Wanted: More Green ThumbsIN A WORLD faced with constant food shortages in so manycountries, more "green thumbs" are needed!Here in America, modern agricultural methods have in­creased farm production 600/0 in the past generation-eventhough today there are 20% fewer workers on the farms.This increased yield means plenty of food for everyonehere - and more besides. And the same methods, applied inother countries, would help answer world food needs.Better seed, fertilizer, and new scientific methods playtheir part. Equally important are the various chemicals thatnow fight off blight, disease, and destructive insects. Start­ing before planting and continuing until the food is readyfor our tables, hundreds of new materials increase and pro­tect our food supply.Even after harvest, man-made agents speed the ripeningprocess. Others guard our food against rodents and insects. The people of Union Carbide help make possible thehigh productivity of America's food producers by supply­ing chemicals for fungicides and insecticides, gases for rip'ening and preserving, and the stainless steel so importantin the preparation and distribution of food. If you have amaterials problem, in this field or other fields, it is quitelikely they can help you also.F R E E: Learn more about the interesting things youuse every day. Write/or the illustrated booklet "Prod­ucts and Processes" which tells how science and indus­try use Union Carbide's ALLoys, Chemicals, Carbons,Gases, and Plastics in creating things for you. Writefor free booklet B .UNION CARBID:E.AND CA1lBON CORPOR.A.TIOJf30 EAST 42ND STREET � NEW YORK 17, N. "l.----------- Trade-marked Products oj Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases, and Plastics include ---------­SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS • ACHESON Electrodes • ELECTROMET Alloys and Metals • HAYNES STELLITE AlloysPREST-O-LITE Acetylene • LINDE Oxygen • PYROFAX Gas • NATIONAL CarbonsEVEREADY Flashlights and Batteries • PRESTONE and TREK Anti-Freezes • BAKELITE, VINYON, and VINYLITE Plasticsl(ulpmont DispatchReading between the lines of the Kulp­�h�t (Pennsylvania) Dispatch, a copy ofth ich has just crossed our desk, we gatherh at Peter Krehel, '47, managing editor,as only recently started this 12-page, semi­lllonthly news and advertising paper (Vol­llllle I, Number 8) .t We assume this is his home town and(1at the family business is a tailor shoprom the ad on Page 4) .Smartly ignoring the world and the Ko­�ean War, Peter concentrates on the smalla!k of the 6,159 neighbors in this miningtown:"Fred Kroh is the only one we know who�an drink beer at Tommy's while chewingobaeco." "Pauline Nott, of the 1100 blockof Poplar Street, when asked what's new,r�Plied 'New York, New Jersey, New Caro­Ina, New Dakota, and New England'."A page-one story in two columns com­P.ares Kulpmont in 1911 with 1951. TheCity has grown from 1,600 to 6,000; fromone justice of the peace to three; from oneto five churches (competing with 28 bar­rOOms); and from three to 12 barbers.1 Meanwhile it has lost four of its fivel!aeksmith shops and added two new car�ealers; exchanged its trolley for a busIne; and its "accommodation stable" for a:aXi service. It doesn't say what happenedo the nine hotels of 1911, but two local?oys have started a blouse factory employ­Ing 60 women of the town.lore out every page> N?w and then we get a letter we enjoy,eadlll� out loud. Here's one from LelandI: Neff, '26, of Arcadia, California that's�e that. And it serves other purposes:C e don't have an extra copy of the 19261 ap & Gown. (If you have one to spare.et Us know.) And we are building up our�Ie of Blackfriar scores-lust in case youaVe old copies you don't want.t In any event, here's the letter: "About�enty years ago I arrived home one eve­�Ing to find my nephew, aged four, hadaOCated my graduating issue of Cap & Gownnd proceeded to tear out every page upon1Vhich he found my picture. It was possiblyfn estimable effort on his part and he was00% successful. (Incidentally, this nephew�aduated a couple of years ago from the:, of C.) .h My graduation year was 1926 and If you1 aVe available or know of a copy around,�yould be most happy to purchase it.. Alon� this same line, I was recentlygOing through the trunk in the, garagelna attics or basements out here!) and�!tlnd three or four copies of differentt aekfriars scores. . . . If you would careO"have them please advise me ....V' (I would appreciate your immediate ad­VIC� on this as my wife has been eyeing�rlaus aspects of the garage lately and I() eatly fear a cleaning day in my absence!h r mavbe 1 should fear it while I am atorne-I'm not sure which is worse) "�l'U8trated pupils� Gifford M. Mast, '35, who sparks hisn aSt Development Co. (development engi­i�ers) in Davenport, Iowa, edits a livelyter-clientele "house organ" titled The'\PR.IL 1951, Lookout. He tells us it is one of the mosteffective media for building business in hisfield. We can understand why.Interspersed with irhportant informationfor industrialists, as it relates to engineerdevelopment, are such lively capsules as:Children are to be deprived of one oftheir traditional satisfactions by melamineplastic topped school desks-they can't becarved and initialed.A temperature-sensitive p a i n t thatchanges color at a specific critical tempera­ture promises to be useful in research andpossibly also in troubleshooting coolingsystems.Tea has now been added to the long listof things available in concentrates to avoidthe great expenditure of labor by thehousewife who formerly dropped ordinarytea bags into hot water.Don't be a victim of the A-bomb scareby being talked into buying Geiger coun­ters, backyard bomb shelters, flash suits andthe like. In the last war thousands ofcompanies were sold fire bomb extinguish­ers-a two-and-a-half-inch diameter card­board tube filled with sand for $3.00 each!A British device for the blind sends outa series of clicks in a narrow beam; reflec­tion of these sounds from objects indicatethe position of the obstacles ...Gifford Mast is president of our Chicagoclub in the Tri-cities.The new ChancellorCalling themselves The Tuesday Eve­ning Club, the Trustee-Faculty committeeto select a successor to Chancellor Hutch­ins meets every Tuesday from 5 to 10 P.M.Between meetings each member works onspecific assignments of investigation.Returns from Chairman Laird Bell's let­ter to alumni asking for recommendationshave passed 1,500 with some 600 individuals ugges tions.Nathan C. PlimptonNathan C. Plimpton, 77, comptroller ofthe University until his retirement in 1938,passed away on February 22 at the Hill­crest Convalescent Home in Elgin, follow­ing a prolonged illness. Mr. Plimptoncame with the University in 1901. Duringthese years of service he became a nationalauthority on the theory of accounting fornonprofit institutions. -H.W.M.Plimpton MODERN FAR EASTERN INTER·NATIONAL RELATIONS. ByHarley Farnsworth MacNair andDonald F. Lach. D. Van NostrandCompany: New York, 19S0. $S.8S.There could scarcely have been a morepropitious time for the appearance of thisnew volume on the Far East, conceivedand begun by the late Professor MacNairand at his request completed by his one­time student and later faculty associatein the University of Chicago'S Departmentof History.Anyone harassed by increasing demandsfor knowledge and understanding of FarEastern problems will here find an orderlyand unusually detailed narrative of twen­tieth-century diplomatic, commercial, andmilitary relations between East and Westand of background political developmentsin the areas concerned. The pre-1900 periodis summarized in introductory chapters.China and Japan are of course given pre­dominant emphasis, but Korea, Inner Asia,Southeast Asia,·and the Pacific islandsare by no means neglected. Throughout,the interests and influences of the UnitedStates and Russia are specially highlighted>-Parts of this volume are based almostentirely on Professor MacNair's earlierwritings, which reflected his extensive per­sonal acquaintance with Asiatic affairs; andthe narrative has been carried on capablyinto early 1950. No bibliography is pro­vided, and only English-language sourcesare cited in footnotes, with some four orfive exceptions.The work was designed for use as atextbook at college and graduate levels.Its format and illustrations are of appropri­ate textbook types. Thanks to its greatdetail and a good index, it should also beuseful as a reference hand hook. For bothuses, however, its values might have beenenhanced by a more comprehensive tableof contents, freer use of sub-headings inthe text, and a section devoted to sug­gested additional readings.This does not pretend to be a history ofthe Far East; rather, it is an up-to-datesumming up of the political aspects ofEast-West relations, which are of suchcritical importance today.Charles o. Hucker, PhD '50,Oriental Languages & LiteraturesTHE GROWTH OF THE AMERI .CAN REPUBLIC. Samuel EliotMorison and Henry Steele Com­mager, '23, MA '24, PhD '28,Fourth edition, 2 vols.; NewYork: Oxford University Press,19S0. $IS.00.The reviewer hardly feels a compulsionto introduce the reader to The Growth ofthe A merican Republic. Since it first ap­peared in 1930, Morison and Commager'swork has established itself as a sort ofstandard by which other general historiesof the United States are evaluated. Highlyuseful to the student, and attractive tothe intelligent reading public at large, itis widely known as a textbook that is more2 ..now ready with an outstanding selection ofCOOL, LlGHTWflGHT SUMMER SUITSmade exclusively for uson our own distinctive patternsWe believe our selection of cool' comfortable Sum­mer wear suits and Odd Jackets to be the most com­prehensive-and outstanding-in America. Includedare all cotton or rayon and nylon mixtures in neatpatterns and bold checks-in blue-and-white, tan­and-white or grey-and-white ... also our popularIrish linen crash suits ... all exclusive with us.Suits from $20.75· Odd Jackets from $21 than a textbook. It is one of those workswhich happily exist, but unhappily are .tO�few in number, that prove that histor�ca.writing can be informative and sound without being forbidding and dull.Interest in this new edition will natt!;rally focus on the treatment of rec�ndevents. The chapters covering the penofrom 1914 to 1941 have been rewritte�iand five new chapters on World ,Varand the post-war years have been added.If these new chapters are most likely todraw criticism, they are, at the sam� tiJlldthe best testimony to the authors' skill allcompetence. The final words on Pearl B�I;bor, the A-Bomb, Yalta, the war-gU! 1trials, and myriad other controverslapoints have not yet been said. Moris?�and Commager do not shrink from ex�mlll.ing such issues nor from passing Judg.ments on them, but their discussions coiltain an illuminating amount of informatiolland exhibit an admirable degree of r�straint and moderation. Some of the nematerial, one may predict, will be d�as·ticaIIy trimmed in future editions as beJl1�too detailed and complex for permanel1.·inclusion in a general text. Other pOfvtions will perhaps be modified as n��tsources come to ligh t and historians 51.the evidence and revise and refine theirconclusions. But the reader of 195.1 ca�welcome this survey and interpretatlOn�_it now stands-about as complete and haanced a presentation as present knowledgeand limited space permit.David M. Beben,Lecturer in HistorY,University College.i»: lComparatively painlessI have got past the stage of having al1iopinions of myself, about my portraits- b'�lthe one on the cover [December ISSt dhas been approved by a few friends, al1.so, no doubt, it is a very good one. I retmember the picture taking as a pleasal1occasion, and comparatively painless! .T. S. EhotLondon, EnglandWord from A. A. Staggc • tbeEnclosed is a clipping concerrnng bOdeath of Dr. Robert Valentine Merrill '\ywon his "C" in fencing at the Ul1lvers� eof Chicago in 1913 and was captain of t 1Sfencing team that year. .For several yea�she voluntarily gave his services to studenc_interested in fencing and coached the fening team. 111Stella and I have just returned fr? hnearly a month's absence during ",:hlC 0time we saw several University of Chlcagl1men. We were the guests of Dr. Nor01.�_C. Paine and his wife at the Big Ten dJofner on December 26th at the Ambassa eHotel, Los Angeles. We were at the sa�Itable with Dr. John Vruwink, �a."Shorty" Des Jardien and Frank pershlogeDuring our stay in Los Angeles, ��sdrove out to see Herb. Ahlswec:e and biswife at Long Beach, Billy Eldridge at dranch near Corona and John Moulds :0 dhis wife at Pomona. We also saw San ofeILyon. Later we called on Dr. SamllBarnes. 6On January 8th, our son Paul (paci cTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEESTABLISHED 1818�6ffJ��W��@1)i/Jtn'S 'urnishings, Hats. q- _hots346 MADISON AVENUE, COR. 44TH ST., NEW YORK 17, N. Y.MADISON STREET AT MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 2, ILL.BOSTON • LOS ANGELES • SAN FRANCISCO�niversilY, Forest Grove, Oregon) joinedI S at Los Angeles and we all went onlogether by train to Dallas, Texas, where�e National Football Coaches Association"3�h�ings were held January 10th throughI G The next week, Stella and I went toO'tlveston where I attended the meetings15 the Football Rules Committee, January1'1 -17. There we saw Herbert "Fritz" Cris­�r who, as chairman of the Football Rules°tnmittee, presided in top form.St A. A. StaggI Ockton) Cal.I An "r" makes a differenceI a l� your February issue, on page 3-1, in',n Item concerning myself I read that It�as "interred" in a Japanese concentra­tIon camp. That is a trifling error. I wasrea ted badly, but not that badly.I Good luck.C Henry '''T. Mungerocoa) Fla.Ed. note: Substitute the word "in­terned."14eUlOrizes Hutchinsy Bow can I have waited so long to tellIi au how proud I am of our Magazine, Ith the best-read publication for me, mypllsband and my son-who by the way ex­C ect� to get a PhD degree at Chicago thisI,��lng spring. I most enjoy reading aboutI <l at is going on in the college, and thelepartments. I like articles like "How FairbS an IQ Test?" which help me in myI tJat�le to keep up with the knowledge inIlt nlVersity circles. Of course I practically(wtnorize anything Dr. Hutchins writes.in hat did we do to lose him!) Keep usIlt for.med and we may establish his com-UnIty yet!o Mrs. Duane W. Propst, '22. ak Park) Illinois. htarch consumerI if Vour "book" becomes better and better,lilt llly old publishing experience still servesn�' I've just consumed your Marchlllber-.I b Robert McKnight, 'IS.etroit) Mich.suE�. note: Mr. McKnight has been con­lvirnl",;g travel experience, too-he and histJp� Just returned from an "aerial pleasureIial ' to Europe) stopping in Italy) Switzer-nd, France and England.We hear from Okla.th Allow me to add my congratulations toi �eose of your readers of the Jan uary andCa btuary editions of the University of Chi-go Magazine.iois a graduate psychologist, I greatly en­at ed your article on the work being doneart�he University on the IQ tests. And thel�cles recently have been most stimulating.b� ve grabbed a few minutes here from atlosy "deadline week" to pass this inforrna­fran along, and so I know you'll realizeIII this that I am impressed.John W. Hamilton,0kl Alumni editor'Stillhoma A and M College Magazine'Water) Okla.�() longer wonderingtoFar years I wondered why I continued1 ;end in my alumni dues. Sense of duty,uess. Then the Magazine changed. It�PR.IL, 1951 Volume 43 April. 1951 Number 7PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONManaging EditorHOWARD W. MORT Editor-in-chiefLAURA BERGQUIST Associate EditorAN N C. COLLARContributing EditorsJeannette LO�fey , Robert M. StrozierStaff Phot�g ra pher-Steve LewellynIN THIS ISSUEMEMO PADBOOKSLETTERSFRONTISPIECE, ATOMIC WORKSHQP : , 4THE REAL ISSUE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES,Hans J. M orgenthau 5LETTER FROM AFRICA, Edwin .S. Munger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9THE MAN IN THE BLUE SERGE SUIT, Robert M. Strozier .... 13THE HIGH COST OF PREJUDI,CE, Robert M. Hutchins. . . . . . .. 15LIBERAL EDUCATION AND THE DRAFT) F. Champion Ward. . . .. 17AFTER 98 YEARS, SHIMER STI�L PIONEERS, L. Albert Wilson .. , 20APRIL EVENTS 24CLASS NEWS 26COVER: John L. Marshall. 34-year old physicist. has beenhelping direct the design and construction of the Univer­sity's $2.500.000 synchrocyclotron. right now the biggestin the Western world. He has become agile as a moun­tain goat. in clambering about the giant atomic workshop-and here sits atop one of the 90-ton concrete shieldingbeams which encases the cyclotron when it is operating.Directly below. is the giant magnet yoke. 2000 tons ofsolid steel. which provides a magnetic field so that atomicparticles travel in a spiral instead of radiating 100 milesin all directions. (thereby obHterating the University com­munity). For other inside views of the Accelerator Build­ing. see page 4.(Cover and photographs on pages 3) 13) 14) 22 and 23by Steve Lewellyn) )48).Published monthly, October through June, by The University of Chicago Alumni Ass.ocja­tion, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price, $3.00. Singlecopies, 35 oents. Student price at University of Chicago Bookstore, 25 cents. Entered as sec­ond class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago, Illinois under the act ofMarch 3, 1879. Advertising agent? The American: Alumni Council, B. A. Ross, director, 22Washington Square, New York, N. Y.alone is now worth three dollars. I usedto look only for the news of the classes.Now the articles come first. They are reallyfine. torture you subject me to every month,'Why, Ovwhy, do you waste a page in eachissue by devoting it to tantalizing campusevents that most of your readers can'tattend? Why rub it in? We know theUniversity is a center of culture, but thereisn't any way for us to attend-much aswe would like to;Mrs. Loring MyersMiliord, OhioOut, out . . . calendarLora Mae Black, '44As an out-of-Chicago reader I wouldlike to complain about a subtle form of Dallas) Texas 123ATOMIC WORKSHOPThe big news from the long, grey Accelerato�Building, at 56th and Ellis Ave., is that the $2,500,(}(l,synchrocyclotron is just about finished and it works.In trial runs conducted by Drs. Herbert L. Ander'son and John Marshall, its co-designers and coil'structors, deuterons, the nuclei of heavy hydrogeJlatoms, were accelerated to an energy of 250 miIlio�electron volts, the highest known energy eveachieved artificially with these atomic particles. OIl�lla few more kinks are ironed out, the machine WIaccelerate protons on the order of 450 million elecitronvolts, making it the most powerful accelerator"positive ions in the western world. dMeantime the Accelerator Building, vaulted all'spacious as Grand Central Station, looks and SOUIlbdSlike a giant's workshop. Blackboards punctuate t Cwalls, scrawled over with· two-yard long equatiOIlS�Overhead, cranes grapple with huge 90-ton cmIleJ}blocks (it takes 30 to cover over the cyclotron). �red light announces that the Betatron, completed lasyear, is in operation. (It is housed in the small ce'ment house, seen in the foreground below). . 00To operate the cyclotron will cost a cool $l,?daily, including all costs of operations. PhysiCIstswill use it for nuclear research, scientists in otherfields for seeking new knowledge about cancer. Costiwise, the University provided the building and a ha1million dollars, the U. S. Office of Naval Researcin its joint program with the A.E.C. financed the rest.THE REAL ISSUEBetween Russia and the United StatesBy Hans J. Morgenthau, Editor's note: About four or fivetzmes annually, 350 prominent C hi­'C�go citizens gather, at the U niver­�lty's invitation, to hear reports aboutImportant research and' Universityactivities by key members of the fac­ulty, One of the most popular andt�lked about speeches in recent yearsgiven before this (C Citizen's Board"ltI,as that of Professor M orgenihau,�lrector of the new Center for thetudy of American Foreign Policy­hereWith reprinted. In essence, it is ateview of his book (CIn Defense of thet �tional I nterest," being publishedhiS spring by Alfred A. Knopf Inc.p\f APPROACHING my topic, Iam reminded of the story of thetailor who was asked to make a pairof trousers. Six months later he deliv­�red the trousers to an irate customer.])on't you know," the customerasked him, "that the Lord made therworld in six days, and it takes you sixlJlil:J.onths to make a pair of trousers?""Yes," the tailor replied, "but look.at those trousers, and then take an­!other look at the world!"Taking another look at the world�s it is today, we can well understand�Qat this tailor had, -: exc�llent de­,ense. If we look a litte bit deeperl�to the causes of the turmoil which�,�nv�lses our globe, we find that wef�\'e In an a�� of three �reat revolu­.IOns_a political revolution, a tech­'llological revolution, and a moralrevolution-and it so happens thatthose three great revolutions culmi­lilate in the Soviet Union. Forit is here�h" . at we find the other great world�o\Ver opposing the power of the�nited States. It is here that we find::' e expansion of modern technology�ransforming the conduct of millionsti people. And it is in the Sovietnlon that we find the rise of a new�.oli tical religion, a political philoso­�hy which rises to supplant other­,�.Orldly religions and to bring the;alvation" of Marxism to the rest oflt�le world.APRIL 1951, Wherever the political interests ofthe United States are challenged, thechallenge can be traced to the SovietUnion. Wherever we find that compe­ti tion for technological developmentshas threatened our own interests, wefind that those technological develop­ments have happened either in theSoviet Union or in nations subject toit. And wherever the moral ideas ofthe United States are opposed anddenied, the seat of the counterreligionis to be found in Moscow.Now let me say a word about thenature of those three revolutions towhich I have referred.The political revolution signifies theend of the state system as it has ex- tions necessarily gravitate.The effects of this situation uponthe foreign policies of both the UnitedStates and the Soviet Union are enor­mous, for in former times no greatpower was able to go very far in itspolicies without being restrained by itsallies. Fifty years ago, let me say, ortwenty years ago, if there had beena dis sen s ion between the UnitedStates and Great Britain as it exists,today with regard to the' Far East, theprime minister of Great Britain mighthave gone to Washington, and hewould have said to the AmericanPresident, "Either you do as we tellyou, or we're going to go over to theother side," or "We're going to stayWhat confronts us in Europe is Russian imperialism,to which the answer is military resistance and the will­ingness to negotiate. In Asia, there is genuine revolution.isted since the end of the Midde Ages.We live at the beginning of an epochwhich is no longer characterized by amultiplicity of nations-eight or tenortwelve, as the case may have been-of approximately equal strength,but, instead, we have two superpowersopposed to each other. 