophy of Jefferson.Painstaking work and a devoted concernfor the Who, What, and Where of Indianascientists, are reflected in the book, INDIANA SCIENTISTS, by Stephen Visher,'09, SM '10, PhD '14. Of the nearly 4,500brief biographical sketches of scientistsborn in Indiana, college- or university-trained in Indiana, or employed there,some 228 are of University of ChicagoPhD's. In addition to the brief and vitalstatistics of these scientists, the volume isaimed at indicating some of the influenceswhich apparently or obviously contributedto their achievements.Even a casual perusal of the autobiography of Francesco Ventresca, AM '11,entitled PERSONAL REMINISCENCES,gives one the impression that the authorhas a wonderful time being alive, andthat he has enjoyed writing about his lifealmost as much as he enjoys living it. Although the book celebrates his 60 years inAmerica, and 55 years as a teacher offoreign languages, it includes chatty andfun-loving episodes of his childhood daysin Italy, where he was born. He remarksin an opening statement that the day ofhis birth was one of perfect sunshine, andindeed, it does appear that sunshine hasremained with him to characterize anactive and happy life.He is now chairman of the departmentof foreign languages at Manley High Schoolin Chicago.Elmer Pendell, AM '23, Professor at Baldwin-Wallace College, is author of POPULATION ON THE LOOSE, recentlypublished by Wilfred Funk, New York.Bernard Weisberger, AM '47, PhD '50, haswritten a book, REPORTERS FOR THEUNION, published by Little, Brown,which deals with a largely neglectedside of Civil War history, the adventures of correspondents from Northernnewspapers. Mr. Weisberger, after graduate work under Avery Craven at theUniversity, is now a lieutenant in theUnited States Army. MAGAZINEVolume 44 March, 1952 Number 6PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONExecutive EditorHOWARD W. MORTNews EditorJEANNETTE LOWREYExecutive SecretaryAlumni FoundationJIM ATKINS EditorDON MORRISField SecretaryJIM RATCLIFFE Associate EditorAUDREY PROBSTStaff PhotographerSTEPHEN LEWELLYNDirectorAlumni EducationRICHARD CRUMLEYIN THIS ISSU EGetting New Knowledge, Robert Redfield 7From Art to Alphabet, Ignace J. Gelb 11Featherweight Marionettes 14Pi-Mesons 16Leave it to History, Lawrence A. Kimpton 18Chicago's Unique Athletic Policies, T. Nelson Metcalf . ... 21DEPARTMENTSMemo Pad 1 Featuring The Foundation 2Reader's Guide 2 Books 4Glass News 24COVER: The lucite trolley car, though it looks a little likea tank car in a child's electric train set, actually is a usefulnew mechanism, used in connection with the University'ssynchrocyclotron (See page 16). Fastened to the car, atthe extreme right, is a rectangular target of beryllium,from which the cyclotron's beam of protons — the world'smost powerful — blasts mesons. The trolley car gives thetarget mobility, so that mesons of varying types can beproduced. The ingenious device was designed and builtby Enrico Fermi, Nobel Prize-winning physicist in the University's Department of Physics and Institute for NuclearResearch.Cover and photographs on page 1, 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,and 22 by Stephen Lewellyn. Photo on page 8 {bottom) courtesyDr. E. M. K. Geiling. Photo (left) on page 9, National Cyclopaedia of American Biography; (right) American People's Encyclopedia. Illustrations on pages 12 and 13, from A Study ofWriting. Photos on pages 14 and 15, Hans van Nes, except 14(bottom) by De Arquer.Published monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $3.00. Singlecopies, 35 cents. Student price at University of Chicago Bookstore, 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934. at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois under the act ofMarch 3, 1879. Advertising agent, The American' Alumni Council, B. A. Ross, director, 22Washington Square, New York, N. Y.Jennie Burroughs Wilson, '20, has published another slim volume of poetry entitled, AMERICA AND OTHER POEMS,which she dedicates to "those I love—the seeker of wisdom, the patient worker,the courageous scientist, and the advocate of Divine Law." Mrs. Wilson retired from high school teaching in 1947, and has found since then that the writing of poetry is a creative outlet for herleisure time. She has also written andpublished, PROSE POEMS, THOUGHTPATTERNS, SANTA CLAUS AND THESTORK, and THOMAS, THE FAMILYPET.MARGH, 1952 3eaderd LauldeTHE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCESILZA VEITH, is especially well qualifiedto concoct a list of general books in thebiological sciences which would be ofinterest to the non-specialist in the field.As Assistant Professor in the History ofMedicine, Departments of Medicine andHistory, and as Associate Editor in Biology and Medicine for the Universityof Chicago Press, she is in a position tocome in contact with a wide variety ofbooks in these fields.A HISTORY OF MEDICINE, Vol. I, Primitive and Archaic Medicine, by Henry E.Sigerist. Oxford University Press, 1951,$8.50.This is the first of a projected eight volumehistory of medicine and the most comprehensive book in this field yet to bewritten. Designed for the medical historian, the physician and the laymaninterested in the progress of medicinethroughout the ages, it is immenselyreadable and informative. In his introduction Dr. Sigerist elucidates the problems of medical history and thus showsits major function in demonstrating theinterdependence of such seemingly divergent disciplines as medicine, religion,the social sciences and the humanities.Following a short study of primitivemedicine the larger part of the bookdeals with the medical art of ancientEgypt and Mesopotamia. The book isbeautifully illustrated and thoroughlydocumented.LETTERS OF BENJAMIN RUSH, Volume16-2, Edited by L. H. Butterfield. Illustrated. American Philosophical Society,1951, $15.00.Known to his compatriots as "the American Sydenham" and even as "Hippocrates of Pennsylvania," Benjamin Rush(1745-1813) was one of the most influential physicians in America. In additionto attaining the highest medical positionsthen available in Philadelphia he engaged in many political activities, wasa signer of the Declaration of Independence, active in propaganda against war,slavery, alcoholism and the death penalty.Although many of his medical theoriesand therapeutic schemes were of a highlyarbitrary nature he earned much of thefame accorded to him by his great personal courage at the occasion of theyellow fever epidemic in Philadelphiaand by his humane and understandingattitude towards insanity. Dr. Butterfieldhas edited more than 650 letters writtenby Rush which present an excellent picture of the famous physician's personality, of early American medicine and ofthe political history of Rush's time.TIME'S ARROW AND EVOLUTION, byHarold F. Blum, M.D. Princeton, 1951,$4.00.Dr. Blum's study of evolution is unusualin its emphasis of the continuous interrelation between the biological andphysical forces of the universe. In spiteof the technical aspects of the argumentand the abundance of scientific evidence,Dr. Blum has succeeded in achievingclarity and readability. INFERIORITY FEELINGS, by OliverBrachfeld. Grune and Stratton, 1951,$4.00.This book contains an excellent summaryof thought on; "feelings of inferiority orinferiority complex". Including a historyof inferiority theory, the author has selected material from the writings ofJanet, Adler, and most other outstandingwriters in the field, often of a divergentpoint of view, on the various causes forinferiority feelings. In discussing all inferiority producing relationships he hasgiven proper space to racial and nationalcomplexes, and he has even included astudy on inferiority among animals.THE ANATOMY OF HAPPINESS, byMartin Gumpert. McGraw Hill, 1951,$3.50.In this brilliant and delightful book Dr.Gumpert, a well-known practicing physician and geriatrician, discusses ways forthe accomplishment of happiness andthe avoidance of emotional conflicts.While he considers the psychosomatic,psychiatric, and philosophical aspects ofhappiness, his book has its roots inmedical science and he has avoidedwherever possible the use of psychiatricterminology. sPERSONALITY AND PSYCHOSIS, by OthoFitzgerald. Williams and Wilkins, 1951,$2.50.The author recommends this small bookto those professionally interested inpsychoses. It should, however, be of interest also and within the limits of comprehension to non-specialists who wish toobtain further insight into the problemof personality. Of special value are Dr.Fitzgerald's descriptions of the introvertand extrovert personality, the typing ofwhich he illustrates with excellent casehistories.SOCIETY AND THE CRIMINAL, by Norwood East. Thomas, 1951, $8.00.This series of essays by Dr. Norwood East,one of England's leading criminologicalpsychiatrists, is reprinted from a Britishedition of 1949. The essays cover suchsubjects as the relation of various psychiatric entities to criminal behavior butthey also deal with the more intangiblequestions of punishment and the oathof the expert. The book should be ofinterest to social workers and those inthe legal profession as well as to psychiatrists.A FEW BUTTONS MISSING, THE CASEBOOK OF A PSYCHIATRIST, by JamesT. Fisher, M.D., and Lowell S. Hawley.Lippincott, $3.75.A humorous and yet informative autobiography of a Los Angeles psychiatristcovering his fifty years in practice. Themany trends that have developed inpsychiatry during this span of time arediscussed in detail and well illustratedwith case histories.ETERNAL EVE, by Harvey Graham. Illustrated. Doubleday, 1951, $10.00.In spite of its dramatic title this book isa serious and successful addition to thehistory of childbirth. It is richly illustrated and covers the subject from thecrudest beginnings to the present scientific methods. THE APE IN OUR HOUSE, by CathyHayes. Harper and Brothers, 1951, $3.50.In 1947 the author and her husband, Dr.Keith Hayes, research psychologist at theYerkes Laboratory of Primate Biology inOrange Park, Florida, adopted a babychimpanzee called Vicky. This entertaining and exceedingly interesting book tellsof family life with a growing ape, ofVicky's adjustment to human modes oflife, and of the more frequent necessityon the part of the Hayes to adjust toVicky's pattern of behavior.YOUR HAY FEVER AND WHAT TO DOABOUT IT, by Harry Swartz. Funk andWagnalls, 1951, $2.75.As the title indicates this book is wittenfor the hay fever sufferer and containsmuch useful advice concerning treatmentand avoidance of the disease. In connection with the latter Dr. Swartz givesdetailed information on the variousplants whose pollens cause hay fever,their structure, the reasons for their irritating nature and their geographicaldistribution.NUTRITIONMRS. THELMA PORTER, Professor andChairman, Department of Home Economics, has some down-to-earth suggestions that might be most helpful tovalue- and budget-minded housewives:HANDBOOK OF NUTRITION, 2nd edition. New York, The Blakiston Co. 1951,pp 717. $4.50.A symposium by leading authorities in thefield of nutrition prepared under theauspices of the Council on Foods andNutrition of the American Medical Association. This up-to-date source bookincludes discussions of the individualnutrients required by the human body;the nutritional qualities of commonfoods; and the recommended dietary intakes of these nutrients and foods toprotect against nutritional deficiencies.ESSENTIALS OF NUTRITION. 3rd edition. By Henry C. Sherman and CarolineS. Lanford. New York, The MacmillanCo., 1951. pp. 454. $4.25.An authoritative, readable volume settingforth the position of the present-day science of nutrition and its constructiveaims. It assumes no prerequisite trainingin science, and its approach to the factsand principles of the science is mainlythrough the relations of food to healthand efficiency.MODERN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COOKING. By Meta Given. Chicago, J. G.Ferguson and Associates, 1951. 2 vols.$7.50.In this reviewer's opinion, the best cookbook now available. The two-volumescontain over 350 daily menus, and about2,000 tested recipes, with many instructive illustrations! There is much information not found in other cook books,such as guides for judging the qualityof foods, and suggestions on purchasingfoods. This encyclopedia will help inplanning tasteful meals and in savingmoney on food bills.4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA DESCRIPTIONOF CAREEROPPORTUNITIESATGENERAL ELECTRIC Information you may want to pass on to someone planning his future JThis new booklet contains brief introductorydescriptions of such General Electric trainingprograms as:1. The Test Engineering Program, offeringengineering graduates opportunities for careersnot only in engineering but in all phases of theCompany's business.2. The Business Training Course, open tobusiness administration, liberal arts, and othergraduates . . . for careers in accounting, finance,administration.3. The Manufacturing Training Program,open to graduates with a technical education or a general education with technical emphasis . . .for developing manufacturing leaders.4. The Chemical and Metallurgical Program,offering rotating assignments and studies forchemists, chemical engineers, and metallurgicalengineers.5. The Physics Program, the gateway by whichphysics majors begin careers with GeneralElectric.6. The Sales Training courses, equippingyoung men to serve G-E customers throughexpert technical assistance.A card to us will bring you a copy of the booklet. Or let us send it for youto someone who will want to know the variety of futures that are possible atGeneral Electric. Write to Dept. 221 A-6, General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y.6w ca?z /nc£ -wml am/mence in GENERAL ELECTRICmarch, 1952 5MIDWAY GOTHIC IS INTERPRETED IN SUBDUED TEMPERABY FOURTH GRADE PAINTER GARY BOWMAN, STUDENT INTHE UNIVERSITY'S ART-CONSCIOUS LABORATORY SCHOOLGettingNew KnowledgeIn the study of man in society, learning is advanced not onlyby such precise research as is going on in the natural sciences,but also — and importantly — by a sort of counterpoint-of-ideasBy Robert RedfieldProfessor of AnthropologyLAST WINTER, while staying inMexico, my son, a student in theCollege of the University, carried onthe work of certain courses in thatprogram of general education, andI worked with him, learning as hedid,Two of the courses presented aninteresting contrast. In the second ofthe three year-long courses in thenatural sciences ("Natural Sciences2"), we found ourselves reading theoriginal texts of a series of scientificpapers having to do with diabetes,anatomy, or physiology.The series recorded the development of knowledge as to the causesof diabetes, and, more generally,knowledge of those metabolic functions of which diabetes is one pathological disturbance.As we read these papers, we sawhow one piece of knowledge led tothe making of another experiment, anew discovery. One saw the influence of research in anatomy upon theinterpretation of the clinician, of experiment in physiology upon experiment in biochemistry, and so on.The story went something like this :In 1840 a medical man sums up whatobservation of diabetes has shownas to the symptoms and course ofthe disease. This physician speculatesas to causes. He sees that the failureof the body to dispose of sugar issomehow involved, and asserts thatit is a function of the kidneys tobreak down sugar. In 1877, ClaudeBernard, a physiologist, reviews a series of brilliant experiments whichWake it plain that Prout was wrong: it is the liver that is the source ofthe sugar found in the blood.Reading, we see the ingenuity ofthe experiments on dogs by whichBernard was able to measure accurately the amount of blood sugar inthe portal vein as compared withthat in the arteries. Bernard hasproved to us that the secret of diabetes is to be found in some futureIN MEXICO THE REDFIELDS STUDIEDunderstanding of the normal processes of carbohydrate metabolism.Bernard has found it impossible toextirpate the pancreas from experimental animals without killing them.But in 1890 two experimenters inThis article consists of excerptsmade by the editor of the Magazinefrom an address given by Dr. Red-field at the second annual meetingof the Continuing Conference onGeneral Education and the SocialSciences, at St. Louis, November 15,1951. The full original text will appear in a forthcoming issue of theJournal of General Education, Vol.VI, No. 3, under the title, "ThePlace of Social Science Research inGeneral Education." Strasbourg succeed in doing this, andprove that total extirpation of thepancreas results invariably in diabetes.Three years later an anatomist reveals the connection of the Islandsof Langerhans, of the pancreas, withthe bloodstream. And in 1903 Opieperforms careful autopsies on patients who died of diabetes and confirms the conclusion of the anatomistas to the connection of these isletswith diabetes.But what is it that passes fromthese islets to the system, and howdoes this whatever-it-is affect themetabolism of carbohydrates? At lastin 1922, Banting and Best publishtheir wonderfully conceived and conducted experiments in which, havingdeprived dogs of their pancreases, theyprevent diabetes in the animals byadministering pancreatic juice. Insulin is discovered.I can break off the story, as it wastold in this course, to my son and me.There is more of it, and of course itis today far from ended, as researchgoes on. What struck me forcibly wasthe impact on the general educationof the two of us, of the understandingwe got of the way in which newknowledge is achieved in much ofthe natural sciences. True, we learnedsomething about human physiology,and something about diabetes. But Iventure to suppose that it was theintention of those who made up thiscourse in general education, as I amsure was the effect of it on us, toconvey something of the progressionof knowledge, by observation, hypothesis, and experiment.MARCH, 1952 7In much of the natural sciencesmethod, new learning goes on as inthis instance. Observations lead to inferences; the inferences are tested byexperiment and either retained or displaced to make way for new ones.Once it is learned that the kidneysdo not break down sugar, the mistakeis not repeated.And workers in many differentfields constantly affect, correct, andstimulate each other. It is this aboutnatural science — this use of newknowledge so as to yield yet moreknowledge — that belongs, whateverelse does, in general education.What but not howThe other course for which my sonand I did readings during this