Club meetings: WashingtonOur Washington, D. C. Club, alwaysalert to new ideas for meetings, had 'around table discussion on "Television;Bane or Blessing?"Cody Pfanstiehl, director of press in­formation and promotion for the localC.B.S. station, did his usual clever job ofmoderating. Participants were Norman E.Jorgensen, attorney formerly with the Fed­eral Communications Commission, andJohn A. Johnson, civic leader and memberof the school board at Falls Church, Va.Katherine A. Frederic, PhD '40, presidentof the Washington Club, was in Chicagoduring the Thanksgiving holidays andspent some time at Alumni House workingout details for an all-out reception anddinner at the Statler Hotel for PresidentErnest C. Colwell next spring.Winter ParkThe Winter Park alumni under the di­rection of Dr. George R. Crisler, '24, PhD'28, MD '31, and Rudy D. Matthews, '14,took advantage of a visit by Dean WilliamScott and held a get together on November18th.Honored guest was President Paul A.'Yagner, '38, of Rollins College.President ColwellThree eastern Clubs are making plansfor spring reunions where PresidentErnest C. Colwell and a top flight Chicagoscientist will be the honored guests.New York City, with a committee of 50will have a reception, cocktail hour anddinner in the Town Hall Club Thursdayevening, April 20, 1950. They are pub­lishing a New York directory in Januarywhich will be mailed to all alumni in thearea with the hope that alumni will beable to plan with former classmates tomeet at the reception-dinner.Philadelphia will receive the Colwellparty at the University Club with a re­ception and dinner Wednesday evening,April 19, 1950.Wash.ington, D. C. has big plans andnumerous committees hard at work pre­paring to wel come the President at theStatler Hotel on Tuesday, April 18, 1950.The 'Vashington Club is also publishinga local directory.In the headlines'''hile Chancellor Robert M. Hutchinswas appearing on the cover of Time andin the news of metropolitan papers and inNews lVeek in celebration of his 20th an­niversary as head of the University, BishopIvan L. Holt, PhD '09, was presiding atthe St. Louis wedding of the Vice Presi­dent of the United States.Philosophy Bowl gameEven in the waning days of Chicago'SBig Ten football we can't remember thelocal dailies giving as much space to aStagg Field game as they did on Wednes­day, November 23, following the battle ofthe Platonists vs. the Aristotelians.Some 80 college lads had gone to Ath­letic Director Metcalf with a request toplay some regulation football. The boyswere equipped with suits, divided into thePlatonists and Aristotelians, and assignedcoaches. A few weeks later they playedthe Philosophy Bowl Game in Stagg Fieldwith a crowd in the stands estimated atfrom 300 (Sun-Times) to 800 (Tribune).(An alumnus estimated the crowd at 2,000 EDITOR'SMEMO PADThe Editorand quickly offered to help underwritenew uniforms.)'The game was close-Platonists, 6; Aristo­telians, O-and the crowd enthusiastic.After the game the boys turned in theirsuits and went home for Thanksgiving.Metropolitan sports writers reported thegame straight and in detail, with the nor­mal scattering wisecracks hardly to be re­sisted in such a setting. They were seri­ously wondering (with others) whetherthis was the flurry of a passing whim or a"springboard for a revival of football atStagg Field."One sittingThe November issue of the Universityot Chicago Magazine I enjoyed more thanany other. In fact I read it in one sitting!The appearance of the Magazine hasbeen ,greatly improved by the new head­lining method and the use of pictures andillustrations.The two articles I found most interest­ing were "Radio on the Midway" and"Five 'Weeks in a Rowboat."Ella Hetze, '32, AM '33[Mrs. Rupert Wandel]San FranciscoFood for thought"I hope somebody does something to theUniversity oi Chicago Magazine as it couldstand improving, and I refer you .to thePrinceton Alumni Weekly among others... which does not try to save the worldor improve its alumni except as regardstheir attitude towards Princeton, and ismainly full of newsworthy items aboutPrinceton. I think the University oi Chi­cago Magazine would do well to stop tryingto improve the alumni culturally, but tryto give them a better picture of what ishappening at the University. In addition,the makeup of the Class Notes might beconsiderably improved."E.M.M.Newark, N. ]. The professors' wivesThe University of Chicago SettlementLeague, composed largely of faculty wives,has just published a unique cook bOokcarrying the favorite recipes of the mem,bers.The cover is cleverly designed with vege­tables, cheeses, and kitchen utensils by Mrs.Marshall Stone, wife of the Chairman ofthe Department of Mathematics. If youwish to sample a few recipes - here theyare with the department represented bythe husband in parenthesis.Pizza Pie; Mrs. Enrico Fermi (Physics);Turbot, Mrs. Otto Bond (Romance Lan­guages); Boeuf Bourguignon, Mrs. ScottGoldthwaite (Music); Portuguese DinnerMrs. James Weber Linn (English). 'Indiana Muffins; Mrs. W. C. Reavis (Edu­cation); White Bread, Mrs. Ernest C. Col­well (President); Gewurzplatzchen, Mrs.Carlos Castillo (Spanish); Vichyssoise, Mrs.J. E. Mayer (Chemistry); Frozen CranzMrs. Wolfgang Liepe (German); Stolle, Mrs�Fred Koch (Biochemistry).Chicken Almond; Mrs. Emmet Bay (Med­icine); Shishkebob with Curried Rice, Mrs.Morris Kharasch (C hem i s try); RussianEaster Pudding, Mrs. G. V. Bobrinskoy(Sanskrit), and Old Fashioned Cream PieMrs. R. Wendell Harrison (Vice President)�If it's a copy of this plastic-bound, 126-page you wish, send $1.50 to Mrs. WillardF. Libby, 5317 Greenwood Avenue, Chicago15. Ask for the recipe Book: "SettlementDough-nations," and no wise quips aboutcorn-bred.Another membership dividendWe have just inherited from the Uni­versity of Chicago Press four hundredcopies of the biography of William RaineyHarper, our first President - written byThomas W. Goodspeed.It is a 242-page s10ry of a precocious ladwho won his A.B. at fourteen, got a Ph.D.from Yale, was president of a small collegein Tennessee at 19, and went on to becomeone of America's noted educators.The story of how they persuaded him,with the aid of a million dollars from JohnD., to take the presidency of Chicago hasits fascinating moments. The wild ideasHarper introduced on the Midway had thepapers headlining the news: "Harper'sBazaar" and "Harper's Midway Concession."And there is a dramatic ending whenHarper called in University officers to say:"I have today received my death sentence... " It was cancer and he lived only ayear longer-a year crowded with wriuncbooks, getting University matters in orde;'even to arranging funeral details.We want you to have one of these booksif you want it. We paid to have themwrapped and delivered for mailing. This,plus postage, came to a few cents under aquarter. So if you will send us eight,three-cent stamps, or a quarter, we'll dropa copy in the mail for you. .Next month, if any copies remain, we'lloffer them to the general alumni body.Three good reasonsI like the Magazine for three reasons:1. Reminds me of a very pleasant andworthwhile experience - nostalgic value­takes me back to Chicago. 2. It gives me afeeling of belonging, of being still a partof the University and having a share in it3. Mostly it helps to keep my intellectualbatteries charged . like making a tripback to campus.H.R.S., PhD '46Durham, N. C.BOOKSON REVIEWMEMORIES OF EIGHTY YEARS. By JamesB. Herrick, M.D. 270 pp. The University ofof Chice qo Press, 1949. $5.Dr. Herrick's earliest memory is' thefuneral procession of Abraham Lincoln asit solemnly moved through the streets ofChicago. Numerous other scenes of his'boyhood in Oak Park are vividly portrayed;the glow in the eastern sky from the Chi­cago fire of 1871, a drive through theburned district with his father, the plightof the homeless, and the tents of the sol­diers of General Phil Sheridan while theci ty was under. martial law.On a trip to the Centennial Expositionin Philadelphia in 1876, father and sonstopped in' Washingt0!l to meet PresidentGrant)$�nator John A. Logan and GeneralSherman'. With accounts such as these,Dr.. Htcyick:}'lrovides an intimate glimpseof life to,tl"?,wing the Civil War.After )�is';!graduation from the Univer­sity of "Michigan in 1882, Dr. Herrickturned to medicine, and study at RushMedical College. From this point on hisrecorded memories deal largely with med­icine, but they constitute delightful read­ing for the 'layman as well as for thephysician. His experiences as a medicalstudent; as an interne and later as an at­tending physician at the Cook County Hos­pital; at Presbyterian Hospital, as a generalpractitioner, then as a specialist in heartdisease in Chicago, provide a backgroundagainst which one may contrast modernmedicine. Dr. Herrick witnessed an end­less array of dramatic change' such as theintroduction of the bacterial concept ofdisease, the rise of antiseptic and asepticsurg�ry and the eradication of typhoidfever by means of modern sanitation. Hewas one of the first to use diphtheria anti­toxin in' Chicago. The description of thisevent should be read and reread by a pres­ent generation which, practically speaking,does not know the horrors of diphtheriaand similar infectious diseases now van­quished and almost forgotten. .Dr. Herrick gives revealing thumbnailsketches of many famous builders of medi­cine in this country and abroad, includingthe three great early surgeons of Chicago,Nicholas Senn, Christian Fenger and JohnB. Murphy; the inexhaustible and dynamicinternist, Frank Billings; the immortal SirWill.iam Osler; and the great Germanchemist and Nobel prize winner, EmilFisher, in whose laboratory Dr. Herrickworked for three months on his third tripto Europe. In his conscientious portrayaland appraisal of events, the author uncon­sciously reveals his own self. Strangersand friends alike will be delighted withthe charm, humility, simplicity, keennessof observation and warmth of understand­ing so evident in every page of the bookas in his every act. The mellowness is amanifestation of personality rather than ofthe passing years. A final chapter on "OldAge" concludes with a stanza from S.Weir Mitchell appropriately termed the"doctor's farewell": in a sense, the lastline contains the key to DJ. Herrick's phi­losophy and to his memories:"I know the night is near at hand,The mists lie low on hill and bay,The autumn leaves are dewless, dry;But I have had the day."-Dr. Walter Palmer, '18, MD '21. Volume 42 January, 1950 Number 4PUB L ,I"S H E D B Y THE A L U M N I ASSOCIATIONManaging EditorHOWARD W. MORT Contributing EditorsJeannette LowreyWilliam V. MorgensternRobert M. StrozierEditorsLAURA BERGQUISTLEONARD L. COLBYIN THIS ISSUE��:::'�NM::�E�AD. ;�i,;, .. ·.·.· =:':':';', ;���YERLOVE Is NOT ENOUGH;;,<:�:;uno Betielheim .A BOOK CAN,BE ACOLL:EGE MILESTONE, Malcolm P. Sharp ..CAMPUS QUEENS, 1949 .PLATO AND ARISTOTLE PLAY BALL, Robert M. Strozier .PLANTS, FLOWERS AND DISHGARDENS .THREE-STAR TEACHER, Charles P .. Russ, Jr .COMING:. MR. HAYEK, Jeannette Lowrey .CALENDAR .. � .NEWS OF THE CLASSES . 112712131516182224COVER: Teaching a child in quandary. This exceptionallybright, 12-year old girl, is one of 34 children en­rolled in the University's Orthogenic School. Inclass, each child is taught individually, competitionis held to a minimum, there is no homework, noreport cards, grades, or "failures."Most children who need this special School wereunable to form personal relations of any kind, be­cause they have never known satisfying ones. Theyare afraid of adults, and can be met only on neutralground. Here, the relation of teacher" and pupil isnot yet a you-and-me one. Despite the teacher'seffort to help the pupil, she looks away from him­but together they study geography.Cover photo, and those of the Orthogenic School,by Myron Davis '40. Photos of IF queen, and Pro­fessor Sharp, by Steve Lewellyn, '48.Published by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from Octoberthru June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscrip­tion price $3.00. Single copies 35 cents .. Entered as second class. matter December 1, 1934, atthe Post Office at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The American AlumniCouncil, B. A. Ross, advertising director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y., is theofficial advertising agency of the Magazme.GREAT BOOKS REGISTRATION OPENSREGISTRATION is now open fortwo tuition-free Great Booksleader training courses to begin inChicago January 23. One group willmeet at the University and the otherin the loop. There are no formal edu­cational requirements.The course will consist of ten eve- ning meetings,. five practice sessionsand five demonstrations by membersof the staff of the Great Books Foun­dation.Anyone interested in enrolling maycall or write the Great Books Foun­dation, 58 E. South Water St., Dear­born 2-5870.1Many of these children are finding out that mealtime can be pleasant.LOVE IS NOT ENOUGHA child needs more-above all, parentswhose lives make senseBy Dr. Bruno BettelheimPARENTS ARE often being toldnowadays that all they need do,to raise their children properly, is lovethem.This has been a healthy reactionagainst antiquated and authoritarianmethods of raising children, and therigid schedules which run counter to a child's natural desires.Naturally, everyone needs to feelloved, children most of all. It is truethat a person must have ample affec­tion in childhood to become a normalperson:But nowadays parents are virtuallycommanded to love their children, as2 if anyone can generate an emotionhe doesn't really feel, or a motherwho loves her child needs instructionsto do so.How can this "love" be defined?Is it something obvious like cuddlingthe child, and giving him parental"approval"-a pat on the head, aremark about what a good child heIS ••••Or may it not be, rather, a lessdramatic willingness to go to sometrouble, in answering a child's spokenor unspoken needs.For example, it is easy to cuddle achild, to say "no, no" or slap hishands. But it takes much more effortand ingenuity to put breakable thingsout of a small child's reach.The latter creates an inconveniencefor the parent, the former only forTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3The PhotographerThe photographs which illus­trate this story have never be­fore been published, and arethe first intimate ones ever takenof the Orthogenic School, whichas policy bans photographers andreporters. They were taken bynone other than Myron Davis,'40, who spent a week-at thebehest of Dr. Bettelheim and theSonia Shankman Fund - gettingacquainted with the school, gain­ing the confidence of the chil­dren, shooting typical situationsas they arose.Once Davis was a Cap andGown and Pulse picture-taker:then he went on directly to"Life." You may remember hisexciting war reportage from theSouth . Pacific-New Guinea, theAdmiralty Islands, the invasionsof Arawe, Cape Gloucester, orone of his nine "Life" covers, todate. He's free lancing now, fromhis home in Brookfield, Illinois,and his byline appears regularlyin "Holiday," "Fortune," "Post"and other national magazines.He is married to ClementineDeering, '40, and has two chil­dren Glen, 4, and Keith, 2.the child. Again, it is easy to fencea child in, behind gates, with theexcuse he might otherwise hurt him­self on the kitchen stove. With someimagination, it should be possible to'fence off the kitchen stove, not him,and thus enlarge the area he maysafely explore.Frequent "no's" convince the childthat finding out things for himself isdangerous, and disapproved of byparen ts. The world becomes full ofincomprehensible perils, where thesafe thing is to do nothing, or onlywhat parents explicitly permit. Thisoften happens in homes where en­lightened parents insist the child re­ceive adequate sex information (de­sirable) and even be permitted to ex­plore this matter on his own. Sex hecan explore, but the kitchen stove,no!Children need love, yes; but theyalso need to live a life suited totheir needs, one which they can un­derstand and manipulate - not onetailored only for adult convenience. Having fun - but separately. The counselor satisfies his needs, plays withhim, gives him toys and food, helps him, without demanding anything inreturn. He isn't yet ready to let her touch him, he is still much too afraid. ofphysical closeness to an adult. As yet, he cannot permit himself .even to likeher. Now they play separately, eventually they will play together.They need to be stimulated, in learn­ing to think, by adults who can speakto them about things in common­not by the Lone Ranger. Above all,they need adults about them whosebehavior makes sense, who live � con­sistent set of values, and after whoseimage .tbey �(;�'wrl: form a personality. true freedom which lies between li­cense and inhibition.From working in the OrthogenicSchool with children whose emotionsare so severely disturbed they needinstitutional trea trrien t of severalyears duration, we can say they needto be loved all right: but". it takesmuch more'to help them develop ahealthy personality. Only after thesechildren have been given all of life'sbasic needs-food, sleep, friends, etc.-and more, for a long time, can theybegin to give or receive love, andall that goes with it. Love receivedin addition to everything else oneneeds, assures happiness. Love of­fered instead of the satisfaction ofMan's most difficult taskTo give a child all these things isno easy task, I realize. But to say thatlove is enough, is too easy a wayout. It disregards the most difficulttask which confronts man-to developa healthy personality, and to live hap­pily, and successfully, in the area of4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEother needs is a sham, and frustrates.A child 'becomes ready to receive,and in some measure return affec­tion, only when his biological andother needs have been satisfied bypeople who love him. The disturb­ances of many children arise, in part,because of their very inability to re- turn the affection their parents ex­pect of them. They "withheld" theirlove because certain services, which ababy eventually translates as- love,were never given them.We have children at the Schoolwho were so engulfed by parental"love" they could never develop anShe just doesn't know how. This IO-year old girl is torn between too 'manydesires. She wants to play house. like any child her age. She started to­but she's never 'had a decent family life, and she doesn't know where to begin.Since her, mother never cherished or cared for her, she wants to be babied.But she also wants to learn the things normal children' have learned as infants.Under obvious stress, she asks: "How will I be able to care for my babies?"Only when clutching those pleasures she's missed, the bottle, does she findthe courage to do the grownup thing-learn how to take care' of babies. Thedoll play has to wait until she can really act her age, has caught up with in­fant pleasures and feel secure she'll be able to do as well as an adult. ,independence of their own, but reomained parasitic extensions of their­parents. 