'Mr. Attlee can only pleadIn practical terms of foreign policythis means that the delicate mecha­nism of the balance of power whichhas existed for more than four cen­turies, arid which has kept-if notpeace-at least a certain equilibrium,a certain independence of the indi­vidual nations, no longer operates.Instead, we live today in a bipolarworld. We all see that predominantpower in the world is concentrated intwo centers, in Washington and inMoscow, to" which all the other na- neutral," or do this or that whichwould be very disagreeable to us, To­day he has none of those weaponswith which, in former times, the pol­icies of great powers could be re­strained. Mr. Attlee can plead, hecan reason, bu t. he can no longerthreaten, and this is a very importantchange.What is true of the Western worldis, of course, true to a greater extentto the east of the Iron Curtain. Soyou find that there no longer existtoday those restraints and limitationsof aspirations and policies which informer times brought about limitedwarfare for limited objectives withlimited methods. Today there is onlyself-restraint, a very weak type of re­straint, indeed. There is, furthermore,the fear of war itself-fear of a warfought under the conditions of mod­ern technology.5There is, Df course, the restraintexercised by the Dther side. I t is thefear Df the Soviet Union on this side,and it is the fear of the United Stateson the other side, which restrains bothgreat nations ; but there is no longerthis system Df alliances, of pressuresand counterpressures and threatswhich, in former times, formed themost potent restrammg influenceupDn the aspirations and policies Dfthe great pDwers.Our bi-polar worldThis bipolar situation which existsin the world today makes it possible-s­and YDU may say it makes it evenlikely-that a third world war, if itdoes not end in universal destruction,will end in world conquest by one Drthe other of the superpDwers. Let ussuppDse that the United States defeatsthe Soviet U nion decisively in a thirdworld war, without itself suffering ir-:reparable damage. There is no longerany opponent which can oppDse thepDwer of the United States. There isno longer any rival with which theU;nited States would need to' deal onan equal footing.Those tendencies of the new bi­polar political world toward anarchyand world conquest are powerfullysupported by the technological revolu­tions of our times. I do not need toremind YDU to what extent our worldhas 'been changed, even in the last fiftyyears, by means of modern technology.It can safely be said that Dur progressin the field of technology from the be­ginning Df histDry to' the middle Dfthe nineteenth century is like nDthingcDmpared with the prDgress that hu­manity has made in the field Df tech­nDIDgy in the last hundred years.We all knDw the tremendDus prDg­ress that has been made in the field ofcDmmunicatiDns. The transmissiDn Dfmessages, visual or Dtherwise, has be­CDme, fDr all practical purposes, CD­incident with their receptiDn else­where in the wDrld.Or, for example, take the field oftranspDrtatiDn. FrDm the beginningDf histDry to' the inventiDn Df the rail­road, the technDIDgy Df transportationDn land remained essentially static.That is say, YDU cDuld travel as fastDn land as a horse was able to' carryyDU. When, in the thirties Df thenineteenth century, a member Df theBritish cabinet, Sir RDbert Peel, wasDn a vacatiDn in Italy, he was called6 home to' an urgent cabinet meeting.I think the travel time allowed himwas seventeen days, if I remember cor­rectly, which was exactly identicalwith the travel time allowed to' thegovernors of the Roman Empire to' gofrom the British Isles to' Italy. With­in those thousands of years there hadbeen absolutely no change in the tech­nology of transportation,As to' the technology of warfare,I need only remind YDU Df the enor­mDUS increase in its destructiveness.Those triumphs of modern tech­nology have a tremendous impact up­on political matters. First of all, theyhave made world conquest technologi­cally possible, In former times awould-be world cDnquerDr, such asAlexander the Greatvor Napoleon-s­Dr even Hitler-v-could not possiblysucceed with the technology he hadat his disposal ; for he came up againstthe wide spaces of the earth, and thefarther he advanced, the more he wasthreatened by successful revolution.Today, with the means of moderncommunication, transportation, and. the means of warfare, a would-beworld cDnqueror has the technologicalmeans to' cDnquer the world and keepit conquered.Finally, what is the nature of themoral revolution? In former timespolitical philosophies were developedwi thin the common framework of oneand the same civilization, be it aris­tocracy, monarchy, Dr democracy,They proposed different means forachieving the same ends, which wereapproved by the same moral cDde, thesame .mDral valuatiDns, expressingthemselves in ap identical way Df life. �Broken familyY DU can see that throughDut thehistDry' Df Western civilizatiDn-untilvery recently-there existed what thewriters Dn internatiDnal law Df theseventeenth and eighteenth centuriescalled a "family Df natiDns." That isto' say, they were natiDns that had dif­ferent pDlitical objectives but the sameideals and, hence, belDnged to' thesame family, mDrally speaking. Thiswas indeed, in the mDral sense, DnewDrld.'TDday the wDrld is split in twO'.TDday, mDrally speaking, we have twO'wDrlds, each with a pDlitical philDSD­phy Df its Dwn, each Df them ap­prDaching the prDblems Df life, indi­vidually and cDllectively, with differ- ent moral valuations. And this is notall. What is still more important i�the fact that those two rival pDI�t�C�philosophies are more than pDlIttC,phil DSDp hies; they are poli tical r.ell· 'I'gions, fully developed in bDlshevIs�and not without strong tendencies 10Western democracy, That is to' say,the political religions of our day waptto' do more than provide a rati��al�!for political institutions and pDlItICil'action ; they want to' give an explanil'ltion of the nature of men, of the nil;ture of the universe, of the place ,0 Iman within that universe, and of Itsdestination. ,They want to' do for men (and tblSis, of course, fully true of bDlshevisrtl) Iwhat, in former times, the other'worldly religions have done. BDlshev'ism does not promise salvation in aPd Iother world ; it promises it here an,nDW, and it believes-c-or at least Itprornises-v-that it is just around tbe 1corner. Furthermore, it does not baseits prognosis upDn faith; it baseS itupon what it calls science. It clairtl� Ito' be the only science of society anof men which, with absolute certainty,can tell man what he is and what be Iis going to' be.Three possible answersIn view of this situation, the ques'tion arises with regard to' the foreig�policy of the United States: What 15the specific problem that faces us witb'in the context of those three greatrevolutions, culminating in the Soviet!UniDn? In other words, what is tbe Ireal issue between the U nited Stat�5and the SDviet UniDn with whiC� IAmerican fDreign pDlicy can deal,What is the real issue between. tb� IUnited States and the SDviet unIOn'1This is nDt a mere academic queS'ti�n, but it is a questiDn the rig?tanswer to' which is all-important 111cDnsidering the right pDlicies to' be pur'sued by the U,nited States. If yot!give Dne answer to' that question, acertain pDlicy IDgically fDllDWS. If yollgive anDther answer to' that questiOIl'anDther type Df pDlicy must nece�llsarily be pursued; and if YDU give a,the different answers which are log1'cally pDssible at the same time-aSDur gDvernment is trying to' do-Y°t!have either a cDnfused pDlicy or 110pDlicy at all.5There are three pDssible answerwhich Dne can give to' that questiOIl'The first has becDme almDst abdsDlete-I shDuld say fDrtunately-aIlTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINPI mention it only as a matter of his­'torical fact. It is one which was mosteiearly and vociferously defended bylIenry Wallace, who said that there�as. really nothing between the Sovietnlon and the United States exceptsUspicion, or some differential in thestandard of living and economic de­velopment-in other words, nothingwhich a gift of twenty or thirty billion'�o,Uars could not easily remedy. I�lnk there are very few people whoSt,lU believe this today, and so I candismiss this alternative right away.The second answer to the questionwhich concerns us here is that worldrevolution is the real problem between�he Soviet Union and the Unitedtates. That is to say, the SovietUnion is irrevocably committed to�orld revolution, and the Unitedtates must defend itself and Westerncj '1'Vllzation against that threat.If this is the correct interpretationof the situation, if this is the correctanswer to our question, then I should�ay right away that war is absolutelyIneVitable, for in a war between twohOlitical religions, each claiming toaVe a monopoly of truth in its inter­Pretation of man and of his destina­ti lan, you cannot bargain, you cannotcorn . .promIse, you cannot negotiate ;One has to yield and one has to tri­umph, and there is no possible out­come but war.If the czar still reignedThe third answer to our question is�hat the real issue between the Unitedtates and the Soviet Union is Rus­s�an imperialism, pursuing the tradi­tional aims of Russian imperialism asestablished through the last two hun­dred years, with the aid of a newtnethod, a new instrument of political�d military warfare-that is to say,t e fifth column of Communist sub­version.If this is the correct interpretationOf the situation, if this is the correctanswer that you must give to ourqUestion, then we have obviously analternative to war, for -then sufficientStren h ... li. gt can restram Imp en a Ism asIt has done in the past, and the age­?ld techniques of diplomatic bargain­Ing and compromise-in other words,a negotiated settlement-can take careof the situation.\'" ou can make a very simple test inOrder to answer for yourself which oft?Ose two interpretations of the situa­tlO .n IS correct. Imagine for a moment that the czarwere still reigning in St. Petersburgand that in every other respect thesituation in the world were exactly asit is today. Imagine that the armiesof the czar stand a little bit more thana hundred miles east of the Rhine andchallenge Europe, and that the czar,as his predecessors had done, had an­nounced a crusade to conquer theworld, in order to remake the world,not in the image of bolshevism, but,as Alexander the First announced atthe beginning of the nineteenth cen­tury, to make it over in the image ofChristian principles., MorgenthauDo you believe for one moment thatthis Russian imperialism would be lessof a threat to us than is the same Rus­sian imperialism proclaiming the ide­ology of bolshevism and guided nolonger by the czar but by Stalin?Obviously, the answer is that, fromthe point of view of the national in­terests of the United States, it wouldmake no difference. Czarist imperial­ism aimed at exactly the same objec­tives which bolshevism aims at today-controlling eastern Europe, CentralEurope, as much of Europe as pos­sible.You can make another simple testin order to prove to yourself which ofthose two interpretations is correct.Imagine for a moment that the czarstill reigned 'in St. Petersburg, and that the Communist party in the UnitedStates were as strong as it is today.Would anybody believe that the threatto the American system of govern­ment, emanating from autonomous,indigenous Communist activities, in­dependent of Moscow, would carryany serious threat for us? Obviously,what threatens us on the part of theCommunist party of the United Statesis not revolution but treason. In otherwords, it is the power of Russia stand­ing behind American communism asit stands behind British or Frenchcommunism which is the threat, andnot communism as such, as an iso­lated political philosophy.Fortunately, the Western world-inparticular, the United States-is verymuch immune to the poison of Bol­shevist propaganda per se, but whatwe are not immune from is Russianimperialism and the servants of Rus­sian imperialism in our midst. Again,when we look at the domestic' situa­tion, we find the real threat to oursecurity not in revolution but in Rus­sian imperialism, in the attempt toconquer the world under the guise ofliberating it from capitalism and whatthey call false democracy.I should add, in passing, that thesame problem of interpreting a revolu­tionary imperialism has confrontedthe Western world before, in the formof the French Revolution. When theFrench Revolution arose, and theFrench engaged in war with the restof the European Continent, the greatBritish statesmen of that era, Pitt andBurke and Fox, asked themselves ex­actly the question which I have puttoday: "What is the real issue be­tween Great Britain and France, be­tween Great Britain and revolutionaryFrance?"Burke described their position as aholy crusade of monarchy and aristoc­racy against the atheistic revolutionof France. Fox said it was nothing atall; it was not worth worrying about.Pitt, the great prime minister of GreatBritain, said it was French imperial­ism, having obtained a new dimension,a new instrument in the revolutionaryfervor of the idea of the French Rev­olution, and he said in a great speechin the House of Commons: Whatthreatens us, what is at stake, what thereal issue is, is the security of GreatBritain-"Security against a danger,the greatest that ever threatened theworld."7This seems to. me to. be the correctanswer to. our question, tDD. It is thesecurity Df the United States which isat stake, threatened by an imperialismmore potent than any the world hasever seen. In a sense, that threat isthe very product of the three greatrevolutions-e-the political, the tech­nological, the moral-e-of our time.No phony revolutionNDW let me say a word about thepractical application of that answerand its general implications .for theforeign policy of the United States.I think, if my interpretation is correct,that we must make a fundamental dis­tinction between the dangers thatthreaten us in Europe and the dangersthat threaten us in Asia. In otherwords, in view Df this answer to. ourquestion, the situation in Europe isfundamentally different from the sit­uation in Asia.What confronts us in Europe is im­perialism, pure and simple. It is notrevolution at all, in the genuine senseof the word.We should not forget-s-and we can­nDt easily forget without becomingunwilling victims of Communist prDp­aganda-that in no. country Df Europeoutside the Soviet Union has a CDm­munist revolution succeeded, unlessthe country had already been CDn­quered by the Red Army. In all coun-. tries of Europe outside the SovietU nion which are nDW Communist, theso-called "revolution" was a mere by­product of Russian conquest and istoday a mere instrument of Russianimperialism.Why has Stalin established a CDm­munist government in Poland Dr Ru­mania Dr Bulgaria? Do. YDU think fornothing but the spread of commun­ism?' Certainly it was for that, tDD,but primarily it Was in order to' makethe fulfilment of the age-DId ambitionsof Russia secure in those countries.In other words, what the czars weretrying to' do. in the eighteenth andnineteenth centuries in Poland withDther techniques, Stalin is trying to'do. tDday with the mDdern techniquesDf CDmmunist subversiDn and SD­called "revDlutiDn."If it is Dnly imperialism and nDtrevDlutiDn that cDnfrDnts us in Eu­rDpe, then the answer to' the threatDf Russian imperialism in EurDpe ismilitary resistance, and a willingnessto' negDtiate where negDtiatiDn ispDssible.8 The situation in Asia is entirelydifferent, for what confronts us in Asiais not phony revolution; it is nDt aseries of revolutions engineered by theRed Army, serving the purpDses ofRussian imperialism. What faces usin Asia is genuine revolution. I daresay that even if bolshevism had neverbeen heard of, even if Russian pDwerhad never existed, there would havebeen a revolution in China, in Indo­nesia, and in India..What has brought abDut revolutionin Asia has very little, if anything, to.do with bolshevism in Russia. I tis,first of all, the breakdown of the ruleof the white man-the fact that thewhite man has been defeated by theyeJlow man in the last war, the factthat the British were unable to' keepIndia with the traditional methodsof white rule. It is this fundamentalfact-which is DbviDUS to' any memberof the colored races in Asia-whichprDves to' them that the white man isno. longer able to. rule in Asia.Lessons from the WestThe second element which has.brought about those revolutions inAsia is the triumph Df two. moralideas of the West which the West it­self has brought to. Asia and for thepotency of which the West itself hasgiven Asia the example-the idea ofnational self-determination and theidea of social justice.The West has taught that the ad­ministration by a nation of its ownaffairs-its cultural development, thecultivation Df its language, its nativeinstitutions-s-is a good in itself forwhich man might even fight, and theAsiatics have learned that lesson, TheWest has also. taught Asia that miseryand poverty are not God-given cursesto. which man must humbly submit,but that they are man-made andtherefore can be remedied by man,and Asia has learned that lesson, tDD.This, in a very sketchy way, is anoutline of the basic reasons for therevolutions, carried by the aspirationsof a billion people, by fDrce Df arms.W�ether Dr not we like that fact isbeside the pDint. A genuine revDlu­tiDn Df such dimensiDns, Df such mag­nitude' cannDt be DppDsed by fDrce Dfarms; indeed, it cannDt be Dpposed atall; it can Dnly be jDined. That is to.say that the Dnly sensible policy fDrthe United States wDuld have been- them into. channels favorable to theinterests of the United States.If it is true that in Asia we arefaced with genuine revolutions, whichwe can only guide but not suppresS,then it is also. true that the real prob!lem for the United States and for theforeign policy of the United Statesdoes not lie in Asia but in Europe,FDr in Asia we can do. little more tha!1try to. support the attempts at socialand economic reforms through plans'such as Point Four, which have redmained largely on paper thus far, anby competition in the struggle for th�minds Df men. 'In the military £lei,there is very little we can do ; it 15strictly a political problem.The really burning question, then,for American foreign policy is theproblem of Europe. Here, I think, wehave been involved in some confu­sion, not concerning the questioI1which I have raised before as to thereal issue, but the question as to thenature of American pDwer.YDU are all aware Df the cDntroVersYwhich is raging in our midst about tb,edefense of western Europe. To. rne Itis not a question of whether Europeshould be defended Dr should not bedefended. All of American historypoints to. the vital interest of th�United States in the maintenance 0the balance Df pDwer in Europe, in theopposition to. the would-be world coo-queror. The only question is "BoWcan Europe be defended best?"Good use for u. S. divisionsHere I would submit that it is agrievous error to. think that by add�oga few divisions here and by rearII110g�a few divisions there, YDU can in aOYway modify the balance Df power be­tween the United States and th�Soviet Union, What has restrainethe Soviet Union in the past from tak­ing over all of Berlin has not been t�eAmerican xli .. di g 10two. mencan rvisrons stan III dwestern Europe. What has deterrethe Soviet U nion from taking a ste�beyond the line of demarcation 01945 has been one thing, and oOde'tething alDne-the pDwer Df the U n� kStates right here. So. it is, I thIn �first Df. all, the develDpment Df thatpDwer that remains the safeguard nODnly fDr the United States but alsOfDr all Df the Western World. ,rl­I wDuld nDt say that a few AII1ecan divisiDns in Europe, mDre Dr leSS,� eand still is-nDt to' try to. suppress cannDt be Df SDme use. They haY'thDse revDlutiDns but to. try to. guide (Continued on page 25)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINPKhartoum.Addis Ababa.Mogad i shu".KampalaRuindi Camp. • Kituiusumbura.�t'o 1\ rMombasa. tt'00t'\\(.\\\ ·MbeyaLetter From AfricaThe adventures of a Fulbright scholar whosettled down near the Equator for a yearof teaching, travel and sharp observingBy Edwin Munger, '4711' IS GOOD to have news of theh Quadrangles, and especially toa.�ar that so many people are takingOf Vantage of the Fulbright Act, onet' the most imaginative and construc­te pieces of legislation to pass Con-tess in recent years.a �ut here in Africa I am frequently': ed what it is about and how itthorks. My answer runs like this. Ate end of World War II, when most�PRIL 1951, of our Allies .were heavily ·in debt tous and becoming more .so .as we dis­posed of surplus equipment, it wasimpractical to try to collect in dollarssince America was encouraging Eu­ropean recovery.' Senator Fulbright,a former Rhodes Scholar, suggested away these countries could repay theU. S. in their own money. Basically,the Fulbright program is the intelli­gent use of those foreign currencies as payment for the tUItIOn, living, andtravel expenses abroad for Americanstudents, researchers and exchangeteachers. It is gratifying to point outto non-Americans that provision ismade for similar people to go to theU. S. from qualifying countries, usingdollar credits they have accrued in theStates.A telegram arrivesYour question was directed at howit operates off paper, though. Tocontinue my long term study of Africasouth of the Sahara, I submitted aproject in January, 1949, dealing withKampala, Uganda, to form the basisof a Ph.D. dissertation in geography .In June a telegram announced a Ful­bright award. However, if it hadn'tbeen for the aid of Professor WalterJohnson ( Chairman, History) inclearing up a last minute misunder­standing in the State Department,Elizabeth [Elizabeth Nelson, '45] andI might have missed the boat.The Fulbright staff in London haddone reams of paper work by August,but I was the first flesh and bloodproduct to arrive, and they were ex­tremely helpful. Two weeks in Britainwere spent talking with people in theuniversities and Colonial Office whowere knowledgeable about Africa, andthen on a proverbial gray, rainy Eng­lish morning we sailed on a British­India ship down the Thames and ina few days past Gib, Malta, and intothe Suez Canal. There are advan­tages to the slowness of ocean travel.By the time we left Port Sudan, thereserve of the British colonial officersand settlers returning from home leavehad melted in the Red Sea frying panand they were telling us their experi­ences and views on East Africa.Dean Roesch Hinton, '43, who hadjust taken over as American Vice­Consul in Mombasa, and his wife, theformer Angela Estelle Peyraud, '45,explored the narrow streets andpungent Eastern. smells of the portwith us before we 'piled our four suit­cases into a little British Vanguard(it looks like an undernourishedChevvy) . and began bucking the cor­ruga tions of. the red dirt road toUganda.At Kitui, still in Kenya, the Dis­trict Commissioner was our host whilewe made a study of water problemsin that dry region where he is fighting9til a camera following the paradedown Broadway slowly panned u�and up until at last a small patch 0sky showed between skyscrapers. The�broke into a roar of astonishment anfbegan cheering and clapping. 