EDITOR'SMEMO PADPulitzer Prizewinning Jacob Burck of the ChicagoSun- Times is responsible for the cartoonwhich aptly illustrates Strategy of Error.He has an IS-year old son in the Collegenow, who likes it fine.Budgets will do itThere was serious concern in the voiceof Ellen Roberts, secretary to PresidentColwell, when we picked up the phone."Mr. Colwell says the San FranciscoAlumni Club has him scheduled for a pressconference and a radio interview on Fri­day, February 3. There's a mixup some­where because February 3 is a Saturday.""A Saturday? What sort of a calendaris he using?"''I'll call you back. He's at home pack­ing for California."Later: "Never mind. Since January 1,Mr. Colwell has been working on budgetsfor 1950-51. He was referring to a 1951calendar."Blackfriar memoriesWhen Alan D. Whitney, '13, dropped usa card to ask if we'd be interested in oldBlackfriar scores of 1911 and 1912 he in­nocently took three hours out of our NewYear's week-end.It was like going to the attic in searchof a simple item and coming down late fordinner.Of course, we had to check our files tosee what scores were missing. A goodmany-but we tarried among the fourteenvolumes and fell to wondering what theauthors of these shows are now doing.Maybe you'd like to look over our shoulder.1905 THE SIGN OF THE DOUBLEEAGLEHarry A. Hansen, Literary Editor, NewYork World TelegramF. A. Klein, No record1909 THE LYRICAL LIARHoward P. Blackford, Real estate; SantaMonica, CaliforniaHurnard J. Kenner, Retired, New YorkBetter Business Bureau1910 THE PSEUDO-SUFFRAGETTESBernard Iddings Bell, Episcopal ministerand author, ChicagoRalph J. Rosenthal, Died in 19451911 CAPTURING CALYPSOJ. Ralph Benzies, Lost since 1929Hilmar R. Baukhage, Washington newscommentatorlY12 THE PURSUIT OF PORTIAWilliam F. Merrill, No recordHiram L. Kennicott, Insurance; Chicago1913 THE PRANKS OF PAPRIKADonald L. Breed, Publisher Journal­Standard; Freeport, IllinoisRoderick Peattie, Professor of Geography;Ohio State University1914 THE STUDENT SUPERIORSamuel Kaplan (Lauren), Playwright;Malibu, CaliforniaLeon Stolz, Editorial writer; ChicagoTribune1915 THE NIGHT OF KNIGHTSWalter S. Poague, Died in 19181916 THE RHENISH RHOMANCERichard E. Myers, New York CityRobert E. Tuttle, Birmingham, Mich. 1917 A MYTH IN MANDELRichard Atwater, Writer; Chicago1919 THE NAUGHTY NINETIESJohn Webster, '00, No recordSam Kaplan, '14, See 1914 showFrank H. O'Hara, '15, Professor, English,University of ChicagoJames Weber Linn, '97, Died in 1939Davie Allan Robertson, '02, PresidentEmeritus of Goucher College1920 BARBARA BEHAVE!Vincent Sheean, Author; New YorkHarold E. Stansbury, Advertising; Lon­don1921 THE MACHINATIONS OF MAXJohn E. Joseph, M.G.M. Studios, LosAngeles1922 ANYBODY'S GIRLBartlett Cormack, Died in 1942There were other shows, of course, butthese were all we had scores for. There aretwo copies of each, counting the two fromWhitney.We are turning one set over to the offi­cial University archives department andkeeping a set at alumni headquarters.Copies from other years will be welcomeand acknowledged in this Memo Pad.P .S. Just talked with Frank O'Hara.He says that John Webster (under 1919)was a nom de plume, invented by TeddyLinn, under whom the other authors weresupposed to have written.LETTERSNews and viewsI retired from teaching at the StateTeachers College in Valley City, NorthDakota in 1945. I have been spending mywinters in California and my summers inValley City ...I enjoy especially the articles about cur­rent problems: Johnson's Yalta, Fact andFiction, Redfield's Visit to China, Acker­man's Balance Sheet for Japan) Pauck'sScholarship is Supernational) are a few ofthe many fine articles.Lillian Gube1man, '10, AM '23Damascus invitationI have received with pleasure the No­vember and December issues of the Uni­versity of Chicago Magazine. The Newsof the University and of the classes arealways interesting. I have been appointedas associate professor of Ancient Historyat the Syrian University and for the lasttwo months and a half I have been givingan interesting course on the Ancient His­tory of the Near East in the world's mostancient city, Damascus. I am looking for­ward to meeting some of our professorsof the Oriental Institute in this part ofthe world; and I would be very glad toreceive anyone coming from the Univer­sity of Chicago.With my sincerest regards and thanks,I wish to remainGeorge Haddad, PhD '49Syrian University)Damascus) SyriaTime and DouglasMay I vote for you and your editorsin the con troversy over the post cards sen tto al u mni in the Chicago area calling theirattention to Time's story of Senator Doug­las.I read the Time article on Paul Doug- las, and I not only was proud of myfriend, Pau l, hut I was pleased at Time'sfairness in presenting a true picture of aman who stands for much of what I as­sume Time opposes.Could you persuade your correspondentwho said, "You are going out of yourfunction regarding political propaganda.... You should be completely neutral andstay out of politics," to come out to Har .bert, Michigan, and drink a pot of coffeewith me? I promise you to be a gentle­man if he comes. You know that I amno missionary, but I do like to discussquestions with those who disagree withme; I have learned a lot that way in63 interesting years; I continue ready tolearn more.Tell the fellow that my beloved and Ilive the year around in "Birchwood," Har­bert plo, Chikaming Township, BerrienCounty, Michigan-62 miles due east ofthe Drake Hotel in Chicago.Wellington D. Jones, 'OS, PhD '14Harbert, MichiganTaste"I was amused by the recent letter fromthe alumnus who compared unfavorablyyour magazine with the alumni magazineof Princeton. I had been home duringvacation anel my father, who is a Prince­ton graduate, complained that there isnothing in the Princeton alumni magazineto compare with the kind of material youput in Chicago'S! Yon can please someof the people some of the time. "F.C.W.Chicago) IllinoisEager reader"Congratulations ... Don't know who'sresponsible but the Magazine has improvedtremendously in recent months, and I nowopen it eagerly." John Morris, '38Philadelphia, Pa.Good as is"In answer to E.M.M.'s letter, I shouldlike to say I hope nobody does anythingto the University of Chicago Magazine)since it is "good as is." 1 welcome theopportunity to be improved culturally andintellectually, since I miss the direct stim­ulation received when on campus. I likebeing in on previews of such excellentmaterial as Bettelheim's story on the Or­thogenic School. It also gives me a senseof pride and security to be able to talkintelligently about our College programwhich I would not be able to do wi thou tthe Magazine."Sara Frame, '37Altadena, California.BOOKSON REVIEWHISTORY OF THE MEDICI, by FerdinandSchevill. 240 pp. Harcourt Brace and Co.,1949.History needs to be re-written period­ically because new questions arise that'must be addressed to the infinite recordof past life, if this past is to yield ananswer significant to us. Precisely the mostimpressive eras and personalities ofhistory, those which are apt to become"mythological" in the eyes of posterity,require the repeated study of the self­denying historian who is capable of boththe critical examination and the livelyreconstruction of the past.Ferdinand Schevill who, in his ninthdecade, shows a mental vitality remind­ing one of Ranke's old age, has writtena history of Florence which justly cameto supersede at least the Florentine partsof Symonds' work, that attractively senti­mental journey to the MediterraneanRenaissance made in the Victorian age.Now Schevill presents us with a bookon the Medici, the family of Bourgeoisorigin which for five generations decidedthe fate of Renaissance Florence and twiceacceded to the papacy in the criticalbeginnings of the Reformation. Forever,the Medici will be connected with oneof the most illustrious phases of artisticand philosophic productivity in thehistory of the western world.If ever the power of cultural synthesisis demanded of the historian, it is inthis case which calls for the mastery ofbiographical analysis, of political and eco­nomic understanding, 0 f interpretingphilosophy, art, and letters. Above all,the subject demands the ability of draw­ing the wide ramifications of the activitiesof the Medici into the unity of a coherentand demonstrable whole. For the historyof this family is a specimen of humanculture, as it is exposed to power andpassion, threatened by catastrophies fromwithout and within, devoted to the sub­lime and yet contingent upon human in­sufficiency and never-ceasing change.Ferdinand Schevill wrote for readers"who resort to history for the doublepurpose of cultural enrichment and suchlight on the unfathomed nature of manas history, wherever sampled, may yield."His book is the conclusive result of de-. tailed studies, and its fluent narrative isborne by the author's thorough familiaritywith the· many controversial issues ofFloren tine history. The Renaissance scholarsenses them behind the balanced judg­ment which brings them to decision withinthe comprehensive picture of this work.The way in which Schevill presents thesack of Volterra or the peace treaty withNaples under Lorenzo Magnifico, his in­terpretation of Lorenzo's conception of aUnited Italian front in European affairsand of the reasons for his failure, hissuccinct sketch of Nicolo Machiavelli'scharacter and signficance,-such examplesbear witness to the art of balancingsympathetic understanding and critical ex­amination that make the historian.Though one may hold less critical viewsabout the philosophical and culturalsignificance of Florentine Neo-Platonismand its contribution to the conception ofman and humanity, though one may de­sire a more detailed discussion of the con­nection between crafts, arts, and ideas inthe fabric of ·the Medicean Renaissance,­yet Schevill's comprehensive interweavingof religion, philosophy, and philology andthe arts with the reconstruction of theeconomic and political history of Florencein the age of the Medici results in an out­standing achievement in cultural history.Schevill prepares the reader for his con­ception of the Medici by tracing the riseof Florentine civilization in the centuriespreceding the rule of Cosimo. He makesit perfectly evident that the communalgrowth of Florence from the inceptionof its city-freedom laid the ground for thecontribution of the Medici family. Cosimoand Lorenzo Magnifico form the center ofSchevill's presentation, and for each ofthem pis relationship to letters and artis most illustrative of his personality. The Volume 42 March, 1950 Number 6PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONMonoging EditorHOWARD W. tyiORTEditorsLAURA BERGQUISTLEONARD L. COLBY Contributing EditorsJeannette LowreyWilliam V. MorgensternRobert M. StrozierIN THIS ISSUEEDITOR'S MEMO PAD COVER 1LETTERS COVER 1BOOKS ON REVIEw COVER 1THE DEMOCRATIC ISLANDS OF GERMANY, Alonzo G. Grace. . .. 2LADY DA OF JUVENILE COURT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6STRATEGY OF ERROR, Hans J. Morgenthau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9A. J. CARLSON CELEBRATES A 75TH BIRTHDAY,Jeannette Lowry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14THE MAROON MEETS A CRITIC, Robert M. Strozier. . . . . . . . .. 16MARCH CALENDAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20NEWS OF THE CLASSES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22COVER: Anton J. Carlson, grand old man of science andteaching, recently celebrated his 75th birthday. (Seestory, page 14.) Here he posed for the camera of Dr.Louis Thurstone (Psych010gy), before the Carlson logcabin in Elk Lake, Michigan. Some 27 years ago. whencarpenters were building it, he characteristically be­came impatient with their style and pace, and callingon old skills as a carpenter's apprentice learned inSweden. finished it himself.Photographs of Zenia Goodman, and those illustrat­ing the columns of Dean Strozier and J. Lowry, bySteve Lewellyn, '48.Published by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from Octoberthru June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscrip­tion _price $3.00. Single copies 35 cents. Entered as second class matter December I, 1934, atthe Post Office at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The American AlumniCouncil, B. A. Ross, advertising director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y., is theofficial advertising agency of the Magazme.reader is shown that their way of rulingwas as much the product of Florentinetradition as of personal talent. Chapterson the widening of the family's affairsunder Leo X and Clement VII, the Medicipopes, and on the end of the older linewith the rule of Alessandro in 1537 bringthe book to its conclusion. A brief glanceonly is cast at the grandduchy of Florence,the history of which from its very begin­ning is as dull as that of the republic underthe Medici is inspiring. The small-stateabsolutism of post-Renaissance Tuscany isthe strongest possible contrast indeed of the communual creativity of the Florentine,Quattrocento.Schevill's book is a model of the specificservice which the historical scholar shouldrender to the general reader. The authormasters the manifold network of per­sonalities, ideas, and events, and, at thesame time, he is able to present a lucidpicture of a unique epoch in a way whichreflects 'the' lasting aspects of humanexistence.-Arnold BergstrasserAssociate Professor, German CulturalHistory1THE DEMOCRATICISLANDS OF- GERMANYBY ALONZO G. GR.ACEIt will take 20 years for a democratictake root in GerIllan life: some hrightaspects of the Occupation system toand darkYou see here in action one of seven Educational Service Centers. U.S.-financed. now operating in our zone.This informal roundta ble conference. with visiting New York teacher Lucille Allard (left. back to camera). andthree grade school teachers from Berlin. is a fresh sight in Germany. Previously. all texts were imposed by Au­thority from above. dreary texts were livened by few or no illustrations. the writing style was strictly that ofthe lecture. a typical first-grade Nazi reader boasted such chapter headings as "The Jewish Problem" "WorldWar and Versailles arid Its Consequences." etc. This quartette is combing- not only U.S. texts for ideas (noteMickey Mouse). but those of. Norway and other European nations. The centers were created hy Dr. Grace.who thought that some of the nine bureaus. originally set u'p to review and rewrite German textbooks. shouldcontinue as consulting centers. where 6erman teachers could have access to the latest ideas from the world­at-large. get expert advice from many nations on revising curriculum and books.2TH.E UNIVERSITY OF CHfCAGO MAGAZINEIN FEBRUARY, 1948, I flew toGermany to decide a thorny ques­tion: whether or not to undertake anexceedingly difficult assignment aseducational adviser and director ofthe Division of Education and Cul­tural Relations. It was the first suchpost under the Occupation with "cab­inet" status-that is, directly advisingGeneral Lucius Clay and his staff.After a five-week tour of inspection,General Clay asked me how long Ithought it would take to accomplishour goal: the re-education of theGermans.My reply was: "If, from personalexperience, I know that it has taken10 years to redirect an educationalsystem based on sound principles inthe state of Connecticut, it will take20 years in Germany, and require thetalents of the best scholars and leadersin the United States."I had seen the chaos of post-warGermany: city after city from 50 to750/0 destroyed. In industrial Darm­stadt, 20,000 persons and 80% of thebuildings had been wiped out in asingle 25-minute raid. I had talkedwith frustrated and disillusioned Ger­man youth - in western Germanyalone, 100,000 were unemployed andon the loose-to DP's and to Germansexpelled from other countries. Thephysical rebuilding of the cities wouldtake time, but yield observable results.The intellectual, spiritual and culturalregeneration of a conquered people inan occupied area, on the other hand,would be the real problem, with re­sults less tangible.Yet the way to a permanent peacelies not in bombs, force, bigness, poli­tics, fear, or the billions spent in war,or recovery from war, but in the mindsand hearts of men.Personal considerations fade in thelight of a problem of such magnitude.I resigned as commisioner of educa­tion in Connecticut 'and went to Ger­many in April, 1948, to remain ayear and a half.These were some of the problemswe faced:Germany's educational system hadbeen class-oriented long before Hitler,who only intensified it. Even now,only four per cent of the Universityenrollments comes from the workingclass. Common people purposefullyhave been limited to a minimal num­ber of years in school, to protect and 3Self-help, German style. Some 100,000 young people between the agesof 12 and 20-many of them war orphans-are now unemployed and on theloose in western Germany. One means for channeling their energies are non­political, local, self-help projects. About five· to 6,000 young. people fromall social classes are manually building for themselves 100 to 125 dormitories,like the one in this model (since completed near Nuremberg), in which theylive while attending school. The center has a cafeteria, clubrooms, cooperativework and play activities supervised by the Germans themselves, to whom theU. S. notion of "working while attending college" is new. Hitler rallied Ger­man youth for his goals, the Russians are doing likewise with a Free GermanYouth Movement, projects like these are our parti.al answer to the' problem.Fifteen years of virtual isolation from contact with the educational leadershipand advances of other nations came to an end for G'erman educators inApril, '49. The Chiemesee Conference on Comparative Education took place,and was attended by 80 Germans and 80 representatives from other countries.Purpose: to introduce Germans to educational progress made in the U. S. andEurope in the interim; to help break down the rigidly formal, German lecturepresentation method with free' discussion and agreement. In this photo, leftto right, Dr. G. Herdman, director of Worker's Education in Sweden; authorDr. Grace; Mrs. M. Gantenberg, deputy minister in Rhineland, Westphalia; Dr.Edwin Stein, Education Minister from Hesse.4 THE U N I V E R SIT Y 0 F CHI C A·G 0 MAG A Z I N Epreserve a class system; 900/0 of allelementary school students go on onlyto vocational schools, and a child hadto choose his lifework by the age of10. Hitler deemed, general educationof no value to the mass of people,and abolished what little there wasof it in the vocational schools. Lib­eral education in the humanisticGymnasiums, and professional train­ing in the Universities, has beenreserved for the elite-not the in­tellectually elite, but the childrenof government officials 01 people withmeans. Equality of opportunity foreducation simply did not exist.For generations, the Germans havebeen conditioned to authority, andeducation in large measure was im­posed by powerful state Kultus Minis­ters-though some real reforms andbroadening of education among theclasses did take place under the short­li ved Republic.Since the German surrender in '45,"re-education" in the U. S. zone hadbeen largely a matter of order anddirective. Democratic 'ideals are notto be instilled by totalitarian meth­ods. Still, in the Occupation's earlyphase, when the state constitutionswhich govern German's educationalsystem were being rewritten, we mighthave insisted on the skeleton of ademocratic school system--based onlocal control and responsibility-withhopes that a reasonable residue ofreform would be left on our departure.Occupation authorities did by de­cree establish the principle of freetextbooks and free tuition in the pub­lic schools, and we could have great­ly equalized educational opportunityand set up a far more adequate schol­arship program. Given the nature ofthe German system, considerable pro­gress I am convinced could have re­sulted from a "directed" program.