EDITOR'SMEMO PADThe eight 0 I clock mail"You should find it possible to keyyour (addressograph) plates so that YOlldo not waste alumni assn. funds circular­izing your membership: J. E. A. '47, Rock­ford, Illinois."Dear J. E. You are so right and nextyear that's exactly what we'll be set up todo. Meanwhile, you'll have difficulty be­lieving that this year we didn't waste acent of association funds. Let's see howbriefly we can explain it:In our addressograph department is amaster file of 50,000-plus plates represent­ing as many alumni.In the same room is another file of 8,000plates representing all dues-paying mem­bers who receive the Magazine each month.Ever� fall. �e send three membershippromotion pIeces to those in the masterfile who are not members-42,000.In the past, before addressing' these en­velopes, we have laboriously removed the8,000 plates of those who are members; re­filed them after addressing the remainder.This job has always been done in thelate summer when things are quiet in theaddressograph department. But this yearthings were different.Tower Topics had been changed froma q?arterly with no summer mailings toa bi-monthly with two mailings falling inthe summer period. (After any total mail­ing we get as high as a thousand returnsfor address changes.) In addition we pub­lished the honor roll last summer for thefirst time. We also determined to realignthe tabs on our plates to permit us to tabfor all members so we won't do the verything you criticize.This year, as every member knows, wesent the promotion to all, including mem­bers. Actually it cost no more than in thepast. After we added the extra third-classpostage; deducted the savings in scores ofhours to extract and re-file plates, and thesavings in getting the fifty thousand rateon the envelopes, we saved a few dollars.We really didn't save, however, for Wehad to write letters and pay postage forthose who wrote in expressing concern atour bookkeeping, our waste of money, orexpressing just plain confusion as towhether their memberships were still inforce.Among those who took the promotionas notice of membership expiration andsen t in checks for renewals was one whodiscovered his mistake after his check hadbeen sent. He asked for a refund explaininghe had not read the message carefully andsince he was not sure of the future at hisage, he would prefer to pay only one yearat a time. With the others we simply ad­vanced their memberships and sent newmembership cards.Other mailThe Editor's Memo Pad in the Novemberissue of the ]I.,fagazine prompts me to senda message similar to the last one in yourMemo Pad. ("We're crazy. We read thewhole thing front cover to cover and en­joy it.")Although I can't say I read every issue from cover to cover I do enjoy almost everyword which the pressure of the day permitsme to read.Moreover, some of my colleagues here atHollins College (not U. of C. alumn�) joinme in enjoying every issue I get an oppor­tunity to hand to them.Ea�h issue, it seems, has some article ofparticular interest to faculty members inthe various departments of a liberal artscollege. It would be gratifying to you toknow that the head of OUT English depart­ment is one of the most enthusiastic read­ers of my copy. He speaks of its excel­lence in superlative terms.Many of us are now enjoying "Sense andCensorship" which is a clever and timelyarticle. I could take more of Grampp andHutchins!I am glad to be the possessor of a cardcertijying that I am' a life member of theA lumni Association but I am sorry to havebeen remiss in expressing my appreciationof our excellent Magazine. Best wishes fora continuation of its success.Harriett H. Fillinger, '20, SM '21Professor of ChemistryHollins College, VirginiaThen came the PilgrimsEnclosed you will find a photostatic copyof the membership card recently mailed tome from your office. My family and friendshave had no end of enjoyment over theobservation that I am evidently quite inarrears in my membershi-p fees ...The original membership card I treasure.. It is possible that mine was some sortof an honorary card (perhaps in recogni­tion of my residence in Texas), meaningthat. I am now a member for life, no ex­piration date?Juliette Dannenbaum, AM '49HoustonIf life began in June, 1590, we join youin considering this a life membership. Foryour collection we are also sending a cardwhich reads: Expires June, 1950.Want to travel?I was interested to read in the "News ofthe Classes" section that Betsy Davison, '44,had just returned from a year on Okinawaas an Army Recreation Hostess. ]\.IIy job atpresent is. recruiting college women forArm)' Seroice Club work in Japan andOkinawa.If any other alumnae are interested inthis type of work, they can reach me atthe address above (see below!). Theseclubs are the successors to the Red Crossf?lub of wartime, and demand a high qual­ity type of work. It's a wonderful chanceto travel and at the same time help ourarmy of occupation in the Pacific theatre.I always look forward to "News of theClasses." October was wonderful-so manypeople I knew. My younger sister enteredthe College this year, carrying on the familytradition. (My dad, Leonard Bezark, '22, mother, Harriet Rolfe, entered about theclass of '22 or '23, graduated '35 with timeout for three children, and my' husband,Lee Friedberg, '44.)We'll all be looking forward, as usual,to next month's issue.Barbara B. Friedberg, '44Office Secretary of the Army CCivilian Personnel Division1660 E. Hyde Park Blvd., Chicago 37For 1899?I am 12 years old and am starting a foot­ball scorecard collection. I would appre­ciate it very much if you could send mesome Chicago scorecards. Thank you.Richard BenedickBronx, N. Y.Routine carried the above card throughour records department. It arrived on theeditor's desk with the notation: Not on file!BOOKSON REVIEWTHE CASE OF GENERAL YAMASHITA. ByA. Frank Reel. 324 pp. Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press. $4.Yamashita was the Japanese general whoconquered Singapore and was in chargeof the defense of the Philippines duringthe American invasion. During the laststage of hostilities in the Islands, troopsunder the command of Yamashita estab­lished a reign of terror in Manila andcommitted numerous atrocities. Yamashitasurrended and was indicted for not havingprevented these atrocities. He was sen­tenced by a military tribunal to be hangedand the Supreme Court having refused totake jurisdiction, the sentence was carriedout.The author of this book was one of thelawyers for the defense. His book is adevastating and persuasive criticism of themethods by which the Japanese general wastried and of the grounds upon which thesentence was based. Much can be said aboutthe general moral and legal problems towhich the War Crimes Trials have givenrise, and these general considerations appl valso to the case of General Yamashita. .Yet his case is in a class by itself. Forthe other War Crimes Trials, those againstthe Nazi leaders in Nuremberg, were con­ducted with a meticulous regard for thejudicial proprieties, and there can be nodoubt of the guilt of the defendants andof the justice of the sentences once thelegal and moral foundations of the trialsare accepted as valid. The case of Gen­eral Yamashita is different. In every re­spect it was a travesty of justice or, inthe words of Mr. Justice Murphy, "judi­cial lynching". It was impossible to connectYamashita either directly or indirectly withthe outrages committed by troops whichrefused to obey his orders, of whose ac­tivities he had no knowledge and withwhom he was unable to communicate.The proceedings before the military tri­bunal were unaffected by the principles ofdue processes as known to the Anglo-Ameri­can world. The simple truth is that Yama­shita was a symbol of Japanese victory andmilitary power and had to be sacrificedon the altar of American victory and mili­tary power. vVe had to get our man andwe got him. Since such was the case, itwould have been preferable to have hadBOOKS (Continued)Yamashita shot at daybreak instead of hav­ing tried with a spectacular lack of sue­ceSS to conceal the satisfaction of a primi­tive desire for vengeance with the hal­lowed principles of impartial justice.The Supreme Court of the United Statesrefused to take jurisdiction in the case onprocedural grounds, while taking extremecare to disassociate itself from any even im­pJied approval of the methods used at thetrial. Justices Murphy and Rutledge wrotedissenting opinions which will forever standas moving monuments to the spirit and theprinciples of American justice. This book,written with unjudicial indignation butborn of the same spirit and founded uponthe same principles, is a worthy sequel tothese great opinions.Hans J. MorgenthauAssociate Professor of Political ScienceTHE ARMY AIR FORCES IN WORLD WARII-Volume II : Europe-Torch to Pointblank(August 1942 to December 1943). Edited byW. F. Craven and J. L. Cate. Chicago, 1949.897 pp., maps, charts, pictures. $6.00.As Congress was debating the merits of a70-group air force, this volume put in atimely appearance.Second of a seven-volume series, in whichthe Air Historical Group plans to describewidespread operations on all fronts, thisone covers the operations of our Army Airforce in Africa and Europe, during thegloomier days of the late war. ProfessorsCraven and Cate have ably supervised themarshalling of a tremendous amount ofmaterial, of both Allied and enemy origin,about air support of the ground forces inNorth Africa, Sicily and Italy, and in thewar against the German war potential onthe continent itself.The buildup of American bomber forcesin England from a tiny band of men toa huge force, capable by the close of thisvolume (December, 1943), of strikes bymore than 700 planes, in itself is an ex­citing story about the growth of Americanmilitary power. But, in addition, you'llfind detailed description of the many op­erations in support of ground forces, anevaluation of basic air force policies, ananalysis of the effect of the many raids,and a discussion of the organization prob­lems involved in these vast operations.Volume II is indeed wealthy in informa­tion, valuable in content. Military strat­egists in Washington would well studycarefully the lessons it contains.However, the American people shouldrealize that air power in itself, as thewriters of this vol ume are first to agree,isn't sufficient to win a war. The speedwith which the resourceful Germans wereable to repair bomb damage and continueproduction stands out in the mind of thisex-foot soldier as an outstanding fact ofair force history.You must come to the conclusion thatwars are won by the combined forces ofall military arms, pulling together.Nonetheless, this volume is a well­merited testimony to the ability and cour­age of the Army's aviators.Robert E. Merriam '39 Volume 42 December 1949 Number 3PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONManaging EditorHOWARD W. MORT Contributing EditorsJeannette LowreyWilliam V. MorgensternRobert M� StrozierEditorsLAURA BERGQUISTLEONARD L. COLBYIN THIS ISSUEEDITOR'S MEMO PAD , COVER 1BOOKS ON REVIEW COVERIs IT TRUE, WHAT THEY SAY ABOUT THE COLLEGE?F. Champion Ward................................... 2A BALANCE SHEET FOR JAPAN, Edward A. Ackerman. . . . . . . .. 5As CHICAGO SAW MR. NEHRU. .. . . .. .. .. . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . .. 9WHO'S AGAINST RELIGION?, Jeannette Lowrey 11SCHOLARSHIP Is SUPERNATIONAL, Wilhelm Pauck. . . . . . . . . .. 13REFLECTION S AFTER FIVE, Robert M. Strozier ..... ". . . . . . . . .. 16CHIPS AND HIS' AUNT JESS... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 18CALENDAR 20NEWS OF THE CLASSES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22COVER: The new look in College clesses - 20 studentssitting companionably about a round table inCobb Hall. Milton Singer, Ph D '40, Chairman ofthe College Social Science staff, and Jay Wil­liams, '35, MA '43, lead a discussion in O. I. I. It'sone of 14 basic courses in the College, is takenby students in their last year, and the initials, ifyou're interested, stand for Observe+ion, Integra­tion and Interpretation. Translated: it "integrates"the various fields of knowledge they study in othercourses, and shows the relation between them.(Cover and 'photos of F. C. Ward and Mr. Nehruby Steve Lewellyn, '48)Published by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from October'thru June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscrip­tion price $3.00. Single copies 35 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, atthe Post Office at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The American AlumniCouncil, B. A. Ross, advertising director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y., is theofficial advertising agency of the Magazine.1IS IT TRUE ... Dean of. Champion WardWhat They Say About The College?A RECENT British visitor to theQuadrangles, reporting to his fel­low-scientists in England on his studyof American higher education in sci­ence, tells them that he "... foundmany of the statements made by out­side Americans concerning the Col­lege course of the very volcanic U ni­versity of Chicago bore little or norelation to the facts o:bservable with­in the College."This series of articles will attemptto tell alumni of "the very volcanicUniversity of Chicago" about its "Col­lege course," in terms of "the facts ob­servable within the College." For, ifmy own impression is at all correct,the University's alumni, no less thanoutside. Americans, are at presentsomewhat out of touch with the Uni­versity's College. Talks with productsof the Old, Old Plan, the Old Plan,and the Old New Plan, suggest that arather mixed image of the College iswidely held which includes most orall of the following somewhat incon­gruous ingredients.The College attracts principally 13and 14-year-olds who are unusually"brig'htll and yet. though able. must beworking' too hard:In fact, the entering class of 1949,numbering some 850, contains onlyone 13-year old and 24 14-year olds;first and second-year students have By F. Chempion Warda median age of fifteen. Thesestudents are intelligent, but notuniquely brilliant. Their I.Q.'s arecomparable to those of students whoentered several other colleges of lib­eral arts this year. If they take aftertheir predecessors of 1948, they willdevote a CIO week of forty hours totheir studies, including twenty hours inclassrooms, laboratories, and gymna­siums.These young quiz kids are given toomuch freedom:In fact, the College requires attend­ance at classes in the first two years;it houses younger resident students indormitories whose life it regulates;and above all it holds to the viewthat, quite apart from regulations,intelligent young Americans in theirmiddle teens are more apt to learnto conduct themselves profitably andresponsibly in the atmosphere of acollege than in that of a high school.The College drives them through arigid curriculum. in which individualaptitudes are ignored:In fact, only those portions of thework of the College which the indi­vidual student is found to need uponentry are required of him. Placementtests, which measure his competencein various subjects, determine thelevel and pace at which each student2 begins his work and the amount oftime he will probably require to finishthe College. Thus, "first-year stu­dents" are not defined, as are "Fresh­men" at other colleges, as "those whojust got here." In the College, "first­year students" are those whose abili­ties as measured when they enter haveplaced them together in first-yearcourses.An adviser, looking over the resultsof these placement tests, may advise astudent to begin with the secondcourse in the humanities and the firstcourse in the natural sciences, and toconsider English as already disposedof. Another student may need reme­dial English, Humanities 1 and Nat­ural Sciences 2, and may not needany more mathematics. Theoretically,someone who was extremely well pre-. pared could be waived through theentire College curriculum upon the'basis of placement tests alone. How­ever, it will take a very blue moon tobring this about. **There must have been a blue moon. Asthis article goes to press, the Examiner'Soffice reports that Mr. Joseph E. Nelson,son of an Oxford graduate and a student,before entering the College this fall, of ascientific lyceum in Rome and the BronxHigh School of Science, has passed theentire set of 14 placement examinations andis therefore excused from registration inthe College. Mr. Nelson is now registeredfor advanced work in mathematics.