0course, the Makerere students with tiSwere sophisticated enough to kno,wabout our cities and took no part IIIthe outburst. However, the feattl�'ethat evening was about America Ill'1890, and as we talked about it orlthe way home it became evident thatthe students believed the film depictedcurrent American life in rural seC­tions-the doctor using a buggy, Vic­torian clothes, and justice dispense�by vigilantes. On the other hand,once heard the Director of EducatioJ1of a British Colony say in a speechabout his recent visit to the U. S. thatalmost all Negroes in college are if!segregated schools, a normal B,A,program is three years, and there a�enever any examinations for a master Sdegree, which therefore isn't worthmuch.,Rhodesia. When I gave a course on Over the Christmas holidays weNorth America to second year geog- went to Tanganyika to climb M:t.raphy majors, it seemed that facts Kilimanjaro. Thomas Abraham, awere readily assimilated but ideas newly graduated student, came 21on,ggave trouble. Few of the students for a last holiday before taking up ?IShave literate parents and secondary post as a chief of the coffee growln1schools are weak. Now only one child Chagga tribe on the lower slopes 0. uSin 10,000 reaches Makerere, but the the mountain. Our own prevlOstudent body of 220 (including only a' climbing experience had been COJ1�dozen girls) will be tripled within' five fined to the stairs of a third flooryears. After two years at the college apartment in Hyde Park, but fort\J�to improve their English (most al- nately the niceties of rope and roc.ready know both a vernacular and knowledge aren't necessary on thiSSwahili) and to remedy other de- highest of African peaks. On theficiencies of previous schooling, a few fourth day of the climb, after a fi�estudents could probably hold their -hour struggle up steep, sliding VO 2own in the U. of C. College, especially canic scree in bitter cold begun atin the Physical arid Biological Science a.m., we made the top-19,560 fe��Surveys. The Social Sciences and It was worth it to watch the sun os,Humanities would prove more diffi- behind the jagged crags of Mawanzicult. peak 2,000 feet lower and, after �long rest, to throw snowballs toWarthe equator on the horizon.Though their only previous climbing experience had been to a third floor apartment inHyde Park, the Mungers made the 19,650. foot peak of Mt. Kilimanjaro in four days.Here they are inside Kibo Crater. Their guide Johannes was more sensibly dressedagainst the onslaught of freezing cold and glaring sun.erratic rainfall and dangerous erosionby terracing, contouring, and smalldam building at the village level.Watch out for hipposEight hundred miles inland wereached Kampala on the north shoreof Lake Victoria. It is an attractive. town of white buildings and red tiledroofs built on flat topped hills derivedfrom an old peneplain with greenbanana shambas filling the valleys.Even if the equator is only a few milesout in the lake, the 4,000 foot altitudemakes blankets necessary at night.The Victoria Nyanza Sailing Club isa miniature Jackson Park, but duringSaturday races it's a good idea to keepan eye peeled for hippos and croco­diles.Makerere College, our headquar­ters for the year, is on one of the hills,and there we settled into the house ofa geography lecturer on leave in Eng­land. The arrangement involvedkeeping his menage of houseboy,mpishi (cook), and shamba (garden)boy, plus an Alsatian that was theterror of the community, with suchattendant responsibilities as rushingOdhone's wife to the maternity wardor lending F esto money to send to hisNo. 3 wife in Kenya for a new hoe.Makerere, the only college in EastAfrica, draws its African (and a fewArab) students from Kenya, Uganda,Tanganyika, Zanzibar, and Northern10 Reactions to U. S. movieStudents often came to dinner, andone night we went on to the cinemawhere a special short of Nehru's visitto the United States was showing.The theater was full and, althoughUganda has no official color bar, theraces were roughly divided accordingto ticket prices. When Trumangreeted Nehru there was great en­thusiasm from the Indians in the mid­dle and a noticeable lack of it fromthe British in back. The Africans infront were only mildly interested un- Red tape in EthiopiaAfter Kilimanjaro I made a flyingcircuit of Ethiopia and the t�r:�Somalilands. To see some typIC,durra and teff farms outside AddISAbaba, it took the aid of the Am�r-15'ican Embassy,. one week, and perrJl dsion from two cabinet ministers anIthe head of publicity before a simp edrive could be made into the countrY'side. On the flight from Addis toJibuti in French Somaliland, plaJ1esTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEl;ake off with difficulty from the 8,000'0?t plateau and go into a long power'ghde to the coast. We broke ourdescent at Dire Dawa to pick up a'Cargo of chat, a narcotic weed thatgrows only in the higher areas. De­tnand is such on the Arabian penin­sula that it forms a principal item of�rgo on the Ethiopian Airlines. Atf ogadishu, Italy was taking overrom Britain under the U.N. agree-,�ent, and a row of sleek RAF jet,ghters were "showing the flag" todesert tribesmen who looked on,�pears in hand, from beyond thearbed wire.A voluntary, seasonal labor move­�ent into Uganda on the order of100,000 people a year from Belgiantnandated Ruanda- U rundi was in­volved in my dissertation study of�rne f1eographical relationships ofampala. To investigate the source�f the flow and to judge developmentsIII the Lake Kivu region we drove�st through the Mountains of theboon and into the Belgian CongoRef?re turning south to Ruanda.lUlndi Camp is a barbed wire-en-� osed collection of mud huts in thet !bert National Park. Near it wet:d to buy an interesting spear, of­erlng a price double its replacement�ost, from an African who, with irre­�t�ble logic, refused to sell. He ex­PaIned in Swahili, "It is centis same� two spears, but will the lion know�at?" Ruindi isn't exactly State andf adlson, but the previous occupanto OUr mud hut had signed the office�br ollJ.as Abraham, newly graduated studentt0lO. Makerere College, who went alongon the climb. register, "Laird Bell, Winnetka, Il­linois."Mountain roads in the Kivu havepersonality. Cars are allowed southonly on Monday, Wednesday, andFriday, north on alternate weekdays,and it's a free-for-all on Sunday alongthe hundred miles down the west sideof the lake, when the road is notclosed by flowing lava. The nextstretch south to Usumbura is also toonarrow for cars to I pass-it was anengineering feat to blast any road atall. So as you pass a barrier anAfrican beats a signal on an emptygasoline drum that is picked up by arelay of drummers at intervals to thenext barrier, which is then closed tooncoming traffic until you arrive.Transportation neededTransportation is the key to thisrich interior region. The Belgiansfrequently ship tea, coffee, pyrethrum,and minerals out through British ter­ritory to Mombasa rather than by themore direct route west to the Atlanticand Europe because the many trans­shipments necessary to cross the wideCongo Basin make that route moreexpensive. Shortsighted administra­tion in East Africa has so far deniedthis region the railroad extension fromKampala that was planned twentyyears ago. At present even the trickleof 400 tons a month hauled by a newtrucking company from the Kivu tothe Kampala railhead is too much forthe overloaded narrow gauge line toclear comfortably in addition to itsUganda railings. A good hard roadto the coast is needed, but it wouldparallel the railway from Kampala toMombas.a, so the government has de­liberately kept what road there is mpoor condition.The Fulbright grant expired inJune, and Mr. Walter S. Rogers, '02,invited me to attend a conference be­ing held in Oxford by the Institute ofCurrent World Affairs. I flew back toUganda via Tripoli and Khartoum anassociate of the Institute, and in Au­gust we headed for South Africa bycar. Few African roads are good, andthe Vanguard needed three rearsprings, four shock absorbers, clutchand brakes relined, and all new tiresbefore -12,000 miles. American carsare seldom available, and even theirlife is cut more than one-half by thebeating they take on these roads. About twenty cars a year now makethe 4,800 mile drive to the Cape.Resthouses are at reasonable intervals,but there is a 600 mile stretch fromMbeya, Tanganyika, to Broken Hill,Northern Rhodesia, without a garage.In Johannesburg, the native town­ships of Orlando and Sophiatown,where young Absalom met the sins ofthe city, brought to life for us AlanPaton's best selling novel Cry, the Be­loved Country. Later in Natal wedrove along "the lovely road thatruns from Ixopo into the hills" andclimbed "seven miles into them toCarisbrooke" where Zoltan Korda wasdirecting the London Films produc­tion starring Canada Lee as ReverendKumalo and Lionel Ngakane,. a per­sonable Witwatersrand University stu­dent, as Absalom. For, three hours ofretakes, cameraman (The Third Man)Krasker tried different effects with thesoft rays of the setting sun on thetragic scene when Kumalo returnshome with sad news. Words werescarcely audible as his people cameforward to share his sorrow while inthe background a Zulu choir sang amournful hymn over and over. 'Atdinner, at the farmhouse of Paton'sbrother-in-law, Canada said it was hisbest part since Bigger Thomas inRichard Wright's Native son.Durban still shows physical andmental scars of the bloody Indian­Zulu riot less than two years ago, butat meetings of the International Clubwe sat with Hindus, Moslems, Euro­peans, and Africans, of both sexes,Unsuccessful bargaining : The African reo.Iused "with perfect logic" to part with hisspear.11in amicable discussion. It was freelypredicted, though, that with . thestrength gained from the SouthwestAfrica elections, the Nationalist gov­ernment would soon prohibit suchmeetings in line with its policy ofapartheid, or strict segregation.T he Gold CoastAt Capetown we boarded an ex­river steamer and two weeks laterlanded here in West Africa. The GoldCoast, with independence imminent,is going through a trying period forboth its people and the British. Ifself government soon for an Africanna tion is to be followed by a periodof real progress, the best chance ishere. Uganda has no port and needstime for national feeling to grow.Kenya has white settlers who mustbe considered and Tanganyika's inade­quate capital to develop its vast extent.Northern Rhodesia is producing onlya trickle of educated Africans, whileLiberia is trying with American aid tocatch up with the twentieth century.Nigeria, the largest unit in the Britishcolonial empire, is surging towardself rule but is split into three antago­nistic regions. Sierra Leone, the Gam­bia, and the High Commission terri­tories in South Africa are weak eco­nomic units. Belgian, French, Portu-. guese, and Spanish territories are gov­erned under colonial theories that, al­though differing widely one from an­other, are unanimous at least in not planning for separate political status.The Gold Coast is the glitteringhope. Its peoples are comparativelyhomogeneous, there have been schoolsfor over a century, mass education isspreading, and a first class college istraining leaders. Yet, five major. language groups are a divisive force,ami the electorate, which this year isto be based on a universal franchisefor the first time, will have an illiter­ate majority for some years. Thecountry does have a number of reallyrich men and a middle class based onthe small trader and cocoa farmer.(Only Uganda, with cotton, has near­ly so many prosperous farmers.) Tim­ber, gold, bauxite, and manganese ex­ports along with cocoa can earn bothdollars and pounds for imports anddevelopment, and in the rivers flowsuntapped power. Britain has promisedto leave in the near future, but rightnow there is widespread distrust, sus­picion, and a rebellious unrest.No doctrinaire CommunistsHere and across the continent post­war riots and disturbances have beenfrequent-well publicized from Britishterritories, usually hushed over inothers. Inevitably much of this agi­tation has been labeled communist.With minor exceptions in South Af­rica, and in Ethiopia (where there isa Russian Embassy), communism hasvirtually no direct or doctrinaire fol­lowing in Africa south of the Sahara.A group of Makerere College students, in sensible dress, pause on the stepsof the Administration Building.12 . nHowever, the race between educatlOand agitation is accelerating. Grie�'ances to exploit are certainly not lac�'�ng,. but comm�nism has not had Its. Immngs. It won t unless the EuropeaJlpowers who are now batting in Afriell Istrike out. If we are willing to c@lil'"tribute, and IF the colonial natiojliSwill allow it, Point IV can go a lofl.gway to help raise living standards,stimulate new markets and new pro;duction, and keep communism out �'the batter's box altogether.Obviously, Fulbrighters in colonialareas have very diff eren t experiencesfrom the "majority, who go to Europ.e.Grants for both are based on costs �llthe latter, which leads to some anolJi!'alies. For a person doing work in t�ecolonies, they just about cover traJl�portation from and to the States a�living expenses. Professional eqUIp"men t (beyond a few books), any add�:tional travel (that most people find �twise to take the opportunity of do'ing), and transportation for a depend,ent are extra.We need more Americans in Africa-to give technical assistance, for re'search, and to present American vie;v'points, on a continent which is beg1I1'ning to assume real importance in theworld picture and about which weknow very little. Fulbright is an e'"cellent avenue of approach .'J}We look forward to being back,!the States in time to see you durIngAlumni Week next June.l'�eThe College campus, near the Equator, looks 1this.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINt�o the left, in all his reflected glory, stands Mr. Strozier, nattily attired in blue serge. The occasion was the Student Union's fare­well reception for Chancellor Hutchins.The Man In the Blue Serge Suit•Students brushed him by, photographers gave him thebum's rush, even his wife said "Who will look at you?"Then the Dean finally came into the limelightIlIAD BEEN a graduate student at19 the University of Chicago after35 and had accepted Robert May­�ard Hutchins as God, the universal�lldergraduate label. Certainly head an extra quality about him thatlO.ade young girls weak and stronglO.en quake in his presence.R On that dark April day whent:0osevelt died in 1945, I had left thec{tancellor's office in high good hu­lO.oUr after being interviewed for a�:sition at the University. Only theh Ws of the President's death couldaVe dampened the enthusiasm I felttiter a half hour with the terrestrialod of the Midway.ib My promotion to the position ofean of Students came the followingt\PRIL 1951, By Robert M. Strozier, Dean of Studentssummer, and, as a reward, I wasasked to stand in the receiving lineat the summer reception for students,with him and Mrs. Hutchins. I wasawed to find myself third in the line;only once removed from the Deityhimself. Unfortunately, my wife hadleft for cool Colorado with the chil­dren and I had to enjoy my minorsuccess alone.Pressed by the pressI found myself chatting gayly withthe charming Mrs. H. when I feltsomething like a professional wrestlerpush me aside. Feeling that I hadevidently made some inexcusable fauxpas, ,I turned to find the library in Ida Noyes Hall overrun with photograph­ers, all of whom were not only un­impressed by my presence, but mostof whom seemed to fear that by someunfortunate chance I might be in­cluded in a picture with the Hutch­inses. i stepped aside as quickly andunobtrusively as any minor function­ary could in a similar situation.As the evening progressed the pho­tographers continued to seek the pro­file, front and back view of this hand­some couple, and each time I madea valiant effort to be chatting inter­estedly with Gertrude Smith, Profes­sor of Greek, on my right. When theH u tchinses invited me home withthem after the line had finally broken,I felt that I had met the qualifica-13tions of a new and eager administra­tor on the Midway.My 'wife Margaret, who had alsobeen a student at Chicago and whoshared all the traditional a we ofthe chancellor, and I were invited tostand with the Hutchinses when thesecond Mrs. Hutchins made her firstofficial appearance in a receiving linefor new students. Excitement was highthat evening-here was Mrs. God,petite, beautiful, and charming.Margaret looked over her 'faculty­wife wardrobe before the affair anddecided to slip into a little numberthat had been in her trousseau elevenyears before and which she had wiselykept for an occasion when she wouldbe almost entirely anonymous. WhenI questioned the advisability of wear­ing such an old formal, 1 had no an­swer to her artless query, "who willlook at me?" Indeed, no orie did.We stood, listless, yet fascinated,while autograph seekers stopped theline; friends of old friends of theHutchinses brought unsolicited, andprobably unsent, greetings. Students,patrons, and fond parents brushed byus as quickly as possible, and photog­raphers gave us the usual bum's rush.. True, the Hutchinses did not seek suchadoration, and we did not expect it,but there it was as though a coupleof famous movie stars had descendedon a group of bobby soxers and hadinadvertently included their valet andwardrobe mistress in their entourage.The F. Champion Wards and theJohn Daveys shared the line with usthat evening, and the six of us madean animated little group whenever thephotographers descended for a par­ticular angle. I was on the point ofasking our University press representa- tives to . request one of the photog­raphers to use a blank and make ashot of the eight of us, just for thelook of things, but my wife's goodtaste prevailed, and I was silenced.All of us who shared this reflectedglory might have considered the eventsat these receptions indignities, hadHutchins himself ever sought thelimelight. But, always the soul ofcourtesy, he was grace and charm it­self, with complete sincerity.It was ironic, therefore, that it wasbecause of him that I finally suffereda real indignity and shared his spot­light on his -last, memorable appear­ance in that famous library setting.The shock of his resignation in De­cember, 1950, was so great that onlyan appearance in Rockefeller Chapelwith a speech exclusively for the stu­dents themselves, and a reception inIda Noyes afterwards, could assuagethe students. His immediate accep­tance threw the planning committeesinto an uproar of activity. On themorning the tickets were distributed,all 2500 were eagerly picked up byindividual students within a half hour.I was a�ked to preside }n the Chapelfor the occasion, and Margaret and Iwere scheduled for the line afterwardswith the Hutchinses and the two stu­dent committee chairmen. As thespeech preceded the reception, wewere all to wear street clothes ..This presented me with a problemas my Dean's blue double-breastedsuit which had become shiny andworn with constant use was my onlyrecourse for such an occasion. AgainMargaret reminded me with wifelycalm that my appearance on this oc­casion need cause me no concern.I arrived in the Chapel office a few minutes before Hutchins and had re­moved my overcoat when he entered.He looked at me and said, "Maybeyou will want to go home and changeyour suit." My dismay was unlimitedwhen .I considered the prospect. r·omy query, "You are not in a dinnerjacket, are you?" he answered byreading a paragraph from his speech:«W hy is it that the boyar girl) whoon June 15 receives his degree) eager,enthusiastic). outspoken) idealistic) re­flective) and independent) is on thefollowing September 15, or ev�ll.June 16, dull) uninspiring) shifty) plzadable) and attired in a double-breast!blue serge suit?"I was caught. The program was tobegin in five minutes and the recep­tion to follow immediately after that.We were joined by our wives in theline at Ida Noyes. The inevitablephotographers swept in and brushedmy wife, the students, and me intothe background. They were totallyunaWare that I had achieved a cer­tain distinction that evening. But thestudents were not.As I stood, sharing the spotligh�with the great man, students antheir parents and friends, paused be­fore me as I attempted to conceal th�worn sleeves and shiny edges, anDsaid, "But, Mr. Strozier, I see yoare wearing a double-breasted bluesuit." Here for the first time theywere pausing to examine me moreclosely, not because I resembled anyDeity, not because I was dashing,charming, or handsome, but becaUseI was sheathed in the traditional ar­mor of any dean worthy of the title-a double-breasted blue suit.Made it - by a nose . . .14 Unobtrusive (to the left) and just out ofcamera range . . . the Dean.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe .High Cost of PrejudiceBy Robert Maynard HutchinsEconomic, racial and religious barriers have annually de­prived thousands of young people of intellect and characterof the right to higher education. But times are changingI THINK WE might consider thenature of the struggle in whichWe are engaged.This has been largely representedto Us as a military struggle, and I amnot in a position to deny that theltlilitary aspects of this struggle existand are extremely important.But all we have to do to considerthe relative importance of the militaryaSpects of the struggle is to ask our­selves where we shall be if the mili­tary situation actually explodes, andWhere we might be after peace waseVentually established.If there is another war, who willSUPport us? And why?We cannot, I think, expect that theRussians will assist us. At this stage,the satellite countries do not seemfavorably disposed. Therefore, it is��e area between Russia and the satel­'lte countries on the one hand, andthe United States on the other, withwhich we are primarily concerned.Loyalty of mankindWe are engaged, actually, in a&truggle for the loyalty and adher­enCe of mankind to the ideals thatWe profess.In any military struggle, the sup­'�ort of mankind-this side of the Ironurtain-will be indispensable to us.If we are to avoid a military strug­gle it would appear that it is im­�ortant, if not indispensable to us,to have the support of those peoples��o stretch between Russia and theest.I do not think that we shall makeVery much progress in directing short­�ave broadcasts at Russia herself. Io not think that the Russians areltlaking very much progress with the\PRIL 1951, short-wave broadcasts directed towardus.The Russians do appear to havemade a certain amount of progresswith the presentation of their idealsin the territory which, as I have indi­cated, we must regard as crucial inthe struggle in which we are engaged.A revolutionary struggleNow, what is the nature of this dis­cussion? What is the condition of thepeople whom we are trying to influ­ence?We know that many of them areengaged in revolutionary struggles oftheir' own. We know that they feelthat they are backward, that the rea­son they are backward is that theyhave been held back; and that theyhave been held back by the West.Their revolutionary aspirations re­sult from a sense of oppression whichthey feel, and which they feel is at­tributable to the attitude of the im­perialistic past, and perhaps of theimperialistic present, of certain ele­ments in western society.The role into which the UnitedIn 1949, the first national conference ofeducators met in Chicago to discuss"Discrimination in College Admissions." Itwas sponsored by the A merican Council onEducation, cooperating with the Anti­Defamation League of B'nai Brith, and therecommendation was made that regionalconferences on the topic thenceforth beheld. Dr. Hutchins remarks, originallytitled "Highlights of the national andworld picture as they affect discriminationin U.S. colleges and universities," weremade to the' most recent regional confer­ence, meeting in Chicago. Chairman wasDr. A. C. Ivy, vice president in charge ofthe professional colleges, University ofIllinois. Other U of C participants includedFloyd W. Reeves, Professor of Administra­tion, Maurice F. Seay, Chairman, Dept. ofEducation, and Louis Wirth, Projessor ofSociology. States has been pushed in many partsof the world can only be describedas reactionary; and one of the mostserious aspects of the military prepa­rations of the present day is that theyseem to be directed, as for examplein. Indo-China, to repressing whatwould appear to be the legitimate as­pirations of the people of that coun­try.U. S. supports colonialismThe United States, then, instead ofbeing able to act in accordance withthe ideals which it professes, is actual­ly functioning as the support of colo­nial powers in many parts of theworld; but if the people betweenRussia and the United States wantanything, it is an end to colonialism.To the extent to which the UnitedStates can be presented to those pee­ple as the final, last support of colo­nialism, to that extent it can success­fully be represented that the UnitedStates does not live up to the idealsthat it professes, and that those idealsare, after all, nothing but a series ofplatitudes engraved perhaps in theDeclaration of Independence, buthaving no actual role in our lives.In this situation, anything, andanything whatever, that can be foundin this country which represents dis­crimination against minority groups,and particularly against minoritygroups on the ground of race, be­comes a piece of evidence of the ut­most cogency and importance.Paper vs. real educationOne of the greatest