samewinter was the first of the three yearlong College courses in social science("Social Sciences 1"). Here, too, weread original documents, and heretoo, the ordering was roughly chronological.But we were learning about a verydifferent sort of thing, and the logicalconnection of the content of onedocument with another was of a different sort.This course is about the formationof American national policy, beginning before the Revolution and extending to recent times. The readingsconsist of passages from books byEnglishmen who affected Americans,or by thoughtful Americans; politicalspeeches; decisions of the UnitedStates Supreme Court; importantstate papers, such as the Virginia Dec-claration of rights and the MississippiBlack Code.I thought the course highly interesting and illuminating, but it wassoon plain that there was very littlein it that had to do with socialscience, in the strict sense.The course showed the minds ofmen working in relation to events,and events working upon the mindsof men — in society or history, notin the laboratory or the library. Whenwe read the Court's opinion in Mc-Cullough vs. Maryland, Henry Clay'sCincinnati speech on the AmericanSystem, and Jackson's veto messageof the Bank Renewal Bill, we had before us sources on the interplay ofmen and mind, of happenings andopinion, of theory and practice, interest and policv. in the intricate in terrelationships which are men acting and thinking in 'society.We certainly did not have anything about scientific method. Nordid the researches of historians appear to us. We learned very littleCHARLES BEST". . . A CHAIN, A STAIRWAY, A WALL"CLAUDE BERNARDabout how new knowledge is obtained.At once it is to be replied that thiscourse was designed as history, notas science. It was designed to giveunderstanding as to the developmentof some ideas and ideals fundamentalto American life. We are reminded that history also is included in whatmust be taught about man in societyin programs of general education.Let us turn to the second of thethree social science courses given inthe College. This is the course thatcontains readings that are more apparently scientific; it is referred toas a course in Culture and Personality{See "SOC. II: What Is It?" in theOctober, 1951, Magazine) .Does this course give an understanding of how new knowledge isobtained? Elton Mayo's account ofthe Hawthorne experiments is read.In this reading, and in others, thestudent may get understanding ofsocial science method — if by thatwe mean the collecting of particularfact as guided by hypothesis.But I think it truly fair to this excellent course to say that such readings constitute a very small part ofthe whole, and that discussion of matters of special experimental procedure,or procedure closely similar to experiment in natural science, plays no largepart in the course.These readings do not show, withany sharpness, the design and conduct of experiment or of preciselycontrolled observation. In the sectiondevoted to reading works by Freudand Ruth Benedict, for instance, theycertainly do not show that socialscience has moved from Freud toBenedict or from Benedict to Freud.Rather, the managers of the coursestage a kind of dialectical argumentbetween these two writers, these twopoints of view. Freud and Benedict arenot related to each other as are thephysiological experiment of Bernardto the discovery of insulin by Banting Best. It really would not havemattered which came first, Freud orBenedict. They present contrastingviews of man in culture.Contrasting viewsYet it is the understanding of thesecontrasting views, the examination ofparticular fact as lighted first by theone view and then by the other, andthe exploration of the ways in whichthe two views are necessarily inconsistent, or in which they may bemade consistent, which is, I feel, apart of the way in which social sciencemoves forward into new knowledge.Probably this course does not communicate the nature of the getting ofnew knowledge in social' science as8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwell as 'it might be communicated.Certainly it does not show the collecting of special fact, the arranging ofexperiment or of strictly controlledseries of observations, as the onlymethod for getting new knowledgehere. It is right in not doing so, forsuch procedures play, at this stage ofdevelopment, only a limited part insocial science.And, it seems to me, there is muchmore to the getting of new knowledgethan quantification and the design ofexperiment. The course does showsomething of this "more."Indeed, I should say that the utilization of such contrasting views asthose of Freud and Benedict is notonly teaching.It is also a partof the operations by whichtrained minds,attentive toparticular facts,make the effortto remove agradually growing body ofknowledge fromthe realm ofspeculation andsubjectiveopinion to therealm of demonstrated factsand principlesabout which itis no longernecessary to argue.The veryargument ispart of whatneeds to be learned as to how newknowledge is obtained in social science. An understanding of the useof quantification, the design of experiments, and the making of a series ofcontrolled observations should be included in the teaching of how newknowledge is obtained in our field.But it should be included only insofaras these things are actually useful insocial scie"nce. The course should include an understanding of such waysof advancing knowledge in social science as are actually employed,whether or, not they conform to themodel of the precise design and thequantitative expression of result.We are not, then, to adopt a viewof social science procedure which conforms to the model of the naturalsciences (or, possibly, to the modelof how natural sciences are imaginedto be) . We are to represent the getting of new, dependable knowledgein social science as it actually is.Therefore, we do not best teachabout procedure by making demonstrations of experiment and design ofcontrolled observation, as if the valueof these lay in their own inner perfection. These procedures are effective only insofar as they are attachedto ideas that are clear and significant.The Hawthorne experiments pointto the conclusion that somethingabout personal relations motivatesworkers to produce more. Two thingsTHORSTEIN VEBLEN...ALTERNATIVE AND PARTLY COMPLEMENTARY INSTRUMENTS OF UNDERSTANDINGabout these experiments are at leastas important as the design of theexperiments themselves: the historyof the shifting of "hunches" — hardlyhypotheses — as to why workers producemore or less; and the great limitations,arising from ignorance of many factors, as to the inferences to be drawnfrom the experiments. To understandthese things is to begin to understandhow social science advances. It is alsoto begin to learn about how to be asocial scientist.We might teach about quantification by including formal instructionin statistics. But in general educationwe can better teach about quantification by, say, considering Murdock'sway of trying to prove that the nu clear family is universal. Then 'weshall find ourselves considering thenature of correlations and of samplingby looking at Murdock's samples ofhuman families and his correlationsof certain institutions with others.Method and subject matter are besttaught about by not separating them.Malinowski's book, Sex and Repression in Savage Society is regarded asa designed experiment, a "crucial instance." It apparently shows that inmatrilinear societies the Oedipus complex, as seen by Freud in Vienna, appears as, or is replaced by, a complexin which there is desire for the sisterand hatred of the mother's brother.If this were a critical experiment,like the experiments of Banting and Best,the history andthought in regard to basicpsychic complexes wouldbe changed.But Malinowski's book hasnot wroughtthat change. Indiscussing thebook as an example of designed series ofobservations, itis necessary toconsider thelimitations o fthe design, theshortcomings ofthe proof.On the otherhand, it wouldbe a misrepresentation to throw outwhat Malinowski did because of imperfections in the method. The bookhas had influence. It has shifted emphases, suggested possibilities. It isthis shifting of emphases, this suggestion of new possibilities, which playsso important a part in social scienceas it really is, while it falls far short ofrealizing the model of social scienceseen in the image of the natural sciences.Social science, being more looselyconnected to precise observation andwell-defined concept than is much ofthe natural sciences, does not makeprogress in quite the same way.Progress is not so clearly a chain, astairway, a wall being laid. It is notSIGMUND FREUDMARCH, 1952 9so evident just what observations confirmed a hypothesis, what controlledexperiments made knowledge leapforward. It would be hard to find, inthe development of knowledge as tothe comparative study of culture, asequence of observation, hypothesis,experiment and inference such as isprovided by the history of our knowledge of diabetes and carbohydratemetabolism. I think there are instances of progression that are roughlycomparable, but I think it is important to recognize the "roughly" andto know that instances are scarce.Rough parallelOtto Klineberg, who has beenworking for many years on the subject of inherent mental differencesbetween races, has recently reviewedconcisely the history of scientificknowledge in this field. Between 1910and 1926, two American psychologistsand a sociologist (Brigham, Good-enough, and Odum) published opinions to the effect that Negroes wereinferior in intelligence to white people.The psychologists gave as proof thedifferential results of intelligence tests.In 1929, however, Peterson and Lanier showed that the apparent inferiority of Negro boys to whites in threecities varied directly with the degreeof inequality in social opportunities.In 1931, Brigham made a statistical examination of the methods oftesting he himself had used, in theArmy study, and concluded that themethod was not sound in that it didnot eliminate errors due to differencesin environment. He repudiated hisown earlier conclusion.In 1935 Klineberg published hisstudies showing that the improvement in test scores made by Negroeswho migrated to New York is proportionate to the length of time theNegroes have lived in New York. Inthe same year Garth showed that assamples of Indian and white childrentested are made more and more nearlyequivalent, as to environment andexperience, the differences in the success on the tests is reduced.In 1942 Roher showed that prosperous Osage Indians did better onthe tests than did less prosperouswhites. In 1946, Gesell and Pasaman-ick showed a correspondence betweensuccess on the tests and nutrition andgeneral economic level, no matterwhat the race. In 1950, Goodenough reviewed herwork and concluded that the testshe had used concealed some expression of environmental influence. Accordingly, she reversed her earlierconclusion (and so had Odum in1936).Although these events do showscience advancing, the history of intelligence testing with respect to racialdifferences is not quite the same asthe history of new knowledge aboutcarbohydrate metabolism. The reversal of opinion did not come as theresult of a crucial experiment, or asthe end of a series of progressive steps,but rather from the cumulative effortof a good many observations and teststhat worked together to produce animpact. And the possibility remainsthat changes in the general view ofthe Negro current in American societymay have influenced the change, asno such changing popular view ofcarbohydrate metabolism influencedscience in that field.Moreover, the new knowledge inthe case reviewed by Klineberg is, ina sense, merely negative knowledge.We have learned that an instrument— the intelligence test — which wethought was useful to determine therelative inherent intelligence of racialgroups, doesn't in fact do what wethought it did. Deprived of this instrument for that purpose, we nowfind that other facts about Negroesand white people make better senseif it is assumed that there are no suchdifferences. No one has yet provedthat there are no such differences.The viewpoints and interpretationson the frontier of research in thestudy of cultures are partly, but notentirely, inconsistent with one another. On the whole, they have comeinto existence through some one ora few original minds that conceivedan explanation or interpretation ofman's actions, in relation to somebody of material that happened tobe under observation.Veblen sees the phenomena of consumption in the light of the culturalconventions of a status-conscious people. Sumner loks at the scraps ofdescriptive ethnology and reducesman to a mechanical creation of acultural life that grows in its own way,apart from anything man can doabout it.Freud looks at the dreams andfree associations of troubled Viennese middle-class patients and creates avast and powerful scheme for the understanding of sick souls.Each of these views then undergoesmodification as more and differentdata are reviewed, and certain ofthese views are entertained simultaneously by workers who now striveto bring them into some harmony.Thought moves from Sumner's position toward that expressed by Benedict and Margaret Mead, in whichculture is seen not as a die for stamping robots, but as a provision forhuman dispositions to think and feel.Culture is still the maker of men, butthe making is seen now as creativeand liberative rather than as repressive.Malinowski strives to connect culture — any culture — with a simple listof primary needs, shared with theanimals, and of secondary needs, suchas a need for religion and esthetic expression.Murdock, comparing one societywith another in a wide sample ofprimitive societies, endeavors to statesome of these universal conditions,and their chief variants, in terms offorms of family life.Meanwhile, Freudian thought, nowmuch modified by other healers ofthe sick and by psychological studentsof normal people, has profoundly affected the students of the world's cultures — especially the American students. Some of these try to developa system of ideas that will combinepsychoanalytic thought and culturalrelativism. We find ourselves reading Kardiner and Linton, or the analyses of national character offeredby Mead, Bateson, Gorer, and others.Another scientific methodBut these views remain as alternative and partly complementary instruments of understanding. The educated mind is not compelled to adoptone advanced position as correct, regarding the others as merely superseded hypotheses. Even on limitedsectors of the frontier of research, itis not possible to learn what is the position of the research workers. Thereis no such one position.In general education programsrepresenting social science, the subject of research occupies a place ofpeculiar difficulty, delicacy, and opportunity. The difficulty and the delicacy arise in part because in this area,10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgeneral* education is directed towardcommunicating several notably different things: (1) something aboutthe historical development of oursociety; (2) something about the social problems of our society, and ofhow specialized knowledge and thescientific spirit may help us to dealwith them; and (3) the description,or analysis, of man in society, by theuse of concepts and generalizations.All this — and method, too!General education about man insociety, in a degree much greater thanis true of general education as tostars or organisms, is to make menready to act, to form judgments asto the right and the possible. Withregard to many of these matters,ABSURD as it may appear at firstglance to designate the threemain stages of writing as: No Writing, Forerunners of Writing, and FullWriting, there is a good reason forthis division.The fact that pictures are quotedunder the first stage implies (1) thatwhat we normally understand as pictures — that is, objects of art resulting from an artistic-esthetic urge — donot fall under the category of writ- the procedures of science — in theimage of some part of natural science— are not ready to offer answers,whether or not they ever will be.Part of the subject matter of general education in the social sphere isopinion — intelligent and informedopinion — even in the absence of scientific proof.It is the difficult task of the socialscience teacher to show how to bringspecial knowledge to bear upon eventhe most difficult questions. He mustdo this even if the result is — as itoften is — to leave the issue one onwhich reasonable men may still differ.We cannot wait for precision andquantification before taking up in ouring, and (2) that writing had its origin in simple pictures.The accompanying article is anabbreviated version of one chapterfrom Dr. Gelb's book, A STUDY OFWRITING, scheduled for publication by the University of ChicagoPress this month. The book . is notmerely a history of forms of writing, but consists of an attempt toerect a science of writing, which hetentatively calls grammatology. e courses discussion of personality for-e mation, Point Four programs, ori, world government.:. In developing in future citizensthe capacity to know when one opin-s ion carries more weight than another,i the teacher of social science cannotrestrict himself, and should not, to thepatterns of advancing knowledge1 which depend upon quantificationg and linked hypotheses and proofsi from series of controlled experimentst and observations.t By teaching how valid knowledgei of how man in society really goesforward, we do what we ought to do,both for making social scientists andi for providing the general educationr which every citizen must have.Under "Forerunners of Writing"are included all the various devicesby which man first attempted to convey his thoughts and feelings. Once itwas discovered that words can beexpressed in written symbols, a newand much better method of humanintercommunication was firmly established. It was no longer necessary toexpress a sentence such as "Mankilled lion" by means of a drawingof a man, spear in hand, in the pro-From Art to AlphabetEvolution of the alphabet, from prehistoric drawings to the stable formsof today, has taken place in a seriesof steps that are orderly, inevitable,and as interesting as a mystery novelBy Ignace J. GelbProfessor of LinguisticsGELB HOLDS AN ANCIENT SUMERIAN REAL ESTATE DEEDMARCH, 1952 11cess of killing a lion. The three wordscould now be written by means ofthree conventional symbols representing man, spear (killing) and lion.