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe College has instituted a speed-upsystem which has debased the Bachelorof Arts degree:In fact, the College's use of place­ment tests and its policy of advising.individual students in terms of theresults of such tests are as apt to slo·wdown as to speed up a given student.Thus, of those students who enteredthe College in 1948, some 40 per centwill finish in the time which would berequired if they had been placed inthe college program entirely in termsof their previous schooling. The other60 per cent will finish in either less ormore time than their high school tran­scripts suggest and slightly more thanhalf of these will be slowed downsomewhat, rather than "speeeded up.""It would seem," said PresidentJudson in his annual report for1905-6, "that a boy ought to be readyto enter college by the time he is six­teen." The College has "degraded"the Bachelor's degree only in the sensethat it believes that in America, ashas long been the case in other coun­tries, work of college quality may beundertaken by students who are fif­teen and sixteen years of age. Thatthe work of the first two years is ofcollege quality may be inferred fromthe fact that materials used in thefirst and second-year courses, and insome cases the courses themselves,have been widely adopted by otherc7>l1eges whose students are older bytwo years. That younger studentscan profit from such work may beinferred from their superior perform­ance (to be cited below) on nationaltests ordinarily taken by college sen­iors of 21 and 22 years of age. Bythus lowering the age at which gen­eral, higher education begins, theUniversity has given itself and its stu­dents time to do greater justice to theclaims of both general and specializededucation, restoring to both theBachelor of Arts and the Master ofArts degrees distinct and intelligiblemeanings.There is another advantage in low­ering the age at which college workbegins. It enables students who facea long period of professional trainingafter they have finished college - assome 70 per cent of our students do­to complete that training a year or two before graduates of other colleges.In making this saving in time possible,the College has begun to fulfill a re­markable prophecy made in 1908 byHenry Smith -Pritchett:"In the reorganization (of Ameri­can education) which will sooneror later come, the college yearsseem to me likely to be thosebetween sixteen and twenty, ratherthan those :between eighteen andtwenty-two. Under such an arrange­ment the college will take accountboth of discipline and of freedom. Itsprofessors will be, first of all, teachers,and its function will he to lead boysout of the rule of the school into thefreedom of the university; out of thetutelage of boyhood into the libertyof men. If the college does not fillthis function, it will in the end besqueezed out between the reorganizedsecondary school and the fully devel­oped university." (The AtlanticMonthly, Vol. 102, p. 603, Novem­ber, 1908. Reprinted by Permission ofthe Publisher.)While being rushed through an im­placahle curriculum. students are' drawnup in bleak alphabetical rows in vastlecture hans, fining up notebooks withthe outlines of lectures delivered fromremote platforms by remote authori­ties:In fact, students, spend most oftheir days in small groups, activelydiscussing their work with a facultyleader and with each other. Thereare now no lectures at all in seven ofthe fourteen courses which make upthe four-year curriculum of the Col­lege, and in no course do lectures ex­ceed discussion meetings in eithernumber or importance.This year, the College has installedin Cobb and Lexington Halls sixround tables seating no more thantwenty-five persons, including the in­structor. This process of conversionfrom podium to forum will bepromptly and gratefully acceleratedshould any alumnus be moved todonate the necessary funds!In these lectures. students are pre­sented with the results of current re­search in various broad fields of knowl­edge. These results are then memo­rized by the students and regurgitatedfor the comprehensive examinations:In fact, the College has virtually 3abandoned lectures, textbooks, and"survey" courses which merely purveythe outcomes of inquiry, in favor ofdiscussion classes and primary mate­rials which attempt to acquaint stu­dents with the various disciplinedactivities by which knowledge is ac­quired, organized, tested, and appliedin the major arts and sciences.Many of the examination questionscall for the fresh application of ideasand methods discussed and employedin class to materials and problemswhich have not been presented inclass. Thus, the students who are tak­ing "Humanities 2" this year willlearn to interpret dramatic texts inpart through classroom discussions ofKing Lear. But they will also be re­quired to make a study of Hamletwithout the benefit of classroom dis­cussions, and their ability to interpretdramatic texts may be tested in Juneby means of questions addressed toH amlet as well as Lear;Far from being taught too many facts,students are not being taught enoughof them. They are memorizing emptygeneralizations about methods of ob­taining and interpreting facts:In fact, the College has never takenthe view that the "how" of knowledgemay be learned apart from its "what."Rather, it holds that the subject mat-Meet the DeanMedian age o·f the 150 memberswho staff the University's College is38. F. Champion Ward, its Dean. isa fine sample of what the current staffis like. He's the median age. witty.personable, approachable. and swearsby the college program and the col­lege student. The latter, says he. arejust about lithe best motivated" inthe country.His AM comes from Oberlin. hisPhD in Philosophy from Yale, (heheld a Sterling Fellowship there in'37.) He taught at Denison Universitybefore arriving on the Midway in'45. and has taught the 0.1.1. course,seen in action on the front cover.Dean Ward says he's heard a lotof nonsense. fiction. and misinforma­tion about what the College is doing.He'd like to dispel some of the fancyfor alumni, at least. about one of theliveliest undergraduate communitiesin the nation.4 THE UN I V E R SIT y 0 F CHI C AGO MAG A Z I N Eter and the characteristic methodologyof any form of inquiry should betaught and learned together. There­fore, it has not replaced mere surveysof facts with mere surveys of methods.For example, the College holds thatit is important that students shouldknow how to read critically thoseliterary constructions which we call"histories. " However, it is necessaryto draw the distinction between"history" as the actual events, persons,traits, and institutions of the past and"history" as constructed narrativeabout the past. But to require studentsto memorize such a statement about"history" would not be to teach themhow to read histories. Therefore,several diverse historical writings arecarefully analyzed and discussed sothat the successful student finds him­self using, not merely mouthing, thedistinction between these two mean­ings of "history": he notes the differ­ent ways in which Gibbon, Thucy­dides, Turner, and Burkhardt orderand interpret those aspects of thepast with which their histories deal.That "the facts" as well as "themethods" of history are learnedthrough this kind' of study was sug­gested in June, 1949, when a "Who?What? When? Where?" kind of his­tory test, currently in use at a stateuniversity in the Middle West, wasgiven without time for special prep­aration to twenty volunteers fromthe College seven weeks after theycompleted the new course in the His­tory of Western .. : Civilization. Theirscores were markedly superior to thoseearned by the average student in theoriginal group. Apparently, you aremore apt to remember SeptimiusSeverus when you have actively dis­cussed the interpretation which Gib­bon, in trying· to explain the fall ofRome, puts upon that Emperor's acts,than if you have been t�ld. simply toremember Severus as one of manymen who were the Emperors of Rome.Comparable results were ob­tained in 1947, when a group of 103-fourth-year students, who had enteredthe College before finishing highschool, was given the General Educa­tion Index. It is a nationally adminis­tered test on the basis of which manyuniversities admit students to grad­uate study. In that examination, theaverage member of the College groupstood higher than 92 per cent of the seniors from other colleges. Again,this test is largely "factual" and doesnot demand as much in the way ofreasoning and critical judgment as theCollege seeks to develop in its stu­dents.The facuHy of the College consists ofyoung Thomists who find all truth andwisdom in the musty summas of St.Thomas Aquinas:In fact, when a course in Westernhistory was being planned three yearsago, it was fo�nd that the othercourses in the College were prescrib­ing regrettably few works of themedieval period, and that the facultyof 150 members was almost "freshout" of medievalists, let aloneThomists. As for the works of St.Thomas, one short selection fromthem was found to be in use inone course.It should be pointed out that thecurriculum of the College requires thatstudents take three years of work inthe Natural Sciences (two of thesewith laboratory), the Social Sciences,and the Humanities and single coursesin Writing, Mathematics, and Lan­guage, followed by single courses inPhilosophy and in History which aredesigned to integrate the student'sprevious work. In such a balancedcurriculum, a great variety of materialsand ideas are examined and discussed.These materials and ideas are selectedfor their excellence and for their use­fulness in teaching students how tounderstand and enjoy civilized valuesand disciplined activities, and notbecause they express some set ofdogmas favored by the faculty.Since the curriculum of the College isprescribed, the faculty must be Indoc-:trinating students:In fact, one of the few points ofsubstantive agreement a�ong themembers of the faculty is that thebusiness of a college is not topre s c rib e a set of answers toall problems, to be accepted andlearned by students. It is rather toteach students how to deal withdifferent kinds of problems by achiev­ing some command of the disciplinesby which they may be analyzed andsolved. The curriculum is prescribed because experience with the electi'\lfsystem has shown that students 'Wi!]not achieve a balanced and disci­plined versatility in dealing withmany kinds of problems if they .aresimply invited to prescribe their col­lege work for themselves.In developing this versatility i�students, our purpose is not indoctri­nation but, as someone said, "self,effacement," that is, the eventua�graduation of students who haNt,learned from their teachers how to 'Ithink and to judge without theirteachers. In the words of Mr. FratikW. Abrams, Chairman of the Boardof Directors of the Standard Oil Com­pany of New Jersey, "The primarypurpose of higher education . . . �:to turn out people who can applyreason to any situation (not just jgi&situations), who have wide interests,who are self-disciplined, who ha\1�at least the rudiments of a satisfae­tory personal philosophy, and who calilfind satisfaction in many things be­yond the purely material." (Reprintedfrom the Fortune suroey, September;1949J' copyright Time Inc.)Nothing could more quickly arrestthis development of independentjudgment and wide interests than theimposition of official faculty "answers"upon students who have not yet beentaught how to deal critically with theassumptions, data, or other authoritiesupon which such "answers" may rest,As Chancellor Hutchins once pwtit "A liberal education should com­municate the leading facts, principles)and ideas which an educated man:should possess, together with the in­tellectual techniques needed to ac­quire, understand, and apply morefacts, principles, and ideas. This, andonly this, the College pretends to do.Education is a life long process. Weare not so deluded as to suppose thateducational institutions, by any age,can do what only a full life of study)reflection, and experience can accom­plish."Well, it may be a good education. butis there any social life?In fact, the College does not acceptthe sharp separation of "intellectual"and "social" experience, "work" and"play," "curriculum" and "extra­curriculum" which the elective sys-(Continued on page 19)A BALANCE SHEET FOR JAPANWhat can 81 million Japanese live on? A h k· geograp er rna esan inventory For the peace conFerenceBy Edward A. AckermanOn his 8.000. mile �o�twar t?ur o.f �apan. Dr. Ackerman snapped thousandsof photos. This one.ls In Kamlkoc:hl. In the Japanese IIAlpsll. formerly a resorttown. He poses with local agricultural officials. his Nisei interpreter (backrew] and the staff of the Inn where he stayed.R ECENTL Y, for the first time insome months, the New TorkT'mes reported that the possibility ofZ • h J .a peace treaty WIt apan -was agambeing considered by the State De-partment.Since the treaty may at last ma-terialize, you may be interested inhearing about some of the prepara­eions the American government has�ade to ensure an enlightened peacewith our former enemy, and now dili­gent disciple.I can tell you about one phase ofthe ground work, which I feel is anaccurate, though modest, sample ofthe care and effort being expendedby the men co�cerned with ad�in�s­tration and pohcy recommendation inpostwar Japan.My first professional interest in Ja­pan antedates the war, when I wasa student and instructor at Harvard.As a geographer, my field was thestudy of natural resources and re- source management and I spent sev­eral years' research on fisheries andfishery problems. Quite naturallythis led to Japan which has developedthe largest and one of the most in­tensive fishing industries In theworld.*I had planned to study Japanesefisheries firsthand, 'hut the warchanged my plans. More by coinci­dence than design, as those things go,my interest in the Far East continuedto develop. In the Office of StrategicServices, I took part in some geo­graphic intelligence projects con­.cerned with Japanese territory. Later,at the Harvard School for Overseas*The reasons? The oceans near her areexceptionally rich and fertile. Then, only16% of japan's land is suitable for cultiva­tion, so every possible food resource mustbe exploited to feed a population half thatof the U. S., living in an area no biggerthan California. Opportunity for employ­ment at home has been limited, so someexceptionally ,capable men have expendedtheir talents in the fishing industry.5 Administration, I helped train Armyand Navy officers for administeringJapan's military government.Lt. Col. Hubert G. Schenck, onleave from a professorship of paleon­tology at Stanford University, spenta short tour of duty in Cambridge,where he and I became acquainted.In 1944, he joined General MacAr­thur's command in the Pacific andsubsequently became .the first chief ofthe Natural Resources Section ofGeneral Headquarters, Supreme Com­mander for the A 11 i e d Powers(SCAP). He still holds that job,where he has been most influentialin such policy-making and admin­istrative tasks as the Land Reform.Land reformThis is important enough, perhaps,to deserve elaboration. Japanese landholdings have never been large, mea­sured by American terms. The larg­est "estate" has seldom exceeded1000 acres. Still, nearly half of Ja­pan's farmers were either full or parttime tenants before the Reform, pay­ing exorbitant rents-as much as 40to 60% of the produce-for their in­tensively worked one and two acrefarms. Under the Reform, a signalachievement, on the island of Hok­kaido no family can hold more than30 acres: in other regions, the maxi­mum is two and a half, and the plotmust be cultivated by the ·owner.Land in excess of these amounts hasto be sold to the government, on thebasis of prices in the '30's, which isreselling it to tenants. The transac­tion is carried on locally, throughcommissions of tenants and land­holders and is being done with re­markably little disorder for such arevolutionary change.Col. Schenck asked me soon afterthe War if I would join his staff,then a group of s-pecialists on agri­culture, forestry, mining and fisheries.Initially my assignment was to beof a supervisory nature, but by the6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGuest-of-honor at one banquet after another. Menuat this one included devil's tongue root, sake" beer,trout and persimmons. It cost about a month's salary,for the Japanese repatriates who gave it.time I arrived in Tokyo, in July,1946, its character had changed.I was asked to prepare a compre­hensive, coordinated analysis of theJapanese food and raw material situa­tion. At the peace conference whichthen appeared possible for 1947,Allied policy makers presumablycould learn from it just what Japanneeded to live on. My final documentwould show, as far as was possible,what Japan's postwar resources were-how many mouths could be fed,how many backs clothed, how manyhouses built, how near supplies mightcome to meeting anticipated needs.The Chief of Staff approved theplans, as a confidential project (laterdeclassified), and I started out onwhat I knew would be an interesting,if devious road.Had pre-war Japan really been a"have-not" nation as she complained?Was she now?,My first step was to just see Japan.The Islands extend 1200 miles, fromnorth to south, and the climates rangefrom severe, Maine-like weather tosomething like northern Florida. Uni­versally, however, it is damp. Tokyo'srainfall, it may comfort Chicagoansto know, is twice Chicago's.I wanted to get the feeling of Ja­pan's regional makeup, to see howintensively the land was used, to talkto farmers, 'fishermen, and people ofthe village, to woodcutters, minersand petty officials.I wanted to see how the peoplelived, worked and thought. In so New style housing: in the foreground, are the frontsteps of a bombed out house. A garden grows whereonce was living space. The modest wooden residencereplacing it is typical of postwar housing.doing, I covered about 8000 miles infive different excursions about the Is­lands. Between 1946 and 1949, Imanaged to visit all but two of the46 prefectures, and talk to more than300 Japanese scientists' and adminis­trators, as well as hundreds of farm­ers, fishermen, and other folk.My Nisei interpreter and I traveledin our jeep, in G I garb, unarmed andunescorted, into some of the most re­mote corners of the Islands. Westayed sometimes in military billets,at other times in Japanese hotels. Wenever had an untoward experienceany w her e, Hiroshima included,though we heard stories of others whohad.People friendlyAlmost everywhere, we encounteredsharp curiosity about the workings' ofAmerican democracy, and a wish tolearn more about it. (I think of onestudy group formed in Tokyo bysome Japanese intellectuals, which as­siduously studied, such questions as"The American Concept of Hap­piness" ! ) This was true particularlyafter Land Reform began: the Com­munists, I feel, weakened their popu­larity considerably by local oppositionto this popular measure.Those weeks on the road wereamong the most rewarding and in­formative of my life. The scenery ofJapan, 75% mountainous, was aloneworth 'the trips, for it can be com­pared only to Switzerland in its nat­ural beauty. I came to know andlike the Japanese in their home en- vironment as I have a dozen otherpeoples of Europe and the Far East.I appreciated, among other things,their highly developed artistic sense,the evidences of their national talentfor cooperation, the universally wellbehaved children, and the people'scheerfulness in the face of adversity.If there were any "hardships" theycame from riding a jeep over Japan'sincredibly rough rroads. Since themountains make engineering con­struction both expensive and difficult,the country has concentrated on build­ing an excellent railway system in­stead, and relatively few roads can becalled "improved."The only other experiences I founda constant trial were the unavoidablebanquets. Every Japanese group, nomatter how humble, must wine anddine a visitor of any rank. I oftenprotested at first, realizing that inmany cases these entertainments rep­resented a real sacrifice for the hosts.But I found it equally undesirable torisk a breach of hospitality From oneend of Japan to the other, we ban­queted. It might be a simple meal,given high on a damp, open moun­tainside, by a small group of settlersnewly repatriated from Manchuria(menu: hot goat's milk, sake, horsecorn), to politic banquets given bymembers of the Imperial Household( fish, several varieties of sukiyaki­duck, lamb, beef - champagne andwestern style sweets).I developed a tolerance for bur­dock, sea urchin eggs, octopus, sea­weed, raw fish, devil's-tongue root,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand other delicacies, but never be­came friends with sake, the rice wine,which always flowed freely. "Kam­pei" (bottoms up) was the watch­word everywhere.My experiences included excursionsin fishing boats off the coasts: oneinteresting place was Owase, on south­ern Honshu, where fishermen netmore than 85 varieties of marine life.The housewife is confronted by adazzling choice in the market. InKiryu Machi, I inspected a wood­mushroom culture industry: mush­rooms are grown in oak logs, placedin shady places. A tasty crop is thusraised at very little expense. I foundthe silk industry, as you might imag­ine, badly hit. During the war, al­most three-quarters of the acreageformerly devoted to mulberry bushes,the silkworm diet, was planted in foodcrops, sweet potatoes mostly, for thehome and army fronts. After the war,the preference of American womenfor nylon quite knocked the bottomout of the important U. S. marketfor Japanese silk.On the basis of my travels andstudies I can say that even a "well­to-do" person in Japan today lacksmost things a middle class Americandeems a necessity of life. Heat in thewinter is one. The lot of the averageman is one of continual hard labor,if a family is to be kept fed, clothedand housed in even a minimal man­ner. A house without heat, a dietwithout variety, a wardrobe withoutshoes, is the lot of the