Bad News for Bu�·sBUGS are in for the surprise of their lives. They're going tozoom into allethrin, the new insecticide ingredient. It lookslike especially bad news for many of the insects that pesteryou most.Take flies, mosquitoes and gnats ... allethrin's paralyz­ing touch searches them out ... delivers the blow that knocksthem down fast ... leaving its slower acting companion in­gredients in the spray or powder to complete the kill.Until now this type of insecticide came from flowerspicked by the natives in Asia and Africa. But allethrin is anall-American product, synthesized under scientific controlsand has the definite advantages over importations of uni­formity in strength and quality.It is only natural that the people of Union Carbide pio­neered in the production of allethrin on a commercial scale.F or they were already making most of the needed chemicalingredients. As a result, the people of Union Carbide are already pro­viding allethrin in ever-increasing quantities to manufac­turers of household and dairy sprays. And researchers allover the country are now engaged in testing its value forthe control of agricultural pests and for other purposes.Other Union Carbide chemicals are important ingredientsin many other insecticides and fungicides. One or more ofthem may have a place in your future plans.F R E E: Learn more al.out the interesting things YOIllise every day. Write for the illustrated booklet "Prod­ucts and Processes" uhicli tells how science and ill'dustry use Union Carbide's Alloys, Chemicals, Carbons.Gases, and Plastics in creating things for you. Writefor free booklet C.UNION CARBIDEOJV CO . .B_:1230 EAST 42ND STREET � NEW YORK 17, N. Y.----------- Trade-marked Products oj Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics include -SYNTHETIC ORGAi'iIC CHEMICALS • LINDE Oxygen BAKELITE, KRENE. and VINYLITE PI�sticsPREST-O-LITE Acetylene PYROFAX Gas NATIONAL Carbons EVEREADY Flashlights and BatteriesACHESON Electrodes PRESTONE and TREK Anti-Freezes v- ELECTROMET Alloys and Metals HAYNES STELLITE AlloysN ext issue - OctoberThis is the last Magazine until October.We've never had a better year-which endsWith the most members in our history;10,000. But between the Memo Pad andthe Letters column we have permittedenough back-patting.We are writing this after the June issuehas gone to the printers. It will be setand inserted the last moment. So let'sclean up a few odds and ends which haveCome in too late for regular stories.Alumni club newsWashington, D. C. Club has anotherfirst. At their annual spring meeting theyentertained the U. of C. NBC RoundTable at the Statler Hotel the first Sundayin May.In Cincinnati, [anet Holliday Ervin, Jr.,'46 and a committee of local alumni putacross a very good meeting with the Deanof the College Champion Ward as honoredguest, early in May. Ariel C. Schrodt, '47,SM '49, did the same thing in Indianapolisin mid-May with Dean of Students RobertStrozier as guest and speaker. Hutchins portraitThe University has accepted as its officialportrait of Robert M.· Hutchins a paintingby Lawrence Beal Smith, '31, done in 1949.The picture is approximately life size­three-quarter length. It shows the Chan­cellor in academic robe and hood sittingon a chair holding a book.Older members will remember the seriesof paintings by Lawrence Beal Smithwhich we ran on the cover and in a centerspread of the December, 1943 Magazine.He has been adding to his reputation eversince.Frank Knight honoredFrank H. Knight, Distinguished ServiceProfessor of Social Sciences and Philosophyretires this year. His colleagues and formerstudents are joining in a fellowship fund.The plan is to award this fellowship an­nually to the most distinguished graduatestudent in the department of economics.Gifts ·may be sent to the University ofChicago, 501 Administration Building,Chicago 37.MacArthur on the MidwayWhen it was learned that MacArthur'sroute from the Chicago airport to theLoop would be down the Midway to theOuter Drive, our photographer, Steve Le-Students line the Midway to greet General MacArthurOn two lakesWe weren't at all surprised when RethaJane Mason, '38, AM '45, told us one daythat she and husband Bob Mason havepurchased 45 acres of woods on two lakesnortheast of Madison, Wisconsin.We weren't surprised because Bob andRetha have always done interesting, un­expected and frequently exciting thingswith the enthusiasm of youth and theconfidence of millionaires.For fifteen years Bob has directed in­strumental music, coached swimming anddone other things at our laboratoryschools.Retha, even with a family, has operatedin music and on the pipe organ. Sheteaches vocal music at the Faulkner Schoolfor girls.The camp sounds ideal in every way.We haven't room here to go into detailsbut a card to Bob or Retha at 5631 S.Drexel Avenue, Chicago 37, will bring youconvincing details written with the enthus­iasm of the Masons.JUN;E, 1951 wellyn, got us on the telephone."Want a picture for the Magazine?""Sure, if you can get a close-up of Macin his car with a view of the Universitytowers in the background."We decided this was an impossible as­signment. The Midway would be jammedwith people and the car would be in along line going 35 miles an hour. So weforgot it and went on with more realisticproblems. But you don't sink Steve thateasy.The day after the general's visit Stevedropped two. different pictures on ourdesk. Two? What kind of a double actioncamera was this?He had stationed Lois, his quick-wittedwife, at one point. He took up anotherstation. One or the other should be ableto get a picture. But both pictures metall specifications, towers and everything.Well, all in all the year has been a lotof fun with a minimum of unhappyreaders. And it looks better for next year.-H.W.M. DEMOCRACY IN A WORLD OFTENSIONS, A Symposium preparedby UNESCO. Richard McKeon andStein Hokkan. Pp. 540, Universityof Chicago Press.The Brandenburger Tor, marking theentrance from the American to the Russianoccupied sector of Berlin, bears the sign,"Here begins the democratic sector ofBerlin."Dean Acheson, at the Conference of For­eign Ministers of the Americas, addressedthe emissaries of fascist dictators as "repre­sentatives of democracy."The Danish state is a "democracy." A lawwhich deprives widows of economic supportis "undemocratic." The army ought to be"democratized." It is "undemocratic" notto take one's meals with one's servants.If a citizen is disturbed by the growingwealth of usages appended to "democracy,"and the proportionally growing poverty ofsubstance and meaning to the politicianswho flaunt it about, he may turn toUNESCO's Symposium Democracy . in aWorld of Tensions.He will be impressed by the scholarlinessof the Questionnaire, prepared by UNESCO,and sent to about six hundred experts, onwhich the symposium is based.He will be. attracted by the variety andstraightforwardness of the answer-essays,expressing about every possible point ofview, from the aristocrat to the communist,from all over the world, from the angles ofphilosophy, law, history, political science,sociology and economics.He will admire the methodological com­petence of the "anal ytical survey" concl ud­ing the symposium, as well as its politicalopen-mindedness and objectivity. He willsense the good will and universal aspirationbehind the whole effort.But he will hardly find the clarificationhe sought.That not one of the essays defends anti­democratic doctrines as such; that, for thefirst time in history, all statesmen andphilosophers think it expedient to advanceand defend their proposals as democratic,is an important but inconclusive conclu­sion. One of the contributors, Chaim Perle­man, is particularly emphatic on this point:to him, controversies: are by no means as­suaged by "the consoling thought that allpolitical philosophers proclaim the sameultimate goal."The Questionnaire-as many of the re­plies-falls into four parts dealing with thesemantics of democracy, the question ofpolitical vs. social democracy, the problemof tolerance or the freedom to destroy free­dom, and the value foundation of theideological conflict.Of these the first section, discussingwhether or not the term democracy is"ambiguous" or "misused," is perhaps theone least accessible to the general reader.The analysis which may appear at timessomewhat byzantine, leads up to the con­clusion that it is the term "ambiguous"that is ambiguous.The second part, examining the con­cepts of "political" and "social" democracyfocuses most clearly the contrast betweenWest and. East. The essays of Horvath((Hungary) and Lefebvre (France) are par­ticularly recommended to those who wanta dear expression of the "Eastern" view.1Although even in this much more con­crete section the analysts find themselvesconfronted with much. that is logicallyirreconcilable, or "muddled" or simply in­conclusive, there are attempts at a synthesis'between the Eastern and the Western view,attempts at reaching a spirit of world de­mocracy.Thus Borgese:The dissociation of the political from thesocio-economic is as unworkable as is, atleast on earth, the dissociation of soul frombody. Democracy is a body-soul.Or Frondizi (Argentina):This is the ideal: A political democracythat is not supported by social injustice; ora social democracy that is not built up atthe cost of lack of freedom and humandignity. We really hope that this synthesis,which no country or bloc of countries canoffer now, will be a reality in the near fu­ture. The actual conflict between East andWest, if it does not turn into a barbarians'war, could be the force that pulls hu­manity toward that svnthesis.Democracy in a World of Tensions wouldnot make a good gift for Mothers' Day,Christmas, or Graduation. It is a book forlibraries and experts. Considering the vitalimportance of the topic and the wealth ofthe material, this is, in a way, a pity.A philosopher-poet should now take overwhere the philosopher-scientists left off. Re­moving repetitions, stylistic dryness andheaviness, he should join the main inter­locutors - Bettelheim, Borgese, Ducasse,Field, Frondizi, Kabir, Lefebvre, McKeon­in a platonic dialogue. There is all thestuff for a classic.Elisabeth Mann BorgeseEditor, Common CauseINVITATION TO THE THEATERby Frank Hubert O'Hara, '15,and Marguerite Harmon Bro,Harper & Bros. $3.00. 211 pp.It seems to me that I have visited theUniversity of Chicago almost as many timesas I have played the first grave-digger inHamlet, and often on my visits' I havethought how much the theater lost whensome of the men and women I met therechose the cloisters instead of the footlights-Robert Hutchins, David Allan Robertson,Frank O'Hara, Ruth Brumbaugh, Margue­ritte Bro, for instance. And being of thetheater myself, I think I'm paying them acompliment in saying so.I must have made the first of these visitsin the early twenties, after Percy Boynton,Frank O'Hara, Mary Agnes Doyle and Ihad met as judges in some Drama Leagueplay-contest. The professors thought thatI should see what was being done fordrama on the Midway. It was simpleenough for me to get out there occasion­ally, because I was living, in Chicago atthe time, and acting and directing at theGoodman Theater. I went, saw, and wasconquered very easily indeed, and duringsucceeding years saw such really fine actorsas Pat Magee, Al Dunsay, Fritz Leiber, Jr.,Norman Eaton, Bob Graf, Milt Olin, HarryHess, Hal James, Russell Whitney, BobWagoner, Edith Grossberg, Beatrice Scheib­ler, Alice Stinnett, only to mention a fewwho come at once to mind. I saw thesestudent actors in such diverse plays asPeer Gynt, Caesar and Cleopatra, Gain'Home (which was better acted and betterdirected than when I had seen the sameplay a few months earlier on the profes­sional stage in New York), Uncle Tom'sCabin, and Shall We Join the Ladies, andof course in that truly bright musical revue,Mirror. And the professors let me look2 into th'e classrooms, too. In fact, sometimesthey even coerced me into chatting with aclass.Probably I should say right now-per­haps should have said it sooner-that al i.this flow of reminiscence has beenprompted by a letter I received upon myreturn to New York after a long tour forthe Theatre Guild. The letter asks if 1would please write about Invitation to theTheater, the new book by Frank O'Haraand Margueritte Bro, which Harper &Brothers have just published.And what a springboard this gives me,for the first class I visited was one ofFrank O'Hara's in playwriting, and whowas in that class but Mrs. Bro herself?Even then, though they were not yet awareof it, they were collaborators. I recallhow Frank would with apparent casualnesslaunch a sort of trial balloon of an idea,and how she would leap to it like a ladybasketball player, gracefully and expertly­but occasionally, it must be admitted, trip­ping up on some little trap which he hadso neatly set in <one of his innocent-sound­ing remarks. But she wasn't the only onewho participated. It was an animated classaltogether, with everyone participating.Among those I recall in addition to Mrs.Bro, were the quick-minded Ruth Brum­baugh, whose husband was already adean; Sterling North, probably already onthe staff of the Daily News; Betty Walker,even then on the Journal staff; Dan Rich,destined to be director of the Chicago ArtInstitute, and his wife-to-be, Bertha James;Norman Eaton, Pat Magee, Martha Yaeger,and a football hero named Van Nice, Ithink, and more whose names I'd better notbegin to list, space forbidding.J find the same zestful quality in thisnew book. It impresses me, as I see it hasimpressed others in my profession, such asAlfred Lunt, Beulah Bondi and Will Geer,as being a superb job of telling just abouteverything concerning plays and how theyare written and produced, but telling it inan entertainingly persuasive way. As anactor, I long ago accepted my invitationto the theater, but the authors in thisbook have so persuasively put forth the his­torical background, the types, and the de­lights of the drama, that their well writ­ten request cannot be ignored. Theirs isa good invitation to accept, as actors andeducators alike seem t0' agree. In fact, Ican't do better in summing up this book,than to let one of the educators speak forme. I have seen some of the statementsmade about Invitation of the Theater, andam quoting this one from a young manwhom I remember as a slim, alert lad whoused to work some backstage wonders, andwho is now president of Haverford College,Gilbert F. White."Frank Hurburt O'Hara," says this edu­cator, "is an inspiring teacher of the thea­ter. For years, at the University of Chi­cago, he has challenged the imagination ofnew students and sharpened the perceptionof advanced students with his provocativedefinitions, his subtle comments, his scorch­ing insistence on high standards. Always hehas centered his attention on the interpre­tation of human life. Now he and Mar­gueritte Bro have caught this same artin a book. It is excellent teaching."We of the theater agree.Whitford Kane(Mr. Kane, long a friend of the Univer­sity, was once co-head of the GoodmanTheatre's professional company, is a fea­tured player in many Theatre Guild pro­ductions, and-as a hobby-has played thepart of the first gravedigger in nearly allthe famous stagings of "Hamlet," starringBarrymore, Gielgud etc.) JENKIN'S EAR: A NARRATIVEATTRIBUTED TO H 0 R ACEWALPOLE, ESQ. By Odell Shep·ard, '07, and Willard Shepard,The Macmillan Company. $3.50.474 pp.In this historical romance, set in mid­eighteen:th century England, the Shepardsgive us a literary convention as old as theCanterbury Tales and the Arabian Night�,but one that is as entertaining as it ISuseful. To Strawberry Hill, the fantastichorne of Horace Walpole, come a livelycrowd of narrators each of whom tells othis adventures in the wars precipitated byJenkin's ear.The tales take the reader from the Lon­don mobs to the new world and back againto Vienna and Budapest, and he meets acrowd of characters including MariaTheresa, General Braddock and the YoungPretender.Not a run-of-the-mill historical nove],historian Henry Commanger evaluatesJenkin's Ear as "a welcome contrast tomany of the historical novels of our ownday, novels which substitute "realism" forhistorical authenticity, and which seek toachieve by shock what they cannot achieveby imagination. The Shepards' novel iscloser, in many ways; to its nineteenth-cen­tury models."A. C. C.1Inveigle Mr. Hutchins?1£ your Magazine gets any better, you'llhave to put it up for sale on the newsstands.1£ there's a better Alumni Magazine beingpublished today, I haven't come across it.I suppose we'll have to reconcile ourselvesto Mr. Hutchins' leaving, but I don't seehow we can adjust ourselves to the loss ofhis admirably lucid and thoughtful prose.See if you can inveigle him into signing acontract with your editorial office.Edward P. Corbett, AM '48Chicago, Illinois ",,'..1,"Possible bestseller?I have received the April issue and waspleased to read another speech of the GreatChancellor.The nature of the address makes it occur/ to me to suggest that his most significantspeeches be published in book form. Thepattern is perfect, the material will give thealumni a constant awareness of its educa­tional heritage.I personally believe that the book wouldbe widely sold, and if the price were placedhigh enough (perhaps something aroundten or fifteen dollars) a little source of rev­enue for the University might thereby befound.William F. Schroeder, '46Vale, OregonKeeping the record straightIn Mr. Wilson's article "After 98 years,Shimer Still Pioneers," you have the fol­lowing (only) to say about my father:"Mr. William Parker McKee is listed asDean from 1897 through 1930, but fromhis title, and correspondence with Presi­dent Harper, it is obvious that the Presi­dent of the Board, Mr. Harper himself,was regarded as the actual administrativehead of the school."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWhen father went to Mount Carroll inAugust, 1897, the Academy was thoroughlyrun down, only a handful of studentsturned up in September and there was notenough money in the treasury to pay cur­rent bills. All of the buildings now oncampus were built during his administra­tion and I can assure you it was his admin­istration, not Dr. Harper's.Father was a great admirer of Dr. Harperfrom the time he studied Hebrew underhim at Morgan Park Theological Seminaryin 1885-1886. He urged father to leave hispastorate at Olivet Baptist Church in Min­neapolis and undertake the headship ofFrances Shimer Academy in 1897. During24 of his 33 years as head of the school,from 1906 to 1930, he did not have (hebenefit of Dr. Harper's guidance or adviceas Dr. Harper was not alive during thatperiod.Let's keep the record straight.H. Harper McKee, 11, SM '12Brokaw, Dixon and �McJ{ee,Engineers and Geologists,New York, N. Y.The ability of Mr. McKeeI have just read the article on FrancesShimer in your April issue, a portion ofwhich conveys an utterly wrong impression.I am a member of the class of 1902 atFrances Shimer, and I, along with thealumnae of that period, and the succeed­ing years, know that it was due to theability of Mr. William P. McKee, that theschool survived and prospered.No account of the school should omitthe recognition and appreciation of hislifetime of constructive and unselfishservice.Chevy Chase, Md. Sarah MacKay Austin(Mrs. C. C. Austin)"A wonderful job!"My wife and I were very much inter­ested in Earl Johnson's article in the Mayissue, "Diary of a Democratic Experiment,"and in the article "Impressions of Amer­ica," since three of the German studentsspent part of their Christmas holidays in1949 in our home. They also visited usseveral other times. We learned a greatdeal from them, and we know they app;-e­dated being entertained in an Americanhome.Each year since 1948, several families inWatseka have entertained foreign studentsfrom International house, and, as one Hin­du student stated: "They would have abad impression of America if they did nothave a chance to visit in American homesand really get acquainted with Americanpeople."I think Dr. Johnson did a wonderful jobin taking care of the eleven students fromGermany.w aueu«, Ill. Dale A. Nelson, JD '24Wants copies backPlease do initiate the book review serv­ice that you say in the Letters columnof the May issue you have been consider­ing. Brief reviews and evaluations of cur­rent books, especially in professional fields,would be most helpful to those of usin out-of-the-way places, for we have littleopportunity to examine books first-handor even to hear about many of them. I, forone, would appreciate such a s e r vic egreatly.And I want to tell you how very muchI enjoy the Magazine. It is indeed, asJUNE, 1951 Volume 43 June. 1951 Number 9PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONAssocie+e EditorANN C. COLLARManaging EditorHOWARD W. MORT Editor-in-chiefLAURA BERGQUISTContributing EditorsJeannette Lowrey Robert M. StrozierStaff Photographer-Steve LewellynIN T HIS ISS U EFOR UNION MEN ONLY, Alexander Liveright. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS, 1951. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8THE HUTCHINS INFLUENCE .....................•....... 9ART HAS MANY FACES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 16DIPLOMACY: A FORGOTTEN ART, George Kennan 19CROCUSES AND COMPS, Robert M. Strozier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23MEDICAL EVANGELISM, Jeannette Lowrey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25CLASS NEWS 28COVER: Summer comes to the C-Bench, perhaps thebest-known landmark on the University campus.