& /nfmPICTURE TELLS TOGOLAND PROVERB*."THE CHAMELEON SAYS, EVEN IF YOUMOVE FAST, YOU DIE JUST THE SAME"Accordingly, "5 sheep" could nowbe expressed by means of two symbolscorresponding to two words in thelanguage, instead of by five separatepictures of sheep.The picture of the lion is an artistic representation, part of the entirepicture of the scene. On the otherhand, in the symbol for sheep, thepicture has become conventionalizedand is identified with the word.A device in which individual signscan express individual words shouldnaturally lead toward a developmentof a complete system of word signs:a word writing, or logography.Against the general opinion ofscholars, it is my belief that such afully developed system never existed,either in antiquity or in more moderntimes. To create and memorize thousands of signs for thousands of wordsand names is so impracticable thateither a logographic writing can beused as a limited system only, or itmust find new ways to overcome thedifficulties in order to develop intoa useful system.Experience with the Micmac andthe older Cherokee word writings,which were created artificially inmodern times for the use of AmericanIndians, is indicative of the impracticability of such limited systems. EvenChinese, the most logographic of allthe writings, is not a pure logographicsystem, because from the earliest timesit has used word signs functioning assyllabic signs.Vital stepA primitive logographic writing candevelop into a full system only if itsucceeds in attaching to a sign aphonetic value independent of the meaning which this sign has as in aword. This is phonetization, the mostimportant single step in the history ofwriting.In modern usage this device iscalled rebus writing, exemplified inthe drawing of an eye and of a sawto express the phrase "I saw."With the introduction of phonetization and its subsequent systematiza-tion, complete systems of writing developed which made possible the expression of any linguistic form bymeans of symbols with conventionalsyllabic values.It is to the Sumerians that we areindebted for having taken the important step leading toward a fullydeveloped writing. The organizationof the Sumerian state and economymade imperative the keeping of records of goods transferred from thecountry to the cities and vice versa.Records were kept in concise ledgerform, of the type "5 sheep," or with apersonal name, "10 bows X".COME ON A MY HOUSE IS BURDENOF OJIBWA GIRL'S "LOVE LETTER"AS SHE DRAWS HERSELF BECKONINGFROM TEPEE. LEFT: FAMILY TOTEMSThe limited logographic systemsoon expanded into a phonographicsystem through the necessity of expressing personal names in an exactway to prevent confusion in the records.The greatness of this achievementlies in the fact that in creating afull word-syllabic system from theold identifying-mnemonic device, theSumerians were able to break awayentirely from the hampering conventions of the descriptive-representational device.The Amerindians, too, had bothdevices at their disposal as a means ofcommunication, but the emphasisplaced upon the descriptive techniqueof art3 at the expense of the identifying device, forced all their attemptsin the wrong direction, with the result that none of the Amerindian systems — and this includes the Maya and the Aztec — developed beyond thestage of forerunners of writing.The oldest of the seven ancientOriental systems of writing is Sumerian, attested in southern Mesopotamia around 3100 B.C. From therethe main principles of the Sumerianwriting may have spread eastward,first to the neighboring Proto-Elamitesand then, perhaps via the Proto-Elamites, to the Proto-Indians in thevalley of the Indus.Aliens break awayOne of the Near Eastern writingsmay, in turn, have been the stimulusleading to the creation of Chinesewriting. Around 3000 B.C. Sumerianinfluence presumably worked its waywestward to Egypt. Egyption influence, in turn, spread toward theAegean, where about 2000 B.C., originated the Cretan writing, and a fewcenturies later, in Anatolia, the Hittite hieroglyphic writing. (Of theseven systems, Proto-Elamite, Proto-Indian, and Cretan are as yet unde-ciphered.)An interesting conclusion whichcan be drawn about the new syllabicwritings which developed from theselogo-syllabic writings is that they wereall created by heterogeneous peoples.Thus while the Mesopotamian Babylonians and Assyrians accepted almostwithout change the Sumerian systemof writing, the foreign Elamites, Hur-rians, and Urartians felt that thetask of mastering the complicatedMesopotamian system was too heavya burden. They merely took over asimplified syllabary. In all cases itwas the foreigners who were notafraid to break laway from sacredtraditions and were thus able to introduce reforms which led to new andrevolutionary developments.EARLIEST GREEK INSCRIPTION WAS ALEGEND ON AN AWARD FOR GRACEFULDANCING. LETTERS RUN RIGHT-TO-LEFTThe general name of "West Semiticsyllabary" — given to the various formsof writing used by the Phoenicians,Hebrews, and other Semites from thelatter half of the second milleniumB.C. on — expresses clearly my beliefthat these writing are syllabaries and12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEnot alphabets, as is generally assumed.If by the word "alphabet" we understand a writing which expressesthe single sounds of a language, thenthe first alphabet was formed by theGreeks. It was from the Greeks thatthe Semites learned the use of vowelmarks and consequently developedtheir own alphabets.tost pioneersIn the last twenty-five hundredyears the conquests of the alphabethave encompassed the whole of civilization, reaching to the farthest corners of the earth. But during all thisperiod no reforms have taken place inthe principles of Writing.In both scientific and popularbooks, we often meet with statementsabout the invention of writing. Butwas writing really invented? Or,speaking in more general terms, isthere such a thing as "invention?"It is said that money was inventedby Croesus, King of the Lydians. Butin reality what he did was no morethan to accept the custom of usingprecious metals as a medium of exchange — a practice widely known forcenturies all over the Near East —and add to it his and the State'sguarantee as to the exact relation ofvalue to weight of each piece of metal.Marconi's wireless or the radio isunthinkable without Herz's wavetheory. Stephenson's railroad is anapplication of Watt's steam engine, onwheels. Every so-called "invention"is actually nothing more than an improvement upon something that hasbeen known before.To be sure, we must always reckonin the case of great cultural achievements with the decisive interventionof men of genius, who were able eitherto break away from sacred traditionor to translate into practical formsomething on which others could onlyspeculate. Unfortunately we do notIt 's Still WorkingParents and patrons have a rightto ask us what effort is made at theUniversity to build up the moral character of the students intrusted: to us,to help them overcome temptationand to become positive forces of goodin the world. . . Thejhysical Culture know any of the geniuses who wereresponsible for the most important reforms in the history of writing. TheirWORD- SYLLABLE PICTURE- SIGNS VARY2I 51> X XzMAM & * &> iKIN6 hill1 $ ¦A ADEITY # 1 <& 3*OX # %* P ¥SHEEP 0 ^R» * rSKY # F=3 <n> iSTAK * *¦¦ * aaa$\)H W O © QWATCK I ^ t %W009 0 crr 0 XHouse 1 n Q (llKOAP * 33 « JLCITY Qd ® 4 4fLANP tip a ¦anames, like those of other great menwho first came upon the idea of usingthe wheel, or the bow and arrow, orthe sail, are lost to us forever in thedimness of antiquity.The development of writingthrough the successive stages: sema-siographic forerunners of writing,Department, by the personal characterof the instructors, and by the discipline it gives in good habits, lays thephysical foundation for all virtue. . .The ordinary discipline of the classrooms and of the Deans is carefullyordered with a view to repress selfishand degrading tendencies, and to ennoble and refine the heart and life of logo-syllabic, syllabic, and alphabeticproceeds according to the unidirectional principle. To reach its ultimatedevelopment, writing, whatever itsforerunners may be, must passthrough the stages of logography,syllabography, and alphabetography,in this, and no other, order.If it is accepted that logographydevelops first into syllabography,then the so-called Egyption "alphabet," which developed from logography, cannot be an alphabet but mustbe a syllabary.We should expect to find the normal development of writing, fromlogographic to syllabic to alphabetic,attested within one writing as usedin one certain area. But habit is always dearer to men. than progress,and therefore writing very rarely develops to this extent within one area.The almost unbelievable development of logography in the Chinesewriting is a well-known phenomenon.Due to its marginal position in theOld World, China was not affectedby foreign invasions to the extent thatthe Near Eastern areas were. For thatreason, the evolution of Chinese writing progressed through thousands ofyears undisturbed by foreign influences, resulting finally in a type ofwriting which perfectly suited theneeds of a small bureaucratic clique.It was totally inaccessible to 90 percent of the population.Rules of developmentNone of the three important stepsin the development of writing is reallyrevolutionary, in the sense that it presents something entirely new. In linewith what was said previously aboutso-called "inventions" in general, theonly observable development in thehistory of writing is the systematiza-tion. at a certain stage, of deviceswhich had been known previouslybut had been used only in a haphazard way.all. Perhaps it is this daily habit, farmore than ethical precepts, which isthe most important factor in moraldevelopment. There is no time fordissipation. This is a "working university/'Charles Richmond Henderson,Chaplain of the University, in hisreport to President Harper, July, 1902MARCH, 1952 13A CHARACTER NAMED JONATHAN ROUSES HIS RECALCITRANT, BIG-EARED STEEDFeatherweightMarionettesMILDRED Osgood, AM '29, isone alumna for whom a flightinto fancy has paid off handsomely.As creator of the Osgood Marionettes, she has developed her ownpatented brand of puppets, whichhas been described in superlatives byenthusiastic television viewers andtheatre audiences.The will - o' - the - wisp, fairy - likecreatures were dreamed into realityfrom the Osgood imagination in thecourse of World War II g.s a resultof her desire to develop a lightweight,flexible and transportable shadow figure for entertaining children duringair-raid drills in Terre Haute, Indiana.During one of these performances(there was, fortunately, no actualraid), a little girl, who was assisting with the show, accidentally moved one of the shadow puppets in frontof the screen, instead of behind it.Miss Osgood was immediately impressed with this inadvertent treatment of the puppet, for she saw in itthe potentiality of greater freedomof movement and complexity of detail.From then on, a three-dimensionallife was guaranteed her puppets, andshe began experimenting with a hostof light-weight materials, proving"that the components of magic areoften mundane." Fluffs of cotton,sprigs of chenille, organdies, lace, cellophane, glass, plastics, and feathersare only some of the materials whichshe puts to use. Besides their noveltyand variety, these materials put herpuppets in sharp contrast to the ponderous equipment of medieval dayswhen a single puppet might weigh as much as 100 pounds. Operators ofthe Osgood marionettes never becometired from handling these filmy creatures.Her airy and enchanting charactershave graduated from the rudimentary,or air-raid-drill stage to the pointwhere they now captivate audiences —in which adults are as easily transported as children to the never-never land — via television, theaterand other public performances, andfilms.Miss Osgood is on the art staffof the Montclair State Teachers College in New Jersey, where there is anactive TV workshop, associated withthe DuMont network. She is alsoneck-deep in lining up new educational shows about puppetry, negotiating for the production of newcolor films, and experimenting withvariations on her marionettes. Sheis anxiously awaiting the arrival ofcolor television, since color is an integral and spectacular part of herproductions.Miss Osgood explains that becauseher particular form of art expressionoverlaps both the spatial and the temporal arts, its projection throughfilms or on the stage necessitates asubstantial staff of specialists. "Addto this group the technical help required for live programs on TV andit's easy to see that a puppet production is a major operation," she says."I have been fortunate — so many creative people have stepped in to helpme: script writers, choreographers,musicians, directors, photographers,AN AIR RAID DRILL GOT HER STARTEDVV14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA PAIR OF FAIRY MARIONETTES GRACEFULLY PERFORM FIGURES OF THE BALLETand skilled puppeteers. Business people have helped in promotion of bothnry marionettes and toys."Concentrating above all else onflexibility and lightness, Miss Osgoodgoes to painstaking lengths to makeher puppets details of perfection.She spends as long as five hoursworking on a puppet's hand. Thefingers are formed separately andsewed to the palm portion, or elsethe material is sewn into folds, withthe thumb attached independently.The simple working tools of marionette-making consist of a rather longneedle and nylon or silk thread. Sheconstructs her marionettes of cylindrical units, using the thin, resilientmaterials with which she has becomeadept. All portions of the marionettescan be made from these cylinders,except the hands, feet, and faces,which usually are molded. The lifelike facial aspect of the marionettes isachieved by using masks molded overa head, which is first carved fromparaffin.Miss Osgood uses the intuitive,rather than the analytical, or engineering approach in creating new puppets.She never makes a drawing — she findsthat a puppet "grows out of herhands of its own accord," with no advance attempts at blueprinting. Thatintuition is a reliable guide is witnessed by such creations as her"Weather Man," which one criticdescribed as "a masterpiece of cylindrical construction, made entirely ofmultiple plastic cylinders, capable offantastic, shimmering movements inkeeping with his magical nature. Hisears, eyelids, eyebrows and mouth"WEATHER MAN" AND FILMY FLOWERS move and he has a special song of hisown to express his great powers overthe elements."The Osgood techniques haveproved unusually successful in "mari-onettizing" flowers and other natureforms. Flowers, for instance are constructed of hollow glass balls coveredwith net. Cylinders of organdy arethe stems.Another character is "Jonathan," a"real" little boy, who plays a leading role in the Osgood productions.His mount, "Chico" is another ofMiss Osgood's most engaging creations.Althought she has given many successful performances to "live" audiences, Miss Osgood feels that motionpictures and television are the bestmedia for capturing the movement,color, detail and expression which arecharacteristic of her puppets. She hasmade two color films so far, bothusing "The Weather Man," with music by Lucille Paris and script byLeah Gale. She has also developed full-length plays, "A Modern FairyTale," by Virginia Sorenson, and"Jonathan's Magic," by HarrietEager Davis featuring "The FlowerFairy" and "Joe Crocus."Miss Osgood finds that her ownboundless desire to share her creationswith others, especially ' children,brings her success and inspiration."My enthusiasm reaches a high pitchwhen there is a chance for an actualproduction involving many people,"she said recently. "I am convincedthat in my marionettes I have a precious gift for children. I have watchedtheir faces glow as my marionettesbrought them a world they so trulylove and understand."— A. N. P.Alumni readers who are interestedin a more detailed discussion of MissOsgood's production techniques, andin an historical account of puppetryare referred to an article by MissMary Moore, entitled "The OsgoodMarionettes" which appeared in theAutumn 1950 issue of Craft Horizons Magazine.March, 1952 15II-MESONSEvidence from the big new synchrocyclotron seems to bear outthe theory that they are the carriers of intra-atomic energyONE CUBIC FOOT OF CONCRETE-STEELSHIELDING UNITS WEIGHS 300 POUNDSNOW THAT the University's 450Mev (Million-electron-volt) synchrocyclotron has attained its firstbirthday, it can be assessed in terms ofits actual accomplishments, ratherthan merely its size, tonnage, and appetite for electric power.(For the record, the synchrocyclotron rests in a hole 32 feet below thelevel of Ellis Avenue outside. It isthe biggest of the instruments in theAccelerator Building, which is part ofthe new Research Institutes group.The cyclotron's magnet alone weighs2,200 tons. It whirls subatomic particles around in a circular chamberthat measures 170 inches across. Andit is the most powerful existing tool forresearch into the belly of the atom.)To understand these accomplishments, it is necessary to examine thebasic problem underlying nuclear re-research: what are the forces thathold the parts of the atomic nucleustogether?Until 1945, this seemed a remoteand abstract problem, so far as anygeneral interest was concerned. Nowa world has become poignantly awareof its importance.Clearly the bulky constituents ofLIQUID HYDROGEN TARGET (LEFT) fcRESERVOIR. HOLE IN LEAD BRICKAT RIGHT DEFINES MESON BEAM the nucleus are strongly held in theirrespective positions. But how?A theoretical answer was proposedseveral years ago by the Japanesephysicist Hideki Yukawa. (It earnedhim the Nobel prize in 1949.) Yukawa posited the existence of particles,intermediate in mass between the proton and the electron, as the agencyacting among the nuclear protonsand neutrons.Although these particles had nottheretofore been observed, Yukawa'sprediction soon was verified when thescientists concerned with cosmic raysidentified a group of particles whichseemed to fit the Yukawa hypothesis.Middlemen, tooThese particles were called mesons,a term which at that time identifiedtheir mass. But according to thetheory, it should also point to theiractivity in the nucleus. The worditself is based on the Greek termmeaning "middle," and experimentsseem to be bearing out the postulatednotion of mesons as not merely mid-dleweights but also as middlemen.First seen in cosmic radiation,mesons were for the first time artificially produced in the University ofCalifornia cyclotron, and subsequently in several others. More recently theChicago synchrocyclotron — because ofits greater energy-imparting power —has begun to produce the most revealing information yet.Through new investigations, thecharacter of the meson is becomingbetter known.A rather long series of mesons, differing both in mass and charge, already had been observed, at Berkeley,Rochester, Nevis, N. Y., and elsewhere.In this series for example, the varietycalled mu-mesons (or muons) was found to weigh as much as 210 electrons.