majority.Health standards have improved un­der the Occupation, but one still en­counters villages where every childhas a winter-long cold. In the cities,absenteeism because of illness is com­mon. No American taxpayer shouldfeel the Japanese are waxing fat onthe supplemental foods and materialshis funds provide. He furnishes onlythe margin between hunger and life.The case of Dr. Nosaka* (nameficti tious) is an example, typical notonly of a middle class family in Tokyoin '47 and '48, when I knew him, butof thousands of other urban families.Rural folk fare somewhat better thanthose in the city, but the ability ofJapan to provide for a growing city*Cited in Dr. Ackerman's pamphlet"Japanese Resources and U. S. Policy," pre­pared on request for the House Committeeon Foreign Affairs. population is likely to be a crucialtest for democratization.Now in his '40's, Dr. Nosaka teachesscience in a leading Japanese univer­sity. Before and during the early partof the war, he, his wife and four chil­dren were moderately well off. Theyhad a six room house in Tokyo, asummer home in the mountains.He interested me because he is oneof the real democrats of Japan, a manof "good will," who has an innategrasp of the meaning of the reformsnow in progress. He has been per­sonally instrumental in introducingdemocratic reforms into his U niver­sity, and active in neighborhood gov­ernmental problems in his section ofthe city. He feels sincerely that Ja­pan made a grave mistake in launch­ing the war and must pay for it.The bulky SOO-page report onJapan's slim postwar resourcescompiled by Geographer Acker­man was intended as an . inven­tory for the peacemakers. Thepeace still hangs fire, but the re­port has been well thumbed by:The House Fore'ign AffairsCommittee, which printed a di­gest for study: General Mac.Ar­+hur, who spent a Sunday morn­ing in Tokyo, discussing it andsuch topics as world government,with the author: Emperor Hire­hi+e, who invited him to the Im­perial gardens, to ask questions:20 million Japanese, who scannedhiqhpoinfs, in AP dispatches.Here's how busy a geographercan get nowadays. At 38, Dr.Ackerman has traveled through33 of the world's countries. Heserved with the Hoover Commis­sion( writing its recommenda­tions for a Missouri Valley Au­thority), is on tap as a consultantfor the Army, State Deper+menrand Department of I n t e r Ii 0 r,+eaches courses in the "Far East"and "World Resources" this win­ter quarter, and will be off toJapan 'again in March, 19S0, togive the new National ResourcesCouncil a hand in its planninq.He, and his new bride are de­lighted with the U of C, to whichhe came from Harvard in Octo­ber '48. He finds it "fresh andextremely stimulating, II and likesthe "inter-departmental discuss­ing" which goes on. 7Yet this man, who was playing asignificant role in the intellectualchange in Japan, lived in a way whichwould make many Americans lookapprovingly on any political move­ment which offered promises of eco­nomic betterment. His family livedin a tiny house, without heat or run­ning water, and of so flimsy a con­struction that indoor winter tempera­tures seldom exceeded those outside.N osaka had one pair of shoes, therest of his family none. They woregeta, wooden clogs. In 1948, the fam­ily probably averaged 2000 caloriesa day per person (experts recommenda 2160 minimum). Meat was vir­tually unavailable, and fish only twoor three times a week.Yet, after three years, of life likethis, Nosaka was an enthusiastic ex­ponent of democratic ways. I doubtthat he will change hut many withless firm convictions can certainly beexpected to shift political philoso­phies if economic conditions worsen.Can Japan support herself?After traveling and conferring withmany people, phase two of my re­search began: assembling, as best wecould, a statistical picture of the pres­ent and future of Japan.In this, we drew heavily on thetechnical resources of Headquartersand the Japanese government. A ma­jority of the experts in the NaturalResources Section, comprising about200 persons, helped with ideas anddata. Some like Ada Espenshade, SB'36, SM '38, in fisheries, and WarrenLeonard, in agriculture, were of greathelp in compiling the SOO-page "Com­prehensive Survey" which emerged.Because of the national disregardfor exactness (a favorite word is"approximately", it is impolite to beexact), there are many frustrationsin compiling Japanese statistics. Afterchanging each one of the thousandsin our report not once but severaltimes, I came to feel about them as acolleague of mine did. He said theone dependable report he had wasfrom a deputation of Japanese whocame one day saying: "Mr. --, inresponse to your request, we havemade some statistics for you." I alsocame near to taking literally the of ten­repeated remark of a Japanese as­sistant who, when apologizing for in­terrupting me, said: "Dr. Ackerman,a THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEI am so sorry for you, but ... "Nonetheless, with many false leads,confusion and seemingly unresolvablecontradictions, we pieced together apicture which told something of J a­pan's future. It is not an encouragingone, from either the American or Jap­anese points of view.In 1949, on a land area slightly lessthan California's, live nearly 81 mil­lion people. The population increasessteadily, at the rate of a million ayear. In 1950, there will be 82 mil­lion, by 1960, presumably 100 mil­lion. And when Japan began her ag­gressions in '32, in the name of "liv­ing space", the Islands had only 70millions. (All resources were thenused as intensely as the nation's tech­nology permitted and considerableassistance was forthcoming from co­lonial areas.)None-too bright pictureA good point of departure, in re­viewing Japan's primary productionproblems, is to examine what theymight be ·if the population were sta­bilized at 81 millions, which obviouslycan't be done unless drastic measuresare taken.In the near future, Japan may beable to produce about 80 per cent ofits minimum food needs (as it hasthis year), barring bad crops, and theusual untoward conditions influencingagriculture. Improved seed, betterpest control, improved cultivation,more attention to animal husbandry,will help. Even so, it's difficult tovisualize a situation in which Japanwill not 'be forced to import at leasta fifth of her food needs yearly-un­less the population increase lessens,or the Japanese are to be continuallyundernourished.It appears that Japan will have toimport for domestic use alone, a thirdof its combined wood and fiber re­quirements, 88% of its petroleum, onehalf its phosphate, one quarter itspotash, three-fifths its iron, four-fifthsits lead, all its aluminum and rubber,plus tin, antimony, manganese, etc ...some of them now scarce and expen­sive items for the world as a whole.As for exports: Japan has only afew domestically produced raw ma­terials, cement, sulphur and cultivatedpearls among them, from which ex­port goods can be made. In the longrun, exports must be made from stillmore imported materials. In world markets, Japan faces se­rious competition. Nylon has nearlydisplaced silk: other Asiatic nationshave modern new cotton textile in­dustries: there is new competitionfrom European peoples, with moreskill, who have lower standards ofliving than before the war. The gen­eral reputation Japanese goods ac­quired for low quality in the past willnot help any. And the military fearsof other Asiatic countries will leadthem to look unfavorably on Japa­nese manufacturers for some time.Japan must close its food and ma­terials gap by every possible means­or else. The "or-else" in part, ofcourse, is the prospect of Communism,for Japan is now a political, as wellas a land island, in the Far East.How can the gap be closed?One is the development of a foreigntrade orbit, in which Japan can ex­port man-hours of labor, skilled orunskilled. There are promising signshere 'but I remain to be 'convincedthat enough dependable volume everwill be forthcoming to meet the gap.If strategic fears can be overcome,the best hope lies in trading arrange­ments with other Asiatic or South­west Pacific nations which for sometime will lack the manufacturinggoods Japan can supply if facilitiesare rehabilitated.Here are other possibilities: a mostimportant point-heroic effort tostabilize the population; emigrationof Japanese abroad; possible develop­ment of revolutionary new technologyin foods and materials production;and subsidization of Japan by morefavored nations.Emigration for the time being ispolitically impossible. It is a prob­lem of world scope, and if the needsof all overpopulated nations are takeninto account, India, China, Italy,Java and others, Japan's share of the"open spaces," even assuming politi­cal accessibility, is small and decidedlyinadequate.To date, the main reliance for apolitically stable Japan has been onsubsidization, and by the UnitedStates. Part of the immediate prob­lem was met by shared undercon­sumption for a large number of J ap­anese people, but from now on, thatcan be politically dangerous. The accomplishments of the Occu­pation reflect great credit on GeneralMacArthur and his staffs, but I doubtany of them feel the pressing eco­nomic problems have been solved, orthat the future is secure. Yet, an im­portant foundation has been laid forbringing the industrious, and in manyways gifted, Japanese people into thein terna tional community.I do not believe that Japan can becast adrift on the sea of foreign tradeand be expected to float for longwithout the vigorous prosecution ofother measures. If we can assumethat anything preventing a restorationof stable resources in Japan is con­trary to the aim of democratization,we might profitably consider the fol­lowing:Ackerman recommendsRestrictions on Japanese manufac­turing industry should be the mini­mum compatible with security. Areasonable access to foreign marketsshould be allowed. Effective tech­nical assistance should be availa:hleto Japan, both in allowing Allied sci­entists and technologists to work inJapan, and permitting the trainingabroad of Japanese research workers,engineers and administrators in fieldsimportant to rehabilitation. Japanneeds too a research program, of thewidest scope, to find better utilizationof domestic materials, and to developfood sources not now used.At least two multi-purpose waterdevelopment projects should beginsoon-the people need something ofthis sort, to feel that they are build­ing for the future, to strengthen faithin their government. A great socialexperiment in population limitingshould be tried. But these things rc­quire ample financing, and there isno prospect of enough surplus withinJapan to undertake them until it maybe too late.The Japanese themselves have com­menced building toward the ob j ec­tives, and have an organization whichcould rapidly expand as needed, forthe administration of resource devel­opment. In 1947, following some in­terviews I gave the Japanese press, agroup of Japanese scientists and gov­ernmen t officials called on me III(Continued on page 20)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9Mr. Neh,ru leaves the Chapel accompanied by his daughter, Mrs. Gandhi, and Mershel Harold Anderson.AS CHICAGO SAW MR. NEHRU.LAST SUMMER, the State De­partment put through a longdistance call to Professor Phillips Tal­bot (Political Science). Pandit Jawa­harlal Nehru, India's distinguishedPrime Minister, was going to tourAmerica in October. Could he suggesta Chicago itinerary?Professor Talbot, able teacher andreporter, had struck up an espe­cially warm friendship with India'sleading statesman as a ChicagoDaily News correspondent in the FarEast, and as a fellow of the Instituteof Current World Affairs. He knew his tastes and temperament well. Ma­dame Pandit, Ambassador to Wash­ington, told him she was especiallyanxious that her brother see the U ni­versity of Chicago. Her acquaintancewith the Midway dated from a speechshe'd made at International House.So the University moved in tohelp make Mr. Nehru's two-day staya good sampling of' American life inthe midwest. With Chancellor Hut­chins, Talbot arranged the PrimeMinister's address in RockefellerChapel, subsequently heard by the2300 fortunate faculty members and • •students who were . first in "line fortickets. Board of Trustees ChairmanLaird Bell consented to head up theChicago Reception" committee. Mrs.Quincy (Louise Leonard) Wright,wife of the International Law ex­pert, lent her special talents forentertaining foreign personages, andset up a dinner-meeting and policyspeech before the Chicago Councilon Foreign Relations.Still another faculty member, Pro­fessor Theodore W. Schultz, world­famed agricultural economist, proveda key man to the program. He had10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIn doublequick time, Professor Robert Redfield anddistinguished· guest record a Round Table program.met "Mr. Nehru" (as the PM re­quested people address him) whileon a three-week emergency faminemission in India, in '46.. As chairman of a five-person com­mittee, including Pearl Buck andLilian Smith, he had spent an eveningwith Mr. Nehru, then chairman ofthe Congress Party, and members ofhis future cabinet. They had discussedIndia's agricultural problems, andher desperate need for food storesfrom the UN Emergency FoodPool. (The committee proved largelyinstrumental in getting India up­wards of two million tons of wheatand foodstuffs) .In Chicago, Dr. Schultz, his wife,and Mr. Talbot took the Prime Min­ister and his party of 20 on a tour ofthree working farms near Yorkville,Illinois.Arriving at Will Smith's, retiredfarmer, Mr. Nehru was immediatelyat home. He signed the family Bible,unexpectedly asked to inspect thewinter food stores, in the cellar. "Hisability to captivate little people andbe captivated by them, and put themimmediately at ease, was amazing tome," said Dr. Schultz, who had pre­pared a 13-page brief for him on thefarm personnel, economics and familylife:Proceeding to the farm of GlenPeterson, a former hired hand on hisway to becoming an independentfarmer, Nehru linked arms with hishost and went out to inspect the corn­fields-a rare sight in India, whichgrows rice and wheat primarily. Dr. Theodore Schultz hands Mr. Nehru a midwestsample of hybrid corn.Remarked Dr. Schultz: "If we hadrehearsed it seven times over, his re­ception by these three familiescouldn't have 'been more gracious,or conducted with more natural dig­nity. In part, he inspired it of course.At a typical 'thresher's' dinner, atthe home of Albert and DorothyNighell he talked about children,world government, his speeches, andthe homely details of. life, with thegreatest naturalness in the world."Cars, flying the flags of India andthe U. S., pulled uP. tardily at theQuadrangle Club at 3 P.M. and fromthen on the Prime Minister was anextra busy man. He had a cup of tea;talked to faculty members; recordeda Round- Table broadcast with Pro­fessor Robert Redfeld, in some 14minutes; spoke for 70 minutes atthe Chapel, most candidly and with­out notes.Then he went on to InternationalHouse for a reception given byIndian students there.His chapel speech(The texts of both his Chapelspeech, "Touiard Freedom;" and hisRound Table broadcast, "Mankind ina Revolutionary Age," are now avail­able in their entirety through theRadio Office)."Friends," he began. "I am pre­suming to call you so because you andothers in this great country have beenso extraordinarily friendly to me . . .I shall speak as an individual, and notas the Prime Minister of India, al­though, of course, it is a little difficultfor me to separate the two." On India's quest for freedom: "Wewere a very frustrated people, hanker­ing and yearning for freedom and notknowing what to do about it. Wewere helpless, unarmed, unorganized,and totally incapable, it seemed, offacing a great imperial power whichwas entrenched, and had been, for150 years or more. It seemed degrad­ing to follow that rather humiliatingline, which somer leaders of Indianpublic life recommended. It seemedcompletely wrong and futile to adoptthat terrorist method, which, apart,from being bad of itself, could notpossi:bly gain any results."Then, on the catalytic effect ofGandhi: "'First of all', Gandhi said,'shed your fear. And then act in aunited way, but always peaceably. Donot bear any ill will in your heartsagainst your opponent. You are fight.ing a system, not an individual, not arace, not the people of another coun­try, but a system-the imperialist orcolonial system' ... What he said wasnot new in its essence. Great menhad said it previously, but there was adifference in that he applied thatteaching to mass political action ...Magically, his influence spread . . .The peasantry began to behave dif­ferently. It straightened its back. Itcould look you in the face once more.I t had accepted self confidence andself reliance.""Gandhi's technique of action wasnot only peaceful but effective � itbrought about freedom, and led to noill will between the two countries. Itwas extraordinary how suspicion, illTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwill and bitterness against Englandfaded away from our country, afterwe achieved that "freedom. As youknow, we decided, of our own freewill, to cooperate with them in manythings."On his own life: "Large numbersof us gave up our normal professionsand went to the villages preachingthis gospel. Our lives changed com­pletely, automatically . . . Whenpeople tell me they imagine I havegone through a great deal of pain andsuffering because I went to prisonfor a number of years, they are partlyright, maybe, but fundamentallywrong, because most of us who en­dured that felt the period to be themost significant of our lives. Ourlives were in conformity with ourNews of the Quadrangles actions . . . and there can be nogreater satisfaction to an individualthan when there is such a synthesisof thought and action ... The realdifficulties seldom come from an ex­ternal source, but arise in our ownminds, when we are in doubt as towhat to do, even when our minds arefairly clear, but we cannot do it forother reasons."Mr. Nehru" covered, at some length,India's agrarian problems, the parti­tion, the "natural" collapse of theIndian prince system, once deprivedof British support, his plans for afuture India - with industrializationand the building of projects like TVA.As for the atom bomb and possiblewar: "I have obviously no magicformula to offer anybody in this di- 11lemma ... No person with responsi­bility can afford to take a risk abouthis country. He has to prepareagainst any possible aggression. Hecannot, humanity being what it is,just take up the line of a complete,passive resistance and say: 'We shalldo nothing and hope that nobody elsewill do something.' On the otherhand, the very act of preparationsometimes goes so far as to bring apossible conflict nearer ... and mod­ern civilization can hardly survive an­other conflict, on a world scale."It is worthwhile thinking how farthe Gandhian technique is applicable. . . whether practically it is or not,psychologically and mentally it mayapply."WHOtS AGAINST RELIGION?Business and the Universities,says President ColwellTHE UNIVERSITIES of Amer­ica throw weight against religiontoday by disclaiming involvement,President Ernest Cadman Colwell de­clared at the Sunday morning service'which closed the Duke University in­auguration