'We' have others whose basicbiological needs were so little grati­fied, including the need for rest,movement, and all around stimula­tion, the world held no attraction forthem, and they. never bothered to'cope with it.Others were so overstimulated, andearly made the center of emotional.conflicts, they couldn't make any senseof the world. They felt so over­powered by too many stimuli, so con­fused by conflicting values, they gaveup what seemed too hard a job: de­veloping an integrated personality.They could never weave the threadsof their life into a sensible pattern,and so chose to live in a delusionaldream world, of radio and comic stripfigures. Still others chose. to fightback with delinquency, against an in­comprehensible and punishing world.Middle class problemsIt is well known that neglectedchildren can become strange and de­vious personalities. But so can chil­dren who are deluged with parentalattentions of the wrong kind. Veryoften they come from middle classfamilies from parents who aren't soapt to physically abuse them, as pushthem too hard in school, or give thema wealth in toys as a bribe to keepthem out of sight and mischief. Theirsymptoms are less often a dramaticdelinquency and more. often totalwithdrawal from, or the most abysmalmisunderstanding of the world,No such thing as a "typical child"exists, and this. is even more truewhen writing about a School whichprides itself on considering each childan individual. But to illustrate theSchool's work, I cite the problems ofLucille and Charles.Lucille wasn't yet six, when shecame to us. She had been placed intwo children's homes and three fosterhomes, none of which could copewith her or her problems. Therewere always times, in between, whenshe lived with her unmarried mother,who was highly unbalanced. Pyschi­atric examination revealed an inabil­ity to think clearly about the world,schizophrenic tendencies, and ex­treme hyper-activity. She had un­controllable temper tantrums, and sexdelinquency. Before she was five, shewas already approaching strange menTHE U N I V E R SIT Y 0 F CHI C A·G 0 MAG A Z I N Ethe street, demanding attentionon b .from them, and emg extremely pro-vocative toward them sexually.When I first saw Lucille, she ap­proached me on all fours, barkinglike a puppy. She then jumped" atme and made quite bold advances.An� conversation was impossible, be­cause she immediately escaped intodelusional talk. Later, as we beganto understand her life and her reac­tions to it, we realized she hadn'tbeen acting out any fantasy play atall but repeating a scene she hadcn�oted many times before in reality,and with reward.Actually she was trying to amuseand please me as realistically as sheknew how, as once she had amused aseries of "fathers" she "attracted" toher mother, by her novel performance.These "fathers" usually began byfeeding her candy, and fondling her,as she sat on her mother's lap. Thenwhen they were ready to take over,they pushed her a way. Frequent\vatching of the sex act formed hermost impressive life experiences, andmuch later, when we could quiet herdown enough to play with her, itbecame apparent that playing house(for her) , meant the following events:mother feeds baby, who is thenpushed aside, while male and femalepuppets disport themselves.Another anxious child might haveso been interpreting the sex act asan extremely upsetting act of violenceand anger, between parents usuallyseen in another light. In Lucille'scase, however, it was a true picture'of how the people who took the placeof parents in her life, behaved. Itwas not a distorted experience; noth­ing lay buried behind it.Learning about normal lifeFor Lucille, there had to be alAng . process of learning how nor­njal ; human beings live, before we*�u1$1> help her place her experiencesill:;iY more normal framework. SheBad to learn, from the very beginning,what normal adult relationships toone another (and to a child) shouldbe like. Our main task in a caselike this was to bring some intelligibleorder into chaos, to provide a newlife experience for her, rather thanuncover the past-as psychoanalysesdoes with an adult. For this reasonou r work comes closer 'to educationthan "trea tmen t." 5Bedtime story. Night fears haunt all anxious children. Quieting them, andtheir worries, helps them fall asleep contentedly. They feel better too if theyhave all their prized possessions right at hand, as reassurance. The boy inthe upper bunk has built a bedside bookshelf, mailbox, and so on. Whenhe [ooks up, he can see that he, who always before had been defeated. andcalled� a "dumb bell" (although he is bright), now can do things. He madethe picture of the Santa Maria, and he keeps a chart, which chronicles theday'� temperature. Before, he didn't even know about weather changes; nowhe can keep track of them. Soon he can keep track of his life.Lucille came from an underprivi­leged home. Charles' parents weregood, solid middle class people. Hewas nine and had the intelligenceof "genius" (IQ over 160). Whenhis mother consistently rejected him,he turned to his father for warmthand affection. But the father, thoughfond of his son, was himself a coldand intellectual person, who knew ofonly one way to approach him­through intellectual talk.To strengthen the only talent whichhad brought him human response, and please the only person whoshowed an interest in him, Charles de­veloped his mind at the expense ofother functions. He could talk mostglibly about politics-his father's in­terest-cite the names of politicians,converse even about world affairs.But these, highbrow conversations,which pleased his father and im­pressed other adults, didn't satisfyother needs, which in terms of hisown age were much more pressing.Like many emotionally deprivedchildren, he looked for comfort in6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThis boy is unhappy about life. and with good reason. As always. he coversit up by being angry at the world. He has been playing with the boys. butsuddenly something reminded him of his past. and he feels lost and rejectedagain. He withdraws from the group, and the world as well.He expects the counselor will try to be .nice to him, and it· doesn't helpmuch. At home, everybody stopped everything, when he had a tantrum. Theworld turned round him. Now he sees that others are not influenced by hisanger and since they just go on playing. it is an ineffective weapon. Butwhen another boy spontaneously joins the counselor in telling him they likehim. the world begins to look better again.the most primitive satisfaction­food.By becoming so overweight he vir­tually couldn't move, he felt able toprotect himself against his wish to payback, aggressively, for affection andattention denied him. Moreover, be­cause no one had encouraged him tomove about and play (they said hewas "such a happy, placid child, al­ways playing quietly by himself") allhis movements were severely inhibitedfrom infancy on.But still he needed some kind of relief. He couldn't get rid of his ten­sion through physical activity, as mostchildren do, and his inability to makefriends (he alienated playmates withhis intellectual talk) prevented himfrom finding any other satisfaction inlife. His unhappiness increased, asdid his hostility and withdrawal froman all-too-unpleasant world.At School, Charles felt safe fromhis mother, and unable to harm her,since she wasn't around. He was nolonger' exposed to his father's intellec­tual over-stimulation and no one praised him for his "brilliance."Slowly, he revealed through com.ments what obsessed him. As Charl��described it: he felt like a powerf\t[steam engine (his intellect and bodystrength), which was safe to turnloose because it was strictly con.trolled, and its path pre-decided byothers.If he acted on his own accord.and deviated from the intellectual"tracks" set down by his fatherhe ran the risk of acting on his ow�hatred, and this, given his intelligencemight be dangerous for the people o�whom he depended-his parents.He learned everything he couldabout engines, but this didn't leadto true knowledge (anymore than hehad ever really understood politics).I t never went beyond knowing themost minute details about what madeone kind of engine more powerfulthan another. I say that Charles wasnot able to acquire true knowledge,i.e. knowledge of life's problems, be.cause this precocious boy, who seemedto have led a sheltered life, was asunable to deal with .them as wasLucille, neglected child of the streets.Who attends the School?Obviously, it is most difficult togeneralize about these youngsters, andeven more so to describe how we treatthem-since our efforts to help thembecome whole human beings are asvaried as the symptoms they presentHowever, all 34 now in School, areof normal or better than normal in­telligence. They are free of physicaldisorders, and cannot be helped b)child guidance, child analyses, 01common therapeutic techniques. If,age, they range from six to 14, andt Continued on page 20)Dr. BettelheimA BOOI( CAN BE A COLLEGEMILESTONEFrom lively discussing, in and out of class, "ThePeople Shall Judge" emerged: a fresh approach to U.S. historyBy" Malcolm SharpTHE P_ EOPLE Shall Judge is thenew book of readings on Amer­. civilization used in the basic So-ican . .. 1 Science course now given In theCIaCollege. '"F r five years, It existed In con-o . htly revised rmmeograp ed form.stan . h d . INit is pubhs e In two vo urnes,ow h U' .f 1700 pages, by t e mversity of�hicago Press. It is a collecti?n ofmaterials, some 200 documents III all,from the 17th century. thro�gh the. intervening years,. dealIll� WIth theblems of American SOCIal and po-pro h' I'litical life and t e vanous so utions,continuouS and yet constantly modi­fied, which have created our presentcivilization.The editors, all members of thetaff of Social Sciences I, have con-s .tributed introductIOns, comments, andrganization; but first they have at­�empted-successfully-to provide amediurn through which the most pro­found students of the United States,and those most effective in directingthe country's affairs, might speak forthemselves.The book shows the variety of in-fiuences which may affect a Collegecourse in a great University. In thisinstance, they' include specialists inthe Divisions, such ventures in adulteducation as the Great Books courseand the radio Round Table, andfinally the existence of a liberal andeffective University Press.The men behind the bookI had the privilege of working in1944-45 with the members of the So­cial Sciences I staff who first organ­ized the materials which grew intothis book. Encouraged by Dean Clar­ence Faust, a half dozen of us set towork, assembling the materials andteaching them, or better, discussingthem in and out of classroom withour students.Three of the circle, Robert Keo- Malcolm Sharphane, Bernard J?rell, '31, PhD '39,and Meredith Wilson, were trainedhistorians; another, Milton Singer,PhD '40, was a' philosopher, and an­other, George Probst, '39, a politicalscientist .. Each had heavy teachingand administrative assignments. It isimpossible'to imagine the enthusiasmwith which they worked. We battledall year, in office meetings and in eve­nings at our homes, over the selectionof materials, the teaching methods,and sometimes, ranging wider afield,the conditions of student and dormi­tory life most conducive to the kindof education we had in mind.Since then, a succession of ableteachers have contributed to thegrowth of the book.They have included, among others:Millard Hansen, Ira Kipnis, AM '44,Laurence Leamer, AM '39, AllenSimpson, Ben Stephansky, and JayWilliams, 35, AM '43, all of whom7 are now on the Social Sciences I staff.The College teachers as a wholeare extraordinarily alert to the natureof the classroom problems which canarise in a teaching program based,to a great extent on the discussion ofdifficult and controversial reading.Hearing themselves talkThey' are doing. more and morewith sound recordings and typescriptrecords of their own class discussions.Anyone who has heard or seen arecord of his own informal talk willknow how startling the experiencecan be. These College teachers havenot only acquired the virtue of beingable to discuss, with some objectivity,their own failings and successes inthe classroom. They have gone be­yond this, and set up a committeewhich analyzes the characteristics ofdiscussions, and their success in reach­ing the goals of understanding andcapacity to think which the Collegesets for itself. A fascinating reporton the work of the committee waspublished last January under the ti­tle "Teaching by Discussion in theCollege Program."These men, moreover, have beenaware of the opportunities for discus­sions am 0 n g students themselves,which can be improved by improvedopportunities for student association.The dormitory as well as the clas�room is an educational agency. Whilecarefully avoiding' any attempt todominate dormitory life, Social Sci­ences' staff members, like those inother college courses, have been readyto accept dormitory invitations, andto lend a hand to any dormitory proj­ects for discussing books or events.These brief remarks indicate some­thing of the setting for The PeopleShall Judge, the influences whichcreated the book, and the uses madeof it in the College. Something nowshould be said about its contents, and8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEits educational value for young peopleand their so-called elders alike.The readings center about a fewgreat themes: equality and liberty,democracy and aristocracy, federal­ism, peace and war. The subtle in­ter-relationships of these themes can­not be easily diagrammed, nor cantheir relation to the developmentsof everyday life-the settling of acontinent, the building of a great in­dustrial system, the creation of a pow­erful military establishment.Again, as historians have found,neither "ideal" nor "material" devel­opments .fit neatly into time schemes.The editors', sense of temporal organ­ization leads them to divide our his­tory into five major parts: the co­lonial period, 1776-1829, 1829 into"reconstruction," 1865-1920, 1920 tothe present.Other divisions and transitions aresuggested and the reflective readermay wish, for example, to considerchanges symbolized by such events asthe elections of Jefferson, TheodoreRoosevelt, and Franklin Roosevelt.A thinker of the 1700'sJohn Wise, at the beginning of the19th century a congregational minis­ter in Ipswich, Massachusetts, maystart the discussion. In his Vindica-. tion of the Government of New Eng­land Churches there is a treatment ofgovernment somewhat similar to thatin John Locke's Second Treatise,which is liberally represented in thesevolumes. In some ways, Wise is morethoughtful and subtle than Locke.Equality is less important to himthan liberty. "The word 'man,' saysmy author, is thought to carrysomewhat of dignity in its sound; andwe commonly make use of this as themost proper and prevailing argumentagainst a rude insulter, viz., I am• not a beast or a dog, but am a manas well as yourself. Since then hu­man nature agrees equally with allpersons, and since no one can live asociable life with another that doesnot own or respect him as a man, itfollows as a command of the law ofna ture that every man es teem andtreat another as one who is naturallyhis equal or who is a man as well ashe."';The internal, native liberty ofman's nature in general implies afaculty of doing or omitting thingsaccording to the direction of his Milton Singerjudgment. But in a more specialmeaning this liberty does not consistin a loose and ungovernable freedomor in an unbounded license of acting.Such license is disagreeing with thecondition and dignity of man andwould make man of a lower andmeaner constitution than brute crea­tures, who in all their liberties arekept under a better and more ra­tional government by their instincts.Therefore, as Plutarch says, those per­sons only who live in obedience to rea­son are worthy to be accounted free;they alone live as they will who havelearned what they ought to will."Nostalgia induced by such state­ments must not carry us away. Therewas little religious freedom in theMassachusetts of the time. The grimelements of Calvinist theology werean unpleasant feature of the acceptedreligious doctrine. Economic life wasmeager and subject to considerablecontrol. Federalist aristocracy was inthe making, and Jacksonian democ­racy, "industrial democracy," and the"welfare state" far in the future .Adam Smith's criticism of colonialpolicy and mercantalism is the first ofeleven selections dealing with theAmerican Revolution. While Smithwas, of course, critical of British pol­icy, he pointed out that it was so littleenforced, and financially so beneficialto the Colonies and so costly to Eng­land, that there was no economic rea­son for either rebellion on the oneside, or an effort on the part of GreatBritain' to hold the Colonies, on theother. His doctrine, "the obvious andsimple system of natural liberty" is introduced again at the start of a uniton Economic Problems of the N elltRepublic, standing in contrast to bothJefferson's and Hamilton's views abouthe American economy.An interesting section on Demoe­racy and Aristocracy in the New R»public gives us the familiar contrast,which turns out to be less strikingthan one would suppose, betweenThomas Jefferson, author of the Dec.laration of Independence, and John:Adams, author of the Massachusetts,Constitution which serves as a modelfor the checks and balances in theFederal Constitution.Adams and FreudJohn Adams' salty mistrust of hu­man beings in power, whether pOOFor rich, is represented in these read­ings. While he had a shrewd insightinto psychology, anticipating in manyways some of the insights of Freud, hewas simply an articulate representa­tive of the distrust of rulers, whether"people," aristocrats, or kings, whichwas characteristic of his age. Thiswas the age when the framers delib­erately made our government clumsy,as the best protection to liberty theycould devise. It was a period of suf­frage limited by", religious and prop­erty qualifications, but even so the, power of elected bodies was thoughtto need the most ingenious delayingobstructions and checks which themind of man could create.Various writers on American his­tory have selected different transitionsas particularly significant. Some havethought that the "turning point" wasthe Civil War, Professor Turner de­veloped the famous thesis that it wasthe disappearance of the frontier,marked by the absence of any refer­ence to a frontier in the census of1890. As far as one can judge, theeditors of these volumes treat thegradual advent of Jacksonian democ­racy as 'the most important changewhich has 'occurred in American so­cial life. If this is not their theory,it is at least a suggestion which ap­pears from the organization of mate­rials. Professor Keohane, who worked�m the book from the beginning,showed his insight during the firstyear by impressing on us the impor­tance of selections from- Alexis deTocqueville's Democracy in America.Mr. Keohane's insight seems in thisrespect profound. De TocquevilleTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINErberal aristocrat, an urbanewas a. Ia student of society withCathohc, st in public affairs. Heintere .an d such widely separated phe-ecte 1conns the deve opment of pre-ena anom. ocialism and the movementsM a{1st s . Fa ded suffrage m ranee andfor e: with the characteristics ofEnglan .'n democracy in America. HejacksOUla., d the United States soon afterVlSlte . d t th f, electIOn, an wro e e a-jackso�:ok which, though with fore­mo�S ather than welcome, antici-bodlIlg r . f Md the propheCIes 0 arx.pate d said de Tocqueville, evidentlyGo , h'loves the poor, b�cauh�e t IS seHe�s toh ir period m istory. istorybe t eibe accepted even by one whomust ." '11 . '1hat equalItarIamsm WI Impenf�els tand who is bound to strug­lIberty, . fl h' hcorrect the m uences w ICgle tOt n the values he cherishes.threa eThe power of the poorWith the disappearance .of .the as-S of religIOn, men WIll mcreas­surance. 1 turn to the state for warmth,mg Y'ty and authority. The tendencysecurt Ii . lik 1 btoward simple �qua rty hIS ley to et d for a time by t e appearancearres efew aristocracy, the owners ando an. l' d Thmanagers of mechanf ICI� m hus.try. ere however, ee mg t eir powerpoor a , '11 1 . hd cohesion, they WI ru e m t eand and the equalitarian state is like-en , l' 1 f h1 t have too Itt e respect or t et�le�ts and freedom of exceptionalpeople. ..The appearance of um�ersal �hltehood suffrage and mcreasmglyman ., h U . d Sgeneral educa�IOn m t.e . mt: ltatesof jackson's tirne are mStltutlO?a ex­pressions of the change which deTocqueville saw, however accurately. the long run 'he may turn out to�ve appraised. its significance. TheJ cksonian period, say from 1830 tot�e Civil War, was characterized bythe idealism of New England writersrepresented here by Emerson andThoreau, as well as by the discus­sions of suffrage, education, organ­ized labor, internal improvements, thenational bank, and the "AmericanSystem." The ironical contrasts ofthe period are reflected in Thoreau'sEssay on Civil Disobedience) which isnot only a challenge to the aberrationsof government �n general, but a re­action to our SImplest war, the warwith Mexico.The readings follow a chronologicalcourse, but here we may trace a lit­tle further the theme introduced by de Tocqueville. After the Civil Warwe. �ad ind�ed pro�h�ts of democracywntmg WI t"h relIgIOUS enthusiasmabout the functions and characteris­tics of government.Henry George was our greatest rad­ical. Like Marx, he can be easilyansw:red by a well-trained school boy;but lIke Marx, he continues to be achallenge to the reader who is will­ing to consider his case at its strong­est. Each has a theory of exploitationwhich has contributed to the forceswhich created our income tax nowrelied on by economists of quite adifferent persuasion, to introduce thenecessary elements of equality intoa free society.George ProbstEdward Bellamy was an equallyreligious socialist of a more conven­tional sort. Henry Demarest Lloyd,represented here by two selections,was the characteristic enthusiasticagrarian foe of powerful industry.These three along with Samuel Gom­pers, John A. Ryan, and Charles H.Vail, are set in contrast to the tough(but anti-imperialist) William Gra-ham Sumner and to Andrew Carnegie.The pro p h e t s re-enforced thestrong movements, agrarian and in­dustrial, which were leading to "in­dustrial democracy." In the mean­time, however, in accordance withde Tocqueville's prophecies, the man­agers of industry had their period ofpower and glory. The buccaneersboth plundered and developed thecountry, and it may be-as the Com­munist Manifesto itself somehow sug­gests-that we should be more thank­ful to them than to the clerks whooften succeeded them. They were 9protected by the Supreme Court ina fascinating pattern of preposterousmystification about such words as"liberty," "property," "due processof law," "commerce among the sev­eral states," and "direct taxes." Fol­lowing the lead given by John Adams,a century before, as well as by JohnMarshall, the Court did something ofwhat John Adams hoped the Senatemight do in acting as a check on thepower' of the people. The periodreaches a close with the depression of1929 and the election of FranklinRoosevelt, and the close was appro­priately symbolized before long by the'over-ruling of much of the consti­tutional doctrine created in post CivilWar days, and the eclipse of the Courtas a Senate.Whether or not the result will con­duce to individual and social health,is still to be determined. The prob­lem is left as Andrew Jackson roughlythought it should be, with the peo­ple and their elected representatives.They are subject now only to theslight delays resulting from a mod­erate scheme of checks and balancesand separation of powers, a schemewhich itself has lost much of its ef­fectiveness since the time of JohnAdams.Came the New Deal,Public opinion is in control. Thereadings on Freedom in an IndustrialSociety dealing with the period since1918, but particularly with develop­ments under the New Deal, beginappropriately with a modern warn­ing written in the spirit of deTocqueville. This is Henry Simons'"Political Credo." It was written in1945, and is a particularly effective,systematic and eloquent presentationof the. position of the brilliant liberalpositive laissez faire economists whoare a unique ornament of the Eco­nomics Department of the University.One section of the general unit dealswith civil liberties, and includes Alex­ander Meiklejohn's excellent articleon Communists in University facul­ties.Liberty and equality, democracyand aristocracy, are of course, not theonly themes in American life. Wecan hardly do justice in an articleto the contents of these volumes, butone or two other themes with whichthey deal may be recalled.The late Professor Carl Russel