*But that opportunity ended in 1947with the adoption of Land constitu­tions. Government was returned tothe local Land or state level, and theoccupying authority stayed on only"'With a democratic peoples, I might add,educational systems are not changed byfiat. I cite the German experience in try­ing to re-educate for a "new order" .inNorway, Denmark, France and Belgium.The 500 scholars and teachers in Norwaywho suffered indescribable brutality be­cause they resisted Germany efforts to im­pose an educational system are living evi­dence that· one cannot change the mindsand hearts of a people, accustomed to' free­dom; by force. in an observe-advise-assist basis. TheOccupation Statute, ado pte d byFrance; Britain and the U. S., and ac­cepted by the new western Germangovernment omitted even this ob­serve-assist responsibility. Nothing wassaid in the Statute about education atall, so we had only the tools of sua­sion and advisement with which towork; the British turned back educa­tion in their zone to the Germans en­tirely, in 1947.With the Currency Reform in June,1948, and the Berlin blockade, an­other new American goal emerged:we were fighting a cold war withRussia and funds for education wereto be pared.Hitlerism still livesI do not underestimate the valuesin physical evidence of power-theBerlin airlift was not only a. greatdemonstration of ingenuity, engineer­ing efficiency and productive genius,but a psychological assurance to dem­ocratic forces that the U. S. and allieswould remain in Berlin. I firmly be-Alonzo G. Grace had been aprofessor of Educational Admin­istration at the University nomore than a month, when weasked him to write 'up his ex­periences in Germany, as Gen­eral Clay's top adviser in Educa­tion, for the Magazine. He inter­rupted the writing of a book todo so-it is the first general ar­ticle he has published since hisreturn. ,Academic zif� doesn't seemtame at all, he says after thehectic months in Germany, 10years before that as commis­sioner of education in Connecti­cut and such important posts asdirector of adult education for-Cleveland, one of the mostfamed systems in the U. S. Hefound abroad that there is apressing need for superior peo­ple, with sound philosophy, inadminstrative education. Chi­cago, he feels, is the very placeto develop it. He has made sur­veys of the schools of New York,W ashington, New Orleans andNebraska, is the. author of nu­merous books in his field. He has"occupied" Germany twice, thefirst time after World WaT I. lieve that Communism and the idealsof a constitutional government, basedon the democratic ideal, are incom.,.patible. The U. S. cannot continueforever to finance world recovery.Yet time and again, with no greatdiscernible result, I have stressed theneed for an intellectual, spiritual andcultural airlift to Germany. We mUstnot forget that. the elements therewhich supported nationalism and rni l.,itarism and used education so effec_tively for their goals, are still verymuch alive. The conditions are therewhich gave rise to a Hitler, who Wasonly a symbol, and so is the under_lying character and social organiss;tion which bred the Kaiser andHindenburg, and can produce moreleaders of this ilk. The Pan-Germanplan of the General Staff for dominat_ing the world from Hamburg to thePersian Gulf, born in 1895, did notdie in 1918, and has not yet. His­torically, the Staff has minded notonly its own military business, butdominated foreign and domestic poli­cy as well. Even now we hear talk.about a plan for German rearma_ment, submitted to Chancellor Ade;nauer by General Kurt von Monteuf ..fel and 18 generals and staff offi�ers.Germany has made magnificentcontributions to the cultural and in­tellectual heritage of. modern civiliza_tion. Yet in spite of, her 19th centuryliberal movements, in spite of her con­tributions to the science of govern­ments, such as city planning, and the<idmirable qualities of individual Ger­mans, it must not be forgotten thatin 200 years of history, she has failedto make one constructive contributionto world peace. The real power hasbeen wielded by Prussian militaryscientists, the thinking and writing ofmany scholars in the 19th century,and the German General staff.There is hope for democracy inGermany today. But the democraticelements which have always beensubordinated are not ascendant now,and any mission becomes increasinglydifficult without encouragement andassistance. It will take time, patience,intelligence, statesmanship and a poli­cy fully cognizant of the circum­stances which led to Hitler and na­tional socialism to effect any pro­found change.As my Norwegian and DutchTHE UNIVERSITY O .. :,f ,CHICAGO MAGAZINEfriends say: "We must forgive but weshall not forget."The hope for GermanyI found that all over Germanydemocratic islands of ferment hadarisen. Some elements, like adherentsof the old Weimar. Republic andpeople who have traveled and studiedabroad, have always possessed. a dem­ocratic character. Others, like theyoung teachers, .who came to �ur'Educational Service Centers seekmgadvise and counsel on revising cur­riculum and texts, or those who joined'such new voluntary organizations asthe Council of Christians and Jews,are more recent converts.There is ferment among Germanwomen and working class people­the greatest force :0 be mobilize� fordemocratic educatIOn and most likelyto benefit from it. Among the youth,who for 12 years were indoctrinatedby the Nazis, about 10% are diehardnationalist. The others can be swayedeither way. The vast majority ofpeople in Germany today distrust andfear Communism, but their attitudedoes not mean they are converted tothe democratic ideal. They live in avacuum-which will be filled some­day, somehow.If the democratic islands are care-fully nurtured, and if we establishmany strong lifelines of communica­tion and mutural assistance to thenon-government, voluntary organiza­tions, institutions and agencies, a sub­stantial impact can be made on Ger­man intellectual, spiritual and cul­tural life.Let me indicate what progress wemade-and in what direction morelies:T ri-partite cooperationWhen the Four power talks brokedown, it seemed logical that at leastwestern Germany might agree on in­tellectual, spiritual and cultural mat­ters. The Russians and the Westwould evolve two systems, but threebrands of democracy and education inthe West would legislate against thevery purpose of the Occupation.General Clay indicated, however,that under the Occupation Statute,each western zone was to go its ownway, autonomous in educational plan­ning . Nonetheless I requested permis­sion to invite my British and Frenchcounterparts to scout the possibilities. 5In the cheerful sunroom of his home in Bad Nauheim, Dr. Gracemeets informally over a cup of tea with two noted Germans: to theleft, Reinholdt Schairer, now living in America, who was responsiblefor deve·loping the German self-help youth program, described in thearticle, from '20 through '33; to the right, Rector Gerlach of theUniversity of Munich, a leading scientist. Dr. Grace purposely heldtwo or three such dinner or tea-meetings at home every week, withGerman leaders and educators. He felt such an atmosphere was morerelaxed and friendly, more conducive to mutual solution of problemsand smacked less of the occupier handing down edicts to the G·ermans.On January 26, 1949, Mr. Birley, whohas since become Head Master ofEton, R. Schmittlein, a French gen­eral, and myself, met in my home inBad Nauheim. For six months, off andon, we continued these meetings.We found that we could cooperateon these following projects-and arecontinuing to do so, with notable suc­cess:We agreed, for example, on criteriafor the writing of textbooks, includingcareful review of content by expertsand judicious use of German scholarsin their preparation. Many earlytexts-including about 19,000,000 inthe U. S. zone, covering 600 titles­were written by inexperienced teach­ers, not scholars. I hope common textseventually can evolve for all threezones. We agreed to make more ef­fective use and increase borrowingand lending of the experts and spe­cialists in our zones, and to hold con­ferences of Education. Ministers andUniversity rectors to thrash out com­mon problems, and plan internationalconferences. The tremendously im­portant Chiemsee Conference, whichI shall describe, should have been a three-way venture, and in the futurewill be.We agreed quite completely on pol­icy, principles, program and proced­ure, and differed on matters of organ­ization. The score was good: tri-par­tite cooperation, we proved, is notonly possible, but fruitful.The French, I might add, are theone power which from the first hasunderstood the purpose of an educa­tional mission in Germany. Theycame to Germany with a plan (theBritish were in the process of chang­ing policy, and we are just evolvingone). Among other things, they haveestablished two excellent teacher'scolleges and an administrative schoolwhich will train a new corps of civilservants. They spare no funds to pub­lish attractive documents aboutFrench culture. Those who charge theFrench with a provincial approach toOccupied Germany, or even of super­imposing the French concept of edu­cation on the Germans are guiltyeither of prejudice or ignorance. Whileothers work merely at eliminating Hit­lerism, the French work at changingthe history behind such a leader itself.6 THE UN IV E R s �'1:,Y: :0 F CHI C AGO MAG A Z IN ECultural coopere+ionWe in theUnited States have great­ly underestimated 'one of the most po­tent weapons'Tn" the '"education of apeople-narr�ly' cultural cooperation.This is. the k�I1d of program all too of­ten dismissed as "boondoogling" or."fads and frills." Nothing could befurther from the truth. It is hard forAmericans to appreciate the premiumEurope places on culture, and to real­ize that the U. S. has �agnificent con­tributions to share with the world. Icite only one-our conception of thelibrary, as a fund of knowledge to beused by all, something desperatelyneeded in Germany, where a libraryis simply a repository of the past, re­served for scholars and research work­ers. (In all three zones, a fair num­ber of public reading rooms are nowopen) .For Europe in general, and Ger­many in particular, America is oftenconjured as a land of unlimited dol­lars, unselected commercialized mov­ies, CARE packages and irresponsibletourists. Recently,' in the Germanpress, after a .performance by theWaldon String Quartette, one of the programs in our artists' series, criticsreported themselves amazed to learnthat the United States had such evi­dence of culture, and wasn't simplythe land of materialistic culture.The French attitude I already haveindicated and -is helped along bygeographic proximity. The Britishhave sent in lecturers and theatregroups, and the Berlin PhilharmonicOrchestra went to England recentlyfor performances. One of our Foun­dations, I am happy to say, do­nated $25,000 to send artists fromAmerica to Germany; the threewho came produced a profound effecton the German people. The YaleGlee Club was a smash hit, and oneof the happiest of our export inspira­tions: the 60 boys lived, ate andtalked extensively with German stu­dents during their month's stay, anddemonstrated the high degree of art­istry possible in a University-by ama­teurs not experts, on whom Germanyplaces such great stock.This is the nub of the program wedrew up and which I hope will beexpanded this year. It was recom­mended that the United States: 1. Bring to Europe and Germanyone of our top symphony orchestras,and one or two leading Universitychoirs. Bring the best talent either atgovernment expense, or through pri­vate benevolent funds in the U. S.2. Send our best scholars and lec­turers in the fields of the humanities,social sciences and fine arts.3. Help the Germans create li­braries and museums for the use ofthe people.4. Send German religious, union,educational leadership to the U. S.for no less than six months of studyand observation-let them observe ata grass roots level, live in small towns,visit with families. More than 500came in 1949, more than 1500 will in1950. Such an exchange must becometwo-way soon.5. Encourage creative thinking,and doing for oneself, in Germanschools and universities and get awayfrom the glorifying of and relying onthe talents of the professionals. TheErlangen Conference on the univer­sity theater, which I called, was astep in that direction: I would liketo see groups like the Cleveland or( Continued on Page 18)Lady DA of Juvenile Court:The Story of Zenia GoodmanLaw is no field for a woman, said her friends.But she went on to graduate cum laude and chalkedup an enviable reputation in a year of careerWHEN ZENIA Sachs Goodman,JD '48, was pondering going toLaw School, she got scant encourage­ment.Criminal law is too sordid a pursuitfor a woman, said her friends. Juriesare prejudiced against female barris­ters. Competition from men is keen.Law firms are skittish about hiringthe sex which often exchanges apromising career for family, home and husband. Lady lawyers become gim­let-eyed and man-tailored, from beingon the defensive, and how many looklike Katherine Hepburn?Besides, her father was Morris B.Sachs, Chicago clothier and AmateurHour sponsor, and she didn't needa job.Zenia, however, had decided to bea la wyer by the time she was six,and she never changed her mind. Luckily her family and the man shemarried, businessman Lawrence 1.Goodman, backed her up' four square.First, she garnered a Phi Beta Kappakey from Barnard, then came to theUniversity Law School in '42 for ayear, and left to spend the next twoand a half in the WAVES, as aLt. J.G. She came back to graduatecum laude in '48, and with her typicalquiet competence made the U of CTHE UIN I V E R SIT Y 0 F CHI C AGO MAG A Z I N ELaw Review, the literary circle of topscholars, and membership in Coif, thenational legal honor society.Bar exams weathered, at the ageof 28 she was all set to practice. InApril, 1949, she launched her legalcareer at the Cook County JuvenileCourt, corner of Ogden and RooseveltRoad. The court is the nation's old­est, founded in 1899, and she is the.first woman to serve it as assistantdistrict attorney. As a matter of fact,there's only one other lady assistantDA in all of Cook County-and sheis attached to a tax court."I've been a probation officer inthis Court for 22 years," said oneveteran, "and I want to tell you Zeniais the best we ever had. She has a realsocial point of view, and insight intoand understanding of, our problems.Yet she never becomes over-sentimen­tal or loses sight of the legal aspectsof her work. We were a little dubious,frankly, when we heard she was com­ing. We thought she might be uppity,her father being who he is, or high­brow. Nowwe hope to God she staysfor years."For DA Goodman the JuvenileCourt agenda one recent morningadded up something like this: 57 chil­dren abused, neglected, abandoned;40 feebleminded youngsters, for whomadequate care had to be made, in orout of institutions; 16 boys and 14girls up on delinquency charges. Twojudges and two' assistant DA's dividethe load.The troubles she seesZenia made a few generalizationsbefore Court began at 10 A. M. Boys,she said, tend to rebel and strike outat life by stealing, truancy, breakingthings, committing arson. Girls near­ly .always ' come in on sex offensecharges. Shoplifting is epidemic dur­ing the Christmas season. Lately,there has been a wave of drug addic­tion in Chicago, by minors as youngas 11 and up. In the privacy of heroffice, before the case reaches court,she tries to win the youngster's confi­dence and find out where, and fromWhom, he purchased the marijuanaor heroin. Any information extractedis sent on to police, as is data abouttaverns which serve liquor to minors,or which wink at soliciting by younggirls.Zenia, on behalf of State's Attorney 7With Judge Phillip Dunne, DA Goodman questions a 14-year old boywho has been neglected by his· parents and needs placement away fromhome. He presents disciplinary problems, and will go off to one of the privateinstitutions, maintained by a charitable agency, rather than a foste.r home.John Boyle's office is in court not somuch to "prosecute" the young of­fender as decide what can be doneto salvage him for decent citizenship;or at what point the community mayneed protection from him: She makesappropriate recommendations to theCourt, in the event of the latter.Shall the first offender be put onprobation? Shall the incorrigible beinstitutionalized? Might psychiatricexamination reveal why this truantruns away from home and school?Should the neglected child be returnedto the alcoholic parents who abusehim? And what legal measures, praytell, can be taken against a womanwho has borne 13 illegitimate childrenin as many years, and after each birthcasually abandoned them to the CookCounty Hospital? Can that legallybe called "contributing to the depend­ency of a minor?"Remedies to these Court problems,and a hundred others, are limited.The delinquent child in all likelihoodneeds individual attention, not avail­able in an Institution. Intensive long­term psychiatric treatment is nowavailable to the Court only throughthe Institute for Juvenile Research,and it has a two-year waiting list.Social workers or probation officers,no matter how conscientious or able,can see a child and check his behavior only occasionally. Many state insti­tutions, though physically adequate,are staffed by political payrollerswhoare unqualified to deal with troubledchildren. There is no place at all forthe psychopathic child who has beens,o twisted and distorted by life he hasreally no sense of values at all, andmay likely never become a usefulmember of society.A 14-year-old boy recently sluggedhis teacher with a hammer, fracturingher skull. The court psychiatrist saysthe teacher was a substitute for hismother, whom he hates savagely, andthat he is likely to repeat the per­formance again on some haplesswoman. In New York State, he wouldbe sent to a special school for psy­copathic children. In Chicago, theonly answer is the St. CharlesSchool for Boys, or Sheridan (forincorrigibles), which can neither in­carcerate him forever, nor offer theadequate, specialized treatment forextreme personality difficulties heneeds. Yet, if he commits another actof violence, some newspaper willblame Juvenile Court for not pre­venting it.Since Labor Day, JC has had oneextra and effective legal weapon.It was obtained largely through per­sistent effort by Judge Philip Dunne,who sits permanently in the Juvenile8 THE UN I V E R SIT Y 0 F L: 11·1 C AGO M A·G A Z I N ECourt. Adults who have legal cus­tody of a minor can be directly prose-·cuted 'by the Court for contributingto their delinquency, and 53 havebeen thus far. A man who has beenbuying stolen goods from a gang ofchildren is on this day's list.Orlqin of her careerZenia has been interested in thefield of juvenile delinquency sinceshe began writing English themes atHyde Park High School on suchheavy, sweeping topics as "The Prob­lems of Juvenile Delinquency, ItsCauses and Cures." "Perhaps be­cause I had such a fortunate child­hood myself, I felt sympathetic to­ward children who hadn't," she ex­plains it. She went on to composemore scholarly papers at Barnard, onthe New York, British and Chicagojuvenile court systems, and her U of CLaw work was threaded with the sameinterest.The cures, she once thought, wererelatively simple. Give any child afair deal,' affection, and perhaps achange of scene.. and he could be re­habilitated. Experience has taughther that it is not nearly that simple.A youngster living for years in anamoral environment is not easilychanged overnight-even if facilitiesare available for treatment. A courtis limited in the things it can do.'Leniency in sentence is not alwaysWIse.Prompt, fair and effective pun­ishment, say the experts, is neededand actually wanted by many a child,who has never known parental curband is actually afraid of his own hos­tility and aggressiveness. I t isn't par­ticularly good to let word get aroundthat because you are a minor, youcan commit five or six misdemeanorsbefore an official reckoning. "It isone thing," says Zenia, "to read asociological treatise on 'jackrolling,'and another to have to deal with thecase of a 70-year old man who wasrobbed of $3 and beaten and kickedagain and again, with an insane kindof vindictiveness, by two 15-year olds.We know they haven't had a break inlife, in all likelihood, and that. thereal responsibility for their delin­quency lies with their parents. Yetat some point, since facilities for re­habilitation are so limited, societymust step in and protect the com­munity from them."Her work, as you may gather, is not the most cheerful, since so fewstories have happy endings. For lackof other resource, the psychotic childgoes often to St. Charles, the threetubercular children back to the tuber­cular father who drinks and abusesthem. Though she remains as objec­tive as can be humanly possible .abouther work, she does in the 'eveningwelcome nondelinquent company andcheerful music.Whenever possible, she explains thework of the Court and its problemsto the public. She lectured about herjob in particular to 40 new JuvenilePolice officers recently, and PoliceCommissioner Prendergast thankedher warmly for "your part in the Association examining-board beforeappointment, in line with his cam­paign promise. She weathered ameeting at the Association, and abarrage of cross-questioning with fly­ing colors.At five, each evening, she driveshome to a five-room house in JeffreyManor, on the South side, and cooksdinner-a domestic job she likes. Acompetent maid-a necessity for mostworking women-handles the house­work. Happily, her husband findsher work interesting and is himselfnow reading up on the CriminalCode.She still faces, and has to solve, thecrucial dilemma confronting anyAfter working hours-Zenia, like most women with careers, goes home toprepare dinner for her businessman husband, Lawrence J. Goodman. Shedescribes her cooking as "fair," but finds it an interesting household art.program which helped in no smallmeasure to make it so outstandinglysuccessful." Her engagement calendarincludes fairly frequent speeches tocommunity organizations and legalgroups.Her future, she feels, will continueto be blocked out in public service,rather than private practice. Beforejoining the Court staff, like mostbrand-new lawyers she made therounds of private firms and govern­ment agencies, and eventually gotaround to talking with newly-electedState's Attorney John Boyle. He wasimpressed by her training and talentsbut said she would have to be ap­proved by an impartial Chicago Bar working woman. She does want tohave a family. And from Courtwork, she sees more clearly than mostthe need a child has for close, personalfamily guidance and the presence ofa mother. But she has spent a goodnumber of years thinking about andpreparing for her profession, to whichshe is devoted, and would she feelbereft without its stimulus, during theyears in which her children are grow­ing up ? Would volunteer work oroutside interests adequately take itsplace?Her quiet good sense and compe­tense should prove a help in this di­lemma as it has for her in timespast. L. B.