(A proton, for comparison, weighsas much as 1,836 electrons. Thus themeson comes honestly by its "middle"designation. )According to the Yukawa theory,mesons should perform in the atomicnucleus much the same function as dothe photons which carry the forces inan electromagnetic field. As it turnedout, however, the mu variety,which had been the first observed incosmic radiation, could not qualifyas the intra-nuclear middleman.As knowledge about mesons accumulated, the general problem of nuclear forces was transformed into themore immediate problem : what is thenature of the interaction betweenmesons and nucleons (a term whichrefers jointly to protons and-or neutrons) ? On this question the synchrocyclotron work has been focused.Results of the investigations up tonow have pointed to one meson variety — pi-mesons (or pions) — as being the type responsible for carrying'the intra-nuclear forces. Pi-mesonsare somewhat heavier than mu-mesons, with masses of 286 or 296{See table).How mesons are madePi-mesons have been produced inthe synchrocyclotron by bombardingliquid hydrogen, beryllium, and othertargets :{See cover and cover blurb,p. 3) with the instrument's proton beam. When, for instance, a beamproton strikes a proton in a hydrogentarget, the interaction produces oneproton, one neutron, and one positive pi-meson. Or the collision ofthe two protons may leave them bothstill identifiable as protons, but a neu-16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINFLESTER KORNBLITH ADJUSTS OSCILLATOR OF THE RADIO-FREQUENCY SYSTEMtral pi-meson also appears, knockedout of somewhere.In a beryllium target, the atombombarded is of course more complex(though still simple compared to, say,uranium), but the pi-meson production process is similar.Created by this impact in the cyclotron, the pi-mesons move outwardthrough a hole in the massive shielding, and into the adjacent researcharea, where they can be studied witha battery of techniques — cloud chambers, photographic plates, mass spectrometers, scintillation counters, etc.In experiments using the scintillation counters — so-named because particles striking certain materials (mothballs are one) cause them to "sparkle"with ordinary light — one curious result showed up.Transferred chargeOrdinarily, when a positive pi-meson strikes a seven-times-heavierproton, the product is a positive pi-meson and a proton. Likewise, thecollision of a negative pi-meson witha proton is like a tangerine hitting agrapefruit. Afterward, the tangerineand the grapefruit remain.But frequently, the Chicago research has shown, the collision of anegative pi-meson and a proton yielda neutral pi-meson and a neutron. Apparently the proton absorbs themeson's charge, and both thus becomeelectrically neutral.This finding provides new evidencethat the proton and the neutron maynot be the monolithic objects theysometimes have been considered to be.If the Chicago work ultimately establishes that their charge (or lack ofcharge) is controlled by that of themesons of their field, research willhave borne out Yukawa's picture ofthe operation of the nucleus. Inthis picture, the mesons not onlycontrol the movements of the largernuclear particles, but their character.Even more importantly, by providing the workers with greatly stepped-up resources of experimental energy,the Chicago synchrocyclotron has multiplied the versatility of available radiation and improved their controlover its behavior. Statistically significant results are displacing randomobservations of stray particles.Taking part in these initial andfundamentally important experimentshave been many members of the In stitute for Nuclear Studies, includingEnrico Fermi, Herbert L. Anderson,John Marshall and Darragh Nagle,as well as the visiting Norwegianphysicist, Arne Lundby. As the synchrocyclotron program moves intohigh gear, other important projectsare getting started, under the guidanceof Jere Lord, Roger Hildebrand, Le-ona. Marshall, Richard Garwin, Sydney C. Wright, and others.TABLE OF PARTICLES (PARTIAL^Mass + Chargeo0 Photon1 Electron Electron210 li-Meson H-Meson296 nr-Meson2S6 T-Meson ur-Meson(Heavier mesons — at least S kinds )1,836 Proton1,838 Neutron(More particles)A different phase of the pioneerwork being done with the big cyclotron, under the aegis of Institutechemists, may ultimately be regardedas having constituted the first step increation of a new branch of science:meson chemistry. Last September Anthony Turkevichundertook to induce artificial radio-activity using mesons. He succeeded inconverting both nitrogen and oxygeninto radio-carbon, by bombardingwater with negative pi-mesons.Meson chemistryIn more recent months, Turkevich,Willard Libby, and Nathan Sugarmanhave successfully demonstrated meson-induced fission in other elements, including strontium, barium, and mercury. This work represents the firsttime that artificial radio-activity everhas been produced using mesons.The big synchrocyclotron, which hasmade possible these and many otherfindings, already has become the hardest-working member of the Institutestaff. It now is ordinarily scheduledfor a 70-hour work week, one group ofexperimenters spelling off another asthe big magnet continues to makeprojectiles for their research, researchwhich has produced important progress in one short year and in the coming year can be expected to providemore really exciting facts about thenucleus than any development sincethe atomic age opened. — DM.MARCH, 1952 17Leave it to HistoryBy Lawrence A. KimptonChancellor of the Universitv The Chancellor's recentaddress to the students .•_'._ ..: .'.WOULD ROSE BOWL TEAM HAVE BEEN PREFERABLE?THE STUDENT GOVERNMENTin its combined wisdom — whichis very great — has asked me to discuss certain topics. These topics havebeen carefully selected, and by theirimplications they seem to convey thegeneral idea that any university thatis understood and appreciated by itscommunity is a bad university; thatany chancellor who tries to interpretthe free and democratic nature ofthis University to the community isa bad chancellor; that students, byvirtue of being students, have unlimited rights but no responsibilities;and that no student of the University of Chicago should abide by anymoral or intellectual standards unless they are dictated by his own freewheeling conscience.I shall try to speak to these topicsas best I can, but on the very dubiousassumption that the Chancellor has afew rights, too, I shall try to includeother matters as well.I don't mind in the least admittingthat I regard you as one of the mostimportant parts of the University,and by far the most interesting part.You are important, because it is ourjob to help you educate yourselves,and you are interesting because, inspite of certain evidence to the contrary, you are bright. You haveproved you are bright by selectingthe University of Chicago as youruniversity and then by having thebrains to get in, and even to stay in,at least to this point.You have selected a great university, conceived by William RaineyHarper and executed by Robert May-nard Hutchins. No other institutionin the world has devoted so muchthought to the education of youth.It was Chicago that first made a determined revolt against the old elective system. We turned up with abalanced program, and the surprisingidea that we knew better than thestudent what he ought to learn if he was to become an educated manand a civilized human being. Thestudent had his freedom in how hechose to learn and the pace he setfor himself.We even had the revolutionaryidea that transcripts from high schoolswere not always meaningful, and thata student should be properly placedin the sequence of required coursesby examination.Finally, we said that a studentshould be measured at the end of theyear by comprehensive examinationthat would test not only his knowledge of a field but his ability to thinkin its terms. And then examinationswere to be constructed by a board ofexaminers, separate and distinct fromthe teaching program. Now these areall rather obvious ideas, you will say.They are, but nobody else ever didthese things before.Uncounted blessingsAnd then there has been thisknotty problem, in the universities, ofteaching versus research. A facultymember is not advanced, it was lamented in most universities, if he is agood teacher; and if he devotes histime to research he neglects his students. Why isn't the answer to this,said we at Chicago, to have an undergraduate teaching faculty who areadvanced because they are goodteachers, and why not have a graduate faculty who teach in conjunctionwith their research? Since graduatetraining is in the techniques of research, teaching and research at thislevel go hand in hand. Here, onceagain, a fairly obvious idea, but ittook the University of Chicago toface up to it and implement it.I sometimes think, having taughtupon and visited other campuses, thatour students are not fully aware oftheir blessings. It's like the man whowent to a physician to complain of a constant migraine headache. Thedoctor asked him when in the dayit was worst, and he replied, "Earlyin the morning, just after I throwup." "But do you throw up everymorning?" asked the doctor. "Butdoesn't everybody?" the man replied.There is no institution in the worldthat has devoted the thought andtalent to the educational process thatthe University of Chicago has, andwhen our system is combined withthe exceptional ability of our faculty,the result is magnificent.It is the duty of the administration,with the support and co-operation ofthe Board of Trustees who legallyown and control the University, toprovide this faculty competent to operate within this framework. But eventhe administration, I can assure you,does not have complete jurisdictionwith regard to the appointment of afaculty member. In the normal courseof events, it must await the recommendation of the appropriate department and dean before appointing aprofessor, and it would be unthinkable to demand the resignation of aprofessor, even though requested bystudents, the public, or the trustees,without a similar recommendation.This is because of the existence ofacademic freedom, an institution inwhich great trust is properly placedat the University of Chicago. It applies only to the faculty of the University, and it means that that faculty has the right to do its teaching and research in complete freedomfrom the restraints the administration or the, public might seek to impose.Within this general structure asdescribed, the individual faculties ofthe College, Divisions and Schools areautonomous. The Council of the University Senate is empowered to ruleon issues that affect more than oneacademic unk, but each faculty may18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPRIVATE CLUB[ NO THOROUGHFARI BdUieaanN(X1N IS-COKP CoHCHUBIQUITOUS CAMPUS BULLETINS STILL PROCLAIM THE VARIED AND BUSY EXISTENCE OF THE UNIVERSITY'S INHABITANTSdecide on what basis -its degrees aregranted and the steps to be taken forthe award of these degrees.Thus, when our College facultyvotes to substitute quarterly examinations for "R" grades, to add a historycourse to the curriculum, to requirethat fourteen comprehensive examinations constitute the program for thebachelor's degree, it is operatingwithin its rights. The College faculty is made up of specialists who areentitled to final responsibility in thesematters, and their decisions are notsubject to the veto of the administration, another faculty, or a group ofstudents.The primary business of an educational institution is to educate. Iwould not deny this for an instant.But it is also the function of an educational institution to privide a fulllife for a student, outside the classroom and library as well as in.I do not mean that it is the function of the University of Chicago togive a student a manner, in any IvyLeague sense. I wouldn't mind seeinghim have some manners, but I amnot sure that is our problem. In suggesting to" our students that they conduct themselves in a way consistentwith the standards and morals of oursociety, we are not suggesting any intellectual conformity, but the standards of good taste.Freedom not unlimitedIt has been the long-standing policyof the University of Chicago to encourage intellectual and social maturity through the greatest possiblefreedom of expression and behaviouron the part cf students. If you compare the elaborate dormitory rules ofmost institutions with our own, youwill understand what I mean. If youtake a look at our residence hall advisory system, our student health program, and our Counseling Center, you will note that it is our desire toaid you but not to coddle you, toprotect you but not to regiment you,and to advise you but not to thinkfor you.This does not mean that you cando anything you want to do at theUniversity of Chicago. You share thissituation with the Chancellor of yourUniversity and indeed with all thecitizens of any civilized community.We at Chicago have been so concerned, and properly so, about thecurricular side of our institution thatwe have paid less attention to theextra-curricular. This has had someobvious advantages. A student comeshere to learn or he doesn't come here.And he learns something while he ishere or he doesn't stay. Our campusis not a country club, an annex to astadium, or a drawn-out poker party,and I can assure you that some campuses are. We caught the unsavorybouquet of big-time athletics longbefore our sister institutions did, andI believe I can say without fear ofreprimand by even Mr. Sharp thatnone of our students has accepted abribe to throw a game.May I pause parenthetically totell you my attitude upon football,about which there has been so muchinteresting conjecture of late. I haveno objection to football qua football.I played it badly a bit in college, andhave been an enthusiastic Sundaymorning quarterback in my time. Itis a good game as games go, and asgames go that get all out of hand,it properly went.I have no intention of trying toreestablish us in big-time football.We couldn't even re-enter the biggame if we wanted to because ofour college arrangement of years, andwe don't want to. If at some pointthere is enthusiasm on the part ofsome substantial segment of the student body to play intra-mural football or even to engage in extra-mural, non-paying, uncoached* games, thepossibility will be given appropriateconsideration. I know of no such enthusiasm at the moment, and I haveno intention of encouraging it.At the same time, I do not feelthat it becomes us to throw our weightabout and tell our sister institutionshow to solve their problem. We havesolved ours in our own Chicago way;let them work theirs out in their way.We developed the first chain-reactingpile on a field that might have produced a team for the Rose Bowl. Iam perfectly willing to leave it tohistory to determine which was themore important.Enlarging freedomBut in the process of getting theextra-curricular into proper perspective, we need to be careful that wedo not close our eyes altogether tothings which are of value. We arerather a violent institution; we havebeen known to over-correct an abuse —it's hard on the baby, but we oftenpour him right out with the bathwater. An extra-curricular programthat works closely with the curricularto round out a student's developmentis a very good thing indeed.Student Government, when an object of real student interest and concern, can be democracy at work. Itis sometimes alleged that it has noreal power, and is only a puppet withits strings pulled by the administration. I can assure you that a responsible student government on this campus will have all the authority it canuse.Perhaps I should mention in passing that it would be very gratifying tohear as much discussion about stu-*Mr. Kimpton has explained that thekind of coaching referred to here is the"big-time" variety. Students who mightplay football would receive the same coaching as those in other sports. — Ed.MARCH, 1952 19dent responsibilities as I now hearabout student rights.And while we are speaking of student activities, could I talk a bitabout the Maroon — a subject whichhas had and merited a great deal ofdiscussion of late. I have known several generations of workers on theMaroon, and they have assured methat they found it a most valuableexperience.Unfortunately, in recent years, ithas not been fashionable to work onthe Maroon, and it drifted into thehands of a small and determinedminority with a particular line to sell.The way to sell a particular line, aswe have been carefully taught by examples from Europe and Asia, is tohave a self-perpetuating monopoly ofideas and people at the top and acaptive audience underneath.For those who really believe infreedom, this is an intolerable situation. It was the right, and indeed theresponsibility, of the student body todo something about it. You did nothing.Somebody had to do something inthe interests of freedom on this campus, and somebody did. The Dean'saction was taken after considerabledeliberation, and I believe the largemajority of our University community — faculty, administration, andstudents — understand the necessityof the action. It has had the valuableeffect of centering attention on theproblem, and it has left the way openfor responsible student action.I can assure you that the administrative action was taken only in theinterest of the enlargement of freedom on this campus, and was in noway dictated by any desire to con form to popular opinion. The onlyreal solution to a problem of thiskind is student interest, concern, andaction.I do not wish to seem to depreciatethe active extra-curricular life we dohave on the campus. The StudentUnion, the social clubs, the politicalorganizations, the religious groups,all are. now making a very real contribution. I only wish to insist thatthese things are good, they are aproper part of the whole pattern ofa great university, and they makea proper addition to a student's lifeon our campus. If they were overdone, and the center of our life, weshould become deeply concerned. Perhaps we have erred in the other direction.No