Fishof the University of Wisconsin has10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsaid that the unique American. con­tribution to political thought and in­stitutions is the federal system. Whilemy colleague, Professor Crosskey, willsome day publish a great book thatwill lead to drastic reconsideration ofour ideas about the federal system,the system as it has been understoodis still a remarkable one.For the first time in history, anorganization w h i chis between aleague on the one hand and a uni­tary state on the other, has been de­vised and applied to large scalegovernment. The readings, of course,deal adequately with the Declarationof Independence, the Confederation,the Constitution, and the judicial de­cisions which throughout our historyhave affected, not always perhaps forthe best, the application of the Con­stitution.World Constitution-an answer?The enthusiasts who think that theadoption of an ingenious world con­stitution would go far to deal withthe current threat of war, will be re­minded by the debates of Calhounand Webster, and the final deterrnina­tion of the constitutional issues by theCivil War, that the psychological fac­tors in conflict have so far in the his­tory of the world yielded only to ef­fective force.These volumes do not neglect thethemes of peace and war. AdamSmith has already been referred to,and his salty skepticism about theeconomic rationalizations of our Rev­olution on the one hand and the Brit­ish interest in maintaining this ex­pensive colonial establishment on theother.The readings remind us of ourmarch across the continent. Mani­fest' destiny appears in selections fromJohn L. O'Sullivan, one of 1839 andone of 1845. From the latter:"California will, probably, next fallaway from the loose adhesion, which,in such a country as Mexico, holds aremote province in a slight equivocalkind of dependence on the metropolis.Imbecile and distracted, Mexico cannever exert any real governmental au­thority over such a country .... TheAnglo Saxon foot is already on itsborders."The even more striking imperialismof the age of Theodore Roosevelt isrepresented by readings from AdmiralMahan, our most famous systematic Bernard Ore"imperialist and militarist. Amongother things, one selection from Ma­han reminds us that before the Rus­sian-Japanese war of 1904-05, we andthe British were as much interestedin controlling the Russians as were theGermans and Austrians in 1914 andas are we again in 1949.The world wars are here, and soalso Is the cold Y\'ar�. Beginning withthe M�yflower ¢o�pact, and incluq:ing a}):mmber 'of readings properlyreminding us of our relationships withEngland and Europe, the editors havepublished among latest selections thosedealing with the North Atlantic Pact.Is it the best book possible?Professors D r ell, Keohane andHansen, who have borne a large partof the editorial responsibility in theproduction of these volumes, and Pro­fessor Simpson who has worked outhelpful unit introductions, deservehigh praise for their accomplishment.So do the other members of the staff,who over the past five years have con­tributed by research and teaching tothe evolution of the readings and thecourse in which they are used.Such a book nevertheless raisesquestions, as always, about how thingscould perhaps, under some circum­stances, at some time, be done better.The experiment in college educa­tion on which I have spent mosttime, from about 1927 to 1933,' at theUniversity of Wisconsin, made effec­tive use 'of the principle of contrast.In our scheme college freshmen andsophomores spent two years with theirattention particularly on Americancivilization. Partly, at least, for thepurpose of clarifying our understand­ing of America, we spent the first year dealing with Greek culture. Westudied the arts, the philosophy, thescience, and the institutions char­acteristic of the Athenian civilizationwhich flowered for some thirty years(say, from 460 to 430) in a littlefrontier community with a total popu­lation perhaps comparable to that ofMilwaukee. One contrast was be­tween a civilization which expresseditself brilliantly in arts and philoso­phy, and our own civilization whichexpresses itself in science, technology,and administration. There are in­structive similarities also, for examplethe similarities between two commer­cial democracies which have bothbeen volatile and aggressive. Othercomparisons might well be equally in­structive, for example comparisons be­tween 13th century European cultureand the United States or between theSoviet Union and the United States.Comparison and contrast are won­derfully revealing, and one feels thatif the college teaching program wouldconsciously provide for more com­parison it might result in extraordi­nary illumination of our own culture,with which in the end we are mostconcerned. It is true that in the sec­ond year of the Social Science se­quence, materials dealing with thehuman being in different culturesare used, and in the third year thereis a return to the practical problemsof our own society .. The Humanitiessequence leads to a consideration ofworks of art, literature and philoso­phy from different civilizations. Thenew history course doubtless helpsstudents to organize their thinkingpartly with reference to a comparisonof civilizations. Nevertheless, influ­enced perhaps by earli-er experience,I wish that such a comparison mightbe made the .organizing principle forthe study of both the arts and theinstitutions of our society.Reading out of contextThe use of readings from partici­pants, in the treatment of history,raises another set of problems. Thestudents use a standard history, andare referred to other readings aboutthe evolution of American society.Nevertheless, reading out of contextis a risk which the scheme entails,and it has perils. A recent learnedattack on Plato misreads entirely thereferences in the Republic, for exam­ple, to a very specific state of affairsTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEin the Athens of Plato's time. Thecity democracy had suffered a sen­sational defeat, related in the mindof its critics to the weaknesses whichwere already beginning to appear inthe great period between 460 and 430.When Plato refers to democracy. hehas this democracy in mind, what­ever he says about democracy in gen­eral, and his argument is completelyunintelligible without knowledge ofthe situation to which his words referand the context in which they werewritten. of the war in Europe. When he laterexplains the unemployment by rigidcommodity prices, some students willraise rather simple questions aboutthe available statistical evidence ofcause and effect, and the significanceof some published prices; Others willsay that, in view of their relativequantitative significance, 'high wagesshould be considered as .. an alterna­tive explanation.To a one time student of the sub­ject, it is startling. to find that a re­port of Clarence Darrow's NationalRecovery Review Board, containingone of the most naive of all the naivestatements a:bout basing points, hasbeen included in the readings. For acorrective, and a context, one shouldat least read Professor Bowman's bookreview in the current University ofChicago Law Revie'lf!1. if fl.;9t my ownpaper on discrimim{!f<i1:}. li¥blished in1938 in the same joutnar��In an agein which there is unprecedented con­sumers' choice, and more "competi­tion" than ever before in history, anyvariant of the theme of a "trend" to­ward "monopolization" needs criticalexamination."Equality"-for Aristotle,JeffersonSo the searching and authoritativewriting of St. Thomas Aquinas hasmeaning, as it seems to me, only asone sees it as part of a late phase ofthe struggle between popes andprinces which had already assured thedestruction of the power of bothPapacy and Empire, and which onthe other hand had expressed itselfin England in the constructive inter­play between Stephen Langton andKing John.So, when Jefferson drafted theDeclaration of Independence, andsaid that all men are created equal, Lessons for our agethis must have meant something dif- While Plato, St. Thomas, Jefferson,ferent in a society where slavery and Franklin Roosevelt and Clarence Dar­"limited suffrig¢ were t a ken\; row must be read in context, we aregranted, from what it means at firsP.f always concerned with the applica­reading to us. It is not perhaps im-S tion of their ideas, or whatever il­portant on its own account to know luminating and useful ideas we mayjust what the. phrase meant in 1776, find; to the circumstances of the pres­nor is there time in such a program, 5 ent. A look at University Roundas this for an elaborate analysis of Tables?� ;i�Jlbjects ranging all thethe curious ambiguities of Jefferson's way frorr/ equality to the cold warintellectual position. It is, however, will remind. the reader of the per­a' matter of some importance for the sistence of old difficulties in newstudent to recognize clearly that there forms and the light which may beis a scheme of ideas which will per- thrown upon our own problems bymit an honest and thoughtful man the solutions, however tentative andlike Aristotle or Jefferson, to give to groping, of the past.a word, "equality," a systematic and .The probl�wsof contrast, readingsignificant meaning which is quite in" cant��t,q,�� �ontemporary applica­different from the meaning most fa- tion are troublesome ones. A moremiliar in our own day. specific problem will doubtless haveA somewhat different illustration occurred to many of the readers ofmaybe taken from President Franklin this review. The philosophical, polit­Roo�evelt's speeches. When, in his ical and military ideas of students offifsCpresidential campaign, he refers and participants in American life areto'> th� gains to be made by increasing only a part of that life. In particularwage rates in his administration, the the history of our technological andcontext will show that these gains economic development is itself an ex­were somewhat offset by the persist- traordinary and dramatic one and ourence of considerable unemployment, technology and administration arewhich was perhaps on the way to significant achievements of our cul­elimination, right up to the beginning ture. 11The editors of these volumes, be­sides counting on references to eventsin the volumes themselves, and on theuse by students of historians' accounts,.have provided at the end an -excellentappendix of 38 tables concerned most­ly with economic history and figuresabout contemporary economic life.Here are .means of noticing the in­crease of per capita income and realwages, the changes in population dis­tribution, the g�owtht,jn industrialproduction, the�gr(jwiir� role 'bf pub­lic finance, which are qb (,;,trristicsof our economic history. ' "'"1f:,,>vIt may be suggested, however, thatthe readings could well be supple­mented by some vivid a<;9��nt� of t�echanges in our ecoIlgmib' circum­stances. The chapter' in H�hryAdams' History of the United States)1801-17, describing the physical con­ditions of American life at the timeof Jefferson's election, serves for meat any rate, to give a vivid pictureof the life of the times, and themeager conditions under which ourgreat forebears lived and did theirwork. The chapter furnishes a cer­tain corrective to the dispositionwhich we all at times feel to be dis­proportionately dissatisfied with thephysical conditions and the "complex­ity" of modern life. So Turner's essayon the frontier, which is fortunatelyincluded in these readings, and indeedthe whole volume of Turner's writ­ings in which that essay now appears,will serve of ten as a useful reminderthat the open spaces were not alwaysthe simple solution for all problemswhich we sometimes suppose. Thereis after all, nothing better than look­ing around one. A student may look(Continued on page 23)A Law School graduate, rem­iniscing about Professor MalcolmP. Sharp's course ,in ContractLaw, called him a "quiet Soc­rates, who raised pertinent andprofound problems which havetaken me years to think through."Graduate of Amherst and theHarvard Law School, Mr. Sharpwas a faculty member of the Uni­versity of Wisconsin's experi­mental college. He has practicedlaw in New York, been a frequentRound Table moderator, servedthe War Labor Board, the WPBand Navy and War Departments,during the war years, and helpedwrite the N RA steel code.Pretty, fresh-faced Natasha 50-b�tka, 18, a fourth-year College stu­dent, was crowned Miss University ofChicago, 1949, at a C-Dance spon­sored by the Daily Maroon in IdaNoyes.She was the pre+fies+ of 23 con­testants, nominated by a wide assort­ment of +he 95 campus organizationswhich' now exist. Samples of +he vari­ety: United World Federalists, Acro­theatre, Mortarboard, Hindustan Stu­dent's Association, Young Republi­cans, . Political Porum, Wyvern. All told,800 votes were cast.Her backer: the Young Democrats.Her field: social psychology. Her post­graduation plans: marriage.CAMPUS QUEENS, 1949The Sigma Chi's thought tall, lis­some Joan Gemeinhardt, 22" wouldmake a nice queen of InterfraternityBall, held this year at the EdgewaterBeach Hotel.So, apparently, did Judges JulieWilson, star of "Kiss Me Kate," andWIND Radio Announcer Bob. Finne­gan, who picked her out of I I con­testants.The new Queen has attended theUniversity, Kalamazoo College andI ,Northwestern, and is now takingcourses at the downtown college.She's a hardworking girl too: havingdone public relations work for the RedCross, reporting for the SouthtownEconomist, and publicity for the GirlScouts. Her plans for the future:marriage.12Reflections After FivePLATO AND ARISTOTLEPLAY BALLScore: 6-0. The Dean also comments on InterfraternityBall and the trouble on PeoriastreetDean Strozi-er-I HAVE A startling announcementto make. The first Bowl Game ofthe current football season has beenplayed in Stagg Field-complete withshoulders and hip pads, cleats andhelmets, and about 500 shiveringscholars who managed to evoke anoccasional shout. Several weeks agoa group of students organized a volun­tary football club. About 70 managedto check out equipment and to prac­tice regularly every afternoon. To cul­minate their - "season," - they dividedinto two teams - the Platonists andthe Aristotelians, and played theirwind-up game in 'the PhilosophyBowl-Stagg Field revisited!As with most voluntary student ven­tures, the enthusiasm of the playerswas terrific. Incidentally, Plato pre­vailed over Aristotle, 6-0 - a sign ofour times?IF BallQuick on the heels of the pigskinfracas was the dazzling InterfraternityBall, held this year in the EdgewaterBeach. The affair was a huge successand everyone seemed pleased with thecoronation of Joan Gemeinhardt asthe Beauty Queen. Joan was spon- By ROBERT STROZIERDean of Studentssored by the Sigma Chi's, but fortu­nately was not tagged with that over­worked cliche, "The Sweetheart of"----Margaret and i went to the Ballwith the Woellners; Bob W oellner isAdviser to the Interfraternity Coun­cil this year. We were all impressedby the fact that the students who seemsomewhat careless in their dress oncampus were transformed into dreamsof loveliness that night. I must saythat accepted norms of dress on con­temporary American campuses areunique: some of the girls I had seenbefore only on campus were hardlyrecognizable in handsome eveninggown. The W oellners and we wereinfected by the collegiate spirit andended up on 57th Street eating ahamburger before going to bed.The Trustees inspectThe Board of Trustees Committeeon Student Interests met with us inthe private dining room at Burton­Judson the week before last, afterhaving visited Mr. Metcalf and hisstaff in the Field House and BartlettGym, the women's dormitories andalso some of the houses in B-J. Wevisited the gymabout four o'clock andfound every corner full of activity.The gymnasts, the basketball players,and the weightlifters had taken overthe top floor, and downstairs thewrestlers and the fencers were vXingfor limited space in the w-orkout room,while the swimmers were churningthe pool into a fury. I was chagrinedwhen I escorted the Committee to thewomen's dormitories, for as we- en­tered Beecher Hall, I mentioned it asKelly. But Mr. Sherer, who is Chair-13 man of the Committee, (and who hadpitched a little' woo at one time inKelly) was quick to tell the Dean ofStudents which hall was which. Wehad a successful evening discussingthe present rules and regulations ofthe residence halls, future plans forthem, and also the political clubs onthe Quadrangles, in - which the, Com­mittee had expressed some interest.The Board Committee is being veryfaithful in its visits to - the campus.They were to return on December8th to attend the dinner sponsoredby the Student Forum at the Quad­fltngle Club preceding, the debatewith a team from _ Oxford U niver­sity, England. Our Student Forumhas made a most remarkable rec­ord in the last two or three years.Bill Birenbaum, who has been' gradu­ated from the Law School, and whohas now moved into my office as Ad­ministrative Assistant, was the Direc­tor of the Forum during the last twoyears, and established a record whichis unequalled in the history of theUniversity for public speaking and de­bate. Forum teams have been listed .among the top 25 in the country fortwo consecutive years and have twicein a row been invited to the NationalHonor Tournament at West Point.They have won the University ofMiami Southern States meet twice ina row and have placed second in theBig Ten-an enviable record.Bendix revolutionOne thing which interested theTrustees enormously when they visitedthe Courts and passed through theGame Room was the sight of the Ben­dix washing machines, (Bendices).The coming of the Bendix __ to ourresidence halls marks one' of - the great14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsocial upheavals wrought by the lateWar. Most of our students no longersend out their laundry, and we havehad to install the 'washers in all of themen's units. With the advent of thewasher, came the problem of drying..and the quantity of clothes nowdraped on chairs and hanging onropes in the dormitories is leading usto seriously consider purchasing driers.When I was an undergraduate, noyoung man would ha ve considereddoing his own laundry. Young mentoday are perfectly casual about help­ing themselves in a number of ways;no honorable labor is too humble.Trouble on Peoria streetOne of the beneficial results of thepolitical acuity of our students hasbeen their sensitivity to importantsocial issues in our own community.The students have long been inter­ested in the racial tensions whichoften break to the surface in Chicago.The recent disturbances near 57th onPeoria street drew some to the areaas interested observers. Unfortunately,some of them inadvertently becameinvolved in what was going on there,although there was no provocationon their part whatsoever.An able editorial was written aboutthe matter by Evie Wagner, the neweditor of the Maroon. In a matureway Evie pointed out the difficultieswhich students might encounter bygoing alone and without apparent rea­son to places where trouble hadbroken out. She was not opposed toany person with a real reason ventur­ing into the zone, 'but she did warnagainst the hazards of such action.Evie has been doing a commend-. able job as the editor of the Maroon.She has been extremely cooperativewith my office, but is by no meansservile to the. viewpoint of the ad­ministration. It is difficult for an edi­tor to represent student sentiment andat the same time not feel that by sodoing it is necessary to attack Univer­sity policies. In fact, it has been in­teresting to note in a long series ofeditors, the different attitudes takenby them toward authority. A few havefelt that if they agreed in any waywith the administration, they werefailing the students whom they repre­sented. Others have taken a broaderview and seen that the best interestsof the administration are often thoseof students. Evie represents the latter. Non-directive counselingOn Saturday, November 12, we hadour Third Annual Institute on Gen­eral Education, sponsored particularlyfor the high school principals andcounselors within the general metro­politan area of Chicago. There wasan especially interesting program thistime, as we attempted to tell our highschool friends what we are doing inthe general field of counseling. CarlRogers and a group from CounselingCenter were in charge of the morningprogram, and John Davey and JohnBergstresser both gave talks.Carl Rogers' history with us is arather remarkable one. He came tothe University in 1945 and opened theCounseling Center on a very modestscale in the south portion of Lexing­ton Hall. He had at that time onlythree or four members on his staff.Carl has made a name for himself inthe field of non-directive counseling;and he has authored several impor­tant books on the subject.The Center has the double purposeof serving students and providing re­search in the field of non-directivecounseling. To obtain a more ade­quate cross-section of clients, the Cen­ter has 'been open to people outsidethe University on a fee-basis.Students may go to the Centervoluntarily for counseling and guid­ance on personal problems, or. theymay be referred to it by heads of theresidence halls, the advisers in theCollege, or any official in the U niver­sity. No student is required to go tothe Center and no formal reports aremade to the person who has suggestedthat a student utilize its facilities.This summer it was necessary tomove the Genter from Lexington Hallto a University building on DrexelAvenue. The staff has grown totime counselors without pay just forthirty, half of whom serve as part­the opportunity to study the tech­niques and to work with Carl.While Carl's work on the campushas grown tremendously, he has alsoserved as President of the N�tionalPsychological. Association and hasbeen in great demand as a lecturer.Rockets awayAs if standing in a football stadiumto watch a Philosophy Bowl gamewas not unique experience enough for a Dean of Students at the Uni­versity of Chicago, another