(Cover and photographs on pages 1, 4,5, 7,8, 11, 12, 13,-16; .J8"j 20:;--by Steve Lewellyn, '48) .Published monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicazo Alumni Associa­tion, 573� University Avenue, Chicago 37 .. Illinois .. Annual subscription price, $3.00. Singlecopies, 3a cents. Student prrce at University of Chicago Bookstore, 25 cents. Entered as sec­ond class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois under the act ofMarch 3, 1879. Advertising agent, The American' Alumni Council, B. A. Ross, director;" 22Washington Square, New York, N. Y.MEMO PADBOOKSLETTERS 12Bentinck-Smith says in the Memo Pad,"from' cover to cover . . . good stuff, thesort of intellectual entertainment that adultalumni crave." A day or: so : after, eachissue arrives, the U of C people heregreet each other with "Did you see so-and­so's article in the Magazine? Be sure toread it." My own copy is passed on to non­U of C faculty members who find thearticles of 'fnterest-but always with theadmonition "I want it back again whenyou're through."Keep up the good work!Frances H. Dillon, PhD '49Moorhead, Minn.Phraseology needs improvingWe, the alumni, are much pleased inthe selection of Lawrence Kimpton as thenew Chancellor of the University. Now Ihave a little criticism to make of theMagazine.Page 1. "In the midst of bedlam, heleisurely took time off to smoke a cigarette"etc. Page 3. A picture of the new chancellordropping ashes in to a con tainer.Such remarks and illustrations do notuplift the prestige of the University, wherethe highest education is supposed to exist.Years ago, when the National MedicalAssociation met in Chicago, Dr. Mayoof Minnesota stated at their banquet: "Itis customary to pass around cigars andcigarettes at banquets; but we as medicalmen know the harm. Why should we setan inferior standard to our profession?"I think the phraseology of the Magazinecould be improved.Idella R. BarrySt. Petersburg, Fla.Less Alma Mater pleasesuggest de-emphasizing the "AlmaMater" tone of articles by Strozier andLowrey, though the articles themselves aregood.C.R.S.Greenwich, Conn.3FOR UNION MEN ONLYThese leaders speak for telephone operators, steelworkers, printers . . . in class they thrash out problemsvital to 15 million U. S. union membersBy Alexander Liveright.Liveright"W HAT I LEARNED mostfrom this program-for thefirst time in my life really-was tothink for myself. I learned to thinkthrough my problems as a trade unionleader. I have a much better idea,now, of what I should do, and how Ishould go about it."The 40-year-old radio engineermaking this remark had just woundup a six-month training course, calledthe "Union Officer's Program," heldby the University of Chicago forunion officials in the Chicago area.His reaction seems to me typical for the 40-odd trade umon leaders whoonce weekly, after hardworking days,converge on the Downtown College,at 19 S. La Salle Street, for three­hour long classes. (Our 6: 30 sessionsinvariably run overtime, and it is allwe can do to adjourn and cut shortthe talk by 10 P.M.)No less than 29 union locals, and18 internationals, are represented inour classes. Vocationally, round thetable, are seated men and womenwho work as telephone operators,packing house workers, photo en­gravers, teachers, steel workers, elec-Wednesday night, Downtown College, the time and place for class meetings.4 tricians, etc. As officials, they rangefrom presidents, business agents andeditors through trustees and grievancemen. They are men and women,white and Negro, of all shades ofpolitical opinion, and from AFL, CIaand independent unions. Like most,the radio engineer enrolled in theProgram looking for cleancut, simple"answers." He said, in effect: "Giveme a simple formula, for solving allthe problems connected with griev­ance procedure. Give me ten simplerules for improving my union meet­ings. I'd like a copy, please, of the'perfect contract.' "No "recipes" for union. troublesBut since our staff feels no "reci­pes" exist for union troubles, anymore than they do for life in general,and hence lay down no simple rules,you might expect our students to be<disappointed. Bewildered they some­times are, in the first class meetings,but invariably they come to recog­nize the pitfalls in easy, over-all for­mulas. They come, week after week,to acquire keener insight into theirroles as union leaders, their relationswith other unions, and their com­munities.Our officer's class is just one phaseof the Union Leadership TrainingProject, of the University of Chicago,which is deeply concerned with theproblem of apathy and non-partici­pation that afflicts voluntary organi­zations today, to say nothing of so­ciety as a whole. Action is the goalof all our programs, responsible ac-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtion. We attempt to help union mem­'bers think through the implicationsof what they do, and become awareof their own personal impact onsociety. We believe that once giventhe facts, a chance to voice their ideasand examine their prejudices, mostpeople will reach socially sound con­clusions.How do we go about getting theseambitious results? Most labor educa­tion programs in the U ni ted Statestoday, sponsored by Universities ortrade unions, are apt to offer six toeight-week courses, on topics unre­la ted to one another. Our course,by contrast, ranges wide over manyfields - collective bargaining, unionadministration, community relations,minority problems, human relations,political action, economics, labor law,labor history and the like.Discussion, not the lecture, is ourprimary teaching technique. Theleader attempts to stimulate thethinking of class members, keep themon the subject track, offer an opinionoccasionally (carefully labeling it assuch) , or 'supply pertinent facts.Above all he wants members to ex­amine their own ideas. It is best, wefeel, for men and women to exploretheir common problems, to learnfrom each other's varied and personalexperience, and to arrive at theirown solutions. We always begin withtopics they clearly recognize as bread­and-butter union issues - collectivebargaining or union administration,for example - but inevitably theyrange onto broader issues, the roleof the union in the American econ­omy, in their own neighborhoods, inpolitics. Soon, we find, they are ask­ing for special extra classes, in whichthey can more completely thrash outquestions raised on Wednesday nights.We select class members carefully,interviewing them individually, tomake sure the group enjoys commoninterests and problems and yet bringsdiverse experience to class. We acceptonly unionists who hold" responsibleoffice, and are in a position thereforeto take action.The Program by no means beginsand ends with the classroom. Wekeep students posted on current uniondevelopments, and on other laboreducation programs of interest. Wehave set up a library, and counselingservice. A metal stamper, for example,asked for information on wage rates,to compare wage schedules in hisJUNE, 1951 During the sociable half-way "break" for coffee and cake, four class members carryonthe discussion: (left to right) Carroll "Woody" Neltnor, Steward, Electrical Workers,AFL; Robert Swanson, .part-time staff member, United Service Employees, AFL; HoI·ford Harris, business representative, Amalgamated Meat Cutters, AFL; Mae Vienne,business manager, Communication Workers of America, CIO; and Nick Burkhard,Electrical Workers, AFL.industry. In the process, he learned touse the Industrial Relations Centerlibrary, and the hows and wheres ofrunning down economic data. An­other, with counseling advice, setabout revising the apprenticeship sys­tem in his photo-engraver's local.Start "where people are"Most leaders, as I indicated, comelooking for "recipes." They are nat­urally concerned about winninghigher wages, shorter hours and bet­ter working conditions for their mem­bers. By starting with these issues,"where people are," we inevitablymove on to broader considerations.One evening, for example, wetalked about the problems of theunion meeting.The class came up, anecdotally,with about a dozen instances of howthings can go awry at a meeting, andon the following Wednesday, a steel- .worker, president of his local, re­marked:"Say, since last week I've askedabout 10 guys in the shop that ques­tion. Five who go to meetings, fivewho don't. Two came up with some­thing I never thought about before.One says 'I'm fixing my house. I don't have much time and I can workeight hours on Friday night becauseI don't have to work on Saturday.'A second tells me 'What's the use?The international makes all the pol­icy. If you get a five-year contractI don't have to go to a meeting forfive years! Anyhow, I'm satisfied withthe way you guys are running things.'It's just like government. He acceptsthe government in this country with­out doing much about it, and hethinks of his union likewise. Electofficers and if they're no good, votethem out. That's the way he thinks.""We're caught on the horns of adilemma," added an open hearthman, from a South Chicago steelplant. "If the union's doing a goodjob they figure they don't have toshow up. If the union does a bumjob, they figure 'Aw what's the use.' "Said a metallurgist, from the samemill: "If the union does go sour, andpeople are aroused and finally comeout, they are then confronted withan organized chain of command, andthey can't do much about it."How to resolve this problem? Thetalk came thick and fast; everyonehad something to say about methodsthey'd tried, and how they had orhadn't worked. Said an auto worker:5"Create issues. A good argumentperks up a meeting and gets peopleout." Another disagreed, feeling thatbickering and dissension discourageattendance, though most class mem­bers agreed tha t some disagreementin a union is healthy. A printer re­marked: "It's the old case of thewatch dog. Nobody'll try any funnystuff as long as you have somebodywatching them. It keeps the officerson their toes."It soon became dear, that thewords' "disagreement" ana, "dissen­si<2p" were meaning different thingsto different people. "Maybe we oughtto say what we mean by 'differenceof opinion'," said a telephone opera­tor.A real difference exists within thelocal union, class members concluded,when no outside organizations orpressure groups influence a group orfaction. They added the proviso thatwhere there is a genuine "differenceof opinion," both factions would usu­ally go along with the majority, oncethe issue was thrashed out."But you don't feel," asked an oil­worker, "that when two groups splitsharply on policy, the managementcan use it, playing one against theother? I've seen this happen."No skirting of problemsBy now the class was excited andvoluble. The issue was simple enough,but many of them had just neverthought about it before. Talk gaveeveryone a chance to express opinions,formulate ideas, dear the air, offereach other food for thought. As theytalked, they could see, practically,how rewarding it can be to workthrough disagreements democrati­cally. They learned to spot and clar­ify the areas in which they agreed, ordisagreed.They learned to do something, bydoing it, to face up to unpleasantsituations and seek a solution, insteadof skirting the problems or denyingit existed. The argument, like manyothers, waxed hot, but never out ofhand.What can discussion of this sortaccomplish? Opinions and attitudes,we observed throughout the course,did change gradually. Members be­came more sensitive toward eachother, and more articulate, developedgreater insight into their own think­ing, and began. to' think of union andthe role of union officers as much6 bigger issues than they had thought. their local. Men take greater prideA railway fireman who had planned in officegiving up union work for a job in Joe, a young man in his late 20's,management changed his mind be- who reads voraciously and is an offi­cause "I ,never knew the responsi- cial in an oldline craft union, oncebility I had on my shoulders and felt amazed me with his store of factsnobody cared." and figures about how Negroes op-We found men better able to com- erate in certain skilled jobs, and the.municate with their fellow workers, role they played in early U. S. navaland more skilled in working with history. "Up to now," he added,people. An oil worker told us: "I "these were just stray facts I'd pickedrecently was paid a very nice com- up, and which lodged in my mind aspliment-at least I think it was a interesting, but I never saw them re­compliment and I think it was due lating 'to my life or work." Worriedto attending these classes. When I now by the fact that Negroes werelast conducted a union meeting a excluded from his union, and thoughfellow told me that since I'd been he hasn't yet been able to win fullgoing to the Program I had improved membership for them, he has-as a.10000/0 in the way I presented the first step-persuaded his fellow unionstuff .... I didn't realize it but that's members to give Negroes a vote inwhat he told me." decisions that directly affect them.Four members of the Packing Of the 23 men who entered theHouse Workers went back to their first Union Officer's program, in Jan­local, lJ.niOn to conduct a 20-week uary, 1950, 20 stayed on to graduatesteward training program. Weekly, in June. Eighteen of the 20 are stillthey met to discuss their jobs and the in the Chicago area, and everyone ofcontract under which they work and those 18 are now well into an ad­live. When the summer heat rocketed vanced program, at the downtowninto the 90's, the quartette suggested college" which they designed fora recess. But the stewards refused, themselves! Some 25 additional offi­and went on meeting throughout a cers have attended a second Prograrn,sultry July and August. As one of the launched in October, 1950, which haspioneering foursome told me: "I been running for eight months. Whenwant these men to learn their rights necessary, we call in experts to supplyunder the contract. I don't want to the groups with latest information intake the fight out of them, but I want specific fields _ Lester Asher, laborthem to know what they can't do and lawyer, drops in when we discuss la­how to do a better job of getting bor law; Arthur Shed lin, psychologist,what the men' are entitled to." Re- when we get into human and corn-cently I talked to Russell Lasley, dimunity relations; Fred Harbison, 1-vice president of the international, Irector of the University's Industriawho says these men have been mostsuccessiul-s-grievances are processed Relations Center, when we need corn-more adequately than before. Mem- petent advice in economics; Joel Seid­bers therefore are more satisfied with man (Social Sciences) on I abo r/ history.Why classes just for unions?Why, you may now ask, should theUniversity of Chicago be concernedwith a union program of this type?Why have special classes for unionofficers? Why not fit these men intoour regular adult education program?The answer, in large part, lies inthe crucial roles played today by thehalf million union leaders in the U. S.These men speak for more than 15million union members. As the Amer­ican labor movement has grown instrength and power, they have be­come increasingly important spokes­men in our society. These half million"Sandy" Lioeright, whose common senseand genial good nature play no small partin the success of the Union Officer'S Pro­gram, is well known in local labor, govern­ment and university circles. He has workedpreviously as ex:ecuti1ie director. 0 f theAmerican Council on Race Relations, asExe'cutive Director of Field Operations withthe TVar Manpower Commission, as Ex­ecutive Director of the Jewish VocationalService. Harper and Bros. shortly publisheshis last-word guide on union problems,titled "Union Leadership 'Training: AHandbook of Tools and Techniques."Under the aegis of Robert K. Burns andFred Harbison, the University'S industrialRelations Center has been operating since1945. Work with unions represents onlya portion of its activities. In a future is­sue, the Magazine will publish materialcovering its role in working with manage­ment.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEare helping decide not only whetherwe maintain our democracy, but howwe maintain it. In daily contact, theydeal with millions of Americans, intowns and cities, in shops and factor­ies. They represent men and womenwho are unskilled and those who arehighly trained. The decisions theymake affect not only 15 million unionmembers, but non-union people andthe consumer, in short the mythicalAmerican "public."These leaders are anxious to ex­amine their problems. Some -- likegeneral apathy and non-participation- are common to all segments ofAmerican society. But union leadersalso have unique problems. Just asmerchandising and packaging arepretty much management concerns,holding little or no interest for union'members, so labor has its peculiarconcerns - union administration, theshaping of union goals. Conflict ofinterests makes it impossible for unionand management representatives tohold mutual classes, in certain areas,to discuss problems freely and frankly.So, with' the exception of generalsubjects, we advocate separate classes.Special programs for special groupsare, after all, nothing new in Ameri­can universities. For years, universitiesand colleges throughout the countryhave offered executive training intheir business schools, the Universityof Chicago among them. Land grantcolleges and state universities gives p e cia 1 curricula for agriculturaltraining.This key leadership role of unionofficers, the dearth of educationalopportunities for them, and a desireto work with unionists in the sameway we work with management exec­utives and professionals, led to theUniversity's first labor program in1946. Arthur Carstens, then Directorof Union Programs, now with the In­stitute of Industrial Relations atUCLA, began an experimental pro­gram under the joint direction of theIndustrial Relations Center and theUniversity College. It included aGreat Books course for labor leaders,national conferences on atomic en­ergy and labor legislation, extensionclasses for certain unions, workshopson a variety of subjects.We early saw the need for 1. in­structional materials) which wouldhelp union leaders examine theirproblems and broaden their intellec-.TUNE, 1951 tual horizons. Aware also of theshortage of professional educatorswho know much about union prob­lems, we saw the need for 2. trainingunion officers) as well as people inadult education, to use these materialsin union programs. W'e saw that, weneeded to experiment with 3. tech­niques) which would make for moreeffective t r a i n i n g programs, andwhich if successful would be a gainfor the general field of adult educa­tion. So in February, 1948, a Car­negie Corporation grant resulted inthe University's establishing a UnionLeadership Training Project, still un­der the joint direction of UniversityCollege and Industrial Relations Cen- ority principles arid problems; minor­ity problems; human relations. (Abrief handbook on discussion tech­niques has been published to supple­ment the instructor's manuals foreach course. )Each course takes the form of prob­lems and cases, which a group canthrash out to arrive at meaningfulsolutions. In a session on collectivebargaining, for example, a group-­like the Officer's Program - starts offwi th this issue:What kind of rank-and-file partici­pation in collective bargaining onwages is possible?A. Rank-and-file should sit in onbargaining sessions.A typical "role-playing" scene: Kenneth Rice (left), United Steelworkers of America,CIO, plays the role of a union man who has been moody, erratic and preoccupied onthe job; his union steward, Holford Harris, Amalgamated Meat Cutters, AFL, on draw­ing him out, has found he's worried because he has been living beyond his income, andbetting on the races. They have just worked out a financial solution to the problem.ter for research and action in thesethree areas of need.In working toward these manygoals, we pondered two courses ofaction. On the one hand, we coulddevelop our own large-scale educa­tion program. On the other, we couldexperiment, demonstrate and stimu­late other universities and the unionsthemselves into taking action. Sinceany number of colleges and universi­ties were already offering extensioncourses for union members, we feltthe latter was the most profitable ap­proach for us.Today, we have developed instruc­tional materials in: collective bar­gaining, community relations; unionleadership and administration; griev­vance principles and problems; seni- B. Rank-and-file should vote onhow much to ask for.C. Rank-and-file should partici­pate in demonstrations of solidarityand support of leadership during thecourse of negotiations.D. Rank-and-file should vote toaccept or reject the bargain after theleaders finish negotiations.E. Wage negotiations for a unionis like a foreign policy for a nation;it's too technical to expect muchrank-and-file participation.F. Other.All these cases have been evolvedfrom the most extensive research andtesting. First we ask union officersabout the, most critical problems theyface in a particular field, such as col-(Continued on page 23)7ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS, 1951Before the Hutchins family moved to sunnierclimes· in Pasadena, Cal., they graciously sat for aseries of family portraits, taken by staff photogra­pher Steve Lewellyn in the living room of the Chan­cellor's residence. By now, of course, Mr. Hutchins issigning his business letters, "Associate Director of theFord Foundation."'The Hutchins InfluenceA SOCIAL SCIENTISTI CAN'T DO this as you want itdone. I can't tell about how it wasto work with Robert Hutchins"through anecdote and specific de­tail." If I were a metaphysical poetI would write a metaphysical poemabout it. He made me believe in theeffort toward excellence. I cannot saythat in language that would suit theother remarks on the subject whichyou will receive. I am sorry, for Ishould like to do what you want meto do.You can print this, if you want.-Robert Redfield, '20, ] D. '21,Ph.D. '28Professor, AnthropologyAN ALUMNUSTHIS IS the first chance I havehad in many years to get backat Robert M. Hutchins. There aremany accounts I would like. to settle.There is no one who has had a moredisturbing influence upon my life.And since I am but one of manythousands who matriculated on theMidway during his regime, this canscarcely be considered. a personalmatter.Not that it does not have a per­sonal base. I was for example a stu­dent of Mr. Hutchins (and Mr. Mor­timer Adler) in the course thenknown as Classics of the WesternWorld 101, now famed as the GreatBooks. It was there I first discoveredthat I could not put one over onRMH. I tried on him the system thathad worked, more or less, in 'otherIUNE, 1951 His creative talents and interests have ranged into manyfields, his imprint has been distinct ... Some random re­marks and recollections by men who have known himcourses: skimming or even skippingreadings and relying on "safe"phrases. The results could hardly havebeen more painful. First Adler, thenHutchins pounced on me until mybrain lay naked upon the table, eachempty little cell exposed to the viewof my classmates. Never, since then,have I felt safe in using a cliche.For a journalist this is a great tribu­lation.To the campus reporter and editorMr. Hutchins provided other prob­lems. He made news all right, but hewas never predictable. One winter hedefended the University bravely inthe investigation launched by Mr.Walgreen, the late drugstore man.Two years later the same Mr. Wal­green appeared, figuratively hand i"nhand with Hutchins, to give the Uni­versity $550,000.As student editors we had completefreedom to criticize the administra­tion of the University, its faculty andfootball team. Our criticisms all lookedpale beside those of Mr. Hutchinshimself. He repeatedly stole our show.One Maroon editor, John Barden,even had to turn to Mr. Hutchinsfor moral support for his famous"Ideas vs. Facts" crusade. On otherissues, on almost all political issues,the President refused to talk. Andthere is no man in America whoseopinion I would rather hear on anyissue of importance.Mr. Hutchins continued to dis­turb me after my graduation. NowI was perforce engaged in the greatAmerican game of Getting Ahead.But now and then, sometimes in person at alumni gatherings, he(Hutchins) would be there to ask thecrucial question: Getting Ahead toWhat? Why? Right ends, first prin­ciples-these kept haunting me. Whathad they to do with my weekly pay­check? The money came uneasy tomy palm. The suspicion grew that Ihad only begun my education.I went back_ to the books, greatones and little ones. I sought the for­gotten passages in the works of phil­osopher, historian, novelist. I found,too, that words which once werewasted on me in the classroom nowhad meaning derived from life. Oneday a fellow commuter from my vil­lage caught me reading Thucydideson the 8: 06. Poor man, said hisglance, and turned back to theDodgers.So I stand apart, maladjusted to myworld. I hold Hutchins responsible.Better than any living man, he hasstated and accepted the challenge ofour times. In the intellectual relayrace from the past into the future,he carries the baton for the present.I would like to make his team. AndI know enough of my contemporariesto know that I am not alone. Thereis the Chicago alumnus who wasfound reading 'Tolstoy in a trench atAnzio. There is the man of '35 whoadministered four Italian provincesaccording to Montesquieu. There isthe Wall Street man who says, "Youcan't say no to Hutchins," and theDenver labor organizer who knowshis dialectic.For a moment I'd like to speak oftwo things the University gave to9Hutchins. First of all, a rude recep­tion to many of his ideas-a grind­stone for his blade perhaps but at anyrate the stimulus of good company,in faculty and student body. Second,an environment quite unlike that ofany other great university. For theUniversity can never forget Chicago.The Cottage Grove car connects theCloisters with reality. The Universitytherefore has the facts of life at hand,along with the ideas. It has guts.An alumnus once wrote to RobertM. Hutchins:It seems to me that in Educationlies the salvation of our country)' thatin the University of Chicago lies thesalvation of Education)' and that inyou lies the salvation of the U niver­sity of Chicago.Obviously salvation has not beenachieved in 22 years. But those yearswill march, on the shoulders of theiralumni, into the future. Like theyouth who were exposed to Socrates,there is danger in having theHutchins men around. Maybe wehaven't made the pot boil over, butgive us time to simmer.-John Godfrey Morris) )37Picture Editor)Ladid Home ] ournalMEDICINETHE" ADMINISTRATION of, Chancellor Hutchins was anom­alous. Under this great humanist theSciences flourished as never beforein our University; The infant medi­cal school underwent its growingpains and its childhood diseases andgrew to sturdy manhood with the pas­sive acquiescence and magnificentremoteness (as is the habit of so manyfond fathers) of the Chancellor. Thisattitude of Mr. Hutchins was quitecorrect and wise and entirely salutary.Like Art, Science cannot be directed;the Chancellor assembled a splendidFaculty, provided them with everyfacility and Nature did then take itscourse so that many of his projectswere eminently successful.I stood above Mr. Hutchins, al­though not far and only in one re­spect. My name was just above hisin the telephone directory. Due to thisaccident of the alphabet I received,often with mingled feelings of con­sternation and delight, numerous in­vitations to star in the movies, todeliver convocation addresses at someof our finest universities at $25.0010 plus travel expenses, and technicianswere always inquiring of me con­cerning the state of the plumbing atthe residence of the Chancellor.I must confess to being a Hutchinsman. His decisions right or wrongwere always quick. The less happyjudgments were amazingly few. Un­der him the great tradition of scholar­ship at the University was maintainedand fortified. Because of the greattalents and the inspirational leader­ship of Robert Maynard Hutchins theUniversity of Chicago is immeasur­ably enriched.