trucklingOne of the urgent problems of private education today is money. Thebetter the institution, the broker itis, and as a result the University ofChicago is magnificently hard up. Ihope we always are, because thismeans that we are spending all themoney we can get our hands on, andthen some, to keep our research andteaching program at the forefrontamong educational institutions of theworld.On the other hand, it is a problem,and one which I have to solve asChancellor of the University. We arefor example, spending during thiscurrent year $1,200,000 more thanour income, and we can't go on thisway indefinitely without the liquidation of the University, over which Ido not propose to preside.One possibility is to boost tuition,and, if you have been reading the newspapers, you will note that otherprivate institutions have done this. Iam very loathe to do it, because itraises one more economic barrier tothe serious student who deserves aneducation at the University.A second alternative is to reduceour expenditure, and we are doingthis in every way possible withoutjeopardizing the quality of our staffand program.A third alternative — and these arenot exclusive — is to raise more money.The way to raise money is to havean institution of high quality and theninterpret and explain this high qualityto the community.This does not and cannot involveconforming to popular values andstandards. A university which trucklesto public opinion is unworthy of thename. On the other hand, wc deserveto be understood by the public andappreciated for what we are. I havetried as best I can to explain thenature and the contribution of theUniversity of Chicago to all who willlisten. Out of this, I freely confessthat I hope a sympathetic understanding and appreciation will occurand support will follow.We will never accept money fromindividuals, foundations, or governments whose interest lies in controllingthe policy of this institution. If anyone can show that we have changedour nature by conforming to publicopinion, let him produce the evidence.I make no bones about my effort, onthe other hand, to interpret and explain the nature and purpose of ourgreat institution to the larger community of which we are a part.If you differ with this point of view,you can do so only on the basis thatwe are so odd, so different, and so outNOTICES FURNISH SOME EVIDENCE OF LITERARY AND ARTISTIC INCLINATIONS AND PROVIDE MERE INFORMATION AS WELL1TheSocio/ Da net;La hotdwQf'— * — tA PRIL 4 \APRIL II 1IDA NOYES THEATRE C0MET0THE i U&STF HDPRC ('rm 2 WIL ia* s/e *tf?Hi I MFFK AT T»l FTFI DM ; ll ESti II Hi20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof step with the enlightened thinkingof our time that we cannot be explained and appreciated. I hope thisis not the case.I cannot help but contrast my student years with you own. I began inthe late twenties when the visibilitywas unlimited. World War I wassomething to read about, and another war was inconceivable: theKellogg-Briand Pact guaranteed it.Our economy was perfect; otherwise,why did the stock market keep ongoing up? There was a spot of fright-fulness in the Tea Pot Dome scandal,but Coolidge straightened that out.And then came the depression. Itmade a deep impression upon us.It was a catastrophe that cost usour faith in almost everything. AndTHE UNIVERSITY of Chicagodiffers from other colleges anduniversities in its objectives, basic organization, admissions policy, gradingsystem, and degrees. It also differs inits athletic policies, program, and eligibility practices.The University consists of the College, which admits students as early .as the eleventh grade and preparesthem for the bachelor's degree; theDivisions, which offer the master's degree, and the professional Schools.Admission to all parts of the Uni- yet not quite in everything. We knew,somehow, some way, things were going to get better, and somehow, someWay, they did. At least, we were allEternal wisdombroke together, and our very povertygave us a certain solidarity. Our future was uncertain, but it was alikefor all of us.The way of life and of thought ofthe student today is far more difficult.World War II is still very much withus. You know the devastation of war,and, worse still, you know the capabilities of brutality and bestiality towhich man can sink in his inhumanityto man. Worst of all is the constantshadow of another war, more devas-versity is based on the probable abilityof the individual successfully to carryhis scholastic program. No consideration is given to an applicant becausehe has athletic talent, nor is athleticability considered in the award of anyscholarship or other financial aid.The method of student selectionand the scholastic repute of the University have resulted in an unusuallyhighly screened student body. Forexample, the average A.C.E. Aptitudetest scores of students entering theCollege following high school gradua- tating, more brutal, more horriblethan any that have preceded it.You have not only the personalinsecurity of your day-to-day existence, but you have no assurance thatthe world you inherit will be a tolerable one. An older generation doesnot appear to have possessed a specialwisdom in shaping events. I trustthat you will do better than thosehave done who have gone before.Perhaps there is an eternal wisdom,a thread that runs through all ages,whether of happiness or disaster, towhich we must all rededicate ourselvesif we are not to lose all hope. It isa faith in the great human ideals:the brotherhood of man, the fatherhood of God; the dignity and worthof each human being.tion has ranged from the 87th to 95thpercentile level of all students takingthese tests in U. S. colleges.Participation in competitive sportsis considered a worth while phase ofgeneral education. Therefore the University sponsors a comprehensiveprogram of intramural and intercollegiate athletics and finances it entirely by a budget appropriation ofeducational funds.The educational purposes of theprogram and the welfare of the play-WINNING SWIMMERS CONFRONT TOUGHENED SCHEDULE Chicago 's UniqueAthletic PoliciesThis memorandum to athleticdirectors is reprinted here(in abridged form) becauseit constitutes a clear andup-to-date statement of theathletic picture at ChicagoBy T. Nelson MetcalfProfessor of Physical EducationMARCH, 1952 21ers take precedence over all otherconsiderations.Every team squad constitutes a non-credit physical education class, withgrades reported to the registrar.Balanced scheduleThe opportunity to participate invarsity athletics is considered more aprivilege which the University permits the student to enjoy than aservice which he renders the University.Each sport is so conducted as toassure that the students will devoteonly as much time and effort to athletics as is beneficial to their generalwelfare. This precludes high pressured, unduly publicized athletics,over-long practice sessions and schedules requiring long absences from thecampus. The usual practice programfor an athlete is one and one-halfhours four or five times weekly, andpractice periods never exceed twohours.Contests are scheduled insofar aspracticable with teams of comparableathletic strength, standard, ideals andpolicies.Schedules are arranged to providea minimum of conflict with academicappointments.It is the function of the athleticstaff to serve those who are in attendance as students. Staff members donot participate directly or indirectlyin the recruiting of student-athletes.In general, there is no charge foradmission to campus athletic contests.Members of the University communityare admitted to the contests as a matter of course, and friends of the University and of visiting teams are admitted by special invitation.The University enrols a considerable number of 11th and 12th gradestudents who are 14 to 17 years ofage. Therefore we have athletic teamsin eleven sports at the high schoollevel in order to provide opportunityfor competition to these younger boys.These teams are known as junior varsity teams. They conform to alleligibility rules of the Illinois HighSchool Association. They competewith public, parochial and privateschools of Chicago and suburbs andhold membership in the PrivateSchool League of Greater Chicago.Formal varsity teams are sponsoredin baseball, basketball, cross country, V.v-s S... <^, »k ^ra wr **w* fw «»t>atv ^* '¦Ml I M **U«n *»a *** *** **«. *".-^*. ¦ ¦l.Nw 1. |r*P«rt. nmat at flbtlMI**W it, or c*u*.m*>•«¦ «UU«t"* ••*» *• W that l»«££-• >''•C.COMMENDATORY LETTERS WERE RESPONSE TO METCALF POLICY MEMORANDUMfencing, golf, gymnastics, rifle, soccer, swimming, tennis, track and field,and wrestling, and informal teams inbadminton, ice hockey, sailing, squash,volleyball and weight lifting. (Boththe junior varsity and varsity programs, of course, are in addition to ourschedule of intramural sports) .In each sport an endeavor is madeto find a level of competition in whichour team will meet teams of its owncalibre. We consider an ideal schedule to be one in which there is evenlymatched competition, and we win ap proximately as many contests as welose.Students of the first two years ofthe College (11th and 12th graders)are for obvious reasons debarred fromintercollegiate competition.Since withdrawing from the Western Conference in 1946, Chicago hasadopted its own special brand ofeligibility rules suited to the idealsand objectives of its program.It is assumed that any one who cangain admission to the University ofChicago and can successfully carry22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe scholastic load should be allowedthe benefits and privileges of athleticcompetition. Because of our unusualand varied grading systems we haveno set standards of academic achievement. If a man has no failures on hisrecord, he is considered scholasticallyeligible. If he has .a failure on hisrecord, his case is referred to hisdean of students who decides whetherit is to the best interests of the manto compete or not to compete.Chicago does not apply the freshman rule. The chief reason for thefreshman rule is to discourage athleticrecruiting. Under the Chicago admission plan there is no possibility of athletic recruiting, even if some onewere interested, and no one is.Another reason for a freshman ruleis to give the athlete opportunity tobecome adjusted to college work andlife before engaging in a time-consuming and all absorbing extra-curricular activity. The Chicago athleticprogram is conducted on such a de-emphasized basis that membership ona team should not distract a man fromhis academic effort, nor should itcause him to miss classes or lose studytime.Many of our team members enterat the 11th grade and play two yearson our high school level teams. Itwould seem inconsistent to insist thatthese men stay out of competitionfor a calendar year before trying outfor a varsity team.Comparatively few students at thedivisional level are interested in participating in intercollegiate sports.The great majority of our team members come from the upper years of thecollege — a unit of about 900 men,very few of whom have had highschool competition. If we applied thefreshman rule we would not haveThe effort by the University to meetone critical need in American education — its program to prepare Ph.D/sfor teaching as well as research — willbegin its fifth year, financed by another $100,000 grant from the CarnegieCorporation.College teaching is the only majorlearned profession for which specialprofessional training is not provided/'P. Champion Ward, Dean of the Col- sufficient material to field a team inseveral sports and the teams we couldfield would be unable to find opponents with whom they could providefair competition.We do not apply the one-year residence rule for transfer students. Thisrule was designed to discourage trampathletes and the proselyting of athletes from one college to another. Itis inconceivable that any one withathletic talent would transfer to theUniversity of Chicago for athleticpurposes or that any one would encourage any athlete to make such atransfer. We therefore do not feeljustified in withholding the privilegeof participation because a man hastransferred.Years are sole limitIt was explained above that bachelor's degrees may be and are takenat Chicago following residence periods varying from one quarter to sixyears-. Moreover some men do notbother to take bachelor's or evenmaster's degrees on their way to thePh. D. Therefore, in determining athletic eligibility, Chicago disregardsdegrees altogether and merely limitsthe years of competition.The only traditional eligibility rulewhich we have retained is the "limitto competition" rule. This rule is retained in order to prevent a starathlete (if we should ever have one)from competing as long as he is in theUniversity, thereby depriving of competition some man who would reapmore benefit from the experience.This limitation also serves to avoidpossible complaint from our opponents that we are using athletes whohave had more than the normal college experience. Four seasons in alege, said in announcing the grant.The gift provides 50 fellowshipsfor new Ph.D .'s or final-year doctoralcandidates. The program involvesseminars on college-level teaching andapprentice teaching in the University.In another field, investigation of thechemical and metabolic processes bywhich viruses reproduce, by a researchteam headed by Chairman Earl H.Evans, Jr., of the Department of Bio- sport is the maximum participationallowed.When Chicago enters a man in anNCAA event he must conform to allNCAA eligibility standards for NCAAchampionships. When Chicago enters a man in a major relay meethe conforms to the eligibility rules ofthe Relay Games Association.In those sports in which Chicagohas continued to compete againstWestern Conference schools (fencingand gymnastics) the team membersconform to all Conference eligibilitystandards, including the graduate,freshman, transfer and three-yearresidence rules.The amateur rule is strictly enforced but if the situation shouldever arise where a man who hasprofessionalized himself in one sport,such as baseball, should wish to compete in some other sport, such as golf,we should seriously consider whetherhis professionalism would make himan undesirable participant in theother sport and will probably ruleaccordingly.The eligibility standards describedabove make sense for the Universityof Chicago. Some of them would obviously be unsuitable for institutionswhich have a different organizationand are under other pressures. Wecan assure you that the boys who represent Chicago on intercollegiateteams are bona fide students forwhom competition is a recreationalactivity that is not overemphasized.We wish all schools that scheduleChicago to understand the basis onwhich we are conducting our program. Therefore this statement isbeing sent to the colleges with whomwe have had intercollegiate relationsin recent years. We hope you willcare to continue to meet us.chemistry, will be financed by a$38,100 March of Dimes grant fromthe National Foundation for InfantileParalysis, according to an announcement by President Basil O'Connor ofthe Foundation.Meanwhile, University studentsaided the 1952 March of Dimes campaign by staging a 24-hour marathanbroadcast on the campus station,WUCB.NEW GIFTS PROMOTE TEACHING, RESEARCHMARCH, 1952 23CLASSIFIED(SOc per line)RETIRING to sunny Florida! For a home ofdistinction in a beautiful city of lakes nearRollins College, settle in Orlando or WinterPark. See or write a V. of C. alumna, EdnaU. Feltges, with McNutt-Heasley, Realtors, ISW. Washington St., Orlando, Florida.SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 1 00 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash Avenue670 N. Michigan AvenueChicagoWHOLESALE RETAILLA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoOther PlantsBoston — New York — Philadelphia —Syracuse — Cleveland — Detroit"You Might As Well Have The Best"RESULTS . . .depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Adressographing - FoldingMailing - Copy Preparation - MultilithA Complete Service for Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn - Chicago 5 - WA 2-4S61Phones OAkland 4-0690—4-0691—4-0692The Old ReliabUHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies lor AN Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueT. A. REHNQUIST CO.EST. 1929CONCRETEFLOORS — SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSINDUSTRIAL FLOORINGEMERGENCY REPAIR WORKCONCRETE BREAKINGWATERPROOFINGINSIDE WALLS6639 S. Vernon AvenueNOrmal 7-0433 CLASS f/f NEWSDealer in poisonsAn "unpopularity" contest conducted inthe state of Arizona, and presumably othersouthwest states as well, might easily findthe deadly Gila monster and the pestyscorpion figuring prominently, along withrattlesnake, on a list of "most unwantedinhabitants" of that region.Such unfriendly creatures, however, aremuch in demand in the poisonous animalresearch laboratory directed by Dr. Herbert L. Stahnke, '28, at Arizona State College in Tempe. Dr. Stahnke feh into thisbad company back about 1935 when heand his family took to living in Arizonawhile Dr. Stahnke was completing his AMdegree at the University of Arizona."We had a three-year-old daughter," Dr.Stahnke has explained to an AP reporter,"and we were alarmed at the possibilityof her being stung by scorpions. In questioning doctors I found they knew verylittle about the scorpion stings and people here knew little or nothing about thevarious types."Since a recent survey has shown that in10 months there were 1,573 scorpion stingcases in Arizona, which are especially dangerous in small children, Dr. Stahnke'sherpetological investigations promised tobe of benefit to a wider than familialclientele.To make anti-scorpion serum, cats areinjected with progressively greater amountsof scorpion venom and then some of theirblood is drawn. Cats, by the way, have anatural immunity to the stings.It takes about 1,400 scorpions to furnishenough venom to inoculate one cat. It'sestimated that 10 inoculated cats will beneeded to provide sufficient serum for usein Arizona alone.Taking of the venom from the longslender tail of the scorpion is an unusualprocess. Forceps which are wired with electricity hold the stinger in position. Whenset, a charge is sent into the scorpion tail,the muscles contract with the shock andthe venom is ejected into a jar. The sameprocess gets venom from the lower jaw ofthe Gila (pronounced Hee'la) monster.The anti-scorpion serum is only one ofthe medical researches being carried on by1902Members of the Class of '02 continue to exhibit interest in and plansto attend the 50th Anniversary Reunion—June 6, 1952. Dr. Stahnke and his assistants. One of thecurrent projects is to determine the effect of venoms on cancerous tissue, as partof the Damon Runyon campaign againstcancer."We're testing the scorpions, Gila mon-* Lily Holland Fleming is living in LakeForest, 111. Her husband is a lawyer.