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEditor's Note-The widest nationalcomment, pro and can, followed theappearance of this article in a recentissue of the "Atomic Scientists' Bul­letin:" We reprint it for those of you(pro or con) who missed it, or areunacquainted with the growing repu­tation of Professor M orgenthau, whowill be giving five Walgreen lectures,from March 29 through April 7th, onuThe Foreign Policy of the U. S."U. S. Senator Brian McMahon, onleaving the White House after oneA-bomb conference, urged newsmen-to read it, adding that he agreed100% with the article's premise thatwe have a "national obsession to un­derrate Russian strength," but thathe parted company with some M or­genthau conclusions about the mean:for settling with Russia.The substance of the Walgreenlectures will go into a new book, tobe added to such other MorgenthaupuMications as "Scientific Man vs.Power Politics" (U of C press) and"Politics Among Nations" (Knopf,1948). He is currently teachingcourses in International Politics, I n­ternational Law, Contemporary Dip­lomatic Problems.By Hans J. MorgenthauA· T the conclusion of the Spanish­American War in 1898, WilliamGraham Sumner published in ther ale Law Journal an article underthe title "The Conquest of the UnitedStates by Spain." Its thesis was that"We have 'beaten Spain in a militaryconflict, but we are submitting to beconquered by her on the field of ideasand policies."F or one who has studied and inpart witnessed the policies which haveled Germany to the catastrophe oftwo total defeats within a quarter ofa century, the similarities between theintellectual processes underlying theseGerman policies and those which in­fluence much of American foreignpolicy today, are indeed as striking asthey are disquieting.We have beaten Germany in a mili­tary conflict, but we are submittingto be conquered by her on the fieldof ideas and policies.From the dismissal of Bismarck in1890 to Hitler, the foreign policy ofGermany was guided by three fa talpropensities: a lack of a sense ofproportion in assessing her own 9i!� .{'L ..�Y"Eopp'/�STRATEGYOF ERRORWhen the Russian bomb exploded,so did America's atomic defensestrength in comparison with thestrength of other nations, an emphasisupon material force to the neglect ofthose "imponderables" with whichBismarck never failed to be con­cerned, an exaggerated and misguidedsense of mission which equated powerwith right. To what extent thesethree delusions have taken possessionof our thinking on foreign affairs isclear for any critical observer to see. We are here concerned only withthe first of these delusions, the depthof which a recent event has mademanifest. The authoritative reactionsto the announcement that an atomicexplosion has occurred in the SovietUnion (and the fact that a Russianhydrogen bomb may shortly be fact)have demonstrated the extreme extentto which we have lost our sense ofproportion and to which we insist10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthat, regardless of what happens, weare naturally superior to all nations,the Russians included.A historian, a thousand years hence,writing the story of American foreignpolicy from 1945 to 1949 on the basisof the contemporary reactions only,would arrive at strange conclusions.The most important event. of thatperiod, touching the hational concernsof the United States at their mostsensitive, and bringing the world tothe verge of war, would appear tohim to be the Communist seizure ofCzechoslovakia. If he were to use hisown judgment, he would not fail tonote that this event, while accentu­ating . Russian' expansionist tendencies,stabilized the predominance of theSoviet Union over Czechoslovakiawhich had existed since the end ofthe second World War and that itdid not infringe upon the line of de­marcation between East and Westwhich the United States was resolvedto defend. The Communist seizureof Czechoslovakia, then, would appearnot as an attack on the existing statusquo, to the defense of which theUnited States was committed, butrather as an accentuation of the exist­ing status quo, an event within thepre-existing Russian sphere of influ­ence which left the actual distributionof power intact.Our fictitious historian would findthat the United States ranked thetrial of Cardinal Mindszen ty next inimportance for her national interest,while his own judgment would haveadvised him that, whatever the moralsignificance of this trial and its impor­tance for the Vatican State, it had nobearing upon our national interest.The event attracting his attentionnext would be the Berlin blockade,and he would agree with publicopinion that here was an issue whichactually affected the distribution ofpower between the United States andthe Soviet Union. Farther down theline our historian would have noticedthe shooting-down of American air­men by Yugoslavia, the Greek CivilWar, Iran, China, Palestine, etc.Far down toward the bottom ofthe list, he would have detected alittle item of obviously minor impor­tance, expected, discounted, preparedfor by everybody concerned-the factthat an atomic explosion had occurred in the Soviet Union. How did ourleaders comment on this event?U. S. reaction to the bombAn expert of the New York Times,Mrs. Anne O'Hare McCormick, whoobtains much of her inspiration fromWashington, gave an impressive sum­mary of the official reaction. "Thereis no reason," says Mrs. McCormick,"why the world should be taken bysurprise by the President's statement.What was bound to happen sometimehappened a little ahead of schedulebut not unexpectedly to scientists, sol­diers, or even mere observers of theharrying pace of history." And Mrs.McCormick quotes "experts" to theeffect "that in the experiment theRussians destroyed the only bomb theyhad and probably most of the plu­tonium in their possession."The Economist, on October 8,summed up the official reaction bystating: "There has been, indeed, noglimmering of a new or originalthought since the news broke; every­one is just as he was before-onlymore so."This curtain of complacency, flimsy,worn, and full of holes, cannot con­ceal, and by contrast rather puts intostark relief, the three glaring factswith which the atomic explosion onRussian soil' confronts the Americanpeople: (1) the' national obsession toHans J. Morgenthau underrate Russian strength; (2) a de­cisive change in the world balance ofpower, and (3) the shattering of thefoundations upon which Americanforeign policy has been built.Nations have a natural propensityto underrate their enemies and tooverrate themselves. These distortionsare the weeds in the garden of pa·triotism and of national pride. Theymay be harmful, but not seriously soas long as a critical intelligence isaware of their existence and appliesthe corrective of objective analysis tothe excesses of self-glorification.They become fatal, however, ifreason refuses to adjust its preconcep­tions to reality.Well known to psychiatric literatureis the case, of the neurotic who is un­able to apply the test of reality to hismental picture of the world and isunder the compulsion to make thelatter the standard of reality. Aftera number of violent clashes betweenhis conception of the world and theactual world, which have the qualityof what is popularly called "hysteria,"the patient calms down, retires intohimself, seems to be confident, self­reliant, and at peace with the .... world.The truth is that he has succeededin withdrawing completely from real­ity as it actually is, substituting forit the reality of his delusion. Now hecan rest content, for his diseased mind,having created a world all its own,has made it impossible that his pic­ture of the world and the world itselfbe ever at odds again. Yet wheneverthe neurotic must act in relation tothe real world he fails, and his failureis the more complete in the measurein which he succeeds in substitutingthe reality of his delusion for theactual world. Frequently, helpless ininfantile contentment, he ends hisdays in an asylum.There is a frightening parallel be­tween typical neurotic reaction to areality unpleasant and full of problemsand the official reaction to the atomicexplosion in Russia. Even the mostconservative official estimates ex­pected an atomic explosion in theSoviet Union not earlier than 1952and, hence, were off the mark, if wedate them at about the middle of1945, by about 40 per cent.This error is only one in a serieswhich started almost with the Bolshe-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZiNEvist regime itself. The Western worldhas insisted upon underestimating thestrength of the Soviet Union, espe­cially in its technological-militaryaspects, and has done so invariably toits own detriment. The allied inter­vention in the civil war was based onthe assumption that the weakness ofthe Bolshevist regime would makesuch intervention successful.During the thirties, the SovietUnion figured in the calculations ofthe Western Powers as a negligible, quantity not to be taken seriously asa military factor. It was this argu­ment which was generally invokedwith success in the debates on theimplementation of the Franco-RussianAlliance of 1935, the Russian offerof support to Czechoslovakia in 1938,and the Anglo-French mission to Mos­cow in 1939. When Germany at­tacked the Soviet Union in 1941, thebest military opinion in the West gavethe Soviet Union from six weeks tosix months. And when she survived,it was only logical to attribute hersurvival either to the climate or to herwide open spaces or, and preferably,to American lend-lease.P�ssion for underrating Russia-How wrong all this is, is clearlydemonstrated in a recent book whichbears a triple mark of respectability.It is written by General Guillaume,division commander in the SecondWorld War and from 1946-48 FrenchMilitary Attache in Moscow. It ispublished by the Infantry JournalPress.For the purposes of our discussionthe importance of this book is two­fold. First of all, it gives an impres­sive account of the Russian techno­logical achievements. Let us hearwhat General Guillaume has to sayabout the relocation of Russian indus­tries during the war. "The trans­planted establishments resumed theiractivities after a short period for in­stallation. For example, tank factoryNo. 183 of Kharkov, evacuated inOctober 1941 to the region of Sverd­lovsk, furnished its first tank from thenew location on December 18 andreached its prewar level of productionby March, 1942 .... Whenever itcould be done, the factories them­selves were moved: .75 per cent of theindustrial equipment of Leningradand the numerous factories. from Mos- cow were transferred in this way;and the same was true of the greattractor plants of Stalingrad."General Guillaume gives the maincredit for the victory in the East tothe Soviet Union. "Nor was it Alliedmateriel that stopped the Germans atLeningrad, Moscow, and Stalingrad.By 1943, when the Lend-Lease ma­teriel and tools were first flowing inquantity into the USSR, the Germanarmies had already long been arrestedor turned back-on the front from theBlack Sea to the Arctic Ocean."To sum up: Hitler was defeatedon the Eastern Front because henever realized the true import of thedeep transformation that had oc­curred in the USSR in every field ofendeavor from 1917 on." Under­estimation of the Russians is the in­variable source of Hitler's misjudg­ments. "His underestimation of theenemy strength all the way through,"says General Heusinger, his chief ofoperations until July, 1944, "led con­stantly to false deductions and toerrors." This holds true of the Westat large.I t is against this background ofconsistent underestimation that onemust consider the official reaction. tothe atomic explosion in the Soviet Un­ion. It would have been a rationalreaction to admit that an error hadbeen committed, to search for thecauses of that error, and to resolvenot to commit a similar error againNothing of the kind, however, hap­pened. Even those who admit thatthere was error refuse to admit thatthe error was of any consequence.After all, what difference does it makeif what was bound to happen happensa few years earlier than expected? Itmakes all the difference in the world,as shall be shown in the course ofour discussion. But, then, the planswhich have been made in view of thateventuality will simply be put intooperation now instead of later. Whatthose plans might be is, of course, amilitary secret. Yet it is no militarysecret that ·the only present defenseagainst atomic bombs is the dispersionand the moving underground of citiesand industrial installations, and noth­ing of the kind is being done.But is is not true that, if we justkeep at it, we will always have moreand better atomic bombs than theRussian? Even if this were axiomatic, 11it would be irrelevant. As I pointedout two years ago in a discussion ofatomic disarmament: "The pre­ponderance of the United States inatomic weapons is bound to be tem­porary. In the not too distant futurethe Soviet Union will certainly haveatomic weapons. If the ratio of X: 0is not transformed now into 0: 0, itwill inevitably be transformed laterinto X: Y. Yet, concerning atomicweapons, X .= Y. In other words,once the Soviet Union has atomicweapons, it matters little that theUnited States will have more atomicweapons than the Soviet Union."It requires only .a limited numberof atomic bombs to destroy the mili­tary potential of the United States.This destruction will deprive theUnited States of the ability to win awar against the Soviet Union, how­ever much damage it might be ableto do by dropping a superior numberof atomic bombs on Russian territory."But, perhaps, what exploded in theSoviet Union was not an atomic bombat. all, or the only one the Russianshave, consuming the bulk of their fis­sionable material. And, probably, itwas not a particularly good bomb.Anyhow, we have nothing to worryabout, let us have confidence in ourleaders and forget the whole thing.Here the neurotic mind has succeededin withdrawing almost . completelyfrom reality and in creating a worldof its own in which it feels secure.Yet the collective neurosis of a na­tion does not end in the infantile con­tentment of the asylum, but in theterror of a national catastrophe.Biggest event of postwar eraThe truth is that the acquisition byRussia of an atomic weapon is anevent of the greatest importance. Incomparison with it, all the great is­sues of the post-war period fade intoinsignificance. Certainly in the shortrun, and probably for the foreseeablefu ture as well, it overshadows thepassing of China into the Soviet camp.I ts importance lies in the decisivechange in the world balance of powerwhich it entails, and the productionof a Hydrogen bomb by the U.S e. willmake no difference in this change,since the Russians are supposed to bewell on their way to producing one.However misguided the policy ofsecrecy with regard to the atomic12 THE UNIVERSITY O:F CHICAGO MAGAZINENO MORE TIME FOR COMPLACENCYBy Harrison BrownInstitute of Nuclear Studies"We seem to. have a national obsession that the Russians are notcapable in science-an obsession that persists in spite of the fact thatthey succeeded in exploding their first atomic bomb in a time intervalcorresponding to. the minimum estimates made by our own scientistsmany years ago. ... We know that as long age as the 1930's, the Rus­sians seriously considered the possibilities of producing atomic energy,utilizing the light elements ..."In the presence of the cold war, in the absence of anything approach­ing a stable peace, there is little reason to. believe the Russians will netbuild an H bomb, Indeed, if they have already made the decision to.proceed with this development, they are probably ahead of us, fereur own pregress in new developments has certainly been much slowerthan it was during the war. One need only point to. the fact that avery large percentage of the most famous physical scientists in Amer­ica were employed en the bomb project during the war, and that al­most none of these men are now in full-time employment with A.E.C.We must new face the question whether a military defense is meaningfulany mere. What happens to. armaments superiority if 'even the weakernations can completely destroy the stronger?"bomb has been in other respects, itmade sense only under the assumptionthat the monopoly of the atomic bombwas so invaluable an asset of Amer­ican power that extreme measures andsacrifices were justified to preventother nations from gaining the knowl­edge which only the United Stateswas supposed to possess.If this assumption was correct-aswe think it was-then, obviously, theability of another nation to makeatomic bombs is bound to destroy thatadvantage.U. S. vs. Russian strengthThere are eight basic factors whichdetermine the power of a nation:geography, natural resources, indus­trial capacity, military preparedness,population, national character, na­tional morale, and quality of diplo­macy. Making due allowance for thenecessarily hazardous nature of anysuch comparative assessment, we ven­ture to suggest that there are rationalgrounds for believing that the UnitedStates has at present an advantage inthree factors: industrial capacity, na­tional character, and diplomacy; thatthe Soviet Union has an advantagein three: geography, population, andmilitary preparedness; that with re­gard to one, natural resources, bothcountries are in a roughly similar posi­tion; and that one, national morale, isbeyond rational calculation, for thereis no way of telling in advance how a people will stand up under the con­ditions of modern warfare.We have already referred to theover-all superiority of the UnitedStates over the Soviet Union in thefield of industrial capacity, a superi­ority which, however, is not the neces­sary equivalent of superiority in theproduction of the implements of war.We would assume that a peoplewhose national character is marked byself - reliance, individual irutiatrve,spontaneous manipulation of socialchange, and mistrust of governmentdictation, possess greater intellectualand moral reserves and a greateradaptability to changing circumstancesthan a people who have for the wholeof their history lived under authori­tarian, if not. totalitarian rule.We would .also assume that a dip­lomacy which is uncertain of its goalsand methods but opera tes with themethod of persuasion and respects thenational . independence of other na­tions will in the long run be superiorto a diplomacy which prevails onlywhere military and police power havealready decided the issue in its favor.The geographic advantage of theSoviet Union over the United Statesconsists in two factors. The extensionof territory allows an unmatched de­fense in depth, and it makes possiblean equally unmatched decentralizationof population and industrial centers:Aside from this geographic advan­tage and from the superiority in num­bers of population, it is in military preparedness that the chief elementof Russian strength is to be found.While certain important factors bear­ing upon the military power of a na­tion escape objective determination inadvance-such as quality of strategicplans, of leadership, of training, andmorale-there are others which aresusceptible of such determination.Among them two stand out: the frac­tion of the national effort spent formilitary preparedness, and the kind ofweapons at the disposal of a nation.I t is obvious that a totalitarian gov ..ernment has a potential advantage inbeing able to give unified direction tothe national effort and direct as muchof it as seems desirable and feasibleinto military channels. The Sovietgovernment has made full use of itspower and maintains an army andair force superior in numbers to anyother existing army and air force orcombina tion of them. This advantagehas in the past been thought to beroughly cancelled out by the absoluteAmerican superiority in one weapon:the atomic bomb. It was even gener­ally held that the unique destructive­ness of this weapon would give theUnited States an edge in over-allmilitary strength over the Soviet Un­ion. For while in the initial stages ofa war with the Soviet Union the atom­ic bomb would destroy the latter's in­dustrial centers, the whole Americannational effort, using a vastly superiorindustrial potential, would be mar­shalled for military purposes and over­come the .. ,.initial Russian advantage.The Russian possession of theatomic bomb not only removes thecounterweight to the superior Russianmilitary establishment, constituted bythe American monopoly of the atomicbomb, it also removes the edge inthe balance of power in favor of theUnited States. For now the superiorindustrial plant of the United Statesis as exposed to destruction by atomicbombs as has been the inferior Rus­sian industrial plant. The atomicbomb is no respecter of technologicalachievements, and before it all indus­trial plants are equal.It is for this reason that we havesaid that the Russian possession of theatomic bomb constitutes a decisivechange in the world balance of power.It remains now to be shown thatpostwar American foreign policy hasbeen predicated upon the assumptionTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof the military superiority of theUnited States over the Soviet Union,a superiority which was supposed tolast for a number of years but which,as we have seen, is about to disappear,long before its appointed time. Inconcrete terms, it was assumed thatour superiority, derived mainly fromthe monopoly of the atomic bomb,would come to an end only after wehad gained equality with the SovietUnion on land by ena:bling WesternEurope to withstand a Russian attackat least during the period needed tobring American superiority in otherfields into play. This assumption un­derlay the Marshall Plan and theNorth Atlantic Pact.The short-term objective of this for­eign policy was the containment ofRussia, that is, the use of our military'superiority for the purpose of main­taining the territorial status quo. Itsmain expression was the Truman Doc­trine. The long-term objective of thisforeign policy was the imposition uponthe Soviet Union of a settlement whichwould remove the threat of Russianaggression from Western Europe andwould bring to an end the exclusivedomination by the Soviet Union ofEastern and part of Central Europe.The strategic moment for obtainingthat long-term goal was thought tobe the one in which the United Statesbecame equal to the Soviet Union onland while retaining its superiority inother respects; that is, after WesternEurope