came myway when our Rocket Society decidedto make a test of their rocket motor.The problem: how much insurance.should the University require the So.ciety to carry in connection with thematter? Howard Moore, legal counselto the Business Office, helped us outwith that one. I now understand thatthe Rocket test will be carried out atan isolated site in Illinois, since theoriginal proposal to have it at the In.diana Dunes might involve Indianaas well as Illinois legalities.Fulbright applicantsWhen Congress enacted the Ful­bright Bill about a year ago, it setmany wheels in motion on the Quad.rangles. We have already completedmore than 143 preliminary interviewswith students who have applied tostudy abroad next year under thestatute. The Act provides that fundsaccumulated abroad frdm the sale ofsurplus war properties may be usedto underwrite the study of Americanstudents in the respective countries,and travel to our country by foreignstudents. Six hundred scholarshipswill be awarded to American studentsfor study during 1950-51. More than30,000 will be competing for theseawards. Only those who are more ad­vanced in years and who have definitestudy projects will be selected. Con­gress was not interested in financingforeign junkets for gay collegians. Wealready have 25 students abroad whowere selected last summer and wholeft for study this fall.All of our applicants will be evalu­ated locally by a faculty committeeas well as by .the national board. Iam serving as chairman of the com­mittee, which consists of Nancy Upp,Bob Horn, Harold Voorhees, NormanMaclean, Merle Coulter, and SheldonTefft. Walter Johnson, also on ourfaculty, is serving with the nationalselection board.Under the Fulbright Program ourstudents may study in Australia, Aus­tria, Belgium, Burma, Egypt, Greece,India, Iran, Italy, the Netherlands,New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, thePhilippines, and Turkey. But they allseem to want to go to France or Eng­land, which are also included in theagreements. Times have indeedchanged, and now the road to Man ..dalay leads right down the Midway!PLANTS, FLOWERS AND DISHGARDENSA casual Christmas sideline for Mr. Woo becomesa lifework for Mr. Whang-who had planned to be a bankerThe Whangs in a family pose .. Arthuris at the top, Roy in his father's armsand Edward, to the right.THIS IS THE story of HarryWhang, '26, who majored inbanking at Chicago, joined t?e staffof the Chase National Bank In NewYork took a master's in education atColu�bia so he could teach in his'native Korea, and wound up makingdish gardens.Whang tells us that dish gardensoriginated in -China. Like mostancient Chinese arts it found its waythrough Korea to Japan-in the thirdcentury A.D. It seems a Korean Kingsent a friendship dish garden to theruler of Japan.The Japanese added dwarfed pinetrees to get the illusion of age andtook great pains to reproduce scenesand landscapes.As Orientals moved to Americathey brought their dish gardens,which began appearing in the Chi­nese sections of San Francisco, Chi­cago, and New York, and in Japanesegift stores. But not until the earlytwenties did they become really popu­lar in America.In 1925, when America was riding high with Coolidge prosperity andHarry Whang was a junior in theSchool of Commerce and Administra­tion on the Midway, Mr. S.Y. Woo,a Korean student in Yale DivinitySchool, was told he would have tohave a delicate and expensive noseoperation. He went to New York totalk with his sister, a student atColumbia University. To raise themoney they decided to open a smallgift shop during the Christmas holi­day season.They rented a small space on 6thAvenue and stocked it with Orientalknicknacks. To attract shoppers tothe window display, Woo drew on hishobby experience of Korea and built an attractive dish garden. He went toconsiderable trouble to gather its smallplants, sparkling stones, the toyarched bridge and Japanese miniaturepagoda.He had barely stepped out of thewindow when a man came in to askits cost. After all the trouble, Woodidn't want to sell his window displayso he quoted the impossible price of$35.00."Wrap it up," said the gentleman.A few days later Woo finished asecond garden and placed it in thewindow.Ditto.So, said Woo, if it's dish gardensthey want, dish gardens they shallOn the tenth floor of Hudson's Detroit department store Harry Whang hasmade a sunny corner live with plants and flowers. As world events changedAmerican attitudes, Harry was forced to change the garden'S name fromJapanese to Chinese to Indoor Gardens. The picture was taken just beforethe last change-which Harry thinks is neutral and final for all time.1510 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhave. He moved to larger quarters at72nd and Central Park West. It wasthe first store in the country to featuredish gardens only. Trucks planted'them in apartments up and downPark Avenue.Meanwhile Harry Whang left theMidway for New York banking. Fromthere he registered at Columbia forcourses in vocational education. Hehad decided to return to Korea, wherehe had been assured a teaching job.At Columbia he met the sister ofWoo. This led to the store on 72ndStreet and friendship with Woo.He learned how to build these smallgardens in fish bowls and deep plat- ters. Even large department storeswere introducing sections which solddish gardens and potted plants.Then things began to happen inbunches. The depression struck anddemand for the luxury gardens fell.Woo sold his store and opened agreenhouse in Cleveland. His sisterwent to Wanamaker's in Philadelphiato promote dish garden sales. Harrygot word that his appointment inKorea would be delayed one year.In 1931 the J. L. Hudson Companyof Detroit invited Woo to open aChinese Garden department in theirstore. Woo accepted and soon thefamily was together again. We aren't quite clear about justwhen Woo's sister became Mrs.Whang. We know that Harry took ll:Pdish gardening when his Korean ap­pointment was delayed. He workedin the Hudson store with Woo untilWoo's father died in Korea. Wooneeded to return to his country andlook after things. He sold the gardensto Harry Whang.Today Whang, in his white smock,tends the aisles of plants and dishgardens with the assistance of a staffof girls. Mrs. Whang has transferredfrom dish gardens to kitchen dishes tofeed three healthy youngsters: Arthur,Teddy and Roy. H. M.THREE-STAR TEACHERI'In . a recent issue of Concord) "AMagazine for the Student Community,"Charles F. Russ Jr., of Lakewood, Ohio,completing his first year in our Law School,wrote a profile of a Chicago professor. Itwas one of five student essays under thegeneral titles "What Makes A Good PrOf?"We secured permission to reprint it be­cause we think it will give you an insightinto the University'S philosophy on stu­dent-professor relationships at the divi­sional and professional level.As every neophyte at,' the LawSchool of the University of Chi­cago soon learns" ':Elements of Law"is not just .another course-it's anexperience. This is partly becauseof the unusual �libject matter in thethree "telephone books," which bearthe same name.comprise the text. Inthis weighty .trilogy one can spendmany a pleasant .afternoon wanderingthrough Acquinas, Plato, Rousseau,Thurman Arnold, U. S. SupremeCourt decisions, the Mann Act, ashortened cOlirse:i�in logic, and themanner in which��:jcourt in India de­termined the '�wiH"'>'of an idol.iff'Most of the. uniqueness, however, istraceable to the guiding spirit of thiseducational endeavor, a former trust­buster of the Department of Justice,Edward H. Levi (Professor of Law) .At first glance there is nothing espe­cially romantic or inspiring about By Charles F. Russ Jr.Neckties fromEaster dyesMr. Levi. In fact, he looks quite or­dinary. A man in his late thirties,he displays a rather stocky build,average height and a high foreheadwith a receding hairline. He wearsglasses and dresses conservatively, ex­ceptfor a penchant for ties which ap­pe�r -to have been dipped in a mul­ti3coioFed dye, along with last year'sEaster eggs.In class, however, Mr. Levi is dy­namic. Here the mild mantIer" de--�� -��.'parts; first-year students .a);�b_;!facedwith the piercing wit a.� ;challeng­ing questions of a brillia�t 'professor,who occasionally skips ,a :lfriday classto speed to Washington; to fight acasebefore the U. S. Supreme Court."What is justice?" Mr. Levi asks."Wh'at,fis the natural law? �hatare the Teal reasons for deciding thecase this way?" If you don't knowyou had better learn fast, and youwon't find out by asking the teacher,either.For, like others of Mr. Hutchins'faculty, Mr. Levi's philosophy is thatthe arguments, pro and con, reside in you, or a fellow class member. Hisjob is to coordinate the group's re­sponse, and to suggest the inter-rela­tion of ideas that will lead to a dis­covery of the basis for some socialpolicy or legal principle. If the re­sponse is poor, he closes the discus­sion and ends the class right there,with a sharp admonition that every­one study more thoroughly.Mr. Levi thus gets his first goldstar; 'he encourages, if not compelsyou" to' think for yourself. Unlikemany professors, his purpose is not tounload a shopworn lecture which thebright student will carefully mem­orize and faithfully parrot on a finalexam. It's what "you think and howyou think that's important. The judg­ments you make and .the conclusionsyou come to, concern him.Each class period is one of search,analysis, integration and conclusion-a never-ending process. Each ideais tested much as a legal principle is,by open discussion, criticism andarguments, pro and con. In thismanner, he "works over" each class,sifting out weak ideas and carefullyleading each discussion to a soundTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERuss: The Juror. of all the rights, dutiesvaluatIOnand consequences suggested by thematerial.To take a large group of students,Y of whom have been reared onman f d .the spoonfeeding system 0 e ucation,d launch them on a mature andan .. d di •US venture into in epen entserio .thought is quite an undertaking. YetM.·........• Levy's talents do not end here.N�t content wit� merely �ncourag­. '. sound thinkmg, he onents themg.. . ., dtechnicalities of JUnspru ence to s?-. 1 policy, and the needs of man inCIa .. I .economic and politica community.Jan rice is not merely a relation be-us.teen man n nd man, he says: It em­w . fbraces the whole of SOCl�ty. ?ne. 0his chief concerns thus IS s?Clal JUs­tice-what it needs to. function, whatwe can expect from It, and how wecan achieve it.* *For this reason, Mr. Levi gets hissecond gold star: he encouragesthought not only about man the in- dividual, but man as a social being­who has and must assume certain so­cial responsibilities for the attainmentof the common good.He asks in a patent case: "Whatwill happen if we don't give the in­ventor an exclusive patent as a re­ward for his discovery? Would peo­ple stop inventing, or would societyget the benefit of new inventions atgreatly lowered costs?" Mr. Levidoesn't say. Yet it is impossible tobe faced with such a problem withoutexamining and relating the issues in­volved.So as a result, the student askshimself: "How would I decide thecase?" When this happens, Mr. Levihas successfully fulfilled his role inthe learning process. The studentis on his own, to further pursue thematter in independent investigation.The third gold star is a warded be­cause Edward H. Levi is the mostentertaining professor I know. Tosay his class is something of a riot,is to give the uninitiated a wrong im­pression, and suggest an overlighttreatment of a serious matter. Never­theless, many of his classes are justthat. Not without reason do studentsbring their girls, wives, and friendsto sit in on Levi sessions. They may,or may not, know something of thelaw he's discussing, but were he inthe divinity school, he would be justas entertaining.To enjoy a Levi class, you need'only a sense of humor and some abil­ity to appreciate a great showman.For, coupled with his mastery of the 17Levi: For the Defensedialectical method of teaching, is histalent as a genuine comic. He laughs,he frowns, he kids, he paces back andforth, but best of all, he smiles. . . .A good answer merits a broad grinof satisfaction. A vague one provokesa tilt of the head and a blank stareof mystification and uncertainty.Best of all there is the "Levi look,"given illogical or otherwise foolish re­marks. Its hard to describe, butcombines the guilelessness of a three­year-old, caught swiping cookies, withthe disbelief and horror exhibited bya Republican who woke to find thatTruman had won the election ....The possession of incisive and chal­lenging ideas is one requisite of agood teacher. His success lies in hisability to make those ideas real andvital to the student. But the finalproof is not in producing mere pas­sive acceptance of his ideas, but inmaking them guideposts for inde­pendent student thinking.Mr. Levi meets the test.\Ve now have over 150 subjects in ourReading Lists file. Each list recommendsabout a dozen books on the subject pre­pared by a faculty specialist in the field.These lists are free to members of theAssociation (subscribes to the Magazine)with a limit of six at anyone time. We'llbe glad to mail an index of the entire 150if you drop us a card.Alumni who are not members of theAssociation can purchase these lists atcost: 15c for the first and 10c for eachadditional list in the same order. Stampsare acceptable.Here are the latest subjects to be added: New Alumni Reading ListsSubject Prepared byAmerican Government-Robert HornBehavior Problems of Children-Helen L.KochBooks, Songs, Records, Toys and ActivitiesPre-school Children Enjoy - Helen L.KochChildren's First Experiences with Music-J essie CarterChina-Earl PritchardCore Curriculum-Hilda TabaElements of Commercial Law-MalcolmSharpFar East-Earl PritchardIntergroup Relations-Hilda TabaJapan-Earl PritchardJournalism-William V. Morgenstern Modern Literary Criticism-Norman F.MacleanOil Painting-Edmund OiesbertParent-Teacher Relations-Warren Seyfertand Walter MoorePlanning-Staff, Program of Education &Research in PlanningPresent Day Problems of Tuberculosis-Dr.Robert BlochPsychology and Development of the Pre­school Child-Helen L. KochPublicity-William V. MorgensternRadio in Education - Audio Visual AidsCenterRecent Books in Sociology-Albert J. ReissTechniques of Landscape Painting - Ed­mund GiesbertWorkshops-Hilda TabaNews of the QuadranglesCOMING: MR. HAYEKBest-selling economist gives seminer, and Mr. Hutchinsmakes. a candid report on 20 years of University hist()JVFRIEDRICH A. Hayek, interna­tionally-known economist whoseUniversity of Chicago Press book, TheRoad to Seri dom, was a 1945 best­beller, will be visiting professor dur­ing the winter quarter.The British economist, of the Lon­don School of Economics and fellowof the British Academy, will be visit­ing professor of social and moral sci­ences with the University's Commit­tee on Social Thought.Professor Hayek's January arrivalis his third visit to the Quadrangles.He lectured here while on a nation­wide tour in 1945, and again in 1948.A naturalized Britisher, Hayek wasdirector of the Austrian Institute forEconomic Research during the yearsof the rise of the Nazi party in Ger­many and Austria and of Fascism inCentral Europe.In The Road to Serjdom, acclaimedby the critics as "one of the mostimportant books of our generation,"Hayek warned the free nations thatthey were, unknowingly, veering to­ward a collectivism which is incom­patible with democracy. He is alsothe author of a second Press book,I ndividualism and Economic Order.He will teach an advanced seminaron "The Place of the Mind in theNatural and Social Sciences."20 year reportThe key problems of a universityadministration are those of clarifyingand unifying education, ChancellorRobert M. Hutchins says in "TheState of the University, 1929-1949."Presented on the anniversary of hisinauguration on November 19, 1929,the report is a summary of his twentyyears as chief executive. Mr. Hutchinshas been in office longer than anyother present executive of a major By Jeannette LowreyAmerican educational institution."The American university will en­dure as long as our form of govern­ment lasts," Mr. Hutchins states. "Theendowed universities will endure aslong as they perform a service thatcannot be performed by public insti­tutions."The principal service that can be·performed by independent universitiesis to set standards. This means show­ing hospitality to good men who arepursuing unconventional work, organ­izing in accordance with commonsense rather than academic tradition,pioneering in the development of edu­cational programs and methods, andmaintaining academic freedom."The growth in the Middle West ofthe university idea, with its emphasison research, must be attributed largelyto the work of William Rainey Harperin establishing the University of Chi­cago, Mr. Hutchins observes in thereport.Through its College, first organizedin 1930 as a two-year program, andlater as one of four years beginning atthe end of the sophomore year ofhigh school, the University has soughtto restore the foundation of liberaleducation.Recalling that the awarding of thebachelor's degree for completion ofthis program caused considerable dis­cussion among educators, Mr. Hutch­ins says the educational results havebeen satisfactory."The decision to award the B.A. ongraduation from the College wasjustified on the ground that the Col­lege had worked out a liberal educa­tion equal to that for which thedegree had formerly been conferred.Students graduating from the Collegeare not proficient specialists. Nationaltests suggests, however, that they are18 Jeannette Lowreyat least equal in liberal education tograduates of conventional collegeswho have attended college two yearslonger."Another result of the reorganizationwhich produced the College, Mr.Hutchins believes, has been to makethe master's degree, requiring threeyears of study at Chicago, stand forsolid educational achievement."The advance of specialization dur­ing the life of the University of Chi­cago has been phenomenal and hasmade it plain that, if the universityis to be a community of scholarsrather than a collection of scholars,it must develop a common basis ofliberal education and must exploitevery means of promoting communi­cation among scholars."The promotion of research in­volves primarily the creation of an at­mosphere in which scholars can learnfrom one another. The university hasdone everything it can think of tocreate such an atmosphere, and,though the centrifugal forces in a uni­versity are very strong, I believe thatit has succeeded."In spite of all the pressures ofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe last 20 years, the board oftrustees has stood firmly for the rightof the professor to investigate andteach according to his conscience, andit has stood with equal firmness forhis right as a citizen to do and saywhatever other citizens may legallydo and say." .To offset the great cost of presentresearch, a university must limit itsactivities to those which it can con­duct better than anybody else, andseek every opportunity to co-operatewith other institutions.The co-operative agreement withthe University of Texas in astronomy,the Mid-West Interlibrary Center forthe pooling of little-used books byten other institutions, interdepart­mental and interdivisional collabora­tion through organization of commit­tees that include members of manydepartments and divisions, and theFederated Theological Faculty, whichin 1943 brought four independentdenominational schools into a federa­tion, are examples of University inte­gration.Professional education, Mr. Hutch­ins says, is the most obvious exampleof the necessity and difficulty of uni­fying a university."If the aims of a professional schoolare markedly different from those ofnon-professional schools, even a com­mon liberal education will not savethe University from the disunity thatis the consequence of working at cross­purposes."The primary object of the profes­sional school at the University is tostudy the subject and incidentally toprepare men, through the study ofthe subject, to practice the profes-. "sion,The Medical School is described byMr. Hutchins as "a gigantic effort' atintegration." The Law School, hesays, has gone further than any otherto integrate its work with that in re­lated fields, notably in history, psy­chology, economics, politics, and phi­losophy.Dr. Harper's VISIOn in insisting onadult education and the diffusion ofknowledge as a responsibility of theuniversity has been vindicated byevents, Mr. Hutchins says."The education of adults shouldnow become the primary, rather thanthe incidental, object of the atten- tion of those concerned with educa­tion."What we should do is to give theyoung as rapidly as possible an under­standing of the tradition in which theylive, of the techniques of thought andcommunication, and habits of study.They should then be forced out intothe world with the explicit under­standing that they have not beeneducated. They have been given theequipment to educate themselves, andthis is a process that should go onfor their entire lives."A plum for young writersFour annual story writing and play­writing prizes, totaling $3,000, havebeen established under the Olga Mennand Paul Menn Scholarship Founda­tion.The awards were inaugurated underthe will of the late Miss Olga Menn,Chicago and Miami socialite, whodied December 17, 1946, naming theUniversity of Chicago the residuarylegatee of her estate.Miss Menn and her brother Paulinherited the bulk of the lumber andengineering fortune of William A.Gilchrist from their aunt, Mrs. EmilyF. Gilchrist' Wells. As residuary le­gatee, the University of Chicago hasreceived $100,000 from the estate.The prizes, fostering outstandingwriting among students 20 to 26 yearsof age who have not yet received amaster's degree, will include two $1,-000 and two $500 awards each year.The awards will be made· for bothnovels and short stories, and the play­writing, for plays of any length.Thousands of babiesIn 5,000 births, using saddle-blockanesthesia, Chicago Lying-in Hospitaland Dispensary had no maternal ornear-maternal deaths.The spinal-anesthesia delivery, withthe mother conscious at the time ofdelivery and the baby born undruggedand generally crying at once, was de­scribed by Dr. William J. Dieckmann,chief of staff, at the annual meetingof the board of directors.Dr. Dieckmann also showed thehospital's newest movie on ·saddleblock. The teaching film, just. com­pleted, concluded the university'sstudy on saddle block, the most com­plete study ever made of spinalanesthesia in obstetrics. 