-Dr. Charles B. HugginsChairman of the Universityof Chicago Committee onCancer �THE COLLEGETHE PRESENT College of theUniversity is one of the resultsof Mr. Hutchins' incorrigible habitof pointing out flaws in Americaneducation and then doing what' oughtto be done to repair them. -. .This habit of both seeing and do­ing the obvious is curiously rareamong educators. For example,American educators have repeatedlyagreed that there is much wastedtime and confusion of ends in bothsecondary and higher education. Fewamong them would deny, and manyhave asserted, that students are stu­dents, that a college is a place wherestudents should be educated, and thatbeing educated in a college consistsprimarily in actively learning how tothink. Few would deny that carefullyreading and discussing ff amlet or theRepublic is a better way to learn thanbeing told about these, works inlectures and textbooks. Few educa­tors would deny that all studentsare human beings, that their educa­tion should take account of this com­mon humanity, and that the teach­ers, not the learners, should determinewhat such a general education oughtto be. And few would question thevalue of providing within a Universityan appropriate organization for bring­ing about all these good things.If these principles are not self­evident, at least the results of denyingthem were evident on every handwhen Mr. ·Hutchins began pointingthem out-in the phenomena of thechild-centered college and the illiter­ate alumnus, in the "Smorgasbord"curriculum, in vocationalism, in the neglect of teaching and of the colle­giate function by most universities.These diagnostic conclusions of Mr.Hutchins are now widely embracedin the books and addresses of othereducators. But Mr. Hutchins did notconfine himself to deploring the evi­dent defects in collegiate education.He went on to point out that these de­fects, by a sufficient effort, might beremoved. The present College em­bodies various remedies for the ills towhich Mr. Hutchins addressed him­self. Its students are students, notcollegians, and they examine and dis­cuss with their teachers rna terialsworthy of serious study. Its curricu­lum is designed to provide a general,liberal education. Its faculty devotesits full professional attention to thecollegiate, function of the University,and it is so organized as to make itpossible for scholarly teachers to doeffectively and devotedly "the U ni­versity's work in general, higher edu­cation."It is easier to contend that the pres­ent College would not exist had itnot been for Mr. Hutchins' supportof it than it is to say whether or notit would have had the exact characterif Mr. Hutchins had not also left italone. In this case, at least, the sinsof the child should not necessarilybe visited upon the father. For Mr.Hutchins has abstained so completelyfrom making detailed suggestions con­cerning either curriculum or appoint­ments in the College that it would berash to say that, except in its generalpurpose and design, the College con­forms to his ideas. Mr. ReubenFrodin, whose administrative experi­ence in the College antedates thepresent author's by several years, hassome pertinent words to say concern­ing the reaction to Mr. Hutchins'educational proposals of variousgroups in the University's faculty. InT he Idea and Practice of GeneralEducation) an account of the Collegerecently published by the University'sPress, Mr. Frodin writes:"One group has felt that Hutchins'criticisms of higher education werecorrect but that his positive proposalswere wrong or, at best, untimely. Asecond group has taken Hutchins'proposals as immediate goals to beeffected at the first opportunity, withlittle attempt to relate them to exist­ing situations. A third group has beenkeenly aware that Hutchins' leader­ship and ideas have made possible aTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECollege within, and of, the Universitybf Chicago in which a program of�eneral education could be devel­�ped; it is this group which, stimu­fated by him to work out a meaning­ful program, has built the College."lOne who has been privileged todecorate the edifice after many othershad put it up may hardly do morethan pose as one of those "who built�he College." I am. grateful for theopportunity which this special occa­sion provides to adopt this pose andto thank Mr. Hutchins on behalf Ofthe builders of the College, not onlyfor clearing the ground and placingthe t�ols in our hands, but also for'So abstemiously encouraging us to"finish the job." Liberal education inAmerica owes a great debt to Mr.Hutchins, and, as -one possible reali­zation of his idea of a liberal educa­tion, the College at Chicago acknowl­edges proudly a special share in thatdebt.F. Champion WardDean of the CollegeWORLD GOVERNMENTA SALUTE TO R. M. Hutchinson the eve of his final West­ward Ho cannot be severed in mycase from the remembrance of myassociation with him during the yearsof his presidency and chancellorship.I came closer to him than had beenpossible in the first two years of mypresence in this institution when­between Munich and the fall ofFrance, autumn of 1938 and summerof - 1940-1 tried to build+a grcl,u p 'ofintellectual leaders which; was first,planned tentatively as a "Committeeon Europe," then" as its scope ex­panded, became known �'under theslogan of "The City of Ma!i."Hutchins was a -charter member andone of the six sigrl�torids, togetherwith Thomas Mann/Lewis Mumford,William A. Neilson" Reinhold Nie­buhr, and myself, 0,£ the letter ofinvitation to other prospective mem­bers, March. 28, 1940. He partici­pated actively -in the first conferenceheld in Atlantic City late in May thatyear. The Lowlands and NorthernFrance were beirig 'meanwhile sweptby Hitler's forces. ;iA friendly andtemperate dissent in):natters of Ameri­can intervention or protracted absten­tion prevented Hutc�lns from endors­ing and signing aloQt with the otherseventeen sponsors :the "DeclarationJUNE, 1951 Mr. and Mrs. Hutchins.on World Democracy" which waspublished by the Viking Press underthe title "The City of Man" a yearbefore Pearl Harbor.I approached him again at the end,if it was an end, of World War II.The occasion was provided by theRound Table broadcast of August 12,1945, six days after Hiroshima, whenHutchins gave "the good news ofdamnation" and stated that betweenworld government and world destruc­tion there was no third alternative.If that is so, I proposed to him, shouldnot something positive be done, ortried at least, in favor of the alterna­tive we stand for? He agreed.Thus was formed under the aus­pices of the University the "Commit­tee to Frame a World Constitution"of which Hutchins was the President,I the Secretary General. And thusbegan a six year labor whose visibleresults-besides the 150 Committeedocuments in 4,000 page�-����":;'�tpePreliminary Draft of a W orl4��C'?'�sti­tution (University of Chicag�"'Pfess,1948), a "proposal to history" ''''nowtranslated into a number oflanguages,and the four years (July 1947 through July 1951) of Common Cause) firstsubtitled "A Monthly Report of theCommittee to Frame a World Con­stitution," later on, "A Journal ofOne World."The help given by the prestige of hisname and by his power as Chancellorof the University and provider of thenecessary means, indispensable thoughit was, was not the greatest of theservices rendered in leadership byHutchins to the Committee and itswork.Higher, and more inherently essen­tial, were the contributions and in­spiration arising from the exactnessof his philosophic reasoning, thewholeness of his juridical knowledge,the clarity and sobriety of his use ofwords, and, together with these class­ical qualities of the mind, the unsur­passable mastery of modern parlia­mentarian rule which made themeetings of the Committee, in theconcluding and most difficult stageof preparation for the Chicago Draft,when he took the chair, exemplary inefficiency and method.Yet higher still, beyond all othermerits was the firmness with which11Hutchins, having weighed prudentlythe minimalist against the maxima listshape of a world federation to be, andhaving come to the conclusion thata world union of mere security andstatus quo would be of no availagainst the threat of world destruc­tion, sustained and helped decisivelyto prevail the concept, basic to theCommittee's Preliminary: Draft andCommon Cause, that the price ofpeace is justice.Westward Ho! I take pride in re­membering the closeness and concordof my association with so eminent amind and so humane a will in theconfusion and cruelty of these years.There is also some sort of pride,mixed with sadness, in noting that thedate of his final departure from thisinstitution, June 30, 1951, coincides,not quite by chance, with mine.-C. A. Borgese,Director of Common CauseTHE ATOMIC SCIENCESPERHAPS MORE than any majoruniversity head, Robert Hutch­ins has looked upon science in properperspective relative to other fields ofacademic endeavor. There are manyscientists who believe that Hutchinsshuns modern science, and as evi­dence they point to his efforts in theCollege program and in the GreatBooks-and they state, often rightly,that a student cannot learn scienceproperly from Aristotle or from 17th,18th or 19th century writings.Conversely, there have been manylearned staff members in the Hu­mani ties and in the Social Scienceswho have protested vociferously thatHutchins has given the Natural Sci­ences too much attention. As evi­dence they point to the large sumsof money spent on the new Institutesfor Basic Research, and to the largescientific staff, which they believe de­prives the Social Sciences and theHumanities of much-needed attentionand financial support. The fact thatsuch a two-way argument exists is initself indicative that Hutchins hasattempted to achieve a proper bal­ance which is at the same time com­patible with the sources of UniversityIncome.Under Hutchins' leadership theUniversity of Chicago now possessesone of the finest scientific staffs inthe world. The spirit of freedomwhich exists in the University hasstimulated research In borderline12 fields, where formerly administrativebarriers existed. No longer do wefind biology, geology, physics andchemistry as completely separate fieldsof inquiry. Hutchins has recognizedthat they are all a part of a con-. tinuum of science within which it isimpossible to draw lines of demarca­tion. As a result, at the University,we find physicists and chemists doingresearch in biology, astronomy, geol­ogy, and even archeology. This cross­fertilization of fields has led to manyimportant findings.Hutchins has encouraged scientiststo be broad in their outlook. His mainobjection to many scientists has beenthat they frequently are over- special­ized, possessing few interests outsideof their narrow fields. Wherever pos­sible he has encouraged scientists tothink and be active in fields outsideof science. For this, and other reasons,he has encouraged, supported, andgiven a home to organized educa­tional groups of atomic scientists suchas the Atomic Scientists of Chicagoand the Bulletin of the Atomic Sci.entists. He has called joint confer­ences between social scientists, naturalscientists and public leaders. He hasencouraged scientists to fight for aca­demic freedom and to fight for peace.By being broad and courageous him­self, he has caused scientists to bebroad and courageous. __ The entire scientific world hasgained as the result of Hutchins'leadership. He will be greatly missedby the scientists-even by his mostsevere critics.-Harrison BrownDept. of Chemistryand . Nuclear StudiesTHE LAW SCHOOLROBERT HUTCHINS has beenthe leader in the two significantdevelopments which have taken placein legal education during the lastquarter century.As Dean of the Yale Sch�ol ofLaw, 1927-29, he was a leader inthe movement of legal realism. Thiswas an attempt to have legal educa­tion go -beyond the study of the ap­plication of legal rules, to a moredetailed evaluation of the data of thesocial situations in which the ruleswere to be applied. The rules, inshort, were to be examined in thelight of the data and principles ofthe social sciences. The emphasis atYale led to the creation of the Insti�tute of Human Relations. It led toa reexamination of the law curricu�lum and gave great impetus to thestudy of the law in action. The [ib­eralizing influence of the movementis reflected today in the program ofevery law school in the country.In later years, Hutchins led a sec­ond development in legal education,toward an increased emphasis onphilosophy of law and jurisprudence.The step from legal realism towardsan emphasis on the philosophy of lawand jurisprudence was explained byHutchins in a speech given before theAssociation of American Law Schoolsin 1933:"Empirical operations do not makea science. Facts do not organize them­selves. Let me emphasize as stronglyas I can that w.e must accumulatecases) facts and data. I simply insistthat we must have a scheme intowhich to fit them .... I am not pro­posing that we discontinue these ac­tivities which have characterized theprogressive law school in the past tenyears)' I am proposing an addition tothem. . . . I suggest that the law isa body of principles and rules de­veloped in the light of the rationalscience of Ethics and Politics. Theaim of Ethics and Politics is the goodlife. The aim of the Law is the same.Decisions of courts may be tested bytheir conformity to legal principles.The principles may be tested by theirconsistency with one another andwith the principles of Ethics and Poli­tics. . . . (T he law student's) train-JUNE, 1951 ing will rest on fundamental ideas.T he importance of these ideas can­not be diminished by the whims oflegislatures or the vagaries of prac­tical politics."The new movement towards thephilosophy of law and jurisprudencewas not a return to an older view oflaw as merely, a set of rules to beapplied. The contributions of the so­cial sciences were not to be neglected.The emphasis, however, was to be onan inquiry into the justice of the legalrules. "Our profession, then, is hereto do justice," Hutchins told theAmerican Bar Association in 19� 7.. "To do justice, men must be just.That is, they must be both good andwise in respect to their own ends andin their relations with other men. Andsince justice can exist only in a politi­cal society, they must understandwhat such a society is. The state isan organization designed to promotethe common good. The common goodis that condition of peace, order andeconomic sufficiency which provideshappiness for all,' to the degree whichthey can participate in it."Three points stand out in the newemphasis which Hutchins sought togive to the training of lawyers and tothe understanding of law. The first was that law itself had an intellectualcontent to be understood as some­thing more than a collection of rules."An educated lawyer must know thepurpose of the law; he must knowhow the law came to be what it is; hemust know the nature and purpose ofthe society in which the law operates;he must know the application of whathe knows to the particular case withwhich he is dealing. Law is an ex­pression of practical reason. Hence ithas intellectual content which lawyersmust master."The second was that lawyers asmembers of a profession have specialresponsibilities. "Any profession, if itis .to be distinguished from a trade,must have an intellectual subjectmatter in its own right and must bededicated to the common good ....Ours is the profession through whichjustice is done .... The lawyer, then,must be a learned man in the sensethat he has mastered the intellectualcontent of the law, and he must bea professional man in the sense thathe is laboring for the' common goodand not for honors or riches."The third was the greater impor­tance of the individual as contrastedwith the state. . . . "Least of all isthe state an end for itself. The stateexists for man, not man for the state.The totalitarian state is a perversionand a monstrosity." As Hutchins sawthe problems of legal education, theyhad to do with the elaboration ofrules and principles devised for theprotection and development of theindividual. The emphasis on law asjustice was central to the problem ofpeace in the world. "All this is notas remote from the burning issue oflabor, capital, the constitution, thejudiciary, fascism, war and peace asmay at first appear. These great prob­lems revolve around the very ques­tions which we wish the prospectivelawyer to face intelligently and inwhich he is now untrained, questionsaffecting the ends of economic activ­ity, of organized society, and of hu­man life."In 1937 Dean Harry Bigelow an­nounced a new program for legaleducation at Chicago. The programhad been worked out by a facultycommittee under the chairmanship ofWilber Katz and it was made a work­ing reality under his deanship. Theprogram was a pioneering advance­a practical application of the prin­ciples which Hutchins had been ad-13vocating. To be sure the transition inlegal education was made easier atChicago because the initial emphasisof the program for legal education atChicago adopted in 1902 had empha­sized both the adequate preparationfor the practice of law and the "sci­entific study of systematic and com­parative jurisprudence, legal history,and principles of legislation." The1937 program made the philosophyof law an essential part of the lawcurriculum. It inaugurated a bold at­tempt to integrate economics with thelaw. It placed renewed emphasis ontraining in leg a I craftsmanshipthrough the development of a tutorialsystem to supplement the case meth­od .. Most of the features of that newprogram since have been adopted andadapted in other major law schools.Significantly many of the law schoolswhich opposed the rhetoric of theHutchins' leadership have been mostactive in the new development.In retrospect the development inlegal education appears as inevi'table.The modern practice of law in manyareas has made an integration witheconomics a necessity. World War IIand the subsequent l�ternational sit­uation have forced law schools to areexamination of the well springs ofour - own legal system. The study ofphilosophy of law and internationallaw appears as essential to the protec­tion' or our own way of life. Fewwould now deny the necessity for thebroadened scope of legal education inthe modern world. The acceptance ofthe -development does not, however,obscure the fact of the Hutchins con­tribution as leader and symbol in thegrowth of legal education.-Edward H. Levi� �32� Ph.D. �35Dean, Law SchoolACADEMIC FREEDOMNo UNIVERSITY. can escaperesponsibility for human atti­tudes toward freedom. If we cannotfind freedom in a university, whereshall we look? President and thenChancellor Hutchins was at his bestin the field of academic liberty,His first great opportunity camein the Illinois legislative inquiry of1935. Whatever the motives behindthis measure may have been, the ef­fect would undoubtedly have beenthe limitation' of academic freedom.Ill-defined standards' of "subversive"teaching might have been the ways14 and means of abolishing the tax ex­emption of the University Corporate.On this occasion, President Hutchinsrose to great heights and by his .cour­age and clarity drove the fomentersof trouble back in confusion. For oncethe student body was united, the fac­ulty, the trustees, alumni, and friendsof the University all were united, andthe University experienced, literally,a new birth of freedom. "The citygrey that ne'er shall die" vibratedwith a new meaning. The generosityof Mr. Walgreen made possible thesplendid institution known as - theCharles R. Walgreen Foundation forthe study of American Institutions.Two years ago another conspicuouseffort was made in the form of -theBroyles investigation. Under theleadership of men who were not fullyinformed upon the problems of intel­lectual freedom in a university, therewas attempted a series of measureswhich, would have tended to dampenUniversity enthusiasm and capacityfor intellectual freedom on its high­est levels. But again under the leader­ship of the Chancellor, these effortswere beaten back and the Universityretained its proud position as aleader in the great academic move­ment toward freedom of thought.On a still broader scale was theinfluence of Chancellor Hutchins'Commission on Freedom of the Press( 1943-47). This fundamental inquirywas an epic-making event in the his­tory of the American press. Misunder­stood by some, its meaning will growgreatly as time goes on and it becomesclear that the purposes of the Com­mission were not to fetter the pressbut to free it, not to save the situationby drastic regimentation, but by ahigher sense of responsibility withinthe profession itself. "Freedom ofspeech and press is close to the cen­tral meaning of all liberty . . ." saidthe report. "Free expression is there­fore unique among liberties as pro­tector and promoter of the others,"and, in this creative spirit lines ofadvance were indicated.These are only three items on thelong Hutchins' agenda of freedom.But extended over a period of twentyyears, they add up to the inevitableconclusion that the head of the U ni­versity was a foremost champion ofU ni versi ty liberty.Charles E. M erriam,Distinguished S ervice Prc[essor,Political Science AN ADMINISTRATORTHE DIFFICULTY with an ap­praisal of Bob Hutchins byanyone who has worked with him isthat the lyrical tendencies of thejudgment tends to obscure objectivity.No one else I have known couldarouse so much admiration and loy­alty, and willingness to support himto the last ditch. This loyalty is partlythe result of his remarkable abilitiesbut even more it is engendered by hischaracter. In his writing and speecheshe has been largely concerned withspiritual and moral values, and thoseof us who have seen him in the day­to-day administration of the Univer­sity of Chicago know that these arenot slogans. They ';GI,re working beliefsby which he tests every problem andon which he rests his solution. Thatkind of integrity commands some­thing like a crusading zeal fromassociates.There never has been anythingfuzzy about his ability to apply hisprinciples, for he has remarkableequipment. The legends about hiscapacity for work, his ability to ana­lyze, his mastery of detail, and hisphotographic memory, are all true.The distinction of his rhetoric is ap'parent to everyone. How much 01these gifts he had originally, I do notknow, but he has developed andsharpened them all by the rigorousdiscipline that he has maintained inthe purpose of education. He worksfast and smoothly and with an in­exorable logic. The quickness in ap­praisal and decision is so marked thatin a way it has been a handicap. Ifyou do not have his skill it is dis­concerting and frustrating to meet alogic that is rapid, incisive, and antici­patory of your premises. Until you are. exposed to it often enough to realizethat this is no special performancefor your benefit, that it is the ideaand not the individual that he isdealing with, your feelings are likelyto be bruised. Bob Hutchins is neithersusceptible to flattery, nor resentful ofhonest opposition. He is impatientwith emotional and illogical argu­ment and he is ruthless when con­fronted with the spurious. But he isan easy mark for an appeal to hissympathy, and his concern to do jus­tice to individuals is one of his mostattractive qualities.Under Bob Hutchins you got apost-graduate course in administra-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtion but it was administration of themos� inspiring kind. It looked for theanswer that was principled and true;it repudiated the expedient and as­sumed the necessity of moral courage.He alone has the resources whichmade his particular kind of adminis­trative methods workable. On thatlevel he can not be imitated. But onthe higher level of the goals andmotivations, all of us can aspire tohis kind of leadership.