had recovered militarily andeconomically and before the SovietUnion had obtained the atomic bomb.The acquisition by the Soviet Unionof the atomic bomb in 1949 instead ofmuch later has completely upset thetimetable upon which American for­eign policy was based and has seriouslyimpaired the bargaining position ofthe United States. It necessitates theelaboration of a new foreign policybased upon new assumptions to beformulated in the light of a new bal­ance of power.Two such assumptions come imme­diately to mind.In view of the unknowns and im­ponderables which go into the assess­ment of the respective strength of na­tions under contemporary conditions,it would be safe to start . with the as­sumption that the U. S. and the So­viet Union will in the very near future be roughly equal in military strength.If this is so, the policy of "gettingtough" with Russia and the policy ofcontainment have 'become obsolete.One can afford to get tough withsomeone and be able to contain himif one is unquestionably superior instrength. But between equals tough­ness becomes a two-way street.The balance of power now equalIf we believe that the possibilitiesof negotiating a settlement with theUSSR have not been exhausted, thenwe must ask ourselves:What are our vital interests vis-a­vis the Soviet Union and how canthey be safeguarded by mutual agree­ment? What are the vital interests ofthe Soviet Union vis-a-vis ourselves,and how can they be safeguarded bymutual agreement? If these vital in­terests conflict, how can they be re­formulated so as to become compat­ible? How can the issues of secondaryimportance outstanding between thetwo nations be settled by compromise?To repeat: the choice before theUnited States is to prepare for waror for peace (or, perhaps, for both).We are doing neither, but continue todrift, hypnotizing ourselves into be­lieving that no such choice needs tobe made. We do not prepare for war,but reply to the atomic explosion inthe Soviet Union with a reduction ofthe military budget, continue to thinkthat we can do without a generalmobilization plan, leave Alaska opento invasion, and find nothing strangein the expectation that the Russianswill passively watch us make WesternEurope strong enough to defend itself,which under the conditions of modernwarfare is tantamount to making itstrong enough to attack. We do notprepare for peace, but refuse to facethe one issue from which the conflictwith the Soviet Union arose andwhich still dominates it: the questionof the domination of Eastern Europe.The conflict between the UnitedStates and the Soviet Union startedwith incompatible interpretations ofthe Yalta agreement. Underlyingthese interpretations was the question,who shall control Eastern Europe­the Soviet Union, the Western world,or both together? This is the decisivequestion today. Since Eastern Europecan be liberated from Russian domina­tion only by war and since such Iiber- 13ation would certainly not affect thevital interests of the United Statesin such a way as to be worth a war,the reaffirmation of the political andmilitary essence of the Yalta Agree­ment by the Western world in ex­change for the military and politicalevacuation of Central Europe by theSoviet Union appears to be the ob­jective toward which a new Americanforeign policy should aim.I t is worth recalling the warningwhich, two years ago, Mr. Churchilluttered in words of profound wis­dom:"I will only venture now to say thatthere seems to' me to be very realdanger in going on drifting too long.I believe that the best chance of pre­venting a war is to bring matters toahead and come to a settlement withthe Soviet Government before it istoo late. This would imply that theWestern democracies, who should, ofcourse, seek unity among themselvesat the earliest moment, would take theinitiative in asking the Soviet for asettlement."It is idle to reason or argue withthe Communists. It is, however, pos­sible to deal with them on a fair, real­istic basis, and, in my experience,they will keep their bargains as longas it is in their interest to do so,which might, in this grave matter, bea long time, once things are settled ..."There are very grave dangers­that is all I am going to say today-inletting everything run on and pile upuntil something happens, and it passes,all of a sudden, out of your control."After his first meeting with Stalin,Mr. Churchill remarked that Stalinleft with him "the impression ... ofa complete absence of illusions of anysort." Absence of illusions is indeedone of the marks of the statesman.Politicians, whose horizon is limitedby the prospects of the next elections,prefer to delude themselves and theirconstituents.The official reaction to the atomicexplosion in Russia has given us anindication of the depth of our nationalillusions. That is the German way ofmaking foreign policy, and the fatethat awaits such a policy of illusionsis likely to be the fate that was Ger­many's. In such manner politiciansmay manage to win the next elections.But they also make sure that thereremain few elections to be won.News of the QuadranglesA. J. CARLSON CELEBRATESMEMORABLE 75TH BIRTHDAYThe University's great physiologist and teacher pauses longenough, in his busy schedule, to prescribe one remedy for thenation's ills-workBy Jeannette LowreyDr. Carlson pauses long enough for a birthday shot in his office in Ab­bott 328. together with his famous corncob pipe and widely-circulated text­book. "The Machinery of the Body" (U of C Press). written with Dr. Johnson.THE 75 FRIENDS who came tothe 75th.. birthday dinner forAnton J. Carlson and the 500 whowrote letters for the celebration wereproof of esteem for the famed physi­ologist's oft-repeated question-"Votiss de' evidence?" ."Ajax," who met his 75th birthdaywith a social and lecture; schedulethat would make many a young manold, believes the cure for the nation'sills is work.And work is what keeps young theFrank· P. Hixon, distinguished serviceprofessor emeritus of physiology. Hecommutes between his manuscript­lined 'office and scientific and lay meetings, espousing causes with thesame vigor with which he has beenmaking headlines for the past 47years.The man to whom physicians turnas the outstanding authority onhunger is renowned throughout thescientific world not only for his ownresearches but as theoutspoken criticof quackery. .A scientists' scientist and a commonman's scientist,' "Ajax" is working to­day to discover the secrets of a health­ier, longer life. Fifty years hence, he .says, 15 out of every 100 persoris willbe 65 years 'old, and they will be betterqualified, because of medicine and science, for useful work than are peo­ple of comparable age today.He recently made the front pagesat the Carlson - founded ResearchCouncil on Problems of Alcohol, by re­buking the medical profession for notadmitting alcoholics to hospitals asregular patients.And he makes anti-vivisectionistsunhappy in council meetings when hecuts them with, "If man isn't worthmore than a dog, then our efforts toimprove man are in error."In the same way, Carlson discred­ited the widely-known but short-livedoperation using monkey glands to re­juvenate wishful oldsters. "1 knewthe case of a 'rejuvenated' man whofelt young until he received hissurgeon's bill. Dot was so high hesuddenly felt old again," Carlson oncesaid at the International Physiologistsmeeting in Stockholm. The originatorof the op,tration stalked out of theroom never to return to the meeting.More recently he spiked the gunsof a mental-telepathy enthusiast inKansas who told him how he sud­denly felt at nine o'clock one eveningthat his mother, in N ew York, neededhim. He learned later that she hadfallen down stairs that very eveningat exactly nine o'clock. "And' what,"he' said to Dr. Carlson, "do you thinkof that?' The quick response fromCarlson was: "My first thought is ofthe hour difference between easternand central time."Physically rugged and fearless, Carl­son has run the gamut from steerageimmigrant to distinguished man ofscience. He was the 94th president ofthe nation's top scientific group; theAmerican' Association for" the Ad­vancement of Science.In' both world wars, he was' calledTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15upon to help solve the food prob­lems. A recognized authority on nu­trition, he served in the first war asa sanitary corps colonel in Franceand stayed overseas to help HerbertHoover organize relief for Europe'sundernourished children. In WorldWar II, he ate K rations to deter­mine what the balanced diet shouldbe for soldiers in all fields of action.Dr. Carlson has always insisted ontaking his turn "on the table" regard­less of his colleagues' urging that hismind is more valuable to science thanhis body.He fasted 15 days during his earlystudies of hunger, crammed balloonsdown his throat on the end of a tubeto measure his own hunger storms andinsisted that he be the first humansubject on whom hisArno B. Luckhardt,tested the anestheticethylene.Medical history credits Carlson withrefuting the great Pavlov theory ofthe ebb and flow of gastric juices.Pavlov theorized that the glands se­creting gastric juices rest when thestomach is empty. Carlson's experi­ments--on himself-proved that thejuices flow periodically even duringfasting of long periods.Carlson also revolutionized science'sknowledge of the stomach when hefound that hunger is automatic andindependent of appetite. He provedthat appetite is really a conditionedresponse to taste, smell and sight.At the age of 29, Carlson receivedhis first scientific fame. He ended a100-year controversy between twogroups of scientists on what causedthe heart to beat.He proved that the heat begins inthe nerve and then reaches and setsoff the muscle. He also found thatspeed of action is alike in a nerve andthe muscles it activates. These twostudies, hailed as classics of scientificinvestigation, brought him his long­held position at the University of Chi­cago.On the Midway university campusfrom 1904, Carlson became a full pro­fessor of physiology in 1909, chairmanof the department in 1916, and FrankP. Hixon, distinguished service pro­fessor in 1929. Although reaching theuniversity's automatic retiring age-65-in 1939, he has continued to teachand lecture. collegue, Dr.(Physiology )properties of 20 years of roundtablesThe University of Chicago RoundTable, America's first ad-lib radio dis­cussion program, recently celebratedthe beginning of its 20th year on theair.The oldest continuous program onthe National Broadcasting Company'snetwork, the Round Table pioneeredin 1931 by presenting the first un­scripted programs in American radio.It is still pioneering "firsts" in edu­cational radio programs.The Round Table was the firstAmerican radio' program to discuss theatomic bomb after Hiroshima; the firstand only program to present the lead­ers of India and Pakistan in a tributeto Gandhi after his assassination; thefirst discussion program to analyzePresident Truman's statement that theRussians had created an atomic ex­plosion; and the first program topresent the discoverer of cortisone,giving the story of this revolutionarymedical advance. The Round Table gave Americanstheir first opportunity to hear PrimeMinister Jawaharlal Nehru of Indiaon April 4, 1948, in a discussion of"The Problem of World Government"with Chinese Ambassador V. K. Well­ington Koo and Chancellor RobertM. Hutchins.During Nehru's recent Americanvisit, the Round Table was the onlydiscussion program to present PanditNehru, this time in a discussion fromChicago of "Mankind in a Revolu­tionary Age."The Round Table was the first net­work discussion program to take itsprograms outside the United States.The President of Mexico, Miguel Ale­man, made his first talk to the Amer­ican people via the Round Table.Round Table listeners not only hearexperts speak from Paris, London,New Delhi, Toronto, Mexico City,but the "round table" idea has be­come an export item. Selected pro­grams are rebroadcast in Britian,Holland, and Denmark.Chicago's City Council, on the recommendation of Aldermen Alban Weberand the Fifth Ward's Robert E. Merriam, '40, unanimously voted this reso­lution for increasing the "prestige of the University and our Fair City."Reflections After FiveTHE MAROON MEETS A CRITICTrustee Zimmermann makes some pointed remarks about the weekly"sfailings-but later, in a friendly meeting arranged by the Dean, findsthe staff seconds many of his notionsPERHAPS because February is theshortest calendar month, it seemsthe most packed with events. Onehundred new students appeared on theQuadrangles in one week to registerfor the entering mid-year class in theCollege. They found the campusanything but dull. Bulletin boardsflash with the colorful 'posters of theCampus Chest, and the residencehalls are buzzing with the activitiesof Chest workers, soliciting funds fora united charity appeal. Student As­sembly has petitioned for an increasein powers, and its Executive Commit­tee is slugging it out with the Deanof Students. Nineteen German stu­dents, representing every university inthe Western Zones, have arrived tostudy American government, politics,and law. Everywhere one sees an­nouncements of exhibits, perform­ances, and benefits. The year's mostgala social event, the WashingtonProm, crowns the month's activities.A trustee criticizes the MaroonThe Annual Trustees dinner forthe faculty was held January 11 atthe South Shore Country Club. Thisyear Mr. Herbert Zimmermann spokefor the Trustees, and in the course ofhis remarks, stated that he did notfeel the Maroon is representative ofthe student body. From the receptionaccorded his remarks by the audience,it would appear that many people arethinking the very same thing. Nextmorning, the Committee on StudentInterests met in the AdministrationBuilding, and I was asked to pursuethe matter further with Mr. Zimmer­mann. I subsequently spent twohours with him talking about theMaroon and other matters whichaffect the student body, and invitedhim to meet with the staff on a By Robert M. StrozierDean of Students. Dean Robert M. Strozier is the center of atten#on at the recent supperin Ida Noyes for 19 German students given by the Students for DemocraticAction. Seated left to right are Alfred Gaedertz, Wiesbaden, Germany,Ingeborg Ruprecht, Munich, Germany, (refugee from Silesia), Dean Strozier,and American students Estelle Stearn and Fred Bryce. In the rear, left toright, are Americans Sheldon Pollack and Alexander Pope.Wednesday afternoon, when theweekly pap�r was being edited.The result of that meeting was oneof the most interesting I have yet seenat the University. Mr. Zimmermannwas extremely helpful in his sugges­tions about the style and format of thepaper, although he said at the outsethe would refrain from commentingon its contents since he felt this wasnot his particular province. He wasdelighted with the frankness and sin­cerity of the young staff members whovoluntarily said some of the thingsother people have been saying to him about the Maroon. The young manin charge of makeup reminded Mr.Zimmermann that the students them­selves must sell the advertisementswhich underwrite the expenses of thepaper, and for that reason, the gradeof the paper used is limited by thebudget, as is the kind of type. Thestaff also told Mr. Zimmermann theyfelt that they were not representativeof the entire student body but thatthey were making some headway in. enlisting student support and interest,and trying to cover the campus morecompletely. He was quite disarmed16trammg in the general area of thesocial sciences.Now we have just received an addi­tional group of 19 German law grad­uates, who are to follow a programunder Professor Max Rheinstein's di­rection. The government has showngreat intelligence, in my opinion, bymaking it possible for some of Ger­many's future leaders to broaden theirperspective. Groups similar to oursare scattered throughout some of theleading American universities. Thenew German students have b�enplaced in our residence halls, andtheir first day found them admiringthe Gothic, grey city. Our studentshelped them get settled, and beforetheir first afternoon in Chicago hadpassed they were shown the Midwayfrom International House throughBillings. First impressions which drewthe most comments - a badmintongame in Ida Noyes Gym, the organin Rockefeller Chapel, the Negro andwhite roommates in one of the resi­dence halls, and the imposing view ofthe Law School Library.A wit in Mandel HallOn Valentine's day, Ogden Nashopened the series of benefits which theSettlement Board is sponsoring for theUniversity Settlement in Mandel Hall.It was the first of a very interestingseries planned by a Board committee,headed by Cy Houle, Dean of theUniversity College. The Board hassponsored some sort of benefit eachyear, but thanks to the ingenuity ofa very active committee, the reallyattractive series this year featuresNash, Thornton Wilder, a dance re­cital by Ruth Page, Bentley Stone,.and Walter Camryn, a program bythe Association of Commerce and In­dustry Glee Club, and a musical ...Simply the Best. The QuadrangleClub is sponsoring special dinners be­fore the performances and the neigh­borhood is putting on its best bib andtucker for the occasion and makingsomething of a social event out ofthe whole thing by planning enter­tainments in homes before and after.New mid-year classResumption of the College mid­year class for the first time in threeyears fills a real need. It accommo­dates those young people who are The report of his retirement has been greatly exaggerated. Professor QuincyWright, though resigning from the International Relations Department chair­manship, is still very much a member of the faculty. Here, students celebratehis 25 years as a teacher, at a tea. His wife, Louise Leonard Wright. is pouring.graduated from high school in De­cember or January, and who are re­luctant to remain idle until the fol­lowing September.Special planning by the Collegefaculty will make possible a half­year's academic work between thebeginning of February and the end ofSpring Quarter in late June.Wrong news about WrightThe Maroon inadvertently statedthat Quincy Wright was retiring. Thiswas, of course, erroneous, althoughhe was relinquishing his Departmentchairmanship to devote himself fullyto his work in international relations.A front page article correcting thenews of Quincy's "retirement," to­gether with a picture showing hischarming wife, Louise, and three stu­dents who presented him with a scrollsigned by a large number of the stu­dents who have worked under hisguidance in the past quarter-century,demonstrated the regard in which heis held by students and faculty.Visitors from all over--You would be amazed by the in­teresting visitors from all over theworld who spend days studying vari-17. ous facets of our University. Theyare usually professional people whoare anxious to know what makes theUniversity, and why it has achievedits position in so short a history.Dr. Silvano Valle of the ItalianMinistry of Public Education was withus for several weeks. Most recentlycame Mr. Arnold E. Campbell fromthe State University of New Zealand.He was sponsored by the CarnegieCorporation and has been visitingAmerican major institutions to learnmore about the educational scene.Sandwich s+endMr. Cunningham has given thegreen-light to a project which wehave been interested in for some time-the building of a small sandwichstand in the basement of Burton- Jud­son Court. I know not why teen-agersfeel it necessary to eat fourth and fifthmeals at nine or ten at night, but thefact remains that most of them driftoff to drugstores for hamburgers,sandwiches, chocolate malts, and cof­fee at that hour. I have not beenparticularly happy about their leavingBurton-Judson to go elsewhere andhave hoped that we could take careof their needs in the basement.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGERMANY (Continued from Page 6)Pasadena Playhouse demonstrate theirwares.6. Exchange exhibits in the finearts, between the U. S., Germany andother nations.The Germans need to learn that�ultu��sare superior only when there;at�' superior people within nations,and that there are more common de­nomina tors than differences in theworld of the mind and spirit. Cultural'''{:ooperation must needs be substitutedfor cultural competition.Youth organizationsYouth groups are nothing new inGermany. The first dates from 1.896,and until Hitler, they embraced manysound programs. The Hitler YouthMovement was recognized by theparty as a Reich organization in 1926,but at the 1929 party rally in Nuren­berg, no more than 2,000 young peo­ple were present. In 1936 it becamelegal and Hitler decreed that "the en­tire youth of Germany outside thehome and school receive its training,physical, mental and moral in the Hit­ler Youth for National Service and inthe spirit. of Nazism." Each joinertook this oath: "In the presence ofthis blood, banner which representsour Fuehrer, I swear to devote all myenergies" all my strength, to the saviorof our country, Adolph Hitler. I amwilling and ready to give up my lifefor him, so help me God. One people,one Reich, one Fuehrer." By 1940, 10millions between the ages of 10 and 18belonged. This is the kind of indoc­trination we must now undo.Young people were bereft of goalswhen the war ended. Unemployment,lack of housing, and educational op­portunity and general social disorderweighs especially heavy on them. To­day. they are frustrated, disjllusioned,want no part of politics, war, neweconomic panaceas or governmentaldomination. The attitude of Germanstudents is one of cynicism and ap­athy. 'They are sitting back, waitingto be shown. Indifference can be adangerous attitude.We have held that the reorientingof German youth is first and foremosta German responsibility but that wecan help by assisting democraticforces to develop youth leadership, foster an atmosphere in which healthyelements can find expression in so­ciety, and prevent the recurrence ofany totalitarian or military tenden­cies in youth organizations. (Thewhole area of sports, for example, isone of potential danger left in thehands of political parties). 