opportunitiesthat any individual or any countrycan have is the opportunity for edu­cation. The question is not what is15the paper situation in this countrywith regard to the opportunity for ed­ucation, but what is the actual situa­tion?The actual situation is that eco­nomic barriers and racial and relig­ious barriers prevent, annually, theeducation of countless thousands ofyoung people who are qualified byintellect and character to avail them­selves of the opportunities of highereducation.We say for example that highereducation in the United States is free;and it is free, if you have the moneyto pay for it. That is, you can go­you used to be able to go-to aninstitution like the University of Illi­nois for a fee of $75.0.0 a year. Thiswas in the good old days. But evenin those good old days, unless youhad another thousand dollars a yearto live on, and unless your familycould dispense with your earnings,you were debarred by your economicsituation from availing yourself of theopportunities at the University of Illi­nois, even though Dr. Ivy· and hiscolleagues had set the tuition fee ata nominal figure.We are accustomed to think thatwe are ahead of the whole world inthe provision of free higher educa­tion; but this is far from true if we. contrast with the situation where onlytuition is free, or ·tuition is low, thesituation that has long since obtainedin many European countries-andmore recently in England-wherethose who are thought worthy aregiven a subvention that enables themto live as well as to study.The racial barriers to education­the religious barriers to education arewell known to all of you.The usual answer.Now, the usual answer is that noth­ing can be done. The reason whynothing can ever be done in educa­tion is that money is always involved.The one final, conclusive answer toany educational proposal is that itwill cost money. If it can be repre­sented that any' educational changewill reduce the income of theinstitu­tion in question, this is fatal to theproposal.Twenty years ago the University ofChicago did not allow Negro womento live in the dormitories. There wereno Negro children in the laboratoryschools. There were no Negro stu­dents in the medical school. There16 were no Negro patients in the hospi­tals. There were no Negro professorson the faculty. When a. very .dis­tinguished and cultivated Hindu, whospoke better English than the Chan­cellor, was proposed for appointmentto the faculty, it was said that he,of course could not belong, and ifhe did belong, he could not belong tothe Quadrangle Club, which is veryexclusive, because-and all this wasbecause-he was black.Now, when it was suggested that itwould be a good thing if the Negrowomen were �permitted to live in thedormitories, we were told that if theNegro women were permitted to livein the dormitories, all the Whitewomen would move out. The Whitewomen paid tuition, paid room rent,and it would be fatal to the Uni­versity's financial future if this reve­nue were . lost.Revenue did not sufferThe Negro women were taken into'the dormitories; the White womenstayed on; and the revenue of theUniversity did not suffer, or at leastdid not suffer from this cause.When it was suggested that Negrochildren might be admitted to thelaboratory schools, we were informedthat if Negro children were admitted,all the White children would be takenou t of the schools, and we wouldeither have to discontinue the schoolsor run them as an entirely Negroinstitution.Negro children were admitted, andthe White children stayed on; andeverybody is crazy about the Negrochildren because they're so cute.When it was suggested that weshould admit Negro students to themedical school, we were told thatNegro students could not be admittedbecause if they were admitted ourpatients would not permit them tolook af ter them; and if we had nopatients we would have no medicalschools; and the entire progress ofscience in the United States wouldsuffer that serious setback which mustresult if the University of ChicagoMedical School is ever discontinued.Negro students have been admittedto the medical school. The patientsstill line up, trying to get into thebuilding. And our problem at theUniversity of Chicago Medical Schoolis still how to find enough accommo- dations for the people who want toget in there and ha ve the studentSlook after them. The difficulty in find­ing medical students is the difficultyof finding those who have had a suf­ficiently good economic backgroundto get a sufficiently good preliminaryeducation so that they can get througha rigorous medical program.So that we are confronted with theembarrassing situation that we have,for some years, been prepared to ad­mit Negro medical students to themedical school, and have had an al­most impossible time in trying to findqualified Negroes.In the same way, we were told thatif Negro patients were admitted tothe hospital, the medical school wouldhave to close because no White pa­tients would ever ask for our services again, and it was pointed out tous that there are 350,000 Negroesjust across Cottage Grove Avenuefrom the University of Chicago hoS­pitals; and it was represented thatthey would storm the place everYmorning at eight o'clock, and that theWhite patients would never be ableto get near it.Negro patients are admitted noW'They are not admitted on a segre­gated basis. And the result has beenthat there has been no result at all .Money always talks ...Now, I have been in educationaladministration for more years than 1care to count. I have never seen anYproposal of this type made on which_the answer that I have quoted haSnot been given, "This will be fatal to"us because it will reduce our revenue.I have never seen a proposal of thiSkind carried through where it hadthe slightest effect, either on the fi­nances of the institution, or on theintellectual, moral qualities of the en­terprise.Therefore, there is, according tomy observation-which though pro­tracted I admit has been narrow--­according to my observation, there isno reason why we should not do thethings we know we ought to do.The most encouraging aspect of thepast 25 years in American society haSbeen the progress on the labor front,and the progress on the Negro front.On the labor front, perhaps theprogress has gone too far, as I a�inclined to think every spring-Or, 1STHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZlrJ£it every fall, when John L. Lewisdelivers his annual ultimatum. Butcertainly the change has been tremen­dous since the days that I rememberas a boy, when the question waswhether we could have the eight-hourday in the steel industry without bank­rupting the nation.And when I was on the Yale De­bating Team in 1921, I rememberthat we lost every debate. The rea­Son that we lost every debate was notthat we were not the better debaterson each occasion, but that we alwayshad the affirmative of the proposi­tion, "Resolved that industry shouldrecognize the labor unions." In 1921that was as revolutionary a suggestionas would be the suggestion today that�he United Nations should be turnedInto a real world government. AndI think that anybody who had theaffirmative of that proposition today,and who debated before the audi­ences that we debated before, wouldSuffer the same fate that we suffered. ... Or does it? .This, then, is the problem; and thisis its importance in the struggle inwhich we are engaged; and this isthe answer to the opposition that isalways offered, that nothing can bedone. We know that it can be done.We have seen it done in educationalinstitutions, and now, thanks to theSupreme Court, we are seeing it doneon a national scale as far as discrim­ination against Negroes is concerned.The truths inscribed on our heartsare, I think, the truths of the Declara­tion of Independence, which, as Irecall it, include the proposition thatall men are created equal.The task that we have on a worldscale is not merely to repeat thesepropositions, but to show that thistruth, which is inscribed on ourhearts, is one that we are preparedto put into operation; notably put itinto operation in those institutions which are dedicated to the propaga­tion of our ideals, namely, our insti­tutions of higher learning.The thing about the Declaration ofIndependence that always strikes meis that Thomas Jefferson insisted onthe "self-evidence" of his propo­SItIOns. His propositions are self­evident; but they are not self-explana­tory; and they are certainly not self­operating.He expected the instantaneous ad­herence of mankind because hethough t that these propositions wereinscribed on every human heart; andI think they are. I think that thesepropositions would awaken today thesame response throughout the worldbetween Russia and the United Statesthat they awakened in Thomas Jef­ferson's day; but in order to havethat response awakened, we must notmerely repeat these phrases; we must.live them. And we must live themparticularly in our institutions ofhigher learning.'(oWe of the high schools and colleges are in charge of educa­tional defense and it is nothing less than the quality ofAmerican life we must work together to defend"LIBE·RAL EDUCATION AND THE DRAFT8y F. Champion WardllTHEN A SOCIETY which isfl' rooted in free values is forcedto struggle for its life, it quickly findsthat not only its life, but the qualityof its life, must be defended.The armed forces have the specialtask of protecting the life of America,and various civil institutions, amongthem the schools and colleges, have�he special task of protectingthe qual­Ity of American life.We are educators. Therefore, ourPrOfessional duty in this crisis is toconserve free values by instilling theknowledge, love, and practice of free­do:rn in the rising generation.ffrho are "the military?"Yet we are also citizens, and as:itizens we know that in a democracyIn. crisis "the military" is not a re-<\PRIL 1951, mote body of specialists, like the war­riors of Plato's Republic. In a mod­ern democracy in crisis, "the military"may be all of us, including those ofus who are educators, and the fate ofall of us, including our hopes foreducation, depends in part upon themilitary outcome.On their part, the defense officialsof a democracy are aware that someof the means of defense which areavailable to a totalitarian state arenot available to them. Among theseforbidden means is the destruction ofliberal education. I am not one ofthose who hold that a free societycannot be defended by force of armswithout losing its freedom in theprocess. On the record of the lasttwo world wars, this notion of anautomatic, inevitable connection be­tween "militarism" and "totalitarian- ism" would appear to be false. How­ever, if in fact such nations asEngland and the U ni ted Statesescaped this supposed consequence of"militarism" following World WarsI and II, I suggest that it was because,in certain important respects, theyrefused to imitate their totalitarianenemies.This was true in the case of liberaleducation. In the United States, theschools and colleges were left free;at least some students were permittedto attend them; and means were pro­vided for veterans to return to themto complete any type of educationthey might choose. In all of theseactions, the free nations expressedtheir devotion to freedom. And theseprovisions, combined with the relativebrevity of the period of full mobiliza­tion and conflict, made it possible for17us to conserve our life and the qualityof our life at the same time.The new crises . . .How may this result be securedin the present crisis? This is the com­mon problem of defense which thosecitizens who specialize in educationand those citizens who specialize inmilitary defense must now face to­gether. Will the methods used inWorld War II suffice for the presentemergency? If some of these methodscan be used, and some cannot, whatnew ones may be added now? I sug­gest that the emergency we have nowentered differs in important respectsfrom the last emergency, and thatthere are new steps which educatorsand defense officials should take inorder to meet these new conditions.These new condi tions may besummed up in the following- state­ment: for the first time in its history,the United States may have to main­tain a large standing army for an in­definite period of time. Such an army,maintained over a period of ten years,will have a very great effect uponan entire educational generation. This18 effect will be especially acute if, asnow seems likely and necessary, aheavy majority of our young menare drafted into the arrtied servicesimmediately upon completing highschool.If the quality of American life isour concern as Americarl. educators,how are we to preserve that qualitywhile recognizing, as citizens, that thevery life of America must also bepreserved? Let us look �t some ofthe plans which are now being dis­cussed.. . . and some solutionsOne plan is to secure a number ofexemptions for those young men whohave some special aptitude for a par­ticular scholastic specialty useful tothe armed services. This plan wouldpostpone the military service of only'a small group, and it would not in­sure that those who are exemptedwould' receive that education in thearts of 'freedom upon which the qual­ity of our civil life depends. In fact,such exemptions' would divert theseyoung men from liberal studies.A second plan would permit a large proportion of high school graduate�to go to college, these to be choseJlon the basis of some sort of national in­telligence or aptitude test. Besidesthe practical difficulties in the waYof this .plan, it is hardly acceptableeither politically or ethically; andeven if such a test could be applie�,and such a plan "sold" to the Ameri­can people, it is unlikely that thenumbers needed for the rapid devel­opment of a large army could be re­cruited from among those, who werenot permitted to go to college.Thirdly, it has been suggested byPresident Conant that all 18-year�olds be grafted for a two-year term ofservice, after which some would goto college. I think that Mr. Conantis right in concluding .that large-scal.edeferment of high school graduates 15not consistent with the nature of thepresent emergency. I think that he iswrong in concluding that, for all ofthese youths, college and a genera�,liberal education must wait unt11their military service IS completed.Mr. Conant's cakeIf we of the high schools and col­leges are willing to cooperate in theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECommon defense, I believe that weCan eat President Conant's cake andhave it, too. I understand that theBoard of Regents have recently pro­Posed that the high schools of NewYork enable young men to completetheir high school work at the age ofseventeen, so that they may have ayear in college before they are drafted.I would go further than the Board ofRegents and ask that selected youngIllen (and women) who have com­pleted the sophomore years in yourhigh schools be encouraged to applyfor immediate admission to college.I would urge that the colleges stopaSking or hoping for special treat­Illent and, instead, offer special treat­Illen t to these selected high schoolSophomores. If the colleges will doso, they may conclude, as we haveConcluded after fourteen years of ex­Perience with younger students atChicago, that the best time for youngAmericans to acquire a basic, liberaledUcation is between the ages of fif­teen and nineteen. Since 1942, theCollege of the University of Chicagohas awarded the pniversity's Bachelorof Arts degree to students who havec_ompleted its program of general,hberal education. Over two thousandof these students have entered theCollege after completing the secondYear of high school, for the College�as found that ten years of sound pre­lzrninary training are sufficient to pre­Pare young Americans to benefit fromCollege work.In the present emergency, the num­ber of these younger students shouldbe greatly increased. Every resourceof the colleges should be concentrated Wardupon enabling these students to com­plete their basic, general educationand receive their Bachelor's degreesin their eighteenth year. They willthen be prepared for specialized train­ing while they are in the armed forcesand after they have returned to ci­vilian life. At Chicago, we are con­centrating our scholarship funds uponour younger applicants for admission,and we are planning to make summersession courses available so that thefour-year curriculum of the Collegemay be completed in three calendaryears. At Shimer College, in Mt.Carroll, Illinois, similar steps are beingtaken.G.I.'s need educationWhy have other colleges of liberalarts not yet followed suit? Until veryrecently, they have hoped againsthope that the draft would not takea large majority of high school grad- uates. As President Conant's proposalindicates, the colleges have now beenlargely disabused of this hope. In­stead, they hope for another G.!.Bill for all draftees who have finishedtheir term of military service. Perhapsour over-taxed economy will supportanother G.!. Bill; perhaps the gov­ernment will release all draftees aftertwo years of service; perhaps thesetwenty-year-olds will be willing andable to add two years to their educa­tional lives. But I should not wishto wager that these things will happen.Meanwhile, this plan completely over­looks the important facts that ouryoung men will need while they arein the services the balanced knowledgeand judgment which a sound generaleducation would give them, and thatthe services will need young men whohave been so ed uca ted.When these arguments are put be­fore college administrators, they willusually grant their validity. But then,as a last resort, they will ask anxiouslywhether taking younger students intothe colleges would not alienate theirfriends in the high schools. I cannotbelieve that this is so. When thealternative for our students may beto deny them their chance for collegealtogether, or to postpone and'lengthen their higher education bytwo years, I cannot believe that thosecolleges which seek to cooperate withthe high school in selecting qualifiedyounger students would knock at. aclosed door. For we of the high schoolsand colleges are in charge of educa­tional defense, and it is nothing lessthan the quality of American life thatwe must work together to defend.Check your CalendarFOR THESE JUNE REUNION DATE'SJUNE 6Madame Pandit,Speaker JUNE 8Class ReurrionsJUNE 9Interfraternity Singand Robert M. Hutchins, SpeakerAPRIL 1951, 19MR�. S. HI.MER fir.st cordially in­VI ted him : to Lmcoln, to talkabout the terms of the gift. But Presi­dent William Rainey Harper was ab­sorbed in the new University. AndNebraska was a long way off.In her next note, she rather tartlyreminded him that she was an oldwoman, nearing 70, whose healthwouldn't permit her to linger in Ne­braska much longer, visiting friends.Before taking off for Florida, shewanted to entrust her school-prod­uct of 43.' years of her life-to thehands of this extraordinary man whowas startling the educational worldwith his new University on the Mid­way.Frances Shimer was a woman ofgreat will and purpose. She hadbrought Mount Carroll Seminary topioneer country, before even the rail­roads chugged across northwesternIllinois. In Harper, she. saw a kindredsoul, a man of vision and cast-irondetermination. Two church denom­inations were courting her favor, inhopes she might leave them her Sem­inary, but she was determined thatHarper should have it.Her final strategy was a wire: "Donot fail on Thursday." To this, thebusy President at last responded. Aftermaking the long, slow trek acrossthe prairies, he told her: "I was mostforcibly struck with your own charac­ter, the work which you had accom­plished and the purpose which youhad in mind. I feel that if in somesmall way I could help out this pur­pose, it would give me the greatestpossible pleasure to do so."A feminist is bornFrances Shimer, born in Milton,New York, in 1826, went off to schoolbefore she was three because hermother, "ill with consumption,"couldn't care for her at home. Shewent on to boarding school, with highhopes of becoming a doctor. But themedical profession then was cool tothe idea of lady doctors. The effectof this disappointment on her life can­not be exaggerated. If not medicine,she vowed, then teaching. Equal edu­cational opportunities for womenwere to become her lifelong passion.John Wilson, a friend of herbrother-in-law's, had emigrated to theprairies of northwestern Illinois. Hewrote back about the deplorable lackof educational facilities in the frontiercountry, and suggested that Francescould do a lot to remedy the situation.This was all the encouragement sheneeded.20 AFTER 98 YEARS ...SHIMER STILL PIONEERSBy L. Albert WilsonWith a friend, who answered to theastonishing name of Cinderella Greg­ory, she forthwith set out for MountCarroll, on the Mississippi, a hamletof 800 people. They made the tripfrom Chicago to Janesville, Wis., onthe Northwestern railroad, then for$20 hired a driver with a team andspring wagon to take them through'the mud, 90 miles to Mount Carroll. "We rode'" in the wind and the rainnearly half the time we were on theway (three days)" Frances wrote hersister. "The roads were perfectly aW­ful, almost impassable in many places .:The stages met with accidents almosthourly."Frontier Illinois was then innocentof public schools, and the first insti­tutions of learning were private, or byIntrepid lady pioneers-to the right, Frances Shimer" to the left, herfriend Cinderella Gregory.