19"A safe childbirth anesthetic forboth mother and child, saddle blockpermits the mother to hear the firstcry of her infant," Dr. Dieckmannsaid. "Ninety-eight percent of thewomen who delivered at Lying-in un­der saddle block anesthesia had almostcomplete relief from pain immedi­ately following administration of thedrug. Forty-three percent of the de­liveries were made with saddle blockanesthesia. "Chicago Lying-in hospital, one ofthe first large maternity hospitals togive saddle-block anesthesia a com­prehensive trial, studied 719 cases ina l-l-month period. Research was con­ducted by Drs. G. J. Andros, Dieck­mann, P. Ouda, H. D. Priddle, R. C.Smither, and W. M. Bryan."Findings in the saddle-block re­search show that the average physi­cian, with some training in adminis­tration, can administer spinal anes­thesia for relief of the painof the latesecond stage and for the delivery witha high degree of safety," Dr. Dieck­mann stated. Analgesias are given inthe first and early second stage oflabor for the relief of pain."Regional anesthesia is a preferredmethod for premature babies as in­halation anesthesia delays the breath­ing of the infant at the time of birth."In cases of difficult delivery, sad­dle block relaxes the patient.consider­ably, thereby facilitating forcep· de­livery. In addition to the de)ive�y�saddle block also allows for the repairof incision made at the time of de­livery."Saddle-block is also preferable toother anesthetics for patients suffer­ing from lung disorders, diabetes,cold or cardiac symptoms."N 0 cases of neurological or spinallesions have come to the attention ofLying-in, and only one percent of thewomen suffered severe headaches,"Dr. Dieckmann said."Success of the saddle-block anes­thesia," Dr. Dieckmann�d�d,"lies in the meticulous attention toevery aspect of the procedure. Thepatient is evaluatedas a proper candi- .date and her progress in labor fol­lowed carefully. During the first halfhour of anesthesia, the physician re­mains with the patient. Delivery iseffected promptly when the patient isready."20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELove IS not enoughremain at the School for an averageof two years.Eighteen on entrance showed symp­toms of delinquency, five such severeintellectual blocking that despite bet­ter-than-average intelligence the yseemed feeble minded. Eight showedsuch serious disorders in thinking, andhad such severe delusions, their trou­bles were similar to schizophrenia, inadults. Three more suffered fromneurotic deafness, and a neurotic in­ability to read.They had other symptoms, in addi­tion to these major ones. Fourteen,for example, had violent temper tan­trums. Fifteen were seriously re­tarded in school: 28 suffered fromsevere psychosomatic disturbancessuch as tics, stuttering, neuroderma­titis, asthma, inability to eat, insatia­ble hunger, disturbances of the colon,etc. Five had made one to fivesuicidal attempts, and three at leastone homicidal try. Such symptomsare not to be taken too seriously, assuch, because under treatment theymay change. They are just the sur­face ripples from a more violent whirl­pool which rages far down below.Children are good for each otherMost of our living is in groups, andeach counselor has no more than fourto eight children, of varying ages (aswould be the case in a real family).Since much of our therapy is grouptherapy, we try to place a child in thecircle in which he will get along best.Fortunately, for our work, it is bene­ficial to mix children who suffer dif-.ferent kinds of disturbances. For ex­ample, the runaway child envies whathe views as the ability of the with­drawn, quiet child to enjoy quiet,rest and peace. This becomes an in­centive for him to try to live a morepeaceful way of life. Similarly, theextremely withdrawn child summonscourage to come out of his shell, andovercome, his fears, when he seesnothing untoward happening to achild who can permit himself free­dom in satisfying his instinctual needs.We respect "not only the child butthe way he acts, however troublesomeit is to us. His neurotic symptom, werealize, was a defense built against anunbearable life: it was hard for himto work it out. So he is permitted(Continued from page 6)to explore, as he wishes, the adequacyor inadequacy of his neurotic defenses;we let him decide for himself if it isthe best way to deal with a now decentenvironment, the School. Usually hecomes to realize himself that his ef­forts to fight back, or withdraw, areno real way to deal with the new life.The relation of most of our chil­dren to adults has been so unhappy,it may take years before they are ableto be friendly with grownups again,and before an adult can influencethem. So we try to find a neutralmeeting ground, on which they do notfeel endangered. Only after a childfeels fully safe and secure in theSchool, in respect to his minor fears,will he dare attack his major anxieties.Then he usually becomes ready tomake up for past deprivations, al­though at first only with a favoriteperson. He may return to suckingfrom a bottle, enjoy being read towhile sitting on a counselor's lap, orto some pleasant experience whichseems to be the "birthright" of everychild and which he has missed.Before a child can bring order intothe chaos of his personality, he mustfor a long time live in an orderlyworld. He can not come to grips witha world which seems utterly senselessto him. Living day in and out withadults who provide him with imagesof reasonable and orderly living, be­comes a challenge to him, to adopttheir pattern-first in his external,then internal, life. For' Lucille, theworld had to look pleasant and order­ly before she could feel any desire tobecome a pleasant person herself, andorganize her inner chaotic strivings.Growth rather than achievementWe try then to create a settingwhich a child can understand and inwhich he can safely explore to hisheart's content, not only objects, buthuman relations. It is a setting whichstimulates g row t h , rather thanachievement. It is the kind in whichan infant normally first learns to like,and then become attached to, personshe knows. We put greater value ona wellknit personality, than visiblesuccess in competition. We try towean the child from "canned" me­chanical .stimuli, like movies . andradio, and to activity which leads to human contact, and the conVIctionthe child can do something for him­self. Weare satisfied if he learns to'get along well with himself and afew favored people (rather thanseek an empty "popularity").To be technical, I would call ourwork "milieu therapy" rather thanpsychotherapy. By this I mean wedo not rely mainly on one relation­ship (say that of therapist and child),or on the working out of problems ina secluded room. Instead we providea variety of personal relationships be­tween children and staff members andamong children themselves. At leastfour adults-one teacher, two or threecounselors, ,and a therapist-have in­timate con. 1;4c t with each child. Sohe has near.vhim at any moment atleast one .adult who has solved hisown problems of living, and who isn'tconflicted, about the particular areathe child is-e-cleanliness, for example.A child needs an adult Fe+her50 often, in this complex age, afather has little time to spend withhis son. He may be none too sure ofhis emotional attachment' to him any­way, and tries to make up for it byCOnsCIOUS efforts to win the child'saffection. He tries to be a "com­panion", acts childishly himself, al­lows his son to overpower him stead­ily in game or play, and actually endsup convincing him he can neithercontrol nor protect him.A child needs to know that anadult can. protect, and if necessary,control him. All we expect an adultin the school to do, is be himself, andbehave his age. By doing just thathe gives the child an image to emu­late. He also restores the child's se­curity, which comes from being caredfor by a strong and effective adult.Again, we try to organize a child'slife at School so he is able to mastermore and more difficult tasks. Theinsight and experience gained in anormal day's activities become stepsin his personal growth. We tryto provide children with situationswhich are as simple, uncomplicatedand as protective as they can bemade, realistically; the child can man­age them, through efforts he can easilyafford to make.Success comes easier when the childTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21't have to be the victor in a hos-doesn '.'1 ompetition, but mstead wms re-t! e c .' .t for achIevement m non-competr-spec activities. Other children in histIVe di ff h'Pare rea rer to 0 er t IS respectgrou . basi db'. f hey feel theIr' asic nee s are . emg1 td for and if they don't have tocare ,"b howi .fi ht for them . y s owmg up theg "other guy. .Going to class (nine a.m. to three)es less fear if there isn't any pres-roUS. .to do so, If there are no failuressure... lass no report cards, and one canIn c 'h . hibe sure the teac er, wit m reason,'11 know you are upset about some­;ing which happened that morning,and make allowances for it. Childrenwho truant fron: sch�ol b:cause they.fear the learnmg srtuation, aren'tforced to attend classes. Others whof ar competing, are taught individ­ueally. Stress is avoided and physicalmovement is encouraged, so there. less chance for new tensions to ac-IS •cumulate.We try to make a child see every-day normal events (particularlytho�e around which his troubles cen­ter ) as nO.t so. threateni�g after all.If he wornes about keepmg clean, orelimination, it is easier to discuss thiswith him while he washes, or proteststaking a bath, than by hashing overhis feelings with him later.The importance of eatingTake eating, for instance. We makeclear to every child that he can eatas much as he wants, whenever hewants food. We have found this an,excellent way to relieve one of themost deeproote� fears: that they maygo hungry. Even children who havehad plenty tQ eat, unconsciouslyequate a parent's disapproval withthe unspoken threat of being deprivedof food. To have food in abundance,means an abundance to them of goodthings in general, and overall security.I t takes many children a long timeto find out that mealtime can be fun.For many, meals have been the sceneof frequent battle: of being over­powered by adults, or humiliated, orbeing forced to sit still and be bored,or having to eat food they disliked.In the past, they may have refusedto eat, just to, get back at an adultfor other sufferings. The enjoymentof food, and later on meals, is re-.stored to these children by eating withthem at other 'than formal meals-c-on'walks, in the playground etc. The Authoro B� nex! spring, Dr. Bruno Bettelheim's story of the Sonia Shankmanrt cqeruc School will be in print. Title of the. new book, in whichanyI �arent. can find a wealth of common-sense suggestions for raisinga. pam, n.orma,1 child, is: "love Is Not Enough-the treatment of emo­honal!y disturbed children." Publisher: The Free Press.Q.Uletly, and steadily, unbeknownst even to much of the University com­mUnl.ty, the Scho.ol has accrued a distinguished reputation as one of theleading cente�s In the country, for the research, training in, and treat­ment o� emohonally disturbed children.. Credit for this must go in great measure to Dr. Bettelheim, directorsince 1943, though he is always last to claim it.He came to Chicago in 1939, by way of Vienna, Austria, and thecamps of �achau and Buchenwald, which inspired one of his bestknown, studies: "Individual Mass, Behavior in Extreme Situations." Byorder of General Eisenhower, it was required reading for all militarygov�rnment officers in Europe. With Morris Janowitz (Social Sciences)he IS co-author of "Dynamics of Prejudice,' a report on racial hostilityamong vetera�s, being published this month by Harper's.Add to +his variety of interest, and skill, the curious fact that hest�rted out as an art historian, and got a PhD in Aesthetics. "Then."he says, explaining his switch in vocations,' "I found that live humanbeings were even more fascinating than dead beauty, or the abstractions?f the �hilosopher." Even after he'd decided to make the psychoanalyt­icelly-crien+ed treatment of children his life work, he found that his "rigoroustraining i.n thinking, as. a philosopher" proved handy, in "thinking clearlyabout children and their problems." ,A few selected incidents, taken fromthe rehabilitation of Charles, mayserve to indicate more graphically thenature of our work. 'Soon after enrolling, he used hisnew-found freedom to explore hisbiggest anxiety. He would sit fasci­nated and motionless, hour on hour,watching the trains go by on the ICtracks near the school. He was alwaysafraid an engine might jump thetracks-which. for him meant that hiswhole defense might collapse.In conversations, he revealed thathe thought of his' own hostile tenden­cies as engines, and those of his par­ent's as well. As he heard a trainwhistle one day)", he said: "tt soundslike a wife yellihg at her husband."(There was a: lot of bitter quarrelingin. the family). 'Charles had't9 be considerably re­lieved from feat 9£ his parents, and ofhis own anger :�nd hostility, beforehe could feel free to move about.As he relaxed,he began playing atbeing a train' con?uctor. (Before, hehad only imagined himself the en­gine. ) He became the person whocontrols the power, rather than thesenseless and inhuman power itself.Then the train conductor began run­ning along: side the train, checking onwhether everything was in order.Eventually, he fitted his bed out as a train station, where engines stoppedand "the trains didn't crash in the,njghLand wreck everything."'When he first came to us, even'walking up a slight incline was animpossible task for him. We did�'tpush him to do so-thereby replacing, hisfather's pushing him in intellectualachievement, for our pushing him inexercise and motor coordination' We<! I'� ,'_f'toldhim not to try if it was too "hard,that, exercise which wasn't fun was.sense-less. But he saw other childrenenjoying running up and dow�r hill,and la ter we said it seemed a shamehe missed out on so much fun. It \V�s'up �-to him to decide yes or rib. He'begap to think it over. MightHeTall.down? Might he not, like an tiler so much speed he'd be' power':'less 'io stop? . \"'!ils counselor explained hO\;\T, , en":.gines, when their brakes aren't work-'ing, .can he stopped by buffers and,she promised to wait at the bottom ofthe hill and catch him, if necessary.He; �nally got up courage enough to,runjdown, throwing himself 'against Jher.:,·� ,,For a time, before moving about �any' more freely, he insisted hiscounselor stand ready to stop him .and.catch him at all times. Then he be­gan,_to play on his own, running andfalling very much like a two year old.22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHe seemed almost to be developinghis motor coordination from scratch.From rolling down the incline, hegraduated to taking walks, and finallyto playing ball-progress which tookmore than two years.As he moved about more, his in­tellectual preoccupation decreased,and he was more and more able toapply his real intelligence to matterssuitable to his age.The School is not limited just totreatment of emotionally. disturbedchildren. We do research in therapyand education, and offer training tofuture workers in the field: in chil­dren's institutions, as child therapistsand educators, and the like. We. areunique not only in being one of the few full time boarding institutions inthe nation, but stand alone in beingconnected with a University.This isn't to imply that we havenow accumulated a body of absoluteknowledge which can solve all theproblems confronting us. On the con­trary, we feel we are working in arelatively new field, in which not eventhe basic premises underlying thework are definitely established. Much,much more knowledge is needed: atbest, we can hope to add to it.The hard job of raising childrenBut our work does have bigger im­plications. The rearing of childrenin a complex society, such as ours, ina world of strain and emotional in- .security, is difficult. As we discover how to help children solve problemswhich keep them from succeeding inlife, and as their distress is relievedwhile they live in School, we gain amuch better understanding of justwhere things go astray in the rearingof children.Fewer and fewer families todayseem able to provide a satisfying hu­man environment for their children:hence the child doesn't learn theskills so necessary for successful living.Experience gained at the School,and made available to parents, teach­er, social agencies, and the public atlarge, we hope will contribute to teach­ing the greatest art of all-living asocially useful, and emotionally satis­fying, life.CALENDARWednesday, January 4SEMINAR-University College-"An· Introduction to Music," Scott Gold­thwaite, acting chairman, department of music, U of C, first of II lec­tures, 7 P.M., 19 South La Salle. Eleven seminars-$18.SEMINAR-University College-"Case Work with the Aged," first of IIsessions, 7:30 P.M., 19 South La Salle. Eleven sessions-$12.Thursday, January 5BASKETBALL-Field House, 5550 University, 8 P.M., U of 0 vs. ChicagoTeachers. Admission $1.SEM I N AR-University College-"The Modern Novel," George Stein brecher,lecturer in English, U of C, first of II sessions, 7 P.M., 19 South La Salle.Eleven sessions-$18.SEMINAR-University College-"International Relations," James Reidel, lec­turer in political science, U of C, first of II sessions, 6:15 P.M., 19 SouthLa Salle. Eleven sessions-$15.Friday, JanuarySEMINAR-University College-"Short-Story Writing," Robert A. Park, lec­turer in English, U of C, first of II sessions, 7 P.M., 19 South La Salle.Eleven sessions-$18.SEMINAR-University College-"Group and Personality Factors Behind Mod­ern Tensions," Kermit Eby, associate professor of social sciences, Universityof Chicago, A. A. Liveright, director, union leadership program, andArthur J. Shedlin, dean of students and instructor in psychology, bothof University College, first of ten sessions, 7 P.M., 19 South La Salle.Ten sessi ons-$12.Saturday, January 7BASKETBALL-Field House,5550 University, 8:00 P.M., U of C vs. Wheaton.Admission $1.SWIMMING-Bartlett Gym, 5640 University, 2:30, U of C vs. Washington.Free.Monday, January 9.LECTURE CONFERENCE-University College-"Dynamics in Art," Lucy Dris­coll, assistant professor of art, University of Chicago, Section b meetsten Mondays, 2 P.M., Chicago Art Institute, Michigan and Adams. Tensessions-$6. .SEMINAR-University College-"Leadership in Conference Discussion,"Thomas Fansler, iedurer and director of research, National Safety Council,and Charles B. Tuttle, lecturer and president, Charles B. Tuttle andAssociates, first of ten sessions, 7 P.M., 19 South La Salle Street. $25.PUBLIC LECTURE-Joseph Schumpeter, professor of economics, Harvard Uni­versity, "The Fe c+ors of Economic �hange,". University of Chice qo Wal­green Foundation lectures on American Institutional and Economic Prog­ress, 4:30 P.M., James H. Breasted Hall, 1155 East 58th Street. Free.Tuesday, January 10BASKETBALL-Field House, 5550 University, 8:00 P.M., U of C vs. Illinois-Navy Pier. Admission $1.PUBLIC LECTURE-Saul D. Alinsky, author, "Reveille for Radicals, John L.Lewis," "The Balance Sheet," University College series, "America in Mid­Century: Dynamics and Defects in Our Democre cv." 7:30 P.M., Joel HunterBuilding, 123 West Madison Street. $0.75.LECTURE CONFERENCE - University College -"Dynamics in Art," LucyDriscoll, assistant professor of art, University of Chicago. Section a meetsten Tuesdays, II A.M., Chicago Art Institute, Michigan and Adams. $6.SEMINAR-University College-"The Writing of Poetry," Arvid Schulen­berger, lecturer in English, University of Chicago, first of ten sessions, 7P.M., 19 South La Salle Street. $12.SEMINAR-University College-"Shakespeare," Mrs. Catharine Baskerville,instructor in English, University of Chicago, first of ten sessions, 7 P.M.,19 South La Salle Street. $15.Wednesday, January IILECTURE CONFERENCE-University College-"Philosophy of Art in" China,"Lucy Driscoll, assistant professor of art, University of Chicago, first of tensessions, II A.M., Chicago Art Institute, Michigan and Adams. $6. SEMINAR-University College-"The World's Great Plays II," Melvin Seidenlecturer in English, University of Chicago, first of ten sessions, 7 P.M., 19South La Salle Street. $12.SEMINAR-University College-"Personali�y and the Effective. Executive,"Dr. Burleigh B. Gardner and Mrs. Harriett Bruce Moore, Social Research,Inc., first of ten sessions, 7 P.M., 19 South La Salle Street. $25.PUBLIC LECTURE-Joseph Schumpeter, professor of economics, Harvard Uni­versity "The Factors of Institutional Che nqe ," University of Chicago Wal­green 'Foundation lectures ol).,American Institutional and Economic Prog­ress, 4:30 P.M., James H. Breasted Hall, 1155 East 58th Street. Free.SEMINAR-University College-"Elements of Art II," Frederick A. Sweet,lecturer and associate curator of painting and sculpture, Chicago ArtInstitute, first of ten lectures, 6:30 P.M., gallery 2, Chicago Art Institute,Michigan and Adams. $18.PUBLIC LECTURE-Herrlee G. Creel, professor of early Chinese literatureand institutions University of Chicago, "Chinese Thought Before Con­fucius," public course, "Patterns of Thought in the Chinese World," 8 P.M.,room 122, Social Science Building, 1126 East 57th Street. $0.75.LECTURE CON FERENCE-University Colleqe-s-t'Old Master Prints and ModernArt," Lucy Driscoll, assistant professor of art, University of Chicago, firstof ten sessions, 2 P.M., Chicago Art Institute, Michigan and Adams. $6.Friday, January 13PUBLIC LECTURE-Mortimer J. Adler, professor of philosophy of law, Uni­versity of Chicago, author, "How To Read a Book," "Love and Desire"lhe .. Great Ideas series, 7:30 P.M., 32 West Randolph Street. $1.50. 