'One way to prevent state domina­tion, is voluntary association. SinceHitler's Youth Movement collapsed,membership in trade union, sports,welfare and other societies has in­creased 700% since 1946 alone.Some 1,�9(},OOO young people, or 25%of t�g��;,:�'etween 10 and 25, now be­long.·�·:·toi�;:tc:me or more groups. Fivel��H�r�hip training schools, supportedipy the U. S., are now training 4,000:)ratmg leaders in' democratic youthwork. Fifty selected German youthleaders have gone to the U. S. tostudy with, and observe, such organi­zations as the Boy Scouts, YMCA,eyO and summer camps, and haveextensively toured the country. EightAmericans and 23 European youthleaders have gone to German. as ad­visers.Self-Help who survived hold key positions inGermany today.In addition to the work-exchangeprogram between nations, we are en­couraging self-governing youth homes,and self help and scholarship pro­grams. German students generallyhave been unfamiliar with the ideaof "working one's way throughschool." Some 1500 young people,some from working class families,dropped out of one university alonelast year, for lack of funds. In, de­veloping programs of work-and­school, we are not only enabling themto acquire the financial means for ed­ucations, but a feeling of shared re­sponsibility.UniversitiesI feel that the University of Chica­go-University of Frankfort project isone of the most notable events inGerman university education.It has given Germans a magnificentopportunity to hear and learn aboutscholarly attainment in America. Icannot stress enough the value in thefrequent, informal gatherings held,the give-and-take and very democrticrelation between student and profes­sor. Let us hope the program becomesa permanent one.Early in the Occupation someAmerican experts, despite the i rknowledge of the German university,talked of creating a "mass educationinstitution" to equalize educationalopporturiity. They envisioned theUniversity of Heidleberg, for example,as a vast campus of 10,000, like theUniversity of Minnesota: They failedto face one fundamental: the Ger­man universities train people chieflyfor research or for the profession�.What profit is there in training twiceas many doctors as Germany will need-as· is now being done?"Equality of opportunity" as theGermans fail to realize, means thatyouth from all classes, including theworking class, shall be able to enrollin the humanistic Gymnasium, as wellas the Universities.More than anything else, Germanyouth needs a mission. I would saythat the heart of our effort now is theSelf-Help program. Quietly, inde­pendently, unknown even to us for awhile, groups of young people got to­gether and began working coopera­tively on more than 100 projects-therebuilding of damaged buildings, newdormitories, homes. The "Studenten­haus" at Aachen, with financial aidfrom the Education' Ministry, wascompletely restored by student help.From 1919 until 1923, a remark­able idea developed in Germany, aprogram of democracy in action. Un­der the leadership of Dr. ReinholdSchairer, who is now back in Ger­many, helping us with revival of theprogram, German students came tothe U. S. and other nations for twoyears of work on farms and in facto­ries, studying, observing the ways ofAmerican or European life.Of the 500 work students who vis-ited the U. S., only one ever became. America institutea Nazi. Dozens more died in concen- American civilization has nevertration camps, or in the war. Many been deemed important enough forTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19study in Germany. Now it will bethe concern of the American Instituteat the University of Munich, operat­ing since August, 1949, and financedby. the Rockefeller Foundation and agrant of 250,000 marks from the Ba­varian government. Professor QuincyWright goes there in late spring totake part in the program.It is highly unrealistic today to ex­pect German students to understanddemocracy. These are the same youngpeople who since childhood have de­liberately been discouraged from in­dependent thinking, have been edu­cated in absolute obedience, and toldthey were masters of the world. Theyhave. been. through hideous war expe­riences, prison, camps, and returnedto a society in dissolution which didn'tseem to care for them or their exist­ence. The vast majority are no longerNazis, simply because Nazism doesn'texist. Those who reject it as a wickedand shocking philosophy are few.Yet some "islands of ferment" areapparent, and we must recognizethem-even if their number is small,and not always representative of stu­dent opinion. The courage,. tenacity,ingenuity and real understanding ofdemocracy exhibited by the studentswho founded the Free University ofBerlin-which I urged be supportedby a 1,500,000 mark subsidy-is acredit to students anywhere. Studentgovernment in most universities is not'always the most admirable, but is re­markable if you remember that untilrecently the concept of parliamentaryprocedure was completely unknown.The Chiemsee conferenceThis according to outstanding Eur­opeans, was the most significant eventin recent intellectual history. For thefirst time, in 15 years, the doors ofEurope swung. open for Germanscholars and leaders. To the Inter­national Conference on Education,which I organized, came 80 Germans,among them rectors of Universities,teachers in secondary schools, indus­trialists, labor leaders, health andMinistry officials. Forty Americans,�5 directly from the U. S., attendedand so did 40 delegates and observersfrom 11 other European nations.There was no hint of patronizingby the visitors, and though at the be­ginning, the Germans were a bit un­certain about the reception which would accord them-and showed itby reluctance to comment-withina day the atmosphere was one offriendliest cordiality and cooperation.Said Dr. V. A. Beerman (Hol­land): "Let Christians be convincedChristians and humanists good hu­manists. They have much in com­mon; let there be mutual understand­ing, cooperation and respect." SaidRev. G. Higgins, of the U. S. NationalCatholic Welfare Council: "Unlessreligious-minded people and the so­called doctrinaire Socialists can arriveat a better understanding of culture,religion and other issues, Europe isheaded for a vacuum." Said Dr. G.Hirdman, director of Worker's Edu­cation in Sweden: "Adult educationis the concern of voluntary bodies.But we have found that state supportneed not be a dominating control."Said Dr. E. Stein, Germany: "Theremust be absolute freedom of con­science: no one is in private possessionof the truth. One cannot easily assessthe results of such a conference-in­ternational, polyglot, united in the as­sumption that common problems canbest be solved by frank and free dis­CUSSIon.A summing upI remember that during a strenuouscampaign for school reform in Wurt­tenberg-Baden last year, Minister ofEducation Theador Bauerle, a vigor­ous advocate of equalization of edu­cational opportunity, received a com­mittee one day, from the higher orwhat we would call secondary schools.They wanted to express resistance toany change in the program thus:"We do not believe there should bechanges in the German secondaryschools. Will you please observe thelist of our graduates who have be­come Nobel prize winners?"The minister replied: "I am moreinterested in preventing World· WarIII than developing Nobel Prize win­ners.". The resistance to anythingbreaking down the "class system" isevident anywhere.How long shall we remain in Ger­many? I have said 20 years, thoughit is impossible now to blueprint byorder and directive. No one in ouroccupying forces wishes to lengthenhis stay away from home, but Amer­ica must realize that the job we haveundertaken is not a matter to be set­tled in two or three years. We should stay, however, only if:1. Our American universities andcolleges grant leaves of absence totheir able men for the cause of peace,as they did so readily during the war.Today, when we are so absorbed withthe problems of a permanent peace,few of America's top scholars, eventhough willing, are able to acceptmore than three to six months' serv­ice abroad. We need them for two,three or even four years.2. Voluntary non - governmentalagencies in the United States shouldtake a deep interest in the Germanproblem, for through them majorprogress can be realized. I refer tosuch excellent projects overseas spon­sored by Foundations like the Uni­tarian medical and educational mis­sions, the rehabilitation work of theFriends Service Committee.3. Universities in Germany needto become affiliated with universitiesin America. The CARE package isstill needed in Europe, but is nolonger solution to a major problem.I insist the airlift now needed is in­tellectual, spiritual and cultural.4. We need a unified educationalprogram in Western Germany, on thepart of the three Occupying powers.5. A Marshall plan for the intel­lectual, spiritual, and cultural unityof Western Europe is an essential ofany plan for material aid. Since thisis a part of a European problem, itis highly important that the otherEuropean nations, particularly thosethat have been occupied and sharethe western ideal of democracy, bebrought into partnership in the de­velopment of the German program.(A strong France, from my point ofview, is much more important toworld peace than a strong WesternGermany, for ultimately the effortswill be made to unite. the East andthe West, and there is no certaintythat the Germans would turn Westany more rapidly than they wouldturn East when the showdown' comes. )Democracy today is" a minority inGermany and the great fear is thatthe United States will abandon thiselement again to nationalism andmilitarism. The Potsdam agreementhas been forgotten, the OccupationStatute now prevails, but our missioncan be accomplished t-e- with time,patience, statesmanship, and the verybest scholarship in Europe and theUnited States.MARCH CALENDARWednesday, March 1PUBLIC LECTURE-Herrlee G. Creel, professor of early Chi­nese literature and institutions, University of Chicago, "TheEclectics of Han," public course, Patterns of Thought in theChinese World, 8 p.m., room 122, Social Science building (1126East 59th Street). $.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-Louis Leprince-Ringuet, professor of phy­sics, University of Paris, will speak under the auspices of thedepartment of physics, University of Chicago, 2:30 p.m., room202 Eckhart Hall (University Avenue near 58th Stre�t). Free.Friday, March 3DRAMA-University Theater, "Antigone," by Sophocles, trans­lated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald, 8:30 p.m. (also3:30 p.m., Saturday and Sunday), Leon Mandel Hall (5714University Avenue). $.35 matinees; $.70 evenings.SWIMMING-Bartlett Gym, 5640 University Avenue. 2:30 p.m.Chicago Intercollegiate. Free.GYMNASTICS-At Navy Pier. U of C vs. Illlnois-Navy Pier.Saturday, March 4DRAMA-University Theater, "Antigone," by Sophocles, trans­lated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald, 8:30 p.m. (also3:30 p.m., Saturday and Sunday), Leon Mandel Hall (5714University Avenue). $.35 matinees; $.70 evenings.FENCING-At Columbus. U of C vs. Ohio State.SWIMMING-IBartlett Gym, 5640 University Avenue. 3:30 p.m.Chicago Intercollegiate. Free.TRACK-At Naperville. North Central Invitational.WRESTLING-At Wheaton. Wheaton Tournament.Sunday, March 5RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, 59th andWoodlawn, 11 a.m., The Reverend James Luther Adams, Fed­erated Theological Faculty.DRAMA-University Theater, "Antigone," by Sophocles, trans­lated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald, 8:30 p.m., LeonMandel Hall (5714 University Avenue). $.70.Monday, March 6PUBLIC LECTURE-Louis Leprince-Ringuet, professor of phy­sics, University of Paris, first of two lectures on The ScientificSpirit and Christian Thought, 4:30 p.m., Room 122, SocialScience building (1126 East 59th Street). Free.Tuesday, March 7DRAMA-Ballet recital, Ruth Page, Bentley Stone, and WalterCamryn of the Chicago Civic Ballet Company, University ofChicago Settlement benefit series, 8:30 p.m., Leon MandelHall (5714 University Avenue). $1.20 and $1.50.PUBLIC LECTURE-Samuel K. Allison, professor of physics anddirector, Institute of Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago,"Nuclear Physics," 8 p.m., Room 106, Kent Lecture Hall (onthe circle at 58th Street and Greenwood Avenue). Free..' Wednesday, March 8PUBLIC LECTURE-Herrlee G. Creel, professor of early Chi­nese literature and institutions, University of Chicago, "TheBuddhist Challenge and the Chinese Reply," public course,Patterns of Thought in the Chinese World, 8 p.m., Room122, Social Science building (1126 East 59th Street). $.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-Louis Leprince-Ringuet, professor of phy­sics, University of Paris, will speak under the auspices of thedepartment of-physics, University of Chicago, 2:30 p.m., Room202, Eckhart Hall (University Avenue near 58th Street). Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-William H. Taliaferro, E. H. Moore dis­tinguished service professor of parasitology, chairman of thedepartment of bacteriology and parasitology, University ofChicago, "The Reproduction and Dea-th of Parasites as In­fluenced by Environment," Sigma Xi lecture, 8 p.m., Room133, Eckhart Hall (University Avenue near 58th Street). Free.Friday, March 10PUBLIC LECTURE-Mortimer J. Adler, professor of philosophyof law, University of Chicago, author, How To Read a Book,"The Existence of God," The Great Ideas series, 7:30 p.m., 32West Randolph Street. $1.50. .SWIMMING-At East Lansing. Central Collegiate.TRACK-Field House, 5550 University Avenue. 7:00 p.m. Cen­tral A.A.U. Free.Saturday, March 11PUBLIC LECTURE-University College course, How To Study,Section A, conducted by Cyril Houle, James McCallister, CharlesNelson, and Leonard Stein of University College. 10 a.m. to12 m. and 1:30 to 3:30 p.m., 809 South LaSalle Street. $3. SWIMMING-At East Lansing. Central Collegiate.GYMNASTICS-IBartlett Gym, 5640 University Avenue. 2:00p.m. U of C vs. Illinois. Free.TRACK-Field House, 5550 University Avenue, 2:00 p.m. IllinoisTech Relays. Free.Sunday, March 12RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, 59th andWoodlawn, '11 a.m., The Reverend Howard Thurman, Fellow­ship Church, San Francisco.Monday, March 13PUBLIC LECTURE-Louis Leprince-Ringuet, professor of phy­sics, University of Paris, second of two lectures on The Scien­tific Spirit and Christian Thought, 4:30 p.m., Room 122, SocialScience building (1126 East 59th Street). Free.Wednesday, March 15PUBLIC LECTURE-Herrlee G. Creel, professor of early' Chi­nese literature and institutions, University of Chicago, "FromWang Yang-ming to Sun Yat-sen," public course, Patterns ofThought in the Chinese World, 8 p.m., Room 122, Social Sci­ence building (1126 East 59th- Street). $.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-Louis Leprince-Ringuet, professor of phy-'sics, University of Paris, will speak under the auspices of thedepartment of physics, University of Chicago, 2:30 p.m., Room- 202, Eckhart Hall (University Avenue near 58th Street). Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-University College course, How To Study.Section B, conducted by Cyril Houle, James McCallister, CharlesNelson, and Leonard Stein of University College, 6:30 p.m., 19South LaSalle Street. (The last of the two sessions will meetat 6:30 p.m., Friday, March 17). $3.Thursday, March 16PUBLIC LECTURE-Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet and author,will speak under the auspices of the William Vaughn MoodyLectureship at the University of Chicago, 8:30 p.m., LeonMandel Hall (5714 University Avenue). Free.Saturday, March 18TRACK-At Chicago Stadium. Chicago Daily News Relays.Friday, March 24WRESTLING-At Cedar 'Falls, Iowa. National Collegiate.FENCING-At Detroit. National Collegiate Meet.Saturday, March 25WRESTLING-At Cedar Falls, Iowa. National Collegiate.TRACK-At Lafayette, Indiana. Purdue Relays.FENCING-At Detroit. National Collegiate Meet.Monday, March 27PUBLIC LECTURE-Harris Dante, lecturer, University of Chi­cago, "Background of American Foreign Policy," TwentiethCentury America series, 6:15 p.m., 19 South LaSalle Street.Series ticket, $6. No single admissions.Wednesday, March 29PUBLIC LECTURE-Hans J. Morganthau, professor of politicalscience, University of Chicago, "Tfie Revolutions of the Twen­tieth Century," Walgreen Foundation lectures on The ForeignPolicy of the United States, 4:30 p.m., James Henry BreastedLecture Hall (1155 East 58th Street). Free.PUBI:I� LECTURE-University College seminar, S�ort StoryWrItmg, conducted by Robert A. Park, lecturer, University ofChicago. First of 12 weekly sessions, 7 p.m., 19 South LaSalleStreet. $18. .PUBLIC LECTURE-University College seminar, Masterpiecesof Music, conducted by Scott Goldthwaite, assistant professorand acting chairman, department of music, University of Chi­cago. First of 12 weekly sessions, 7 p.m., 19 South LaSalleStreet. $18.Thursday, March 30PUBLIC LECTURE-Un.iversity College seminar, The Techniqueof the Novel, conducted by Arvid Shulenberger, lecturer, Uni­versity of Chicago. First of 12 weekly sessions, 6:15 p.m., 19South LaSalle Street. $18.Friday, March 31PUBLIC LECTURE-Hans J. Morgenthau, professor of politicalscience, University of Chicago, "The Two Roots of Conflict:Bolshevist Revolution and Russian Imperialism," WalgreenFoundation lectures on The Foreign Policy of the UnitedStates, 4:30 p.m., James Henry Breasted lecture hall (1155East 58th Street). Free.UNIVERSITY CONCERT-Jacob Lateiner, piano, music of Schu­bert, Beethoven, Berg, and Brahms, 8:SO p.m., Leon MandelHall (5714 University Avenue). $1.50.20"My only regret is that I didn'tinvestigate these opportunities earlier"SOMETIMES it takes a while to' get your bearings.In my case, for instance, I worked six months in abank, a year with a casualty insurance company, and.after four years in the Navy I put in 12 months work­ing in an office with my father. I was dissatisfiedwith my career, and convinced that I was not cut outfor office work.About this time a friend of mine began talking tome about his long experience in the life insurancebusiness. He was getting out of life, and out of hiswork, exactly what I was looking for. So I decidedto' make a four-month study of his business.This convinced me that life insurance offered the. kind of life and earnings I wanted, and that myfriend's company, the New England Mutual, wasideal. Its policies are unusually liberal, and it hasback of it the prestige of being the first mutual lifeinsurance company chartered in America.I signed up. I took the company's thorough train­ing course. And now - my time is my own, whichmeans I'm working harder than ever before, but itdoesn't seem that way because I'm getting so muchsatisfaction out of my work: I have time to con­tribute to my home town through civic work, andthere is still time left for golf and tennis. And myearnings, which are in direct proportion to the effortI put in, are considerably higher than when I workedfor someone else.I have only one regret, and it is that I did notinvestigate earlier the opportunities offered by thelife insurance profession.Recent graduates of our Horne Office training course,although new to the life insurance business, earn average5rst-year commissions of $3600-which, with renewal com­missions added, brings the total yearly income average to$5700. From here, incomes rise in direct proportion to eachindividual's ability and industry.If you'd like information about a career that gives you abusiness of your own, with no slow climb up a seniorityladder and no ceiling on earnings, write Mr. H. C. Chaney,Director of Agencies, 501 Boylston Street, Boston 17, Mass.The NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY B. B. Plyler, Jr., Wilson, N. C.2122 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENEWS OF THE CLASSES1894Since his retirement in 1939 from theposition of registrar of Acadia Univer­sity, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, W. L. Archi­bald, AM, has been spending his wintersin St. Petersburg, Florida.1896V. R. Lansingh is still active as vicepresident of the Molybdenum Corpora­tion of America with headquarters in NewYork. He is the company's representativein Washington, D.C. and looks after thewestern mining interests of the company.1897Burt Brown Bar k e r, vice presidentemeritus of the University of Oregon andauthor of Letters of Dr. John McLaugh­lin, will leave for England in June withMrs. Barker. Mr. Barker has been askedto do an introduction to the twelve vol­umes of historical records of the Hudson'sBay Company. He will attend the Hud­son's Bay Record Society meeting whilethere.1899William H. Jackson, JD '07, returned thelast of January from a winter trip to Cali­fornia where he visited with his children.Why doesn't he retire to sunny California?Because he doesn't want to leave his manyfriends in Chicago where he has spent hislife.1902Countless friends gathered recently forthe 80th birthday dinner in honor of MissMary Zimmerman, Marshall High School(Chicago) Latin teacher for 40 years whowas retired in 1940. The dinner wassponsored by the high school alumni asso­ciation, the Mary Zimmerman HebrewUniversity Scholarship Com mit tee andfriends and associates of Miss Zimmerman.The guest of honor received a U of Calumni citation in 1945.1904John W. Scott, PhD, is chairman of TheNational Committee on Policies in Con­servation Education. He is associated withthe University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wy­oming.1905James Edgar Bell teaches at Rollins Col­lege in Winter Park, Florida.Isaac Franklin Neff, SM, is professoremeritus of mathematics