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESUbscription. Under John. Wilson's�egis, nine men of the village oblig­Ingly incorporated a subscriptionschool. On May 11, 1853, 25 boys andgirls attended the first classes atMoun t Carroll Seminary-mostly inthe age group 12 to 20. Frances'dream was reality. She had founded aschool whose classes were open togirls as well as boys, and though later,by public demand, she added a few"frills" in the girls' training, the cur­riculum was the same for both. Shebrought the first piano to the area,and Mount Carroll became the firstmusic center.F our years later the Trustees hadgiven up the Seminary as a failure.But not Miss Wood, who took the titleto the school for the cost of the build­ing, cleared up the debt, and went onto expand it. A wing of the originalbUilding was just nearing completionwhen the '57 Money Panic struck.Contractors could not meet theiragreements, laborers struck, bankswould make no loans. Undaunted,�rances personally finished the build­Ing. She bought paint, paper andglass at wholesale prices, installed theglass herself, painted the wood workherself, papered the rooms herself. In1876, when a second building becameAPRIL, 1951 a dire necessity, she found even thelowest bid far in excess of her budget.Again, she took over the job. Her ownland supplied limestone for the foun­dations, clay for the brick and treesfor the lumber. She was her ownarchitect, engineer and foreman.Land in lieu 0/ tuitionToday her school might be labeled"self-help" or "cooperative." In theevening, girls set the yeast for thebread. At daybreak, boys baked it inoutdoor ovens. Vegetables and fruitswere raised on campus and canned ordried. A barn stabled milk cows anddriving teams. Cleaning and cookingwere done by students, under super­vision. Notes were taken from thosewho couldn't pay cash, and collectedyears later with a little 'interest. Landin seven different states was acceptedas payment on fees, or as settlementon notes.Then in 1857, Frances married.Henry Shimer was a naturalist by pro­fession, who had made several walk­ing trips-two from Minnesota all theway to Texas-collecting specimensof plants and animals and making aliving with his trowel. He had lent a hand with construction work on theSeminary.With his wife's stimulus and en­couragement, he went on to becomea successful doctor and scientist, whocontributed articles liberally to scien­tific journals and specimens to theSmithsonian Institute. He was alsocanny enough to invest in Florida realestate. He was a strong, silent andsomewhat strange man who left quitea tidy estate to his wife, on his death.I t was this estate, plus her school,which Frances Ann Wood Shimerwanted to entrust to President Harperin the winter of '95.After his first meeting with herHarper presented a memorandum tohis Board of Trustees, signed by him­self and Mrs. Shimer. She agreed totransfer title to her school to the U ni­versity of Chicago, with the under­standing it would be an organic partof the University. It. was also to benamed "The Shimer Academy of theUniversity of Chicago." The Univer­sity would be heir to her personalestate and that of her husband­properties valued at about $150,000.A committee visited the school andmade a report to the Trustees, recom­mending it be incorporated as "TheFrances Shimer Academy of the Uni-21versity of Chicago" but that it re­main an autonomous institution. . . ."A special Board of Trustees, actingin connection with the Trustees ofthe University, shall accept the prop­erty and administer the trust ... thisBoard shall consist of 15 members, ofwhom three shall be representativesof the graduates of the school, fourof the local constituency residing inor near Mount Carroll and eight ofthe University of Chicago; it beingunderstood that the President of theUniversity, the Comptroller, and theSecretary of the Board of the U niver­sity, with five others named by repre­sentatives of the University shall bemembers of the Board."This was a wiser move, said thecommittee than merging the schoolwith the University for ... "its inde­pendence would be lost; its individu­ali ty would be impaired; it wouldhave little hold on the alumni and lit­tle power of appeal to the public."Until his death, President Harperserved as Chairman of the Board ofTrustees. Thomas W. Goodspeed,Henry A. Rust, Alonzo K. Parker,Frank J. Miller and Lathan A. Cran­dall, all of the University, were boardmembers.For girls onlyWhen her young men marched offto join the Union Army, during theCivil War, Mrs. Shimer continued herseminary without them, as a girl'sschooL However, trustees of the new­ly-formed Academy thought of restor­ing co-education. A report "favors theplan of admitting young men, gradu­ates of the High School, as day pupilsin the Frances Shimer Academy. Mrs.Shimer decidedly objects to this plan,having understood that the Academywould be continued, for a time atleast, as a preparatory school foryoung ladies only. Considering this,the Committee recommends thatthe matter be dropped for the pres­ent." So co-education was to be post­poned-for 50 years.Mr. William Parker McKee islisted as Dean from 1897 through1930, but from his title, and cor­respondence with President Harper, itis obvious that the President of theBoard, Mr. Harper himself, was re­garded as the actual administrativehead of the school. Under his leader­ship, a junior college was established-one of America's first (Harper hadfounded the junior college movementby dividing the University into aJunior (Academic) and Senior (Uni­versity) Colleges).As a matter of fact, most academiesand colleges in the Chicago area were22 at one time affiliated with the Univer­sity, Beloit, Kalamazoo, and the Way­land Academy among them. TheUniversity, with its greater resources,could provide examinations, inspectthe schools and advise the faculties.Affiliation also served as a kind ofaccredi ta tion whereby graduatescould be admitted to the University.In the 20's, as curricula became morestandardized and accrediting agencieswere set up, the University severedits ties of affiliation. But not withShimer. It was an historic relationship Shimer Academy of the University ofChicago entered into a new con­tractual affiliation. Aaron J. Brum­baugh, who had served as Dean ofthe College of the University duringthe early years of Mr. Hutchins' NewPlan, became Shimer's president.Men were once more admitted toShimer which now offers "The Chi­cago Plan," placement exams and all.The University provides all admis­sions and testing services and assistsin planning the curriculum throughconsultation and the "lend-lease" ofToday, both men and women students are welcomed to the home of President andMrs. A. J. Brumbaugh.and Mrs. Shimer's will specificallyprescribed that affiliation be main­tained, if the school was to receiveincome from her estate.The list of U of C people whoserved as Shimer trustees sounds mostfamiliar-Presidents Judson andMason, Nathan Plimpton, John F.Moulds, Dean Aaron J. Brumbaugh,President Ernest C. Colwell, now vicepresident of the Board. 'New chapter, new planIn April, 1950, Shimer marked an­other milestone. The University'sBoard of Trustees and the Frances faculty members. Shimer College,while retaining its excellent music andart courses, gains a larger studentbody, lower costs for certain expensiveeducational services, and enjoys theprestige of association with the U ni­versity.The University, of course, gains anunusual opportunity to demonstratehow its "Chicago Plan" can operateon a small campus. President Colwellsaid, in talking with the Admissionsstaff, that the relatively populous Col­lege of the University demonstrateshow the plan operates on a large cam­pus, while Shimer will prove theplan's workability on a small one.THE· UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThus crrtics cannot say "You can doit with your large student body but... "or "You can do it with a handfulof students but ... "Some like a small schoolAs a College Representative, Ihave traveled from Brooklyn to Sheri­dan, Wyoming, from Detroit to K�n­sas City, visiting a hundred �llg?schools during recent months. PrmCI­pals, advisers, parents, teachers, haveall told me they were glad to knowabout Shimer. They say: "I want youto talk with Tom, Dick, Harry, Maryand Susan. They are interested inChicago. But I also want you to seeBenry and Elizabeth. Elizabeth wantsto go to a small school, and Henry'smother doesn't want him to go to col­lege in a large city."A group of a dozen students metme in Sheridan, Wyoming, one eve­ning last January. Half of them hadtaken the U of C scholarship exam­ination last year. One had won a sub­stantial award and another a certifi­Cate of merit. They were the best stu­dents in the junior and senior classes.And they were enormously curiousabout the Chicago College plan.I told them about the kind of edu­Cation they could expect here: aboutthe placement tests, which exempt astudent from taking studies he hasalready mastered, the comprehensivesystem, the 14 basic courses (in theBUmanities, Social Sciences, Natural�ciences, the History of Western Civ­Ilization, English, Mathematics, andforeign languages), and about howthis good, general education can begeared in with specialized or profes­sional education.I said: "I've been talking about akind of education, that is unique inthree ways. First it is a four-year col.lege program which begins two yearsearlier (with your junior and senioryear in high school) and assumes anadditional three-year period of astudy, if you go on for a Master's de­gree."We have thrown away high schooltlnits and semester or quarter hoursof credit as a yardstick of achieve­ment. When you first arrive, you areplaced in your studies by placementexaminations; you are graduatedafter you demonstra te furtherachievement on comprehensive ex­alhinations."It is unique _in content. It is ageneral, not vocational education. It:vill teach you how to think aboutldeas and problems in all of the fieldsof knowledge, by reading and byslllall discussion-groups in the class­rOom.APRIL, 1951 "Y ou can find this kind of educa­tion in the College of the Universityor at. Shimer. If you go to Shimernext September, you will, take thesame Entrance Test, and the Admis­sions Committee will not admit a stu­dent for Shimer who could not quali­fy for Chicago (Though frankly,President Brumbaugh hopes to havemore students in the middle of thecurve) . You would take the sameplacement tests, h ave the samecourse readings, and be held for thesame comprehensive examinations.You may even be taught by some ofthe same faculty, since there are nowChicago men at Shimer. Shimer's ABwill have the same meaning as a Chi­cago degree. You would receive thesame consideration in applying for aDivision or Professional School of theUniversity as a graduate of the Col­lege of the University.The big difference"The big difference, is one of loca­tion, size and environment. The Col­lege is part of a metropolitan univer-, sity. It is vigorous, stimulating, excit­ing, dynamic. The presence of out­standing scholars and teachers inmany fields justify the University'sreputation as one of the really greatUniversities in the world. The cityalone is exciting-there are museums,institutes, music halls, factories, andslums for you to explore."Shimer is a small country-seat town, 125 miles west of Chicago, twohours and a quarter on the MidwestHiawatha. Its Georgian Colonialbuildings are set in a beautiful 30-acre campus. (The original buildings,partially handbuilt by Frances Shim­er, burned down a number of yearsago). It is removed from the noiseand confusion of a city. Some 95%of its students-and half the facultv­live, study, work and play in its h�lls.There is consequently a great senseof community. It has an excellentreputation in art, music and drama,Without additional fees, you are en­couraged to develop your tal en ts inthese fields. You can even tee off fornine holes of golf just outside the Sci­ence Hall."It is one Plan, with two campuses."Take your choice!"From October through March., Mr.Wilson is a man constantly on the go.r au are likely to meet him anywherefrom Maine through' Calilornia, ashe travels the country-in his capacityas College Representative for theOffice of Admissions-explaining Chi­cago's famous college plan to highschool students, their parents, prin­cipals, teachers etc., and recruitingyoung people for the Colleges of theUniversity of Chicago and Shimer.He has an affectionate, firsthandknowledge of Shimer, since he servedas Dean there for four years, and hasbeen. an enthusiastic U of C spokes­man for the past three years.Shimer's Georgian colonial buildings are set in a beautiful 30·acre campus.23APRIL EVENTSSunday, April 1RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel (59th andWoodlawn), John B. Thompson, Dean of the Chapel,11:00 a.m,Monday, April 2PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE - Morton D.Zabel, Professor of English, University of Chicago. "JamesJoyce," first lecture in a series on contemporary literature.6:30 p.m. Room 809, 19 South La Salle St. Single admission,$1.00. Series ticket, $4.00.Wednesday, April 4PUBLIC LECTURE, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-S. 1. Havakawa,author of Language in Thought and Action; "The MultipleUses of Language," first lecture of a series. 6:30 p.m. ClubRoom, Art Institute. Single admission, $1.00. Series ticket,$4.00.Friday, April 6ACROTHEATER-Midnight Fantasy, Leon Mandel Hall (57thand University), 8:30 p.m. General admission, $1.50. Re­served seats, $2.25.Saturday, April 7TRACK-Chicago vs. Chanute Air Field, Stagg Field, 2:30 p.m.Free.ACROTHEATER-Midnight Fantasy, Leon Mandel Hall (57thand University), Children's matinee, 2:00 p.m. Admission,$1.00. Regular performance 8:30 p.m. General admission,$1.50. Reserved seats, $2.25.Sunday, April 8RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel (59th andWoodlawn), Dean Thompson, 11:00 a.m.ACROTHEATER-Midnight Fantasy, Leon Mandel Hall (57thand University), 8:30 p.m. General admission, $1.50. Re­served seats, $2.25.Monday, April 9WALGREEN PUBLIC LECTURE-George E. Kennan, Mem­ber, The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, "TheSpanish-American War," first lecture in a s e r i e s on U. S.Diplomacy. 4:30 p.m. Room 126, Judd Hall (5835 Kimbark).Free.PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE - H. StefanSchultz, Assistant Professor of German, University of Chicago."Thomas Mann," second lecture in a series on contemporaryliterature. 6:30 p.m. Room 809, 19 South La Salle. Singleadmission, $1.00.Tuesday, April 10PUBLIC LECTURE' UNIVERSITY COLLEGE - Dr. RudolfDreikurs, Medical Director, Community Child Guidance Cen­ters; "Adlerian Therapy," first lecture in a series on psycho­therapy. 7:00 p.m. Club Room, Art Institute, Single ad-mission, $1.00. Series ticket, $4.00. .Wednesday, April 11WALGREEN PUBLIC LECTURE-George F. Kennan, Member,The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, "The OpenDoor," second lecture in a series on U. S. Diplomacy. 4:30p.m. Room 126, Judd Hall (5835 Kimbark). Free.PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-S. 1. Hayakawa,author of Language in Thought and Action; "Language ofSocial Cohesion: What Holds Hum a n Beings Together,"second lecture in a series. 6:30 p.m. Club Room, Art Insti­tute. Single admission, $l.00:Thursday, April 12PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE - William T.Hutchinson, Professor of American History, University ofChicago. "Historical Roots of the New Deal," first lecture ina series on Roosevelt's New Deal. 7:15 p.m. Room 809, 19South La Salle St. Single admission, $0.75. Series ticket, $3.00.24 Friday, April 13WALGREEN PUBLIC LECTURE-George F. Kennan, Member,The Institute for Advanced Study; Princeton, "Far EasternPolicy," third lecture in a series on U. S. Diplomacy. 4:30p.m. Room 126, Judd Hall (58;55 Kimbark). Free.PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-Mortimer l­Adler, Professor of Philosophy of Law, University of Chicago;"Political and Economic Justice: The Future of Democracy,"lecture in a series entitled The Great Ideas. 7:30 p.m. 32West Randolph St. Admission, $1,50.PUBLIC CONCERT-First program of a Beethoven Cycle:Alexander Schneider, violin, and Eugene· Istomin, piano.Sonatas, D major, Opus 12, No.1; G major, Opus 96; E-flatmajor, Opus 12, No.3. Leon Mandel Hall (57th and Univer-... sity) 8:30 p.m. Admission, $1.50 ..Saturday, April 14CHILDREN'S THEATRE-The Story Book Theater, a pro­fessional dance group with a narrator, will present five nurs­ery tales for children aged three to ten. Mandel Hall (57thand University),' 2:30 p.m. Admission, $0.25 for children,$0.50 for adults.Sunday, April 15RELIGIqUS SERVICE-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel (59th andWoodlawn), Reverend Harold Bosley, First Methodist Churoh,Evanston, 11 :00 a.m.Monday, April 16WALGREEN PUBLIC LECTURE-George F. Kennan, Member,The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, "World War 1,"fourth lecture in a series on U. S. Diplomacy. 4:30 p.m. Rootll126 Judd Hall (5835 Kimbark). Free.PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-George V. Be;brinskoy, Associate Professor of Sanskrit, University of ChI'cago. "L.N. Tolstoi," third lecture in a series on contempO­rary literature. 6:30 p.m. Room 809, 19 South La Salle.Single admission, $1.00.Tuesday, April 17PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-Dr. Jules Mas­serman, Associate Professor of Nervous and Mental Diseases,Northwestern University; Modern Analytic Therapy, secondlecture in a series on psychotherapy. 7:00 p.m. Club Rootll,Art Institute. Single admission, $1.00.PUBLIC CONCERT -Second program of a Beethoven Cycle:Alexander Schneider, violin, Eugene Istomin, piano. Sonatas,A minor, Opus 23; G major, Opus 30, No.3; A major, Opus30, No.1; C minor, Opus 30, No.2. Leon Mandel Hall (57thand University). 8:30 p.m. Admission $l.00.Wednesday, April 18WALGREEN PUBLIC LECTURE-George F. Kennan, Member,The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, "World warII," fifth lecture in a series on U. S. Diplomacy. 4:30 p.tll­Room 126, Judd Hall (5835 Kimbark). Free.PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-S. 1. Hayakaw+author of Language in Thought and Action; The Languageof Science: "How Knowledge is Communicated." 6:30 p.IU,Club Room, Art Institute. Single admission, $1.00.Thursday, April 19PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-Rexford GUyTugwell, Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago'"The Development of the NRA," second lecture in a serieSon Roosevelt's New Deal. 7:15 p.m. Room 809, 19 SoU tilLa Salle St. Single admission, $0.75.Friday, April 20BASEBALL-Chicago vs. Wheaton, Stagg Field, 3:30 p.m. Free.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWALGREEN PUBLIC LECTURE-George F. Kennan, Member,The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, "Conclusions,"last lecture in a series on U. S. Diplomacy. 4:30 p.m. Room126, Judd Hall (5835 Kimbark). Free._PUBLIC CONCERT-Last program in a Beethoven Cycle:Alexander Schneider, violin, Eugene Istomin, piano. Sonatas,F major, Opus 24; A major, Opus 12, No.2; A major, Opus12, No.2; A major, Opus 47. Leon Mandel Hall (57th andUniversity) 8:30 p.m. admission, $1.50.Saturday, April 21BASEBALL-Chicago vs. Illinois Tech. Stagg Field, 1:00 p.m.Free.TRACK-Chicago vs. Wabash, Stagg Field, 3:30 p.m. Free. PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-Robert J. Hav­inghurst, Chairman, Committee on Human Development andProfessor of Education, University of Chicago. "Maturity,American Style," first in a series of lectures entitled YourFuture after Fifty. 7:30 p.m. 32 West Randolph Street.Single admission, $1.00.Thursday, April 26PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-Kermit Eby,Associate Professor of Social Sciences, University of Chicago."The New Deal and Labor," third lecture in a series onRoosevelt's New Deal. 7:15 p.m. Room 809, 19 South La SalleSt. Single admission, $0.75.Friday, April 27TENNIS-Chicago vs. DePaw, Varsity Court, 2:00 p.m. Free.Saturday, April 28BASEBALL-Chicago vs. Illinois Navy Pier, Stagg Field, 2:00p.m. Free.UNIVERSITY THEATER-John Webster's Duchess of Malfi,Leon Mandel Hall (57th and University), 8:30 p.m. Admis-sion, $0.70. •Sunday, April 29RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel (59th andWoodlawn), Dean Thompson, 11:00 a.m.UNIVERSITY THEATER-John Webster's Duohess of Malfi,Leon Mandel Hall (57th and University), 3:30 and 8:30 p.m.Admission $0.35 and $0.70. .Monday, April 30PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-Napier Wilt,Professor of English, University of Chicago. "Henry James,"fifth lecture in a series on contemporary literature. 6:30 p.m.Room 809, 19 South La Salle St. Single admission, $1.00.Sunday, April 22RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel (59th andWoodlawn) Wallace 'V. Robbins, Associate Dean of theChapel, II :00 a.m.Monday, April 23PUBLIC LECTURE· UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-Pierre R. Vign­eron, Professor of French, University of Chicago. "MarcelProust," fourth lecture in a series on contemporary literature.6:30 p.m. Room 809, 19 South La Salle St. Single admission,$1.00.Tuesday, April 24PUBLIC LECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE-Dr. BenjaminBoshes, Associate Professor of Nervous and Mental Diseases,Northwestern University; "The Role of the Psychiatrist in theGeneral Hospital," third lecture in a series on psychotherapy.7:00 p.m. Club Room, Art Institute. Single admission, $1.00.The Real Issue (Continued from page 8)essentially, two uses. First of all, theygive an unmistakable and emphatic\varning to the Soviet Union that itCannot attack Europe without attack­ing the United States. And, second,they are a guarantee against internalsubversion in the countries west ofthe Iron Curtain.The idea which is sold to us by ourgovernment that those few divisionsOr a few more can stem the tide ofthe Russian land armies, once a shoot­ing war takes place, is, I think, ab­SOlutely illusory. General Eisenhowerhas today ten divisions under his com­tnand, against about two hundreddivisions of the Soviet Union. Thisfall he is supposed to have twentydivisions under his command. Today�he Swiss army is the strongest armyIn western Europe. And people talkabout the defense of western Europe,On the Elbe, the Rhine, or, anywhereelse! Europe is being defended here,and nowhere else. I t has been de­fended in this way in the past, and Ialll sure that, if it can be defended atall, it will be defended so in the future.Now, it is the material preponder­ance of American power, expressedand symbolized in the American su­Periority of atomic weapons, whichhas restrained the Soviet Union thusfar. This superiority is about to cometo an end, for in a few years, at most,APRIL, 1951 the Soviet Union will also have astockpile of atomic bombs. The par­ticular deterrent which we possess to­day, and which we have possessed toan even greater extent in the past, isslowly melting away. The questionthen is what we must do in those fewyears which are left to us, before theSoviet Union has as potent an atomicarsenal as we have.Be strong and negotiateIn my opinion there are threethings we must do. First of all, wemust strengthen the United States asmuch and as wisely as possible. Sec­ond, we ought not to miss any oppor­tunity for mitigating the conflicts thatcan be mitigated.It is interesting to note that sostaunch an anti-Communist and foeof Russian imperialism as Mr. Win­ston Churchill has, in one speech afterthe other (not reported in this coun­try, or but very incompletely report­ed), stressed those two things-getstrong and be ready to negotiatewhenever there is an opportunity todo so. As late as November 30 andDecember 14 of last year, in two mag­nificent speeches in the House of Com­mons, Mr. Churchill has made thosepoints.The third thing we must do is per­haps the most difficult thing of all- to instill into our government thespirit of leadership which is so sadlylacking. It has been said that in thepast, in times of crisis, the UnitedStates has always been fortunateenough to have a great President tolead it. Today we are confrontedwith the greatest crisis in our history,and nobody can say that there is agreat President to lead us.Our whole constitutional system, asfar as the conduct of foreign affairs isconcerned, evolves around the Presi­dent. The foreign policies of theUnited States are as good as the Presi­dent is, who must initiate and executethem. At present we are in the pres­ence of a most tragic involvement,for the Administration, frequentlyknowing what ought to be done, hasnot had the courage to go to the peo­ple and tell them what ought to bedone. The Administration is obsessedwi th the idea of the next elections.While it is certainly fatal in a democ­racy for the government to be toomuch ahead of the people, it is noless fatal for it to be too far behindthe people. It is here, I think, thatall of us have a mission to fulfil-tomake clear to this Administration thatit can expect more wisdom and morecourage and more spirit of sacrifice onthe part of the American people thanit has thus far deemed possible.25CLASS1898Mary Alves Long of Columbia, SouthCarolina, has written her autobiographywhich was published by the Duke Univer­sity Press. It is called "High Time to TellIt," and takes place in North Carolina.1901Fiftieth Reunion June 8, 1951. Todate 31 report they plan to retum­indicated by asterisk (*) before thename.* Grace Manning writes: "Living in theU. of C. neighborhood for several of theyears since 1901 has been a wonderful ex­perience." She lives at 5529 UniversityAvenue.* Marietta Norton (Mrs. Lee E. Stanley) isliving in LaGrange, Illinois.