-Lawrence A. KimptonChancellorRADIO AND TVIT WOULD BE a mistake to saythat Robert Maynard Hutchinshas made a great contribution toAmerican educational radio. Ameri­can radio remains unimproved. But,Mr. Hutchins has made one of thefew real contributions to the lostcause of educational radio inAmerica.This contribution has gone unre­marked by those people who hold tothe myth of a "Thomistic Mr.Hutchins" who slashes critically atAmerican higher education. Theyhave failed to note that in his listof educational wastes, Mr. Hutchinshas never included university radiostations or adult education radio ef­forts. While regretting the size of theathletic establishments and the vo­cationalism of much of modern edu­cation, he has done all he could tosupport the few existing educationalradio efforts. At every point he hassupported and encouraged th� .. Univer­sity of Chicago to present r�d_io pr.o�gramming that can stand as an �x':'ample of the education�l progra�­ming that should fill the silence of thisneglected area. (The "Round Table"and the "Human Adventure" havewon many awards and citations ofmerit for this service.)Mr. Hutchins has been the clearestand most courageous critic of Ameri­can radio. In 1934 he said:"If I may take educational broad­casting as an example, the chargesthat can be substantiated are these:the claims of minorities have beendisregarded, the best hours have beengiven to advertising programs, thehours assigned to education have beenshifted without notice, experimenta­tion has been almost non-existent, andthe financial support of educationalbroadcasting has been limited and er­ratic."JUNE, 1951 He joined with others on the Com­mission on Freedom of the Press todefine in 1947 the task and respon­sibility of American .radio, In 1950 hesaid: "American education is wagingan unequal struggle against the vul­garity of what are called the mediaof mass communication. Even a per­fect educational system-and theAmerican educational system is farfrom perfect-would have a hardtime setting up an effective culturalopposition to the storm of trash andpropaganda that now beats upon theAmerican from birth on . . . one ofthe greatest instruments of enlighten­ment and one of the greatest tri­umphs of the human mind is em­ployed almost exclusively to debasethose whom it might enlighten andennoble." And in 1951 he said:". . . if television goes the way ofradio, we shall lose the greatest op­portunity we have ever had to en­lighten and civilize ourselves.". Thischallenge to meet a higher respon­sibility to the welfare of the Americanpeople has been an influence on thethinking of all the people in thebroadcasting field, commercial andeducational broadcasters alike.Mr. Hutchins has always felt thekeenest responsibility for achievingthe highest possible quality of contentand intelligibility in his own partici­pation on the Round Table. He hasnever consented to appear on theRound Table unless he is able tospend several days in preparation forthe program. He knows and he actson the knowledge that it is possibleto educate people by use of the radio.He knows and acts on the belief thatif citizens are to. make informedchoices in a democracy adult educa­ti�n is important, and that radio andtelevision broadcasting is important toany program of effective adult edu­cation.--;-Geor ge Probst, �39DirectorUniversity of Chicago Round TableCHICAGO-FRANKFURTEXCHANGEBy A RECENT action of theBoard of Trustees, the Commit­tee on the Chicago-Frankfurt Inter­University Program has been estab­lished. Six members of the faculty ofthe University' of Chicago and sixprofessors of the University of Frank­furt, in Germany, serve on this Com­mittee. On the basis of an exchangeof professors and students they will attempt to initiate .inter-departmentalprojects of research and study. Thetopics and subjects to be investigatedwill be of general cultural interest. Itis hoped that the cooperative work ofthe members of the two universitiesinvolved will produce results of benefitnot only for academic institutions butfor cultural life generally.It may seem extravagant to regardthis program as a first realization ofthe modern international university,but I am sure that when the com­mittee plans materialize, it will bedemonstrated that it is possible tocorrelate universities of different coun­tries to one another on the basis ofgenuine mutuality of work.When Mr. Hutchins initiated anexchange of professors between Chi­cazo and Frankfurt, three years ago,he bprobably was motivated primarilyby the desire to re-establish lines ofcommunication with German aca­demic life which, since the beginningof the Nazi-regime, had been forcedinto isolation. Yet I do not doubtthat his concern for the internationalcharacter of the life and work of theacademic community of scholars ledhim to hope that contacts betweenthe two universities would developinto a relationship deeper than thatwhich can be accomplished by meansof personal exchanges of professors.His name is widely known abroad,particularly in Germany. All whorecognize the need for "university­reform," namely for a reconstructionof the modern university in line withthe intellectual traditions of the his­toric, academy community and in re­sponse to the needs of modern societyfor intellectual and spiritual leader­Ship, see in him a leader of thencause. That is why his visit to Frank­furt on the occasion of the celebrationof the 100th anniversary of theFrankfurt Parliament was hailed withsuch enthusiasm. The Germans sawin him not only a friend who desiredto lend them a hand in the work ofthe reconstruction of their. culturallife, but one of the foremost repre­sentatives of those intellectual leadersof our time who regard the com­munity of scholars of an individualuniversity, wherever it may be, as acell of the world-wide community ofintellectuals on which the future ofWestern civilization depends.. -Wilhelm PauckPro[essor,Historical Theology15Mrs. Kuh's office in the left wing of the Chicago Art Institute is tiny, jampacked with curios, photographs, paintings.For Katharine Kuh, AM '29'.ART HAS MANY FAC:E'SAR TISTS, COLLECTORS andother intimates of art circleshave long suspected that one of thebusiest women in Chicago is Kathar­ine Woolf Kuh, AM '29, curator atthe Art Institute of Chicago, an ex­pert on contemporary art and authorof Art Has Many Faces, a forthcom­ing book on modern art.Currently Mrs. Kuh,. in additionto final pre-publication chores, travelsthe Americas and Europe scouting forpromising exhibit items for temporaryshows at the Art Institute, plans andarranges the exhibits in the Institute'sGallery of Art Interpretation-a newtwist to the Institute's program whichshe developed-teaches one class ofgraduate art students, and sheperdsvisiting artists around Chicago.Mrs. Kuh, who neither draws norpaints, recalls that she first becameinterested in art as "quite a little girl.I was sick for several years and spenta lot of time looking at and readingabout pictures. My father collectedprints which I enjoyed very much.He was an importer and traveled agood deal. Later I went with him toEurope, especially to Italy where welooked at Renaissance paintings."This interest never flagged and she16 studied art at both Vassar and Chi­cago. Working for her AM at theUniversity-her husband, the lateGeorge Edwin Kuh, '13, was also aChicago graduate-she did intensivestudy of the history of European art,"a very valuable experience." Mrs.Kuh's connection with the campus hascontinued through the years; manyof her exhibits are required study forcollege students; and the RenaissanceSociety borrowed "From Nature toArt," an art interpretation show,for a hanging in Goodspeed Hall."Picasso, of course!"Her first professional connectionwith artists and their works, however,didn't begin until '36 when she openedthe Katharine Kuh Galleries on Mich­igan Avenue. The Galleries special­iz�d in contemporary art, exhibitingmoderns like Paul Klee, British sculp­tor Henry Moore and "Picasso, ofcourse" and its pioneering efforts topresent their works to Chicagoansaroused c�nsiderable controversy. Anexhibit by the Spanish surrealist JoanMiro caused offended citizens, neveridentified, to break the Galleries' plate glass windows. "But," Mrs. Kuhhastens to add to her description ofthis period, "I wouldn't want anyoneto think that was all there was to it.I met many interesting people whoencouraged me." .As might be expected, the financialreturn from the Galleries was notoverwhelming. While it occasionallybroke even, Mrs. Kuh did all thework, including hanging pictures andaddressing 1',000 monthly circulars,without the aid of a staff. To supportthe Galleries she decided to teach pri­vate adult classes in the history ofmodern art, and to run an artists' em­ployment bureau. The adult classes,which had the additional advantageof bringing 150 potential customersinto the Galleries each week, were arewarding experience for both teacherand pupils. "They were deeply in­terested," Mrs. Kuh reports, "so anx­ious to learn something about themeaning of modern art." Mrs. Kuh'sinstruction whetted their interest to­the point where many are now avidcollectors .. Some students came formore unusual reasons: Muriel Abbottsent a whole class of her dance pupils,insisting it was an essential part ofTilE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtheir training to learn something ofmodern art.Mexicun. summersDespite her devotion to the Gal­leries, Mrs, Kuh closed them for threemonths each year and spent the sum­mer in Mexico. She bought a smallhouse in San Miguel Allende for 60dollars, built a swimming pool andenjoyed herself thoroughly. Not the1east of her pleasures was meeting andworking with Mexican artists whocomprise one of the most turbulentand active of the modern art move­ments. The relationship can best bedescribed by Mrs. Kuh: "In art one'swork and one's social life is all one.The two cannot be separated."I t was on these jaunts to Mexicothat she developed an interest in pre­Columbian Indian art, a field sheconsiders only a side line to her realspecialty-modern art. As it becamemore difficult to go to Europe be­cause of international tensions, shespent more time traveling extensivelyin Mexico and Central America,studying the stone sculpture and tem­ple ruins left by the Aztec, Toltec andMajan Indians. Metal was unknownto these tribes-carving was done withstone on stone) and the temples werebuilt without the use of the wheel.She now finds it almost impossibleto describe the experience: "I had themost wonderful time, and I simplycan't begin to tell all the things thathappened." This speechlessness isprobably shared by many CentralAmericans who met her during hertravels. When she arrived in Hon­duras) the president of that republicwas so amazed by the sight of anAmerican woman .hopping about Cen­tral America just to look at ruins that he sent her to one of the local exam­ples in his private plane.With regrets . �. .In ,'43 Mrs. Kuh regretfully aban­doned both. her Chicago Gallery andMexican house. Her motives weremixed: "I enjoyed the Gallery verymuch. I loved the hanging, the pic­tures and working with the artists; butI was just plain bored with selling.Halfway through a sale Td think'what's the use' and lose interest."As for the Mexican summers, she feltthat "it was a little too easy; I wasgetting demoralized; the cantina wasa little too near; life was easy andgo 0 d-,;;:-bu t not good for me-youknow. I began to wonder if it wasthe kind of life I wanted."Her next job was pinch-hittingduring the war in the Art Institute'spublic relations department. How­ever, she was "not too interested inthe publicity end of the business, andhoped to get out as soon as possible."A representative from the Ladies Gar­ment Workers appeared one day andasked, as a part of the union's exten­sive educatiohafprogram, for someoneto teach classes on art. The Institute'soverloaded educational staff was toobusy to spare anyone, but Mrs. Kuhgladly volunteered to take on the job.She found the Lady Garment W ork­ers "very receptive. I was used to amore sophisticated approach to artand found what they had to say quiteenriching."In '46 the Department of the In­terior "borrowed" Mrs. Kuh from theArt Institute for a project. It involvedsurveying contemporary Indian set­tlements in Alaska to discover howmany products of early Indian art hadsurvived, and Mrs. Kuh, because of her knowledge of Indian art, waschosen to do the research. She trav­eled throughout southeastern Alaska-as usual "having a wonderful time."The art works varied with the culturesof the tribes, and with the aid of in­terpreters, she studied objects rangingfrom weaving and painting to woodcarvings-"mostly totem poles."On occasion, Mrs. Kuh reports, liv­ing conditions became quite rugged:"I would often spend several weeks in,a community of forty or fifty Indiansand no white men. If there were atrader or missionary family I wouldstay with them, but otherwise I hadto live with the Indians."Three more jobsMrs. Kuh subsequently returned tothe Art Institute where she currentlyholds down three jobs of considerableimportance. As Associate Curator ofPainting and Sculpture, she is one ofthe people who handle temporaryshows which come to, Chicago forshort periods. (The title of curatorcan best be explained outside museumcircles as about equal to that of a fulluniversity professor who is head of adepartment. )Mrs. Kuh's responsibilities in set­ting up a scheduled exhibit begin witha great deal of traveling, visiting gal­leries, studios and museums with aneye open for suitable items. (In addi­tion to her Indian junkets, Mrs. Kuhhas covered most of the western worldfrom Egypt to Scandinavia.) Her .rec­ommendations, and those of her col­leagues, determine the content of theshow. On their trips they. also spotobjects which they feel should beadded to the Institute's permanentcollection and which are often pur­chased by the trustees on . their rec-"Explainin� Abstract Art," one of Mrs. Kuh's much talked about educational exhibits.The famous French painter, Marcel Duchamps, world renown for his "Nude Descend­ing the Staircase," an early modern-art shocker, calls on Mrs. Kuh on a visit to Chicago.ommendation. When the exhibit isassembled, their duties have just be­gun. For before the public showingthe installation must be supervised-aprocess involving suitable background,arrangement and lighting-the cata­logue must be written and public lec­tures explaining the subject of theshow must be scheduled.Mrs. Kuh's second job at the ArtInstitute is the editing of its Bulletin,a quarterly twenty-page publicationwhich is sent to members and inde- pendent subscribers. It reports suchInstitute activities as temporary shows,permanent collections, lectures, artclasses and the productions of theGoodman Theater."How real is realism?"However, .Mrs. Kuh's greatest en­thusiasm is reserved for the job shedeveloped herself. As Curator of theInstitute's Gallery of Art Interpreta­tion she plans educational exhibits to"explain art in art's terms," and with a minimum of text. In the past theseexhibits have dealt with "AbstractArt," "Space and Distance," and"Van Gogh," and, currently, "Ho\'.:Real Is Realism?"The gallery uses the simple tech­nique of comparing two or three re­lated objects in a short paragraph:with the questions discussed becomingmore complex as the viewer travelsaround the room. The Van Goghexhibit which ran concurrentlv withthe phenomenally successful showingof the artist's paintings, explained hisbrush techniques, his color and lineand the influences reflected in hiswork. The current exhibit begins witha comparison of four artists' inter­pretations of hands-a painting, aphotograph, a drawing and a three di­mensional sculpture-and it concludeswith three' large oil portraits, onepainted with photographic precision,one reflecting the deeper implicationsof the individual portrayed, and oneshowing the artist's reactions to theuniversal significance of his subject.This gallery has been one of theInstitute's most successful innovations,and two exhibits have gone on tourto other art museums. The techniqueswhich she developed in planning theseexplanatory shows have been used byMrs. Kuh in her book, Art Has ManyF aces, to be published by HarperBrothers this fall. It "uses only thenecessary number of words with asmany visual materials as possible,"and is another of her attempts to ex­plain modern art "in terms of art."Despite this time-consuming sched­ule, Mrs. Kuh recently took on an­other activity to fulfill an ambitionof several years. For some time shehas felt that young artists were ignor­ing much of the material closest tothem. Taking a small class-two boysand three girls-she sent them out "tolook at Chicago and find somethingabout the city that they wanted toexpress." The experience was revolu­tionary. One young man, who hadbeen primarily interested in oils,turned up at the end of the coursewith a documentary film taken on67th Street. He's going into film work.After winding up this class and get­ting Art Has Man'}' Faces to press,Mrs. Kuh looks forward to a summerof traveling in Europe for the ArtInstitute. A trip which will be spentrenewing old friendships, visiting gal­leries and studios, and enjoying artof all kinds. -A.C.C.Diplomacy: A Forgotten ArtBy George Kennan.Editor's note: A great many alumni,we find, regret being unable to attendthe many outstanding public lecturesoffered by the University. So, asoften as possible, we attempt to pub­lish the most important and provoca­tive in the Magazine. Here is theconcluding lecture in the Walgreenseries on "American Diplomacy, 1900-1950" which attracted huge crowdsand city-wide attention this spring.They were given by George Kennan,former top Russia expert for the StateDepartment, now with the Institutefor Advanced Study at Princeton. T 0-gether with two famous articles hewrote for Foreign Policy Magazine,under the pseudonym of "Mr. X,"they are being published in book formthis fall by the University of ChicagoPress. .My lectures have been historicalexercises, analyzing past eventsin the field of American diplomacy;and normally they might have beenpermitted to stand as such. Butthe background of current eventsagainst which they have been givenhas been so absorbing, and your ownpreoccupation with these events soobvious and understandable, that Iknow you will feel that what I havesaid has not been given its maximumusefulness if I do not add a wordabout its relevance to problems today.Before I do this, I ought to recordmy own recognition that the recordof American diplomacy in this half­century contains many positive fea­tures, as well as negative ones. Letus remember that for us this has beena period of tremendous and most try­ing transition. We entered upon itwith the concepts and methods of asmall neutral nation. I know this ap­proach well. I have seen it in someof the foreign offices of other coun­tries where I have been privileged todo business on behalf of our Govern­ment. It is an approach which I lik�and respect, and for which I mustconfess to a certain nostalgia. It canhave in it, and usually does, greatquality and dignity.JUNE, 1951 Looking backwardThe Department of State as it ex­isted at the turn of the century, andas it still was in large measure in the1920's when I entered' it, was aquaint old place, with its law-officeatmosphere, its cool dark corridors,its swinging doors, its brass cuspidors,its black leather rocking chairs, andthe grandfather's clock in the Secre­tary of State's office. There was a realold-fashioned dignity and simplicityabout it. It was populated in thoseearlier days by professional personnelsome of whom were persons of greatexperience and competence. And itwas headed more often than otherwiseby Americans of stature and quality.Such men as John Hay, Elihu Root,Charles Evans Hughes, or Henry Stim­son embodied that pattern of integrityof mind and spirit, moderation anddelicacy of character, irreproachableloyalty in personal relations, unas­sumingness of person combined withdignity of office, .and kindliness andgenerosity in the approach to all thatwas weaker and more dependent,which=constitutes, it seems to me, ourfinest contribution to the variety ofthe human species in this world andcomes closest to embodying our na­tional ideal and genius.We are another generation, andcannot be fully the judges either ofthe demands with which our elderswere faced or of the adequacies oftheir responses. For the performanceof these men in public office I canfeel only the sort of sympathy andadmiration which one felt for thestruggles and works of one's ownfather, coupled with the invariableconviction of children everywhere,.that there were features of the modernworld which Father understood verypoorly and we children understoodmuch better. And if, today, we thinkwe see blind .spots or weak spots in their approaches to foreign policy, wewould do well to remember what Gib­bon said of the great Byzantine gen­eral, Belisarius: "His imperfectionsflowed from the contagion of the times;his virtues were his own."Notwithstanding all of this, it isclear that there has been in the pasta very significant gap between chal­lenge and response in our conduct offoreign policy; that this gap stillexists; and that 'whereas fifty yearsago it was not very dangerous to us,that cannot be said of our situationtoday. We can afford no complacencyabout these things in the year 1951,and we have no choice but to face upunsparingly to our weaknesses.iViust face our weaknessesIn the field of the machinery of gov­ernment, we have seen that a gooddeal of our trouble seems to havestemmed from the extent to whichthe executive has felt itself beholdento short-term trends of public opinionin the country and from what wemight call the erratic and subjectivenature of public reactions to foreignpolicy questions. I would like to em­phasize that I do not consider publicreaction to foreign policy questionsto be erratic and undependable overthe long term; but I think the recordindicates that in the short term ourpublic opinion, or what passes for ourpublic opinion in the ,thinking. of of­ficial Washington, can be easily ledastray into areas of emotionalism andsubjectivity which make it a poor andinadequate guide for national action.What can be done about this?As one who has occupied himselfprofessionally with foreign affairs fora quarter of a century, I cannot re­frain from saying that I firmly be­lieve that we could make much moreeffective use of the principle of pro­fessionalism in the conduct of foreignpolicy: that we could, if we wished,develop a corps of professional offi­cers superior to anything that existsor ever has existed in this field, andthat by treating these men with re­spect and drawing on their .insight andexperience, we could help oursel�esconsiderably. However, I am quite"The legalistic approach, rooted in a desire to do.away with violence, actually makes war more terriblethan did the older motives of national interest"19prepared to recognize that this runscounter to strong prejudices and pre­conceptions in sections of our publicmind, particularly in Congress and thepress, and that for this reason weare probably condemned to continueto rely almost exclusively on what wemight call "diplomacy by diletantism."The crises in foreign policyThat being the case, we still havewith us in what is- obviously a veryacute form, the problem of the ma­chinery for decision-taking and forimplementation of policy decisions inour government. Whatever else maybe said about these facilities to date,it can hardly be said that they aredistinguished by such things as pri­vacy, deliberateness, or the long-termapproach. The difficulties we encoun­ter here are so plain to all of youat this moment that I shall not at­tempt to adumbrate them. The sub­ject of their correction is an extremelycomplex one, involving many facets ofgovernmental organization and meth­od. There are those who feel thatthese difficulties can be satisfactorilydisposed of within our present con­stitutional framework, and that theyare simply a question of proper per­sonalleadership in government. Thereare others who doubt that the prob­lem is soluble without constitutionalreform-reform which would give usa parliamentary system more nearlylike that which exists in England andmost other parliamentary countries-asystem in which a government falls ifit loses the confidence of its parlia­ment, and in which there is oppor­tuni ty of consulting the people on thegreat issues at the crucial momentsand adjusting governmental responsi­bilities in accordance with the people'sdecision.I must say that if I had any doubtsbefore as to whether it is this thatour country requires, those doubtshave been pretty well resolved in mymind by the events of the past daysand weeks. I find it hard to see howwe can live up to our responsibilitiesas a great power unless we are ableto resolve in a manner better thanwe have done in recent weeks greatchallenges to the soundness of govern­ment policy and to the claim of anadministration to speak for the massof the people in foreign affairs.Here again, I am afraid, thechances of change in the direction Ihave indicated are so slight that we20 must dismiss the possibility as onethat might have any particular rele­vance to our present problems.This leaves us substantially with thequestion of concept. This is the fieldin which the scholar's voice can bemost useful, and for which it seemsto me that this examination of thepast yields the most instructive results.I see the most serious fault of ourpast policy-formulation to lie in some­thing that I might call the legalistic­moralistic approach to internationalproblems. This approach runs like ared skein through our foreign policyof the past fifty years. It has in itKennansomething of the old emphasis onarbitration treaties, something of theHague Conferences and schemes foruniversal disarmament, something ofthe more ambitious American con­cepts of the role of international law,something of the League of Nationsand the United Nations, something ofthe Kellogg Pact, something of theidea of a universal "article 51" pact,something of the belief in World Lawand World Government. But it isnone of these, entirely. Let me tryto . describe it.'