'SEM INAR-University Co!lege-"Group·· Dynamics and Adult Education,"Malcolm S. Knowles, director of education, central department, ChicagoY.M.C.A., first of ten lectures, 12 M., 19 South La Salle Street. $18.PUBLIC LECTURE-Joseph Schumpeter, professor of economics, HarvardUniversity, "The Interaction Between the Factors of Economic and Institu­tional Change: Pol)tical Economy and Economics." U.niversity of ChicagoWalgreen Foundation lectures on American l ns+itutiona] and EconomicProgress, 4:30 PM., James H. Breasted Hall, 1155 East 58th Street. Free.UNIVERSITY CONCERT-Martial Singher, beri+oner Alidzia Kuzak, Soprano.Siegmund Levarie, conductor, Music of Bach, 8:30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall,5714 University. Admission $1.50.Saturday, January 14SWI MMING-At Greencastle, Indiana. U. of C. vs. De Pauw.FENCING-Bartlett Gym, 5640 University, I :30 P.M., U. of C. vs. Northwestern.Free. .GYMNASTICS-Bartlett Gym, 5640 University, 3 P.M., U. of C. vs. Michigan.Free. 'WRESTLING-A'- Peoria, III., U. of C. vs. Bradley.Monday, January 16BASKETBALL-At Wheaton College, 8 P.M., U. of C. vs. Wheaton.PUBLIC LECTURE-Joseph Schumpeter, professor of economics, HarvardUniversity, "Groups and Classes: Policies and Politics." University of Chi­cago Walgreen Foundation lectures on American Institutional and Eco­nomic Progress; 4:30 P.M., James H. Breasted Hall, 1155 East 58th' Street.Free.Tuesday, January 17PUBLIC LECTURE-Saul D. Alinsky, author, "Reveille for Radicals, John L.Lewis," "The Power Base of Dernccre cv." University College Series,"America in Mid-Century: Dynamics and Defects in our Democracy," 7:30P.M., Joel Hunter Building, 123 West Madison Street. $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-E. E. Evans-Pritchard, visiting professor of anthropology,University of Chicago, "Political Structure: The Case of the NiloticPeoples," first of six lectures, 4:30 P.M., room 122, Social Science Building,1126 East 59th street. Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-Ralph W. Tyler, professor of education and dean, divisionof social sciences, University of Chicago, "Curriculum Development,"New Directions in Education series, 5 P.M., room 809, 19 South La SalleStreet. $0.75.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEliThe People Shall Judgellat mountains, abandoned mine shafts,and vast plains on a trip to the west,and reflect on many things about ourhistory which these readings hardlysuggest. He will notice, for example,signs of the extraordinary lure of gold,for miners, ranchers and business menalike.History is at best a suggestive reflec­tion of human character. ProfessorHutchinson, Chairman of our HistoryDepartment, has a lecture-unfor­tunately not published-which dealswit h American interpretations ofAmerican history. He concludes:"As long ... as added knowledge addsto doubt by uncovering hitherto unsus­pected complexities of individuals, groupsand their interrelationships, historianswill view a philosophy of history withskepticism and be more convinced thanever that the universe is a riddle andman the greatest riddle of all."He thus refers us to the poets and (Continued from page 11)the biologists. The curious and In­tricate materials and mechanismswhich lead us to say that we valueequality and liberty, give us in factevaluations which are only partly sug­gested by these shifting words. Oneof our most distinguished. biologistshas long had a working hypothesisthat our mental health and sicknessalike are due in the end to complexphysical, chemical and anatomical in­teractions, which include factors thatmust explain at the same time thefascination with which our specieshas always regarded war. We aredistinguished both as the only rationalanimals, and, apart from some ants,as the only war-making animals. Thebaboons are the only animals closelyrelated to us which have anything likeour pugnacity. On the other hand,we are affectionate friends and de- 23voted parents. It is perhaps in theinteractions of hormones, nervous sys­tems and environment that the cluesto history are concealed. Until theyare found, history like the other so­cial studies and the other arts willcontinue to be half guess and halfthought.Among other things, anyone whowrites an article on a volume of his­torical readings must end by warn­ingithe reader that he cannot havedone justice to them. At most he hasfollowed through a few sequenceswhich interest him. The intellec­tuals are represented here, and alsothose masters of affairs, Washingtonand Lincoln. These volumes, like theAmerican life with which they deal,elude the effort for system. Theymust be read, and reread, to be ap­preciated.PUBLIC. LECTURE-Robert J. Havighurst, professor of education and chair­man' committee on human development, University of Chicago, "Maturity:Am�riC'an Style" Planning for Later Life series, 7:30 P.M., 32 West Ran­dolph Street. $I. Wednesday, January 18BASKETBALL-At Naperville, 8 P.M., U of C vs. North Central.PUBLIC LECTURE-Herrlee G. Creel, professor of early Chinese literatureand institutions University of Chicago, "Confucius and the Struggle forHuman Happin'ess" public course, Patterns of Thought in the ChineseWorld, B P.M., r�om 122, Social Science Building, 1126 East 59th Street.pJ��� LECTURE-Bess Sondel, instructor in speech at University College,University of Chicago, first in a series of five lectures, "Are You TellingThem?" 6:30 P.M. room 809, 19 South La Salle Street. $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE�Harry Shaw, editor, Harper and Brothers, "WritingTrends Tod sv." first in Writing an::J Its Consequences ser�es, co-sponsoredby University College and the Chicago. Chapter, WOf!len s N'!tl�nal BookAssociation, 6:30 P.M., club room, Chicago Art Institute, Michigan andAdams. $1.PUBLIC LECTURE_:_Joseph Schumpeter, professor of economics, HarvardUniversity, "The Personal Element and the Element of Chance: A Prin­ciple of Indeterminateness," University of Chicago Walgreen Foundationlectures on American Institutional and Economic Progress, 4:30 P.M.,James H. Breasted Hall, 1155 East 58th Street. Free.Thursday, January 19PU BLI C LECTU RE-E. E. Evans-Pritcha rd, visiti ng professor of anth ropology,University of Chicago, "Political Structure: The Case of the NiloticPeoples," second of six lectures, 4:30 P.M., room 122, Social ScienceBuilding, 1126 East 59th Street. Free.Friday, January 20PUBLIC LECTURE-Joseph. Schumpeter, professor of economics, HarvardUniversity "Summary: How Capitalism Created and Destroyed a Civili­zation," University of Chicago Walgreen Foundation lectures on AmericanInstitutional and Economic Progress, 4:30 P.M., James H. Breasted Hall,1155 East 58th Street. Free.Saturday, January 21BASKETBALL-FiE:ld House, 5550 University, B P.M., U of C vs. Knox. Ad­mission $1.Sunday, January 22UNIVERSITY ORCHESTRA-Conducted by Siegmund Levarie, music ofKauder, Levy and others, 8:30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University.Free.Tuesday, January 24PUBLIC LECTURE-Dr. E. J. Stieglitz, geriatrician, Washington, D. C., "HealthReserves in Later Maturity," University College series, Planning for LaterLife, 7:30 P.M., 32 West Randolph Street. $1.PUBLIC LECTURE-E. E. Evans-Pritchard, visiting professor of anthropology,University of Chicago, "Political Structure: The Case of the NiloticPeoples," third of six lectures, 4:30 P.M. room 122, Social Science Building,1126 East 59th Street. Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-Saul D. Alinsky, author "Reveille for Radicals, John L.Lewis," "The Tyranny of the Smear," University College series, "Americain Mid-Century:. Dynamics and Defeds in Our Democracy," 7:30 P.M.,Joel Hunter Building, 123 West Madison Street. $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-Otto J. Gombcsi, associate professor of music, Universityof Chicago, "The Concerto Grosso: Bach and Handel," Music for Orchestraseries, 7 P.M., room 809, 19 South La Salle Street. $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-Alonzo G. Grace, professor of education, University ofChicago, "Education in Germany," New Directions in Education series5 P.M., room 809, 19 South La Salle Street. $0.75. 'Wednesday, January 25PUBLIC LEq.URE-Ken McCormick, editor-in-chief, Doubleday and Com­pany,_ "Editing the Writing," Writing and Its Consequences series, co- sponsored by University College and Chicago Chapter, Women's National!�dkA�������, 6:30 P.M., club room, Chicago Art Institute, MichiganPUBLIC LECTURE-Bess Sondel, instructor in speech at University CollegeUniversity of Chicago, "Are You Telling Them?," second of five lectures:6:30 P.M., room 809, 19 South La Salle Street. $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-Herrlee G. Creel, professor of early Chinese literatureand institutions, University of Chicago, "Mo Tzu and the Quest for Peaceand Order," public course, Patterns' of Thought in the Chinese WorldB P.M., room 122, Social Science Building, 1126 East 59th Street. $0.75. 'Thursday, January 26PUBLIC LECTURE-E. E. Evans-Pritchard, visiting professor of anthropologyUniversity of Chicago, fourth of six lectures on "Political Structure: Th�Case of the Nilotic Peoples," 4:30 P.M., room 122, Social Science Building1126 East 59th Street. Free. 'Friday, January 27SEMINAR-University College-"Great Books of the Bible," Russell Becker,dean of students, University College, University of Chicago, first of eightlectures, 6:30 P.M., 19 South La Salle Street. $12.DRAMA-UN IVERSITY TH EATER-"The Bea ux Stratagem" by George Fa r­quhar, 8:30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University Avenue. Admission$0.70.Saturday, January 28Free.DRAMA-UNIVERSITY THEATER-"The Beaux Stratagem" by George Far­quhar, 3:30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 Univesity. Admission $0.35.Sunday, January 29DRAMA-UNIVERSITY THEATER--"The Beaux Stratagem" by George Far­quhar, 3:30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University. Admission $0.35.Monday, January 30PUBLIC LECTURE-Sunder Joshi, assistant professor of adult education,Indiana University, "Some Men Who Shape the United Nations," Uni­versity College series, "Men Who Share Our Times," 7 P.M., suite 631, CivicOpera Building, 20 North Wacker Drive. $0.75.Tuesday, January 31SEMINAR-University College-"How To Read a Book," Claude Wells, lec­turer in University College, first of six sessions, 7:30 P.M., 19 South La SalleStreet. $7.50.PUBLIC LECTURE-E. E. Evans-Pritchard, visiting professor of anthropology,University ot Chicago, fifth of six lectures on "Political Structure: The Caseof the Nilotic Peoples," 4:30 P.M., room 122, Social Science Building,1126 East 59th Street. Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-Bennett Cerf, president Random House, "Reviewing theWriting," Writing and Its Consequences series, co-sponsored by UniversityCollege and the Chicago. Chapter, Women's National Book Association,6:30 P.M., club room, Chica<;lo Art Institute, Michigan and Adams. $1.PUBLIC LECTURE-Saul D. Alinsky, author "Reveille for Radicals, John L.Lewis," "The Nightmare of Ignorance," University College series, "Americain Mid-Century: Dynamics and Defects in Our Democracy," 7:30 P.M., JoelHunter Building, 123 West Madison Street. $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-Dr. Jack Weinberg, adjunct in psvchie+rv, Michael ReeseHospital, assistant professor of psychiatry, University of Illinois, "Matflrityas a Goal," University College series, Planning for Later Life, 7:30 P.M.,32 West Randolph Street. $1.PUBLIC LECTURE-Grosvenor W. Cooper, assistant professor of humanities,University of Chicago, "The Solo Concerto," University College Music forOrchestra series, 7 P.M., room 809, 19 South La Salle Street. $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-Robert J. Havighurst, professor of education, chairman,committee on human development, University of Chicago, "DevelopmentaTasks and Education," University College New Directions in Educationseries, 5 P.M., room 809, 19 South La Salle Street. $0.75.24 THE· UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENEWS OF THE CLASSES1900Helen V. Chase has been ill for somemonths at her home in Chicago where shelives with her sister, a graduate of Vassar.She was born in Chicago and has lived inthe family home at 3251 Wabash Avenuefor 63 years. Her sister writes that whenshe went to Vassar there was no U. of C.and the Midway was a nice road connect­ing Washington and Jackson Parks. Helenalso went to Vassar for the first two years.1901William F. Eldridge, who was on thequadrangles in June to celebrate the fif­tieth anniversary of the championship foot­ball team of '99, had been under theweather since his return to his home inCorona, California. He's back to takingcare of his correspondence, a part of whichwas reactivating his membership in the As­sociation. Mr. Eldridge is treasurer of theRiverside Walnut Growers Association inCalifornia.In the October issue of the Magazine itwas stated that Joseph L. Baer, ,SM '03, MD(Rush) '03, is living in California. Dr.Baer is a resident of Chicago.1903Irving Elgar Miller, AM, PhD '04, pro­fessor emeritus of psychology and educa­tion at Western Washington College ofEducation, Bellingham, wrote "1\1y Impres­sions of John Dewey" for the October issueof the Washington Educational Journal.He told about his experiences with Pro­fessor Dewey when both were on the quad­rangles of the University.1905Evaline P. Dowling is principal of Find­lay junior high school in Los Angeles.1906Ida Grace Cramer teaches at Oliver highschool in Pittsburgh. Calling Inter-Club AlumnaeThe Social Committee of the Inter­Club Council announces the AnnualInter-Club Ball to be given January20, in the Louis XIV Room at theShoreland Hotel in Chicago. EddieJ ames and his orchestra will providethe music from 10 to 1. If you arean alumna of a club and are inter­ested you may contact your activechapter on campus, or send yourname, address, and club name, to.Barbara Kenyon, 5713 Drexel avenue,Chicago 37, Ill. Ernest G. Fischer has retired from hispublic schools teaching in Milwaukee. Tosupplement his pension he is working withthe maintenance crew at the EvangelicalDeaconess Hospital and having a wonder­ful time with no students to discipline. Hegives credit to Dean Tufts for a philosophytha� h,as permitted him to adjust pleasantlyto life s ups and downs, and expresses pridein his Alma Mater and pleasure in readingthe Magazine.1909At the annual meeting of the NationalCouncil of Geography Teachers at Cleve­land recently honors came to three alumni.Villa B. South was awarded the Clara B.Sletten prize for the best article by a wom­an published in five years in the Journalof Geography; Edith P. Parker, '14, of theUniversity's department of geography, re­ceived the Distinguished Service to Geo­graphic Education award; and Harry O.Lathrop, SM '22, was elected first vice presi­dent of the Council. He will be presidentin 1951.1910Abigail C. Lazelle, AM '31, of Eureka,Illinois, made an extended western triplast summer: Banff, Lake Louise, Van­couver, Victoria, Seattle, San Francisco, andLos Angeles. At San Francisco she at­tended a meeting of the American Associa­tion of Teachers of French. She also tookin the meeting of the Modern LanguageAssociation in Palo Alto. Miss Lazelle ison the Modern Language faculty of EurekaCollege. . 1914Howell W. Murray succeeded Percy B.Eckhart, '�9, as chairman of the RaviniaIllinois Festival association. .,Henry Guy Woodward, SM, retired fromthe U. S. army, is living in FrankfortMichigan. '1915Brigadier General Ward H. Maris willsoon be transferred from San Francisco toRichmond, Virginia.John P. McGalloway, JD, completed aterm as president of the Wisconsin Bar As­sociation last June. He was appointed amember of the Board of Bar Commissinjj.ers in the state of Wisconsin in Novembse.1916Ralplt" W. Davis and Andrew W. Baird,'21, were recently made governors of theChicago Stock exchange. Chancellor Dou­gall, '21, was made head of the committeeon floor procedure.1917Harry A. McDonald, former Detroit in­vestment banker, has been elected chair­man of the Securities and Exchange Com­mission. He is the first Republican headof the agency since it was -established in1934. He has been a member of the com­mission since March, 1947.AL.UMNIADMINISTRATION BUILDING/ROOM 305HELP US BRING ALUMNI, STUDENTS AND JOBS TOGETHERREPORT V ACANCIES-Part-Time or Full-TimeREGISTER IF YOU ARE IN NEED OF ASSISTANCEWE SERVE ALUMNI AND STUDENTSPLACEMENT PROBLEMS-VOCATIONAL COUNSELING(Fee Basis)OFFICE OFVOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENTTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOCHICAGO 37, ILLINOISTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1918John Nuveen has moved Oil again: thistime from Athens, Greece, to the ECAMission to Belgium, in Brussels.1919Nell M. Waddington of Wichita, Kansas,retired from teaching three years ago atthe age of 70. She has remained in Wich­ita at her home, 505 S. Martinson.Benjamin E. jaffe, jD '21, is a tax coun­sel for Fisher and Company in Detroit ina.ddition. to havi�g h�s own private prac­nee. HIS son, MIles, IS on the Midway inLaw School and on the editorial board ofthe Law Review.John E!lsworth Hartzler, AM, is apreacher, teacher and lecturer in Goshen,Indiana.Luman E. Daniels, MD (Rush) '20, leftfor Japan recently to visit various militaryhospitals as a consultant.Miriam Fox Withrow is professor ofpiano and theory at Fresno State Collegein Fresno, California.1921John Howard Blough, AM, is pastor ofthe Tabor Congregational Church in Ta­bor, Iowa.A third son was born to· Mr. and Mrs.Howard Kennedy Beale (Georgia Robinson'26, AM '28) on October 24, 1949. The newson, Thomas Wight, is the grandchild ofHenry Barton Robinson, PhD '07, professoremeritus of religion at Culver Stockton col­lege in Canton, Missouri. The child'sgreat grandfather was Dr. Leroy HowardKennedy, MD '55 (Rush), of Danville, In­diana. .Howard Kennedy Beale is professor ofhistory at the University of Wisconsin. Heis on leave this year to do research inWashington, D. C. He is writing in theLibrary of Congress a life of TheodoreRoosevelt for the American Political Lead­ers Series edited by Allan Nevins of Co­lumbia University and published by Dodd,Mead and Company.Swift's Ice CreamSundaes and sodas are special treatsmade with Swift's Ice Cream. So de­licious, so creamy-smooth, so refresh­ingly ....A product ofSWIFT & COMPANY7409 S. State StreetPhone RAdcliff 3·7400 1922Frank C. McDonald, SM, PhD '26, of thephysics faculty of Southern Methodist Uni­versity, spent his summer vacation in theRockies.New address of S. L. Perzik, MD '25, isin Beverly Hills, Cal., where he's special­izing in head and neck surgery and neo­plastic diseases.Miss Bertie F. Goetschins visited 12 coun­tries on a tour of Europe this slimmer.In addition to his chores as professor ofmedicine at Long Island College of Med­icme during ... :48-'49, William Dock, MD(Rush) served as physician pro tempore atPeter Bent Brigham hospital in Boston.He was a guest lecturer at the InstituteNacional de Cardiologia in Mexico.Kenneth Taylor, AM, is associated withthe department of finance in Ottawa, On­tario.1923John Thomas Barry is a paper mill rep­resentative in St. Louis.Joseph Bush Kingsbury is professor ofgovernment at the University of Indiana.James L. Homire, jD '26, member of theNew York law firm of Davis, Polk, Ward­well, Sunderland and Kiendl, has been ap­pointed a general attorney for the St. Louis­San Francisco Railway Company.Mrs. Urban J. Mullen, AM '27, PhD '39,has been appointed Director of the Bureauof Special Classes for the Chicago publicschools.1924Grace H. Woolworth has spent nearly 20years teaching at the State Teachers' Col­lege in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. Severalchildren who began their education in herlaboratory school have been members ofher senior college classes.Mrs. Helen Rees Clifford Gunter is di­rector of audio-visual education at SanFrancisco State College in San Francisco.Julia E. Brekke, AM, is an extensionspecialist at State College Station, Fargo,North Dakota.1925. David Daniel Pollack is a general build­mg contractor in Miami, Florida.. J. S. �icks, PhD '27, formerly a lecturerin chemistry and the University of Toledoin Toledo, Ohio is now head of the chem­istry department at Sam Houston StateTeachers' College in Huntsville, Texas.Pearl Rutherford, AM, is a teacher in theWebster Americanization School, Wash­ington, D. C.James Elmer Creager is vice presidentof Jewel Paint and Varnish, Chicago.Edwin J. Foscue, SM, chairman of thedepartment of geography at SouthernMethodist University, studied industriesalong the Texas Gulf coast during thesummer. His book on Estes Park, waspublished in July.Frank W. Bubb, PhD, professor and headof the department of mechanics at Wash­ington University in St. Louis, has beengranted a leave of absence to become re­search scientist and chief of the AppliedMechanics Group for the Office of Air Re­search at Wright-Patterson Field. Dayton,Ohio. A member of the Washington fac­ulty since 1917, Bubb was director of re­search on the university's part of theatomic bomb project. BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5380SUPERFLUOUS HAIRREMOVED FOREVERMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of hair from face, eye­brows, bad of neck, or any part of body;also facial veins, moles, and warts.LOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERT20 years' experienceGraduate NurseSuite 1705, Stevens Building17 N. State StreetT eJephone FRanklin 2-4885FREE CONSULTATIONWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chlceqo Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8·2116·7·8·9Wallon', Coal Makes Good-or­Wallon DoesEASTMAN COAL CO.Establish.d 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd •Telephone SEeley 3·4488The Best Place to Eat on the South Side��COLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone HYde Park 3·6324w. B. CONKEY CO:HAMMOND, INDIANASALES OFFICES: CHICAGO AND NEW YORK26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA. T. STEWART LUMBER CO.Quality and Service.Since 188879th Street at Greenwood Ave.All Phones Vincennes 6-9000q;g�\:iPfUCJ'RlCAI SUPPlY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers DrELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St •• ENglewood 4-7500CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3-3935"Good Printin, 01 All Description,"RESULTS ...depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Folding - MailingA Complete Service for Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn St., Chicago 5, III.