* Clara A. Overhiser lives with her daugh­ter at Dallas, Texas. Her daughter's hus­band is a research geologist with the At­lantic Oil Refining Company. Clara's hus­band was district freight agent for thePennsylvania Railroad in Houstorr at thetime of his death in 1939.::: Mabel L. Parker lives in Chicago at5851 Blackstone Avenue." Philip G. Wrightson, SM '02, has retiredto, .San Diego, California with the rank ofmajor in the infantry. "It will be impos­sible for me to attend due to a severeparalytic stroke last February from whichI have not fully recovered. It is with greatregrets."1907Mabel M. Crocker (Mrs. Edwin N. C.Barnes), of Landover Hills, Maryland, isassistant secretary for the Washington,D. C. Recreation Department.Frank L. Su1zberger has been electedchairman of the Enterprise Paint Manu­facturing Company, Chicago.The translation by Charles B. Williams,AM, PhD '08, of the New Testament fromthe original Greek Text, "The New Testa­men t in the Language of the CommonPeople," has gone into its fourth printingby the Moody Press.1908Dr. Paul A. White, who has been Daven­port (Iowa) Chairman of the University'SAlumni Foundation since its commence­ment, is president of the Scott CountyMedical Society and chairman of theHealth Committee for the DavenportChamber of Commerce. Dr. White is a sur­geon at Mercy Hospital and at St. LukesHospital, and is founder of the CentralClinic in Davenport.1910Edison E. Oberholtzer, AM '16, presidentemeritus of the University of Houston, hasbeen named chairman of the Texas Citi­zens Committee for the Hoover Report.1911Fortieth Reunion June 8, 1951. Todate 37 report they plan to return­indicated by asterisk (*) before thename.26 NEWS::: Walter Cleveland Burket is a surgeonliving in Evanston, Illinois. He is on thesurgical staff of three hospitals. His daugh­ter, Elaine, is a sophomore at Vassar. Asecond daughter, is a senior in EvanstonHigh School; a third in junior high school.:!: Edith Coonley Howes lives in HighlandPark, Illinois. Her husband, Byron C.Howes, '13, passed away in 1947.Emma R. Frick has retired from teach­ing and lives in Norwood, Ohio.::: Harold C. Gifford is an insurance brokerin Chicago.Donald T. Grey, AM '13, DB '14, is notsure whether or not he can attend the re­union. He lives in East Lansing, Michi­gan and is a volunteer staff member forthe Michigan Baptist Convention.Lucile Mertz lives in Dixon, Illinois,where her husband, Henry C. 'Varner, isan attorney. Chicago runs in the Warnerfamily. Her three daughters followedmother on the Midway: Myra, '35 is mar­ried to George F. Nichols, AM '35, JD'36, also of Dixon; Louise, '38, PhD '49,is with the National Naval Medical Cen­ter" Bethesda, Maryland; and Nancy, '44,MD '46, is a resident doctor at our clinics.Cola G. Parker, JD '12, president of theKimberly-Clark (paper) Company, Neenah,Wisconsin, has been elected director of theCarrier Corporation. In addition to beingdirector and president of several Kimberly­Clark subsidiaries, he is on the board ofseveral banks and the Minneapolis, St.Paul & Sault St. Marie Railroad. He isalso on the National Industrial ConferenceBoard.Helen Parker is head of the departmentof education at the Art Institute, Chicago."Probably be out of town [for reunion]."'.' Marion Pierce, MD '15, and her hus­band, C. A. Siler, MD '22, are physicians inOak Park, Illinois. She writes: "Proud ofmy 5 children and 3 grandchildren."Myra Reed Richardson lives in Ridge­field, Connecticut. She is a writer of chil­dren's books at the pre-teen-age level.::: Julia Rimes Whitten of Berwyn, Illinois,writes: "I find it hard to believe that it isforty years since our peppy e-levens wereon the eve of graduation.":;: Edward A. Seegers, JD '13, is a Chicagoattorney.Della Jones Sterenberg is publicationsecretary for the League of Women Votersand secretary of missionary education forthe Women's Association of the First Pres­byterian Church in Chicago. She attendsmany lectures at the University and at theChicago Council of Foreign Relations.Minnie Mabel Swanson is a librarian inthe public library at Augusta, Illinois.She also does farming, according to hercard.Jesse Elmer Switzer is a retired professorliving in Bloomington, Indiana, after teach- ing geography at Indiana University for24 years. He retired in 1947.Ralph E. Vandervort and his wife, ofLos Angeles, recently made a three months'trip in their trailer to Florida. They re­turned via Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma,where their son had been attending ad­vanced artillery school. While in Miam'­in December, they had a pleasant visitwith Joseph C. Glerum, '12, and Mrs,Glerum.1912Jerome N. Frank, JD '13, Judge of theU. S. Court 0.£ Appeals, New York, has beenelected to the national board of governorsof the Chicago Medical School.Frank F. Soule is vice president and ad­vertising director of Conde Nast publica­tions, New York City.1913Frank E. Brown, PhD '18 of Ames, Iowa,has been reappointed for the second yearas chairman of the committee on member­ship affairs of the American Chemical So­ciety, chairman of the committee on scienc�talent search of the Iowa Academy of SCI'ence, and for the sixth year, was reap­pointed as director of the Iowa sciencetalent search. He was elected to the vice­presidency of the Iowa Academy of Scienceat its 1950 meeting.Hattie M. Parnkopf is a nurse-governesS. in Highland Park, Illinois.1914Mary Dodds (Mrs. Robert McGlashan)has her own real estate brokerage businessin Sherman Oaks, California.Percival Bailey, PhD '18, research con­sultant for the Department of Public Wel­fare, Chicago, was recently appointed dire�­tor 0 f the Illinois Neuropsychiatrt­Institute in Chicago. He will continue asresearch consultant and also as part timeprofessor of neurology and neurosurgeryin the University of Illinois research andeducational hospitals.Lydia Lee Pearce is up to her politicalneck in civic affairs in Pasco, Washington:council elections, manager plan, racial re­lations, etc. There must be lots of excite­ment because she writes: "Recently tooka course in emotional maturity to see w�yI love to get into these civic controversialentanglements. Found out why, but my'thirst for battle was not quenched ...1915A midget reunion of the Class of '15 washeld in Chicago recently when Hugo Sw�nwas in from Dallas. At lunch with hUllwere 'Kent Sykes; Frank Selfridge, andGeorge S. Lyman. Hugo, in England lastsummer, reported seeing Cowan DouglasStephenson. George Lyman was just backfrom Florida where he rested after an op­eration. It was the first time the gang hadseen Hugo since graduation.1916Thirty-fifth Reunion, June 8, 1951.Also 1916-17 reunion, June 9, 1951.Asterisk (*) indicates alumnus hopesto be present.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERuth Manierre Freeman, with her hus­band, will be in Europe during May andIune. They live on a farm in Virginia.Irma Hauser Miller, MD '20, of Dobbs]'erry, New York, writes: "L'm sorry buttlly daughter is graduating from Denison."Mary Booth Weld lives in St. LouisWhere her husband is a school administra­�?r. She reports she is now a grandmother.,. Frank S. Whiting is a top officer of the�Inerican Furniture Mart in Chicago.,. Adelle Frankel Wile of Chicago reportst'�ro "grand grandchildren, Johnny andCIndy Wile."* Dan H. Brown of Evanston and Chicago\vants a "live speaker on the glories ofyesteryears! "* Donald L. Colwell, vice president of theApex Aluminum Corp., Chicago, has justreturned from a flying trip to BritishGUiana to investigate sources of bauxite.Helen L. Cooke has retired from teach­ing and is living in Waukegan, Illinois.Mary P. Fall is retired and living in OakPark, Illinois.:(. Dr. Carl T. Olson, MD '18, lives infIighland Park. He is division medical di­rector for the Liberty Mutual InsuranceCompany.Alice Foster Scott lives in Rochester ,Minnesota where her husband is a seniorpartner with Scott Brothers, feeds.Bessie G. Ross teaches biology at CentralfIigh in St. Louis. She could attend thereunion if it were a week later. Schoolsare not out until June 15 this year. "Bestregards to the 1916 Class.":(. John H. Roser is a Chicago attorney. Inaddition to playing the violin and making:ecords, he now plays the harp. Prepar­Ing for eventualities, no doubt.Mamie Russell Mutz has "been a shut-insince 1946 following an operation for glau­cOma. The talking book service given bythe Library of Congress is one of my greatPleasures." Mamie lives in Lincoln, N e­braska.:(. Harold T. Moore is president of TuthillSpring Company, Chicago. His wife is�oris MacNeal, '15. They live in Hinsdale.'.. Charles Michel is vice president of the�a. Salle Extension University, Chicago.fIrst grandson now 3 months old, Ken­neth John Miohel, son of Dr. Walter Mi­chel, U _ of C. and Illinois Medical Schoolalumnus."Sterling A. Lewis has retired from theSt. Louis schools. "Family: two boys, oneex-army air force (student); one killed ond�ty in 'Vorld War II (England). Twogirls, one a teacher, other a chemist. Wife,Alice E. Petty, student at Chicago in 1915,Sllmmer."Frieda J. Hildebrandt lives in Atlanta\vhere her husband, Claiborne Latimer, '20,8M '21, PhD '24, is chairman of the de­P.artment of mathematics at Emory Univer­SIty. Son Paul is an instructor 'at William�nd Mary in Virginia. .:. Dr. Johanna Heumann-N eedelman, MD�8, is a pediatrician in Chicago. Her hus-and is a dentist. "This June daughterJean (21) will receive master's degree inS?cial science. Two days later will be mar­rIed to second year medical student atp. of C. Daughter Ruth (19) will graduaterom the College of the U. of C. If stillable, Ma will celebrate her 35th."nr. Harold D. Caylor, MD '18, is a sur­geon and member of the Caylor-NickelClinic in Bluffton, Indiana. With him aretwo other Rush Medical School graduates:br. Truman E. Caylor, MD '23 and Dr.Allen A. C. Nickel, MD '23.Mrs. Edith Abell is in her 34th year onA.PRIL 1951, the staff of the University of South Dakotain Vermillion. She is associate professorof fine arts.Mary Kilvary Anderson, whose husbandis president of the Crisman Sand Com­pany, reports they have bought a homeoverlooking Lake Michigan on DunelandBeach, Michigan City, Indiana.Robert S. Barton lives in Foxboro, Mass.He doesn't say what he is doing.Edward Beatty lives in Warrensburg,Missouri where he retired from the super­intendency of the public schools.Gustavus W. Blomquist lives in Chicago.Our last information had him teaching ac­counting at Lindblom High School.Hugo L. Blomquist, PhD '21, professorof botany 'and chairman at Duke Univer­sity, is on a sabbatical ro work on Cypera­ceae of North Carolina and Marine Algaeof the South Atlantic.E. O. Bottenfield of Champaign, Illinoiswrites: Spent most of my life in the fieldof public education. Retired February 11,1949 after 19 years as administrator, 22years in high school as teacher of historyand two years in rural schools-43 in all."Florence Chesholm Bowles, of HighlandPark, teaches adult education, "mostly Eng­lish" to displaced persons.::< Ethel M. Davis, MD '18, is a Chicagodoctor specializing in allergies.Mary L. DeLand lives in Farmington,Michigan, No news.::: Anna Dobbins is a retired teacher livingin Ionia, Michigan. She will attend re­union "if possible."Herbert D. Fillers has been our WichitaFalls, Texas chairman for the AlumniFoundation. He is retired from the field ofeducation. "Wish I could be there."Rowland H. George is a partner of WoodStruthers and Company, New York City.::: Charles F. Grimes, .TD '19, lives in High­land Park. He is with the Chicago Titleand Trust Company.F. F. Gualano, JD '20, was appointedjudge of San Gabriel Justice'S Court, LosAngeles County, California, on January 8,1951.Harvey H. Guice, JD '18, is chairman ofthe department of government at SouthernMethodist University, Dallas, Texas.Edwin P. Hart is comptroller for Ever­sharp, Inc., Chicago. "Still making razorsand pens. Daughter still with Illinois In­stitute of Technology." Then he adds:"What class am I really in? I entered withthe Class of 1916 but graduated in [Sep­tember] 1915."Margaret L. Hayes lives in Chicago. Ourlast records showed her teaching home eco­nomics in Roosevelt High School.Hannah E. Pease is a high school homeeconomics instructor at Putnam, Connecti­cut.Anna M. Otto is "still teaching Latin atMilwaukee-Downer Seminary."* Gifford Plume, advertising manager forFawcett Publications, Inc. His reunionrecommendation: "Have each of us ac­quire a mask in the likeness of the daysof 1916 so we'll be able to recognize eachother."Leland W. Parr, PhD '23, is head of thedepartment of bacteriology, hygiene andpreventative medicine at George Washing­ton University.Hugh Macdonald, MD '18, is a derma­tologist. "In Peoria since January, 1947after taking one year postgraduate workat Harvard Medical School."Phoebe Morse has retired from teachingand is living in Evanston. . Judson S. Masson of Lorain, Ohio, isi"retired after 52.4 years in the publicschools of Ohio.", Alice Lisle Prichard of A tlan ta has beenretired from teaching five years.Samuel E. Ragland lives in BowlingGreen, Kentucky. No news.James H. Lawson is superintendent ofschools at McKeesport, Pa. His family in­cludes four boys and two girls.* Isabel A. Hazlett is teaching at HydePark High School, Chicago.Robert R. Presnell is a writer and pro­ducer for Screen Writers Guild in Holly­wood, California.1917John W. Elliott, AM, president emeritusof Alderson-Broaddus College, West Vir­ginia, has retired to West Winfield, NewYork. At present he is serving as interimpastor for the Central Baptist Church,Westerly, R. I. while the minister isserving in the Marines.Carl A. Birdsall, president of the Conti­nental Illinois National Bank and TrustCompany of Chicago, has been electedpresident of the Chicago Clearing HouseAssociation.Ada Hart Arlitt, PhD, who has beengiven the honorary title of professor emeri­tus of child care and training' and psychol­ogy in the University of. Cincinnati gradu-.ate school, retired February 1, 1951, be­cause of ill health.Charles A. Robins, MD, of St. Maries,Idaho, writes: "Just resting at home aftera 4-year 'tour of duty' as Governor ofIdaho."Archie Schimherg, JD '22, writes that hisson, Bruce, '49, is now finishing his secondyear in the Law School at Chicago, and ayounger son, Lee, is finishing his secondyear at Harvard.1918Morton B. Weiss writes that he has a"U, of C. family": his wife Edna Levi, whodid work at the University around 1921.and their two children, Paul E., '48, andBarbara, who is working for her Master'sdegree in education. Paul is now in busi­ness with his dad, who has been a Chevro­let dealer in Chicago since 1922.1920Esme E. Rosaire, SM '21, PhD '26, is ageoohysicist for Geochemical Surveys inDallas, Texas.Marion White Eiseman, AM '40, is nowliving at 125 East 69th Street, New YorkCity.1921Thirtieth Reunion June 8, 1951. Todate 86 report they plan to retum­indicated by asterisk (*) before thename.Nina E. Baumgardner is teaching thefirst two grades at Three Rivers, Cali­fornia "just two miles from the SequoiaNational Park entrance-a beautiful local­ity on Highway 198. There is much talentin the community. One sculptor, CarrollBarnes, has loaned our P.T.A. a large woodcarving (4 feet) of Johnny Appleseed ... "which brought out the largest attendanceof parents. Carroll Barnes' son is in Nina'sroom. Nina's husband, F. B. Darr, is a re­tired railway engineer.::: Rose Cohn is a Chicago public schoolteacher. Her husband, Samuel J. Hacht­man, is a sales broker. They live in OakPark. Their daughter, Harriet, is married,27LEIGHISGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERSUPERFLUOUS HAIRREMOVED FOREVERMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of hair from face, eye­brows, back of neck, or any part of body;also facial veins, moles, and warts.Men and V, emenLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERT20 years' experienceAlsoGraduat. NurseSuite 1705. Stevens Building17 N. State StreetTelephone FRanklin 2-4885FREE CONSULTATIONEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902Yards All Over TownQUALITY COALS AND FUEL OILSGeneral Offices342 N. Oakley Blvd.All Phones - SEeley 3-4488Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chico go Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wallon's Coal Makes Good--or­Wallon Doel28 and has added a granddaughter to thefamily.* Gladys Hawley Basset lives in Pittsburghwhere her husband is a geologist with theGulf Oil Corporation. Their son, Neal,is twenty and in the air force. Gladys ispresident of the Women Voters of Pitts­burgh.Carl O. N. Hedeen, AM '31, is a memberof the Spanish and French faculty at JohnMuir College, Pasadena, California .. SonyaMarie is a junior at the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley. In 1948 she wasqueen of Monrovia. "If you tour the Westand come to Lake Tahoe some summer,look us up at our cabin at Stateline, Cali­fornia, off U. S. 50 across from Starbucks.Are there enough out West to. have a re­gional reunion at San Francisco or L.A.?"Carl was a member of the cross countryteam.M. E. Herriott is principal of LafayetteJunior High School in Los Angeles. Wisheshe could be at the reunion but "probablycan not attend."'" Dorothy E. Huebner, SM '28, is on thebiology faculty of Fenger High School,Chicago. Her husband, John W. Towne, isa civil engineer with the Chicago SanitaryDistrict. Dorothy was on the hockey teamand a member of W.A.A.Jean Kimber has retired from teaching inthe St. Louis schools and has moved toTucson.'" Walter E. Landt is an investment coun­selor with Paine, Webber, Jackson, andCurtis in their Milwaukee office. His homeis- in Hartford, Wisconsin. He has becomeinterested in third dimensional photographyand projection, tours western mountainstates and follows mountain trails for va­cation.'" Sidney N. Levin is a certified public ac­countant in Chicago. His daughter at­tends the University of Wisconsin. His sonis in high school.0:< Luella E. N adelhoffer, MD '32, is aphysician specializing in obstetrics andg-ynecology. Her husband, Dr. Owen R.O'Neil, is general manager of the Pfan­stiehl Chemical Co. of Waukegan. Theylive in Evanston.* Sophia P. Reed is the head of the de­partment of home economics at WesternMichigan College of Education, Kalama­zoo. A year ago they moved into modernquarters, the result of five years of care­ful planning.0:< Katherine Sisson, AM '38, lives in Chi­cago where her husband, John Paul Jen­sen, is an artist. Peter is six and in ad­vanced kindergarten at the Horace MannSchool. Katherine was on the baseball,hockey and basketball teams.Ruth Streitz, AM '22, is professor of edu­cation at Ohio State University. She hasher Ph.D. from Columbia.Curtis A.. Williams is executive vicepresident of the Pennsylvania ConsumerFinance Association, Philadelphia.M. Aurilla Wood, AM '26, is PlacementCounselor Emeritus of the Board of Voca­tional Guidance and Placement, the Uni­versity of Chicago.1922Arthur H. Witzleben, Jr., is sales pro­motion manager of Borg-Warner Corpora­tion's Norge Division in Chicago.Marvin A. Jersild was recently made headof the New York Central Railroad's lawdepartment in Chicago. That departmentsupervises the railroad's legal work in Indi­ana, Illinois, and states west of Illinois. Jersild1923Bessie C. Engle is doing research andwriting and is a file technician in Dallas,Texas.1924Lt. Col. Leo M. Karcher, AM '41, writes:"We fly food, ammo, gas and medical sup­plies in and fly wounded out. My �asttrip was to K-27 (Hamhung) with medIcalsupplies."Glenn E. Shackelford, of Dallas, Texas,writes he is in "semi-retirement" frolllteaching.1925Ann E. Barzel, dance critic for the Chi­cago Sun-Times and associate editor ofDance Magazine, gave a series of lectureJon theatrical dancing in November anDecember, 1950, at the University College.Adelia Boynton Heiney, of Arlingto;U'Virginia, is a child development specialIstfor the Washington, D. C. Health De­partment.Esther Cooley, SM� is a consumer educa­tion specialist for the Agricultural Exten­sion Service, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.Theodore S. Eliot, PhD, of Denver Colo­rado, is associate professor of anatomy atthe University of Colorado Medical School._ Benjamin E. Mays, AM, PhD '35, spokeat the annual dinner of the Milwaukeebranch of the National Association for theAdvancement of Colored People in Decelll­ber, r1950, in Milwaukee. He is preside�tof Morehouse College, Atlanta, GeorgIa,and in 1949, was selected as alumnus of th.eyear· by the Divinity School. His wife ISthe former Sadie M. Gray, '24, AM '31.1926Twenty-fifth Reunion June 8, 1951.To date 124 report they plan to re­turn-indicated by asterisk (*).Charles D. Bauer is a lawyer in Houston,Texas.Miriam Brennwasser, MS '39, teaches bi­ology in Hyde Park High School, Chicago.Her extracurricular interests are photogra·phy and gardening.0:< Martha Capper, a biology teac�er{writes: "Traveled during my sabbatI�aleave. Was in Cuba, Guatemala, MeXICOand Southern States. A glorious year."THE VNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE* Ralph E. Diffenderfer, MD '30, is a,'[>hysician and surgeon in Blue Island, Illi­nOis. Half of his 42 months in service inthe late war were spent as a navy (M.C.)commander in the Solomons and NewCaledonia. He has one daughter, 17.Alice A. Donaldson, AM '41, is acting di­rector of the Spalding School in Chicago.She is a specialist in the education ofhandicapped children.* Walter Fainman is a sales manager anda bachelor. He is with Butler Specialty Co.of Chicago, furniture manufacturers. Hes'[>ends six months in Chicago; six in NewYork.* Sylvia Greve, whose husband (CharlesNemec) is a purchasing agent, does handWeaving-luncheon sets, yard goods, etc.­�o order. Her two children are grown andIn college, one at North Carolina and theOther at Michigan.Vivian Hamilton lives in Summit, NewJersey, where her husband (Joel B. Peter­SOn) who took work at Chicago, is chemicalConsultant to the sales department ofStandard Brands, Inc. She is president ofthe League of Women Voters in Summit.!hey have four sons: Charles, an engineer­�ng senior in Cornell; Thomas, a geologyJUnior in Trinity; Burt and Don in highschool.. Virginia L. Harvey lives in Saint �u9us­tIne, Florida, where her husband, WIlhamJ. Winter, is in real estate. She is activeIn numerous civic affairs including the�.tate corresponding secretary of the D.A.R.A. 25th reunion would be fine althoughI doubt if I can be present. Good luck!"You'd expect Virginia to have plenty ofextracurricular activities. On the Midwayshe was on the Undergraduate Council,Mirror, Settlement, Y.W.C.A., and Inter­Collegiate committees, to mention only afew.* Nell E. Johnson is head of the Englishdepartment at Von Steuben High School,Chicago.Frances E. Kraemer (Mrs. Irwin A. Giem­Soe) is active in civic, school and churchaffairs in Des Plaines, Illinois. She hastwo children-Howard, 13 and Myra, 11.* Aileen Linney Lovitt and family havell:loved back to Long Beach, California after4 years on their ranch in Orange County.lIer husband has been in the engineeringd:partment of Shell Refinery for 24 years.BIll, 22, is an honor graduate from Pomonaand is now in Bristol, England as assistantPastor of Redlands 'park CongregationalChurch-one of four Americans sent bythe church on a sort of spiritual Marshall):llano Dick, a graduate of WashingtonState, is in navy training. John is in the8th grade. "Here's to a reunion in June."Anna C. Majonnier, AM '48, is a psychi­atric social worker with the Veterans Ad­�inistration in Chicago.." Isabel L. Magan, AM '35, is principal of�he South Shore High School in Chicago.". Minnie Paley (Mrs. Raymond Bagus),SInce 1932, has been indexer of foreignPeriodicals for the American Medical As­hociation. She was married in 1935 and.. as one daughter, 11 years of age.�, Marie A. Werner lives in Evanston, 111i­nOis. Her husband, Frank H. Stowell, is ageneral contractor. Philip is five.1927Mary R. Ruble is teaching home eco­n°]nics in Rocke County High School, New­POrt, Tennessee.1928:ayron c. Hayes, AM, is on leave of ab­sence from his position as director of ad-APRIL, 1951 mISSIOns of Lehigh. University, Bethlehem,Pennsylvania, to return to active duty asa lieutenant commander in the Navy. Heis stationed in Minneapolis, Minnesota.Arvid T. Johnson, MD '32, is a specialistin internal medicine in Rockford, Illinois."My oldest son, David, turning 19, is finish­ing his third year premedical work at theUniversity ... and hopes to follow in myfootsteps by studying medicine also at theUniversity if the Army does not interfere."Arvid has two other sons, ages 15 and 8.1929Col. Paul C. Gilliland, MD, is the basesurgeon at Hamilton Air Force Base, SanRaphel, California.Betty W. Starr, AM '49, was appointedassistant to the chairman of the depart­ment of anthropology at the University onJanuary 1, 1951.1930George H. Fetherston, of Michigan City,Indiana, is assistant chief metallurgist forBendix Products Division, South Bend, In­diana.Keith O. Taylor, MBA '45, is associatedirector for a course in hospital adminis­tration at the University of California'sSchool of Public Health.Ralph E. Webb, JD� is director of thehospital department of Blue Cross in Dal­las, Texas.1931Twentieth Reunion June 8, 1951. Todate 130 report they plan to return-indicated by asterisk (*) beforename.Bessie Bacon lives in Beresford, SouthDakota where her husband, R. A. Frieberg,is an attorney. They have three children:Robert, 15; Richard, 13; and Evelyn, 10.Mrs. Kathleen Bordner AM '37, has beenteaching in Chicago (now at Hirsch HighSchool) since 1919. Her husband is in thelife insurance business. On her sabbaticallast year she traveled, wrote, and pub­lished a few articles. She finds professionalwriting "new and completely absorbing."