ceremonies for PresidentArthur Hollis Edens."It is not possible for a universityto suspend judgment on moral mat­ters," the University's distinguishedNew Testament scholar told worship­pers. "Religion is either a supremelyimportant faith, or it is nothing."If the students of the university donot find religion playing an importantrole in formal courses or in the stud­ies which the faculty pursues, noamount of formal allegiance to reli­gion will convince them that it isimportant for the educated man,"President Colwell said."When the student graduates andenters business, he may be told thatreligion has nothing to do with 'busi­ness. Since he has learned as a stu­dent that education, which he thenregarded as important, did not need religion, he is easily persuaded thatbusiness does not need it either."Religion is thus progressively ban­ished from all important areas."The dominant attitude of the Amer­ican university faculty toward religionis one of indifference or of carefullycontrolled neutrality, President Col­well continued."What began as repudiation of oneestablished church supported by thestate has become a ban upon religionin the activities of any state-supportedinstitution."If'tC;lerance did require the elimi­nation of religion in the education ofall citizens, the state should seriouslyconsider whether tolerance can con­ceivably he as important to the con­tinued existence of the country as reli­gious faith.""We need to recapture one of theearliest of'our freedoms: the freedomto discuss religion and to discuss itseriously and intelligently," PresidentColwell said."Fear of discussing religion 'becauseof different faith multiplies ignorance. by Jeannette LowreyIgnorance breeds suspicion, suspicionleads to fear, and fear supports thehatreds which divide our people inthese matters."The university must also counter­balance its emphasis upon analysis byan equal emphasis upon the creationor maintenance of faith."We must end the schizophrenicexistence that permits the facultymember to live as a determinist in thelaboratory and classroom with theblithe assumption that his nondeter­ministic relations with his wife, hisfriends, his political' community aredue to some unassimilated holdoverfrom the Sunday school instruction ofhis youth. The life of a faculty mem­ber must become a unity, for onlywhen we have professors who as indi­viduals are whole men, will we find itpossible to devote the university tothat whole good which we can God."The current interest in the curric­ulum of liberal education," he said,"offers new opportunities for the ade­quate and effective treatment of mor­als and religion.12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"The general tone. and emphasis offormal instruction and of campus con­versation must maintain a persistentpressure toward constructive thinking-the working out of a personal phi­losophy and a personal faith."The earth is getting warmerContrary to the popular belief thatthe earth is cooling off, it actually iswarming up.Harold C. Urey, distinguished serv­ice professor of chemistry and Nobel­prize winner, has advanced a newtheory about the origin and develop­ment of our planet.Speaking at the autumn meeting ofthe National Academy of Sciences,U rey based his "warming-up" hypoth­esis on the amount of radioactivitymeasured in meteorites.Heat at the earth's center is gen­erated in part by the dropping ofmetallic components toward the cen­ter, but largely by radioactivity. Sinceit is impossible to penetrate far enoughinfo, the earth's center, its temperatureh�s been; calculated by measuring theradioactivity of meteorites, which arebelieved to be similar to the earth'score.According to the Nobel-prize win­ner's chemical hypothesis, the earthand moon were formed out of aprimeval dust cloud around the sun.The materials to precipitate from thecloud were a conglomerate of metalliciron and rock.Urey accounts for the difference indensity of the moon and earth bypostulating a decreasing temperaturebetween the beginning and finalphases of the formation of the earthand her satellite so that iron was notin the initial preplanetary cloud butwas present in the final cloud. Earth,80 times larger than the moon, accu­mulated the iron particles faster thanthe moon;The iron, melted by the heat duringa period of more than a billion years,fell to the center of the earth to formthe earth's core.The earth's crust, affected by thisphenomenon, b e cam e mountainranges. As more metal moves fromthe outer crust to the earth's core,at intervals of approximately 200 mil­lion years, other mountain ranges willform.The more common belief about the development of the earth, before therecent geophysical studies made byUrey, Harrison Brown, also of the In­stitute for Nuclear Studies, and others,had been that the iron sank to thecenter while the earth was very hot.It was generally assumed that theearth had been cooling down fromthat time on."Discovery of radioactivity changedthe considerations," U rey stated. "Ifradioactivity found in the surfacerocks is representative of an averagesample of the whole earth, compara­tively rapid heating of the earth mustresult."Urey suggested that the primordialcore rose to the surface during thePre-Cambrian times (more than oneand a half billion years ago) and firstproduced continental land and prob­ably the Pacific basin, and now formsthe outer iron fore-mantle of earthsome 230 miles thick.The iron of the primordial mantlemoved to the interior, producing in­creased temperatures at a depth whichgenerated convection currents, whichhave produced folded mountains, con­tinental drift and glacial periods. Thesame phenomena, he believes, is tak­ing place on Mars, but in a less modi­fied status.Recognized as one of the world'sauthorities on isotopes, Professor Ureywas awarded the Nobel prize in chem­istry in 1934 for the discovery ofheavy water.All 'gold and a yard wideThere's enough gold in the earth toplate it with a mantle a yard thickand enough platinum to cover it witha ten-yard deep mantle.These facts" presented in an in­formal address by Harrison Brown ofthe Institute of Nuclear Studies to agroup of trustees, inspired a Hutchins'quip.William Benton, trustee, who isfamous among other things as theadvertising man who made a milliondollars during the depression, compli­mented Brown on his talk at the closeof the meeting.Chancellor Hutchins, standing near­by, turned to hisformer vice-presidentand said: "Now, Bill, I saw you sleep­ing there in your chair. The onlything that got your attention was theprospect of all that money." Less and more studentsEnrolment in the first two years, ofthe College showed a ,three percentincrease while the total university en­rolment declined 7.8 percent for theautumn quarter, Ernest C. Miller,registrar, reports.Total enrolment on the Midwayand at the downtown center is 8,963.The College, which admits studentsafter their sophomore year in highschool for a four-year program of gen­eral education, has a total enrollmentof 2,261. Four hundred and twelvestudents are registered in the first twoyears.Veterans, representing 37 percentof the university enrollment, number3,357 on the quadrangles.The division of social sciences hadthe largest enrollment, with 1,692students registered: the biological sci ..ences had 744, humanities 788, physi­cal sciences 769, school of business422, federated theological schools 260,law school 300, graduate library school71, and the school of social serviceadministration 229.Educator's home [ournelThe quarterly Journal of GeneralEducation, published since 1946 toconsider the problems of liberal edu­cation, will henceforth be edited andpublished by the University Press.Founded by United States Commis­sioner of Education Earl J. McGrath,former professor of education, theJ ournal seeks to analyze and promotegeneral education.Reuben Frodin, lecturer in politicalscience and former assistant dean ofthe College, will serve as editor.Frodin will be assisted by an edi­torial board including CommissionerMcGrath, R. F. Arragon, professor ofhistory and director of humanities atReed College, Clarence H. Faust,dean of humanities and science atStanford University, and the follow­ing six University of Chicago facultymembers:Ralph W. Tyler, university exam­iner and dean of the division of socialsciences; F. Champion Ward, dean ofthe College; Henry W. Sams, chair­man of the College English staff ;Milton B. Singer, chairman of theCollege social sciences staff; JosephJ. Schwab, chairman of the Collegenatural sciences staff; and Russell B.Thomas, chairman of the Collegehumanities staff.SCHOLARSHIP IS SUPERNA llONAlTeams from the Midway, teaching in .;.Germany, try a bold experiment in postwar educationBy Wilhelm PauckNEWS HAS just come fromFrankfurt, Germany, that theLord Mayor entertained a group ofprofessors from the University of Chi­cago at an official dinner receptionat the guest house of the City. Dr.Walter Kolb, the Lord Mayor, is alsothe chairman of the Curatorium(Board of Trustees) of the Universityof Frankfurt. In recognizing the pro­fessors from Chicago, he acted notonly in the name of the civic com­munity over which he presides, butalso in the name of the University.In order to understand its signifi­cance, one must know that such anofficial dinner is no ordinary event.It is a symbolical act performed withconsiderable ceremony. In this case,it was designed to celebrate the pres­ence of Chicago professors in Frank­furt.Since the Spring of 1948, such offi­cial welcomes have been extended bythe<City to groups of professors fromChicago twice a year. Each time, theLord Mayor of Frankfurt and theRector of the University hailed theimportance of the relation betweenthe two Universities in eloquentspeeches and one of our professorsreplied.I know how Professor Walter Blair(English) must' have felt when hespoke for Chicago at the most recentdinner, for I was the spokesman ata similar occasion early in 1948. Whatthe Germans then expressed to us, thefirst group of exchange professorsfrom the University of Chicago, wasso overwhelming in heartiness, hope­fulness and gratitude that it seemeddifficult to state the conception of ourtask as we understood it.I t was Chancellor Hutchins' ideato initiate an exchange between theUniversity of Chicago and a Germanuniversity in order to renew the rela­tions between American and Germaninstitutions of higher learning andto demonstrate the internationalcharacter of scholarship. The Rocke­feller Foundation supported the pro­ject by a grant of $120,000 for aperiod of two years, on the condition Spring. 1948. The'Tli�s+ faculty h�>am at Frankfurt reg!sters in the �uestboo�. ,Signing. Mrs. Thelma Thurstone (Psychology). Standmg. left to right. LouisThurstone (Psychology). Everett Hughes (Sociology). Paul Weiss (ZoOIOgyl'Elder Olson (English). author,:Pa�ck. and. Frankfurt's Rector Walter Hal-.stein. who held that post from 4(?:through 48.that the University of Chicago makeavailable an equal amount. Afterconsidera:ble discussion, it was decidedto approach the University of Frank­furt whose Rector, Professor WalterHallstein, had repeatedly stated thedesirability of an international uni­versity.In Germany, Frankfurt occupies aspecial place.Kindred spiritsSince its foundation, shortly afterthe first World War, it has em­phasized the "modern" character ofuniversity education, placing specialemphasis upon social science and re­search. It was felt that by virtue oftheir youth, there might be a spiritof kinship between the Universities ofChicago and of Frankfurt. The Rec­tor and the Senate of Frankfurt ex­tended a most cordial invitation tothe University of Chicago and theexchange professors it might send.On March 31, the first team of ourprofessors left by plane for Frankfurt,arriving there in the afternoon of thefollowing day. Its members were Mr.and Mrs. L. L. Thurstone (Psychol-13 ogy), Mr. Paul Weiss (Biology), Mr.Elder J. Olson (English), Mr. EverettHughes (Sociology), Mr. WilhelmPauck (Church history and ModernHistory) and Mr. Roger B. Oake(Romance Languages, College). Thelatter was to act as executive secretary"of" this and succeeding groups. Hewas accompanied by his wife andsmall daughter.We were at first lodged in the Carl­ton Hotel, expecting to stay thereonly a few days until a house wouldbe assigned Us by the authorities ofthe U. S. Military Government inGermany. But we resided there foralmost nine weeks. Then we finallymoved to a large house, big enoughto accommodate us all, located at 18Klettenberg Str. This house is stillthe headquarters of the Universityof Chicago at Frankfurt. It is atpresent occupied by the fourth team,consisting of Mr. Walter Blair (Eng­lish) , Mr. Ludwig Bachhofer (His­tory and Oriental Art), Miss HelenaGamer (Germanic Languages), Mr.George K. K. Link (Plant Pathol­ogy) and Mr. Buchanan (Bacteriol­ogy) , a graduate of the University of14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEChicago, who has been loaned to theproject by the University of Iowa.The group teaching in Frankfurt ayear ago was represented by Mr. Peterde Bruyn (Anatomy), Mr. FerdinandSchevill (History), Mr. Charles Harts­horne (Philosophy), Miss Helen L.Koch (Child Psychology), Mr. ErnstW. Puttkammer (Law) and Messrs.Oake and Pauck who stayed on as con­tinuing links with the first group. Thisteam was succeeded by Mr. Otto G.von Simson (History of Art), Mr.lames R. Nichols (Church History),Mr. Richard B. Hoc�ing (Philos­ophy) , Mr. Paul Weiss i (who re­turned for a second terII?-). and MissKoch (who stayed ()vetmrt '¥t secondsemester) . In the meantime, Mr.Oake who had been of great assistanceto the first two- groups, had returnedto-: Chicago. He had _arrangr<�cL,thegeneral living accommodations (withefficient help from his" wIfe), man­aged the finances of th�- �p;oject andcultivated the contacts- with the oc­cupation authorities., Chancellor Hutchins quite electri­fied Frankfurt citizens in May, '48,when he - came over to be specialspeaker at the academic celebrationmarking the 1 DOth anniversary of theFrankfurt Parliament.Thornton Wilder, who gave a two­week series of lectures on "The Amer­ican Character: as revealed in Amer­ican literature", likewise sent theminto spasms of enthusiasm.We taught in GermanEach one of us taught a three hourcourse and a two hour seminar in hisspecial field. We scheduled our classesfor the first half of the week. Thuswe could accept lecturing engage­ments at other universities. Most ofus did a good bit of traveling in con­nection with such visits to other in­stitutions. Some of us even acceptedinvitations to offer regular courses atother universities in addition to thosewe gave at Frankfurt. Miss Kochtaught at Wurzburg and Marburgand I went regularly to Marburg.Although we had been told thatmost German students could under­stand English, we found it necessaryto use German in all our teaching,except in the courses in English li tera­ture. It was true that a great num­ber were able to handle the Englishlanguage, having learned it either inschool, in Military Government jobs or in P.O.W. camps in this country,but the majority of them wished tobe taught in German.Wewere received with great friend­liness on all sides. The officials ofthe American Military Governmentgave us special privileges, assisted usin many ways and never interferedin any way whatsoever with our aca­demic work. The authorities of theUniversity told us that we were toregard ourselves as full members ofthe teaching staff. They did notwish to treat us as ordinary guestprofessors. We �ere invited to theregular faculty meetings of our re- accustomed to assume the role ofdutifully recipient listeners. Gradu- -ally, however, we succeeded in mak­ing them understand that we wel­comed the give and take of discussion.We found the students to be extra­ordinarily industrious, even measuredby German standards. Most of themwere veterans. Practically all of thesehad been in the armed service forseveral years and many had returnedcrippled from the battlefronts. Theywere eager to finish their studies inorder to enter the professions and tostart a regular life. Poverty was theircommon IDt; many of them earnedIn November, '49, another crew arrives. Seated, left to right, CharlesHartshorne (Philosophy), Helen Koch (Child Psychology), the new RectorBoehm, who took over in '48, Ferdinand Schevill (History), Ernest W. Put­kammer_ (Law). Standing, Paul Riedel, a student in German literature, M.Peter de Bruyn (Anatomy), Mr. Pauck again, Roger Oake (Romance Lan­guages, College), and Ellsworth Feris, student of Mode-rn History.spective disciplines. The spokesmanof our group, whom the Germans in­sisted - on calling Dean, was asked tosit with the University Senate, thehighest ruling body of the institution,and was given voice and vote. Ac­cording to my experience, he occa­sionally used the speaking privilegebut refrained from voting. The stu­dents elected our courses in the ordi­nary way and paid the customaryfees for them. They came to' regardus as members of the regular faculty.At first we found it difficult to' ad­just ourselves to the somewhat formid­able character of German higher edu­cation .• The German professor is ex­pected to' present his courses in ratherformal lectures and the students are their living on the side. But in spiteDf this they were able occasionally tohold formal dances and 'balls. WeChicagoans were always formallyinvited and, if we could, accepted theinvitations. Because public transpo-,tation was still strictly limited, thesefunctions lasted throughout the nightuntil daybreak when the first street­cars ran again.In their attitudes toward us, thestudents were at first reserved. Theyseemed to' suspect that we were im­posing ourselves upon them, possiblyas propagandists of the "true way oflife." They had learned to distrustpolitical apostles and they are to' thisday quite unpolitical in their- out­look, for fear of "getting lined up."