at Drake Univer­sity, Des Moines, Iowa.1908Lee Howard Madden is a consul tingmanagement engineer in Chicago.1909William W. Hickman, PhD, head of thescience department at Assiut College, Amer­ican Mission, Assiut, Egypt, is now living inretirement in Monmouth, Illinois.Herbert G. Hopkins was in Chicago onbusiness during the holidays and droppedin at Alumni House for a visit. He has hisown company called "Guild Craftsmen"which specializes in remodeling and redec­orating fine old homes around Philadel­phia. He also does free lance editorialwork for trade journals. All of which keepshim looking fit and alert.A. H. Sutherland, PhD, retired from Brownsville reunionLast June, at the reunion of theClass of '14, some of the gang werecelebrating at a mellow hour whenHorace Fitzpatrick of Los Fresnos(near Brownsville), Texas, invitedthe whole bunch to be his guestsat the tip of Texas in December.Of course they'd all be there. LosFresnos was a long way off but sowas December.When December 4th arrived, sodid George S. Leisure, New York at­torney; Howell W. Murray, Chicagoinvestment banker; Harvey L. Harris,Sterling, Colorado rancher; and RudyD. Matthews of Winter Park, Flor­ida.Each was met with a ten gallonhat. "That's supposed to prove,"said George Leisure,. "they're reallyglad you came." Then there wereHowell's birthday to celebrate, Fitz'scabin cruiser to fish in, his airplaneto see southern Texas, and bull ses­sions running into the late earlymorning hours.Speaking of bulls, although Fitz­patrick is an oil man, Harris isfamous for his fine cattle and Rus­sian grasses (he is acclimating toColorado). Of course Harris hadthings to say about the Texas vs.Colorado steers. As might be sus­pected, his Texas-steer statementswere neither flattering nor true butthey made for rip-razzing fellowship.Four days, and the men scatteredto their respective grinds from Colo­rado to Wall Street wondering wherethey could find closets big enoughto store the hats for the next re­union. (George Leisure wore hisright into Grand Central Terminal!)City College of New York, is now livingin Pineville, Louisiana.1910LeRoy E. Cowles, AM '14, is state di­rector of Secondary Education in the Utahstate office of education.Leverett S. Lyon, AM ;18, PhD '21, chiefexecutive officer of the Chicago Associationof Commerce, delivered a commencementaddress recently at Illinois Institute ofTechnology in Chicago. He was awarded anhonorary doctor of Jaws degree by Presi­dent Henry T. Heald of the Institute.Horace B. Hortons president of the Chi­cago Bridge and Iron Company, Chicago,was elected chairman of the board of theChicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad.1911Clarence W. Kemper, AM, DB '12, min­ister of the First Baptist Church of Boul­der, Colorado, at the University of Colo­rado Center, concluded his pastoral servicein December. It marked 40 years as apastor and the fifth year in that pastorate.He is now writing a book, Forty Years aMinister. It will be published this fall.1912Byron Weston Hartley is Dean of YorkJunior College, York, Pennsylvania.Margaret Sullivan is spending the winter in Los Angeles with Dr. Ethel Harrington,'12, MD, '17.After spending 26 years in China as amedical missionary, Edward J. Strick, MD(Rush) in 1938 was appointed the firstschool physician of Palo Alto, California.He was forced to leave China because ofthe Japanese advance.1913Last December 5 was an important dayin the life of Lawrence H. Whiting. Daugh­ter Barbara became engaged to Ashton Lee-and son Lawrence III, University busi­ness Administration student, was the newfather of a son.1914William Clifford Morse is state geolo­gist and director of the Mississippi Geo­logical Service. He is also professor andhead. of the Department of Geology at theUniversity of Mississippi.Raymond N. Crawford, AM, is head ofthe department of English at Iowa Wes­leyan College, Mount Pleasant, Iowa.Susie V. Shepherd, retired from teachingand living in a country home at Scotts­ville, Virginia, is 87 years of age. She isa member of a committee associated withthe Virginia Baptist Homes for the Aged.She continues her enthusiasm for Chicagoand its progress.1915Harlan T. Stetson, PhD, director of theCosmic Terrestrial Research Laboratory inNeedham, Massachusetts, expounded hisviews of the sun in a special interviewrecently in the Boston, Massachusetts Post.Dr. Stetson, called a world authority onsunspots, is quoted as saying: "If we hadto pay for sun's energy the cost would be100 million times a million per day.". Kirtley' F. Mather, PhD, professor ofgeology at Harvard University, has beenchosen president-elect of the AmericanAssociation for the Advancement of Sci­ence. He takes office as president nextJanuary. The A.A.A.S. is the largest organ­ization of diversified science, a federationof 214 scientific societies with 45,000 mem­bers. Dr. Mather received an alumni medalat the 50th anniversary of the Universityin 1941.1916The financial column of Robert P. Van­derpoel now appears in the Los AngelesExaminer as well as the Chicago Herald­American.Alice Margaret Bowers is Director ofDining Halls at Yale University.Charles T. Holman, DB, in charge ofthe Union church in Guatemala City sincehis retirement from the University, com­pleted his work with the breaking ofground for a new church. The Holmanswill return to the United States aboutEaster, but first they will visit England.Dr. Holman recently published a book ofsermons entitled: "Psychology and Re­ligion for Everyday Living." Son RobertW. Holman, '49, is completing work ona master's in Mexico. He is writing astudy of Guatemala's economy.1917Frank Lawrence Owsley, AM, PhD '24,listed in Who's Who in America, is pro­fessor of history 'at the University of Ala­bama.Margaret Calderwood Shields, PhD, isTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEretired in East Northfield, Massachusetts.Robert E. Bondy is the director of theNational Social Welfare Assembly, Inc. inNew York City.Perry Dryden became vice president re­cently of Ames, Emerick & Company, mem­ber of the Midwest Stock Exchange inChicago.1918Chester K. Wentworth has been sentby the U.S. Navy to Angam Island in thefar western Carolines for a survey job. Heis c�nnected with the Board of Water Sup­ply III Honolulu, T.H. and during the warwent to the Marshall Islands to study thewater supply there. .J. Milton Coulter is associated withMason, Moran and Company, InvestmentSecurities, in Chicago.David B. Eisenberg, e d ito r of TheGraphic Arts Monthly, was executive-chair­man of the "Printing Week in Chicago"observance in January.Ethel Myers is still an assistant chief ofthe Passport Division, Department of States.Earl E. Sproul of Schwimmer & Scottadvertising agency in Chicago, was recentlvelected a director of Nu-Enamel Corpora­tion.1919Elmer Kennedy reports a 25th weddinganniversary coming up on June 27. SonWinston is employed as an investigator bythe Chicago Housing Authority; he wasmarried to Miss Mary Mesaros of Palmer­ton, Pennsylvania in December.1920Mrs. Denis J. Whaley, AM '33, is asso­ciated with the Boy's Latin School inChicago.The new novel, The Golden Fury, writ­ten by Mrs. E. C. Castle (Marian F. John­son) has reached near a million in sales.The book has an early Colorado back­ground. Mrs. Castle lives in Denver.George M. Curtis, MD (Rush), professorof surgery at Ohio State University, hasbeen selected to receive the 1950 HonorGeorge M. CurtisAward of the Mississippi Valley MedicalSociety. This award is given from timeto time to those who have made "distin­guished contributions to clinical medicine."The award will be presented at a banquetof the Society in Springfield, Illinois onSeptember 28. 1921James I. Dolliver, JD, is a member ofthe House of Representatives in Washing­ton. He represents the sixth district inthe state of Iowa.1922Howard H. Moore, JD, who has servedin the legal department of the Universityfor years, was recently appointed Secretaryof the Board of Trustees. He will alsocontinue his work in the legal depart­ment.Herbert W. Hansen, AM '23, DB, '24,has been minister of the Scarsdale, NewYork Community Baptist Church for 21years.Cecil R. Dean, retired, started on aworld tour-late in January.John Meade, in addition to his work asDirector of Industrial Relations for theEagle Pencil Company, Scarsdale, NewYork, is the resident representative of theInternational Employers Association ofBrussels, Belgium at the UN. He hasconsultative status with the UN economicand social commission.Sigmund Kunstadter is president of TheFormfit Company in Chicago.The American Bar Association has com­missioned John Morland, JD, dean of. theSchool of Law of Valparaiso University,Valparaiso, Indiana to study the lawschools of Georgia. He, together withother legal scholars throughout the coun­try, have been selected to represent theassociation in making a survey of theadministration, teaching techniques andstudent organization and morale in thenation's law schools.Paul B. Sears, PhD, has been namedYale's first professor of conservation incharge of the newly created graduate pro­gram of research and instruction in con­servation of natural resources. Since 1937Dr. Sears has been professor of Botanyat Oberlin College. His book, "Deserts onthe March," published while he was atthe University of Oklahoma made himwidely known as a conservationist. Hisbotanical researches led to his being star­red in American Men of Science. He waspresident of the Ohio Academy of Sciencein 1949.Robert E. Jackson, AM, associate pro­fessor of government at Texas State Collegefor Women, Dallas, Texas, spoke recentlybefore the North Texas Chapter of theAmerican Society of Heating and Ventilat­ing Engineers in Dallas.1923Charles B. Tupper, AM, has written abook entitled "Called--In Honor." It waspublished by The Bethany Press, St. Louis.The book is a treatment of ministerialethics and had its first showing last Oc­tober at the International Convention ofDisciples of Christ in Cincinnati.Pearl Louise Robertson, AM '25, PhD '37,is a history instructor at the state teachers'college in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Marie A. Hinrichs, PhD, MD (Rush) '34,is medical adviser to women at the Uni­versity of Illinois.1924Arthur Wilson, MD, (Rush) visited lastsummer with Harold L. Thompson, MD(Rush) '23, in Los Angeles. Dr. Wilsonlives in Ketchikan, Alaska.Amy Ruth Thomson is secretary to thegeneral manager of the Electro-Motive Di­vision, General Motors, in La Grange, Illi­nois. 23Claire S. Brereton was selected as oneof the candidates for a scholarship givenby the Alpha Gamma Delta InternationalWomen's Fraternity under the auspices ofthe National Society for Crippled Chil­dren and Adults-for a special course incounseling the severely disabled. Trainingwas given at New York University at thecenter known as the Institute of Habilita­tion and Physical Medicine. Candidates�ere selected from nation-wide applica­nons.Louis F. Plzak, MD '28, is chairman ofthe Department of Surgery at Loretto Hos­pital in Chicago and president of the staffat the hospital. He is also assistant pro­fessor of clinical surgery at the StritchSchool of Medicine, Loyola University.Ray M. Lawless, PhD '40, continues aschairman of the English department atJunior College, Kansas City, Missouri.Oliver O. Smaha is president of the Bor­den Company-Chicago Milk Division. Ason, Bruce Montgomery Clark Smaha, wasborn September 28.1925Anna May Jones started a sabbaticalleave from her guidance work in the NewYork City school system last month. Shewill study and travel until June. The studywill be on vocational and educational guid­ance materials. The travel will consist ofa trip to the University campus to see theAnna Y. Reed memorial library on guid­ance.William. A. Irwin and Allen P. Wikgren'28, AM '29, PhD '32, have published �compreh�nsiv� revision of The Ancestry ofthe English BIble by the late Ira M. Price.V. R. Vanstane, MD, continues in hispractice of medicine in Chicago.Barbara, the daughter of Hal Baird, AM'28, is a sophomore at Southern MethodistUniversity. Mrs. Baird is the former GoldieLou Belcher who taught in {he Laboratoryschools for four years during the '20's.Colston E. Warne, PhD, is professor ofeconomics at Amherst College, Amherst,Massachusetts.Albert M. Cole represents the first dis­trict of Kansas in Congress. His home isin Holton.Esther Katz, AM, is working on aspectsof housing for low income families in NewYork. She is now doing a study on com­munity and recreational resources in lowincome areas in Manhattan.Two members of the University staffare included as authors in the 1949 Reviewof Microbiology. They are R. W. Harri­son, SM, PhD '30, vice-presiden t of theUniversity, and William H. Taliaferro,Department of Bacteriology and Para­sitology.1926Harold H. Titus, PhD, attended theEast-West Philosophers' Conference at theUniversity of Hawaii, Honolulu severalmonths' ago.Louise Cross, AM, exhibited works ofsculpture at the International PhiladelphiaMuseum last summer.The dean of the Theology departmentat Doshisha University in Kyota, Japan isRaymond K. Oshimo, AM, PhD '32. Dr.Oshimo has been dean of the Theologydepartment since 1947.1927Mrs. Edward Glass (Istar Barzel) is aninterior designer in Pelham Manor, NewYork.Mellie C. Clevenger, AM, is a retiredTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOteacher in Fletcher, Ohio.Mrs. Walter Schaible, AM (Helen L.Rummons) was the subject of a featurestory in the Chicago Tribune severalmonths ago. Mrs. Schaible-housewife,mother of five children, substitute Latinteacher in the Chicago schools, and poet-won the $100 first prize for a book-lengthmanuscript of verse at the MidwesternWriters' Conference. Her 60-page sonnetsequence, Cakes to Cerberus, which earnedher the award, was in the making for20 years.1928Mrs. Ben Guy Phillips (Dorothy H.Bloom) is Assistant Director of Public Re­lations for the Institute of InternationalEducation in New York.Dr. A. A. Loverde is the father of afifth child, Charles Clarence, born June13, 1949.Major Ruth M. Downey has. accepteda permanent commission in the UnitedStates Air Force.Perry G. E. Miller, PhD '31, is a pro­fessor at Harvard University. He is inEurope at the present time.Margaret Albertson Okeson, AM '37, hasbeen installed state president of the IllinoisChapter of the National Society, Daughtersof Founders and Patriots of America.Although the contract had not beensigned it was reported that Mary Hunter,Broadway stage director, would be nextstage director of the State Fair Casino inDallas, Texas.1929Susan M. Trane, AM '30, is retired fromher position as head of the art departmentat Ball State Teachers' College in Mun­cie, Indiana.Stephen E. McPartlin, district managerfor Magna Engineering Corporation ofSan Francisco, was married in Octoberto Miss Margo Parish.Mrs. Robert L. S c hell (Rosalie M.Schultz) AM '31, is living in Surinam,South America where her husband is amining engineer.Miss Auval H. Brown, SM, has beenforced to give up teaching because of ill­ness. She is now living in Concho County,Texas.Normand L. Hoerr, MD (U of C) '31,heads up the study of chemical differencesbetween nerve cells susceptible to the virusand those that are resis-tant - at WesternReserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.1930Mary Elizabeth Cochran, PhD, was oneof four to receive an honorary degree ofDoctor of Humane Letters from MissouriValley College in Marshall, Missouri.Mary Katherine Brokan, AM, is a li­brarian at Iowa State College in Ames,Iowa.Mrs. Elmer W. Cox, AM, is a medicalsocial worker in Bad Kissingen, Germany.Donald A. Spencer, SM, is a geologistin the research laboratory of the U. S.Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington,D. C.The biography of John L. Lewis whichhas been appearing in several newspapersaround the country, was written by SaulD. Alinsky.1931Two courses are being given this yearover Radio Station KWGS, Tulsa, Okla­homa by Eugene S. Tanner, AM, PhD '34.His subjects are Ethics and American Phil­osophy. Dr. Tanner is professor of religionand philosophy at the University of Tulsa.. Kenneth W. Clark, PhD, professor' of New Testament at Duke University Schoolof Religion, has been appointed annualprofessor at the American School for Ori­ental Research in Jerusalem, Palestine for1949-50. Among other projects Dr. Clarkhas taken upon himself is the photograph­ing of the manuscripts of the Greek NewTestament in Jerusalem and at Sinai.Sidney R. Yates, JD '33, represents Illi­nois' ninth district in Congress. His homeis in Chicago.Alburly Castell, PhD, is chairman of thedepartment of philosophy at the Universityof Oregon.Charles Wheeler Marshall, SM '33, PhD'49, is on the research staff of the SearleCompany, Skokie, Illinois. He spent thefirst ten months of 1949 as a Searle com­pany fellow in steroid chemistry at theWorcester, Massachusetts Foundation.Mrs. James R. Stoddard (Hazel I. Black)'31, is a medical social worker at the ToursInfirmary in New Orleans.Harry Anthony Shewhart, AM, is a min­ister in Stonington, Illinois,Beatrice Jones, MD (Rush) was recentlyinstalled as president of the Racine CountyMedical Society in Wisconsin. This is thefirst time a woman has been president ofa county society.Mrs. Vera D. Dunham (Vera LucilleDuncan) is a social worker for the RedCross in Pasadena, California.John M. V. Stevenson is on leave of ab­sence from Lincoln Senior high school inManitowoc, Wisconsin to act as campaignmanager for the $75,000 Manitowoc CountyMemorial Hospital.Tribute was paid recently to E. F. Fraz­ier, PhD, for publication of the book "TheNegro In The United States." Dr. Frazieris professor of sociology at Howard Uni­versity.1932Sarah M. Eigin is business manager ofthe Arlington Civic Symphony Associationin Arlington, Virginia.Galen Hunt, JD, is an attorney at lawin' Seward, Alaska. I,Harold A. Bosley, PhD '33, of the DukeUniversity School of Religion, has beennamed to succeed the late Rev. Dr. ErnestF. Tittle as minister of the First MethodistChurch, Evanston, Illinois.F. W. Murray of Glendale, New Yorkreports he has four boys and adds: "IfI could only sing like Bing."Chaplain (Col.) John H. Borleis, for­merly chaplain for the military district ofWashington, has been assigned to the FarEast Command.Arthur Carl Piepkorn, PhD, has takenover the' radio pastorate of the world­known Lutheran hour. Dr. Piepkorn hadbeen assistant to Dr. Walter A. Maier whodied recently.Gordon Rittenhouse, SM '33, PhD '35,associate professor of Geology at the Uni­versity of Cincinnati, has been elected vicepresident of the Society of Economic Pale­ontologists and Mineralogists. Dr. Ritten­house will take office at the annual meetingof the Society in April.1933Velma D. Whipple is teaching in theAlbuquerque, New Mexico school system.She says: "We still say 'suckers" every timewe hear a train headed North."Budd Gore is advertising manager forMarshall Field and Company, Chicago. Hewas recently appointed to the Chicago Dis­aster Relief Planning Committee. He isa former chief administrative officer, TheMetallurgical Laboratory at the University. MAGAZINEAbraham A. Ribicoff is a member ofCongress-representing the first district inthe state of Connecticut. His home is inHartford.Jerome M. Jontry is in advertising re­search in Chicago.Ross B. Whitney Junior, is Eastern SalesManager for Varco Incorporated in DeepRiver, Connecticut.Henry T. Sulcer, JD '34, reports thebirth of Charity Lee Sulcer on October 9.He says: "Name inspired by our financialstate after putting aside three U of Ctuitions." Mrs. Sulcer is the former Wal­lace Crume, '34.1934Bernard M. Blum, MD (Rush) is direc­tor of the Fife-Hamell Memorial HealthCenter in Philadelphia.Royal M. Vanderberg, SM '40 and Mrs.Vanderberg (Kirston D. Richards '37, AM'40) are at UCLA in Los Angeles. Royalis working on his PhD and Kirston isworking for the School of Education atUCLA.1935Helen Chittick N emeyer is a field workerfor the American Red Cross with head­quarters in Dodge City, Kansas. She coversabout 26,000 miles a year in 31 countiesof southwestern Kansas.Robert Asher Preston, AM, is a ministerin Topeka, Kansas.Kenneth Robert Parsons is an oil geolo­gist for the Texas Oil Company, Lewis­town, Montana.John Knox, PhD, one of America's fore­most New Testament scholars, presents anew interpretation of the Apostle Paul inChapter In A Life of Paul, published latelast month by 'Abingdon-Cokesbury pressof New York. Dr. Knox, Baldwin professorof sacred literature at Union TheologicalJohn KnoxSeminary since 1943, is a member of theNew York East Annual Conference of theMethodist Church and a member of theeditorial board of the Interpreter's' Bible.Among his other books are The ManChrist Jesus, Christ the Lord and On theMeaning of Christ.John Kenyon Lewis is an instructor atWashington University in St. Louis.1936Lester Mervin Ritter is treasurer of L.Friedman, Incorporated, furrier in Chicago.. Florence C. Kelly, SM, PhD '43, collabo­rated with K. Eleen Hite, '35, PhD '38,MD (U of C) '42. to write the book Micro­biology. The introduction is by G. M.25THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDack, PhD 27, MD (U of C) 33, professorof bacteriology at the University. Dr. Kelly,now associate professor of Biology a-t theUniversity of Oklahoma, worked with Dr.Dack when she attended the University.George G. Gelman was reported marriedto Ruth Samberg in New York city on De­cember 25.Robert Harris Scanlan, SM '39, is asso­ciate professor of aeronautical engineeringat Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy,New York.Martha Jane Fields has left the staffof the South Bend Tribune to become apress agent for Playwrights' Company inNew York City.It's never too late to report a baby birth.A son was born 15 months ago to Mr. andMrs. Richard F. Kinnaird, SM. Mrs. Kin­naird is the former Margaret E. Thomp­son, '36.Little Bartlett Clark arrived at the Mt.Prospect home of Gordon C. Petersen lastfall. Gordon is in charge of productionof the Illinois plant of A. B. Dick & Com­pany.Warren Robert Kahn, JD '38, was mar­ried to Carol Irene Mitler of New York onNovember 12.Harlan F. Smith, AM '38, PhD '49,teacher of economics at Brown University,Providence, Rhode Island, has been pro­moted from instructor to assistant profes-sor.1937Elwyn S. Shonyo, MD, is a surgeon atthe Mayo Clinic at Rochester, Minnesota.W. W. Haggard, PhD, has been presi­dent of West Washington College of Edu­cation for 11 years.Clinton Belknap, AM, is East Nebraskarepresentative for the National Foundationfor Infantile Paralysis. He is completinghis sixth year with the Foundation.John Mann Beal, MD (U of C) '41, is inthe Department of Surgery, UCLA. Mrs.Beal is the former Mary L. Phemister, '39.Dorothea Curtis Chickering, AM, is amedical social worker at Lakeside Hospi­tals, Western Reserve University, Cleveland.Kenneth McLane, MD (U of C) isoonnected with the Tuberculosis Division,Veterans Administration, Washington, D. C.His wife is the former Dorothy H. Nor­ton, '35.Duncan Eldridge McBride, AM '43, hasbeen appointed chairman of the divisionof social sciences, Frances Shimer College.M. L. Rosenthal, AM '38, is in the Eng­lish department of Washington SquareCollege, New York University, Washing­ton Square, New York. His wife is VictoriaHimmelstein, '39, AM '45.Wendell P. Metzner, PhD, has been ap­pointed research director for the RubberService Department of Monsanto ChemicalCompany's Organic Chemicals Division inNitro, West Virginia. He had been asso­ciate director since September, 1947.1938Raymond Ellickson, PhD, is head of thedepartment of Physics at the Universityof Oregon. He is also associate dean ofthe graduate school.