* Willis L. Blackmail is general freight STAHNKE EXTRACTS SCORPION VENONsters, 14 kinds of rattlesnakes, coral snakes,black widow spiders, tarantulas, centipedesand other poisonous animals from foreigncountries," Dr. Stahnke explains.In addition, experiments have indicatedthat certain venoms from scorpions arebeneficial in the therapeutic treatment ofmigraine headaches and arthritis.Although it will be some time beforethe results of the various researches conducted by Dr. Stahnke, who is professorof Zoology and head of the Department ofBiological Sciences, are known, his penchantfor associating with dangerous charactersmay prove of immense human value.-A. N. P.and passenger agent for the Delta Steamship Line of Chicago. His home is inHinsdale.* Cecile B. Bowman is a retired teacherliving in Elgin, 111.Edward V. L. Brown, MD '98, seniorattending ophthalmologist at PresbyterianHospital in Chicago, has been named 1951winner of the Leslie Dana medal for workin preventing blindness.* Pearl Bryning Cleeton is a retiredteacher lining in Chicago. Her husband,Emsley Cleeton, died January 23, 1951.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE* Hal A. Childs, MD '04, is a physicianin Creston, Iowa.Elmer H. Ellsworth, MD '04, is a physician in Hot Springs, Ark.* Robert L. Henry, JD '08, is a retiredjudge living in Baton Rouge, La., and nowengaged in writing. He says that he plansto come to the reunion if he finds amongthe list of those who plan to attend atleast two or three whom he knows.Earl D. Howard, PhD '05, formerly aprofessor at Northwestern University, isnow retired, and living in Orlando, Fla.Mark R. Jacobs is a retired superintendent of the Montebello schools in California."Would like very much to attend 50thanniversary, but can't say definitely at thistime."Clara L. Johnston (Mrs. Franklin Hitt)is a retired teacher and farmer, living inElko, S. C.Josephine Lackner Miles is living inBerkeley, Calif.Annie Mead Fertig writes from Pasadena,Calif., that she has "a home in sunnyCalifornia, good friends, and comfort formy old age."Grace Myers (Mrs. Lewis De Costa) isliving in Chicago. Her husband has beena member of the Chicago Board of Tradefor 50 years and is still active. "There arethree children in the family, two areU. of C. graduates, and one MilwaukeeDowner College. A daughter-in-law andtwo sons-in-law are also Chicago graduates, and our oldest granddaughter is afreshman in the College at the U. of C."Josephine F. Stone and her husband,George Honaker, Rush MD '03, a retiredphysician and surgeon, are living in SanLeandro, Calif.(To be continued next month)1909Austin Waller is serving his 31st yearas vice-president of the International Bankin Washington, D. C, of which his brother,John, is president. Natives of Dubuque,Iowa, they have had distinguished careersin the field of finance.Stephen S. Visher, SM TO, PhD '14, wasmarried last spring to Halene Hatcher,then geographic expert in the U. S. Officeof Education. "Our honeymoon travels included two auto trips, rounding the Gaspepeninsula in June, and an 11,000 mile tripabout the West in August and September."1912The Class of 1912 is piling upmore class news and additional plansfor their 40th Reunion— June 6, 1952.Warder C. Allee, PhD, for many yearson the faculty of the University of Chicago, and now at the University of Florida,was recently elected to the NationalAcademy of Sciences.Arthur G. Beyer, MD '14, is a physicianin Cincinnati, Ohio.* Earnest C. Brooks is commissioner ofcorrections for the State of Michigan. Hishome is in Holland.Robert C. Buck is a broker in fats, oils,and feeds in Chicago.Ralph W. Chaney, PhD '19, Professor of-Paleontology at the University of California, carried on paleobotanical field investigations in Kashmir and Japan lastAugust and September.Florence E. Clark, AM '36, is an adjustment teacher in Farragut High Schoolin Chicago. * Ben H. Cleaver is living in Cape Girardeau, Mo., where he is engaged in nonresident pastoral work and supply-teaching. "Mrs. Cleaver and I have threedaughters, two of whom are housewiveswith families, the other has taught inS.E. Missouri State College here for severalyears. The reunion is a splendid idea,though my attendance is very uncertain."* Leon Fonnesheck, JD, is a lawyer inLogan, Utah. His wife is Jean Brown, '11,AM '12. They have three married children, all living in California.George N. Foster, JD '14, a retired attorney living in Los Angeles, has been illfor several years.Charles B. Gentry, Dean Emeritus of theUniversity of Connecticut, sends news that"after managing a farm eight years andteaching 41 years, the last 30 in the University of Connecticut, I retired Oct. 1,1950. Since retiring, Mrs. Gentry and Ihave spent six months visiting the fourcorners of the United States with briefexcursions into Mexico and Canada. Wevisited many people, including our twosons: Robert, a surgeon in Pasadena; Edwin, a lieutenant in the Navy; and ourdaughter, Jean, who is married, and co-director of a camp in Maine."Carl A. Gieseler is Lutheran Pastor andProfessor of Religion at Valparaiso University in Indiana.* Pauline Gleason, a resident of OakPark, 111., is a teacher of French and Latinat East High School in Aurora, 111.Emada Avery Griswold is teaching at theOak Park and River Forest High Schoolin Illinois. "I enjoy my Boulder (Colo.)home in the summers, and shall retirethere again one day before too long."* Gwendolen A. Haste is in consumerrelations with General Foods in New YorkCity. "My avocation has always beenpoetry. Poems published from time totime in magazines and anthologies. Otherwise busy with a busy New York life-music, friends, the theater, art galleries."James T. Haviland, vice-president andmanager, eastern department, LumbermensMutual Casualty Co., is active in civicaffairs in Wayne, Pa. He has two marrieddaughters.* Nell C. Henry, AM '15, is a teacher ofbiology at Glenville High School in Cleveland. "Ruth Reticker, '12, and I droveto Nova Scotia last summer. Had a wonderful time. As for me— I just keep righton at the same old job, and love everyminute of it."* Maud L. Jensen, formerly a teacher, isliving in Pueblo, Colo.C. Edward Johnson, who formerly taughtat Hyde Park High School in Chicago, isnow living in Eustis, Fla.* Elizabeth A. Keenan is a teacher ofcivics and U. S. history at Schurz HighSchool in Chicago, and is also the seniorclass sponsor.* Campbell Marion is with the CurtisCandy Co., in Chicago. He writes, "Asper usual, for the past 11 years, I amhead of the 'Salted Nut Department,' andin my travels cover nearly every state inthe Union. ' I have one married daughter,Lois, living in Bloomington, 111."Jane McDonald writes from SolanoBeach, Calif., that she is enjoying herlovely home there where she has plentyof flowers and a wonderful view of theocean.* Stanley Moffat has ended his third term(12 years) as judge of the San AntonioCourt in Huntington Park, Calif. "Mycourt has been abolished and turned intoa Municipal Court of three judges, andI'll be a candidate for one of them nextJune. I have one daughter, who serves as YOUR FA VORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTESBETTERWHEN IT'S...A product of [ Swift & Company7409 So. State StreetPhone RAckliff 3-7400LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERPhone: SAginaw 1-3202FRANK CURRANRoofing & InsulationLeak* RepairedFree EttimateBFRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.7711 Luella Ave.HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS SINCE 1906 V RK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES? TSTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCEpRAYNERf* DALHEIM &CO.2801 W. 47TH ST., CHICAGO.MARCH, 1952GLEN EYRIE FARM FORCHILDRENOn Delavan LakeA FARM CAMP, farm family life, gardening,farm animals, orchard, nature hikes, countrydancing, games, swimming, boating, andcamp life for both boys and girls.8 and 4 week terms beginning June 24th.Virginia Hinkins Buzzell '13, DirectorDelavan, WisconsinCLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency70th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits its workto the university and college field. It isaffiliated with the Fisk Teachers Agency ofChicago, whose work covers all the educational fields. Both organizations assist inthe appointment of administrators as wellas of teachers.Our service is nation-wide.TELEPHONE TAylor 9-5455O'CALLAGHAN BROS.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186HYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING. BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrehester 3.1579RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneM On roe 4-3192 my legal secretary. We keep young byattending all the college football gamesin the LA coliseum."Georgia Moore Pierce is living in Tucson,Arizona.Rose-Marie Moore and her husband,Albert H. Dekker, '13, are living in Glendale, Calif., where he is a procurementmanager. Their son Albert is a chemistat Aerojet Corp., in Azuza, Calif.; sonDavid is a professor of mathematics at theUniversity of Washington, and son Johnis a geologist. "Our hobby is growing rarecamellias."1922To members of the Class of 1922:Plan to attend the 30th Reunion-June 6, 1952.May Hill Arbuthnot, Associate ProfessorEmeritus of Education, Western ReserveUniversity, is now lecturing and writing.She is author of a number of books, including a co-authorship with ProfessorWilliam S. Gray of THE BASIC READERS, author of a college text in children'sliterature, CHILDREN AND BOOKS, andTIME FOR POETRY.* Thomas A. Baird, MD '24, is a physicianin Chicago. His daughter, Ann, 19, is astudent in the Presbyterian Hospital Schoolof Nursing.* William H. Ball, Professor of Chemistryat Texas Western has raised a family oftennis players. Both he and his son,ChapmanaCandidateinIllinoisJohn W. Chapman, JD'17, has announced his candidacy for nomination to the office of lieutenant governor of Illinois in the coming Republican primary.A practicing attorney for manyyears, Chapman is a partner in theSpringfield law firm of Judge Harl-ington Wood and his son. He wentto Springfield in 1941 as executivesecretary to Dwight Green then governor, and in 1949 was appointedto fill a vacancy on the Illinois Parole Board, which position he helduntil March 1, 1950.Mr. Chapman's interest in politicsbegan long before he was oldenough to vote. His father, WilliamO. Chapman, was political editor ofone of the Chicago newspapers andJohn was initiated early into localRepublican politics.In 1927 he was elected to the Chicago City Council where his performance elicited from the Municipal Voters League a solid endorsement based on his "indispensiblequalities of honesty and fidelity tothe city's best interests."It is upon a life-time record ofintegrity and honesty that he nowstands in the present political race. George, have national ranking in doubles,and George also in singles. His son Joeis a professor of speech at the Universityof Pittsburgh, and son Russell is an executive with the Standard Oil Co.Willard W. Beatty is now deputy director of the Department of Education of theUnited Nations Educational, Scientific andCultural Organization, with headquartersin Paris. He had served previously for 15years as chief of the educational branchof the Bureau of Indian Affairs.Jean F. Black (Mrs. Melvin Adams) livesin Chicago. Her husband, Melvin, '09, isin public relations. They have two children: a married daughter, and a son whois now working for the government inWashington, D. C.* Nira Cowen (Mrs. Robert Irwin) is aresident of Springfield, 111., where her husband is manager of the Chamber of Commerce. Their son, Robert, AM '49, is livingin Baltimore, and their daughter, ElizabethPurnell, is in Springfield.* Corinne Eberhart Maneikis, AM '36, isan English, speech, and dramatics teacherat Lindbloom High School in Chicago, andshe writes that she is "just carrying on thelosing battle with ignorance." Her husband, Walter, '33, 'AM '36, is AssociateProfessor of English, Graduate Liberal ArtsSchool, De Paul University.Helena M. Gamer, PhD '32, is Professorand chairman, Department of GermanicLanguages and Literature, University ofChicago.Ella L. Grafius is a retired teacher, livingin Cambridge, Mass.Raymond R. Gregg, AM '23, is businessmanager of Eastern Illinois State Collegein Charleston. His son, Raymond Jr., isemployed in the office of the assistantcomptroller at the University of Chicago.Phila M. Griffin, retired, is living inConcord, N. H.* Margery Griffith Hood sends news abouther family from North Prairie, Wis.: "Myhusband is the owner and manager of a600-acre dairy farm. At present our herdis comprised of 100 Holsteins— the milk isshipped to Chicago. Our son, Robert, 20,is a junior in the College of Agricultureat the University of Wisconsin. He is amember of the varsity crew which won theNational Regatta at Marietta last June.Our daughter, Patricia, 16, is a senior inthe Waukesha High School."Jerome Hall, JD '23, is Professor of Lawat Indiana University.* J. Harry Hargreaves is an assistantoffice manager in the Los Angeles branchoffice of the Travelers Insurance Co.* Paul C. Hitchcock is a newspaper publisher in Hibbing, Minn. He has threechildren; his oldest son is in the Air Forcein Germany.* Oscar L. Holmgren is an insurance broker in Chicago. "We moved into a newlittle ranch in Arlington Heights in July,getting settled down. Have a little grandson, John Carlton Peek."* Irwin F. Hummon is Head of the Department of Radiation Therapy at CookCounty Hospital in Chicago.Johanna Johnson, who previously livedin Duluth, Minn., now resides in Tacoma,Wash.* Allan T. Kenyon, MD '26, is Professorof Medicine at the University of Chicago.Florence I. Liebl is a secretary in Chicago.* Thomas A. Baird, MD '24, is a physicianin Chicago. His daughter, Ann, 19, is astudent in the Presbyterian Hospital Schoolof Nursing.* Arvid f, . Lunde, who lives in ParkRidge, 111., is district representative of the• THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGoing to the dogsAt the risk of turning our classnews section into a dog lovers' column, we include herewith some up-to-date canine chatter inspired bythe Dandie Dinmot entry in theJanuary issue.Helen Dye Kirby, '19, sent in asnap of one of her "young hopefuls"—a Sealyham puppy named OverhillHighland Fling, who will be on exhibition, along with several of theOverhill Dandie Dinmots, at theInternational Dog Show in Chicagoin March.This might be just the opportunityLilliace Montgomery Mitchell '15,has been waiting for, since she andMrs. Kirby have at least one pursuitin common— the raising of pedigreedpups, and Lilliace has informed usthat "I hope to see Helen's DandieDinmots at some of the shows— oh,and Helen, too, of course!"Like Helen, Lilliace is also anEnglish major, and after graduationspent a few restless years applyingher academic accomplishments, butwas soon willing to settle for marriage and writing.The marriage produced one son,Robert, SB '51, and the writing, shetells us, has blossomed into 1431stories, serials, and articles, whosemost recent and persistent themescenter around her favorite hobby—the raising of pedigreed Pekingesedogs.Mrs. Mitchell, who raises onlyblue-ribbon winners in hues of redand gold, finds her pint-sized petsto be "extremely cuddlesome" (wefound the Dandies to be very dignified, you'll recall) and who, thoughpractically noseless, have a penchantfor nosing into anything and everything. In short, little terrors.She writes that "the life cycle being what it is, I find myself now andagain with 20 or 25 young ones, andthis presents a merchandising problem that has been quite simplysolved so far. Advertising! Brother,it's wonderful! Have shipped to everystate in the union and receive messages from buyers who sign, 'Chungking and Mrs. Elliott' signifying thatpeople like the Pekes better thanthey like themselves."Lilliace, who lives in Piano, 111.,has about finished her apprenticeship for judging at dog shows, andit just may be that she'll appear atone of the shows soon to judgeHelen Kirby's entries, in which event,we may safely conclude, their conversation will not be concerned withthe revolution in Shakespearean criticism. Detroit Graphite Co. His daughter, Marcia,has two children, and of his son, Lonny,he writes: "He is 16 years old and justretiring because of 'old age' from the QuizKids radio and TV shows after eight yearsof appearances. Lonny is also a somewhataccomplished pianist, having appeared lastyear as soloist with the Chicago SymphonyOrchestra."Frances W. Massey is living in ColoradoSprings.* Malcolm C. McCuaig has been living inDundee, 111., for over three years. He hasa daughter at Miami University and another one starting high school.* Frances Morris, AM '24, is a retiredhigh school teacher living on a farm nearWaynesville, Ohio. She is busy restoringa Georgian Colonial brick house purchased by her grandfather and which wasbuilt in 1832. "We raise short-horn cattleand Chester White hogs."Donald C. Morrison is Pastor of the FirstPresbyterian Church in El Dorado, Kansas."I would be interested in a reunion, butour family plans to go to Europe and willsail June 4, international situation permitting." The Morrisons have a daughter,Edna, 18, who has been attending SouthernIllinois University.* Bernard Mortimer, PhD '26, is an obstetrician and gynecologist in Joliet, 111.,where he is chairman of the Departmentof Obstetrics of Silver Cross Hospital andalso attending obstetrician at St. Joseph'sHospital. His wife is a pediatrician.* Mary Newlin, AM '26, is a high schoolteacher and dean of girls in Robinson, 111.Irma Alishir Nomland, MD '24, is aphysician in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.Marion Norcross (Mrs. William Morriss)is a housewife in Wallingford, Conn., withtwo children: Marion, 19, a junior atPembroke College in Brown University;and Elizabeth, 14. Her husband is aphysician.Miriam Ormsby (Mrs. Cyrus Mark) is aresident of Winnetka, 111. Her husbandis a manufacturer. They have one son.* Elizabeth Owen writes that she and herhusband, Harold J. Noyes, '23, MD '33,moved to Portland, Ore., five years agowhen Harold decided to go into teaching.He is now Dean of the University of Oregon Dental School. Their daughter has acareer in fashions and advertising. "Wefind the scenic beauty of the ocean andmountains very satisfying, but we continueto miss the associations and old friends inand around Chicago."