. It is the belief that it should bepossible to suppress the chaotic anddangerous manifestations of the aspi­rations of ·governments in the inter­national field by the acceptance ofsome system of legal rules and re­straints. This belief undoubtedly rep- resents in part an attempt to transposethe Anglo-Saxon concept of individuallaw into the international field and tomake it applicable to governments asit is applicable here at home to indi­viduals. It must also stem in partfrom the memory of the origin of ourown political system-from the recol­lection that we were able, throughacceptance of a common institutionaland juridical framework, to reduce toharmless dimensions the conflicts ofinterest and aspiration among theoriginal 13 colonies, and to bringthem .all into an ordered and peacefulrelationship with one another. Re­membering this, people are unable tounderstand that what might havebeen possible for the 13 colonies ina given set of circumstances might notbe possible in the international field.U. S. legalistic-moralisticapproachI t is the essence of this belief thatinstead of taking the awkward con­flicts of national interest and dealingwith them on their merits with a viewto finding the solutions least unset­tling to the stability of internationallife, it would be better to find someformal criteria of a juridical nature bywhich the permissible behavior atstake could be defined. There wouldthen be judicial entities competent tomeasure the actions of governmentsagainst those criteria and to. decidewhen their behavior was acceptableand when unacceptable. Behind allthis, of course, lies the American as­sumption that the things for whichother peoples in this world are apt tocontend and to make trouble and tothreaten international peace are forthe most part neither creditable norimportant and might justly be ex­pected to' take second place behindthe desirability of an orderly world,untroubled by international violence.To the American mind, it is implausi­ble that people should have positiveaspirations, and one that they regardas legitimate, more important to themthan the peacefulness and orderlinessof international life. From this stand­point, it is not apparent why otherpeoples should not join us in accept­ing rules of the game in internationalpolitics just as we accept such rulesin the competition of sport, in orderthat the game may not become toocruel and too destructive.If they were to do this, the reason­ing runs, then the troublesome andTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEchaotic manifestations of the nationalego could be contained and renderedeither unsubstantial or subject to easydisposal by some method familiar andcomprehensible to 0 u r Americanusage. Departing from this back­ground, the mind of American states­manship, stemming as it does in solarge a part from the legal professionin our country, goes with unfailingpersistence for s 0 m e institutionalframework which would be capable offulfilling this function.I cannot undertake in this shortperiod to deal exhaustively with thisthesis or point out all of the elementsof unsoundness which I feel it con­tains. But some of its more outstand­ing weaknesses are worthy of mention.States not staticIn the first place, the idea of subor­dination of a large number of statesto an international juridical regime,with a view to limiting their possi­bilities for aggression and injury toother states, implies that these are allstates like our own, reasonably con­tent with their international bordersand status, at least to the extent thatthey would be willing to refrain frompressing any alterations of them unlessinternational agreement could be ob­tained. Actually this has generallybeen true only of a portion of inter­national society. We tend to under­estimate the violence of national mal­adjustments and discontents elsewherein the world if we think that theywould always appear to other peopleas less important than the preserva­tion of the juridical tidiness of inter­national life.Secondly, while this concept is oftenassociated with a revolt against na­tionalism, it is a . curious thing thatit actually tends to confer upon theconcept of nationality and nationalsovereignty an absolute value it didnot have before. The very principle of"one government, one vote" regardlessof physical or political differences be­tween states glorifies the concept ofnational sovereignty and makes of itthe exclusive form of participation ininternational life. It envisages a worldcomposed exclusively of sovereignnational states with a full equality ofstatus. In doing this, it ignores thetremendous variations in the firmnessand soundness of national divisions:"the fact that the origin of state bor­ders and national personalities was inmany instances fortuitous or at leastJUNE, 1951 poorly related to realities. It alsoignores the law of change. The na­tional state pattern is not, should notbe, and cannot be a fixed and staticthing. By nature it is an unstablephenomenon in constant state ofchange and flux. History has shownthat the will and capacity of indi­vidual peoples to contribute to theirw o rid environment is constantlychanging. It is only logical that theorganizational forms (and what elseare such things as borders and gov­ernments?) should change with them.No legal straight-jacketThe function of a system of inter­national relationships is not to inhibitthis process of change by imposing alegal straight-jacket upon it, but ratherto facilitate it: To ease its transi­tions, to temper the asperities towhich it often leads, to isolate andmoderate the conflicts to which itgives rise and to see that these con­flicts do not assume forms too un­settling to international life in general.But this is a task for diplomacy, inthe most old-fashioned sense of theterm. For this, law is too abstract,too inflexible, too hard to ad just tothe demands of the unpredictable.By the same token, the Americanconcept of world law ignores thosemeans of international offense-thosemeans of the projection of power andcoercion over other peoples=-whichby-pass institutional forms entirely oreven exploit them against themselves:such things as ideological attack, in­timidation, penetration and disguisedseizure of the institutional parapher­nalia of national sovereignty. It ig­nores, in other words, the device ofthe puppet state and the set of tech­niques by which states can be con­verted into puppets with no formalviolation of, or challenge to, the out­ward attributes of their independence.This is one of the things that havecaused the peoples of the satellitecountries of eastern Europe to lookwith a certain tinge of bitterness onthe United Nations. The organizationfailed so completely to save them froma domination by a great neighboringcountry, a domination no less invidiousby virtue of the fact that it cameinto being by processes we could notcall "aggression." And there is in­deed some justification for their feel­ing; because the legalistic approachto international affairs ignores in gen­eral the international significance of political problems and the deepersources of international instability.It assumes that the job is donewhen violent aggression between statesis inhibited. It assumes that civil warswill remain civil and not grow intointernational wars. It assumes theability of each people to solve its owninternal political problems in a man­ner not provocative of its internationalenvironment. It assumes that eachnation will always be able to comeup with a government qualified tospeak for it and cast its vote in theinternational arena and that this gov­ernment will be acceptable to the re­mainder of the international commu­nity in this capacity. It assumes, inother words, that domestic issues willnot become international issues andthat the world community will not beput in the position of having to makechoices between rival claimants ofpower within the confines of the indi­vidual state.Military coalition difficultFinally, this legalistic approach tointernational relations is faulty in as­sumptions concerning the possibility ofsanctions against offenses and viola­tions. In general, it looks to collectiveaction to pro v ide such sanctionsagainst the bad behavior of states. Indoing so, it forgets the limitations onthe effectiveness of military coalition.I t forgets that as your circle of mili­tary associates widens in any conceiva­ble political-military venture, thetheoretical total of available militarystrength may increase, but only atthe cost of compactness and ease ofcontrol. And the wider your coalitionbecomes, the more difficult it gets todetail political unity and general agree­ment on the purposes and effects ofwhat you are doing.As we are seeing in the caseof Korea, joint military operationsagainst an aggressor have a differentmeaning for each participant, andraise specific political issues for eachone which are extraneous to the ac­tion in question and affect many otherfacets of international life. The widerthe circle of military associates, themore cumbersome the problem of po­litical control over their actions, andthe more circumscribed the least com­mon denominator of agreement. Thislaw of diminishing returns lies soheavily on .the possibilities for multi­lateral military action that it makesit doubtful whether the participation21of smaller states can really add verymuch to the ability of the greatpowers to assure stability of interna­tional life. And this is tremendouslyimportant, for it gets us back to therealization that even under a systemof world laws the sanctions against de­structive international behavior mightcontinue to rest basically, as it hasin the past, on the alliances and rela­tionships among the great powers.There might be a state, or perhapsmore than one state, which all therest of the world community togethercould not successfully coerce into fol­lowing a line of action to which it wasviolently adverse. And if this is true,where are we? It seems to me we areright back in the realm of the for­gotten art of diplomacy from whichwe have spent 50 years escaping.These then are some of the theoreti­cal deficiencies that seem to me to beinher�nt in the legalistic approach tointernational affairs. But there is agreater deficiency still that I shouldlike to mention before I close. Thatis the inevitable association of legal­istic ideas with moralistic ones; thecarrying over into affairs of states ofthe concepts of right and wrong, theassumption that state behavior is afit subject for moral judgment. Who­ever says there is a, law must ofcourse be indignant against the law­breaker and feel a moral superiorityto him. And when such indignationspills over into military contest, itknows no bounds short of the reduc­tion of the law-breaker to the pointof complete submissiveness-namelyunconditional surrender. It is a curi­ous thing, but it is true, that thelegalistic approach to world affairs,rooted as it unquestionably is in adesire to do away with war and vio­lence, makes violence more enduring,.more terrible, and more destructive topolitical stability than did the oldermotives of national interest. A warfought in the name of high moralprinciple finds no early end 'short ofsome form of total domination.Danger in "total victory"In this way, we see that the legalis­tic approach to international problemsis closely identified with the conceptof total war and total victory and themanifestations of one spill over onlytoo easily into the manifestations ofthe other. And the concept of total22 war is something we would all do wellto think about a little in these troubledtimes. This is a relatively new con­cept, in Western civilization at anyrate. It did not really appear onthe scene until World War I. It char­acterized both of these great worldwars, and both of them-as I havepointed out-were followed by greatinstability and disillusionment. But itis not only a question now of the de­sirability of this concept-it .is a ques­tion of its feasibility. Actually, Iwonder whether even in the past totalvictory was not really an illusion fromthe standpoint of the victors. In asense, there is no total victory shortof genocide unless' it be a victoryover the minds of men. But the totalmilitary victories are rarely victoriesover the minds of men. And we nowface the fact that it is very question­able whether in a new global conflictthere could even be any such thingas total military victory. I personallydo not believe that there could. Theremight be a great weakening of thearmed forces of one side or another,but I think it out of the questionthat there should be such a thingas a general and formal submission ofthe national will on either side. Theattempt to achieve this unattainablegoal, however, could wreak upon civil­ization another set of injuries fullyas serious as those caused by WorldWar I or II, and I leave it to youto answer the question as to howcivilization could survive them.I understand that it was recentlyasserted by a prominent Americanthat "war's very object is victory" andthat "in war there can be no substi­tute for victory." Perhaps the con­fusion here lies in what is meant by theterm "victory." Perhaps the term isactually misplaced. Perhaps therecan be such a thing as "victory" ina battle, whereas in war there canonly be the achievement or non­achievement of your objectives. In theold days, wartime objectives weregenerally limited and practical onesand it was common to measure thesuccess of your military operationsby the extent to which they broughtyou closer to your objectives. Butwhere your objectives are moral andideological ones and run to changingthe attitudes and traditions of an en­tire people or the personality of aregime, then victory is probably some- thing not to be achieved entirely bymilitary means or indeed in any shortspace of time at all; and perhaps thatis the source of our confusion.N either cynicism nor reactionIn any case, I am frank to saythat I think there is no more dan­gerous delusion, none that has doneus a greater disservice in the past orthreatens to do us a greater disservicein the future, than the concept oftotal victory. And I fear that it springsin large measure from the basic faultsin the approach to international af­fairs which I have been discussing.If we are to get away from it, thiswill not mean that we will have toabandon our respect for internationallaw, or our hopes for its future use­fulness in that capacity as the gentlecivilizor ef events which I mentionedin one of the earlier lectures. It willalso not mean that wee have to goin for anything that can properly betermed "appeasement"-if one mayuse a word so cheapened and deflatedby the abuse to which it has been.recently subjected. But it will meanthe emergence of a new attitudeamong us toward many things outsideour borders that are irritating andunpleasant to us today-an attitudemore 'like that of the doctor towardthose physical phenomena in the hu­man body that are neither pleasingnor fortunate-an attitude of detach­ment and soberness and readiness toreserve judgment. It will mean thatwe will have the modesty to admitthat our own national interest is allthat we are really capable of know­ing and understanding-and thecourage to recognize that if our ownpurposes and undertakings here athome are decent ones, unsullied byarrogance or hostility toward otherpeople or delusions of superiority overother people, then the pursuit of ournational interest can never fail to beconducive to a better world.This concept is less ambitious andless inviting in its immediate prospectsthan those to which we have so ofteninclined and less pleasing to our imageof ourselves. To many it may seemto smack of cynicism and reaction. Icannot share these doubts. Whateveris realistic in concept, and foundedin an endeavor to see both ourselvesand others as we really are, cannot beilliberal.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEUNION MEN(Continued from page 7)Iective bargaining or race relations.Then a staff member frames thequestions so the problem can be mostfully explored in discussion. The ma­terials have several "trial runs" withvarious officer: g r 0 ups. Problemswhich fail to stimulate discussion areshelved in favor of more realistic ones.We have now put our tried-and­tested materials into the hands of 230local unions, 27 internationals, 64universities, and a variety of church,religious and adult education groups.The Pan-American Union has bought26 complete sets of materials for mail­ing to Latin American labor leaders.The U. S. Department has purchased200 sets for foreign labor attaches,and persons working with unions inGermany. The materials are in usein labor education work in Japan.New teaching techniques have beenour special concern; as a result bothunions and universities which for­merly relied almost exclusively on thelecture and formal classes are nowenthusiastically using discussion, role­playing, "buzz" sessions, and otherinformal educational devices whichhelp bring about greater student par­ticipation and involvement.After three years of experimentalwork, we realize quite sharply thatthe problem of developing better un­ion leaders is not confined to formaleducation programs alone. Educationis not something that can be tackedon, or added, if time permits. Unionleaders all too often are swamped byday-to-day problems, and don't havethe time for conducting adequate pro­grams. The developing of instruc­tional materials is obviously not thewhole answer to leadership training.Education is a part of union lifeitself, which calls for even broaderprograms than any we've yet at­tempted. During the next three years,we will continue to provide the adulteducation services we have had in thepast, and embark on new projects­to find out more about the issues andproblems which con c ern unionleaders, and. what can be done tobroaden these interests; to clarify anddramatize the ideals and goals we aretrying to maintain in a free society;and then with this knowledge, to as­sist unions in training the kind ofofficers who will act as a bulwarkagainst the trends toward totalitarian­Ism and self-destruction which af­flict society today.JUNE, 1951 Reflections after five ...Crocuses and CompsBy Dean Robert M. StrozierMAY ON THE Midway bringscrocuses and comps, and is amonth when the year-end pressuresoverrule the springtime tendency toloaf. Students begin to show thatharried look, and as the study-daybecomes progressively longer, tempersshorten. It was on the. First ·of May,then, that a minor explosion occurredin my office.A t the regular meeting of theStudent-Faculty Advisory Board, oneof the professors, Joe. Schwab, decidedto say what he thought about theMaroon. Joe expressed rather de­cided opinions, and the group soonfound itself deep in hot words andback-issues of the paper! What atempest! Almost. every student hadhis own private opinion about whatthe college newspaper should be, andmost of the faculty members whoread the paper are likely to have theirown, too. It quickly was apparentthat these views do not always coin­cide with those of the management ofthe paper. I learned from this ex­perience that there apparently is moreknowledge of and crystallized opinionabout the Maroon than I had real­ized existed. But it was a good dis­cussion in that it framed very definiteissues for the students to considerabou t their newspaper.·The appointment of Lawrence A.Kimpton as the new Chancellor hasrestored the calm to the campus whichwas absent during the hectic weeksof anticipation of who the new Chan­cellor might be. I have watched Larryat close range over a period of manyyears, and have seen him in manydifferent· situations. I have nothingbut the profoundest admiration forhim. It augurs' well for the future of the University that it is to reside insuch capable hands. One can al­ready sense the warmth and friendli­ness between him and the faculty,which will serve the University well.Rushing spreeThe fraternity system is engaged inan unusual Spring Quarter rushingspree as a result of the announce­ment by the Board of Trustees issuedon the day of Mr. Kimpton's selection.Fraternity membership had declinedwith the passing of the peak of vet­eran enrollment, and the return ofgeneral enrollment to more normalnumbers. In view of the Board's ac­tion in 1946, preventing the initiationof College students, and under theimpetus of the current pinch, thefraternities presented to my office apetition asking that the Board relaxthe regulation so that it would not benecessary to close any more of thehouses on campus.Mr. Albert W. Sherer, the Chair­man of the Committee on Studentinterests, called together Arthur Goes,John F. Dille, and Albert Long fromthe alumni, and John Trimm from theInterfraternity Council on our cam­pus, to discuss this matter. It wasfinally agreed to recommend to theBoard that the students in the lastyear of the College be enabled tojoin the fraternities and live III thehouses if they choose.This seems a wise solution to theproblem, for it alleviates the predica­ment of the fraternities, without im­pairing the residence hall plan of theUniversity, into which has gone somuch time, thought, and energy. Ifirmly believe that College students23should at some point be exposed tothe experience of residence hall liv-'ing, particularly when they are. undereighteen years of age, and are spend­ing their first year in a College situ­ation. The halls have a positivedemocratizing influence, and also serveas a superb instrument of orientationfor the College itself. The presentadjustment will make it possible fora student to live one year in a Uni­versity residence hall, and when hereaches eighteen, to go on to a fra­ternity if he chooses. At the sametime, the various fraternity houseson campus have accomplished remark­able progress in the development oftheir own programs. The fraternitiesconduct a vigorous, sane social pro­gram, have maintained an active in­terest in intramural athletics, and aregenerating a fine spirit and attitudetoward the University itself.Outstanding theatricalsGay musical romance and a tuxedo­class three ring circus have graced thefamous boards of Mandel Hall re­cently. The two unusual events werespectacularly successful. One was thejoint performance by the musiciansof the Chicago Musical College andour own symphony under SigmundLevarie's able direction of the Abduc­tion of Seraglio. The other was theAcrotheatre's Settlement Benefit per­formance.. The excellent report of the Aero­theatre in an earlier edition of theMagazine precludes a lengthy descrip­tion here. I should say, however, thatthe Maroon, in its review of theperformance, stated categorically thatit was the only performance known bythe critic which was far better thanits advance publicity. H. B. Hortonwas quoted as having said that itwas the best show he had seen inChicago, which is a rare compliment.Many members of the Citizens Boardattended the opening .performance,and the entire community seemed tobe involved in the production in someway or another--if only by came from the far cornersof the city to see The Abduction. Fullhouses enjoyed both nights of theopera. One of the surprises oI theentire show was the performance ofa young Hungarian boy named An­drew Foldi, who came as a graduatestudent to the University of Chicagojust at the close of the War. He24 made a splendid record here, and hasbeen studying at the Chicago MusicalCollege since leaving the University.Colwell's contributionPresident Colwell and his lovelywife, Annette, will be leaving at theend of the summer for Emory, andwill leave many real friends and ad­mirers who sincerely and deeply re­gret their leaving the University.Among this group are many of thealumni to whom Mr. Colwell hasgiven his time so generously duringthe past years. They have bought anew house in the Druid Hill sectionof Atlanta, and look with enthusismto shedding much of the administra­tive strain under which he has livedfor many years. As I have knownhim for twenty-five years, I am par­ticularly interested in his plans, andhave the greatest hopes that he andAnnette will have the kind of happi­ness which they both so much de­serve. Theirs has been an unusualcontribution to the University. An­nette, in her role as hostess on in­numerable occasions, and through hergeneral interest in many facets ofthe University life, has been a realfriend. Their daughter, Ann, who isspending this year at Grenoble willreturn to the University to worktoward a Master's degree in French;and Carter, their son, who is at Cam­bridge, hopes to go back to Cambridge'if Selective Service gives him anotherfree year before his military careerbegins:March meetingsMy earlier acid statements aboutMay perhaps ought to be precededby equally acid statements about themon th of March. March is the monthfor conventions, and the Dean ofStudents and his staff find it difficultto attend to their affairs between thebarrage of meetings. Mrs. McCarn'selection as President of the NationalAssociation of Deans and Advisers ofWomen was the most interesting pieceof news for us to come out of themeeting of the Personnel Associationsheld in Chicago. My own scheduleincluded a warming-up in Atlanta atsome meetings where I spoke' threetimes in twenty-four hours. I cameback to Chicago for the AmericanCollege Personnel Association con­clave, and then went immediately tothe National Association of StudentPersonnel Administrators in St. Louis; caught my breath briefly in my office,and then went on to the meeting ofthe National Association of ForeignStudent Advisers in Denver. The lat­ter one I normally would have missedif it had not been for the acute situ­ation of the Chinese students at thepresent time. This convention broughttogether the officials of the Depart­ment of State, Institute of Interna­tional Education, and the universitypeople particularly interested in theplight of foreign students.We have gone to. great length tosee that justice be done to the Chi­nese students who were caught in thiscountry by the turn of Korean events,the visas of a few being cancelled byimmigration authorities on the meresuspicion of their being in organiza­tions which. are inimical to the bestinterests of the country. The U ni­versity would certainly not want toharbor any undesirable alien. But wefelt, as did administrators at mostother universities, that the Chinesestudents caught in this country werereally victims of unhappy circum­stances, to whom, in almost all cases,no suspicion could be attached forany reason other than their merelybeing Chinese. Fortunately, the in­fluence of Senator Douglas and othershas brought a temporary stay of actionwhile the situation is explored morecarefully.Voting studentsThe student body has just under­gone the rigors of another campus­wide election-this one to choose thestudent delegates to the only nation­wide student Congress, sponsored bythe National Students Association,and to be held this August at theUniversity of Minnesota. The heatedcampaigning again brought home thesalient fact that the affairs' of ourstudents force upon them a cogni­zance of the important national andinternational issues. This year therising cost of student living, the ex­panded military' requirements of thecountry, and our students' relation­ships with their contemporaries ofother countries dominated the cam­paign. The magnitude and complex­ity of these national student problemsin some cases identically matches thescope of the so-called adult prob­lems of the day. The passing genera­tion certainly has no ground forselling the coming generation short.