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBut when they realized that we cameas representatives of the University ofChicago, whose sole purpose was toshare with them what we knew asacademic teachers, they began toshow confidence in us. They invitedus frequently to their discussions onall sorts of problems. Thus we wereenabled to have a free and easy andfrank exchange of views with them.Their interest in all aspects of Ameri­can civilization was very great.Suspicions overcomeAt the end of the first semester, Iasked the members of my seminar togive me their candid opinions of ourwork at their University. I rememberthree replies which I regard as typical.One student said that he attributedgrea t importance to our presence inFrankfurt because we enabled himand his fellows to get a fresh slanton all kinds of issues.Formerly, he said, German studen�shad frequented more than one UnI­versity, 'but now this was no longerpossible; therefore it was of greatvalue that we American professorsgave them the opportunity to encoun­ter various approaches to the prob­lems of education and civilization ..Another remarked that when he firstheard of our impending visit, he hadsuspected it could not be motivatedby purely academic concerns. But,he concluded, our work had con­vinced him that we really meant toact only as professors and this hadshown him that academic work hadan' international character. Still an­other ventured the opinion, reflectinga common academic prejudice char­acteristic not only to German stu­dents, that at first he could not belie�ethat professors of an American UnI­versity could measure up to Germanacademic standards. He was frankor kind enough to state that thecourses he had taken from us, werep�ssibly even of a higher "nioeau"than many of the German classes heattended. Whatever these opinionsmay be worth, they were, I think,votes of confidence.In conclusion, I wish briefly tocharacterize the positive results of ourwork in Frankfurt as I see it.1. We were assigned the task ofdemonstrating the supernational char­acter of scholarship and scientificwork. The Germans soon recognized that we were serious and honest inour intention to bring about a closeracademic relationship between ourown university and that of Frankfurt,and they heartily received us intotheir community, treating us as equalsin all respects. Being thus accepted asfull members we had the opportunityto interpret American institutions andattitudes in the context of naturalacademic relationships. Moreover,the Germans came to 'consider' ourpresence in Frankfurt as a symbol offriendship inspired by no other pur-pose than good will..2. During the war years, mtellec­tual contacts between the Germansand the non-German world had beenalmost completely interrupted. TheGermans knew nothing of scholarlyachievements in the United States orother lands, and we were ignorant ofthe work which German scholars hadperformed during the war years. Itwas natural, therefore, that in therelations with our special colleagues,and not only with them, we were ableto establish fruitful mutual exchangesof information. Most of us learnedas much from the Germans as wewere able to teach them. It appearsto me especially significant that it waspossible for each of us to enter intoclose relations with German professorsand students who were working inour respective fields of specializat.io�.Thus a ready comparison pf the SImI­larities and differences in the Ameri­can or German points of view, meth­ods and scholarly achievements wasmade possible.3. On our initiative, every fortnightthe professors of Frankfurt were in-Dr. Wilhelm Peuck, Professor ofHistorical Theology at the Federe+edTheological Faculty. was an ".'appro­priate person to head up the �r�t .ofU of C faculty team to the Universityof Frankfurt. �,He knew Germany well. He wasborn there. and got his PhD. from t�eUniversity of Gottingen. m Berlm.In '25 he' came to Chicago forgraduate work. and has been here eversince. His by-line appears frequentlyin such religious publications as TheChristian Century. he is known as aReform, ation history expert. and haswritten a goodly number of books.among them II Karl Barth. Prophet of aNew Christianity." and "The ChurchAgainst the World." 15vited to engage with us in formaldiscussion. Also every fortnight wehad a purely social gathering in therooms of a famous club to which allFrankfurt professors and their familieswere invited. On the discussion eve­nings, we treated problems of uni­versity reform as they are discussedin the United States and Germany.These debates were exceedingly fruit­ful because they enabled the partici­pants to realize that the problems ofthe nature and task of the universityare the same all over the westernworld; and they gave the Germansan opportunity to approach theirown task of reconstituting their uni­versities in the light of Americanexperience.4. While regularly teaching twocourses in Frankfurt most of us ac­cepted invitations to visit other insti­tutions. We were' also in touch withother American professors and aca­demic people who traveled throughGerman universities under the aus­pices of the Educational and CulturalDivision of the American MilitaryGovernment. These contacts madeus aware of the unusual and specialcharacter of our own project. Theyall seemed to realize that fruitfulrelations between scholars of differentlands could be established only by thesort of intimate and organic coopera­tion between two universities whichour team in the faculty of the U ni­versity of Frankfurt entailed. Officialsof the AMG recognized the particu­lar value of our work, judging it t� bemuch more effective than that of in­dividual visitors who traveled throughmany German universities, staying ineach for a few days ·only. Representa­tives of other German universitiesexpressed a certain envy of the Uni­versity of Frankfurt and voiced adesire that their own institutions bene­fit from a permanent connection withan American university.I am convinced that this last ac­complishment is a most important oneand that it points up the need forcontinuing the undertaking, in someway. In order to have a deep andlasting effect, the international ex­perience of scholars must in the futurebe based upon inter-university rela­tionships, i.e., individual universitiesmust find ways to be drawIl into anorganic inter-relationship.REFLECTIONS AFTER FIVEIT I S heartening to see the way dis­placed students arriving on cam­pus adjust to our way of life. I wasespecially impressed by one youngcouple from Czechoslovakia. We havean arrangement with the Masaryk In­stitute of New York to assist severalsuch students with tuition costs andby helping them find employment.I began racking my 'brain about thetype of job we could locate for. thisparticular pair - for part-time workisn't easily come by these days. Thenthey arrived in my office to announcethey had not onlyfound an apartmentin Cicero, but that Mr. Gavenda wasworking as a stock man at MarshallField's and Mrs. Gavenda was em­ployed by a factory!Our Czech students have receivedonly too much sad news from theirhomeland recently. So I welcomed, ahappy announcement from Miss VeraOravcova, whom we sponsored as afellow' at International House two Robert M. StrozierDean of Studentsyears ago. She's to marry Andy Laska,son of the former Czech ambassadorto Mexico. Andy withdrew from theUniversity last year after the coupd'etat in Czechoslovakia, when hisfather was summarily ousted from hisposition. Instead of bewailing his fatehe immediately took a position withBauer & Black in Chicago, where hehas been doing extraordinarily well.Miss Oravcova has been an outstand­ing student in the Department ofHistory and is about to complete herPh.D. work. She has taught at theUniversity of Illinois, Navy Pier, andplayed a major part in InternationalHouse activities. Both young peopleare a real credit to the University.Communist clubA few days ago a small group ofstudents reregistered the StudentCommunist Club. We approved theirregistration as a matter of routine. Sometimes we are reproached byfriends and enemies alike for the pl1es.ence of a Communist Club on ca��pus. But I remain convinced that ademocracy worthy of the name isone in which everyone can speak lIti�;mind, and no one is forced under.ground to carryon his activities. I amcertain our students are intelligen:fenough to decide for themselves t�e'organizations to which they wish ��belong.Campus politicsThe political tempo on campisseems slower this year. The first realflurry of activity came with the an.nual Student Government election.s.Though it hasn't yet reached fu[Jmaturity, SG nevertheless plays aliiimportant role in student affairs ..Alexander Pope,�, last year's president,was an unusually able leader, partic­ularly during the Springfield investi�Members of Central Administration greet guests at the Faculty Reception in Ida Noyes Hall. In the receiving line'are. left to right. Mrs. Ernest C. Colwell. President Colwell. Mrs. Laird Bell. Laird Bell. Chairman of the Board ofTrustees. Mrs. Robert> Maynard Hutchins. ChanceHor Hu +chins, Harold A. Anderson. M�r$hall of the University.and in cap and gownj'Virginia Grace Darrow. student aide.16THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. n. Our students have alwaysgaUo.. "been politIc�I1y act:ve m local, na-. al and [nternational affairs butnon , 'have advanced more slowly in self-government. I hope to see this situa-tion change.Japanese guestsTwo visitors from Japan came tomy o�c�, Father Yashiro,. an Episco­pal Bishop, and ,Dr. H�shImoto, headof the St. Luke s Medical Center inTokyo. The latte: was in Chicagoattending the meetmg of the Interna­tional College of Surgeons and alsoexploring the possibilities of sendingyoung graduates he:e from Tokyomedical schools for mterneships andfurther training. The Bishop wishesto strengthen the faculty of St. Paul'sEpiscopal Co!lege in Tokyo by send­ing some of his teachers to the U ni tedStates for study.Foreign interestSitting at my desk, you can't helpbut conclude that students everywherein the world are anxious to study inthis country, and that the Universitvof Chicago has an exceptionall�strong attraction for them. Interest inour physical and biological sciences isto be expected, but the internationalreputation of our Social Science Divi­sion stimulates a surprising amount offoreign interest.This fall, the Division importedseveral teachers and young profes.:sional men and women from Germanyon a special exchange program. Theyare living at International Houseattending lect}lres, and following �non-academic-credit program underthe guidance of a Division committeeled by Professor Earl Johnson. At arecent get-acquainted dinner in theQuadrangle Club, attended by facultyand administrative persons workingon the project, some identifying tookplace. One professor stated he hadcome from the "steppes of Kansas,"and a young German girl, not to beoutdone, said she came from southern­most Bavaria, "which was like comingfrom western Kansas in the U. S.",:!:he Germans discussed quite franklywhat had happened in their country,what is happening there today, theiraspirations, hopes, plans, and projects. Appeal from abroadInste.a? of "reflecting after five" Iam wrrting at 2: 30 on a Satu:daafternoon, and I feel exceedingly viZtuous as I look at my desk-almostclear from a work load f t• 0 wo weeksWI th heavy heart ho ... I ., wever, readappeals for aid not only from our ownstudents but others in every section ofthe world. .. One was from a Greekboy. who feels his only hope lies incommg to the University of Chicago.He recounted the long, bitter years ofthe struggle in Greece and hi. . ,IS partm It. I quote from him: "We fightbecause we have a faith b. , ecause wehave a history, But a war today dt . oesno reqU1r� o�ly guns. The first needof our nation IS for scientists. h '" menWIt education. This education ... Iask. you for, and I believe I am worthyof It. ... This I would not ordinarilyrequest, but more I cannot 'do my­self. I have tried, and now you aremy only hope."Faculty funA formal story about the FacultH' yomecommg Reception will doubtlessa?pear elsewhere, but such an auspi­CIOUS occasion deserves extra mention.Chancell�r Hutchins was responsiblefor changmg Homecoming from a din­ner for faculty only, where speecheswe�e the. order of the evening, to anentirely mformal affair at Ida NoyesHall. In the receiving line were mem­bers of the Central Administrationand their wives. The entire building:vas �hrown en suite, with social dane­mg m the gym, bridge and canastaon the second floor, and receiving lineon the third. Between one and twothousand persons were present. It wasa successful evening, mainly, I believe,because of a happy informality whichbrought. members of the Universitycommumty together under the friend­liest conditions.Campus· protectionFrom time to time a Dean of Stu­dents must handle unpleasant matters.The recent outbreak of petty disturb­ances, and thievery on the south sidenear the University area, has been oneof them. Various sections of the citv�eem to suffer these outbreaks period­ically, and, October was our turn. The MAGAZINE 17Maroon became over-excited aboutthe situation, I thought, with blackestheadlines and front page coverage. Itwas justified in warning members ofthe .student community to be morecareful about being out late at nightalone. But the story as handled wasmore alarming than informative.The University has taken steps tocheck the situation. A patrol car nowcruises the University area, and thefifteen members of the campus policehave been augmented by two morewho do nothing but patrol the areaduring evening hours. The city policehave also agreed to help out. Campuspolice, the municipal police, thealderman's office, and our studentbody moved most rapidly and effi­ciently to cooperate with one anotherduring the emergency.Student interest •The first meeting of the Committeeon Student Interest (Board of Trus­tees) has taken place. Mr. Shererpresided at the meeting, attended byMessrs. Tenney, McConnell, Quan­trell, Axelson, and Goodman. Chan­cellor Hutchins also took an activepart in the discusssions. As Commit­tee secretary, I explained tM func­tioning of the Dean of Students' of-­fice.A t our next meeting on the Quad­rangles' the Committee will observestudents at work in activities first­hand. The day will end with a dinnerin Burton-Judson Dormitory whenBoard members will sit down withMr. Bergstresser, Mr. Wilkinson, theDirector of the Residence Halls, MissFox, Mr. Wilkinson's assistant, andsome members of his staff to discussthe whole question of the residencehalls and the regulations governingthem. The University often uses thesocial structure and, culture of Chi­cago as a workshop for academicstudies. So it's fitting that the Uni­versity campus itself should in turnbecome a workshop for study by ourBoard of Trustees. The diverse activ­ities and interests of our studentsdeserve attention second only to thatwe pay the academic aspects of ourunique community.and his Aunt JessJESSIE BROWN Marsh, '16, is"Aunt Jessie" to hundreds of chil­dren in Alaska, Argentina, Venezuela,Brazil, Peru, Jamaica and Lebanon:to say nothing of Samoa, Guam, Ja­pan, Australia, the Philippines, Ha­waii, Panama and the United States.She writes the gay and amusingletters signed by Chips a four-inchtall, literary chipmunk. They'veproved a special -tonic for youngsterswho are invalids or shut-ins, who areshy or lonely or far away from home,and in need of extra friendship andattention. Healthy, normal kids toolike getting a plump letter in the mailevery month, bulging with songs, anoccasional idea for games, a sampleof candy or gum, and the latest ad­venture of Chips. He may chat abouthis first ice cream soda, a parade hesaw, an Indian he met, a pony herode, a cake bowl he licked.For Mrs. Hadleigh Marsh, whosehusband, '09, is now a Director of theVeterinary Research lab at Montana State College, in Bozeman, Montana,the lively correspondence . began twoyears ago. As a child, she'd spentmany a pleasant summer vacation inWisconsin, surrounded by a smallmenagerie of pets, ranging from tur­tles to chipmunks. She rememberedhow welcome were her father'sbreezy, story-telling letters from thecity. Somehow, the ideas of letters­for-children and chipmunk married,and she was off to consult a printerand banker, about the practicabilityof starting a business.The printer advised using an offsetpress method, so each letter would18 look handwritten, and she could :ip:­pend personal notes. The local bankpresident bolstered her confidence byextending a $2000 unsecured loan.She polled the children of friends,asking if they liked the idea of hear­ing from an animal versed in belles­lettres, They said they sure did.Initially, she sold the letter-series,which range from six to a dozen, in'23 hotels and stores, but the bulk ofsales since has come from pleased sub­scribers who pass along the good workto friends. Chips has written to theGovernor's son in American Samoa:he assuaged the homesickness of theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElittle son of a visiting professor, at theUniversity of Lebanon, who wasclosely confined to home and campus,during anti-American demonstrations.Children of servicemen in Germany,England and France like word froma friend in the U. S., and small polioand rheumatic heart victims arecheered when the outside worldremembers them.Before her death, Chicago DailyNews columnist Helen Cody Baker,'12, sent them to her grandchild,Johnny, whose parents of course areMr. and Mrs. Jay Berwanger. AuntJessie reports she's had special en­couragement from neighbors Beatrice.Freeman Davis, '02, of the MontanaState College English Department,Martha Hawksworth, MA '41, collegeregistrar, Mildred Leigh, SM '32,Student Union Director, and VievaMoulton Huelster, '17.Most satisfying naturally is the fanmail which arrives each morning at916 S. Third Street, in Bozeman, pro­fessing undying love, admiration anddevotion for Chips and his AuntJessie. "Think of your friends asbananas and count me in the bunch," Aunt Jesswrote Priscilla Lester of Missoula,Montana. "P. S. I like you so much."Aunt Jessie says she owes a lot ofher knack with children, and "selfconfidence" and an "exploring mind,"to John Dewey, whose pupil she wasin the University laboratory school.As her own two youngsters grew up,Taylor a son, now in Australia, anda daughter Florence who died twoyears ago, she kept them richly en­tertained with ideas for games andcrafts, and was busy, in her sparetime, directing summer camps forchildren, and craft and drama groups. 19Then, 12 years ago, she lost hereyesight for a short time, and hercommunity work ended abruptly. Ittook a number of years and operationsto recover the partial eyesight she nowenjoys and she found' herself turningmore and more to the typewriter, tospin yarns.This is Aunt Jessie's week today:she cleans and bakes over the week­end, plays bridge Thursday after­noons, and writes five to seven hoursa day, three weeks out of the month.The fourth week she spends address­ing and mailing Chips' letters, all byherself, and with personalized post­scripts answers incoming letters likePriscilla Lester's. From her mailcome many ideas about children'stastes. Her hear and snake lorestories come from men in the forestand Yellowstone Park services. Fromnewspapers, she occasionally may pullan item: about a moose, for example,who broke up a picnic. Anyone ofthese happenings may be expandedinto a Chips letter."I've told so many stories for somany years I find I can turn them onand off like a spigot," says the kineticAunt Jess. "I don't think the well isever likely to dry up."I sit True? ( Continued from page 4)tern encouraged during the last thirtyyears. Under the influence of thissystem, Americans have widely as-,sumed that in college you can eitherobtain a good education or have agood time. If you manage to do both,it is a rare coincidence, a proof ofyour versatility, and stamina merely,and not a proof of any intrinsic con­nection between the intellectual andsocial experiences which a collegeprovides.Perhaps this difficulty III linkingtogether learning and enjoyment,which all of us feel who were inducedwhile in college to separate the two,explains the puzzled and reluctantresponse of the mother of one of theCollege students when she was askedlast spring how Bob was enjoying hisfirst year here. "I'm sorry to say,"she replied, "he loves it!"Intellectual community, arisingfrom a common intellectual experi­ence, was once the source, center,and measure of the social community proper to a college. Through itsbalanced curriculum and its methodof active learning in small discussiongroups, the College is trying to restoreto American colleges the intellectualcommunity which they lost duringa time when Corrective English andPhysical Education, the mastery of thecomma and of the push-up, were allthat the undergraduates could be sureof sharing.' The social life of thestudents in the College-which is ex­tensive and varied-cannot be under­stood unless it is realized tha t theCollege admits neither that life be­gins outside the. classroom door northat learning ends inside it.