* Blanche E. Parks is a psychiatric socialworker in Logansport, Ind.John E. Proebstel is a contractor withthe Bigjon Electric Co., in Tujunga, Calif.Paul S. Rhoads, MD '24, is a physicianand professor of Medicine at NorthwesternUniversity School of Medicine and editor-in-chief of the Archives of Internal Medicine. He has four children, all married.Mary Alice Sinn Hall and her sister, EvaSinn, both retired teachers, bought a homein Jacksonville, Fla., where they are livinga "busy and pleasant life."Ethel Stalter is an Elementary Schoolprincipal in Montvale, N. J.Sophie Stampfer Bernstein is living inOklahoma City. Her husband has beenbedridden since 1949 when he suffered astroke following an operation.* Milton Tobias, MD, is a physician inBeverly Hills, Calif. He has two children:Edith, 20, and Paul, 19.Frank Torell has served for the pasteight years as manager of Camp Gray, theWestminster Lodge on Lake Michigan, nearSaugatuck, Mich. His daughter, EleanorTorell Scott, received her AM from Chi- BOYDSTON BROS., INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and licensed attendantsW. B. Conkey Co.Division ofRand M'Nally & CompanyCHICAGO • HAMMOND • NEW YORKSince 1885ALBERT- Teachers' AgencyThe bait In placamant larvica lor Untvariity,Collaga, Secondary and Elementary. Nationwide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, IllinoisTelephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL Fhrli826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 15, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLTREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DeaferforCHRYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMUseum 4-4500AlaeGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair.Body, Paint, Simonize, Washand Greasing DepartmentsMarch, 1952TheHazelHoffShop1377 East 55th Street— HYde Park 3-8180A New LowNeumode HosieryCareer Girl $1.15Vanities 51-15 $1,15BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveClecfuers & Byers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380BOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSine© 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.OAlcland 4-0492Telephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON & BROS. Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDUtribuior* ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 Soufh Water Market@excellence in eiecTstiCAi products%igleuwwlELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manafacturars and Jobbers a!ELECTEES CAL BVIATESSIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLSES5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500TELEVISIONDrop in and see a programRADIOSFrom consoles to portablesRadio-TV ServiceAt home or shopELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators RangesWashers BlanketsSPORTING GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSPopular-SymphoniesFine collection for children935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Robert Gaertner, '34 Julian Tishler, '33 cago in 1944, and her husband, John, in1942. Eleanor is now working on herdoctorate.Ruth Vanderkloat Wigelsworth is livingin Los Angeles where her husband is inan executive position. They have a married daughter.* Elizabeth Vilas Loudon resides in SanAntonio, Texas. She and her husband,who is in civil service, have three children:a married daughter, Jean; Bert, 16; andFred, 13.* Ivae Walker is a librarian at the Technical High School in Omaha, Neb. "Imissed the 25th reunion. Might be ableto make this one."Olive V. Weaver retired last June as ateacher in the Chicago Public High Schools.She is now living in Johnstown, Pa.Forrest Wilkinson (Mrs. Samuel E. Peters)is a teacher of psychology in the LongBeach, Calif., City College, where her husband is a teacher of engineering.* Effie Wills Livingston is living in Wood-dale, 111., where her husband is a superintendent for the George Fuller Co. Theyhave two boys: David Jr., 17, and Tom, 15.* Leona E. Wilson is vice-president of theSuperior Lumber Co., in El Dorado, Ark.* Cecelia Wolfson (Mrs. Lewis Coren) reports on her two children: Claire, whoreceived her AB from Chicago in 1950and is now completing her senior year inthe Department of Social Service at Michigan State College; and Arthur, who transferred to Miami University after two yearsin the College at Chicago.(To be continued next month)1925G. Donald Hudson, PhD '34, is nowChairman of the Department of Geographyat the University of Washington.James K. Kneusel, JD '27, is a colonel inthe office of Command Judge Advocate,Military Air Transport Service, in Washington, D. C.1927News of the Class of '27 is stockpiling in the Alumni Office, andnext month's issue will feature a fatchunk of news about this class whose25th Reunion is June 6, 1952.* Norman T. Adelson is in the giftwaresand souvenir business in Chicago. He hasone son, Ronald, a sophomore at the University of Illinois.Dorothea K. Adolph is a teacher of thefirst grade at Malvern School in ShakerHeights, Ohio.* Wilson K. Boetticher is head of theHistory Department at Amundsen HighSchool in Chicago. His wife, Leota Blow,'12, is a psychologist with the Division ofChild Study of the Chicago public schools.* Gwendolyn Covington Lee is employedas chief supervisor of social work in theCrownsville State Hospital in Maryland.Her husband, Maurice Lee, '29, AM '31,PhD '51, is on the faculty of Morgan StateCollege in Baltimore.* Lilyan Haas Alspaugh, who has an AMdegree from Ohio State University, wasselected outstanding alumna of that University for the year 1947. She is a memberof the national board of the AmericanAssociation of University Women. Herhusband is vice-president of the DrackettCo., in Cincinnati, Ohio.Kennet P. Hedges is in the oil businessin Tulsa, Okla.* Agnes Kerr Pickett writes from Lexington, Ky., that "on November 30, 1951, my husband, Ralph R. Pickett, AM '24, PhD'30, Professor of Economics at the University of Kentucky, represented the University of Chicago at the inauguration ofFrank A. Rose as president of TransylvaniaUniversity. Events of the day were impressive and worthy of the occasion."* Matthew M. Lewison, MD '32, is a pediatrician in Chicago. He has three children:Leon, 14; Norman, 12; and Sara Ann, 10.* Grace Lindquist Ragle is the owner-operator of a Letter Shop in Huntington,Long Island. Her husband died in 1949.She has three daughters, and writes, "Icertainly enjoy the U. of C. MAGAZINE."* Margaret Nelson Elmer and her husband, Franklin Elmer, DS '30, are livingin Flint, Mich., where he is Minister ofthe First Baptist Church. Margaret writesthat "June 1952 would be my father's(Bertram G. Nelson, '02) 50th reunionanniversary, it is the 25th for me, and ourdaughter, Dorothea, is graduating thenfrom the College. She is to be married inJune to David M. Brown of Hartford,Conn."Don Prosser is a placement officer withthe Board of U. S. Civil Service Examinersin Pasadena, Calif.Gladys Stueben Hansen is an Englishteacher in Austin High School in Chicago.Her husband is head of the Physical Sciences Department of the Morton HighSchool in Cicero, 111. They have a 16-year-old daughter.(To- be continued next month)1928Miriam C. Andrus was awarded a master's degree in social work from the University of Minnesota at the December convocation.Robert M. Engberg, PhD '37, is in industrial relations with the R. Wallace &Sons Manufacturing Co., in Wallingford,Conn.Henry M. Leppard, PhD, is Professor ofGeography at the University of Washington.1929Laura Oftedal, a teacher of the fourthgrade at the Laboratory School, authoredan article in the January issue of the INSTRUCTOR, entitled "Paul Bunyan-HeroExtraordinary," in which she offers teacherssome valuable hints on how to introducetheir pupils to the fabulous and fancifulworld of the Northwest "superman."1931Rachel T. Smiley, Principal of the RiisSchool in Chicago, is now living in Elm-wood Park, 111.1932The 20th Reunion of the Class of'32 is set for June 6, 1952.* Luis W. Alvarez, SM '34, is Professor ofPhysics at the University of California atBerkeley. His wife is Gexaldine Smithwick,'34.Ruth Bagby Kenas writes that they havea new home in Naperville, 111., where herhusband is a contractor. They have threechildren: two boys and one girl.* John C. Berghoff is an attorney withSwift & Co., in Chicago. He and his wife,Doris Anderson, have two sons: Bob, 14,and John, 10.Norris Brookens, PhD '37, MD '39, is aphysician in Urbana, 111. He and his wife,Ruth L. Schuraian, '31, have five daughters.* Miriam Carkstedt is teaching kindergarten in Duluth, Minn.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE# Sylvia Cobb Landsman is a housewifein Chicago with three children: Robert, 11,Helen, 9, and Jeffrey, 2. Her husband,Maurice, '33, JD '34, is in U. S. governmentservice.Hertsell S. Conway is a group leader ofthe Whiting Research Laboratory, Standard Oil Co. (Ind.). H e and his wife, AnneSinai, '39, have two children: Abigail, 9,and Oren, almost 6.* Dorothy Duhnke and her husband, BenH. Gray, '30, are residents of Glenview,111. Ben is national director of the NationalEpilepsy League. They have a daughter,Janet, five.* Stillman M. Frankland, who was president of the Class of '32, is with the DouglasAircraft Co., in Long Beach, Calif.Corinne Freed Ehrlich is living in Phoenix, Ariz., where her husband, Joseph, MD'35, is a physician. They have two children: Ira, 13, and Andrea, 10.» William E. Gist is employment officemanager for the Illinois State EmploymentService in Chicago. He has two children:Nancy, 3, and William Jr., a year and ahalf.* Laurence F. Greene is a urologist at theMayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.* James F. Hartle is a manufacturer oforthopedic and fracture equipment in Warsaw, Ind. He has three children: Carolyn,10; Pamela, 8; and Jimmy, 3.* John V. Healy, a free lance writer andfarmer, writes that he is living in a largeold colonial farmhouse in Maine, raisingturkeys, pheasants, and three children:Michael, 8; Mary, 6; and Thomas, 3.Lowell S. Hebbard is director of accounting for the Harnischfeger Corp.,Escanaba Works, in Michigan. He is married and has two children: Douglas, 5, andDuncan, 3.* Mary A. Heghin, AM '34, is AssociateDirector of Religious Education of theFirst Federated Church of Peoria. Shewrites that "our church is newly built ina rapidly growing community, and I amhelping the church in its efforts to carryon a dynamic program of Christian education for the children and youth of thecommunity."* Elizabeth F. Hill is a psychologist withthe Division of Child Study of the ChicagoBoard of Education.Dudley C. Jackson, a retired teacher, isliving in Takoma Park, Md. He has onedaughter, one granddaughter, one wife.* John J. Kehoe, AM '41, is assistantprincipal of Fenger High School in Chicago. He has a married daughter who isa pediatrician in Oak Park, 111.* Solomon Klapman, PhD '40, is a physicist in the television industry in Chicago.* Ralph Lewis is on the foreign servicestaff of the State Department. "Have thereunion by all means. I'll be there if it'sat all possible."* Ruth Lyman Hill (Mrs. William M.)writes from Dodge City, Kan., with a touchof pride in her note that "my husbandowns the best cafe in town." She goes onto say that they have two girls: Judith,'1. and Margaret, 9; two dogs, and eightrats, with kijtens too numerous to mention. "A reunion would be grand. Thedistance is rather great, but I'll work on* Margaret C. Maher is a teacher at SennHigh School in Chicago.. Fern Parks Viall is a first grade teacher"• the Knox-Center school in Knox, Ind.Theodore A. Poska is a physician andsurgeon in Eureka, Calif.Cerna Sampson Hirsch, living in LosAngeles, is the mother of four daughters"no manages to find time for community work in addition to her household duties.Her. husband is in the department storebusiness.Ralph Smallman is the Detroit branchmanager of the Mason Shoe ManufacturingCo. He has four children: Albert, 17, Bob,13, Bennett, 10, and Joann, 8.Naomi Spindler White lives in Kendall-ville, Ind., where her husband is a Nashdealer. They have three children: PhilipJr., 16, Stephen, 12, and Sue Ellen, 10.Paul Stagg is director of athletics at Pacific University in Forest Grove, Ore. Heand his wife, Virginia Russell, '37, havetwo children: Linda, 11; and Paul Jr., 6.Harriet A. Trinkle and her husband,Russell Hastings, '33, live on a ranch nearTucson, Ariz., with their four children.Harriet is a kindergarten teacher and Russell is an architect.(To be continued next month)1933Herman E. Ries, Jr., PhD '36, has recently been appointed research associate inthe Whiting (Ind.) Research Laboratoriesof the Standard Oil Co. Ries has beenassociated with the Sinclair Refining Co.for the past 15 years.Lt. Col. Robert L. Schock, a Chaplain inthe Army, has been assigned to the Fitz-simons Army Hospital in Denver.1934Ruth A. Morton, AM, has joined thestaff of the American Friends Service Committee as field secretary for the race relations program, in which capacity she willserve as advisor to personnel in the 14regional offices of the Committee in theirrace relations work. Previous to her present appointment, Miss Morton served for16 years as director of the community rehabilitation program of the American Missionary Association in the southeasternUnited States and Puerto Rico.Alphonse Pechukas, PhD 37, has beennamed engineering manager of the General Electric Company's Chemical Division,in Pittsfield, Mass.William T. R. Fox, PhD '40, is directorof the newly-established Institute of Warand Peace Studies at Columbia University,organized to examine the impact of international tensions and wars on AmericanWayne E. Rapp, of Minneapolis, is the1951 winner of the Walker ManufacturingCo. Shattuck Trophy, awarded each yearto the outstanding district manager of thecompany's wholesale division. The trophyhas been awarded annually for the past13 years. Rapp is manager of the northcentral district.AUTO PARTS & EQUIPMENT EXPERT PARKER-HOLSMANReal Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525COLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone HYde Park 3-6324lunches: 45c up; Dinners: $1.2S-$2.2SPENDERCatch Basin and Sewer Service¦ Bed 'Wafer Valves, Sumps-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAIrtu 4-01(1PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICESUPERFLUOUS HAIRREMOVED FOREVERMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of hair from face, eyebrows, back of neck, or any part of body;also facial veins, moles, and warts.Men and WomenLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERT20 years' experienceAlsoGraduate NurseSuite 1705, Stevens Building17 N. State StreetTelephone FRanklin 2-4885FREE CONSULTATIONLOWER YOUR COSTSWAGE INCENTIVESEMPLOYEE TRAININGPERSONNEL PROCEDURESIMPROVED METHODSJOB EVALUATIONROBERT B. SHAPIRO '33, DIRECTORMarch, 1952 29POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHeeves Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing # AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMl 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisPHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work A SpecialtyQuality Book Reproduction731 Plymouth CourtWAbash 2-8182CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3-3935"Good Printing of All Descriptiont*Since 1878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholstersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180Ashjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone REgent 4-6000Platers- SilversmithsSince 1917GOLD. SILVER, RHODIUMSILVERWAREKmpalfd, Jt«l9j»lsh«<f, JUfacqu«r«dSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CEntrel 4-4089-90 ChicagoA. T.STEWART LUMBER CO.Qualify and ServiceSince T88879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phones Vincennes 6-9000 society. Dr. Fox is a former assistant director of the Institute of InternationalStudies at Yale University, and editor ofWorld Politics, a quarterly research journal.1935John P. Barden, JD '38, has announcedhis resignation as dean of the school ofgeneral studies at Western Reserve University, effective June 30, to join a partnership in radio, television and film programpackaging. Barden's new firm, known asBarden and Blacker, is a partnership withIrwin R. Blacker, who was with the CentralIntelligence Agency until last November.Bernard D. Meltzer, JD '37, Professor inthe Law School at the University of Chicago, has written an article entitled "Required Records, the McCarran Act, and thePrivilege Against Self-incrimination" in theUniversity of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 18,No. 4. Warmly praised by judges, lawteachers and practitioners as a significantcontribution, the article is particularlytimely because of continuing discussionconcerning the proper role of the privilegeagainst self-incrimination in contemporarysociety.Ellmore C. Patterson has been elected avice-president of J. P. Morgan 8c Co. Patterson has served as an assistant vice-president since 1948.1936Joseph W. Harney, AM, is back in Chicago after a sojourn in New York. He isnow on the staff of Wright Junior Collegeteaching psychology, working with placement, and teaching in their police program. As though that were not enough,he also teaches a course on Psychology ofHuman Relations at the Lawson Y.M.C.A.1937The United Mine Workers welfare andretirement fund has appointed John New-drop, MD '37, as deputy medical administrator of the three memorial hospitalassociations which are to build 10 hospitalsin soft coal mining areas. Newdrop hasbeen with the welfare and retirement fundsince 1947.Malcolm Stinson, AM, received his PhDdegree from the University of Minnesotaat the December convocation.1938Raymond Jaffe, former teaching assistantin the Department of Philosophy at theUniversity of California, was awarded a$2600 advanced graduate fellowship by theAmerican Council of Learned Societies forstudy toward the doctor's degree in philosophy. Jaffe was selected for the honorfrom among applicants throughout theUnited States and Canada.William J. Tancig, SM '39, has beenpromoted to assistant chief chemist at theWhiting (Ind.) refinery of Standard OilCo.1939Philip H. Coombs is the executive director of the President's Materials PolicyCommission in Washington, D. C.Julius Eitington, AM '40, active in thefield of personnel administration, is nowChief, Classification Branch, Federal CivilDefense Administration in Washington,D. C. His hobby, closely aligned with hisprofessional interest, is writing articles onpersonnel topics which have appeared insuch professional magazines as Personnel,Personnel Administration, and PersonnelJournal.James E. Mitchell, JD '41, is examinerof savings loans for the Federal Home LoanBank in Washington, D. C.Earle L. Reynolds, AM '43, is in Hiro shima, Japan, where he is engaged in achild development program.1940Charles V. Shostrom has been namedtennis coach at Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. While at the Universityof Chicago, Charles piled up an enviablerecord in Big Ten tennis competition.1941Robert W. Jampolis, MD '44, wasawarded the degree of master of science insurgery from the University of Minnesotaat the December convocation.1942The Class of '42 is planning its10th Reunion. An asterisk indicatesthose who hope to attend, on June6, 1952.