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENews of the QuadranglesMedical EvangelismBy Jeannette LowreyA CHICAGO HOTEL man whohas worked anonymously amonghis friends to raise funds for researchin ulcerative colitis, the exact cause ofwhich is unknown, saw the resultsof his medical evangelism in a newlyequipped laboratory at the Universityof Chicago Clinics.On the door to the laboratory isa plaque, dedicated to Leo Wallach;partner of the Fort Dearborn Hotel,who for two years has been a con­tributor and a fund-raiser for thework of a team of University ofChicago investigators.The plaque was placed at a cere­mony with Chancellor Lawrence A.Kimpton, President Ernest C. Col­well, Dr. Lowell T. Coggeshall, Dr.Walter Palmer and Dr. Joseph B.Kirsner speaking.Wallach, who became interested inulcerative colitis research when his son, a physician, became ill, has in­stalled a complete scientific laboratoryfor the investigators and is planningadditional facilities.Friends and business associates ofMr. Wallach and his son, numberingalmost 100, have also contributedgenerously for the purchase of drugsfor ulcerative colitis patients unableto afford the medication, and for re­search.Wallach made his first contributionto the university .in September of1949, and since then has made eightadditional contributions.New gift shopThe _first hospital gift shop inthe nation-the Mothers' Aid Giftshop at the University of ChicagoLying-in hospital-has added anotherfirst to its achievements. It is the firsthospital shop to open a branch store.An all-volunteer-service shop, theDarrell Bock, research assistant in the ulcerative colitis lab donated by Leo Wallach,Chicago hotel man, explains the use of the miracle drug ATCH to two patients, youngDavid Nagel, 7, and Dr. Howard Wallach, and to the donor, Leo Wallach.JUNE, 1951 brand new branch, located in theMark Nelson furniture store at 929South Linden, Hubbard Woods, isstaffed by north-shore members of the1,400-member Mothers' Aid.Proceeds will be used for maternalresearch and for the purchase of iso­lettes (incubators) for a new nurseryfor babies needing special care. Nowbeing designed at the hospital, thenursery will be dedicated to past presi­dent of Mothers' Aid, the 48-year­old Chicago organization founded tosupport the work of the late Dr.Joseph B. DeLee.The gift shop, tied in blue and pinkribbon for the May 5 grand opening,specializes, like the parent shop, ininfant and children's wear and inlingerie.I t also carries the Mothers' Aidbaby books - the best-seller, Baby'sFirst Seven Years, and The ScrapBook, for which Mothers' Aid is na­tionally famous-and imported ini­tialed handkerchiefs.Through its three business enter­prises, the gift shop, the baby books,and the handkerchief sales, theMothers' Aid has contributed a half­million dollars to Chicago's first ma­ternity hospital. The gift shop alone,since its founding, has contributed$85,000 to Chicago Lying-in hospitalto advance research in modern ob­stetrics and to carryon the programof the hospital.Of babies, burns, biologyBabies' naps, diet, basic processesof growth, new kinds of naturallyradioactive elements and shapes ofcells in their new approaches in basicscience were topics emanating fromthe University of Chicago and dis­cussed at the National Academy ofSciences Washington meeting and theFederation of American Societies forExperimental Biology Cleveland con­clave.University of Chicago investigatorstold Federation delegates that:Babies don't sleep as much asscientists hitherto thought, thoughthey do sleep much more than somemothers would admit. NathanielKleitman, professor of physiology, andTheodore G. Engelman, fellow, sum­marizing the first conclusive studyever made of the sleep habits ofbabies, determined: Thre�-week-oldbabies sleep about eight and one-halfhours at night and six and one-half25during the day; up to the fourteenthweek, the babies increase their nightsleep to a little over ten hours, butdecrease their day-time sleep propor­tionately; at six months, daytimesleeping is cut to three and one-halfhours with the total sleep over a 24-hour period to as little as 14 hours;boys and girls differ little in the lengthof time they sleep. -Large amounts of protein in the dietmay help undernourished victims ofshock, burns and surgery regain healthmore rapidly. Dr; R. W. Wissler,assistant professor of pathology, dis­covered in animal research that in­jured animals shifted to diets con­taining high quality proteins gainedweight and the proteins in their blood,bodies and liver increased rapidly.Tad pole shaped uiruses, 100,000thof an inch long, are successfully usedin studying the basic process of growth.By tagging the smallest living thingswith radioactive materials, the biolog­ical chemistry teams disproved theoriesthat virus reproduce merely by divid­ing, as one-celled animals do. Theydiscovered that parts of dead virusescan form a new generation of viruses.The heart, for the first time, hasbeen shown to absorb a drug andbreak it down into other compounds.Digitoxin, the drug obtained from thefoxglove, and one of the three chem­icals found in the heart drug digi­talis, was demonstrated to go to the. heart by students of Dr. E. M. K.Geiling and F. E. Kelsey of the phar­macology department. In animal re­search, the experiments showed thatthe initial uptake of the drug is rapid.The heart then continues to absorbthe drug at a slow but steady rate.Forty to 50 percent of the drug wasconverted to other compounds by theheart. The digitoxin could also belargely removed from the heart bysending fluids not containing the drugthrough the heart, results which mayaid in treating patients suffering over­doses of digitalis.At the Washington, D. C. meetingof the National Academy, physicalscientists said:Small amounts of the mineralspotassium, phosphorus and magne­sium are essential for the under­nourished body to make proper use ofprotein foods for building body tissue.A research team headed by Dr. PaulR. Cannon, chairman of the depart­ment of pathology, has shown thatthe omission of potassium from the26 diet could lead to eventual congestiveheart failure. As a result of the ex­periments, more attention will begiven to adding potassium, phos­phorus, and magnesium-contammgcompounds to the fluids used for in­travenous feeding of hospital patients.T he first consistent explanation forthe causes of the characteristic shapeof the cells of the tissue of the humanbody was given by Dr. Paul Weiss,professor of zoology, and BeatriceGarber, graduate student. The num­ber' of strands of fibrin, the solidmaterial, in the blood clot, the acid­ity of the environment of the cellsand the relative amounts of bloodplasma present are among the factorsthat determine the shape of cells. Thestudies are also applicable to cancercells which are known to changetheir shape under certain conditions.Ford funds to fourIn an experiment aimed at provid­ing two years of liberal education incollege prior to national militaryservice, the universities of Chicago,Columbia, Wisconsin, and' Yale thisautumn each will admit 50 men stu­den ts under 1612 years on September15, 1951.The two hundred students acceptedunder the program will receive pre­induction scholarships in liberal edu­cation under grants to -each of the­four universities by the recently­established Fund for the Advance­ment of Education of the Ford Foun­dation.A grant of approximately $300,000has been made to each of the fouruniversities by the Fund for the Ad­vancement of Education to financethis experiment - for a three-yearperiod. The Fund was created bythe Ford Foundation to assist in meet­ing Foundation obligations in the fieldof formal education.The four deans who organized thisproject are: F. Champion -Ward ofChicago; Mark H. Ingraham, Uni­versity of Wisconsin; Lawrence H.Chamberlain, Columbia; and WilliamC. DeVane, Yale. The basic assume­tion of the experiment is that "thequality of our national life, andthe personal resources and compe­tence of our young men, will be im­paired if college education is whollypostponed until after the period ofmilitary service. Experience in Eu­rope and limited experience in Amer- ica suggest that intelligent youngmen of normal emotional maturitycan profit from work of collegiaterigor and content at the age of six­teen."It has long been admitted thatthere is slack in the educationalprocess that should be taken up andten years ago the College of theUniversity of Chicago was so organ­ized as to take it up," F. ChampionWard, dean of the College, said atthe announcement of the experiment."The project provides a welcomeopportunity to evaluate the perform­ance of younger stu'dents in varioustypes of colleges and in differentprograms of liberal education."The Fund makes it possible toundertake an experiment that shouldhelp to determine whether or notthe American educational systemcan provide a liberal education forqualified students two years earlierthan it generally does today."In the face of the two-year inter­ruption which students are now facingbecause of the national emergencythis experiment also may help preventthe destruction of liberal education."The course of study to be followedwill be different in the four universi­ties, each institution using the pro­gram of liberal education it has beendeveloping over a number of years.The University of Chicago will fol­low the curriculum of general coursesit adopted in 1942 in the humanities,the natural and social sciences, for­eign language, mathematics, and writ­ing, with history and philosophy asmeans of integration. ' .New TrusteesThree new members have beenelected to the board of trustees ofthe University of Chicago.They are: Philip L. Graham, pub­lisher of the Washington Post; HomerJ. Livingston, president of the FirstNational Bank of Chicago; andGeorge A. Ranney, Jr., associatedwith the Chicago law firm of Sidley,Austin, Burgess & Smith.Graham, ,:36 years old, graduate ofthe University of Florida and Har­vard Law School, was law secretaryto Justice Stanley Reed, U. S. Su­preme Court, in 1939. He enteredthe Army Air Forces as a private in1942 and was discharged as a majorafter service in the Far East. Beis a director of the American Securityand Trust Company. His wife, theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEformer Katharine Meyer, is an alum­na of the University of Chicago.Livingston, 47, is a graduate of theJohn Marshall Law School. He ischairman of the stock trustees anda director and chairman of the execu­tive committee of the Chicago, In­dianapolis and Louisville Railway, anddirector of the Continental CasualtyCompany and of the Continental As­surance Company. Among his civicactivities, he is a trustee and treas­urer of the Art Institute of Chicago,a director and treasurer of the Chi­cago Boys' Club, a director of theUnion League Club, and a trusteeof the Mid-Day Club.Ranney, 39, is a graduate of YaleUniversity and the Yale Law School.He served as first lieutenant of artil­lery in the European theatre in WorldWar II. He is on the advisory boardof the North Side Boys' Club, ofwhich he is a former president; sec­retary of the Chicago Area project,board member of the Chicago ChildCare Society, chairman of the groupwork reviewing committee of theCommunity fund, and a trustee ofInternational House at Chicago.E. K. Brown diesEdward K. Brown, 45, Universityof Chicago professor of English andformer secretary to Prime MinisterW. K. Mackenzie King of Canada,died April 23 at Billings hospital aftera long illness.Mr. Brown; an authority on nine­teenth century English, American andCanadian literature, was appointed tothe University of Chicago faculty in1944.Author of eight books and morethan 60 articles for magazines andquarterlies, Mr. Brown, at the timeof his death, was working on a biog­raphy of Willa Cather. His 'book,On Canadian Poetry, received theGovernor General's award from theCanadian' Authors Association as thebest non-fictional prose written by aCanadian in 1943.His article, "Mackensie King ofCanada," appearing in Harper's mag­azine, was written after he served assecretary to the prime minister fromFebruary to August, 1942, on a con­fidential mission.He W2.S born in Toronto, Canada,August 12, 1905. Mr. Brown is sur­vived by his wife, the former Mar­garet Deaver, and two sons, Deaver,6, and Philip, 2.JUNE, 1951 cool, comfortable, good.lookingLIGHTWEIGHT ODD JACKETSmade exclusively for uson our own distinctive patternsBrooks Brothers have an outstanding selection ofOdd Jackets in all cotton, or nylon and rayon blends. .. in attractive plaids, houndstooth checks and otherexclusive designs ... in white with blue, black orbrown. And lightweight rayon fabric Odd Trousersin a choice of solid colors to wear with them.Odd Jackets, $21 to $25 • Odd Trousers, $13.25Also our celebrated lightweight suits, priced from$20.75 to $39. Sample swatches sent upon request.ESTABLISHED 1818�rflJ-J����I1L�lWJtn:s furnishings, Hats � _h Ots346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., :NEW YORK 17, N. Y.MADISON STREET AT MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 2, ILL.BOSTON • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO1897Burt Brown Barker, vice president emeri­tus of the University of Oregon, in Port­land, recently was awarded the MarianMiller Award for his outstanding contribu­tion to Oregon in the fields of historicalresearch and education. This brass plaqueis given annually for an important contri­bution to Oregon in any field. Dr. Barkeris working on his second volume on Dr.Jahn Mcl.oughlin.1901100% familyGrace Manning Dawning, '01,dropped in at Alumni Hause theother day to get some data far a50th anniversary directory which isbeing published by the Class of '01.We gat to talking about the earlydays and learned that her family isone hundred per cent Chicago.Grace met her husband, Elliot R.Downing, PhD '01, while he wasteaching at Chicago and earning hisdoctorate.After a decade at Northern Michi­gan College of Education in Mar­quette, the Downings returned to'Chicago where he joined the Univer­sity faculty.There were three children, George,'25, gat interested in art under Wal­ter Sargent, department chairman,and in Sargent's student secretary,Antonnette Forrester, '25. Thecouple married in 1928 and now live,with their two children, in Provi­dence, R. 1.Daughter Elizabeth, '27, has herM.D. from Rush, '32, and was on thestaff of the University laboratoryschools until five years ago whenshe opened her office in the Mary­land Building on 63d Street. She isa pediatrician and lives with hermother.Lucia, '31; is the youngest. LikeAntoinette, she was elected to Nu PiSigma and was an aide. She is mar­ried to James F. Hewitt, a Columbiagraduate. Their home, with fourchildren, is near Brooklyn, Michigan,where James is an antique dealer.1903Hermann I. Schlesinger, PhD '05, profes­sor emeritus at the University, will beawarded the Honor Scroll of the AmericanInstitute of Chemists. Dr. Schlesinger isbeing honored for his research in the fieldof inorganic chemistry, his outstandingwork as a teacher, and far his contribu­tions to the work of the Atomic EnergyCommission and the Office of Scientific Re­search and Development. The award willbe made at a dinner meeting to be held inthe fall.1904John B. Hamilton, AM, of Knoxville,Tennessee, is entering his tenth year as28 Professor Emeritus of mathematics at theUniversity of Tennessee.1906C. Arthur Bruce, JD '08, is warking withthe Secretary of Commerce as director oflumber and wood products in the divisionof national production.Hal Earl Norton is pastor of the FirstCongregatianal Church in Baraboo, Wis­consin.Howard L. Willett, president of one ofthe Midwest's largest trucking and charter­bus companies, is head of a new Chicagogroup called Greater Chicago Safety andTraffic Associatian-to study traffic prob­lems.1907Russell M. Wilder, PhD '12, MD '12, hasbeen appointed director af the recentlyestablished National Institute of Arthri­tis and Metabolic Diseases of the PublicHealth Service. Dr. Wilder retired lastDecember as head of the department ofmedicine of the Mayo Foundation andsenior consultant in medicine of the MayoClinic.1908Martha A. Cason has retired from teach­ing and is living in Greenville, Mississippi.Edgar N. Durfee, JD, has retired fromthe faculty of the University of MichiganLaw School. Looking back on his fartyyears at Michigan, Professor Durfee re­flected that "The law has changed a greatdeal during those years, but lawyers andlaw students remain the same." He ad­mitted "all legends concerning me aretrue," and described teaching the law as a"darn fine jab." He intends to continuehis research work.R. Ruggles Gates, PhD, of the Harvardbiological laboratories, was recently electeda life fellow of the Royal Society of Arts(Landan) and an honorary member of theBotanical Society of Japan.1909Viola A. Steele (Mrs. Frank M. Hodge)has, retired from teaching and is living inInglewood, California.1911Joy Franklin Stephenson lives in Austin,Minnesota, where she is executive secre­tary of the local Red Crass chapter. Herhusband is a feed, grain and coal dealer.1912William F. Clark, AM, af Duluth, re­cently had an article published entitled AnEpitome of Theology.Isaac Lippincott, PhD, professor emeritusand dean of the school of business and public administration at Washingtan Uni­versity, retired January 31, 1951.1913J. Haden Bretz, PhD, professor emeritusof geolagy at the University, was invitedby the Bureau of Reclamation at CouleeDam (Washington) to give his opinion onSouth American AlumniEleanor M. Burgess, '20, on a sab­batical in South America from theChicago 'School System, sends thefollowing report af alumni she hasvisited recently. She writes: "I havebeen to the Chilean Lakes . . . andthe Straits of Magellan ... then upto Buenos Aires by plane ... willbe in Rio by early June."Francisco J. A. Lacaze, SM '48, isa meteorologist at the Buenos AiresAirport.Jorge A. Boffi, SM '47, is a meteor­ologist in Buenos Aires.Major Manuel J. Olascoaga, SM '50,is chief of Meteorology, Division ofthe Army, Buenos Aires.Alberto R. Martinez, SM '48,weather forecaster at the BuenosAires Airport, has a tile manufac­turing factory in Argentina. He andhis wife, Pepita Fernandex, have adaughter, Hebe Manica, aged 18months.Mildred L. Dunham, '32, lives inSantiago, Chile. Her husband, Dr.Julio San Miguel, is a VeterinaryBacteriologist.Robert W. Moore, '43, is secondsecretary in the Palitical Section ofthe. American Embassy, Santiago.ChIle.Juan P. Horns, '38, is traffic man­ager of the Pan American Airwaysin Buenos Aires.Colette M. Newman, who did workat the University around 1931, livesin Buenos Aires, where her husband,Enrique Poinsteau, is on the staff ofthe Banco Hipoteario N acional.They have twa sons: Miguel, 8, andAndres Jose, three.Dr. Osvaldo A. Quijada, MBA '46,is dire�tar of the School of HaspitalTechnique and Administration inSantiago. He has one son and threedaughters in school in Santiago.the length of time since water last flawedthraugh the Grand Coulee, ice age gorgeof the Columbia River. Dr. Bretz is oneof five nationally known geologists towhom the request was sent. Reclamationengineers started the world's biggest waterlift at the Grand Coulee Dam about May1st, to' pump Columbia water 280 feet outof the reservoir above the dam. The 27mile channel will be filled with irrigationwater, and from the lower end, canals willdeliver the water to the dry sagebrushlands of the Columbia Basin Project, be­ginning in the spring of 1952. The ageof the gorge, since the Columbia last flowedTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthrough, has been variously estimated from8,000 to 25,000 years. Recent experimentsI in dating with radioactive carbon by Dr.Harold C. Urey resulted in the estimate of11,300 years interval since the end of thePleistocene age.1914George R. Murray will soon welcome hisson, Myron T. Murray, '47, JD '51, intothe law firm of Murray and McCarthy,Dayton, Ohio.1915Andrew P. Juhl, AM, of Fresno, Califor­nia, is in his fortieth year of teaching, allbut five of which have been in Fresno.1916Thirty-fifth Reunion, June 8, 1951.Also 1916-17 reunion, June 9, 195I.Asterisk (*) indicates alumnus hopesto be present.* Ethel Callerman Lanestrem lives in Chi­cago where her husband is personnel super­visor of the central division of A. T. & T.Marion Davidson lives in New York Citybut travels a lot to foreign shores. He issurveying bases in the West Indies for theguided missile range-also an air forcebase in Florida.'" Ralph W. Davis, a partner of Paul H.Davis & Co., investment securities, is nowboasting about 6 grandchildren. He sawIsabel Anderson in Texas and she sentword that she would return for reunion.Jean A. Dorrel teaches art in Washing­ton, D. C.Elsie Erickson and her husband, GeorgeW. Traver, '17, spend their winters in Flor­ida and their summers in Glenwood Springs,Colorado, on their ranch. He is chairmanof the board of Traver Corporation, cello­phane and metal foil products.Jane Dicker Troxell sends a card marked"Retired" from Palm Springs, California.Her home is in Maywood.Charles J. Eldridge, SM '18, MD '19, isa pediatrician in Kansas City, Missouri.Lee H. Griffin, of Chicago, is managingdirector in charge of the mid-west for Ginnand Company, school and college textbooks.David Gustafson, AM '27, is pastor of theWeirton (W. Va.) Heights Memorial Bap­tist Church.Helen Marie Hatten (Mrs. R. F. Hyde)of Flossmoor, Illinois, is not certain wheth­er or not she can be back for reunion.Arthur W. Haupt, PhD '19, is professorof Botany at the University of California,Los Angeles.Mrs. Helen Deuss Hill is a geneticist atthe U. S. Regional Pasture Research Lab­oratory at State College, Pennsylvania.