\V Abash 2-4561E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYfine Color Work A Specialty731 Plymouth CourtWAbash 2-8182 Edward S. Lewis, executive director ofthe Urban League of Greater New York,was recently elected to the board of direc­tors of the Herald Tribune Fresh Air Fund.Frances Felica Mauch is in charge of thesewing center in Rich's Department� store,Atlanta, Georgia.The Philadelphia division of the Lum­bermens Mutual Casualty Company is un­der the management of Griffith G. Lever­ing. Mrs. Levering was Martha EuniceLeusker, '25, when she was on the Midway.They have two girls, Alice Jean, a freshmanat Mount Holyoke, and Martha May, 14.Mrs. Marion R. Moseley Sniffen, AM, isconnected with the home economics depart­ment at the University of California.u S. C. DegreesThree University degree-holders wereawarded advanced degrees by the Univers­ity of Southern California. They areBeryl Veta Beringer, '26, who received amaster's in social work; Gerald RoswellPatton, '29, an AM in Sociology and ElijahLawrence Jacobs, AM '22, who received aPhD in English.1926Clara Axie Dyer, AM, has been ap­pointed associate professor of speech andhead of the department at CumberlandUniversity in Lebanon, Tennessee.1927William Manchester Coy was married inOctober to Josephine Joslyn Turner, '28, inCoeur d'Alene, Idaho. The couple is nowliving in Englewood, New Jersey.Kurt F. Leidecker, PhD, professor ofphilosophy at Mary Washington College ofthe University of Maryland, Fredericksburg,. Virginia, published his translation of andpreface to the Volumen Medicinae Para­mirum of Theophrastus von Hohenheimcalled Paracelusus as No. 11 of the Supple­ments to the Bulletin of the History ofMedicine, The Johns Hopkins Press, Balti­more.Lewis S. C.· Smyth, AM, PhD '28, and hiswife, the former Margaret Lillian Garrett,'22, MD '25, arrived at Nanking in earlySeptember. Mr. Smythe is teaching soci­ology at the University of Nanking andhis wife is school physician for studentsafflicted- with tuberculosis. With a Sep­tember .4th dateline, the note reported:"The University is expecting about 800students this year whereas they had 1,200a year ago. Business is pretty normal.Foreign news is now banned so we aremore cut off than before but still get ra­dio news."John S. McIsaac, AM, has been nameddirector of extension work and head of theeducation department at Geneva College,Pennsylvania.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6-3192 A. C. Senour, AM, is superintendent ofthe East Chicago, Indiana, public schools ..Maurice Frank Lipton is a consultingactuary for the firm of Kwasha and Liptonin New York City.1928From the family of Glen K. Kelly, AM,we have news that he is superintendent ofschools in Negaunee, Michigan. Currentlyhe's busy building a new plant, to houseNegaunee's bumper crop of war babies.His wife, Regina Helen Kelly, AM, '19, ispresident of the Women's Society of Chris­tian Service, in the Methodist Church.James L. Garard, an executive of E. W.Boehm company and Nutrition ResearchLaboratories in Chicago, is a member of agroup which recently bought The SOcietyfor Visual Education, Inc., manufacturerof slide and filmstrip projectors.\Villiam Christian Hagens is manager ofthe White Motor Company in San Fran"cisco.1929Vincent K. Libby, since 1936, has beenwith the Fisher Body Company in Detroit.He is in industrial relations, supervisor ofsalaried personnel. He has two children:Ted, 4; and Deborah, 2.On July 9, 1949, Marjorie MacKenzie be­came Mrs. William C. Bode, of Detroit.She has been teaching fourth grade at theRobert Burns School.Winfield G. Morrissey, LLB, is the claimmanager of the Detroit district for theLumbermens Mutual Casualty Company.Erna""'Schroeder Hallock recently returnedfrom a business and ,pleasure trip to Can­ada. The business . involved publicity forthe convention of the National Associationof Building Owners and Managers in Mon­treal. The pleasure was sightseeing in andaround Montreal and Quebec after the con­vention was over.Harry Emil Ingwersen is a sales managerin Sydney, Australia.1930Earl H. Spuck,. who worked at t?e Rey­nolds Club while on campus, IS withthe Detroit division of the Internal Reve­nue Deparement. He has two children,Diann. 3, and Earl, Jr., 1.David M. Maynard, PhD, foreign serviceofficer, has been transferred to the statedepartment from Tokyo where he wasCounselor of Mission.Wayne F. Caskey, La Salle, Ill. businessman and professor of economics and busi­ness administration at Illinoiis WesleyanUniversity, announced his candidacy fordemocratic representative. in Congress forthe 15th congressional district.Emra Hearn, AM '33, now works in thepublic relations department, of the SBAHospital, Topeka, Kansas, as a reception­ist.Ruth G. Mayos (Mrs. Charles) is psychia­tric social worker in charge of the MentalHealth Center in Davenport, Iowa.Griffing Bancroft, Jr., Washington Newscommentator for CBS and Miss Jane Eads,Associated Press Washington columnist,were married August 23, 1949 in Washing­ton. During the war Bancroft was chief ofthe Office of War Information's psychologi­cal warfare branch in Africa and Italy.THE U N I V E R SIT Y 0 .F CHI C AGO MAG A Z I N E1931Alexander F. Handel is dean of the newgraduate school of social work at AdelphiCollege, Garden City, Long Island. Thisschool, the fourth of its kind in New YorkState, is offering training in case work withspecial training in child welfare and psychi­atric social work.Abraham S. Hyman, JD, has been ap­pointed acting adviser on Jewish affairs toJohn J. McCloy, U. S. high commissionerfor Germany. Hyman had been servingsince August, 1946, as assistant adviser onJewish affairs to the American militarygovernment in Germany.Errett Van Nice, assistant vice presidentof the Harris Trust and Savings bank inChicago was recently elected a vice presi­dent. Almost simultaneously came the an­nouncement that he had been made chair­man of the 1950 March of Dimes campaignin Chicago. He is chairman of the CookCounty chapter of the National Founda­tion for Infantile Paralysis. ,-Martha Kohl, MD (Rush), is a physicianand surgeon in Arcadia, California.1932Joseph W. Bailey, JD '34, is manager ofthe radio and television department ofGrey Advertising Agency in New York City.Carl Herbert Denbow, SM '34, PhD '37,is a professor of mathematics in the navalpostgraduate school, Annapolis, Maryland.Hilda Hertha Kroeger, MD (Rush) is as­sistant director of the Grace New HavenCommunity Hospital in New Haven, Con­necticut.1933Sulcer appointmentHenry T. Sulcer, JD' 36, has been ap­pointed General Manager of Graver WaterConditioning Company, New York city.Prior to his appointment Sulcer had beenSulcerGeneral Auditor of the parent companywhich he joined in 1948 after a wide legal,industrial manufacturing and administra­tive experience.John A. Nietz, PhD, reports that his col­lection of textbooks, which are more than50 years old, has grown to nearly 5500copies. They form the basis for consider­able research in the history of education.Samuel S. Gruber, JD '34, operates theLondon Chop House at 155 W. CongressStreet, Detroit. James L. Woods Zwingle is president ofPark College, Parkville, Mo.Lt. Col. John C. Dinsmore, Jr. was re­cently. made Deputy Chief of Staff, Mari­anas-Bonins Command, Guam M. 1. Be­fore this he was the command "G-3" (plansand training officer). He-is a regular armyLt. Col. Dinsmorefield artillery officer, served in World WarII with the 69th division in Europe andwas graduated from the command andgeneral staff school, Ft. Leavenworth, Kan­sas.1934Mrs. George Brown Birchard (AlmaZiegenhagel) was married to Judge LeRoyDawson on September 10, 1949 in Los An­geles.Francis E. Merrill, AM, PhD '37, profes­sor of sociology at Dartmouth and a mem­ber of the National Council on FamilyRelations, published "Courtship and Mar­riage" last summer. It is a study in socialrela tionshi ps.Thomas R. Coyne, treasurer of B. A.Eckhart Milling Company in Chicago, hasbeen elected executive vice president. Mrs.Coyne is the former Charlotte C. Eckhart,'29.Inez Elizabeth McClaren is a gift shopproprietor in San Francisco, California.1935David H. Kutner, who was active ineverything from the Daily Maroon andBlackfriars to 0 & S and the Interfratern­ity Committee, ending with being a Mar­shal, is going great guns in Detroit asAssistant Account Executive with Camp­bell-Ewald Company, Advertising.John Barney Kleinschmidt is in theaterand radio in New York.Conrad E. Ronneberg, PhD, started hisfourth year as chairman, .department ofchemistry, at Denison University in Ohio.Last summer he served as visiting instruc­tor (Lt. Col. Chemical Corps, U. S. Army)in Nuclear Physics in the Chemical CorpsSchool, Army Chemical Center. In addi-tion to teaching he revised the text inNuclear Physics used in the courses inRadiological Defense for the National Mili­tary Establishment.Robert Francis Kriz is a major in theU. S. army. He is stationed in Alex­andria, Virginia. He was married to. Hertha Estrinn on January 21, 1949. 27Telephone KEnwood 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL Florist826 East Foriy-seventh StreetChicago IS, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLPhones OAkland 4-0690-4-0691-4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awning. and Canopies fo, All Pu'po •••4508 Cottage Grove Avenue•Auto Livery•Qui.t, unobtru.iv. ..rvlc.When you want it, as you want itCALL AN EMERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4·6400Since1895SURGEONS'INSTRUMENTSof ALL TYPES aEQUIPMENT and FURNITUREfor OFFICE and HOSPITALAll Phones: SEeley 3-2180V. MUELLER & CO.320-408 S. HONORE STREETCHICAGO 12, ILLINOIS28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting-Decorating-Wood Finishing3123Lake Street PhoneKEdzie 3-3186Since 1878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholstersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: LIncoln 9-7180HAWTINPHOTOENGRAVERSPhoro Engrav.,.Artists - ElectrotypersMakers of Println9 Plate.538So. Wells St. TelephoneWAbash 2-6480BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED .. BONDEDINSUREDQUALlF1ED WELDERSHAymarket 1-7917l 404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoTuckerDecorating Service1360 East 70th StreetPhone Midway 3-4404 1936Alan J. Grossman, JD '38, heads a com­pany in Detroit called Dougla Homes. Itis a development company building homesranging in price from ten thousand up.The family include three boys, Tommy(8), Jimmy (6), Alan, Jr. (5), and a girl,Mary (2).Warren Robert Kahn, JD '38, was mar­ried on November 12, 1949 to Miss CarolIrene Mitler of New York, N. Y.Cynthia M. Grabo, AM '41, of Washing­ton,· D. C. wrote after receiving the No­vember Magazine to object our puttingthree members of the Class of 1936 under1935-particularly the famous Jay Ber­wanger! [Sorry] She adds that she's lookingforward to the 15th reunion in 1951 andfor goodness sakes don't let the class passup that date! She closes: "This is my 8thyear of working for the army so it's begin­ning to seem like a career."1937Wa!ter J. Brooking, AM, supervises some70 designing engineers and related special­ists in his job as administrative head ofthe engineering division; for the M. W.Kellogg Co., Jersey City, N. J.Charles Thomas Battin, PhD, is teachingat College of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Wash­ington.Jerome Waldman, MD '42, is continuingstudy in orthopedic surgery at Massa­chusetts General Hospital. He will returnto Billings in February, 1950.Ruth Fantus, living in Dennisport, Mas­sachusetts, is a writer.Edwin J. Crock in is assistant state direc­tor of personnel in Virginia.Stephen Alfred Forbes, MD (Rush), is as­sistant professor of radiology at Iowa StateU niversi ty.1938Russell E. Q. Johnson, JD, MBA '40, washonored recently by the Society For Ad­vancement of Management at its annualbanquet in New York City. Johnson, Chi­cago attorney, was one of two recipients inthe U. S. this year of the national Society'shonorary keys for outstanding work towardthe development of the organization whichis devoted to the study of scientific man­agement.Charles Nicholas Reiten McCoy, PhD, isa professor of political science at St. LouisUniversity in St. Louis, Mo.Robert O. Burke has been appointedplant controller of the American MaizeProducts ·Company in Hammond, Indiana.Guss Sigmund Kass is a research chemistin Chicago.Emma Phillipson, AM, director of theSocial Service department of Children'sHospital in Washington, D. C., has beenappointed consultant in public coopera­tion to the staff of the Mid-century WhiteHouse Conference on Children and Youth.Gordon Perry Freese is a budget exami­ner for the Bureau of Budget, Washington,D. C.1939Marvin S. Freilich, MD '42, has been ap­pointed to the staff of the Chicago Med­ical School as instructor in radiology.Louis J. Gagliano is at present associatedwith the Imperial Paper and Color Cor­poration in Glens Falls', New York. He isemployed as an inorganic research chemist.He is married and the father of a daugh­ter, Donna Marie.Ralph John Rosen is a naval officer inNewport, Rhode Island. Robert F. Winch, AM, PhD '42, is super­visor of the Scholarship and GuidanceAssociation in Chicago.Philip Arthur Brooks, MBA '43, is astatistician in Honolulu.William Brothers Dunn is a U. S. viceconsul in Canton, China.De Witt Murdey Kelley is assistant per­sonnel officer of the veteran's administra.tion in Encino, California.1940Robert C. Jones has been serving as aconsultant in the Office of Education,Study of Social Work Education in theU. S. �is article, "Professional Educationfor Social Work in Latin America" ap­pea:ed in a recent issue of Sociology andSocial Research. Recently he toured theschools of social work in South America.Erwin Walter W'endt, foreign service of­ficer, has been transferred to San JoseCosta Rica, as Second Secretary and Consul:He was commissioned in the Foreign Serv­ice recently. He first joined the ForeignService Auxiliary in June, 1944, and sub­sequently served at Madrid; on the staff ofSupreme Headquarters, A.E.F.; and in theoffice of the U. S. Political Adviser on Ger­man Affairs.Victor Davenport Carlson, AM, is a socialworker in Denver, Colorado.Mrs. �alter Fogg (Margaret M. Lutz),JD '42, IS an attorney and owner of anautomatic laundry in Brookline, Massa­chusetts.Merle W. Boyer, PhD, chairman of thephilosophy and psychology departments atCarthage college in Carthage, Illinois, ist�e author of "Highways of Philosophy,"hIS second book. Dr. Boyer's first bookwas "Everyman's Adventure."Mrs. Paul G. Martin (Bonnie M. Turn­bull) was recently commissioned in theUSAF and assigned to Headquarters, Mili­tary Air Transport Service in Washington.Richard B. Gerisch, Jr., is with the per­sonnel department of the Veterans Admin­istration in Detroit.Irving Blank moved on from Chicago tothe University of Michigan to get an 1942. He has since joined the familybusiness in Detroit: The Eagle Dairy Co.He has three boys, Jerald 6; Daniel, 3; andMartin, 1.1941William A. Earle is teaching philosophyat Northwestern University while workingfor a Ph.D. at Chicago. In 1947 he got aPh.D. from Aix-Marseille, France.Jane Kreuscher, according to an early an­nouncement, was to be married to CharlesF. Cudell in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on No­vember 26. Miss Kreuscher is assistant di­rector of the education department at theMilwaukee Art Institute.Harold G. Josif is a vice consul for thestate department in Portugal.A boy, Charles, was born to Mr. and Mrs.(Alice Lee Boren '43) Walter K. Kurk onOctober 28. The Kurks live in Goshen,Indiana.Horace Mott Angell is connected withthe Red Cross in San Francisco.Marten Sandel Olson, MD, is practicingin Marion, Ohio.Robert Philip McNamee, JD '47, is anattorney in San Jose, California.Lyle Benjamin Borst, PhD, is chairman,department of Reactor Science and Eng­lish, Brookhaven National Laboratory,Upton, L. 1., N. Y.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELenora Koos '(Mrs. John W. Shepherd)is living in Detroit. Her husband has justfinished his law .degree at Detroit Collegeof Law and has taken the Michigan barexaminations.. Joseph Rowland Morrell, Jr., AM, is asocial worker for the Federal SecurityAgency in San Francisco.1942A note from John Doolittle "to keep ourrecords up to date" announces the "firstaddition" to the family: Martha RussellDoolittle, July 10, 1949. Mother is DorothyTeberg, '42. Dad is with the CameraWorks Division of the Eastman Kodak Rochester, N. Y. He is an industrialengineer and teaches production manage­ment in the evenings at the University ofRochester.A son, Cromwell Cook, was born to Mr.and Mrs.' Cromwell C. Cleveland (GeneRickey '42), on December 6, 1948, Mrs,Cleveland reports that a daughter was bornin February, 1949 to John (JD '40) andHarriet ('39) Johnson in Falls Church,Virginia.Paul Leslie Bunce, MD, is associated withJohns Hopkins Hospital in Bailtimore,Maryland.Donald Clayton Bergus, foreign serviceofficer, has been transferred from Middawhere he was second secretary and viceconsul to the Department of State, andhas been detailed to the University ofPennsylvania for advanced study. Since hejoined the foreign service in July, 1942,Bergus has served at Bagdad, Athens,Parras, Beirut, and Jidda. In February­April 1946 he was detailed as District Sec­secretary of the United States Mission toobserve elections in Greece.Robert U. Stolhand, AM, has been ap­pointed Chief Probation Officer of theMilwaukee County Childrens' Court. Priorto the appointment he served as Supervisorof Social Service at the Milwaukee CountyChildrens' Court. On March 25th a daugh­ter, Barbara Ann, was born to the Stol­hands.Grace Edith Daims, PhD, is assistant pro­fessor of Philosoph)' at Florida State Uni­versity, Tallahasee, Florida.1943Kenneth S. Axelson dropped in fromAlaska in November. He is comptrollerfor the Columbia Lumber Co. of Alaskawith headquarters in Juneau. This was aquick trip so he left the family in Alaska.There are three children: Kenny, Jr., 6;Jerry, 3; and Stevie, 7 months.Bruno D. Friedman has deserted hischemistry for a time and is at present busywriting a novel which he is calling "TheGolden Apple."Antonio Carrera Goubaud, AM, has beenappointed Guatemalan ambassador to theUnited States. Goubaud, who has beendirector of the National Indian Instituteof Guatemala since its founding in Sep­tember, 1945, arrived in Washington lastmonth.ASHJIAN BROS., Inc."TABLI'"IO InlOrien tal and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 Soutb CbicIIG Phone REgent 4·6000 Edith Abraham, AM, is a psychiatricworker at the V. A. hospital in St. Cloud,Minnesota.Robert L. Guillaudeu is interning atOhio State University hospital. His wifeis the former Virginia Florence Ide, '45.Jessie Craig Obert, SM, is a teacher ofhome economics at Ohio State Universityin Columbus.Henry Franklyn Brooks, MD '45, is as­sistant professor of anatomy at MedicalCollege of South Carolina, Charleston.Dalton August Degitz is a librarian inthe San Diego, California public library.1944Brandel Lyle Works, MBA '46, is a tea­cher at Roosevelt College in Chicago.Florence Famam, SM, is a scientific edi­tor and writer. She is living in Cranford,New Jersey.Louise C. Kachel is teaching socialstudies at the Summit school in St. Paul,Minnesota.Two alumni were recently added to thefaculty of Bradley University in Peoria,Illinois. They are Edwin Heyse Dummer,AM '44 and Loren P. Beth, AM '48, PhD'49. Dr. Dummer is head librarian andprofessor' and Dr. Beth is instructor inPolitical Science.Reuben H. Krolick, AM '48, is now con­nected with the school of business adrnin­iistration at the 'University of Idaho, Mos­cow, Idaho.Phillip Dean Raymond is connected withtelevision at Station WBAP-TV, Fort'Worth, Texas.Armand Peter Ruderman, MBA, is assist­ant professor of economics at MontanaState University.Vincent Edward Lally, is an engineer forthe Friez Instrument Division, Towson,Maryland. He was married to MargueriteTibert on June 4, 1949.1945Charles Franklin Barlow,. MD '47, is aphysician at The Children's Hospital,Clear Lake, Iowa.Josephine Yen Louie, AM, is a secretaryfor the United States at Lake Success.June Newton, AM, is in Japan servingas army librarian with the Eighth ArmyJune NewtonSpecial Services. Before accepting this posi­tion Miss Newton was associated with theNew York City public library.1946Wallace D. Riley followed his work atChicago with two additional years at Mich­igan. This fall he entered the MichiganLaw School. 29LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET'327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde. Park 3-9100·1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERTET,EPHONE TAylor 9-54550' CALLAGHAN BROS.