* Josephine Beynon Peek is a psychiatriccaseworker with the Veterans Administration in New York City.Nancy Bullock, PhD, (Mrs. E. T. Woolridge) who is English professor at Hampton Institute, is national president of ZetaPhi Beta sorority.Paul L. Bunce, MD, and Arthur T.Evans, MD '44, were two of a group of 55researchers who attended a symposium inCincinnati in January to discuss a newtype of synthetic estrogen, tri-para-anisyl-chloroethylene (TACE). Eighteen papersdiscussing the pharmacology and clinicaluse of TACE in prostatic malignancy andthe menopause syndrome, as well as certain additional clinical conditions, werepresented. TACE is a research development of the William Merrell Co., of Cincinnati, sponsors of the symposium.* Jean Bushing Makas, AM '43, is nowhead of the Department of English atNorthwestern College in Minneapolis. Herhusband, George P. Makas, '44, is a teacherof music.Ist Lt. Louis S. Hochman has been assigned as geologist in the Engineer Sectionof the 19th Engineer Combat Group inKorea. He was recalled to active duty ayear ago, and was serving with an engineercombat group at Fort Lewis, Wash., whenhe departed on December 1 for Korea.Julian S. Lorenz is a physician in Casey,111. He has a son, 10 months old.* Thomas J. Madden, MD '44, is apathologist at the New Britain GeneralHospital in Connecticut. He has a son,James, one year old.¦* F. David Martin, PhD '49, is an associate professor of philosophy at BucknellUniversity in Lewisburg, Pa. He has threechildren: Suzanne, 8; Timmy, 3; andAmy, 1.Richard P. Matthews is librarian of thePrinceton Engineering School in NewJersey.* Henry E. McWhorter, MD '44, a physician, is a Fellow in plastic surgery at theMayo Clinic in Rochester. He and hiswife, Jeanne Kreuder, 43, have two children: Susan, 3; and William, five months.Marcia Merrifield Schenk writes fromTucson, Ariz., that "I accompanied theTucson Boys' Choir for four years, playedin the voice studios at the University ofArizona, directed a choir and sang solosin the church choir. At present I am verybusy taking care of my two little boys'-Douglas, 5, and Norman, five months. Myhusband teaches metal shop and draftingat the high school. We are all very healthyand happy here in the 'land of sunshine'.* Robert L. Meyer, 1st Lt., U. S. Army*30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEis stationed at Camp Atterbury, Ind. Heexpects to be released from service in May.He and his wife, Catherine Leinen, '47,have two children: Cathy, 3; and MaryElizabeth, 18 months.Brother Albert Moraczewski, O.P., SM'47, is now in Dubuque, Iowa, where hisstudies at St. Rose Priory will be devotedentirely to Sacred Theology. At the endof three years, he will be eligible forordination to the Priesthood in the RomanCatholic Church.Margery Moses Shurman is a Chicagohousewife with two children: Daniel, almost 4, and Beverly, one year. Her husband is the midwest sales representativefor the Caxton Hat Company.William T. Nelson Jr., is a chemist withthe Research Laboratory of the PhillipsOil Co. in Bartlesville, Okla. His workon Carbon Black is among the researchcontributions of the laboratory's staff whichwon the company a recent award from theAmerican Chemical Society.* Raymond and Rita Liberman Nortonhave been living in Washington, D. C, foralmost two years now and have seen morefellow alumni in that time than they generally did in Chicago. Raymond is alawyer in the Navy Department.Margaret V. O'Bid is now stationed inJapan with the American Red Cross.* Donald D. Panarese, an attorney inChicago, married an attorney last April.She is the former Genevieve Cacciatore, aHomecoming Queen for her class at DePaul University.* Daniel Peterson is an instructor in theCollege of Agriculture at the University ofCalifornia in Berkeley. He as a daughter,Deborah, born last October 19.Eugene C. Pomerance, MBA '47, is anaccount research supervisor for the advertising firm of Foote, Cone and Belding inChicago. "Expect to join the exodus tothe suburbs— Elmhurst— as soon as our newhouse is completed so our three childrenwill have more running room. Theiryoungsters are Lynn, 6; Diane, 4; and Roger,8 months.* Edgar L. Rachlin is now vice-presidentand director of the Union Building Co.,in Newark, N. J. He writes that "it is oneof the largest real estate holding companiesin the East. My function the past fewmonths has been the development of the *Metropolitan Industrial Terminal, an 1100-acre industrial terminal at the foot of theLincoln tunnel in Secaucus, N. J."* Warren A. Reeder Jr., is a realtor inHammond, Ind. He has a son, Roger, 18months.* George G. Rinder, MBA, is a corporateaccountant for Marshall Field Sc Co., inChicago. He and his wife, Shirley Lathamhave two children: Robert, 3; and CarlThomas, born last October 12.Clarence G. Robinson lists a Brooklyn,N. Y., address and writes that he is waiting to take "Boards" in internal medicine.He and his wife, Dr. Thelma Lennard,have two sons: David, 5; and Michael, 2.Norman Rudy, MBA '47, is Assistant Professor of Statistics at Sacramento State College. He and his wife, Phyllis Greenburg,'43, have two children: Dale, 8; and Francie,5.* Mary Edith Runyan, AM '45, is a teacherlr* the Humanites 3 course at Shimer Col-kge in Mt. Carroll, where she has beensince last September. She is also chairman'°f the student-faculty religious activitiescommittee.Anthony Ryerson, of Lake Forest, whotook work at the University around 1942,has been made general manager of sales°f Inland Steel Co. Mr. Ryerson is very active in civic affairs, serving as villagealderman, chairman of the finance committee of the City Council, and as a memberof the vestry of the Church of the HolySpirit in Lake Forest.* Harry Schaffner is with the ChicagoHousing Authority.Anne Schwinn Rieck is living in Princeton, N. J., where her husband is a researchfellow at the University.* Courtney D. Shanken, advertising andsales manager for the Crib Diaper Servicein Chicago, writes that he has a real haremstarted now that he and his wife have twodaughters.Joseph Simmler is a chemist with theMallinckrodt Chemical Works in St. Louis,Mo. He has a son, Joseph John, two yearsold.Rex Skinner, AM '48, is a psychiatricsocial worker in Van Nuys, Calif. He hastwo children: Byron, 7; and Diana, 3.Ira R. Slagter is a lieutenant in the Infantry. He was working for Time, Inc., inChicago before being recalled into theArmy last April. He is married and hastwo children: Ira Jr., 6; and Robert, 5.* Lottie J. Walaszek (Mrs. Chester Pio-trowski) is a research chemist and housewife. Her husband is a student at theUniversity. They have a son, John Chester,born October 14, 1951.* Blossom Willens Levin (Mrs. Irving J.)has three children: Sue Ann, 4; Myron, 3;Irving, almost one. Her husband is withthe Society Lingerie Co., in Michigan City,Ind.To be continued next month.1943Grace Virginia Moore was married onOctober 20, 1951, to George E. Dean in theFourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago.Lois Sentman, AM, is Professor of SocialWork at the State University of Iowa inIowa City.1945Robert T. S. Jim, MD '48, entered active service as a medical officer in theU. S. Air Force last July.Walter J. Levy, AM, and his wife, HilmaCohn, AM 47, have moved to St. Louis,Mo., where Walter has accepted the position of supervisor of the Jewish Employment and Vocational Service.Lt. Col. Harvey N. Smith, U. S. Army,is now stationed in Germany .Louise B. Harvey and her husband,Johnson Clark, '43, of Berkeley, California,announce the birth of their son, Johnson,Jr., on April 16, 1951. Little Johnny has abrother almost 3 years old, and a sister,20 months.Frank J. Orland, SM, PhD '49, was recently elected president of the Chicago section of the International Association forDental Research.Alfred W. Painter, PhD, taught lastsummer at the College of the Pacific. "Enjoyed week-end camping trips to some ofthe beautiful state parks in California."1946Richard Bechtolt, AM '50, has been commissioned an ensign in the U. S. NavalReserve, upon graduation from the Officer's Candidate School, Newport, R. I., inJanuary. Bechtolt was formerly a researchassistant at the Industrial Relations Centerat the University.Charles P. Bluestein, AM '47, has published an article entitled "Parole Perspectives" which appears in the January issueof Focus, the journal of the National Probation and Parole Association. In thearticle, Bluestein criticizes the "buck-shot"approach of many agencies in dealing with Local and Long Distance MovingStorage Facilities for Books,Record Cabinets, Trunks, orCarloads of FurniturePeterson FireproofWarehouse Inc.1011 EAST 55th STREETBUTTERFIELD 8-6711DAVID L. SUTTON, PresidentWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's HotelIn theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women etModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave.Verne P. Warner. DirectorTelephonePLaza 2-3313Auto LiveryQuiet, unobtiusive serviceWhen you want it, as you want itCALL AN EMERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4-6400^ARCH, 1952 31OLWe operate our own drycleaning plantTHREE HOUR SERVICE1331 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Midway 3-0602 NOrmal 7-9858Office & Plant1442 East 57th Street Midway 3-0608Ajax Waste Paper Co.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, CR 7-2668BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoGolden Dirilyte(formtrly Dirigoli)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID — NOT PLATEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal. Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDiriijo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4. III. all classes of released offenders. Formerlyassociated with the California Parole Bureau, Charles is now a teacher in San Diego.Warren A. Rasmussen, MD '48, is a medical missionary in Ethiopia.1947Robert J. Minges, AM '49, has joined theTechnical Cooperation Administration ofthe Department of State to take part in aPoint Four rural development program inIran. Minges' special field will be in helping the people adapt to improved methodsand implements, especially in farming.Rosemary Raymond (Mrs. Michael Lox)arranges interior displays for Sears, Roebuck & Co., in Charleston, W. Va.Cpl. Ladd Steckmesser is now assigned tothe United States Military Advisory Groupto the Republic of Korea Army for dutyas assistant advisor to the chief of intelligence, ROK Army. Steckmesser enteredthe Army during October, 1950, and tookhis basic training at Camp Atterbury, Ind.He arrived in Korea during May, and sincethen has earned the Korean Service Ribbonwith one campaign star.William A. Sylvester, AM, received hisPhD degree from the University of Minnesota at the December convocation.1948James E. Benjamin, AM, was married lastNovember to Marilyn E. Talman, AM '50.The couple is living in New York City.A student loan fund within the School ofLibrary Science of Western Reserve University has been established in memory ofFrances Eleanor Hammitt, PhD, a formerteacher and librarian at the School, whodied July 5, 1950. The fund is the gift ofher parents.Alfred J. Hotz, PhD, has joined thepolitical science department of WesternReserve University at Cleveland.William H. Newman, MD, is a residentin orthopedics at Cook County Hospitalin Chicago.Carolyn Swift has sent in news of herengagement to John W. Lenz, '45, AM '49.Carolyn is teaching English at RosemaryHall, Greenwich, Conn., and John is aninstructor in philosophy at Yale Universitywhere he is completing his PhD.1949Arline Levinson Rosenberg, AM, now living in Pittsburgh, has a ten-month old son.Her husband is a physician. 1951Walter C. Gogel, Ph D, is a psychologistat the Army Medical Research Laboratory.Fort Knox, Ky.CorrectionThis good-natured letter from JohnT. Goodlad, PhD'49, gave us a redface and a chuckle. He writes, inpart:"I was very interested to read inthe November publication of theMAGAZINE that I have been appointed Director of Teacher Education at Emory University School ofDentistry. While I am sure that ourSchool of Dentistry would be pleasedto have grown to a size warrantingsuch a division, I'm not sure to whatdegree their philosophy embraces aneed for teaching methods."In any case, I think it well topoint out a slight correction. Myposition is ' that of Director of theDivision of Teacher Education. . . .Anyway, I still think a Division ofTeacher Education within a Schoolof Dentistry might be a good idea."Sincerely yours,John Goodlad ivlemorialAugustus C. Behle, Rush MD '94, diedon July 27, 1951.N. J. Lennes, '98, SM '04, PhD '07, diedon November 21, 1951.Aubrey P. Nelson, '02, died on October17, 1951, in Nassau, the Bahamas. He hadserved two parishes of the EpiscopalChurch in the Bahamas from 1933 untilill health forced his retirement in 1944.He was a charter member of the University of Chicago chapter of Phi GammaDelta.Lydia M. Schmidt, '02, died November 2,1951. She was a former head of the German department of the University HighSchool, and later resided at the UniversitySettlement House, where she promotededucation for citizenship for foreign borngroups. She was an active worker for peaceeducation in the League of Women VotersClifford W. Gaylord, '04, of St. Louis,died on January 7, 1952, at the age of 68,Michael J. O'Hern, MD '04, died onOctober 19, 1951, in Rock Island, 111., aithe age of 74.Margaret L. Branson, AM '06, died June20, 1951. She had been a teacher in theGirls High School in Sumter, S. C.Mary Margaret Lee, '06 (Mrs. MorrisHorner), died on October 18, 1951, inPetersburg, Va., at the age of 72.Sister Helen A. Dorety, SM '07, PhD '09,died November 9, 1941. She was a scholarin the fields of botany and geology and wasa professor of botany at the College ofSt. Elizabeth in New Jersey.Melville S. McEldowney, '09, died onOctober 31, 1951.H. Gertrude Jaynes, '12, a former elementary school principal in Chicago, died at herhome in La Canada, Calif., September 15,1951.Stella L. Bradbury, '19, died ori May 22,1951. Before her retirement in 1949 shehad been a teacher in the New York Cityhigh schools.Kathryn O'Loughlin McCarthy, JD '20,the only Kansas woman ever elected toCongress, died January 16, 1952, in Hays,Kansas, at the age of 57.Specializing in probate court work inHays, after her term in Congress in 1933Mrs. McCarthy gave tirelessly of her timeand energy in championing civic and charitable causes at both the local and nationallevel.Her husband, Dan McCarthy, a lawyerwho specialized in oil litigation, died twoyears ago.Elizabeth Talbot Doty, '23 (Mrs. Earl I)died on October 7, 1951. She had livedwith her sister, Leona Talbot, in Evanstonsince the death of her husband, Earl Doty:AM '23, in 1949.Mary Balcomb, AM '24, died June 5,1951.Glenn Stiles Alford, '24, died on December 3, 1951, in Oxnard, Calif.Anna Svatik, '27, JD '29, a Chicago lawyer, died November 28, 1951.Irene M. Waterstraat, '34, died October28, 1951, in Louisville, Ky., where she badbeen a teacher of social studies in Hailed1Hall.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGood Place -to Vfork"Telephone people know from their experience over many years that the telephonecompany is "a good place to work."Wages are good, with regular, progression raises. There is a complete Benefit andPension Plan with all costs paid by thecompany.The work is interesting, with manyopportunities for advancement. Last year, for instance, more than 45,000 Bell Telephone men and women were promoted tohigher jobs.Telephone people have found respectand opportunity in the business. They'vefound pleasant associates and fair play;significantly, about one out of every fournew employees is recommended by apresent employee.BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEMAcetylene still shows the wayYour nicest textiles — as well as vitamins, headache remedies, plastic garden hose,or welding on your car — may stem from this versatile gasFORTY YEARS AGO acetylene gas made from calciumcarbide was used for home and street lighting, and was incommon use for bicycle and automobile lights. Thoughthese old lights have long since gone out, acetylene hasgone on to chemical greatness.IN CHEMICALS— Today, acetylene is the parent of hundreds of chemicals and chemical products used to makeplastics, insect sprays, vitamins, aspirin, sulfa drugs andmany other things.Acetylene is the source of some of the basic chemicalsin dynel, the new wonder textile fiber. It also goes intothe Vinylite plastics used in beautiful home furnishing materials, protective coatings, and a host of other products.IN METAL FORMING -In the production and use ofmetals, acetylene teamed up with oxygen has revolutionized many industries. From mines-to-mills-to-manufacturer, you will find oxy-acetylene cutting, welding and metalconditioning.50 YEARS OF PROGRESS I In people of Union Carbide have produced acetylene for over half a century.Through continuous research they have made many remarkable acetylene discoveries important in the lives ofall of us.STUDENTS and STUDENT ADVISERSLearn more about the many fields in which UnionCarbide offers career opportunities. Write for thefree illustrated booklet "Products and Processes"which describes the various activities of UCC in thefields of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, andPlastics. Ask for booklet 0-2.Union CarbideAND CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET |I|N^ NEW YORK 17, N.T. UCCs Trade-marked Products of Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics include Prest-O-Lite Acetylene • Linde Oxygen • Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes • Bakelite, Krene, and Vinylite Plastics • Synthetic Organic ChemicalsNational Carbons • Acheson Electrodes • Pyrofax Gas • Haynes Stellite Alloys • Electromet Alloys and Metals • Eveready Flashlights and Batteries