* Jacob Horak, PhD '20, is principal ana­lysist with the Department of State.* Olive Greensfelder, one of the real sparkplugs of 1916 is a teacher and counselor atHorace Mann ;;chool, Gary, Indiana. Shewrites: "After having made a business oftrying to find the best colleges for variousstudents, have decided that we had arather unusual combination of real intel­lectual stimulus, above average for our day,and a good atmosphere for group activity.I'm grateful for what the U. of C. gaveme."Mary Elizabeth KolI Heiner is associateprofessor of research at New York CollegeJUNE, 1951 of Home Economics, Cornell. She is goingto Europe for a conference and visit.Lawrence 1- MacGregor: is president ofthe Summit Trust Company, New Jersey.He is actively interested in higher educa­tion for Negroes. He is board chairman ofAtlanta University and a trustee of More­house and Spelman Colleges. He is also di­rector of the Mutual Benefit Life Insur­ance Co., Newark.* Isabel MacMurry Anderson' is a rancher(A Bar A) in Medina, Texas. "I now have7 grandchildren. Wish I still had my houseon Green,:"ood Avenue for the Fridayparty ....Carey Martin, JD '22, is an attorney InPortland, Oregon.Mrs. Hildur M. N ordlander Ekdahl is apsychiatric social worker for the state ofMassachusetts. She is also owner of a guesthouse in Boston. Her husband, a dentist,died in 1934. One daughter is a researchtechnician at Cornell Medical College. An­other daughter is married and a son grad­uates in June from Boston UniversitySchool of Music as an organist and teacher.Ruth Prosser McLain, AM '18 writes:"I've been chiefly preoccupied with familyaffairs. My daughter was married April6th. Now I'm anticipating moving to anew home and enjoying the view andgarden before becoming over-active, in civicaffairs." She writes from Pasadena, Cali­fornia.Jesse Reeves Wren lives in New York.Her husband is a certified public account­ant. She has three children and threegrandchildren. Her son teaches law at theUniversity of Mississippi.Edith Thoren Channel is director ofhome economics at Wilmington (Ohio) Col­lege. Her husband owns and operates anautomatic laundry. Her son is director ofa settlement in Hawaii. Edith spent thesummer of 1949 in the Hawaiian Islands.Her daughter is a freshman in high school.Rex A. Todhunter is a postal clerk inGreenfield, Ohio.Alice E. Treat retired three years agoand now makes her home in Savanna, Illi­nois, with a relative.After the death of her husband, a physi­cian, Clara Westhafer Morrison returnedto live in her home town, Greenwood, In­diana.Katherine White Hotchkiss has lived inCalifornia (Redlands) since 1934. Her hus­band died in 1936.1917James H. S. Ellis, Jr., president of theKudner Agency, Inc., has moved his officesto 575 Madison Street, Chicago.Frederick W. Stavely, SM, PhD '22, ofAkron, Ohio, is director of research forthe Firestone Tire and Rubber Company.1918A letter from Sherman O. Cooper, ofChicago, written from Florida, sympathizeswith the alumni staff who can't do what heand wife Mary Creighton, '27, are doinguntil August: wandering from the Keysto California by car. He wrote to sendtheir Alumni Gift and express regret thathe would not be able to work on theChicago fund committee this year!Ida L. Oberbeck (Mrs. Edward A. Wieher,Sr.) writes that four small sons enliven thehousehold of Helen A. Brown, PhD '41(Mrs. Edward A. Wieher, Jr.), of SanFrancisco, and "grandmother gets her turnentertaining them in her Palo Alto homenow and then." 1919Sterling Bushnell is viee president andsales manager of the C. 'V. Breneman Co.,Cincinnati, manufacturers of shades andvenetian blinds since 1850. His brother,Elbert, is also with the company. Sterlinghas a son who was graduated from M.LT.Louis Wirth, AM '25, PhD '26, and hiswife, Mary L. Bolton, '20, and their daugh­ter, Alice, are planning a trip to France inJune to attend the meeting of the Interna­tional Sociological Association Execu tiveCommittee. 'Louis is president of theAssociation.1920Dan H. Fenn, AM, is minister of the Uni­tarian Church of Tucson, Arizona.Governor Stevenson's first three judicialappointments are all alumni of Chicago'slaw school: Circuit Judges Wendell Green,and Thomas' Kluczynski, '27, and SupremeCourt Justice Walter V. Schaefer, '26,JD '28.1921Thirtieth Reunion June 8, 1951. Todate 86 .report they plan to return­indicated by asterisk ("') before thename.Three of the governors of the MidwestStock Exchange are prominent Universityalumni: Andrew M. Baird, '21, ChancellorDougall, '21, and Ralph W. Davis, '16.Leora A. Janssen Munster and her hus­band, a retired lawyer, are living in Weav­erville, North Carolina.'" Ida Bond Osborn has retired from teach­ing high school in Chicago and lives inOak Park.1922Janet H. Child is an account executivefor radio station KVDA in Tucson, Arizona.Richard Foster Flint, PhD '25, professorof geology at Yale, has been in Europe lec­turing on recent developments in Pleisto­cene research. He lectures in Cambridge,London, and Paris.Elsie P. Wolcott (Mrs. Tremayne Hay­'den), of Chicago, is supervisor of the north­ern district of the Cook County Depart­ment of 'Velfare.1923Maurice J. Gilbert, JD '24, of Dayton,Ohio, is trial counsel for the law depart­ment of the City of Dayton.Thomas H. Long" JD '25, is assistan tgeneral counsel of Swift & Company, Chi­cago.Howard E. C. Wilson, AM '27, of NewYork City, is executive associate of. theCarnegie Endowment for InternationalPeace.1924Ruth Thomson, secretary to the vicepresident of General Motors in Chieago,made the "White Collar Girl" column inthe Chicago Tribune recently with thestory of her successful business career. Inher earlier career she was secretary to dean29of the College Boucher and later, ClarenceH. Faust when he was dean of the College.1925.Nelson Fuqua was recently elected vicepresident and copy director of Olian Ad­vertising Company, Chicago.1926Walter V. Schaefer, JD '28, is a candidatefor the nine year term of Justice of theIllinois Supreme Court for the 7th Judi­cial District. The election will be Mon­day, June 4. He was appointed to theSupreme Court last March by GovernorAdlai Stevenson to fill out the term orthe late Justice Wilson. As the only Demo­cratic judge on the seven man court, herepresents Cook, Will, Lade, DuPage andKankakee Counties.Joyc� A. Bearden, PhD, professor ofphysics and director of the radiation labora­tory at Johns Hopkins University, Balti­more, Maryland, has been awarded thehonorary degree of Doctor of Science byFurman University, Greenville, South Caro­lina.Mozel!e E. Craddock, AM, is manager ofthe Hemphill-Wells Tea Room in Lubbock,Texas.William H. Gray, AM, PhD '29, is teach­ing psychology at Kansas State TeachersCollege, Emporia, Kansas.Henry D. Hinton, SM, professor of chem­istry at the University of Notre Dame,was guest speaker at a meeting of the MaryK. Craig Class last January in Dallas,Texas.Hallie E. Rice is a special teacher ofremedial reading in the elementary gradesin Kenosha, Wisconsin.Lien Chao Tzu, AM, PhD '29 is teach­ing at Macalester College, St. Paul, Minne­sota.1927Walter N. Barnes is with the CentralTexas Press in Austin.Jack P. Cowen, '27, MD '31, islisted in the Chicago Red Bookunder "Practice limited to the eye:'But, apart from his professionallife bachelor Jack Cowen's leisure islimited to canvas and oils.During War II, CommanderCowen was an eye consultant for thenavy as far away as Okinawa andJapan where his off-duty hours wereoccupied in sketching and painting.It is a hobby he hasn't been able toescape from his Midway daysthrough his study at the ElschnigClinic at the University of Prague,to March, 1951, when he was chosen"Sunday Painter of the Month" inChicago with a canvas on exhibit atthe north side Esquire Theatre littleart salon.Jack's "Study in Form" was theprize-winning painting for March­the contest sponsored by This Weekin Chicago.Charles L. Odom, AM, is a psychologistfor the Veterans Administration in NewOrleans, Louisiana.Henry F. Otto is associated with the in­vestment house of Ball, Burge, and Krause,Dayton, Ohio.1928Glenn K. Kelly, AM, is superintendent ofNegaunee (Michigan) Public Schools. His30 wife, Regina Helm, AM '19, is president ofthe newly organized United Council ofChurch \:Yomen. in Negaunee. Glenn hasbeen doing. some writing and has had sev­eral of his articles published.Jerome F. Kutak, LLB, vice president ofthe Guarantee Reserve Life InsuranceCompany, Chicago, has had his book, "Prin­ciples of Claim Adjusting," published byCallagan and Company.Doris Mode, lay-analyst on the staff ofthe Institute for Rankian Psychoanalysis,Inc., in Dayton, Ohio, had an article onGod-Centered Therapy, a criticism of cli­ent-centered Therapy in a recent issue ofThe Journal of Pastoral Care.Alven M. Wei!, MD '32, a specialist inobstetrics and gynecology in Akron, Ohio,is a member of the staffs of the two majorhospitals of that city. Under his leader­ship, each of those hospitals has effectedan arrangement with Dr. William J. Dieck­man, chairman of the department of ob­stetrics and gynecology at the University ofChicago, by which a resident in obstetricsin each of the Akron hospitals spends ayear working under the direction of Dr.Dieckman in Lying-In Hospital. Each ofthe residents thus receives six months ofresearch training and six months of clin­ical training of a kind unavailable inAkron and of a quality unexcelled in theworld.Ruth D. White (Mrs. Hugh F. Engler),traveling supervisor with Stoaffer Corpora­tion, Cleveland, is President of this year'snational convention of the women in busi­ness group of the National Home Econom­ics Association.-1929Edith Adams, of La Porte, Indiana, is amember of the board of directors of Indi­ana State Nurses Association and of theIndiana State League of Nursing Educa­tion. She is a school nurse and a parlia­mentarian of the La Porte branch of A. A.U.W.Annette .M. Allen (Mrs. Robert E. LeeMassey) has joined the sales department ofMcKey & Poague, Inc. and will be locatedat their Beverly Hills office. Henry Ken­nedy, '20, is sales manager of that company.Clara D. Haertel (Mrs. Edward Torg-er­son) is principal of Colman School, Chi­cago.1930Dorothy Altheide is in charge of secre­tarial science at South Dakota State College,Brookings. Formerly secretary at the Gen­eral Electric X-Ray Corporation, she hadtaul5�t in high school before accepting thispOSItIOn two years ago.Virginia L. Anderson is a social workerfor the State Crippled Children's Programin Opportunity, Washington.Andrew Kobal and his family are livingin Japan where Andrew is doing confi­den pal work with the Navy.Elizabeth P. Lam, AM, PhD '39, is withthe administration of the government Ful­bright Exchange Program, National Re­search Council, Washington, D. C.1931Lewis R. RoI!, MD '41, of Kirkland,'Washington, is a physician at the FerlandSanatorium in Seattle.John B. Holt is with the U. S. State De­partment Foreign Service, in Berlin, Ger­many. 1932Edwill H. Pritchard, AM, of Maywood,Illinois, was elected president of the West­ern Material Company, Chicago, on De­cember 1, 1950.Joe Salek, director of the San AntonioLittle Theater, was guest director for theFebruary production of the Amarillo LittleTheater. He directed "Goodbye, MyFancy," a play which he repeated in SanAntonio in May.1933Leonard S. Cottrell, Jr., PhD, of Ithaca,New York, is Dean of the College of Artsand Sciences at Cornell University.Joseph Nelson, JD '36, is an executivewith Schaffer Belts, Inc., New York City.Roswell H. Whitma'n, PhD, is on a tWO­year assignment as economic counselor atthe American Embassy in Oslo, Norway.His. wife, Mary E. McKeon, '31, is in Osiowith him.1934John A. P. Bell is vice president of pub­lic relations for the New York firm ofWebb and Knapp.Wilbur J. Glendening, JD '34, has hisnew law office at 49 Nuenich Court, Ham­mond, Indiana.Col. Gladen R. Hamilton, MD, is aphysician at Walter Reed Army HospitaLWashington, D. C.Charles C. Hauch, AM '36, PhD '34, ofArlington, Virginia, is international rela­tions officer in the Bureau of Inter-Ameri­can Affairs of the Department of State.He represented the Bureau at the Decem­ber, 1950, session of the American His­torical Association in Chicago. Mrs. Hauch(Ruthadele La Turrette, AM '39) is activein Arlington School work and is secretaryof the local PTA. They have th ree daugbters: Priscilla, 81'2; Charlotte, 5Y2, anuValerie, 2.Vera Ford PoweP, AM, of Philadelphia,was a recent co-au thor of an article in TheElementary School Journal. The articlewas titled Speech Correction in KanawahCounty Schools (Charleston, West Virginia).Edward L. Ullman, PhD '42, has been ap­pointed to the staff of the department ofgeography at the University of Washing­ton, Seattle, and will begin work there inthe autumn of 1951.William H. Sills, Chicago investmentbanker, was recently elected a director ofthe Frontier Power Company of Triniada,Colorado.William Zukerman is controller for theC. C. Anderson Stores Company in Boise,Idaho.1935William A. Burns is vice president andsales manager of Trailmobile in Cincin­nati, Ohio. His wife is Florence Gerufg",'33. They have three children: Billy, 9;Bobby, 7; and Bonnie, 3.Arthur L. Chandler, MD '39, of LOSAngeles, California, is psychiatric directOrof the Psychiatric CliniC of Beverly Hills.Willard G. De Young, MD, is clinic�lassistant professor in Medicine at the UnI­versity of Illinois College of Medicine,Chicago.Robert Diefendorf is associated with Mc­Kinsey & Company, management consult­ants, in New York City.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJack R. Greenfield, of Chicago, writesthat his daughter, Hazel Greta, was bornSeptember 13, 1950.Dr. Gordon McNeil, AM '37, chairman ofthe division of social studies and professorof history at Coe College, Cedar Rapids,Iowa, has been elected to a three-year termon the national council of the AmericanAssociation of University Professors.William C. Norby, of La Grange, Illinois,writes that his son, Richard James, wasborn October 6, 1950.James H. Wellard, PhD, Chicago Sun­Times foreign correspondent, is the authorof the novel, "Woman Returning."1936Oscar L. Ginsburgh, of Pittsburgh" Penn­sylvania, has charge of Personnel Cost Con­trol for Gimbel Brothers' store.Barbara Vail Laird has announced herengagement to John McNeil, '30, assistantsecretary of the trust department of theNorthern Trust Company Chicago, Thewedding is set for June 2, 1951. John, aDKE, has lived with his widowed mothersince college days. His sister, Evaline Mc­Neil Garvey, is of the class of 1933.Bernice J. Levin, AM '37, PhD '43, (Mrs.Fritz Neugarten) is assistant professor ofthe Committee on Human Development atChicago.1937c. Ruth Hillis, AM, was married toMaurice F. Seay, PhD '43, chairman ofthe department of education at Chicago, onJuly 15, 1950. Gertrude E. GscheidleBooks plus"Public libraries," reports Gertrude E.Gscheidle, '37, MA '49; "are no longer justbook agencies; they are concerned with allmediums of communication," As ChiefLibrarian of the Chicago Public library,Miss Gscheidle is in a position to proveher statement.In this capacity she administers theaffairs of two million books, 1200 people,56 branch libraries and the departments­ranging from art to education-in the mainlibrary building. In addition to theseservices the library also has two mobileunits one of which, housed in a largetruck, carries 2500 books and a staff of three into outlying south side communi­ties. Visiting each community once aweek it averages a business of about 800books a day.The exhibit lobby in the downtownbuilding, Miss Gsheidle feels, is a real con­tribution to adult education. Here areshown coins, stamps, and exhibits on inte­rior decoration and the works of otherChicago. civic agencies. Occasionally theart department takes over and displays theworks of .Chicago artists and collectors.Besides books, the library lends films,slides and records. The latter, MissGscheidle points out, are of interest tomany people other than music lovers. Inthe collection are records designed tohelp students learning foreign languagesand recordings of current events and folk­lore.Miss Gscheidle has been with the Chi­cago Public Library for 26 years. In Sep­tember, 1950, she scored over 11 candidatestaking a civil service examination and be­came Chief Librarian-the first woman tohold that position since the institution wasfounded in 1873.1938Dorothy St. John Cooke, of Bethesda,Maryland, is a survey statistician for theCensus Bureau in Suitland, 'Maryland.Rene S. Oshana, AM, is with the ArmyEducation Center in Berlin, Germany.Robert C. Painter, MD '41, received hisS.M. degree from the University of Minne­sota in December, 1950.Arthur W. Raack, of Chicago, was mar­ried to Clara E. Vawter on February 3,1951, in Falls Church, Virginia. Mrs. Raackis a graduate of the University of Mary­land.A NEW JUST OUT!OF THEGOA HANDSOME, 17x20" PICTORIAL VIEW OF THE CAMPUS AS IT APPEARS IN JUNE, 1951in. maroon, gray and blueIncluding:All recently started structures!Portraits of leaders from Harper to KimptonBuildings Planned lor the Future Sent unfolded in a mailing tube for only $1.00Quantity prices on request(Be sure to include name and addresswith your check)GREAT LAKES PUBLISHING CO., 1223 E. 55th St., CHICAGO 15JUNE, 1951 31w. B. CONKEY CO.HAMMOND, INDIANASALES OFFICES: CHICAGO AND NEW YORKADVANCEENGRAVING COMPANYPhoto EngraversArtists - ElectrotypersMakers of printing plates426 S •. Clinton HArrison 7·3440POND LETTER SERVICEEverythin« in LeuersHeevu Type.rltlalMultlgraphlnlAddre .. ograph S,nl ..Highest Quality Slnl., M Imeogrepttl ••Addre"la.Mallia.Mlnlmu .. "rl.,.All Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMI 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisRESULTS ...depend on getting the details RIGH1PRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Folding - MailingA Complete Service lor Direct Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn St., Chrcago 5, Ill.WAbash 2-4561PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work A SpecialtyQuality Book Reproduction731 Plymouth Cour+WAbash 2-8182CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3-3935"GoOll Printin, 01 All De,criptioll'"32 Harleigh B. Trecker, AM, professor ofsocial work at the University of SouthernCalifornia, will become dean of the Schoolof Social Work at the University of Con­necticut, Hartford, effective next fall.. Hewill continue to teach at Southern Cali­fornia this spring.Loren C. Belknap, AM, of Pullman,Washington, is an instructor in sociologyat Washington State College.Olin R. Houston is a meteorologist withthe U. S. Weather Bureau in San Juan,Puerto Rico.Joseph E. Meritt, Jr., MD, is a physicianin Las Cruces, New Mexico.Louise Galst Wechsler, AM '44, of Val­lejo, California, former member of thecabinet and an officer in one of the BayArea clubs, writes: "I'd like to introducea future member of the U. of C. alumnifamily. She's the big news in our familycircle these days ... " She is Marsha Francesand arrived March 17, 1951.1939Frederick C. Bock, PhD '50, of Chicago,is head of the statistical section of theresearch division. of Armour and Com­pany, specializing in design and analysis ofexperiments.Robert H. Buchbinder, of Roselle, NewJersey, is a salesman for Wyeth, Inc., Phila­delphia, Pennsylvania.Robert S. Fouch, SM '40, is assistantprofessor of mathematics at Arizona StateCollege, Tempe, Arizona.Frances Mae Hanson, SM '41, is assistantprofessor of geography at the Universityof Pittsburgh.Louise V. Holstein, AM, is a counselor atChicago Teachers College.Marie T. Kan, AM '42, is an instructorin English at the University of Wisconsmextension school in Milwaukee.Beatrice Washburne was married to JohnE. Visher on January 27, 1951. John is theson of S. S. Visher, '09, SM '10, PhD '14,of Bloomington, Indiana.1940Capt. Edward S. Kennedy is stationedat Camp Atterbury, Indiana. He has twosons: Charles, 3, and James, one.1941Richard V. Bovbjerg, PhD '49, has beenpromoted to assistant professor of zoology,effective July I, at Washington University,SL Louis, Missouri.Muriel L. Evans and her husband, HughRendleman, of Davenport, Illinois, an­nounce the birth of a son, Mark, on Janu­ary 13, 1951.A blue bordered and ribboned card fromBernard A. Gourwitz of Detroit announcesthe arrival of David Alter on April 2,1951. Dad is a member of a firm operatinga string of supermarkets in Detroit.Sarah H. Rickman Harris' daughter,Laura Jean, was born November 11, 1950,to joint Anita, nearly I Y2. They live inAlbany, New York.Joseph L. Fleming, MD '44, of Brooklyn,New York, was married to Bette Maga inMay, 1950_ He expects to complete hisyear of residency training as an ortho­paedic surgeon in July.M. Jackson Underwood, LLB '42, is anattorney in Las Cruces, New Mexico.1942 F our of a kindIn the late thirties Vernon Jim,attending high school on the Islandof Maui, Hawaii, met our Dr. FredAdair of the department of Obstet­rics.Vernon then and there decided hewanted to "attend our medical school.After a fine scholastic record in pre­medics at the University of Hawaii,he was admitted to Chicago and re­ceived his S.B. in 1942; his M.D. in1944.On the quadrangles he met andmarried Miss Yun Soong Chock, '43,SM '44 (Botany). The picture ofthe Jim family was furnished byRuth E. 'Wentworth, '25, who re­ceived it on a Christmas card fromWailuku, Maui, T. H., where Dr.Jim practices medicine.Dr. Robert Jim, '45, MD '48, is abrother of Vernon and anotherbrother, Edward, is now on theMidway.1943John Hathaway Blackledge, BD, was or­dained to the order of deacons in theEpiscopal Church on May 8, 1951, atBaltimore, Maryland.John H. Kent, PhD, of Burlington, Ver­mont, is professor of classics at the UnI­versity of Vermont.Richard G. Bolks is merchandise man­ager . for Sears Roebuck and Company,Mobile, Alabama.Elmor Brill, of Seattle, Washington,writes that his daughter, Barbara, was bornNovember 30, 1950.Theodore E. Ridley, MBA '45, is CityManager of Slater, Missouri.1944Flor;.t I. Brown, AM, of Berkeley, Cali­fornia, is a field work supervisor at theUniversity of California.Welborn L. Dimmett, of Hinsdale, Illi­nois, is with the credit department ofRyerson & Son, Inc., Chicago.George P. Makas received his A.M. de­gree from the University of Minnesota inDecember, 1950.Dale M. DeLaitsch received his Ph.D·from the University of Minnesota in De­cember, 1950.J. Edward McGaughy, SB '45, is a lec­turer in mathematics and a graduate stu­dent at Columbia University, New yorkCity.Betty Jane Rosenheim was married toArthur W. Hepner in May, 1951. The_Ylive in New York City where Betty ISassociated with a slum clearance and urbanredevelopment organization. Mr. Hepner isa free-lance writer for magazines, motionpictures and television.