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.P hone: SAginaw 1-3202FRANK CURRANRoofing & InsulationLeak. RepairedFree Eatimate.FRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.77U Luella Ave.SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 95 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stock23 N. Wabash AvenueChicago. IllinoisReal Estate and In.!Urance1500 East 51th Street Hyde Park 3-2525Ajax Waste Paper Co.2600·2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, ROckwell 2·6252Telephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A.' AARON & BROS. Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistribu,or. ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN e:RESH FIUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water Market·30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE--Golden Dirilyte- (formerly mrigoltl)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID - NOT PLATEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE .TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E .. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, III.Platers, SilversmithsSpecialis,. . • •GOLD. SILVER. RHODANIZESILVERWARERepaired, Refini.hed, Re'acqueredSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CEntral 6·6089·90 ChicagoLA/TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Aveo. ChleaqeOlher P'anl.BOlton - N.Y. - Phil. - Syracuse - Cleveland"You Might A. Well Have Th. S •• t"CONCRETETraprock Industrial FloorsMetallic Trucking FloorsMachine FoundationsSidewalksr·vrom.'"NOrmal 7-0433T. A. REHNQUIST CO.6639 500 Vernon Ave.CHICAGO 37 The interior decoration in the home ofMrs. Arlene Gordon, AM, was recently fea­tured in the New York newspaper, Townand Village. Arlene and husband, in New York city.Mrs. Harriett K. Beck, AM, has beengranted a year's leave of absence and aU. S. Public Health grant for doctoral studythrough the Michigan State department ofmental health.Kathleen J. Schwab, BLS, is the youthlibrarian at the Thomas Edison Libraryin Detroit.W'iI!iam A. Drucker is continuing hisstudies in chemical engineering at Co­lumbia University. He toured Europe andNorth Africa for more than a year-andstudied at the University of Geneva, TheSorbonne and Cambridge University.Wade C. Thompson, AM '49, has joinedthe English faculty of Ripon (Wisconsin)College.Marilyn Jane Scott· became the bride ofRobert J. Higgins in Kirkwood, Missourion October 29, 1949.Frederick James Port, MBA, is generalmanager of Hein Werner Corporation inWaukesha, Wisconsin.Ella Lees Melton is continuing withgraduate work at the University.1947Urchie B. Ellis, JD '49, is a law assist­ant in the law department of the AtlanticCoast Line Railroad with headquarters inWilmington, North Carolina.Grant E. Curtis, AM, has been ap­pointed assistant professor in education,admissions officer and assistant to the deanof the School of Liberal Arts at Tufts Uni­versity, Medford, Massachusetts.Janet Louis Lippman, completing gradu­ate work in the planning department ofthe University, was engaged recently toDavid Meiselman of Boston. Meiselmanis working on a PhD in Economics at theUniversity.Allen D. McCrady is in his second yearof law school at the University of Pitts­burgh.For the past year and a half TheodoreRadamaker has been with the productioncontrol department of Chrysler Corporationirk Detroit. He plans to take up the studyof law.Priscilla Alden was married to John Ed­ward Spiess October I in Evanston, Illi­nois. The couple is living in Elgin, Illi­nois.Leonard S. Robinson, MBA, is the audi­tor with the Kelter Insurance Office in De­troit. The Robinsons have one youngster,Joe, not yet one year old.Miss Rae A. Shifrin, AM, has recentlyjoined the staff of the Lake County MentalHygiene Clinic in Gary, Indiana.Lois Bailey, AM, librarian at SouthernMethodist Univeristy, hit most all the vaca­tion spots in the Rockies during her sum­mer vacation,Morton Lambert has recently taken' aposition as sixth grade teacher in a Balti­more County, Maryland public school. Hisaddress: R.F.D. Route Number I, Parkton,Maryland.Karl Edgar Brandt, whose marriage dateto Rebecca Green was reported for Sep­tember, 1949, is a vacuum cleaner salesmanin Aurora, Colorado, Lu Verne Ethel Engelbrecht, AM, is aprimary teacher at Edison school in Ham­mond, Indiana.A son, Timothy, was born to Mr. andMrs. Chester Bowles, Jr. (Holly Taylor '48)on November 7, 1949.Muriel E. Deutsch, AM '49, was marriedto Sidney I. Lezak, '46, JD '49, on June 26,1949.Erwin E. Briese is a student in agricut­tural engineering at the University of Min­nesota.James Ramsey Hoatson, Jr., is a chemistfor Universal Oil Products in ClarendonHills, Ill.Lenore Meyers became the bride of Dr.Mervin Clark of Detroit last August.Charles Hood Tyler, Jr., is a math in"structor at Lewis College in Lockport,Ill.Hilma M. Andrussen is a nurse and stu­dent in physical medicine . in Rochester,Minnesota.Marvin S. Pittman, SM, is teaching inthe department of geography at Universityof the Philippines. He was married toNadja Rashevsky, '46, in September, 1949.Frederick Coleman Miller is businessmanager of the La Salle, Ill., Daily NewsTribune.Marshall N. Rosenbluth, SM, PhD '49,has joined the physics department facultyof Stanford University. He spent most oflast year at Los Alamos laboratory Work"ing on various phases of nuclear physics.Glen Norman Lindahl, claims adjusteremployed in Danville, Illinois, was mar­ried to Ruby E. Hanson, May 29, 1949.Dale P. Boden is teaching at PerkiomenSchool .... in Pennsburg, Pa.Frederick Gehlmann, AM, is a psycholo­gist at the Science Research Associationin Chicago.Elaine Dorothy Craham, AM, was mar­ried to Daniel Bell in April.John Calvin Gustafson is a chemist inMinneapolis, Minn.James D. Laurits, AM, is one of threerecipients of the first Educational Fellow­ships to be granted by the Harvard Grad­uate School of Education. Designed to en­able persons in the field of education tofill in their backgrounds and develop spe­cial fields of interest in order to betterserve the nation's schools and their owncommunities, the fellowships are an ex­tension of the ideas behind Harvard's N ie­man, Trade Union, and Littauer Fellow­ships. Each fellow. will be permitted topursue individual study in· any of thedivisions at the university. Laurits, Whohas taught in the Elgin, Ill. Public Schools,since leaving the Midway, is interested inschool administration.Shirley Katz is a student at the Univer­sity.Kenneth George Scheid, MBA, is a can­didate for a PhD at MIT.Ernest Greenwood, AM, is assistant di­rector Of the Los Angeles Welfare Federa­tion.Mary Louise Ver Koulen, AM, is em­ployed as a vocational counsellor for Chi­cago Welfare.Miriam Claire Gol!ub, SM, is a �raduatestudent in bio-chemistry at the University.She was married to Seymour Banks, MBA'42, on January 30, 1949.Mary Elizabeth Swanson, AM, is assist­ant editor of Science Research Associatesin Chicago.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELOCAL AND LONG DISTANCE HAULING•60 YEARS OF DEPENDABLESERVICE TO THE SOUTHSIDE•ASK FOR FREE ESTIMATE•55th and ELLIS AVENUECHICAGO 15, ILLINOISBUtterfield 8-6711DAVID L. SUTTON. Pres.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency68th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices-One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis-Kansas City, Mo.Spokane-New YorkPENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps1545 E. 63RD STREEt6620 con AGE GROVE AVENUEFAirfax 4·0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE1545 EAST 63RD STREETBIENENFELDChicago's Most Complete Stock ofGLASSGLASS CORP. OF ILLINOIS1525W. 35th St. PhoneLAfayette 3-84003 HOUR SERVICEEXCLUSIVE CLEANERSAND DYERSSince I9201442 and 1331 E. 57th St.•EVENING GOWNSAND FORMALSA SPECIALTYMidway t���� e w. callJorand deliwr3 HOUR SERVICE 1948Robert F. Heslen, with his wife, is livingin Paris where he is studying and work­ing with the Marshall Plan.Dorothy Kirkley, AM, SSA, is now a caseworker for the Illinois Children's Homeand Aid Society in Chicago.Walter E. Morial, MBA, is associa tedwith the Majestic Mortuary Service, New Orleans, La.Laurence Goldstein is a rental agent inCleveland, Ohio.Edward Richard De Grazia and EllenMary O'Connor, '45, were married recentlyin Bond Chapel of the University. DeGrazia is now a student in the law schoolof the University. The bride's mother isMrs. Joseph Eugene O'Connor, '19, AM '37.Louise Margaret Quinn, AM, is a psychi­atric social worker for the Family ServiceBureau in Oakland, Cal.Cora Grace Lowe was married to RayNasemann on January 15, 1949.Walter Eric Broman, AM, is continuinghis studies at the University.Carl H. Abraham, MBA, is assistant gen­eral freight agent with the Transcon (truck­ing) Lines in New York City.Zenon Stanley Matinowski, MBA, is aninstructor at the University of Connecticutin Starrs, Conn. He is in the School ofBusiness.Edwin Passmore Westbrook is a radioengineer for the. Federal Telecommunica­tions Laboratories in Nutley, New Jersey.Margery Ann Howard's engagemen t toThomas Vincent Cinquina, now a graduatestudent in the School of Business Adminis­tration, was recently announced.Robert Allen Grey and Miss Andu Bryneof Stavanger, Norway, were married thisSeptember. They are now living in Boston.Louise Pond writes that a son, JamesAllen arrived June 18, 1949. Her husbandis curate at Gethsemane Episcopal Churchin Minneapolis. The couple moved toMinnesota from Wells, Nevada, a yearago last September.Mary Muriel Greenberg, AM, says heraddress now is Nahalal, Israel.Paul Kriet has become engaged to ShirleyFreeman of Los Angeles.Saul W. Chaikin, PhD '48, until recentlya research associate 'at the University ofCalifornia, has been appointed an assist­ant professor of chemistry at West Vir­ginia University.Margery Ann Howard of Kennebunkport,Maine, became engaged to Thomas VincentCinquina of Chicago.Arthur August Lepinat is a hospital ad­ministrator and interne at Aultman Hospi­tal in Canton, Ohio.Barbara Ina Dietz was married to AlvinE. Winder, June 20, 1949.Donald Mark Blossom is a salesman forRike-Klirnler Company in Dayton, Ohio.Miss Aynslee MacEwen, MBA, is on thefood service staff of the Union Building atMichigan State College.Pierce Bray, MBA '49, is now connectedwith the Ford Motor Company in Detroit.Gloria Leigh Ooldman, AM, is a medicalsocial worker at Mount Sinai Hospital,Cleveland, Ohio.1949James C. Mosher, JD, is working for theclaim department of Economy Auto Insur­ance Company in Freeport, Ill. 31TELEVISIONDrop in and see a programRAPIOSFrom consoles to portablesRadio-TV ServiceAt home or shopELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators RangesWashers BlanketsSPORrlNG GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSPopular-SymphoniesFine collection for childrenHER 1IJ1IAI/\11�f)935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Robert Gaertner, '34 Julian Tishler, '33TREMONT�AUTO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DealerforCH RYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMld,way 3-4200AI.oGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automobile Repair.Body. Paint. Simonize. Washand Greasing DepartmentsHYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579BLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's HotelIn theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering; Graceful living '; to Uni­versity and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackston. Ave. TelephonePLaza 2-3313Verna P. Werner. Director32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBOYDSTON BROS •• INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and licensed attendantsPOND LETTER SERVICEEf)er'Ythin� ill Letter.HDOVI. Typ •• rltl ••M,.H Ilhllt Quality,.All PhonesHArrison 7-8118 Mlmeographll,Addre .. ll •.Mlilla.MlnlDlum Prl ...418 So. Market St.ChicagoAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement wbleb limIts Its:work to the university and college fteld.It Is affiliated with the Fisk Teach",.,Agency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist In the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers. .Our service Is nation-wide.Since' J885ALBERTTeachers' Age'RcyThe best In placement service for University,College, . Seconda'r� and Elementary.' Nation­wide patronaoe. Can or writ. us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago ,,4, IllinoisSTENOTYPYLearn new •• peedy machine ahorthand, Leuetfort, DO cramped fingen or nervoua fati,ue.Allo other co.nea: TypiDIR. BookkeeplDlR.Comptometry. etc. :Day or neninlr. Visi'.writ. Of' ,11011. for IIGIII.Bryant� StrattonCO�EGE188. MICHIGAN AVE. Tel. RAndolph 8·1575BOYDSTON BROS.. INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227·29·31 Cottage Grove Ave.OAkland 4-0492 Coburn V. Graves, AM, was married toMarle Zukuhft on June 18, 1949:Peh-hsuin Cheo, SM, is teaching mathe­matics at the University of Oregon in Eu­gene, Oregon.Robert F. Rice, MBA, is a sales engineer[or the Whiting Corporation in Harvey, Ill.Dr. Esther Milner, PhD, has been ap­pointed assistant professor in Research andHuman Development in the School of Edu­cation at Atlanta University, Atlanta,Georgia.DEATHSCharles T. B. Goodspeed, who attendedthe Old University of Chicago and the firsttwo years of the Midway University, diedat his home in Pasadena, California onNovember 18. Mr. Goodspeed had been aprominent Chicago attorney until his re­tirement some years ago. He was 80 yearsof age and had not been well recently. Hewas a brother of Edgar J. Goodspeed.Ethel Glover Hatfield, PhD '9S, died onOctober 26, 1949, in Berkeley, California.Her husband, Henry R. Glover, PhD '97,died December 25, 1945.Howard Nelson Moses, '99, MD (Rush)died at St. Luke's hospital in Kansas City,Missouri on September 10, 1948. Hiswidow is the former Harriet L. Robbins,'19.Dr. Louis A. Mueller, MD '99, passed:alVay this past summer..Charles L. Hunley, '98, died July 19, 1949:He taught math for many years in the Red­. land, California high school.Oliver P. Judkins, MD '9S, died August8, 1948 in Des Moines, Iowa. He was 78years old and was able to engage in activepractice up until three weeks before hisdeath.Carl n. 'Thompsgn, AM '00, widely. known authority on public ownership ofpublic utilities, died July 3, 1949.Alvin Lee Barton, '00, died on February15, 1948 in Columbia, Missouri.Arthur C. Lunn, AM '00,. PhD '04, pro­fessor emeritus of mathematics at the Uni­versity, died November 18, 1949.Clarence R. Williams, '01, died Septem­ber 25, 1949 in Philadelphia.Mary Helena Dey, AM '02, associate prin­cipal of the Mary C. Wheeler School, inNova Scotia, from 1913 to 1920, and prin­cipal from 1920-1940, died on September3rd. A memorial service was held for herin Wheeler Memorial Hall.Frank Baldwin Jewett, PhD '02, pioneerof the transcontinental telephone who wasto receive the Hoover Medal for 1949-oneof the highest honors in the engineeringprofession-died Nov. 18 in New Jersey.Carl Dean Thompson, AM '02, died inLincoln, Neb. on July 3, 1949.Charles Percy Brown, MD (Rush) '02,died November 20, 1948 in El Paso, Texas.Lena Vaughan '03, SM 'OS, died August16, 1949, as a result of injuries sustainedin a fall at her summer cottage at Harbor­side, Maine. From 1910 to 1930 she waschairman of the Science Department atMississippi State College for Women. From1930 to her retirement in 1942 she servedin the same capacity at Rosemary Hall,Greenwich, Connecticut. During the warshe came out of retirement to do researchfor the Navy at Quonset, Rhode Island.Frank Church Dudley, '04, chief pedia­trician at the Samaritan Hospital in Brook­lyn, died July 31, 1949. Frank G. Burrows, '04, news editor of theAmerican Banker, died October 10, 1949in his home in Jackson Heights, New York.Spencer McCallie, Sr., '04, an alumni citeein 1947 and one of the most .influentialand respected educators in the South, diedOct. 18, 1949 in Chattanooga, Tennessee.Paul G. Heineman, '05, PhD '07, retiredbacteriologist, died Nov. 3, 1949. He hadbeen ill for four years. One of his sur­vivors is his widow, Ailsie M. Heineman,'26, AM '27.News has just reached us of the deathof John Woodside Ritchie, '05, in thespring of 1943.Leslie J. Ayer, JD '06, died May 31, 1949.Jacob Wi!helm Heyd, '06, died in Kirks­ville, Mo., Jan. 27, 1949.Albert Theo Lundgren, MD (Rush) '07,died January 23. 1949, in Chicago.Margaret Emerson Bailey, 'OS, novelistand magazine. writer, died Oct. 28, 1949at her home in New Canaan, Connecticut.Jessie May Snyder, '09, retired teacher,died on February 5, 1948, in Columbus,Georgia.J. W. Nicholson, '09, died January 19,1949 in Ellis, Kansas.William P. Harms, '12, died Sept. 21,1949.Sidney Levy, '13, died in an automobileaccident near Kansas City, Mo., May 25,1948.Edwin B. Powers, SM '13, for the pa�tquarter of a century head of the depart­ment of Zoology at the University of Ten­nessee, died August 25th in Knoxville.Dorothy W eil, '14,· AM '23, died in Chj-cago "Vn May 11, 1949. ITownes R. Leigh, PhD '15, of Gairres­ville, Florida, died last February.Regina Josephine Triant, PhD '16, AM'22, died in Ames, Iowa: Nov. 13, 1948. :Ralph H. Braden, SM '16, chemical en­gineer for the Eastman Kodak Companyand before that a teacher of chemistry atthe Rochester Institute of Technolopv,died recently.The recent death of Esther Jacobs, '16,AM '21, has been reported. She had beenmaking her home in Boston.Mary Cecil Hay, '17, (Mrs. T. R. Spaul­ding) died December 13, 1947, at Yuma,Arizona.Mae Eanes, '18, died July 14, 1949, inMobile, Alabama.Mrs. William A. Honer, 'IS (MathildaBertrams) died on October 24, 1949 in AnnArbor, Michigan.Mrs. Florence Rogers Maxwell, '20, diedin the Baptist Home at Maywood, Ill., Sep­tember 28, 1947.Mrs. Walter Wallaston, '20, died April26, 1945, in Florida.Roger Lincoln Goetz, '25, died June 21,1948 in Chicago.Mrs. Margaret L. Freeman, '31, died Oc­tober 29, 1949 in Evanston, Illinois.Bill F. Brogdon, AM '32, died in Sep­tember, 1949.Robert Severin Rasmussen, '38, died atBerkeley, California Oct. 16, 1949. He was acontributor to the discovery of the mo­lecular structure of penicillin.Frank W. Lockhart, '40, died on Sep­tember 19, 1949. His home was in Gary,Indiana."These specifications added upto just one career ... "I WENT from the University of Tennessee directlyinto the Army. And after the war ended, a lot ofserious thinking convinced me that the life work Iwanted to follow would have to offer three things:First, a business of my own, preferably one dealingwith people I'd enjoy serving; second, a business thatwould provide genuine personal satisfaction as wellas a living, and third, one that would increase myincome in direct proportion to my ability and willing­ness to work.These specifications added up to just one career­life insurance. The next step was to choose a com­pany. So I talked with nine different organizations,and out of this survey three factors emerged to helpme decide on the New England Mutual. The firstfactor was the caliber of New England's men herein Memphis. The second was the company's out­standing training program, and the third, the recom­mendations of several successful business men.So, in February, 1946, I joined New EnglandMutual. During my first year I completed two ex­acting training courses and sold a creditable volumeof life insurance. Trips to company meetings intro­duced me to the company's friendly and able nation­wide organization, increased my proficiency, andadded greatly to the enjoyment I get out of my work.Now, thanks to the knowledge of the business Ihave acquired, I am getting solid satisfaction out ofserving a steadily growing clientele, and am earningconsiderably more than I could have earned else­where on a salary.Recent graduates of our Home Office trammg course,although new to the life insurance business, earn averagefirst-year commissions of $3600 - which, with renewal com­missions added, brings the total yearly income average to$5700. From here, incomes rise in direct proportion to eachindividual's ability and industry.If you'd like information about a career that gives you abusiness of your own, with no slow climb up a seniorityladder and no ceiling on earnings, write Mr. H. C. Chaney,Director of Agencies, 501 Boylston Street, Boston 17, Mass.THE NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY John Phillips III and family, Memphis, Tenn.These University of Chicago men are New EnglandMutual representatives:Harry Benner, 'II, ChicagoGeorge Marselos, '34, ChicagoJohn D. Downs, '46, ChicagoIn safe hands ... even at 60 below!Do YOU REMEMBER when winter meant storing the familycar till spring? Not so many years ago, a car owner's fearof an ice-shattered motor was a dread reality ... if he didn'tdrain his radiator and store his car once cold weather hit!What was needed-acutely-was an automobile anti-freezethat would prove always dependable yet economical. Onethat would hold up under any operating temperature. Thatwouldn't foam and boil away. That would resist rust andcorrosion to the nth degree.That's where Union Carbide research entered the picture.The result? "Prestone" anti-freeze. Since then this product-the first all-winter anti-freeze-has assured millions uponmillions of motorists of ever-improved driving performance, with assured safety ... throughout the bitterest weather.This is but one example of the way the people of UnionCarbide are helping to better our daily living. And UCCstands ready to help solve other problems .•. whereverbetter materials and processes are needed.FREE: If you tcould like to know more aboutmany of the things you use erery day, send forthe illustrated booklet, "Products and Processes."It tells how science and industry use VCC'sAlloys, Chemicals, Carbons, Gases and Plastics,W ri te for free Booklet 1,UNION CARBIDEANb' CAR.BON CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET � NEW YORK 17, N. Y.---------------- Trade-marked Products of Divisions and Units include ---------------­PRESTONE and TREK Anti-Freezes • NATIONAL Carbons • EVEREADY Flashlights and Batteries • ACHESON ElectrodesSYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS • PREST-O-LITE Acetylene • LINDE Oxygen • PYROFAX GasBAKELITE, KRENE, VINYON, and VJNYLITE Plastics • ELECTROMET Alloys and Metals • HAYNES STELLITE Alloys