* Mary A. Browne lives in Detroit whereher husband, A. T. Court, is with GeneralMotors. They have four daughters andone son with ages ranging from 13 to 5."We have managed successful travelingholidays with the children and pleasantdaily living without television ... "Cicely Cone lives in Norman, Oklahomawhere her husband is chairman of the de­partment of English at the University ofOklahoma. Beatrice is 11, and Caroline, 9.Michael B. Dunn is a clinical psycholo­gist; his wife, an osteopathic physician.They live in Wayne, Pennsylvania. Thereare three girls, one adopted..:' Helen Davidge (Mrs. Walter I.) teachesphysical education in Chicago'S CalumetHigh School. Her husband is a salesman.':' Mary E. Entsminger has her master's de­gree from Columbia. She has been an ele­mentary school supervisor since she firstattended the University of Chicago. Shelives in Carbondale, Illinois.Raymond W. Fox is a circuit judge livingin Kalamazoo, Michigan. Philip is 8 andPatricia, five.Isabelle M. Hough (Mrs. R. S. Betten)lives in Libertyville, Illinois.::< Dessa Mae Hudson is a teacher in thecommerce department of Valparaiso (In­diana) High School. BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICEIJCENSED .• BONDEDINSUREDQUAIJFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1.79171404-08 S. Western A.... ChicagoS'nce 1878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholstersFurniture RepaIrIng1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180. ASHJIAN BROS., Inc .IITA.LlIHID InlOrien tal and DomesticRUGSCLEANED aDd REPAIRED8066 Soul. C.iC:I,1 Phone REgent 4·6000A.I STEWART LUMBER CO.Quall'y and ServiceSince J88879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phones Vincennes 6-9000Platers- SilversmithsSince 1917GOLD. SILVER. RHODIUMSILVERWAREI.palr.", 1.11 .. 1 .... ", I.Iacqu.r."SWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Waba.h Ave. CEntral 6-6019-90 ChlcaQoAjax Waste Paper Co.1001 W. North Ave.Buyers 0/ Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, CR 7-266829TELEVISIONDrop in lind see II proqrernRADIOSFrom consoles to por+eblesRadio- TV ServiceAt home or shopELECTRI'CAL APPLIANCESRefriqere+ors RII nqesWashers BlanketsSPORrlNG GOODSFor 1111 seasonsRECORDSPopu I a r-Sym phon i esFine collection for childrenHER !1J1IAI!llI.)�935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone MldwlIY 3-6700Robert Gaertner, '34 Julian Tishler. '33Telephone HAyma rket 1-3120E. A. AARON & BROS. Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetabresDi.tributor •. 0'CEDERGREEN FROZEN �RESH FIUITS ANDVEGETABLES.b-48 South Water MarketLA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave.. ChicagoOther Plant.10lton - N.Y. - Phil. - Syracuse - Cleveland- "You Mig'" A. W.II Have' Th. Be.'"Old-fashionedgoodness .. a.New crea.mysmoothness!Same rich flavor as ice cream made in anold-fashioned freezer, blended to newcreamy smoothness-that's Swift's Ice Cream![Swift & CompanyA product of 7409 So. State StreetPhone RAdcliff 3-740030 Ernest K. Ingebrigston, MD, left Moor­head (Minnesota) Clinic in December, 1950,to accept a temporary appointment to thestaff of the Big Springs, Texas, VeteransHospital.::< Martha Janota, SM '40, is supervisor ofthe Michael Reese Research Foundation inChicago. Her husband, Willard Denning,is an industrial engineer. They have a sonwho is 3.Grace D. Lennartson is busy helping todevelop the community of Coloma, Michi­gan. There is a two room grammar school,eight grades, but no music is taught atthe school, so Grace has a singing class of7th and 8th grade girls who meet at herhome on Sundays. The community hasa new 16 mm. sound movie projector andshe is in charge of getting films for educa­tional and recreational purposes. Her hus­band, John, served as president of the localPTA this year, until he left to work forthe Price Stabilization Administration inWashington, D. C., and Grace helped himwith the details. They have two daugh­ters: Karin, 14, and Andrea, 12. "Don'tknow whether I can attend the reunion inJune, 1951, but I'd like to.* Meredith Moulton lives in Hinsdale,Il1inois. Her husband, Paul E. Redhead, iswith the New 'World Distributors, Chi­cago. Paul Moulton is 4.Beatrice Rosenthal lives in West Hart­ford, Connecticut. Her husband, RoyWedeles, is a leaf tobacco merchant. Theyhave two children: Roy, Jr., 12, and Lau-ren, 6. ',Mrs. Harry H. Ruskin is married to aChicago graduate of 1927, a lawyer. Theyhave two daughters: Abigail, 15; andEsther, 10; and live in Wilmette.* Hilda E. Scholl's husband, Harry K.Bieg, is an architect. Their home is in Chi­cago. Eleanore is 15, John 12, and Rich­ard, six.:;: Loretta R. Vorwald continued her edu­cation at Columbia for a master's and aprofessional diploma in guidance and stu­dent personnel. She is a teacher and di­rector of guidance in Dubuque, Iowa.:;: Hayden B. Wingate lives in Flossmoor.He is in advertising with the Dell Pub­lishing Company. He is married to Bar­bara Blocki, '36. They have two children:Son Dana, 12; and Diane, 6. Haydenstarted with the Green Cap Club and wenton through the honor societies, baseball,managed .the Prom and ended as Marshal.Philip Kolb, AM '32, has just published"La Correspondence de Marcel Proust:chronologie et commentaire critique".John Teal Bobbitt is an educational filmproducer in Wilmette, Illinois.Hannah M. Lindahl is co-author of aseries of elementary language textbookscovering grades three, four and five.J.. Foley Snyder, AM, is registrar anddirector of personnel at Georgetown Col­lege, Georgetown, Kentucky.Mina Spiegel Rees, PhD, is a navy ex­ecutive in Washington, D. C.Anne M. Goebel, SM, of the Departmen tof Geography, Kansas State Teachers Col­lege, Emporia, is author, together withJohn B. Heffelfinger and Delore Gammon,of Kansas, Geography, published in Topekain 1948. She is preparing a supplementaryreader on Australia for grade school use.•1932Beatrice Hevesh, of Brooklyn, New York,is a teacher in the New York City Schools.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1933Chester R. Chartrand, AM, is a publ.iCaffairs officer at the American Embassy 111Pretoria, South Africa.Ruth I. Barnard, PhD '37, MD '39, wasrenewing acquaintances on the quadrang�esin mid-February. She was in Chicago fr0111the Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Ka:rsas, where she is a member of the sta .1934Harold M. Coleman, SM '36, PhD '42, ischairman of the membership committee ofthe Chicago chapter of the American In'stitute of Chemists and chairman of tbeminu te men of the Chicago section of tbeAmerican Chemical Society.Eva G. Donelson, PhD, (Mrs. H. K. WH·f f d d .' atson), professor 0 00 s an nutriucn dPennsylvania. State College, has been namehead of the department of foods and �1I'trition in the School of Home EconomiCsat that University. Her research projectSinclude: nutritional status studies, metab­olism studies with minerals and nitroge�,as well as food composition and vitamlIlstudies.Thomas M. Hahn, PhD, is a colonel iIIthe Army stationed in Quarry HeightS,Canal Zone.L. D. Haskew, AM, dean of t�e �epa�imerit of education of the UniversityTexas spoke before Congregation EmanrEl-B'ne Jeshurun last January on "Unity sa State of Mind."• Robert E. Herzog's daughter, Martb�Lynn, was born January 2, 1951. The Bel'zogs live in Chicago.Ned Munn, of Hinsdale, Illinois, is maniagel' of the daims service department 0Marsh and McLennan, Chicago. .Alphonse Pechukas, PhD :37, is. ����neering manager of the chemicals dlVISI.of General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Massachusetts.Antonio Isidro, PhD, is professor of edtt-ca tion and secretary of the college of �dtt­cation at the University of the Philippll1es,Quezon City .Carol A. Kenney Knudson, AM '35, isassistant in the division of child studY,Chicago Board of Education.Leon T. Dickinson, AM, PhD '45, b�sbeen promoted to assistant profess�r 111English at the University of MiSSOUri.Helen J. Weinberger is now Mrs. aelellw. Stark.Laura F. M. Ulery, AM, is a readingconsultant in the schools of Maywood,Illinois.Mrs. Blanche R. Mack, AM (Blancb�Rosenthal Farber) has joined the staff ?the Children'S Protective association IIIWashington, D. C.1935Paul Gorin, co-rabbi of Temple ShaareEmeth, University City, Missouri, was mar:ried to Dorothy M. Mathes, of Shak.e�Heights, Ohio, on December 13, 1950. l"{!SMathes is a graduate of Bergen colle.ge;Teaneck, New Jersey. Following a weddJf��trip to New Orleans, they made thelhome in St. Louis.Maurice O. Huebsch is an attorney illMontebello. California. He and his wife,Thelma". and their 2-year olel daug?ter,Hilary, live in Arcadia, California. HI.lafl­was born in an Army Hospital in HeIdeberg-Rohrbach, Germany in 1949, wbeDMaurice was District Attorney for Karls­ruhe under the U. S. Military Covern­lUent.1936William G. Granert and his wife, Elean­or R. Hendrickson, '37, recently mDved to'Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where Bill is anexecutive Df Ed. Schuster and Company.They have two children: Billy, 5Y2, andNancy, 4. "We invite our DId classmatesto drop in for a glass of Milwaukee'sfinest."Harold Guetzkow is associate professorof industrial administration at the Car­negie Institute of Teaching, Pittsburgh.Omega V. Lutes is teaching third gradeat the Louisville Public SChDDls and iscorresponding secretary of the LouisvilleClassroDm Teacher Association,1937William N. Beverly, Jr., is a dealer repre­�entative for the U. S. Gypsum CompanyIn Waco, Texas.Evelyn A. Carlson (Mrs. john W.) isprincipal Df Carter SChDDI in Chicago.Catherine M. Connor (Mrs. RichardClark) is a bond analyst for Dun and Brad­street, New York City.Will Inglis, Df New York City, is a phar­l1lacist mate in the Navy.Charles H. Rammelkamp, MD, of Cleve­land, Ohio, is professor of medicine atWestern Reserve University and directorof the streptococcal disease laboratory atthe Francis E. Warren Air Force Base inCheyenne, WyDming.William B. Rose is sales manager forEdgar D. Otto & SDn, manufacturers, inAlbuquerque, New Mexico.William A. Runyan, JD '39, is an at­t?rney for the Goodyear Aircraft Corpora­tlon in Akron., Ohio. He and his wife,Elizabeth L. Munger, '42, live in Cuyahoga!Calls, on:o.1938The following announcement has justcrossed the editor's desk: Mandel Brothers,Inc. announces the appointment of Emil F.Jarz, [38J as special assistant to the treasur­er February 1, 1951. Emil has been assist­a�t personnel director with American AirllOes Inc. in New York. His wife is Eliza­beth McElvain, '41.Wahnetah Brummett, MBA, is director ofthe Katherine Gibbs SChODl, Montclair,New Jersey.Ennis H. Coale is a missionary in AsabaNigeria, British West Africa.Spencer E. Irons has opened his law of­fice at 105 West Adams Street, Chicago.Karl R. Janitzky, JD '40, has moved fromChicago to' Moline, Illmois, to' accept aPOsitiDn as attorney for Deere and CDm­pany.h Mrs. Rose Bell, AM, is 6,000 miles fromer New York horne. She flew to' Seattle,by Navy to' Kodiak Island, and overnightt? NO'. 230 where they have new near-mil­�IOn-dDllar SChDDl. She directed an operetta�n December. She is teaching and having�,nteresting time even though there arel1lud and dust storms." She's learning allNbout the navy and can be addressed atI avy NO'. 230, BDX 34, P.M. Seat.tle.1939. Paulette M. Kahn, AM, (Mrs. Paul Hart­rIch) led discussion grDups for a specialCOUrse, "Understanding Yourself," given byA.PRIL 1951, the Association for Family Living, Chi­cago. in January.Irving Sheffel, of Topeka, Kansas, isexecutive assistant to Dr. Karl Menninger,Director of the education department ofThe Menninger Foundation. Mrs. Sheffel(Beth F. Silver, '38, AM'45) is doing socialservice work at Winter VA Hospital.Lawrence N. Stevens, SM, of Arlington,Virginia, is a member of the prDgram staffof the Department of Interior, Washing­ton, D. C.1940James . G. Bell and his wife Joan K.Lyding, '41, announce the birth of a SDn,Jeffrey M\organ, January 18, 1951. Jeffreyarrived horne from the hospital on hisbrother Danny's third birthday, January23rd. The Bells live in Glendale, Cali­fornia.Marjorie Kuh Morray and family (in­cluding JDseph Parker, Jr., 5 months) havemoved from Des Plaines to' Fairfax, Cali­fornia, a suburb of San Francisco. Theaddress: 52 Meadow Way.Arthur Hillman, PhD, has just returnedto' Ohicago after spending most of 1950at the University of OISD, Norway, undera Fulbright grant. His research dealt withcommunity and national planning, as wellas significant aspects of family life. Whilein Europe, Professor Hillman paid severalvisits to' Sweden, Finland, and Denmark,and gave numerous lectures. He presenteda paper at the World Congress of SDciDIDgyand Political Science and was appointeda member Df the committee on teachingand training of the newly organized Inter­national Sociological Association, He gavea series Df lectures on "Scandinavia FacesWest" this past January at Roosevelt CDl­lege, Chicago, where he is chairman Dfthe department of sociology.Rhys M. Jones, AM, is with the publicrelations department of the AmericanMeat Institute, Chicago.Anastasia Majarakis, AM '43, was marriedto' Dr. Angelo P. Creticos, Df Charleston,South Carolina, on June 11, 1950, in Chi­cagO'. They are nDW living in Ss, LDUis,Missouri, where Dr. Creticos has a fellow­ship in medicine at Barnes Hospital, andwill return to' Chicago in July to' continuework at Illinois Research Hospital.Milton McKay, JD '42, is a generalcounselor for the American OsteopathicAssociation in Chicago.Major Walter E. Swarthout, AM, is chiefof inspection and instruction, division ofthe ordnance section, with the Sixth Armyin San Francisco,Paul D. Zimmermann, of Dallas, Texas,is a pilot for Trans-Ocean Airlines.1941Tenth Reunion June 8, 1951. Todate 106 report they plan to return-indicated by asterisk (*) before thename.Horace M. Angell is a general insurancebroker in San Francisco. He wants the re­union but is not sure he-can attend.Jane R. Blumenthal, AM '42, lives inBeverly Hills, California. Her husband,Irving Schuldberg, is a pathologist withthe LDS Angeles County General Hospital.David was born September 27, 1950. Re­union: "Probably could not cDme-thD'would like to."Goodrich F. Cleaver is a certified publicaccountant on the staff of the AuditorGeneral of the Air Force. "Will enjoy Telephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL Florist826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago IS, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLGolden Dirilyte(fo''"''':1 Di,i(lol�)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID - NOT PLATEDComplete sets and open stock•FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andDther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCtysbl. Table linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDiriljo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, III.31w. B. CONKEY CO.HAMMOND, INDIANASALES OFFICES: CHICAGO AND NEW YORKADVANCEENGRAVING COMPANYPhoto EngraversArtists - ElectrotypersMakers of printing plates426 S. Clinton HArrison 7·3440POND LETTER SERVICEEverythin, in Letter.Hun .. TYII •• rltl ••Multllrallhln.Addr ..... rallil S.ryl ..Hlghnt Quality S.nl •• Mlm ••• rallhl ••Addr ... I ••Malll ••MI.lmu. "rl ...All 'Phones: 219 W. Chicago AvenueMI 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisRESULT·S •..depend on getting the details RIGH7PRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Folding - MailingA Complete Service (or Direct Adverti.er.Chicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn se., Chfcago S, Ill.WAbash 2-4561E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Worle A Specialty731 Plymouth CourtWAbash 2-8182CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3-3935"GOOf. Printin, 01 All De.criptioJl,"32 seeing our old friends when they come toNew York." His address is 67 Broad Street,New York City.* John L. Doolittle is an engineer withthe Eastman Kodak Company. His wifeis Dorothy C. Teberg, '42. They live inWebster, New York.>1< Gertrude M. Eichstaedt is a sales analystwith Ceneral Electric x-ray, in Milwaukee.Paul R. Fields is a research chemist withthe Argonne National Laboratories in Chi­cago.Paul F. Harrison is a security analist forthe Chemical Bank and Trust Company,New York City. He has two daughters,Margaret Ida, 3, and. Laura Lucretia, 2.They live in Port Washington, Long Is­land, "in a house I built with my ownhands in spare time in the last two anda half years. Not finished yet but livable.">1< S. Allan Kline is a patent attorney liv­ing in Oak Park/ Illinois.* From 1943-46 Robert E. Koenig waspastor of the St. John Evangelical ReformChurch at Hinsdale, Illinois. Since 1946he has been assistant professor of religionat Elmhurst (Illinois) College. In June,1943, he was married to Norma Evans, AM'47. Elsa is nearly 3, Robert 1. Last year,on leave, he worked on his Ph.D on thequadrangles and passed his examinations."It certainly was good to be back for awhile."::< Elinor Lounsbury Roach lives in OakPark, Illinois. Her husband is a physicianspecializing in gynecology and obstetrics.Barbara Louise is three.Frances Megan Smithey, whose husbandis a naval aviator, is working toward amaster's degree in English literature at�eorge Washington University in Wash­mgton, D. C.Morton Lee Pearce, MD '44, is associatein hematology, atomic energy project andclinical instructor in medicine at U.C.L.A.School of Medicine in Los Angeles. Hiswife is Ruth E. Schwartz, '42. Katharineis 4; Michael, two.Charles H. Percy delivered the address,"You and Industry's Major Problem" atthe Illinois Institute of Technology com­mencement program on January 27, 1950.::: Allan E. Peyer, MBA '46, is supervisorof the catalog unit circulation of Mont­gomery Ward and Company, Chicago. Healso teaches marketing, market research,and economics at Illinois Institute ofTechnology, evening division. His wifeis Doris Guthrie, '45, MBA '48.::: Marion Sallo lives with her family oftwo children, and husband, Harold Levin,'39, AM '40, in Chicago Heights. Haroldis a merchant.Rudolph M. Sternheimer is a physicistwith the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratoriesin New Mexico.Genevieve Verbarg Toothaker lives inDowagiac, Michigan. She is an orthodontistin South Bend, Indiana. Her husbandteaches a day a week at Northwest Grad­uate Orthodonic School. Julia Anne is6; James William, three.James E. Walsh, Jr. and his wife, Char­lotte M. Ford, '42, are living in Washing­ton. D. C., where James is a mathematicianfor the Navy Department.':' Rosemarie C. Winkler is supervisor ofthe laboratory and curator of the museumin the department of pathology at theUniversity medical school. She has beenemployed here since January, 1943.Cecil E. Drew is the Iowa industrialsales representative for the finishes division of du Pont. His wife is Claire Lackey, '43.They live in Des Moines and like it verYmuch. Jerry is 8, Ray 5, and Jeannie, three.* Marcia Ellis is the wife of a ChicagoTribune reporter, Ray m 0 n d J. EI!is.Tommy is nearly 4; Stephen, 2. They lIvein Chicago Heights.1942Frances M. Barker was married to W. W·Clarke November 11, 1950. Frances is do'ing research work with the KMBC radiostation in Kansas City, Missouri.Frank G. Brunner, Jr., of Park Forest,Illinois, is on the methods engineeringstaff of Acme Steel Company in ChicagO.He has two sons, David John, nearly2, and Frank III, one and a half.Aloysius R. Caponigri, PhD, professor ofphilosophy at the University of NotreDame Graduate School, recently returnedfrom a year's study at the University ofRome, Italy.Robert Freedman, who is with the MayOFoundation in Rochester, Minnesota, writesthat his daughter Cynthia Ann was bornOctober 17, 1950.Richard M. Gordon, of Omaha, Nebraska,is a publisher's assistant in New YorkCity.Raymond H. Wittcoff received the st.Louis (Missouri) Junior Chamber of Corn'merce Distinguished Service Award as theoutstanding young St. Louisan of 1950.Presentation was made by Edward Arnold,the actor, at the Jaycee Founders' dayluncheon at the Hotel deSoto January 18,1951. Raymond is president of the Adu�tEducation Council of Greater St. LOUISand is active in the Great Books movementin St. Louis.Edwin E. Hays, PhD, is assistant generalmanager of the research division ofArmour & Company, Chicago.Wallace C. Nau, of New York City, isan employment interviewer for the NewYork State Employment Service.Henry F. Bischof, MD, is with the LakeGeneva (Wisconsin) Clinic.Pierce Atwater, II, is assistant office man'ager for the South Union Gas companyin El Paso, Texas.Charles B. Amold, Jr. is national �d'vertising representative for "The DatlyNews" in Dallas, Texas.1943Gertrude M. Aschner and her husband,Gerhart S. Schwarz, are living in N�wRochelle, New York. Mr. Schwarz is aSSIst·ant radiologist at Presbyterian Hospitalin New York City and an instructor atColumbia University. They have two girlS:Doris, 4; and Marion, 18 months. 'Royal S. Cutler is a physician in SunValley, Idaho.Betsy Jane Davison recently returne�from. Alaska where she spent a year ana half as a special services club directOrfor the U. S. Air Force. She is now atColumbia University working on her M.A.in' recreation administration.Leslie Phillips, AM, PhD '49, Worcester(Massachusetts) State Hospital director ofphysiological research, has been made asso.ciate professor affiliate in psychology atClark University.Maurice F. Seay, PhD, professor of edo'cationa1 administration at Chicago, baSbeen appointed chairman of the depart·ment of education.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1944Sara K. Hull, AM '47, was married toAustin M. Wright June 24, 1950. Theyare both students at the University.,1st Lt. Donald F. McBride, SB '45, MD47, is a physician at the Presbyterian hos­Pital at Hunter Air Force Base, Savannah,Georgia. He was married to Patricia R.Shea on February 17, 1951.lIelen E. Ripple is a social worker inOak Ridge, Tennessee.Paul F. Wallace, MD, is an orthopedicSUrgeon in St. Petersburg, Florida.Mary Collins is married to E. AlynWarren, a theatrical director in Holly�wood who was Mary's director in summerrock. They live at 226% S. Fuller Avenue,os Angeles 36.1945Joseph I. Adler, JD '48, has been made�anager of the commercial and industrialC nancing department of Landfield FinanceOrnpany, Chicago. .Eunice M. Anderson was married topaniel Tkach on January 21, 1951. TheyIVe in Franklin Park, Illinois.Alfred W. Painter, PhD, who was a mem­��r of the Chapel staff while working forCIS doctorate and then joined the Batesollege faculty in Lewiston, Maine, isno� associate professor of philosophy andrelIgion and director of religious activitiesat The College of the Pacific, Stockton,California. He is very happy with this new�Ppointment which began last fall. His�rnily drove from the Atlantic to the Pa­CIfic with the two children, Joan, 7, andSllsan, 1, stopping at Great Falls, Montanato visit his wife's family and in Seattleto Visit AI's.Anne P. Fox. of Detroit, Michigan, wasnIl arried to Max Rothschild on October 22,950.Raymond G. Feldman, JD, and wife,�ancy Goodman, '44 JD '46, practice lawIn Tulsa. The following announcement�ard has just come through from them:Feldman and Feldman, attorneys at law,are happy to announce the adoption of a�ew partner, Richard Goodman Feldman.taduate: The Cradle, Evanston. First�un appearance, October 10, 1950. OfficeOUrs 11 A.M.