* * *Until recently, as befits the under­graduate division of a "very volcanic"university, the College has . had toovercome the heady but difficult ob­stacles �hich always beset the pioneer.Among these obstacles is that of beingmisunderstood. Like other pioneers, the College has busied itself withfinding and clearing new ground be­fore sending back to the home folksa description of what it has discoveredand what it has been doing.Perhaps, indeed, a pioneer need notand cannot be understood. But withthe rapid rise of "general education"in the nation's colleges since the war,the College, without budging an inchitself, finds suddenly that it has movedfrom the lunatic fringe to the bandwagon of American undergraduateeducation. It must therefore prepareitself to be leader as well as gadfly.In the first instance.: it is imperativethat. a leader be understood. There­fore, I am most grateful to the Editorfor this opportunity to tell the Uni­versity's alumni something about theCollege. With their help and under­standing, I believe that their AlmaMater, through its College, will beenabled to play wisely and effectivelyits new-old role of leader in liberaleducation.CALENDARFriday, December 2BASKETBALL-Field House, 5550 University, 8;00 P.M., U. of C. vs. Carleton.Admission $1.00.PUBLIC LECTURE-Joseph Lohman, lecturer in sociology, University of Chi­cago, "Crime in Chicago," Know Your College series, sponsored by theWoman's College Board, in cooperation with University College, II A.M.,Kimball Hall, 306 So. Wabash. $1.20.DRAMA-University Theater, "Julius Caesar," by Wm. Shakespeare, 8;30 P.M.,Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University, $0.70. No reserved seats.Saturday, December 3DRAMA-University Theater, "Julius Caesar," by Wm. Shakespeare, 3;30 P.M.,Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University, $0.35. No reserved seats.BASKETBALL-Field House, 5550 University, 8;00 P.M., U. of C. vs. Carleton.Admission $1.00.. Sunday, December 4UNIVERSITY RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, 59th &Woodlawn Avenue, II ;00 A.M. The Reverend John B. Thompson, Dean ofthe Chapel.DRAMA-University Theater, "Julius Caesar," by Wm. Shakespeare, 3;30 P.M.,Leon Mandel Hall, .5714 University, $0.35. No reserved seats.Monday, December 5FOREIGN ANI) DOCUMENTARY FILM SERIES-International House Audi­torium, 1414 East 59th street, 8;00 P.M., La Symphonie Fantastique (French),and. Greece. Admission $0.55.PUBLIC LECTURES-Jacques Maritain, professor of philosophy, PrincetonUniversity, "The People and the State," Walgreen Foundation lectures onMan and the State, 4;30 P. M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University. Free.Carl F. von Weizsacker, professor of physics, University of Gottingen,Germany, and Alexander White visiting professor, University of Chicago,"The Modern Concept of Nature," 8 P.M., room 126, Judd Hall, 5835Kimbark. Sponsored by committee on social thought, Free.Tuesday, December 6PUBLIC LECTURES-Louise Leonard Wright, director, Chicago Council onForeign Relations,' "The World H ea Ith Organization," University Collegeseries, Current Problems in Community Health, 7;30 P.M., Woodrow Wilsonroom, 13th floor, 116 So. Michigan. $0.75.Joseph H. Bunzel, lecturer in University College, "Issues Surrounding theContemporary Theater," The Theater and Society series, 6;30 P.M., room809, 19 So. La Sa II e. $0.75.Jacques Maritain, Professor of Philosophy, Princeton University. "The Prob­lem of Means," Walgreen Foundation lectures on Man and the State,4:30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University. Free.Wednesday, December 7PUBLIC LECTURE-Oscar Broneer, visiting professor of classical archeologv,University of Chicago, "City of Churches-From Constantine to the TurkishConquest, A.D. 1456," Humanities Division public course, Athens; TheBiography of a City, 8 P.M., room 122, Social Science building, 1126 E.59th. $0.75.Thursday, December 8PUBLIC LECTURES-Jacques Maritain, professor of philosophy, PrincetonUniversity, "The Rights of Man," Walgreen Foundation lectures on Manand the State, 4;30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5414 University. Free.George W. Beadle, chairman, division of biology, California 'Institute ofTechnology, "The Gene in Classical Genetics," 4:30 P.M., room 106, Kentlaboratory (on the circle at 58th and Greenwood). Sponsored by theUniversity's institute of radiobiology and biophysics. Free.Lancelot L. Whyte, British physicist and author, "The Unitary Principle inPhysics and Biology," 4;30 P.M., room 122, Social Science building, 1126E. 59th. Free.Friday, December 9PUBLIC LECTURES-D. J. Roscoe Miller, president, Northwestern University,"Chicago as a Medical Center," Know Your Chicago series, sponsored bythe W0!T1an's College Board in cooperation with University College, IIA.M., Kimball Hall, 306 So. Wabash. $1.20. Mortimer J. Adler, professor of philosophy of law, University, author, HQwto Read a Book, "Induction and Reasoning: The Laws of Thought," G�e<:ItIdeas series{,7:30 P.M., 32 West Randolph; $1.50.Jacques Maritain, professor of philosophy, Princeton University, "The Demo.cratic Charter," Walgreen Founda�ion .Iectures on Man and the State, 4:40P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University. Free.George W. Beadle, chairman, division of biology, California Institute .ofTechnology, "Gene Defects in Man," 4:30 P.M., room 106, Kent lab?:r",.tory (on the circle at 58th and Greenwood). Sponsored by the Universi.tv'sinstitute of radiobiology and biophysics. Free.Lancelot L. Whyte, British physicist and author, "The Present Human Situ",.tion" 4:30 P.M., room 122, Social Science building, .1126 E. 59th. Fre�UNIVERSITY CONCERT-Gabor Rejto, violoncello and Adolph Baller, piano'music of Beethoven, 8:30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University. $1.50:Saturday, December 10BASKETBALL-Field House, 5550 University, 8:00 P.M., U. of C. vs. IllinoisTech. Admission $1.00.Sunday, December IIUNIVERSITY CHOIR-AnnuOlI Christmas pageant, 8 P.M., Rockefeller M�_morial Chapel, 59th and Woodlawn. Free.UNIVERSITY RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, 59th :&Woodlawn Avenue. Convocation prayer service for candidates for degreesand their relatives at 10:00 A.M. Convocation sermon at 11:00 A.M. :i:)yPresident Ernest Cadman Colwell.Mondav, December 12FOREIGN ANI) DOCUMENTARY FILM SERIES-International House Audi.torium, 1414 East 59th street, 8:00 P.M., Dead of Night (British) and 'SoThis Is London. Admission $0.46.PUBLIC LECTURES-Jacques Maritain, professor of philosophy, PrincetonUniversity, "Church and State," Walgreen Foundation lectures on Man andthe State, 4:30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University. Free.George W. Beadle, chairman, division of biology, California Institute ofTechnology, "Genes and the Chemistry of Neurospora," 4:30 P.M., room106, Kent laboratory (on the circle at 58th and University). Sponsored bythe University's institute of radiobiology and biophysics. Free. /UN IVERSITY CHOI R-Annual Christmas pageant, 8 P.M., Rockefeller Me­morial Chapel, 59th and Woodlawn. "Free.Tuesday, December 13PUBLIC LECTURES-Jacques Maritain, professor of philosophy, PrincetonUniversity, "The Problem of World Government," Walgreen Foundationlectures on Man and the State, 4:30 P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 Uni.versity. Free.George W. Beadle, chairman, division of biology, California Institute ofTechnology, "Genes of Bacteria and Viruses," 4:30 P.M., room 106, Kentlaboratory (on the circle at 58th and University). Sponsored+bv the Uni ,versity's Institute of radiobiology and biophysics. Free.Wednesday, December 14.. ,PUBLIC LECTURES-Oscar Broneer, visiting professor of classical archeologyUniversity of Chicago, "Night and a New Day-Athens under Turks andVenetians-Capital of New Hellas,". Humanities Division public CourseAthens: The Biography of a City, 8 P.M., room 122, Social Science building'1126 E. 59th. $0.75.' ,George W. Beadle, chairman, division of biology, California Institute ofTechnology, "The Structure, Action, and Mutation of Genes," 4:30 P.Mroom 106, Ken.t laboratory, on the circle at 58th and Greenwood. Sponsoredby the University's institute of radiobiology and biophysics. Free.Thursday, December 15PUBLIC LECTURE-George W. Beadle, chairman, division of biology, Cali.fornia Institute of Technology, "The Gene in Evolution," 4:30 P.M., roomlOb, Kent laboratory, on the circle at 58th and Greenwood. Sponsored bythe University's institute of radiobiology and biophysics. Free.Friday, December IbBASKETBALL-Field House, 5550 University, 8:00 P.M., U. of C. vs St. Joseph'sAdmission $1.00. .Balance Sheet (Continued from paf{e 8)Tokyo. They wanted to discuss re­source development, and to learnabout United States experience in thisfield. I organized them into a kindof seminar, which met for severalmonths. From it emerged a ResourcesCouncil, analagous somewhat to ourold National Resources PlanningBoard. It is now actively engaged inplanning for, and promoting, the bestuse of what Japan has, and I hopeto work further with it on my tripto Japan in March, 1950.From the same seminar, has re­sulted some public attention to theneed for population stabilization. Sev­eral Japanese intellectuals have beenactive in the past year and a half or­ganizing public forums on the sub­ject of Japanese resources and the need for limiting population. Theywere backed up by some of the larg­est newspapers. Since my departurelast January I understand even fur­ther publicity has been given thissubject; particularly after the arrivalthere of Warren Thompson, Ameri­can demographer.All of these people are busy pro­moting, and planning for, the bestuse of what Japan has. But they can'tprovide development capital wherethere is none, nor the adequate re­search facilities so sorely needed. Thepeace must take account of this.I suppose I feel the need for ap­propriate provision for supporting Ja­pan, because its problems are so vividto me. They aren't the troubles of adistant, impersonal mass of people, but of Japanese friends, whose sin­cerity and integrity I respect. Theyare trying to bring a decent, demo­cratic life to their people. Today theystand an even chance of doing so,but their chances will fade unlessthere is more economic hope than afully independent Japan can provide.I am sure no Japanese ever thoughtof campaigning for an automobile forevery family. Their standard is ratherone which includes a national dietwith food enough for everyone, per­haps a pair of shoes for everyone;enough fuel to cook with every day,and a little more leisure to enjoy thebeauty of their lovely countryside.They are human beings like our­selves and surely we cannot countthis an excessive dream, nor one weshould not help them achieve.-HE SR,INGS AN A�MFULOF COUR-TES", TOOThe man who comes to install orrepair your telephone brings somethingmore to your home than equipment,tools and efficiency.He brings courtesy and considerationand a genuine desire to please.He treats your home and the thingsin it as carefully as though they werehis own-cleans up and puts everythingback in place when he's finished.He brings along the realization thathe is the representative of thousands oftelephone men and women you maynever see-all working together togive you friendly, constantly improvingtelephone service at reasonable cost. BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM2122 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENEWS OF THE CLASSES1893Straub Watson Shurtz, MD (Rush), ispracticing in Champaign, Ill.1901We mentioned in the Octoher issue ofthe Magazine that Fred L. Adair, MD, ofChesterton, Indiana was general chairmanof the International and Fourth AmericanCongress of Obstetrics and Gynecology heldin New York city last May. Dr. Adair isstill chairman; the event will be in May,1950.1902Frank B. Jewett, PhD, for many yearsvice president of American Telephone andTelegraph and former president of theNational Academy of Sciences, was recentlynamed to receive - the 1950 medal of the In­dustrial Research Institute, Inc. The medalis awarded annually for outstanding accom­plishment in leadership or management'of industrial research.Mrs. Irvin McDowell is a director ofsocial service in Chicago.1904Riley H. APen, editor of the HonoluluStar-Bulletin, was recently awarded a .citi­zenship medal for community service by'the Hawaii department of the VFW.Fred E. Fleet of Klamath Falls, Oregon,was recently honored as the Rotarian ofthe week. He has been a leading citizenof Klamath Falls since 1915, is a chartermember of the local Rotary Club witha quarter-century perfect attendance rec­ord. Fred owns the Klamath Ice Co. andis affiliated with a local real estate firm.His record of community service is oneof the finest in the city.1905Alonzo Willard Fortune, PhD, '15, re­tired from the Central Church in Lexing­ton, is still living in that Kentucky city. 1907Pierce M. Thompson is a social investi­gator with the Flatbush Welfare Centerof the New York City Department of Wel­fare.Arthur G. Bovee visited Alumni Houserecently while in Chicago on business. Heis now a full professor on the RomanceLanguage staff of the University of Georgiain Athens.-1908"My alumni membership card fell intothe English Channel." That's the begin­ning of the note from Ethel Preston, AM'10, PhD '20, who' says it all happenedwhen the ship rolled to a 40 degree anglewhile carrying Ethel and 1600 students be­tween Le Havre and Quebec. It was asummer spent in Pari�, England, andScotland. This fall it was at home in In­diana again for the second year as headof the French and Spanish Departmentsat Vincennes University.1909Howard Painter Blackford deals in realestate and mortgages in Santa Monica, Cal.1911Dennis Rogers Bell is an adjuster of ac­counts for People's Gas Company in Chi­cago.1912James T. Haviland is vice president ofthe Middle Atlantic states for Lumber­mens Mutual Casualty Company. His head­quarters are in Philadelphia.Maynard E. Simond has resigned as presi­dent of F. Eberstadt & Co. to become chair­man of the executive committee of CharlesPfizer & Co. in New York City.Legal sessionTwenty-six alumni from California heard Judge Walter L. Pope, JD '12, speak be·fore the California Bar Association on"Dramatizing the Practice of Law" at ameeting recently in San Francisco. One ofJudge Pope's old teachers, Professor OliverL. McCaskill, JD '06, presided at the meet.ing.Alumni who attended the session wereO. K. Morton, '14, Riverside; A. RussellGriffith, AM '29, JD '33, Oakland; Fred E.Lindley, '11, San Diego; Robyn Wilcox, '26,JD '29, San Leandro; George Halcrow, '38,JD '40, San Mateo; Marvin T. Tepperman,JD '49, Russell Klutzing, '49, and AlbertEhrenzweig, JD '41, all of Berkeley; Wil·liam T. Fox, JD '20, Delvy T. Walton, JD'24, Gordon Lawson, '14, JD '15, and Stead­man G. Smith, '23, all of Los Angeles.Also Walter L. Pope, JD '12, Helen Boye,'20, O. L. McCaskill, JD '06, Joseph E.Sheeks, '41, JD '48, George E. Wise, JD '48,Mary M. Graham, '43, JD '45, J. W. Cole­berd, JD '10, Philip Rutter Lawrence, '42,Daniel Fogel, '43, JD '49, Paul E. Basye,JD '26, Byron E. Kabot, '39, JD '41, DudleyA. Zinke, JD '42, John W. Broad, '41, andJulian W. Mack, JD '49, all of San Fran­cisco.vVe recently received the following notefrom Arnold R. Baar, JD '14:"I have just passed a momentous mile­stone in my professional career. After sit­ting for 20 years in the same chair at thesame desk, looking at the same pictures inthe same places on the same green wall,now have a new desk (same chair-and acouch!-and am surounded by yellow walls(different shape) with the same pictureshanging in different places. Always in stepwith progress! P .S. same address; same tele­phone number. (11 So. LaSalle, Chicago 3;phone. State 2-6246)."1913Kent Chandler is chairman of the Chi­cago Fair Commission-a group investigat­ing prospects for a permanent lake-frontexposition in Chicago. The grounds forIf you wish, because of tax considerations, to make your 1950 gift tothe Alumni Fund before the end of the year we will mail your re­ceipt and place you on the honor roll for 1950. Send your check toTHE ALUMNI FOUNDATION5733 University AvenueChicago 37, Illinoisevery member of the Alumni Association will partici­pate, the 1950 gift can exceed our all-time record of1949.Make checks payable to The University 0/ ChicagoIf23THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe possible exposition was recently va­cated by the Railroad Fair.Gerald Peirce Lawrence, MD (Rush), isa staff physician at V. A. Hospital in Wood,'Visconsin.FORTIETH LAW REUNIONA recent letter from Paul O'Don­nel, '07, JD '09, reports as follows:"The Law School Class of 1909 hadan extraordinary Fortieth Reunionon June 29th which was attendedby 90% of the members livingwithin 600 miles of Chicago." Thosein attendance:Ralph S. Bauer, ChicagoGeorge B. Cohen, ChicagoMiles Collins, DavenportHenry Driemeyer, E. St. LouisHarold F. Hecker, St. LouisRay R. Helm, Metropolis, Ill.Josh Hoover, ChicagoEarl Hostetter, ChicagoAlbert B. Houghton, MilwaukeeHerman G. James, ChicagoHarry D. Morgan, PeoriaClaude O. Netherton, ChicagoJames P. Pope, Knoxville, Tenn.Frank N. Richman, IndianapolisCharles P. Schwartz, ChicagoIrving Solomon, ChicagoCharles H. Speck, LansingLuther Swanstrom, ChicagoGuy Van Schaik, ChicagoA_ L. Weber, ChicagoDean Wilbur Katz (guest)Paul O'Donnell has been engagedin the general practice of law in Chi­cago since 1909 with the exceptionof the period between 1942-1948when he was Chief Trust Officer ofthe Metropolitan Trust Co. He wasrecently elected a member of theBoard of Governors of the IllinoisState Bar Association.1914Anne Blanche Grimes is in advertisingfor Family Circle magazine in New York.Mrs. Jeannette T. Philips is an insuranceunderwriter in Chicago.1916Myrtle D. Bartholomew has finished her23rd year as dietician at The City of Child­hood, Mooseheart, Ill.H. Nathan Swaim, JD, former memberof the Indiana Supreme Court, has beenappointed to the United States Court ofAppeals in Chicago.Dorothy W. Corning is director of religi­ous education in South Minneapolis, Min­nesota.1917C. E. Ashcraft, AM, is dean of the Bone­brake Theological Seminary in Dayton,Ohio.William A. Irwin, BD, PhD '25, is thisyear's president of the Mid-West Sectionof the National Society of Biblical Litera- ture and Exegesis. Merrill M. Parvis, PhD'44, is the group's secretary. . .Leopold Joseph Lassalle, PhD, is dean ofthe school of engineering at the Universityof Louisiana.Barbara Sills Burke has served as presi­dent of the Tarrant County (Texas) Societyfor Mental Hygiene and on the State Men­tal Hygiene board. She is also teachingphysiology at Texas Christian University.Elinor E. Pancoast, AM '22, PhD '27,professor of economics and chairman ofthe Department of Economics and Sociologyat Goucher College, recently arranged anall-day reunion' in Baltimore of the fol­lowing U. of C. alumnae: Lois Olson '21,SM '27; Ruth Reticker '12; Edna ClarkWentworth '20, AM '22; Cleona Lewis '17,AM '21; and Esther Crane, PhD '17.1918Leverett Lyon, AM, PhD '21, chief ex­ecutive officer of the Chicago Associationof Commerce, was a member of the three­man council whose original survey con­vinced Mayor Kennelly that Chicago couldduplicate the success of the 1948-1949 Rail­road Fair.Sigmund Crane is a manufacturer ofdresses in New York City.Aaron J. Brumbaugh, AM, PhD '29, vice­president of the American Council on Edu­cation and former dean at the University,has been elected to the Board of Trusteesof Hood College. A member of the AdvisoryCouncil on the Exchange of Foreign Stu­dents, Department of State, chairman ofthe War-Navy Committee on United StatesArmed Forces Institute, and of the Com­mittee on International. Exchange of Per­sons, Braumbaugh was delegate to the firstUNESCO conference held in Paris in 1946.He was also a member of the mission toKorea which studied and made recom­mendations for improvement in the Koreaneducational program in 1947. He is nowliving in Washington, D. C.1919Morton S. Howard has sold his musicstore in Philadelphia and retired to hishome in Haverford, Pennsylvania.Rupert R. Lewis, JD '20, is with Tauls­port Terminals, Inc., in Newark, N. J.1920Rowell A. Schleiter is with the BlackBear Company, Inc., at Long Island City,N. Y.Paul Theodore Wallgren was married toLaura L. Cooper on April 2, 1949.1921. Frederick A. Schilling has been electedto the position of associate professor ofbiblical studies, (Episcopal) Church Divin­ity School of the Pacific in Berkeley, Cali­fornia.Marion J. Tait, AM '29, is a field mis­sionary in India for the Woman's AmericanBaptist Foreign Missionary Society. Sheis doing rural reconstruction work in Gola­ghat, Assam.The Rev. Dr. Harold E. Nicely, pastor ofthe Brick Presbyterian church in Rochester,New York has been elected moderator ofthe Presbyterian Synod of New York. Hereceived an alumni citation in 1946. Exhibition ofCERAMICSbyGertrud and Otto NatzlerNov. 