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAlice K. Sheehan was married to JohnH. A. Cross, of New York City, on April 7,1951. Alice is a member of Governor'Dewey's secretarial staff. Mr. Cross, agraduate of the University of California,is assistant account executive with theCompton Advertising, Inc., New York City.1945Mrs. Albert H. Diamondstone was writ­ten up recently in the Vallejo, California,Times for her work in founding a pre­nursery school for non-working motherswho need tirrie off for themselves.l Gay Follmer Deal, of Laguna Beach,California, writes: "My husband havingfinally gotten a degree in chemical engi­neering from lIT is now back in theMarine Corps flying fighter planes. Con­sequently, the Deals-including Evans, age4, and Rebecca, age 9 months-have landedhere on the edge of the Pacific about 15tniles from EI Toro, the Marine Air Base.r.l would be happy to hear from alumni inthis area, especially musical ones whowould be interested in trios or quartetsand need a cellist."Jeanne M. Foley is a psychometrist atthe Human Engineering Laboratory, Chi­cago.Donald A. Rowley, SM '50, MD '50, andhis wife, Janet B. Davidson, MD '48, areboth interning at the U. S. Marine Hos­pital in Chicago. Don expects to continuein research at the National Institute ofHealth in Bethesda.Richard L. Shriner, MD '48, is a lieu­,tenant (j.g.) in the Navy Medical Corps,stationed at Parris Island, South Carolina.Harvey N. Smith is a meteorologist inthe U. S. Army Air Force, stations at An­drews Field, Washington, D. C.Rhoda H. Stratton, SB '47, SM '48, isengaged to be married to William C. Ashby,'17, PhD '50. Rhoda is on the faculty ofIowa State Teachers College in Cedar Falls.The wedding is planned for early summer.1946Harriett R. Berger Koch's book, "Mili­tant Angel," a biography of Annie W.Goodrich, first Dean of the Yale School ofNursing, was recently published by theMacmillan Company.Charles F. Berryman is studying at theSacred Heart Seminary in Shelby, Ohio.Ann M. Budy, a research student in the'department of physiology and toxicity lab­oratory at the University, is at Oak Ridge(Tennessee) Institute of. Nuclear StudiesStudying the techniques of using radioiso­topes in research. She plans to use radio­isotopes in bone studies.Frances B. Cappon was married toGeorge J. Phocas, '50, on September 9,1950. Frances has been editing The Chi­cago Public Library Book Bulletin. Georgeis a law student at Chicago.Lucian Chimene is engaged to be mar­tied to Vera G. Colbert, of Chicago. M:issColbert is with her father's firm, the HenryColbert Concert Management, and Lucianis serving with the Armed Forces.Edwin G. Clement, MBA '47, is a major inthe Air Corps, stationed in Fort Worth,Texas.William D. Conwell, of St. Louis, Mis­souri, will graduate from Columbia Uni­versity's Law School in June, at whichtime he will become associated with theNew York law firm of White and Case.Robert B. Ellis, AM '49, of Hyattsville,M:aryland, has been doing writing andliaison work for the Committee on Inter­national Relations of the National Educa-�UNE, 1951 tion Association. His son, Mark Winston,was born in February, 1951.Rev. John E. Felible is clergyman of theSecond Congregational Church in GrandRapids, Michigan.Nicholas Gordon, of New York City, isassociated with Weintraub and Associates,advertising agency.Charles D. Kelso, JD '50, of Washington,D. C., is a law clerk for Justice Minton.Alfred I. Schwartz, SM '48, is studyingat the University of Maryland.Floyd S. Standiffe, MD, has his privatepractice in Superior, Montana, where heis County Health Officer and Physician.His son, James Dennis, was born February20, 1951.Paul E. Zuelke, MD, is a physician inBeavertown, Oregon.1947George E. Backus, SB '48, SM; '50, wasmarried to Meera McCraig on February 18,1951. TheyTive in Chicago and Georgeis continuing his studies at the University.Lawrence A. Blasberg, SM '50, of Brook­lyn, New York, is a physicist at the EvansSignal. Laboratory, Belmar, New Jersey.Ruth F. Boswell was married to L. D.Williams in February, 1949. Ruth is anurse for the Department of Health inYakutat, Alaska.Byron J. Burgeson is a budget clerk forthe Gulf Oil Corporation in Fort Worth,Texas.Daniel M. Crabb is studying at the Uni­versity of Miami, Florida.Henry Demler is a minister in Friend,Nebraska.Robert L. Eddy, MBA '49, was recalledto active duty as a Reserve Air Force officerin August, 1950, from his home in Heidel­berg, Germany. He returned to the U. S.and is now assistant director of intelligenceof the Tenth Air Force. "Ran into JulesMandel, '48, in New York in January ...Jules is currently serving on the staff ofthe International Resettlement League, andliving in Hamburg, Germany. He was inNew York on business and a short vaca­tion."Col. Thomas E. Gurnett, MBA, is amember of the faculty of Naval War Col­lege, Newport, Rhode Island.John W. Low, MBA '48, is an insuranceunderwriter for Hardware Mutual Insur­ance Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.John M. McCrae, SM, PhD '40, of To­ronto, Canada, is a spectrometer operatorfor the M. W. Kellogg Company, JerseyCity, New Jersey.Murray Mogel, of Brooklyn, New York,recently returned from Labrador, has de­parted for South Africa, where he maymake his permanent residence.Bernard M. Olsen, Jr., AM '50, is teach­ing at .Indiana University, Bloomington,Indiana.Lea Pollak, AM, was married to MarvinMageid on March 26, 1951. Lea is a socialworker in Long Beach, California.John K. Robinson, AB '48, is studyingfor his masters at Stanford University. Heis continuing the work he did at Chicagoin student promotion by devoting some ofhis spare time to interviewing prospectiveChicago students in the Bay Area. He says:"Why not more letters from alumni-aforum of some kind."James C. Sheers was married to HarrietMarling on January 31, 1951, in Paris,France. Miss Marling is a graduate ofSmith College. They will live in Paris.A. W. Skardon, Jr., AM, is the adviserto foreign students and activities directorof International House at the University. 3 HOUR SERVICE3 HOUR SERVICEEXCLUSIVE CLEANERSAND DYERSSlnce I9201442 and 1331 E. 57th St.•EVENING GOWNSAND FORMALSA SPECIALTYMidway ������ • w. call/orand".rBIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 99 YearsChicago·s most completeprescription stoclc23 N. Wabash AvenueChicagoWHOLESALE RETAILBOYDSTON BROS.. INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.OAkland 4-0492•Auto Livery•Quie', unobtrusive serviceWhen you want it, as you want itCALL AN EMERY flRSlEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4·640033Real Estate and In8tlf"ance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-25254gteUlHd\:iJ'fUC1'IUCAl SUPPLY CO.DIstrIbutors, Manulacturers and Jabbers .,ELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500Phones OAklanc;l 4-0690-4-0691-4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awning. and Canopi •• for A" Purpo •••4508 Cottage Grove AvenuePENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps1545 E. 63RD STREE16620 COnAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4-01lS0PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE1545 EAST 63RD STREET\.COLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone HYde Park 3-6324Lunches: 45c up; Dinners: $l.25-$2.25SinceJ895SURGEONS'INSTRUMENTSof ALL TYPESOFFICE and HOSPITALEQUIPMENT and FURNITUREAll Phones: SEeley 3-2J80v. MUELLER & CO.340 S. HONORE STREETCHICAGO 12, ILLINOIS34 1948Peter C. Anderson, MBA, of Lake Forest,Illinois, is a salesman [or the Society forVisual Education, Chicago.Mary Bacall, AM, was married to LeonB. Hester on January 6, 1951. Mary is asocial worker in Boston, Massachusetts.Alan W. Barnett, of Homestead, Florida,is a student in the graduate English depart­ment at Columbia University, New York.Richard K. Bernstein, of Trenton, NewJersey, is completing his studies at theSorbonne in Paris.Rita Ann Blumenthal was married: toYale J. Kramer, '50, on March 18, 1951.They live in Chicago where Rita is secre­tary to the publisher of Field Enterprises.Constance Foley, AM, of Evanston, Illi­nois, is spending a year abroad and plansto study for a part of that time at theUniversity of London.Sidney C. Furst, of Forest Hills, NewYork, is completing his studies for theMaster's degree in Dramatic Literature atColumbia University.W. Ferguson Hall, SM, of Arlington, Vir­ginia, is special assistant to the Chief ofthe U. S. Weather Bureau in Washington,D. C. His son, Craig, is two years old.Robert J. Kilpatrick is a member ofWalt Disney's legal department. He andhis wife, Patricia J. Murphy, live in BeverlyHills, California.Brunhilde Metlay, AM, was married toJesse Goodman on October 22, 1950. Brun­hilde is a social worker for Family Servicein Jersey City, New Jersey.David Pearl, AM, PhD '50, of Kalamazoo,Michigan, is a clinical psychologist at theFt. Custer VA Hospital.James W. Phelps received his Bachelorof . Laws degree from the University ofDenver in 1950-fifth in a class of 145.After having sold real estate part-timeduring his school days, he is now head ofhis own company: South Denver Realtyin Denver, Colorado.Mrs. Ruth L. Olson, AM, is an executiveof a social agency in San Mateo, California.Hsiao Lan Kuo, Phd, of Cambridge,Massachusetts, is a research associate in thedepartment of meteorology at Massachu­setts Institute of Technology.Martin F. Sturman, of Syracuse, NewYork, is completing his third year at theNew York State College of Medicine.Wallace B. Turner, MBA, is with thetax study committee, Chamber of Com­merce, Honolulu, Hawaii.Marvin Lee White, SM, of Sweet Springs,Missouri, is an astrophysicist with theCivilian Department of Army Engineering,now in the Azores.Lester E. Wills, Jr., was married toBetty Tribble, of Clinton, South Carolina.No date was given. The couple will livein Spartanburg, South Carolina; whereLester is a reporter for the SpartanburgHerald.Mayo R. Rolph Barrett, AM, is legisla­tive chairman of the League of WomenVoters in Athens, Ohio.Lindley H. Clark, Jr., AM, of Flushing,New York, is a member of the staff of theWall Street Journal.Theodore Hooker, MD, of Santa Clara,California, is a physician in the Navy,stationed in San Francisco.Donald C.· Jameson, of Lombard, Illinois,temporarily is with the Hughes AircraftCompany, electronic laboratory, Los An­geles. He and his wife, Helen R. Jameson,1949 Telephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL Florist826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago IS, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLGolden Dirilyte(fo"",,"'y Di"igolll)The Lifetime TablewareSOUD - N01' PL.ATEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrysbl. Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, III.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETELEVISIONDrop in end see e proqrernRADIOSFrom consoles to portablesRadio- TV ServiceAt home or shopELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefriqeretors RlS ngesWashers BlanketsSPORTING GOODSFor su seasonsRECORDSPopular-SymphoniesFine collection for childrenHEN �J1IAII\V.Ji935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone MIdway 3-6700Robert Gaertner, '34 Julian Tishler, '33Telephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON &. BROS� Inc.Fresh Fruits and Vegetabt'esDi,tributorl ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN �RESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketLA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago, Other Plant,Boston - N.Y. - Phil. - Syracu,. - ClevelandI "Yo. Mighl A. W.II "0.0 Tho 8 •• ,"Old. .. fashioned.good.ness .. aNew creamysmoothness!Same rich flavor as ice cream made in anold-fashioned freezer, blended to newcreamy smoothness-that's Swift's Ice Cream![Swift & CompanyA product of 7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliff 3-7400I UNE, 1951 '49, presently are living in Venice, Cali­fornia.Carl A. Kasten, MBA, is business man­ager at Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa.John D. Lehman, MBA, has moved fromNaperville to Ripon (Wisconsin) College.Miriam Evans Mahood, AM, and herhusband, -Dr. Leland H. Mahood, DB '49,announce the birth of a daughter, Rebecca,on December 21, 1950.Lawrence P. Malkin, of New York City,will graduate from Columbia College inJune.Arthur S. Nichols, Jr., expects to gradu­ate from Macalester College, St. Paul, Min­nesota, in June, 1951. He writes that hisdaughter, Mary Katherine, was born Febru­ary 1, 1951.Ruth E. Outlaw, AM, is an instructor inthe department of education at PrairieView (Texas) A & M College.Frances J. Rothstein, AM, was marriedto Aaron 'Seidman, AM '49, on March 24,1951. They live in Chicago, where Francesis a social worker.Gabriel G. Rudney, AM, of Alexandria,Virginia, is an economist for the Bureauof Labor Statistics.Khalil U. Siddiqi, SM, is a meteorologistfor the U. S. Weather Bureau in Risalpur,Cantt., Pakistan, India.M. S. H. Siddiqi, SM, a graduate stu­dent at the University, was married toKaniz Ataullah, AM '48, PhD '50, on Janu­ary 12, 1951.Joyce W. Silk, SM, was married to Rich­ard Walther, who is stationed at Ft. Lee,Virgil:ia. The date of their marriage wasnot gIven.Lois E. C. Tyree, AM, is a social workerfor the Travelers Aid Society, in Miami,Florida.Le�nart N. Thunstrom, of Chicago, isstudying at Rensselaer Polytechnic Insti­tute, Troy, New York, on an alumnischolarship.Edith F. Taylor, AM, is a medical socialworker in Seattle, vVashington.. Mary H. Taylor, of South Bend, Indiana,lS studying at McGill University, Montreal,Quebec, Canada.Saul Alford is engaged to be married toMuriel Schaeffer, of New York City. MissSchaeffer is majoring in mathematics atHunter College. Saul is studying at theCity College of New York for a B.S. inchemistry.Ruth Jean Black was married to GeorgeJ. Fulkerson, '49, on January 29, 1951.They live in Detroit, where Ruth is fielddirector of the Campfire Girls.Maurice A. Crane, AM, and his wife,Elayne S. Neff, AM, announce the birthof a daughter, Abigail Jo, on February 23,1951. They are living in Urbana, Ill inois,where Maurice is a graduate assistant onthe University- of Illinois freshman rhetoricstaff.Jean P. Jordan dropped in at Al umniHouse April 20 to pay his membershipdues. He was to be married the followingday to Helen McClurg, a graduate of theUniversity of Oklahoma who took work onthe Midway in 1948-49. He is doing gradu­ate work in the Divinity School and willstudy for the Episcopal priesthood.William S. Storey, MBA, is associateeditor of the "American Metal Market" atl?e New York head office of the publica­tion.Okey R. Swisher, AM, of ClevelandHeights, Ohio, is minister and executivesecretary of the Congregational Union ofCleveland .• 1950• TREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Diree# Fadory DealerforCH RYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMUseum 4-4500AI.oGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair,Body, Paint, Simonize, Washand Greasing DepartmentsT. A. REHNQUIST co.VEST. 1929CONCRETEFLOORS - SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSINDUSTRIAL FLOORINGEMERGENCY REPAI,R WORKCONCRETE BREAKINGWATERPROOFINGINSIDE WALLS6639 S. Vernon AvenueNOrmal 7·0433BOYDSTON BROS., INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor BilIing$ HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and licensed attendantsBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's HotelIn theUniversity of Chicago D!strictOffering Grac"ful Living to Uni­versity and Business Women .tModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave.' TelephonePLaza 2-3313Verna P. Werner, Director35RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192TuckerDecorating Service1360 East 70th StreetPhone Midway 3-4404GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting-Deco rating-Wood Finishing3123Lake Street PhoneKEdzie 3-3 186HYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING. BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake' Park Ave.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579TELEPHONE TAylor 9-54550' CALLAGHAN BROS.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS2' SOUTH GREEN ST.'Phone: SAginaUJ 1-3202FRANK CURRA.NRoofing & InsulationLeak. RepairedF ,ee Edimate.FRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.77U Luella Ave.36 Marvin L. Wilt, MBA, is with theArabian-American Oil Com pan y inDhahran, Saudi, Arabia.Elisabeth C. Zaruba, AM, is engaged tobe married to Stanley W. Starr. Mr. Starris a graduate of New York University.Elisabeth is teaching first grade in theBedford Hills (New York) High School.memoria!Rudolph M .. Binder, DB '97, died Oc­tober 16, 1950, in Newburgh, New York.Mamie Brightwell, '18, died March 13,1951, at her home in Fort Worth, Texas.Daniel Buchanan, PhD '11, professoremeritus of mathematics and dean emeritusof the faculty of arts and sciences at theUniversity of British Columbia, died inVancouver December 1, 1950, at the ageof 70. He was a specialist in celestialmechanics.Frank Clayton Cleveland, '01, died athis home in Chicago on April 10, 1951.Antonio Goubaud-Carrera, AM '43, Gua­temalan Ambassador to the U. S., diedMarch 8, 1951, in Guatemala City.Carl W. Clark, MD '15, died February10, 1951, in San Francisco, California.Joseph A. Farmer, MD '40, died June 28,1950, in Hartford, Connecticut.Dell S. Carby, PhD '28, died March 18,1951, in Saratoga, Califotnia.Albert A. Graham, '23, principal of theSherrard Intermediate High School in De­troit, Michigan, died September 25, 1950.Martin H. Haertel, '01, died in FallsChurch, Virginia, on March 9, 1951, afteran illness of four months. He was a formermayor of that city.Florence Curtis Hanson, '09, died at herhome in New Haven, Connecticut, inFebruary, 1951.Harriett Harding, AM '16 (Mrs. WilliamA. Millis), died December 8, 1950, inCrawfordsville, Indiana.Dr. Herman Henry, MJ) '37, died De­cember 5, 1950, of uremic poisoning fol­lowing a short illness. He left a widowand two baby daughters. They live inVallejo, California.Clarence D. Johns, AM '11, head of the'history department at the University ofNorth Carolina Woman's College, diedAugust 7, 1950, in Baltimore, Maryland.Arthur T. Jones, '99, professor emeritusof physics at Smith College, died at theage of 740n February 8, 1951, at his homein Northampton, Massachusetts.Henry Kleinpell, MD '00, of Prairie duChien, Wisconsin, died March 25, 1951, atthe age of 82, in Temple, Arizona.Philenion B. Kohlsaat, '95, of Evanston,Illinois, died May 3, 1951.Elmer E. Lanning, '07, of Logansport,Indiana, died December 28, 1950.Bert Lindsey, AM '36, of Muncie, In­diana, died February 6, 1951, at the ageof 59.Margaret McCoy McDougall, '04, died ofa heart attack January 13, 1951, at Moun­tainside Hospital, Montclair, New York.Rev. E. Lloyd Morrow, PhD '23, diedMarch 3, 1951, at his home in Toronto,Canada.Charles I. Mosier, PhD '37, chief of re­search and analysis for the Adjutant Gen­eral's Office, died January 17,1951, inWashington, D. C., at the age of 40.Lucile A. Mower, '20 (Mrs. Elmo C.Eby), died of a heart attack February 8,1951, at her home in Oakland, California. CLARK·BREWERTeachers Agency68th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices-One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis-K.an8a8 City, Mo.Spokane-New York,-------------------------------------------------------------AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement whleh limit. Itlwork to the unlver.ity and college fteld.It is amllated with the Fisk Teach.,,,,Agency of Chloogo, whose work covers anthe educational field.. Both organizationsassist In the appointment of administrators88 well as of teacher ••Our lervI�e il nation-wIde.Sinc. J885ALBERTTeachers· AgencyThe best in placement .ervlc:e for University.ColleQe, Sec:ondary and Elementary. Nation­wide patronaQe. Call or write UI at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, lIIinoi.STENOTYPYLearn new, speedy machine shorthand. j.esseffort, no cramped fingers or nervous fatigue.Also other courses: Typing, Bookkeep�n�.Comptometry, etc. Day or evening. truu.write or phone for data.Bryant� StrattonCO�EGE18 S. MICHIGAN AVE. Tel. RAndolllh 6_1575Local andLong Distance MovingStorage Facilities for Books,Record Cabinets, Trunks, orCarloads of FurniturePeterson FireproofWarehouse, Inc.1011 East Fifty-fifth StreetBUtterfield 8-6711DAVID L. SUTTON, PresidentTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET'327 Ead 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVEitSUPERFLUOUS HAIRREMOVED FOREVERMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of hair from face, eye­brows, back of neck, or any part of body;also facial veins, moles, and warh.Men and �omenLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERT20 years' experienceAlsoGraduate NurseSuite 1705. Stevens Building17 N. State StreetTelephone FRanklin 2-4885FREE CONSULTATIONEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902Yards All Over TownQUALITY COALS AND FUEL OILSGeneral Offices342 N. Oakley Blvd.All Phones - SEeley 3-4488Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chlceqo Ave.Phone: BUtterfieJd 8-2116-7-8-9Wallon', Coal Makel Good--or­Wallon Doel2801 W_ 47TH ST .. CHICAGO. Caroline M. Murphy, '04, died January9, 1951, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Harry G. Ott, '17, assistant to the vicepresident in charge of engineering andresearch of Bausch & Lomb Optical Co.died November 21, 1950, at the age of 56at his home in Rochester, New York.Katherine Paltzer, '01, returning to herhome in Hinsdale, Illinois, from a visiwith her niece in Mobile, Alabama, diedon the train as it was entering the Dearborn station, Chicago, April 15, 1951.Wallace T. Partch, MD '26, of OaklandCalifornia, died April 4, 1951, at the ageof 52.Louis Roark, who did work at the University around 1917, died December 291950. Mr. Roark was from Tulsa, Oklahoma.Heber H. Ryan, PhD '32, of PrincetonNew Jersey, died at the. age of 63 onDecember 27, 1950. He was Assistant StateCommissioner of Education.Charlotte L. Stinson, '07, died March 9,19?1, at. her home in Tacoma, WashingtonMI�S Stinson w�nt to Tacoma after leavingChicago, organized the Home Economicsdepartment in the elementary grades andtaught there for 35 years. She lived inTacoma with her close friend, JohannaJohnson, '22, for more than 40 years.Thomas M. Thompson, AM '17, died atthe age of 65 December 26, 1950, at hishome in Chicago. He. had been retired ashead of the department of education of theChicago Teachers College.Benjamin Weaver, MD '93 of VisaliaCalifornia, died October 22, 1950. 'Harry M. Weeter, PhD '22, died Febru­ary 25, 1951, at his home in St. Louis,Missouri.ENGINEERSWANTEDFor Permanent PositionsIN DESIGN ANDDEVELOPMENTof Electro-mechanical andElectronic DeviceswithIBMTRADE MARKEndicott andPoughkeepsie, N. Y.Excellent opportunities, fineliving and working condi­tions.Advanced degree or experiencein Gyros, Servos, Hydraulics,Optics, Electronics, Radar,Mechanics, Electricity.Write/ull details to:Mr. R. H. AustinInternational Business Machines1702 North St.Endicott, N. Y.Interviews arranged in your city BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICEUCENSED ,. BONDEDINSUREDQUAUFIED WELDERSt HAymarket 1-79171404-09 S. Weatem A"... ChicaqoSince 1878HANNIBAL, INC.Upho'stersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180ASHJIAN BROS., Inc."TA.UIHID InlDrien tal and DomesticRUGSCLEANED aDd REPAIRED80&& Soutll Cbicil' Phone REgent 4·6000A. T. STEWART LUMBER CO.Qua'ity and ServiceSince J88879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phones Vincennes 6·9000Platers- SilversmithsSince 1917GOLD, SILVER. RHODIUM--_.-SILVERWAREI.pair.d. 1.lh.i.hed. I.Iacque,._SWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CEntral 6-6089-90 Chlcac;aoAjax Waste Paper Co.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers oj Waste Paper501) pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, CR 7-2668For Dick U1lliamsthefoturewasn't lost,THE LAST THING Ed Nichols had ex­pected to get mixed up in was asquare dance. But here he was swinginglovely young Patsy Stevenson. "This isfun," Ed puffed."You're the, best one on the floor, Mr.Nichols," she said, and then shespun offand Ed found himself swinging MarthaWilliams. "It's a great party, Martha.""Thank you, Ed. I guess it is. I'malmost having a good time myself.""It's better if you do, Martha. It'llmake it a little easier, maybe." He glancedat Martha's son, Dick, who was now danc­ing with Patsy-and looking as if he werehaving the best time of all. Good boy, Edthought. Here he was about to go intoservice and ... well, he was a swell kid. A few minutes later Ed was standing onthe sidelines sipping a cool drink andresting."Having a good time, Mr. Nichols?"somebody said. It was Dick Williams."Yes, I am, Dick." He paused a sec­ond. "I had hoped that I'd be seeing youoff to college at about this time but ... ""Uncle Sam comes first, Mr. Nichols.But I'll be back before you know it ...and heading for college as Dad and youplanned.""I. hope you will, son. Soon!" Ed re­membered how Dick's dad had talkedabout the boy's future and how he, as theNew York Life agent, had helped Dick'sdad give those plans definite form. WhenDick was ten, his father had died, leaving the boy proud memories and enough lifeinsurance to see him and his motherthrough the years ahead."I want you to know, Mr. Nichols, thatthis whole thing is a lot easier for me,knowing that Mom will have everythingshe needs while I'm away.""Mrs. Nichols and I will look in on heroften, Dick.""Thanks," the boy said simply. "Andbefore you know it, we'll throw anotherparty-after I'm back from service andon my way to college." Dick shook hands."Now, if you'll excuse me, I want to findPatsy Stevenson. I hav�, something irn­portan t �to say to her ...Ed watched the boy and girl going outthe side door. "Great kid," he said tohimself. "This country's got a great futureas long as it has kids like that."NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY51 Madison Avenue, New York 10, N. Y.Natu.,ally, names used in this stor» are fictitious.FEW OCCUPATIONS offer a man so much inthe way of personal reward as life under­writing. Many New York Life agents arebuilding very substantial futures for them­selves by helping others plan ahead fortheirs. If you' would like to know moreabout a life insurance career, talk it overwith the New York Life manager in yourcommunity-or write to the Home Officeat the address above.