-11 P.M. No appointments�7ecessary. Effective Dec. 23, 1950. 2214 E.th Street, Tulsa, Oklahoma."lIarry G. Kroll, SB. '47, MD '50, is en­gaged to be married to Jane Cornwell.��e wedding will take place this summer.ISS Cornwell is a member of the nursingtiaff at Hermann Hospital, Houston, Texas.r. Kroll has been appointed a fellow in�.tthopedic surgery at the Mayo Founda­thon in Rochester, Minnesota, to begin ate completion of his internship at Her­!O'ann Hospital, July l. Dr. Kroll's motherIS the former Leoline Gardner, '17, and isnow living in Rockford, Illinois.II �abette Kaplan Stern, of Highland Park,1 hnois, has two sons, ages 3 years andrnonths.'thomas T. Tourlentes, MD '47, will com­i�ete his psychiatric resident training at. e VA Hospital in Great Lakes, Illinois,�n . April, 1951. "Then active du ty- U. S.uhlic Health Service."S Josephine Perry, AM '49, is now living inI an Pedro, California, where she is a case­vOrker for the Family Service of the LosA.ngeles area. "I am in the Harbor Districtaand find it an interesting and colorfulrea."l{_ WaIl ace H. Griffith is a lieutenant in the'r egular Army, stationed in San Antonio,eXas.l\PRIL, 1951 -Vernice V. Bacote (Mrs. Horace C. Wood­land) is a librarian at the University ofWashington Library, Seattle.John M. Dickerson is an attorney in Du­luth, Minnesota.1946Charleton C. Bard, SB '46, SM '48, PhD50, of Rochester, New York, is in the re­search and development department, filmtesting division of Eastman Kodak Com­pany. "Have a wife, daughter, and amawaiting the arrival of a second child inMarch ... I'm fiddling with TV servicingand doing gymnastics at the local Turn­ers."Dorothy A. Frech and her husband, C.Gregg Geiger, '38, MBA '46, announce thearrival of their second daughter, Jill, May8, 1950 at Lying-In. Their other daughter,Jan, is now 21'2.Joseph R. Gusfield, AM '49, has been ap­pointed to the faculty of Hobart and Wil­liam Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York.He assumed his duties as lecturer in soci­ology the beginning of the spring termin February.Robert W. Rasch, of Chicago is intern­ing at Evanston Hospital.Edgar H. Schein, AB '47, of Silver Spring,Maryland, is a 2nd lieutenant in the Army.Abe Krash, JD '49, is now associated withRaoul Berger in private practice in Wash­ington, D. C.Bruce R. Heinzen, MD� is a physicianand surgeon at Belleview Hospital, NewYork City.William H. Haggard, II, is a meteorolo­gist for the U. S. Weather Bureau, Wash­ington, D. C.Elaine Gilmore, of Proctor, Vermont, isa report,er for the Rutland (Vermont)Herald.E. Theodore Bachmann, PhD, is profes­sor of modern church history at LutherTheological Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota.He was formerly deputy chief of the re­ligious affairs branch of the Office of theU. S. High Commissioner for Germany.1947Phillip H. Rubin, of New York City, isconducting two twelve-week courses, whichbegan in March, on home decoration. Thecourses are being offered by the City Col­lege School of General Studies in collabo­ration with the New York Public Library.Wamer Bloomberg, Jr., AM '50, wasmarried toO Carol Shulan in May, 1950.They live in Gary, Indiana.Philip Burwasser, PhD, of ClevelandHeights, Oh io , is associate professor ofdentistry for children at Western ReserveUniversity. "Expecting offspring No. 4in May."Theodore Radamaker is working in thecost department of Chrysler Corporation inDetroit and is in his second semester atthe University of Detroit Law School. Hewrites that his professor in property lawis Merle E. Brake, '20, JD '21 and thatGeorge J. Fulkerson, '49, is a fellow student.Irene P. Robinson; AM, PhD '48, wasmarried to Robert W. Horton on June 10,1950. They live in Oklahoma City, Okla­homa.Laurel J. Sacks (Mrs. Sy L. Fischer)writes that Jesse Martin was born Christ­mas Day, 1950. Laurel is the children'slibrarian at Akron's (Ohio) East BranchLibrary and is working for her master'sdegree in Library Science at Western Re­serve University.Bernard Steinzor, PhD, and his wife,Shirley, AM '47, live in Manaroneck, NewYork. Bernard is teaching psychology at 3 HOUR SERVICE3 HOUR SERVICEEXCLUSIVE CLEANERSAND DYERSSlnCl I9201442 and 1331 E. 57th St.•EVENING GOWNSAND FORMALSA SPECIALTYw. caUJorand d.liv.rBIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners (# Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 99 YearsChicago·s· most completeprescription stod23 N. Wabash AvenueChicagoWHOLESALEBOYDSTON BROS.. INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.OAkl.nd 4-0492•Auto Livel'Y•Quiet, unob,rusive serviceWhen you wan' i" as you want itCALL AN EMER' fiRSTEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4·6400 RETAIL33Real Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3 .. 25254gimitHHi\:iVIUCTlUCAI. SUPPLY CO.DlstrlbutDrs, Manufacturers and JDbbers .fELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500Phones OAkland 4-0690-4-0691-4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awning. and Canopi.. for All Purpo •••4508 Cottage Grove Avenue. PENDERC�tc:h Basin end Sewer ServiceBack Water Velvel, Sumps-Pumps1545 E. 63RD STREET6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEF Alrtu 4·0180PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE.1545 EAST 631D STIEET��COLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone HYde Park 3-6324Lunches: 45c up; Dinners: $1.25-$2.25Since1895SURGEONS'INSTRUMENTSof ALL TYPESOFFICE and HOSPITALEQUIPMENT and FURNITUREAll Phones: SEeley 3·2180v. MUELLER & CO.340 S. HONORE STREETCHICAGO 12, ILLINOIS34 Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville.Their daughter, Rena, is 18 months old.Frank D. Trovil!ion, MBA '49, was mar­ried to Frederica Keys December 30, 1950,in Greenville, South Carolina. Miss Keysis a graduate of Furman University. Frankis with the Florida Citrus Mutual in Lake­land, Florida, where the couple will reside.H. Edmund Platt, JD, has been ap·pointed the general agent of Michigan LifeInsurance company's home office in Chi­cago.Elizabeth MacLeod, AM, is in charge ofthe Quaker Neighborhood Center .in Lud­wigshafen, Germany, under the AmericanFriends Service Committee.Linsley L. Lundgaard, of Mission, Kan­sas, is special representative of the Ismert­Hincke Milling Company, Kansas City Mis­souri.Leland F. Leinweber, SB '49, is doinggraduate work at Syracuse University to­ward his Ph.D. in electrical engineering.Bernice A. Kaplan, AM, expects to com­plete her dissertation this year at WayneUniversity.Russell H. Johnsen, of Madison, Wiscon­sin, is a graduate student in the Universityof Wisconsin's department of ohemistry.Lee Roy Herndon; Jr., SB '49, of Detroit,Michigan, is an electronics engineer forBendix Aviation Research.Walter S. Heffron is a metallurgical en­gineer for Revere Copper and Brass inChicago.John W. Hanks, AM, of Jackson, Michi­gan, is executive secretary of the HomeService Bureau of Jackson.Robert O. Frantz, AM, of Lancaster,Pennsylvania, is stationed with the Armyat Camp Kilmer, New Jersey .Yates Field, Jr., MBA, is a hospital con­sultant in Jackson, Miss.Sgt. Charles D. O'Connell, �M is sta­tioned at Camp Gordon, Georgia.1948Robert H. Bork, of Pittsburgh, was calledback into the Marine Corps in October, 1950. He was a second lieutenant in lheMarine Corps Reserve when he was sum­moned to Quantico, Virginia.Archolose Gadashian, AM, a social Work­er in Chicago, was married to TheodoreN. Otis on August 8, 1950. iBruce Le Grande is assistant professor. °commerce at Kent (Ohio) State UniverSity.His daughter, Renee, is now 21 monthSold. Bruce reports that he met Robert 1,White, '29, AM '36, PhD '45, at Kent wl�ereRobert is dean of the College of EducatiOll.LaVar J. Moon, of Spokane, Washington,is engaged to be married to A. LawrenceRist, also of Spokane. Mr. Rist was gradtliated last June from the State College .01'Washington, where LaVar is now a senlOin psychology..Joseph M. Wepman, PhD, had his book,"Recovery from Aphasia," published byRonald Press, New York, in January, 1951.Mary S. Zion was married to Ray E. pop'lett, '46, .TD "50, 'On October 14, 1950. Theylive in Chicago.Eugene W. Jobst, Jr., AM, of. Fargo;North Dakota, is casework supervisor �the Lutheran Welfare Society of Nort 1Dakota. kVera J. Green, MBA '50, is chief cler fin the office of secretary. and treasurer 0Pullman, Inc., Chicago.Thomas F. Freeman, PhD, of Houstol�'Texas, is a professor at Texas State Vnl'versity.Bessie M. Davis, SM, (Mrs. E�el.l J. A.U�tin) is teaching at Wendell Ph ill ips flIgSchool in Chicago. dBarbara Baskerville is a social worker allteacher at Atlanta (Georgia) Univ�rsitY'di_Arthur R. Day, AM, former aSSOCIate etor of the Magazine and now with the. 1 toDepartment of State, has been assignee 'dhis first foreign post-in Germany. He?1not indicate whether or not he was tak�ng'his wife (Carol Skeen, '48) and family In1-mediately. sArnold Dolin, AM, is taking an 8-week,course at the Army Clerical School at For,A SURPRISE GREEN HALL reunion took place at Wash Prom when six alumni £rotflthe fifth floor '48 all showed up at the Shoreland. Left to right the couples are: Totfl, ,eand Phyliss Mazer Sterneau; Dick Seldon and Tuck Eiglebach; Dave Broder and fianceAnn Collar; Lora Lee and Michal Daniels; Dave and Persis Bums Suddeth; and DonnaMyers and Arthur Downie. Missing from the reunion were Louise Obenauf Pond, n_0Win Texas; Meme Kirk Harris, in New Mexico; Janet Benson, teaching in New York City'THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE�ackson, South Carolina. Before being in­licted into the Army last November, he��s with the advertising department of, IInbels in New York City.I G Joanne C. Fink was initiated into Beta! aI_nma Sigma on January 5, 1951, at the.. nlversity of California at Los Angeles.,Murray Gerstenhaber, SM, of New YorkCity, has been named by Bell Telephone�aboratories to receive the 1951-52 Frank" Jewett post-doctoral fellowship. Murray;s an Atomic Energy Commission predoc­oral fellow in the department of mathe­Illatics at the University.1949Estelle F. Hammon, AM, was married toGene Shoemaker in July, 1950. I Estelle is�lipervisor of the Family Service in Day­an, Ohio.b leonard Pearson, AM, has been assignedJ .the Army to one year of duty at the'nlVersity to complete his Ph.D. inPSYchology..\} :Oorothy J. Pryor, AM, and her husband,b' bert C. Pryor, Jr., AM, announce thelrth of their son, Albert, III, on Febru­i�{Y 7, 1951. The Pryors live in Frankfort,entucky.It. Col. Leslie E. Starks, AM, is an Army�dical service officer at Valley Forge,oenixville, Pennsylcania.� JOhn W. Paul, AM, is an instructor inChe Provincial Normal School in Saskatoon,anada., llruce M. Guelsch, MBA, of Union, OhioIS a lieutenant, j.g., in the Navy.,Mary c. Gonnan, AM, is psychiatric so­,��� worker for Sheil Guidance Service,lcago.nSolomon Gladstein was initiated intot eta Gamma Sigma on January 5, 1951, at�he University of California at Los An­�eles.k Wil!iam E. Dascher, MBA '50, is a mar­pet analyst in the commercial research de­cartment of Armour and Company, Chi­sago. He works in close association with��Phen K. Plasman, MBA '43, and Wallace1I11bert, the husband of Jean A. MeDon·ell, '45.f l{Uth M. Boyles, SM, is a member of theI?Clllty of the University of North Caro­Nna's School of Nursing, in Chapel Hill,. Ol'th Carolina.1950li lawrence H. Berlin, AM, was married toinarl'iet z. Greenberg o� January 14, 1951,Iv Brooklyn, New York. Miss Greenberg!!tas graduated from Mt. Holyoke, SouthIi adley, Mass. Berlin, a foreign service of­'�eel', has received an assignment in Ha­ana, Cuba.Ca Warren L. Harnbourzer, MBA, of Chi­ego, is now manazer of the Edward Waxa aSing Company. 'The Hambourgers haveseven-month old son, Charles Alan.is �ohn F. Johnson, MBA, of Pittsburgh,C aSsistant manager of the South HillsDl'ltlnty Club. His son, John, Jr., 'was bornecernher 30, 1950.toJOseph B. Jerome, PhD, is with the Cus-10. Chemical Laboratories in Chicago.ne�a!lller C. Holt is an English teacher atSChnton Harbor (Michigan) Senior High001.IV NIts. Pearl B. S. German, AM, is a casetQ°l'k�r for the Jewish Family and Com­unIty in Gh icago.so�rances .T. Gassman, AM, is a psychiatricCo{al worker at Bowman Gray Medical��f!e, Winston Salem, North Carolina.Pi lchard B. Drake, AM, is teaching at�rnon t College, Demorest, Georgia.Iv aVid Neiman, AM, is a rabbi in Brook­,n, New York.��RIL 1951, Levi J. Weir, MD '96, of Marshall, Illi­nois, died June 28, 1950.John B. Jackson, '00, MD '03, died No­vember 3, 1950.. Ernest W. Potthoff, MD '02, died October12, 1950 in Titusville, Florida.Henry E. Smith, '02 died December 16,1950.Earl V. Hill, MD '03, died May 15, 1950,in Chicago.John Sundwall, '05, PhD 06, Director ofHygiene and Public Health at the Uni­versity of Michigan died December 13,1950.Lulubel Walker, '09, died December 12,1950, in New Haven, Connecticut.Luther L. Bernard, PhD '10, professoremeritus of sociology at Washington Uni­versity, St. Louis, Missouri, died at the ageof 69, of cancer January 23 after a shortillness at his home in State College, Penn­sylvania. He was the author of severalbooks and articles in the field of sociologyand wrote for the Latin American Press.Alvin F. Kramer, '10, died in January ofthis year at the age of 67. He had been apartner of Eastman, Dillon & Company,investment brokers in Chicago.Dorothea H. Andresen, '14, of ColoradoSprings, Colorado, died January 12, 1951.Rev. Oscar M. Hawkins, AM '16, diedJanuary 9, 1951; at the home of his sister,Mrs. F. S. Love, of Elizabeth City, NorthCarolina.Rose Lee, '17, died February 22, 1951,at the age of 63, in Chicago. For manyyears, she was a special English tutor forChinese.Charles O. Haskell, AM '20, of Emporia,Kansas, died September 4, 1950.Terence T. Cunningham, '22, MD '25,died December 12, 1950.Dr. Charles F. Arrowhead, '24, chairmanof the department of history and philoso­phy of education at the University ofTexas, died of a heart attack, at the ageof 63, February 6, 1951, in St. David'sHospital, Austin, Texas.Raymond U. Hilleman, AM '30, of Ft.Lauderdale, Florida, died September 9,1950.Grace Browning, AM '34, PhD '42, diedFebruary 7, 1951, at the age of 47. Shewas director of the division of social serv­ice at Indiana University, Indianapolis.. Kenrieth L. Burt, MD '36, died at hishome in Kalamazoo, Michigan, July 2,1950.John R. Hamrin, '47, died May 10. 1950.after a plane crash in Japan.Jacob Billikopf, '03, of Philadelphia,Pennsylvania, died December 31, 1950.WiUiam S. Broughton, '00, of Washing­ton, D. C., died January 9, 1951.Jesse M. Burlew, SM '03, MD '03, ofSanta Ana, California, died December 8,1950.George C. Campbell, '20, AM '20, DB21, died in February, 1950, in Louisville,Kentucky.Halstead M. Carpenter, '13, died onOctober 9, 1950, in the Monticello (Iowa)State Bank where he had been the execu­tive officer for many years.Paul F. Carpenter, '95, of Los Angeles,died January 1, 1951. TREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DealerforCH RYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARSb040 Cottage GroveMUseum 4-4500AlaoGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair.Body. Paint. Simonize, Washand G,.eas;nq DepartmentsT. A. REHNQUIST co.EST. 1929CONCRETEFLOORS - SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSINDUSTRIAL FLOORINGEMERGENCY REPAIR WORKCONCRETE BREAKINGWATERPROOFINGINSIDE WALLS·6639 S. Vernon AvenueNOrmal 7·0433 I'BOYDSTON BROS�, INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4·0492Trained and licensed attendantsBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's HotelIn theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Gracftful Living to Uni.versity and Businesl Women .tModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave. TelephonePLaza 2-3313Verne P. Werner, Director35RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson B1vd. Tel'ephoneMOnroe 6-3192TuckerDecorating Service1360 East 70th StreetPhone Midway 3-4404GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting-Decorating-Wood Finilhing3123Lake Street PhoneKEdzie 3-3186HYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING. BRICKendCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.T el.phone DOrchelter 3-1579TEL.PHONE TAylor 1-54510' CALLAGHAN BROSI�'PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.P hone: SAginaw 1-3202FRANK CURRANRoofing & InsulationLeak, RepairedF ,ee Eatimate.FRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.7711 Luella Ave.36 Victor A. Chapman, '48, an army lieu­tenant in War II who had been underpsychiatric care, died in his room in ahotel near campus on December 29, 1950.Jean Compton, '09, (Mrs. James F.Chaffee) died October 23, 1950, at herhome in Pelham, New York.Carl B. Davis, '00, MD '03, died De­cember 11, 1950, at the age of 73, in hishome in Winnetka, Illinois. He was profes­sor of surgery at the University of Illinois.John F. Embree, PhD '37, and hisdaughter, Claire, sixteen years old, werekilled December 23, 1950, when they werestruck by an automobile in New YorkCity. Mr. Embree was associate professorof sociology at Yale University.Joseph L. Hansen, MD '34, died July11, 1950, at Vernal, Utah.William T. Harsha, who did work at theUniversity around 1902, died at the ageof 66 on December 15, 1950, in Miami,Florida. His home was in Chicago.Dr. James C. Hill, '05, of Newton, Iowa,died April 23, 1950.Blaine Hoover, 'who did work at the Uni­versity around 1918, died September 3,1950, in Chicago. He served four years aschief of the civil service division and ad­visor on government matters to GeneralMacArthur's staff in Tokyo.James A. Manson, '48, of Bend, Oregon,died October 13, 1950.Robert V. Merrill, PhD '23, died at theage of 58 on January 1, 1951, at his homein Brentwood, California. He had beenill for several months. He was an assist­ant professor at Chicago until 1945 whenhe became chairman of the departmentof French at the University of Californiaat Los Angeles. He had served as Marshallof the University and as coach of the fenc­ing team. For many years he was secre­tary of the University of Chicago RhodesScholarship committee. His father, ElmerT. Merrill, was professor of Latin at Chi­cago. Mrs. Merrill is the former LetitiaFyffe, '14, and his daughter is Dania V.Merrill, '45, (Mrs. Daniel Brewster) ofAthens, Greece.Edith B. Whitney, �33, of Virginia, Min­nesota, died December 14; 1950.Meyer Mitchnick, '07, died August 14,1950, at his home in Long Island, NewYork.Elmer K. Mould, PhD '30, died at theage of 64 on November 15, 1950, at hishome in Elmira, New York. He was pro­fessor of Biblical' history and literatureat Elmira College and a former presidentof the National Association of Biblical In­structors.Bertha A. Pattengill (Mrs. Roy B. Pace),'00, of Bethesda, Maryland, died at theage of 75 at the home of her daughter,Mrs. Wilbur C. Fielder, of Washington,D. C. The date of her death was notgiven. Mrs. Pace was a Latin teacher inDistrict high schools for more than 16years.Victor S. Rice, who did work at theUniversity around 1904, died November 12,1950, in Los Angeles, California.Cyril. J. Taugher, who did work at theUniversity around 1921, died December 24,1950, at his home in Milwaukee.Henry J. Ullmann, '11, MD '12, waskilled in a plane crash on October 15, 19.50.Ernest P. Waud, who did work at theUniversity around 1930, died December22, 1950.Abraham J. Weinberg, '17, MD '19, diedAugust 7, 1949, in Chicago.Roxana L. Whitaker, '22, (Mrs. JosephA. Sawwill) died June 10, 1950, at herhome in Chattanooga, Tennessee. CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency68th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices-One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd.. ChicagoMinneapolis-Kan.a. City. Mo.Spokane-N ..... York.-----------------------------------'AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement wbleh IImltll Itlwork to the university and college ftel� iIt Is amllated with the Fisk Teacb�'�Agency of Chlcago, whose work covers .n,:the educatlonal fields. Both organizationsa881st In the appointment of administrator'88 well all of teacher •.Our service III nation-wide.Sine. J885 .ALBERTTeachers· AgencyThe best tn placement .ervlce for University,Colle<;1e, Secondary and Elementary. Nation'wide patronaoe. Call or writ. UI at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4. IllinoisSTENOTYPYLearn new, speedy machine shorthand. LesSe1i'ort, no cramped fingers or nervous fati�U�'Also other courses: Typing, Bookkeep�nl'Comptometry, etc. Day or evening. VtSJ,uiriie or phone for data.Bryant� StrattonCO�EGB18 S. MICHIGAN AVE. Tel. RAndolph 6_1575LOCAL AND LONG DISTANCE HAULING•60 YEARS OF DEPENDABLESERVICE TO THE SOUTHSIDE•ASK FOR FREE ESTIMA 1E•55th and ELLIS AVENUECHICAGO 15, ILLINOISIUHerfl.ld 8-6711DAVID L. SUTTON. Pres.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZrNBIlls it too 'late, Doctor?11Fortunately, it's not too late for more and moreAmericans who are going to their doctors in time... at the first sign of anyone of the seven dangersignals which may mean cancer: (1) any sorethat does not heal (�) a lump or thickening,in the breast or elsewhere (3) unusual bleedingOr discharge (4) any change in a wart or mole(5) persistent indigestion or difficulty in swallow­ing (6) persistent hoarseness or cough (7) anychange in normal bowel habits. By showing Americans what they can do to protectthemselves and their families against cancer, theAmerican Cancer Society is saving thousands oflives today. By supporting science and medicinein the search for the causes and cures of cancer,the Society hopes to save countless more tomorrow.To guard yourself, and those you love, againstcancer, call the nearest office of the AmericanCancer Society or address your inquiry to "Cancer"in care of your local Post Office.American Cancer Societyr� blMliM-eM, M i4t bMehaPt,tntue1l dep� 8tl &"Mr. Kent will see you in a few minutes,"the receptionist said pleasantly."Thank you." Tom Wilson went to the f�rside of the room and sat down. This was hisfirst "big" call, on his own, as a New YorkLife agent and he was nervous, franklynervous.Tom picked up a magazine and turned a:few pages idly. He had that same tense feel­ing in his stomach that he had the day hepitched his first big baseball game in college.Tom put the magazine down and let his mindwander back to the baseball diamond andtha t first big game.He remembered warming up, he and thecatcher, standing along the first base lin�.Then Tom had gone over to talk with hismother, who was sitting just behind thescreen where she could see every pi tch, Herunderstanding smile turned out to be thebest part of the warm-up.Tom had been so proud of her, looking assmart as any of the girls and, when shelaughed, looking almost as young. NobodYwould have guessed that she had borne thecares of the family all alone, helped only bythe memories of her husband and an incomefrom the life insurance he had so thought­fully left her.Tom had been proud of his father, too, f�rthe love and forethought which had made Itpossible for his mother and himself to In,:eand grow, not hemmed in by want. In fact, Itwas the deep realization of all the things hfeinsurance had made possible for his family­and could make possible for others-whi�hhad led Tom to become a New York Lifeagen t himself ...The receptionist's voice punctured Torn'sthoughts. "Mr. Kent will see you now.""Fine," he said. He got up and started toMr. Kent's office. The warm-up was over.He had the confidence he needed now.NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY51 Madison Avenue, New York 10. N. Y.FEW OCCUPATIONS offer a man so much in the wayof personal reward as life underwriting. Many NewYork Life agents are building very substantial futuresfor themselves by helping others plan ahead for theirs.If you would like to know more about a life insurancecareer, talk it over with the New York Life managerin your community-or write to the Home Office atthe address above. Naturally, names used in this story are fictitious,