25 thru DecemberTHE LITTLE GALLERY1328 E. 57 STREETCHICAGO 37, ILLINOIS1 :00-5:30 P.M. DailyWednesday evening 'til 9:00 P.M.PLaza 2·7470BOYDSTON BROS .• INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4·0492Trained and licensed attendantsPOND LETTER SERVICEEvery thinK in LettersflDOve. Type.rltl.,MultlgraphlnlAddressograph Senl ..Highest Quality Senl ..All PhonesHArrison 7-8118 M Imeographl ••Addressl.,MalllniMinimum Prle ••418 So •. Market St.ChicagoAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement wbleb limits Itswork to the university and college fteld.It Is affiliated with the FlAk Teacher,Agency of Chicago. whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist In the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.Our service is nation-wide.Since J885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best In placement service for University.College, Secondary and Elementary. Nation­wide patronac;le. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, IllinoisSTENOTYPYLearn new, .. peedy machine Ihorthand. Lelleifort, no cramped finger. or nervoUi fathr:ue.Allo other co.nel: Typinl(, Bookkeeping.Comptometrj', etc. Bay or enning. Vilil,wril' Of' �1a0tC, fo, flGIG.Bryant� Strau. onCO�EGE18 S. MICHIGA.N AVE. Tel. RAndolph 6-1575192724 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESwift ts Ice CreamSundaes and sodas are special treatsmade with Swift's Ice Cream. So de­licious, so creamy-smooth, so refresh­ingly yours ....A product ofSWIFT & COMPANY7409 S. State StreetPhone RAdcliff 3-74003 HOUR SERVICEEXCLUSIVE CLEANERSAND DYERSSince 19201442 and 1331 E. 57th St.•EVENING GOWNSAND FORMALSA SPECIALTYMidway ������ e w. callJorand deliwr3 HOUR SERVICELOCAL AND LONG DISTANCE HAULING•60 YEARS OF DEPENDABLESERVICE TO THE SOUTHSIDE•ASK FOR FREE ESTIMATE•55th and ELLIS AVENUECHICAGO 15, ILLINOISBUtterfield 8-6711DAVID L. SUTTON. Pres. 1922Norman Howard Shortridge,. an armymajor, has his headquarters in the Federalbuilding in Indianapolis, Indiana.Olivia Grace Kirchoff is a teacher atSchurz high school in Chicago.Horace Gresham Toole, AM, is a mem­ber of the chemistry and history depart­ments at Marshall College in Huntington,West Virginia.Mollie Nieland is back teaching in herChicago classroom after a summer round­the-world jaunt in a DC-4 with stopoversin 18 foreign countries. It was a flight char­tered by a group of students and profes­sional people and sponsored by YouthArgosy, a movement with the aim of "build­ing a youth generous, knowing and sympa­thetic who are living components of theone world essential today." The Inter­national Youth Hostel Rally in Silkeborg,the IYH conference at Humlebaek, Den­mark, and the University of Chicago'sheadquarters in Frankfurt were highpoints of the trip for Mrs. Nieland.Earl Hugo Emendorfer is an analyst inDenville, New Jersey.1923Adolph J. Radosta, Jr., JD '25, has beena legal officer with the Military Govern­ment in Berlin for the past four years.He is now opening his own legal office inFrankfurt (Wiesenau 12, Frankfurt A. M.).H. Tekla Black (Mrs. Walter E. Wolf)writes that volunteer civic work takes upa good deal of her spare time. She is aboard member of the Camp Fire Girls,the Marion County Cancer Society, theYard Parks Committee, the Jewish Commu­nity Center Association, and past presidentof the Indianapolis Section of the NationalCouncil of Jewish Women. Her husbandis president of the Merchants Associationin Indianapolis; There are three children:Louis, who was graduated from Purdue in1948; Walter K, a freshman at Harvard;and Elizabeth; a senior at high school.Girdler B. Fitch, AM, head of the De­partment of Modern Languages at TheCitadel, is one of South Carolina's mostoutstanding poets as well. Five-times winnerof. the Forum Prize of the Poetry Societyof South Carolina, he has also capturedthe Book Basement Prize for sonnets twice,the Poetry Society Prize, the Swope Prize,and the Thomas Gamble Memorial Prizeof the Poetry Society of Savannah once.1925Joseph S. Hicks, SM, PhD '27, is directorof the Department of Science at Sam Hous­ton State Teachers College in Huntsville,Texas.John Dyer Elder is associate professorof mathematics at St. Louis University inSt. Louis.1926Charles S. Braden, PhD, has publisheda study of American cults and minorityreligious movements entitled THEY ALSOBELIEVE. Macmillan is the publisher;Lorenzo Dow Turner, PhD, is teachingat Roosevelt College in Chicago. His articleon Negro dialects appeared recently in theCharlotte, North Carolina Observer. Katharine Tyler Burchwood, AM '31,along with Kathryn Dean Lee, '08, forUlerart teacher at the Laboratory Schools, artenjoying rave notices for their recent jointendeavor ART THEN AND NOW. Tbenew college textbook surveys the evolutionof art from prehistoric times to presentday.1928Mrs. P. D. McAllister is teaching atMurphy High School, Mobile, Alabama.Mildred R. Jensen, AM, is associate pro­fessor of Related Art, Textile and Clothingat the University of Arizona.Clarence Elmer Glick, AM, PhD '38; isprofessor of sociology at the Universitv ofHawaii. '1929Herbert G. May, AM, PhD '32, has beenelected to the editorial committee of "TheJournal of Biblical Literature."-Howard K. Bauernfeind, AM, presldsnrof the J. B. Lippincott Company of Phila­delphia, published a recent best seller:"The Doctor Has Three Faces" which hashad all the Billings medical men and theirwives chuckling. He prophesies two or threemore Lippincott books will hit the topbrackets during the holidays.Lester Kruger Born, PhD, is chief arch.ives-lIbrarians section, for OMGUS. It's aNew York APO so we can guess it's anassignment on the continent.Don R. Knight, AM, is one of the mostactive and helpful alumni in Indianap­olis. From the Alumni Foundation's be­ginning he has served on local committeesand in more recent years has been thelocal Foundation chairman. He has an un­broken record of giving and has been amember of the Association for years. Add,now, to this record, his generous cooperationin setting up a special dinner at the Co­lumbus Club, for the principals andcouncilors of the Indianapolis schools onDecember 7, at which Vice President LynnWilliams will explain the Chicago College.Joan Lundberg, '46, College enrollment rep­resentative for that area, will also be pres­ent.1930Otis O. Benson, Jr., MD (Rush), com­mandant of the U. S. Air Force School ofAviation Medicine at Randolph Air Base,Randolph Field, Texas, has been pro­moted to the rank of brigadier general.Bernard Weinberg, PhD '36, is associateprofessor of romance languages at North­western.Edward Sayler, AM, is Dean of the Schoolof Theology and Professor of Sociology atYankton College, Yankton, South Dakota.1931Madeline A. Young is a training officerfor the Veterans Administration in NewYork.Edward Ellenbogen is an air force chap­lain at Lackland Air Force Base, San An­tonio, Texas.Helen Mae Mac Krill is director of nursesat St. Marks Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah.Martha D. Alexander,. SM, (Mrs. ErnestC. Olson) is a mathematician with theU. S. Air Force in Washington, D. C.THE U N I V'E R SIT Y 0 F CHI C AGO MAG A Z I N EMorlimek Taube is a deputy chief forthe Atomic Energy Commission.Julia Kemp Hrdina, SM '41� is a recep­tionist at Greenwood Memonal Park InSan Diegc, California.1932Joseph W. Bailey, JD '34, is now man­ager of the radio-television department ofGrey Advertising Agency, Inc., in NewYork. He is the agency producer of theRonson Twenty Questions radio show andthe producer of the Robert MontgomerySpeaking air show for Lee Hats. He alsohandles the Gruen Watch half of theHollywood Calling show which is producedby his former alumni associate, Louis G.Cowan, '31.Robert Maurice Goodwin is practicingmedicine in Springfield, Ill.Cornelia Berry Lasley, AM '44, is ateacher at Lincoln high school in Tacoma,washington.Mrs. Evelyn C. Adams is doing free lancewriting in Baltimore, Maryland.1933Ries awarded $3,000Herman E. Ries, Jr., '33, PhD '36, of theSinclair Refining Company Research Labo­ratories, Harvey, Illinois, has been awardedRiesthe $3,000 Ipatieff Prize in Chemistry for1950.Dr. Ries was cited for his contributionsto the knowledge of the chemical agentsknown as catalysts, particularly those usedin petroleum hydrocarbon conversion. Hewill receive the award at the AmericanChemical Society's 117th national meetingin Houston, Texas, next spring.The prize is given every three years toa scientist - under 40 for achievement inthe study of catalysis or high pressure.The 1950 winner, a member of the Sin­clair Refining Company's research stafffor more than 13 years, is now head of thePhysical Chemistry Section of the com­pany's laboratories at Harvey. He has beenin the forefront of the physical chemistswho have sought to explain the behaviorof catalysts in terms of their basic physicalproperties, such as surface areas and pore structures. His work -on the mechanism ofcatalysts has contributed to longer lifeand greater yields of petroleum products.He is the author or co-author of manytechnical papers on catalysis and surfacephenomena which have received widespreadrecognition. Two patents have been issuedto Dr. Ries, and he is the inventor or co­inventor of developments covered by sixpending patent applications, all in thefields of catalysis or high pressure.Eli P. Messenger reports a new daughterSarah. Boardman Messenger, born May 26,1949, has joined' his Indianapolis house­hold.David Svar Segerstrom is stationed atFort Bliss, Texas as a U. S. Army Chap­lain.Julius Feldman, PhD '37, is a researchchemist for the Parker Pen Company inJanesville, Wis.Boyd Raeburn, band leader and singer,has given up his "road trips" for thequieter life of a music arranger.Elizabeth Louise Hirsch is a governmentclerk for the Internal Revenue Departmentin Des Moines, Iowa.Clara M. Graybill, AM, is assistant pro­fessor of education at Eastern WashingtonCollege of Education, Cheney, Washington.Antoinette Mary Cronk is employed byIowa State Board of Control as a socialworker.Mary Josephine Bloder is teaching sciencein La Haina Luna High School, Maui,T. H.1934David Jadwin, JD '36, is in charge ofthe eastern office of Crown Products Com­pany (carpet padding) with offices in Phila­delphia. The home office is Chicago.David C. Lavine dropped in at alumnilounge in late October from Vienna, wherehe has been with army headquarters sincethe war. This was his first visit home since1944. Dave is married to a Viennese girl.They have one boy, George Stefan, oneyear of age. They hope to return to Austriaafter a few months in the States.Thomas Dee Guilfoyle is in the insurancebusiness in - Chicago.Frederick Joseph Lesemann, Jr., is prac­ticing medicine in Tucson, Arizona.Charles Mortimer Guilbert is directorof religious education at Grace Cathedral,San Francisco.Don Wendell Holter, PhD, is a profes­sor at Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston,Ill.1935George F. Hall, PhD, dean of Gustavus­Adolphus College, has just published amanual entitled "You Ask About Luther."James Wiley Brown is chaplain at Till­lotson College, Austin, Texas.Ignatius M. Weiringer, AM, is assistantprofessor of modern languages at St. LouisUniversity in St. Louis, Missouri.Jack W. Loeb, JD '37, and wife, Sarahart,are boasting of a young one, James Wil­liam, born June 25, 1949.Eugene Edward Siess is a navy surgeon inSan Diego, California. 25SUPERFLUOUS HAIRREMOVED FOREVERMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of hair fr-om face, eye­brows, bad of neck, or any part of body;also facial veins, moles, and warts.LOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERT20 years' experienceGraduate NurseSuite 1705. Stevens Building17 N. State StreetTelephone FRanklin 2-4885FREE CONSULTATIONWasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chiceqo Ave.Phone: BUtterfield 8-2116-7-8-9Wallon's Coal Makes Good-or­WOllon 0081EASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS AllOVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES3 .. 2 N. Oa�ley Blvd.Telephone SEeley 3-4488The Best Place to Eat on the South Side-I,COLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone HYde Park 3-6324w. B. CONKEY CO.HAMMOND, INDIANA��ad�1'�ad�Ued�SALES OFFICES: CHICAGO AND NEW YORKBIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners (, Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-538026 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA. T. STEWART LUMBER COMPANYEVERYTHING InLUMBER AND MILLWORKVI 0-90007855 Greenwood Ave.410 West Illth St. PU 5-00344gteUiHd�UC1IIICA1 SUPPLY CO.DistrIbutors. Manufacturers and Jobbers .fELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4-7500CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3-3935"Good Printin8 01 All Description,"RESULTS ...depend on getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Folding - MailingA Complete Service for Direct AdvertiaeraChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn St., Chicago 5, Ill.WAbash 2-4561E. J. Chalifoul '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHYFine Color Work A Specialty731 Plymouth Cour.WAbash 2-8182RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6·3192 The perch made the TimesLast summer our Florida scouts reporteda picture which appeared in the St. Peters­burg Times. It was Taylor Whittier, AM'38, PhD '48, and friend (as Time wouldsay). We spent the summer persuadingTaylor to send us a print. After threatsof alumni blacklists, he finally succumbed.Fish and FishermanHis friend is a triple. tailed black perchwhich mounted ten pounds-apparently ararity in those parts. Taylor, of course, hadit mounted, much to the disgust of wifeSarah Jane Leckrome, '34, AM '46, whowould, have preferred the picture withparsley in front of an electric oven. Tayloris principal of St. Petersburg high. Hismajor embarrassment: It was the first timein 11 years he had slipped ou t of his officeto go fishing!Ivan Lee Holt, Jr., JD '37, has been ap­pointed circuit judge in the Eighth (St.Louis) Judicial Circuit. Previous to thisappointment he served as assistant circuitattorney. From 1942 to August, 1946, Holtserved in the Navy and was dischargedwith the rank of commander. After his dis­charge from the Navy he served for atime as an instructor in the School of Lawof Washington University.Jack Roth Greenfield is connected withDiversey Corporation in Chicago as achemical engineer.Robert S. Shankland, PhD, head of theCase Institute of Technology's departmentof physics, was awarded the presidentialcertificate of merit last May.George F. Hall, PhD, has had publisheda "Handbook for Study of the New Testa­ment" by the Gustavus Adolphus CollegePress of St. Peter, Minnesota.The B. F. Gurneys, he MS '38, she theformer Jane Hebert '36, announced twofall showings: a new baby, Richard Powell,born August 1, 1949; and a new houseready for occupancy September I at 542Deer Path, Glen Ellyn, Illinois.Albert Parry, PhD '38, has been advancedto the rank of full professor at ColgateUniversity. Parry joined the Colgate staffin 1947 as associate professor of Russiancivilization and language. During the lastwar he served in the Office of StrategicServices. Richard Gentry Chrisman is a teacher atElmhurst College in Elmhurst, Illinois.1936Charles W. Centner, AM '38, PhD '41,is with the National Foreign Trade Council in New York City.John Louis Molyneaux is an accountantfor the International Harvester Compaojin Melbourne, Australia.Jane Augusta Bull, AM, is executive d!'rector of the Illinois Commission for Hand>capped Children.Russell, James Knapp, MBA '38, a certified public accountant, is a partner i1tScholefield & Company, Santa Barbara,California.Charlotte E. Heaton (Mrs. V. McGrilenj,is chairman of the science department jftCrane Technical High School in Chicago;Alfred Novak, MS '42, reports a promo,tion to assistant professorship and tb�birth of a new son, who should be at the'creeping stage now..Agnes Miriam Cohen is engaged in edl'torial work in Washington, D. C.John L. Molyneaux has been with Inter,national Harvester since graduation. TwO'years ago he was transferred to AustraliaHe lives in Melbourne with his wife andtwo children.William Hammer, MA, PhD '37, has re­signed from the faculty of the Universityof Manitoba to assume duties as chairmanof the Department of German at CarletonCollege, Northfield, Minnesota., 1937MiiSS;y,U::--Sheperd, Pl!D," professor oechurch history at the Episcopal TheologicalSeminary in Cambridge, has just, completeda comprehensive history of THE BOOK Oll'COMMON PRAYER. He was recentlyelected president of the American Societyfor Church History.Allen Wikgren, AM '29, PhD '32, Wa&recently elected to the "Journal of BiblicalLiterature."Donald Sedgwick Bussey is a rnanufacturer's representative in San Francisco.John M. Whitelaw, AM, is executive secretary of the Portland Community Chestin Portland, Oregon.Edwin Julius Crackin is associated withthe Virginia State Division of Personnel jillpersonnel administration.Diane M. Belogianis, AM '38, is now Mrs\Marphopoulos of New Orleans, Louisiana.Robert Louis Kyhl is a physicist in tneMicrowave Laboratory at Stanford Univer­sity.Walter Denten Loban, AM, is teachil1�at the University of California.1938Marshall M. Brucer, MD '41, and HarryDavis Bruner, PhD '39, hold the leadingpositions in the medical division of tneOak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studiesat Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Dr. Brucer ISchairman of the division and Dr. Bruneris principal scientist.Louis S. Constine, Jr., who took sevenquarters in the Medical School and trans­ferred to South Carolina for his M.D., isnow practicing at 450 Sutter Street, SailFrancisco.Joseph Thomas Klapper, AM, was mar.ried last July to Hope Evelyn Lunin ofFlushing, New York. The couple is livingin Seattle where Klapper is a professorof sociology at the University of Washing­ton.