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192 Arnold Marshall Rose, AM '40, PhD '46,is teaching at the University of Minnesota.His wife is the former Caroline Baer,AM '43.Julius M. Coon, PhD, of the Universitytoxicity laboratory, was one of the lecturersat the second annual Custom Spray Op-Julius M. Coonera tors' Training School held at the Uni­versity of Illinois in January.Leona F. Becker, AM, is serving on theCommission of Human Relations in Pat­terson, New Jersey. This was the firstlocal commission set up in the State ofNew Jersey under the provisions of theFreeman Act, the State's Civil Rights Law.Fredric Ryan Verder, AM, MBA '47,is a hospital administrator in Scottsbluff,Nebraska.William C. Rasmussen, SM '39, is geolo­gist in charge, Eastern Shore, GroundWater Branch, U. S. Geological Survey,Salisbury, Maryland.John Eggemeyer is advertising and salespromotion manager of the Wayne Worksin Richmond, Indiana.H. Gladys Spear, MD, (U of C) is affili­ated with the Milwaukee Psychiatric Serv­ices as full time Medical Director. She isan assistant in Psychiatry at the IllinoisNeuropsychiatric Institute.Ithiel de Sola Pool, AM '39, is doingresearch work in the Hoover Library atStanford University. His wife is the for­mer Judith Ethel Graham, '39, PhD '46.Oswald H. Peterson is assistant chiefclerk at Interlake Iron Corporation, Chi­cago plant.E. Houston Harsha, JD '40, is associatedwith the anti-trust division of the Depart­ment of Justice in Chicago.John Bunyan Eubanks, PhD '47, for­merly associated with Morris Brown Col­lege, Atlanta, Georgia has been electedpresident of Jarvis Christian College inHawkins, Texas.1939Harold Levin, MBA '40 and wife, MarionSallo Levin, '41, MBA '43, have moved totheir own home in Chicago Heights, Illi­nois.Anthony M. Ryerson has been made as­sistant general manager of sales for InlandSteel Company.Cheves Thomson Walling, PhD, is achemist for Lever Brothers Company inCambridge, Massachusetts.Thomas A. Donovan is associated with BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380SUPERFLUOUS HAIRREMOVED FOREVERMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of hair from face, eye­brows, bad of neck, or any part of body:also facial veins, moles. and warts.Men and WomenLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERT20 years' experienceAlsoGraduate NurseSuite 1705. Stevens Building17 N. State StreetTelephone FRanklin 2-4885FREE CONSULTATIONWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wauon's Coal Makes Good-or­Wallon DoesEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES3 .. 2 N_ Oakley Blvd.Telephone SEeley 3-4488The Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone HYde Park 3-6324w. B. CONKEY CO�'HAMMOND, INDIANA'C�ad�'7'� ad 'CUtdeu .'SALES OFFICES: CHICAGO AND NEW YORK26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA. 1. STEWART LUMBER CO.Quality and ServiceSince 188879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phones Vincennes 6-90004gteUlHd��UCTR'CA' SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers 01ELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 "'alsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3-3935"Good Printin& 01 All Descriptions"RESULTS ...depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Folding - MailingA Complete Service for Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn St., Chicago 5, Ill.\V Abash 2-4561-----_._-------------E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYfine Color Work A Specialty731 Plymouth CourtWAbash 2-8182 the American Embassy in The Hague,Netherlands.Stephen Harshaw Moore is an intelli­gence analyst, department of the Army,National Defense Establishment, Washing­ton, D C.Mrs. William C. Simms (Jane C. Chit­wood) gave birth to her third daughterlast August.John F. Gall, PhD, is director and coun­cilor of the Philadelphia section of theAmerican Chemical Society and vice-chair­man of the Philadelphia section of � theElectrochemical Society.Richard C. Boyer is instructor in radi­ology at Tulane Medical School in NewOrleans, Louisiana.Beatrice C. Cohen, AM '40, teacher inthe modern languages department of OakPark high school in Oak Park, Illinois, wasrecently married to Sidney Soroka.A second child, Richard Elliot, was bornrecently to David S. Logan, JD '41 andReva Frumkin Logan, '43.Sarah Elizabeth Stewart, PhD, is a med­ical interne at U. S. Marine Hospital atStaten Island, New York.Arnold Anderson was married to Mari­anne Singer of New York on January 14.The bride's father was formerly professorof cardiology and internal medicine at theUniversity of Vienna.1940Elmer B. Tolsted, SM '41, assistant pro­fessor of mathematics at Pomona College,Claremont, California, is listed in the newreference work, "Who's Who on the PacificCoast." Dr. Tolsted went to England asan exchange professor last July.William Henley Anderson, Junior, MD(U of C) is practicing in Winter Haven,Florida.Mary Russell, AM, is executive directorof the Family Service Agency in Bakers­field, California.Lester B. Rickman, AM, and Mrs. Rick­man (Leona M. Nelson, '35) recently movedfrom Dallas, Texas to Jefferson City, Mis­souri where Mr. Rickman has taken upthe duties of Executive Secretary of theMissouri Christian Missionary Society, thestate organization of Christian churches.Glenn Ward Slade, Junior, was marriedto Nell Rowan, University of Houston,Texas faculty member, on. December 14.1941Nils W. Lund, PhD, has resigned asdean of the North Park Theological Sem­inary in Chicago, but he continues in serv­ice on the teaching staff of ·that institution.He has completed copy for a new bookentitled Studies in the Book of Revelation.Albert Somit, PhD '47, is assistant pro­fessor of Government at New York Uni­versity. The. Somit's first child, ScottHarlan, was born August 12.Lillian Katherine Rasmussen, AM '47,is art supervisor and instructor in theDixon, I-llinois schools.Irwin Zelitsky was married to Lee Shack­nowitz in Detroit last September.A daughter, Ann, was born to HartWurzburg and the former Minna Sachs,'43. The Wurzburg's are living in High­land Park, Illinois.John McKell Bowen, MD (Rush) is aphysician and surgeon in Provo, Utah.Arnold D. Hasterlik is sales representa­tive in the eastern office of S. Buchsbaumand Company. His office is located in theEmpire State building in New York.Bruce Everett Vardon, AM '42 is aninstructor in English at the University ofManitoba in Winnipeg, Canada. Mrs. Var- don is the former May Elizabeth Green.wood, '39.James Edward Moulton, PhD, is doirisresearch in horticulture at Michigan Stat�College, East Lansing.Eli Martin Oboler is librarian at theUniversity of Idaho.George Washington Hand is deputy at:torney general of the state of Indiana.Cecil E. Drew is the new Iowa indus­trial representative of the Finishes Divisionof the Du Pont Company.1942The Rev. Millard G. Roberts, PhD '47,is pastor of the First Presbyterian churchin Olean, New York.Walter Welder, JD '49, is in the De­partment of Agricubture, Solicitor's Office,in Chicago.A son, Paul Daniel, was born on N 0-vember 20 to Mrs. John P. Tordella (Mil­dred Mary Rees),Werner Gerald Keucher, AM, is a cler­gyman at the First Baptist Church, Shel­ton, Connecticut.Diego Dominguez-Caballero, AM, is pro­fessor of philosophy at the Universidad dePanama. He was a delegate of the Univer­sity of Panama to the First Congress ofLacin American Universities last fall. Hehas published a study entitled La Univer­sidad Panamena, algunos aspectos de sumision.After Lorna Ann Hodges completed herS.B. at Chicago she attended the Universityof Michigan for graduate work in bacteri­ology. There she met Guillermo Santinwho was studying radiology. They weremarried and, upon his graduation, theymoved to Mexico City where Dr. Santinis now radiologist at French Hospital. Aboy joined the family on December 19. Hehas been named William Fredrick (Fred­rick for Lorna's uncle at the Universityof Michigan under whom her husbandstudied radiology. Dr. Paul C. Hodges(Roentgenology, Chicago) and Mrs. Hodgesvisited their new grandson in February.Swift t5 Ice CreamSundaes and sodas are special treatsmade with Swift's Ice Cream. So de­licious, so creamy-smooth, so refresh­ingly yours ....A product ofSWIFT & COMPANY7409 !;. State StreetPhone RAdcliff 3-740027THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESurprise-No Kidding!Ralph. Edwards weekly radio show fromHollywood "This is Your Life" alwayssounded phoney to us. The program isbuilt around the life of an individualwho is guest for the evening. He is sup­posed to be completely surprised abouteverything that happens.His sister from Siam walks on stage; hisfirst Sunday School teacher of Kingsbury,Maine, appears from backstage; the drugstore proprietor from Tigerville, SouthCarolina, hobbles on and says, "Rememberthat gallon of chocolate syrup you ·brokeover the truss display, Jack?" And, ofcourse, mother and dad rush in from Pa­latkai, Florida, for a round of surpriseembraces.No, with so many people involved andsuch a well-known program, it's too muchto expect that all this will be a completesurprise to the honored guest.Then one day in January, the telephonerang in our Alumni office. It was RalphEdwards' Hollywood office-trying to locatea classmate and fraternity brother ofCharles H. Percy, '41. The following weekPercy was to be the guest on "This isYour Life" and they were building up thesurprises. Secrecy was asked.On the broadcast Percy sounded sur­prised, all right. We made a note to checkthis whole thing when he returned toChicago. Now we can tell you how the. program really operates.Charles H.· Percy, '41, president of Bell& Howell Co. of Chicago, was chosen oneof the Ten Outstanding Young Men of theNation during 1949 by the U. S. JuniorChamber of Commerce. This had not yetbeen made public when the Ralph Ed­wards organization arranged to have theannouncement made on a "This is YourLife" program with Percy as guest. Howto get Chuck to Hollywood and on theradio was the poser.Charles Percy was invited to be thespeaker at an award banquet of the Pasa­dena Jaycee chapter, but he said he couldnot get away. Pressure built up and thenational president of the J. C. C. insistedthe invitation was too important to turndown-think of the contacts, the Bell &Howell California branch he could checkon, the Los Angeles Camera Club usingBell & Howell equipment. (They wantedhim to speak at their meeting.)Chuck finally succumbed. Monday wasthe Pasadena meeting and Tuesday, theCamera Club with a visit to the branchoffice. He could be back in Chicago byWednesday. But "This is Your Life" ison Wednesday night!The pressure built up again. The an­nouncement of the ten winners was tobe made over an NBC hookup Wednesdaynight. Percy would simply have to remainfor that. No one told him what program wascarrying the announcement. And even whenRalph Edwards appeared on stage it wasassumed he had merely been secured tom.c. the proceedings. Chuck sat down as"On the Air" flashed. Then mystifyingthings began to happen.The first shock was when his sisterwalked on stage from Appleton, Wiscon­sin. "I was floored," said Chuck. Thencame his old grammar school chum, Sedg­wick Rogers, a chemist with KimberlyClark paper company (Cola G. Parker,'11, J.D. '12, President) of Neenah, Wiscon­sin; Arthur Nielsen, assistant to the presi­dent of the A. C. Nielsen Co., Chicago,of high school days, John C. Leggitt,a DKE at college when Chuck was anCharles H. PercyADP, now of the Golden State Dairy Co.,of California; and Harold Dash, whomChuck had not seen since the famous waterpolo game of the big fight between cap­tains Percy of Chicago and Dash of North­western.Percy says the whole thing was so clev­erly maneuvered, he never once suspecteda thing.The program ended with a number ofawards, including a perpetual ChicagoAlpha Delta Phi cup in Percy's name tobe awarded to an outstanding ADP studenteach year, and a television set for the Win­netka Community House Boys' Club whichPercy founded.As a tie-in to Percy's camera company,the entire program was filmed with a Bell& Howell camera and the film presentedto Percy. Chuck says, "If you don't thinkI was surprised, drop in and see the pic­ture." This was the first time the showhad been taken on film, but the plan willbe continued each week for the nexttwenty-filmed, of course, with a Bell &Howell camera. The guest will be pre­sented with the film and a Bell & Howellprojector.Enroute, Dr. Hodges lectured at Dallasand Houston.While Chuck Percy, '41, was being hon­ored as an outstanding young man of thenation for 1949 (see 1941), the JuniorChamber of Commerce of St. Louis hon­ored Raymond H. Wittcoff '42, with theSt. Louis County distinguished serviceaward for the most outstanding contribu­tion to the community. The award waspresented at a Founders' Day dinner inSt. Louis on January 20, 1950. Among hisachievements mentioned: president of theAdult Education Council, his work in or- ganizing the Great Books Program, andhis service as an American delegate to theWorld Meeting for World Federation inStockholm.Phyllis Lucille Richards is a home eco­nomics instructor at the University ofTexas.Carl Holton, PhD,' is associate professorof mathematics at USAF Institute of Tech­nology, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton,Ohio.Ed Rachlin, assistant publisher of theNew York Star, successor to PM, from itsbirth until its death in February, 1949, has Telephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL Florist826 East Fori y-seventh StreetChicago 15. IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLPhones OAkland 4-0690-4-0691-4-0692The Old Reli"JbleHyde Park Awning Co.INC ..Awnings and Canopies fo, All Purpo.e.4508 Cottage Grove Avenue•Auto Livery•Qui.f, unobtru.ive .erv'c.When you wanf if, a. you wanf ifCALL AN EMERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4·6400SinceJ895SURGEONS'INSTRUMENTSof ALL TYPES aEQUIPMENT and FURNITUREfor OFFICE and HOSPITALAll Phones: SEeley 3-2J80V. MUELLER & CO.320-408 S. HONORE STREETCHICAGO 12, ILLINOIS28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting-Decorating-Wood Finishing3123Lake Street PhoneKEdzie 3-3 186Since 1878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholstersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: LIncoln 9-7180HAWTINPHOTOENGRAVERSPhoto Engraver.:Artlsf\ - ElectrotypersMaka!s of PrlntlnQ Plates5.38 TelephoneSo. Wells St. WAbash 2-6480BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICEUCENSED ,. BONDEDINSUREDQUAUFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Westem Ave.. ChicaqoTuckerDecorating Service1360 East 70th StreetPhone Midway 3-4404 just returned from Europe. Says Ed: "Likeall unemployed philosophers I am back onthe farm (Hop Brook Farm, Holmdel, NewJersey) again, which is my more or lesspermanent address and I would enjoy hear­ing from anyone who knew me at Chicago-especially if they have any worthwhileproject in mind. There's not much to doon a farm in the wintertime."Joseph Portnoy is assistant office man­ager of Portnoy Dress Manufacturing Com­pany in St. Louis, Missouri. He was mar­ried on June 19, 1949 to Dorothy E.Glaser.George Henry Plant is a lawyer for theNational Labor Relations Board in Wash­ington, D. C.Robert H. Lawson Junior is a !personnelexaminer in Sacramento, California.Marvin E. Mitchell is an executive inmerchandising 'and sales for a heating man­ufacturer.John Gerson Ullman is a chemical en­gineer for the Du Pont Nylon Company inMartinsville, Virginia.A. R. Furmanski, MD (U of C) '43, wascertified in Neurology by the AmericanBoard of Psychiatry and Neurology lastOctober. On the .domestic front a thirdchild joined the Furmanski household. TheFurmanskis live in California's San Fer-nando Valley. '1943Isabel Dorothy Taylor, AM, is a medicalsocial worker for the state department ofhealth in Charleston, South Carolina.Leonard A. Walker is assistant professorof Biophysics land Oncology at the Univer­sity of Kansas Medical Center in KansasCity.Peter Flesch, SM, PhD '49, is a researchchemist in the department of dermatology,school of medicine, University of Pennsyl­vania.Roger Stephen Dildine is a teacher inthe Department of Physics at ColoradoA & M College.Marvin Dale Courtney, MD (U of C) isconnected with the Dispensary, Naval AirStation, San Diego, California. He is aflight surgeon.Mrs'. Howard E. Spragg (Jane Nichols)MD. (U of C) '48, is associated with Ry­der Memorial Hospital in Humacas, PuertoRico.Robert L. Woolridge, SM, has acceptedthe position as Director of Immunologyat Naval Medical Research Unit NumberFour, U. S. Naval Training Center, GreatLakes, Illinois. This position consists ofCOOl-dina ting basic and field research andteaching naval technicians' research meth­ods. Mrs. Woodridge is the former EvaL. McDowell Miller, '45.1944Robert C. Dille, son of John F. Dille,'09, president of ,the National NewspaperAlliance and ex-chairman of the Board ofDirectors of the Alumni Foundation, is thefounder and president of Robert C. Dilleand Associates. Bob's firm is engaged insales incentives. Brother John A. DilleJunior, '35, is vice president of the news­paper service and publisher of a weeklynewspaper, The Michigan City, IndianaReview. Mrs. Dille Junior is the formerJayne Paulman, '37.Richard De Loe Siman, MD (U of C)is a pediatrician in Toledo, Ohio.Charles Arthur Monasee and Lyra AnnHalper have announced their intention towed. No date has been set. LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 E"d 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100·1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERTELEPHONE TAylor 9-545"0' CALLAGHAN BROS.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.P hone: SAginaw 1-3202FRANK CURRANRoofing & InsulationLeak. RepairedFree Eatimate.FRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.7711 Luella Ave.SARGENT'S DRUG STORE·An Ethical Drug Store for 95 YearsChicago·s most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash AvenueChicago. IllinoisReal Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3-2525Ajax Waste Paper Co.2600·2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, ROckwell 2-6252Telephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON & BROS. Inc.�resh Fruits and VegetablesDi,tributor. ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN fRESH fRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Weter MerketOn January 1, 1945, it was 668,000In June, 1949, it was 800,000Now it's well overcd. T. (; T. StockholdersNo other stock is so widely held by so many people. About one family in every 50in this country now owns American Telephone and Telegraph Company stockJust last month the number of stock­holders of the American Telephoneand Telegraph Company reached arecord lrigh of 900,000 and it's stillgrowing.This is an increase of over 100,000in eight months. The big gain is duenot only to completion of the firstoffering of stock to employees underthe Employee Stock Plan but to con­tinued public buying.The people who own the Bell Tele­phone business come from all walksof life in every section of the country.Most of them are small stockholders.280,000 own five shares or less. Morethan half are women.Over 150,000 telephone employeesare now stockholders. In the next year or so many thousands more willcomplete payments on stock underthe Employee Stock Plan.A significant fact is that more than350,000 A. T. & T. stockholders havebeen stockholders for ten years orlonger. Their A. T. & T. dividend hascome along regularly, in good timesand bad.They bought the stock "for keeps"because of their long-term confidencein the business and their belief thatregulatory bodies will provide ade­quate rates for service so that theymay receive a fair and stable returnon their investment.It's the widespread confidence ofinvestors that helps make possible thegood telephone service you get today. EVERY TIME YOU TELEPHONE you sharethe benefits of the stockholders' in­vestments. It's their dollars that build,expand and improve the best tele­phone system in the world for you touse at low cost.BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGolden Dirilyte(for,"ul, Dirigoltl)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID - NOT PL.A.TEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andDther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrylSbL Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, I'll.Platers, SilversmithsSpeciaiis', . . .GOLD. SILVER. RHODANIZESILVERWARElepaired, Rellni .... d, Re'acqueredSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ava. CEntral 6-6089·90 ChicagoLA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoO'''.r P'an',Boston - N.Y. - Phil. - Syracuse - Cleveland"You Mig'" A. Well Have The Be.t"CONCRETETraprock Industrial FloorsMetallic Trucking FloorsMachine FoundationsSidewalks=In. I.NOrmal 7.0433T. A. REHNQUI5T CO.6639 So. Vernon Ave.CHICAGO 37 Donald M. Shields is doing free lancewriting in Paris.Beverly M. Glenn will attempt law prac­tice in Providence, Rhode Island thisspring.Holt Ashley is assistant 'professor in theAeronautical Engineering Department atMassachusetts Institute of Technology.Fred W. Neal, PhD, resigned from theFederated Theological faculty to accept aposition as associate professor 'Of religionand philosophy at Mississippi State Col­lege.A son, Reid, was born to Mrs. CameronBrown (Dorothea M. Fruechtenicht, AM)on April 8.1945A son, John Stuyvesant, was born onJanuary 16 to Mr. and Mrs. John E.Schmidt (Suzanne Harnstrom).George Earl Taylor is a mathematicianwith Naval Research Laboratory, Wash­ington, D. C.William Bertram Van Horne is an in­structor and attending college at ColoradoUniversity. His wife is Gladys AileenWiseman, '44.Myron H. Wilk is at work on a novel.He had been in the advertising field forseveral years.John W. Jensen 'is a law student atStanford University.John Hardaway Harwell, AM '47, is aninstructor of Old English at {he University.'Robert Earle Slayton, SB '46, MD(U of C) '48, is a doctor at City Hospi­tal, Cleveland, Ohio.Vernice V. Bacote is a librarian at theUniversity of Washington.Lucille May Konecy is a service repre­sentative for the Illinois Bell TelephoneCompany.Mrs. Fern McComb Pence, AM, is ex­ecutive director, Children'S Day Care Asso­ciation, Inc., Fort Wayne, Indiana.After an engagement announcement,Burton L. Gordon, MBA '48, and ElaineLevington were reported to be marriedon January 7.Charles Frederick Kittle, MD (U of C)is the first holder of the Dr. Samuel S.Murdock Jr. fellowship in surgery. Dr.Kittle is in his second year of residencyin surgery at the Kansas University medi­cal center in Kansas City. The fellowshipis 'the income from a gift of $15,000.1946Walter A. Heitzman, AM, is doing salesadministration work in Home Office ofEmployers Mutuals of Wausau, Wisconsin.Albert Raymond Anderson is youth di­rector of the Methodist McFarland ChurchIn Norman, Oklahoma.Donald Charles Baum is an art instruc­tor at Roosevelt College in Chicago.Marjorie Josephine Schuster is a studentin Social Science Administration at theUniversity, She was married on Septem­ber 5, 1949 to Morton Phillip, '48.Edgar Henry Schein is a student at Har­vard University.Charles Bluestein, AM '47, is associatedwith the California Adult Authority, Bu­reau 'Of Paroles, San Diego, California.Sherwin Mendelsohn is 'teaching mathand physics at the American TelevisionInstitute in Chicago. He was married toFrances Weinstein last January.William Jennings Rowe, AM '48, is afellow in human development at the Uni­versity of Maryland.Frank G. Mangin Junior is a field super­visor with the Easterling Company ofChicago. He is active in the NationalGuard and "enjoying post-University days." 1947Her parents recently announced the en­gagement of Marilyn Weintraub <to WalterE. Simon. .Mrs. Henry Morris (Shirle Ann Fletdher)AM, is a welfare worker in the Veterans'Administration, Long Beach, California.Katheryn Sullivan Hoffman is a bibli­ographer for the U. S. Office of Educationin Washington, D. C.Phillip H. Rubin is completing hissenior year in a cooperative course givenby New York University and ParsonsSchool of Design. In June he expects aBS from New York University with anInterior Design major.Eugene R. Kuczynski, SB '48, is head ofthe analytical laboratory of the BurgessBattery Company in Freeport, Illinois. Ason was born to the Kuczynskis in J an­uary, 1949. The new arrival's name­Richard Allen.Ferris S. Randall, BLS '48, of the Stan­ford University library staff, is a memberof a team leading a Great Books discus­sion group. His wife is the other teammember, which leads us to hope that ·theyconfine their discussions to the great ideas!Anita Arrow, AM, is doing economic re­search for the Standard Oil Company. Shewill be a teaching assistant in a graduatecourse at Columbia University School ofBusiness.Edith Schwimmer is working on a de­gree in biochemistry at Columbia Univer­sity.H. Edmund Platt, JD, joined the Bbnk­enhogen Agency in Detroit to work on lifeinsurance, group insurance and pensionsfor that agency. A second son, PhilipBerry, was born to the Pla:tts in Novem­ber. Mrs. Platt is the former Julia GleeRogers, '46.Richard Bennett Gladstone is a salesrepresentative in the educational depart­ment of Houghton Mifflin PublishingCompany in Cambridge, Massachusetts.Robert Jacob Bailyn is a student at theUniversity of Michigan.Mrs. Donald N. Carttar (MagdaleneJulia Stieghorst) SM, is a research assis­tant in Toxicity and Physiology at theUniversity. She was married October 14,1949.Thomas C. Fuller, PhD, is assistant pro­fessor of Botany at the University of South­ern California.Howard �. Frazier and, Leonore Calla­han" '47, were recently engaged. They ex­pect to be married in June. Miss Callahanis doing student promotion work for theUniversity and Frazier is attending theHarvard University College of Medicine.On a printed Happy New Year cardThomas L. Lutz, MBA, announced the ar­rival of the fourth Lutz baby, ThomasHartman, on December 26.1948Carolyn (Lyn) R. Swift is a candidatethis year for a master's degree from Colum­bia University. She spent part of the sum­mer of '48 in Europe and part of thesummer of '49 in Mexico.Phyllis Anne Bates, PhD, was marriedrecently to David Sparks.William Bruce Storm, AM, is teachingpublic administration at the Universityof Southern California.Clare Yoder, AM, is connected with theFamily Service Society in Hartford, Con­necticut.Richard W. Naylor, MBA, joined theUniversity of Washington faculty last fallas Acting Assistant Professor of Business31THE U N I V E R S IT Y 0 F CHI C AGO MAG A Z I N ELOCAL AND lONG DISTANCE HAUliNG•60 YEARS OF DEPENDABLESERVICE TO THE SOUTHSIDE•ASK FOR FREE ESTIMATE•55th and ELLIS AVENUECHICAGO 15, ILLINOISBUtterfield 8-6111DAVID L. SUTTON. Pres.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency68th YearNationwide ServiceFive Olfice�-One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd.. ChicagoMinneapolis-Kansa8 City. Mo.Spokane-New YorkPENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceSack Water Velves, Sumps-Pumps1545 E. 63RD STREEl6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4·0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE1545 EAST 63RD STREETBIENENFELDChicego'. Mod Compl.t. Stock ofGLASSGLASS CORP. OF ILLINOIS1525W. 35th St. PhoneLAfayette 3-84003 HOUR SERVICEEXCLUSIVE CLEANERSAND DYERSSinCl I9201442 and 1331 E. 57th St.•EVENING GOWNSAND FORMALSA SPECIALTYw. caillorand dsli1l8r3 HOUR SERVICE Fluctuations. He had been at the Univer­sity of Buffalo previously.Prasert Patumanon (formerly Paduma­nannada) has been appointed Assistant Sec­retary-General in Academic Affairs, Uni­versity of Moral and Political Sciences,Bangkok, Thailand (Siam). He is also alecturer in Civil and Commercial Lawsand Political Science. He is helping tomodernize the university library to whichan innovation has been added-the fluores­cent lamps-after the University of Chicagofashion. This is the first of its kind in allThailand libraries.James B. Woodrum, AM, is engaged insocial work at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.Linnea Elizabeth Henderson, AM, holdsan administrative position with the De­troit District Nurses' Association.J. Edum Seegmiller, MD (U of C) isdoing research in National Public Healthin Bethesda, Maryland.Robert E. Young is a student at StanfordUniversity.Marilyn Mae Fisher, student at the Uni­versity, was married July 2, 1949, to MorrisJ. Levine, '48.John Patrick Walsh, PhD, foreign serv­ice officer, has been transferred from Dub­lin to Ottawa as Third Secretary and ViceConsul. He was commissioned in theForeign Service in February, 1948, and wasassigned to Dublin shortly afterwards.Harvey M. Ross enters the Universitymedical school this September.George Calvin Rogers, Junior, AM, isattending the University of Edinburgh inScotland. He is studying English history.The engagement of Nancy Kerr toDaniel Thuering Carroll was recently an­nounced by her parents, (Mr. '25) and Mrs.(Laura F. Nowak '25) William D. Kerr.James D. Keyes is studying at the Uni­versity of Denver under a $1200 Govern­ment Management Fellowship. He reportsthat he wouldn't have had this good for­tune if "I had not had the training whichI did in the College of the UC."James W. Sack, JD, is associated withthe firm of Fleischmann, Augspurger,Henderson and Campbell in Buffalo, NewYork. He is also a faculty member of theUniversity of Buffalo Law School. NancySack (Mrs. J. W.) AM '48, is an instructorin English at the University of, Buffalo.Announcement has been made of theengagement of Maxine Louise Kroman toArnold Lawrence Tanis, '47, SB '49. Thewedding is scheduled for March 26.Fritz, F. Heimann expects to receive hisUniversity law degree in '51.A boy, Mark Stuart, was added to thefamily of E. C. (Joe) Fullmer, MBA, onDecember 3.1949Frederic V. Grunfeld is a music crrucin New York and working on some of hisown compositions. Wife Dorothy, '47, isstudying fine arts at Cooper Union andworking with typographic and textile de­sign.Kuo-Ho Chang, JD, is connected withthe Interpretation Division, United Na-tions. .Kuo-Ho Chang, jD, left for Geneva inJanuary as simultaneous interpreter for theU. N. Trusteeship Council Session. Thetrip to Geneva includes visits to France,Denmark and Sweden. Mrs. Chang is theformer Irene L. Conley, '45.George Haddad, PhD, is associate pro­fessor of Ancient History at Syrian StateUniversity in Syria.Jerald E. Jackson, JD, is associated withCarl R. Miller, lawyer, with offices inDecatur, Illinois. A son, Mark Edmund, TELEVISIONDrop in and see a programRADIOSFrom consoles to portablesRadio-TV ServiceAt home or shopELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators RangesWashers BlanketsSPORrlNG GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSFine P��I!�ti��mfo�o���rdrenH EN �J1IAI;\I1��935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Robert Gaertner, '34 Julian Tishler. '33TREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Direct Faclory DealerforCH RYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMidway 3-4200AI.oGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair,Body, Paint, Simonize, Washand Greasing DepartmentsHYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING. BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone . DOrchest.r 3-1579BLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's HotelIn theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering; Graceful Living to Uni­versity end Business Women etModerete T eriffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave. Telephon.PLn.2-3313Verna P. Werner. Director32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBOYDSTON BROS .• INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4·0492T ra ined and licensed attendantsPOND LETTER SERVICEE verythin� in Letter.Heavel TYPI.rltl ••Multl.raphl ••Addr"IDllraplt alrYl"H I,hllt Quality Slrvl •• M Imeo,rapill ••Addr ... I.,Mam ••Minimum Prl ...All PhonesHArrison 7·8118 418 So. Market St.ChicagoAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement whleh ltmlts Itswork to the university and college fteld.It Is affiliated with the Fill" Teach.",Agency ot C'hI oago, whose work corers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist In the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.Our service III nation-wide.Since J885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best In placement service for University.College. Secondary and Elementary. Nation·wide patronage. Call or write UI at25 E. Jacklon Blvd.Chicago 4, IllinoisASHJIAN BROS., Inc.laTABLlIHID InlO,.ien tal and DomesticRUGSCLEANED anel REPAIRED8066 Soutb Chicago Phone REgent 4·6000BOYDSTON BROS.. INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227·29-3 I Cottage Grove Ave.OAkland 4·0492 was born to the Jacksons on March 30.Chester G. Anderson, AM, is Omahasecretary for the Great Books Foundation.Anderson and Edward P. J. Corbett, AM'48, teach English at Creighton University,Omaha. They are also co-leaders of a GreatBooks group.Robert Burton Gelbort is engaged toJean Mayer of Wilmette, Illinois.Jerry L. Kelley, AM, is now employedas visiting counselor for maladjusted chil­dren at Hinsdale Township High School,Hinsdale, Illinois. ,Gene Van Kranenburgh is assistant pas­tor at the Second Congregational Churchin Rockford, Ill inois,William Howard Wainwright, MD (U ofC) is interning at St. Luke's Hospital inNew York City.Mercedes R. Immel, SM, recently becameMrs. John A. O'Hale.Peter H. Selz, AM, has been teaching thehistory of art courses at the Institute ofDesign. Chicago. as well as the surveycourses in art history which have now beeninstituted at the Chicago division of theUniversity of Illinois. Selz and his wifewere expected to leave for France lastmonth for a year's research and work onhis PhD at the University of Paris on aFulbright grant.John Collins, JD, is connected with theCommerce Clearing House in Chicago.Walter S. Maker, JD, is associated withthe law department of Armour and Com­pany in Chicago.DEATHSRalph Hiram Johnson, '96, died on Oc­tober 23, 1949, in Richmond. Virginia.Richard E. Davies, MD '96, died July 26,1949. at Waukesha, Wisconsin.Estelle Lutrell, '96, AM '24, Universityof Arizona consul ting librarian, died inTucson on January 2. Miss Lutrell was theauthor of many literary works.Ralph H. Hobart, '96, died in Billingshospital on January 30.Charles C. Macomber, PhD '97, died inBayside, Long Island, on August 9, 1949.Mrs. Enos A. De Waters, '02 (Sarah P.Ellis) died on November 23 in Flint, Michi­gan. Mrs. De Waters was 72 when shedied. Her husband is Enos A. De Waters,'01.Adelaide Knight, '05, died December 21,1949. in Chicago.Jacob H. Goldner, '05, pastor emeritusof the Euclid Avenue Christian church inCleveland. died December 30.Leonard. L. Mann, '07, died in January,1949, in Madison, South Dakota.Edward L. Cornell, '07, MD (Rush) '10,died at the age of 66 January 31, 1950, atthe Henrotin Hospital, Chicago, where hehad been head of obstetrics. A former staffmember of Chicago Lying In, he was as­sistant professor of obstetrics at North­western Medical School.Milton B. Galloway, '09, MD '11, diedAugust 9, 1949, in Webster City, Iowa.Richard C. Halsey, '10, MD (Rush) '12,died January 10. 1950, at Rochester, Min­nesota, where he had gone for treatmentat the Mayo clinics. His death was dueto nephritis. Dr. Halsey had lived and'practiced at Lake Geneva for 37 yearswhere he had been active in civic affairsall his life. Clayton Alexander Chrisman, '11, retiredminister, died September 23, 1947, inPrince George County, Maryland.John Francis McKie, SM '11, MD '10,died September 2, 1948, in Hot Springs,South Dakota.Moses H. Kamerman, '12, JD '14, diedOctober 20, 1949, in his home in Wilmette,Illinois.Eugene E. Ford, '13, former presidentof the Kenwood National Bank and lateran officer in the Household Finance Cor­poration until his retirement in 1945, diedat the age of 59 at Palm Beach, Florida,on January 19, 1950.Mrs. Charles M. Gooding (May V. E.Blodgett, '14) died January 30, 1947. inLos Angeles. She is survived by husbandCharles M. Gooding, '23.Esther Jacobs, '16, AM '21, head of theFrench department and Dean of Girls atthe Junior College in Burlington, Iowa,died July 29. 1949, in Burlington.Katherine M. Mayer, MD (Rush) '17,Chicago pediatrician for 30 years, died De­cember 15.Bessie C. Quille, '19, died March 30,1949, in Belto, Maryland.Emily Wai Helbig, '23, of St. Louis,M.issouri, died on September 16, 1949.The Rev. Ernest Victor Kennan, '23,rector of Emmanuel Protestant Episcopalchurch in Baltimore, Maryland, died Feb­ruary 2.Frank LeGrand Church, AM '25, diedJuly 19, 1949, in Holly, Michigan.David Fallant, JD '25, died December13, 1948, in Chicago.Carl G. Tietz, '25, died of a heart at­tack in Chicago on january 12, 1950. Forty­eight, he was principal of the Carl SchurzHigh School.Emilie A. Meinhardt, PhD '27, diedAugust 26, 1949, in Quincy, Illinois.John Munroe, PhD '28, died December18, 1948, in Providence, Rhode Island.Joshua Starr, '28, died in New York onDecember 5. Dr. Starr had been connectedwith the broadcasting division of the StateDepartment's Voice of America interna­tional information service.Blanche Powell, '29, died on January 23,1949, in Lakeside. Ohio.William R. Harshe, '�m, presiden t of aChicago public relations firm with officesalso in New York, died January 7.Dr. Calvift Wells McEwan, PhD '31, for­merly associate archeologist in the Univer­sity's Oriental Institute, died in St. Paul,Minnesota, on January 12. Dr. McEwanleft the University staff in 1942 to becomea major in the military intelligence serv­ice.Jacob John Westra, PhD '33, MD '37,died July 17, 1949, in Champaign, Illinois.Miss Pearl Morson, '34, AM '41, diedlast August. She died of a heart attackwhile swimming at Hyannis, Massachusetts.It has been reported that Edwin BirrellPayne, '36, died on June 6, 1946, in Caracas,Venezuela. His widow is Margaret A. VailPayne, '36.News of the death of Marvin S. Pittman,Jr., '47, in the Philippines was headlinedon January 16, 1950. Marvin was a geog­rapher with the University of the Philip­pines and, with a colleague. was doing fieldwork in northern Luzon. The two werefound in a shallow grave, victims of nativespears. Mrs. Pittman, who had joined thehunt, is Nadja Rashevsky, '46, a formermember of the Alumni Association staff.Her father is a member of the mathe­matics' staff at Chicago. Marvin workedon the Quadrangle Club desk while astudent.On CompetitionHatch a good idea and you hatch competitors.It works this way-to take General Electric asan example:In 1934, the automatic blanket was initiallydeveloped by General Electric. Today there aretwelve other companies making electric blanketsin competition with G. E.In 1935, General Electric first demonstratedfluorescent lamps to a group of Navy officers. In1938, the first fluorescent lamps were offered forsale. Today they are being manufactured by anumber of companies.The first turbine-electric drive for ships wasproposed and designed by G-E engineers. Todayfour companies in this country build this type ofship-propulsion equipment.After several years of laboratory development,General Electric began production and sale ofthe Disposall kitchen-waste unit in 1935. Todayfourteen other companies are in this field.The first practical x-ray tube, developed atGeneral Electricyears ago, is now a highly com­petitive business for seven manufacturers. In 1926, a practical household refrigeratorwith a hermetically sealed unit was 'Put on themarket by General Electric. Today 34 companiesare manufacturing household refrigerators withhermeticall y sealed mechanisms.* * *Research and engineering snowplow the way, notonly for new public conveniences, but also fornew companies, new jobs.There are 20% more businesses today thanthere were immediately after the war.Industry furnishes over 10,000,000 more jobsthan ten years ago.The average family owns more and betterproducts of industry than ten years ago.Any American company that plows backmoney into research and engineering develop­ment makes new business not only for itself, butfor others.The economy that does most to foster compe­tition is the one that makes easiest the establish­ment and growth of business.You can put your confidence in-GENERAL e ELECTRICComing cleanerSUCH QUICK EASY CLEANING ... practically no scrubbing... no fading of colors ... no irritation for tender skins­sounds like a new and better soap, doesn't it? But it isn'tsoap at all!N ow you can have a modern cleaner that removes dirtwith unbelievable speed, yet is completely mild to the skinand to the sheerest fabrics. Modern cleaners carry the dirtaway with them, and form no ring in the dishpan or tub.These new cleaners are made from organic chemicals.They are scientifically prepared to work equally well insoft, hard, even salt water.F or washing dishes or clothes, for housecleaning, for in­dustrial uses, better cleaners are here right now-and theyare improving every day.Today's modern synthetic detergents are not soaps ... they are entirely different chemically, and work in a dif­ferent manner.The people of Union Carbide have a hand in makingmany of the organic chemicals toot go into these modern,efficient cleaners. Producing better materials for science andindustry-to aid in meeting the demand for better thingsand better performance-is the work of Union Carbide.FREE: If you uould like to know more aboutmany of the things you use every day, send fort he illustrated booklet" Products and Processes."It tells how science and industry use VCC'sAlloys, Chemicals, Carbons, Gases, and Plastics.WriteJorfreeBooklet A.UNION CARBIDEAKD CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET � NEW YORK 17. N. Y.---------------- Trade-marked Products of Divisions and Units includeSYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS LINDE Oxygen BAKELITE, KRENE, and VINYLITE PlasticsPREST-O-LITE Acetylene PYROFAX Gas NATIONAL Carbons EVEREADY Flashlights and BatteriesACHESON Electrodes PRESTONE and TREK Anti-Freezes ELECTRO:\1ET Alloys and Metals HAYNES STELLITE Alloys