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEherz is the lucky man to beCarl FronUIl l'brarian for the newly con-first I 'b' C Ichosen as 1 Ful ton LI rary 10 anastructed c�na It's a colonial type buildingFulton, C?hIO'the culmination of the com­represen tInffg ts over a period of 12 years, e or I d hi f '1munit)' � library. Car an. IS ami yto obtaIn a Paul) are happily ensconced(wife and son,t on the second floor. It'srtmenin an apa k though. Carl takes to thenot just lU� 'f experience in library man­job a wealt °aduate of Columbia Univer­agement. A grSchool, his background in­sity Library at the University of Chi­eludes servI.ce those of Columbia, Newl'branes, d Acago 1 V S Naval Aca emy at nnap-York City, 'b�S library in Northampton,. d For I h t . ,olis, an .orld War I, .e g? m a ye.ar sMass. In Wh spital libranan m the Unitedservice as a 0States Navy. Id Elliott is personnel man-. Dona . CEdwIn hi ago Printed Strmg ompany.ager for C ICbanks AM, PhD '47, has beenJohn B. �� nt of Jarvis Christian Collegeelected p�esl �exas. Jarvis College is oper­in HawkIns, roes under auspices.. of theated for Nhe�t'an Missionary SOCIety ofUnited C. rIS IIndiana�O�\{cElroy, AM '39, a meI?ber. ofGeorg . h faculty of Wayne University,the Englts t the summer on the quad­Detroit, sp�n some work in Chinese, justtangles taHk1O� continuing his work towardf e IS h ., kifor un.. E glish when e isn t ta mga PhD 10 ncourses for fun.1939R enheim AM '46, an EnglishEdward �s the V�iversity, is fittinglyinstructor b�ut that first son, Daniel, borneloquent aAugust I�t\hideler and wife, (Mary Eliza-DaVId .'40) are in Ireland. Dave wonbeth Beb� th at the Meteorological Officehimself � ��on Airport. The previous ob­at rhe S aost was the U. S. Weather Bu­servat��n Bfllings, Montan�.reauE Stewart PhD, IS the first womanSa�� .to be graduated from George-physicIan'versity's School of .Medicine: .town U 01Lawrence Cole IS a florist 10Robert 'ami Beach, Florida.North MI DeMarinis is director of FamilyAnthony .' St L .'ld en's SerVIce 10 . OllIS.and Chi1. rM Smith is with Mohawk Car-Corne IUS .k C'. 1 Inc., in New Yor Ity.pet �Il;, Henry Mayer is a fi�cal ana!ystJosePU S Bureau of Budget m Washmg­for the . .ton, D. C'Nathaniel Navid is a radar engi­Burtonthe navy in Washington, D. C.neer foIrd Orne PhD, is director of librariesJerro '.. S L . M'hi gton UmversIty, t. OUIS, IS-at Was 10souri.MaIm, AM, is doing features forHaIT\,y YORK TIMES. A recent one onthe NEin the midwest mentioned the Uni-theatre I d .. , dramatic pro ucnons,versIty.S J Salisbury (Mrs. Donald G.��n°:On �f Winnetka, Illinois) tells usWllha� an addition to the family to re­there -:_. hard Salisbury Williamson, bornport- 9 IC1949. Barbara, 4, and Daniel, 21���th; are the other children.CLARK-BREWER: Teachers Agency68th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices-One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis-Kansas City. Mo.Spokan�N.w York Allan. Charles Ferguson, JD '41, is an at­torney III the Office of the Solicitor, Wash­ington, D. C.Pe�e! Satterlee Ga.tes is employed. as aphYSICISt at Con tamer Corporation ofAmerica in Chicago.Marion Laura Kelly, AM, is in personnelwork in China Lake, Cal.Jane Frost, AM, of Tiffin, Ohio, is nowMrs. Jane F. Kalnow.Frederick George Smith is a biochemist­plant physiologist in the Botany depart­ment of Iowa ,State College, Ames, Iowa.Earl Lynwooa Sappington, MBA '47 isan industrial engineer for Carnegie-Illi�oisSteel. He was married to Mary Helen SamsJune 12, 1949.Arthur Graham is a business executivein San Francisco.1940Howard Sloan, AM '41, and MaryceKlaff, '44, MBA '47, were married August14 in Chicago.Heber C. Snell, PhD, teacher in the In­stitute of Religion at .. Logan, Utah, re­cently had published his college text,ANCIENT ISRAEL: ITS STORY ANDMEANING.Mr. and Mrs. Horace F. Jackson (EmilyL. Sherer) are the happy and gratefulparents of a daughter, Edith Josephine,born June 22, 1949. It was a prematurebirth with the young 'un weighing in atonly two pounds, ten ounces. The parentssay the pediatrician studied under RobertA. Black at Bobs. Roberts, which explainswhy the baby has grown into "such a rosylittle princess."John B. Hoesley, MD (Rush), staff phy­sician at Mercy Hospital in Chicago, hasbeen appointed director of the IllinoisInstitute of Technology health service.Louis Henry Fuchs, Jr., is a scientist atthe Argonne National Laboratory in Chi­cago.Eugene A. Luening is a member of theboard of directors of the MassachusettsCouncil of Churches.David L. Harris, AM '41, is dean of menat Henderson State Teachers College, Arka­delphia, Arkansas.Joseph H. Kriwanek is a storehouse ofnews: a marriage January, 1948 to LibbieMarie Koberna; graduation from LoyolaUniversity Dental College last June; andnow an internship at the Chicago MarineHospital.Robert Joseph Goodman, SM '41, is pro­fessor of geography at Wayne Universityin Detroit. He got his PhD from North­western in 1948.Leland Elmer Hess, AM, is teaching atIllinois State Normal University at Normal,Ill.Erwin W. Wendt recently arrived at SanJose, Costa Rica,· where, as Foreign ServiceOfficer on the staff of the American Em­bassy, ·he is reporting on economic subjects.Doris Evelyn Ward, MA, is a social work­er employed by the Veterans Administra­tion in Springfield, Massachusetts.BIENENFELDChicago'. Most Complete Stock ofGLASSGLASS CORP. OF ILLINOIS1525W. 35th St. PhoneLAfayette 3-8400 27Phones OAkland 4-0690-4-0691-4-0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning (0.INC.Awning' and Canopi., for All Purpo •• ,4508 Cottage Grove Avenue•Auto Livery•Qui.', unoblru.ive •• rvle.When you wanl if, a. you wanl ilCALL AN EMERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAirfax 4-6400Sinee1895SURGEONS'INSTRUMENTSaof ALL TYPESEQUIPMENT and FURNITUREfor OFFICE and HOSPITALAll Phones: SEeley 3-2180V. MUELLER & CO.320-408 s. HONORE STREETCHICAGO 12, ILLINOISTelephone KEnwoo4 6-1352J. E. KIDWELL Florist826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 15. IllinoisJAM ES E. KIDWELL28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESince J818HANNIBAL, INC.UpholstersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180HAWTINPHOTOENGRAVERSPhoto Engrav.,.Artists - ElectrotypersMaker. of PrintlnQ Platel538So. Wells St. TelephoneWAbash 2-6480BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICEUCENSED ,. BONDEDINSUREDQUAIJFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave .. Chicag'oTuckerDecorating ·Service1360 East 70th StreetPhone Midway 3-4404GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.P.inting-Decorating-Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186 John Edward Brolley Jr. took his doc­torate at Indiana University last June.Lillian Wurzel, MA, is medical socialservice supervisor, Contia Costa County So­cial Service Department, Martinez, Cali­fornia.Pearl Fischer, '40, is now Mrs. Roy Harlanof Dayton, Ohio.John Herbert Bailey, MD, is in practiceat Benton Harbor, Michigan.Mayer K. Stem tells of the birth of asecond child, Ruth, who arrived on thescene May 28.Janet Elizabeth Cupler r�ceived her mas­ter's degree last June from the Universityof Minnesota.Walter E. Swarthout, MA, writes fromVancouver that we can change that nameplate to read "Major" instead of "Captain."Marcus S. Handler, MS, is at the MedicalSchool of the University.Ardella Starkes, who is teaching in KansasCity, Missouri, has been making fame re­cently as a book reviewer.Ruth G. Meyers writes from Toledo, Ohio,"My husband is just starting as a generalsurgeon in Toledo. After many years oftraining we've settled here."1941Hyman P. Minsky, after two years as ateaching fellow at Harvard, has been ap­pointed an assistant professor of economicsat Brown University.Adelma E. Mooth, SM, has moved fromPhiladelphia to the New Britain GeneralHospital, Connecticut.Lawrence Bacon Lee, AM, was married toFrances Egger April 17, 1949. He is teach­ing at Fort Hays Kansas State College inHays, Kansas.Horace Mott Angel is a field representa­tive for the American Red Cross in SanFrancisco.James R. Lawson, after one year of study,was recently graduated from the Ecole deCarillon in Malines, Belgium. This is theonly school for carillonneurs in the world.Only II people in North America holddiplomas; of ·this number only seven areactive carillonneurs. Lawson's first teacherwas Frederick Marriott, carillonneur ofRockefeller Chapel. Lawson will spenda second year abroad at University of Lon­don School of Librarianship. He will be atStanford next year.Frank L. Martin, PhD, is associate pro­fessor of aerologyat the U. S. Naval Post­graduate School, Monterey, California.Eli Milakovich, MBA, is accoun ting su­pervisor at the Los Angeles Branch ofFrigidaire Sales Corporation.Harold Bjork, MD, is a resident in radi­ology at St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago.Edmund V. de Chasca, PhD, is head ofthe Spanish department at the Universityof Toronto.Andrew Louis Hoekstra is a psychiatristat General Hospital in Louisville, Ken­tucky.The engagement of Jane Miller Kreu­scher, educational director of the Milwau­kee, Wisconsin Art Institute, to CharlesCudell of Chicago, was announced re­cently.Henry Wise, SM '44, PhD '47, is on thejet propulsion laboratory staff of the Cali­fornia Institute of Technology in Pasa­dena.Feme Sabin Focht, SM, is a physician atUniversity Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Donald L. Fabian, AM '41, is now an in­structor in Spanish in the College. He trans­ferred from Tulane University. Alexander J. Morin and wife, EmiLrShield had some news to add to tl1eirchange of address note. After completingthree years leading to a doctorate at Hal'·vard (one year as a Littauer Faculty Sch:�131'and two as a Ferguson Research FelI(i)w)Morin headed this fall for Fisk Universicyin Nashville. Reason-to be chairman, ofthe Department of Economics and BusinesaAdministration. His three daughters, Eliza\beth, seven, Katherine, five, and Janet,two, were included in that southward jaOOi.Elizabeth Haun, MA, has been appoiR�edassistant professor of social work at theschool of social work at the University ofIowa, Iowa City.Harold L. Aronson, Jr., LLB '42, is sec.retary and treasurer of the Tech Soap Mart>ufacturing Company in Chicago.Martin Sandel Olson, MD, is practicingin Marion, Ohio.Mrs. Jane B. Schuldberg, MA '42, inscreen story analyst for Warner BrotheaStudios in Burbank, California.George W. �an�, Jr., received the degreeof doctor of jurisprudence from IndianaUniversity at last June convocation.1942Margaret Chandler, AM, PhD '48, ha$been named assistant professor in sociologyand research assistant professor in labor andindustrial relations at the U. of Illinois.Warren K. Wilner, MD '45, is assistantprofessor at the School of Medicine at theUniversity of Michigan.Helen Tappan Loeblich, PhD, holds aposition with the Geological Society GfAmerica.Karl Peter Conklin, MD, is practicing inPolson, Montana.Mrs. Louis K. Chandler, AM '44, PhD '48,is assistant professor of Sociology and re­search associate at the University of Illinois,Paul Shedd McPherson is associated widtCentral Intelligence Agency in Washing,ton, D. C.Joseph J. Van Boskirk is secretary .ofChicago Disciples Union.Donald C. Bergus, back from a tour as�harge �'affair:s �t the �merica� Embassym Saudi Arabia, IS studymg classical arabkat the University of Pennsylvania. The lat.ter is also a State Department detail.Anthony R. Furmanski, MD '43, is prac-tieing in Los Angeles, Cal..Joseph Jacobson was married August 21,1949 to Joanne A. Levy of Chicago.Elizabeth Wallerstein, was married toRobert �. Binghom of Berkeley, California,last sprmg,Andrew J. Robbins, AM, is on deferredappointment for 12 months at Washington.Missionary College in Takoma Park, Wash,ington. The Robbins' were supposed to de­part for China but the political and mili,tary situation caused the postponement.Melvin David Hurwitz, SM, is a researchchemist for Rohm and Haas Company inPhiladelphia.Rudolph William Janda, MD '44, is prac.ticing medicine at Veterans' Hospital inHines, Ill.PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps1545 E. 63RD STREEl6620 con AGE GROV!: AVENUEFAirfax 4.0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE1545 EAST 63RD STREOTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERachlin is a newspaper execu­Edgar L. ark New Jersey.. New 'K' f R N Ytive In 'ck B. Mac mnon 0 ye, .. ,Frederl f ix young lawyers appointed towas one 0 fy created position of Teachingfill tbe newthe Harvard Law School. TheFeUows a�ing Fellows, who are either thirdnew 'feac ts or recent graduates of theyear stude�iIl direct the program of. grouplaw schOO!, ed to increase the effectIvenesswork deslgninstruction by aiding beginningof first-year gain a better grasp of basicstudents toes and to improve their meth-1 Process K" Nlega I W study. Mac mnon IS a avyods of af WWII and was graduated fromveteran 0School at Harvard in 1948. Hethe Lawl d by Nutter, McClennan &• emp oyeIS f Boston. . .Fish 0 lre Nettleton Swift, MS, IS al\{argue.r� at the Naval Radiological De­physioIO��oratory, Naval Shipyard, Sanfense LFrancisco� Lt. and Mrs. J. O. WeisenbergBorn tAmrhein) on July 9, 1949, at the(Margare� Hospital, Joliet, a son, RobertSt. Josep sEdward. B ker Niday and his wife MarciaJallles �ents of a son, Paul Edward,are the pa 22 1949. They are living inborn May ,Chicago. Griswold White was granted theJobn f bachelor of laws at Western Re­degree 0'versity last June.serve UnBI e is a psychiatric social work-Clark an .er in Phoenix, Arizona.1943has reached us of the marriage ofNews. Abeles AM, and George G.Wilhelm:� '45. They are living .at OakIggerS, RR6 Brantford, Ontario, Can-Park Farm, 'ada.. winfred Doane holds a position asJ�tanf r the A. & P. Tea Co. in NewaudItor 0York City...I August Degitz IS a librarian inDa ton .San Diego, Califorma.. E Moses PhD, has transferredLouIs.' M d' Ihe University of Arkansas e rcafrom t ethe department of physiology inSchooUI S�F School of Aviation Medicine,theRandolph, Texas..h Edward O'Hare IS an oceanog­Josebfin Washington,.D. C.rap eMD' k iId Murdock McIntyre, , IS ta mgD�faing studies for speciali.zation in gyne­quati y nd obstetrics in Gallinger Hospital,cology aCWashington, D. ..s Josephine Lyman was marriedFLratn�homas E. Farrow, USN, on Janu-to .ary 15, 1949.es Burt, PhD, is an interne in p�th­Agnt Massachusetts General Hospitalology ain Boston.. . .Helen Natalie Fried IS director of pu�hc.s for the Great Books FoundationrelatIOn .in Chicago.h Bowan Adams, AM, PhD '46, isJoh·nng at Stetson University, Deland,teac IFlorida.ASH]IAN BROS., Inc.IITABLIIHID InlOrien tal and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 Soulh Chic_lo Phone REgent 4-6000 Harry William Fischer, MD '45, is aresident at Barnes Hospital in S1. Louis.William Karl Gibler is a retail salesmanfor the Standard Oil Company in GrandRapids, Michigan.Betsy Kuh, wife of J. Jerry Morray '42,has news. A sonl N ame-J effrey Parket.Birthday-February 24, 1949. It's a sure bethe'll be venturing on the Midway one dayafter the precedent set by his parents andpaternal grandfather, William H. Kuh '11,MA'14. •Jessie Craig Obert, MS, is a teacher ofhome economics in Columbus, Ohio.From Clifton Springs, New York, Dr. andMrs. Gerhart Schwarz, (the former Ger­trude Aschner), announce the birth of adaughter, Marion Janet, born July 12, 1949.Richard G. Bolks is now on the staff ofthe southern territory of Sears, Roebuckand Company with headquarters in Atlanta,Georgia.Last March Florence M. Robinson, MS'48, and Florence Parks Rucker, MS '48drove up the Alaskan Highway to work inFairbanks for the U. S. Geological Survey.Donald C. Sachs should have his work forhis doctorate at UCLA finished by now.When he last wrote us he said he shouldbe back in Chicago by fall with his brideof a year, the former Letitia Lesser.1944Mildred T. Faris, AM, has been with theSchool of Social Work at the Universityof Oklahoma since 1944 when she returnedfrom Germany where she spent two yearsin an UNRRA unit.Mrs. Hans P. Drobeek is a bacteriologistin the College of Medicine, Syracuse, N. Y.Dorothy H. Nelson has her M.D. and isnow interning at Medical Center, Brook­lyn, N. Y.Rachel Marion MacHatton is doing re­search work with the Imperial ChemicalIndustries in England.Newton Ray Galligar is a captain in theU. S. Air Force, Omaha, Nebraska.Keith Eugene Hamilton is a minister inAspen, Colorado.John A. Pettit, AM, Instructor in Spanishand advisor in the College, has accepted aposition on the faculty of Illinois Wes­leyan University at Bloomington, beginningwith the fall semester. IBeverly M. Glenn is practicing law inNew York City at 30 Broad Street and"enjoying every minute of it."Mae Hom McMillen, MA, writes thather twin sons, William H. McMillen andOrville G., who were graduated withhonors from Swarthmore College in June,have received scholarships to the graduateschool at the University of Chicago for1949-1950.Willard J. Pierson, received his doctoratelast June from New York University.Emmy E. Aufricht, MA '48, is visitingteacher in the public schools of Portland,Oregon.Thomas Fourqurean, MBA, is an ad�in­istrative assistant at Hermann Hospital,Kingsville, Texas. Other news: his marriageJune 15, 1949 to R�thann Kn1!th.Elizabeth A. Failor, MS, IS now Mrs.Herman A. Woodworth. The address:Box 495, Bar Harbor, Maine.Vincent E. Lally was married to Mar­guerite Tibert in Brookline, Massachusettslast June. The couple is living in Balti-more, Maryland. •Carolyn Phelps Truax Mannmg gavebirth to a son, John Lordan Manning, Jr.,last March 23 at Our Lady of LourdesHospital in Manila. 29TELEPHONE TAylor 9-54360' CALLAGHAN BROS.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.Phone: SAginaUJ 1-3202FRANK CURRANRoofing & InsulationLeak. RepairedFree Edimate.FRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.77U Luella Ave.SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 95 YearsChicago's most completeprescription slock23 N. Wabash AvenueChicago, IllinoisReal Estate and Insurance1500 East 57th Street Hyde Park 3·2525Ajax Waste Paper Co.2600·2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Waste Paper500 pounds or moreScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, ROckwell 2·6252Telephone HAymarket 1·3120E. A. AARON & BROS. Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributors 01CEDERGREEN FROZEN !=RESH flU ITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketLEIGHISGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100·1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND. VEGETABLESWE DELIVER30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGolden Dirilyte(form"'y Diri,old)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID - NOT PL.A.TBDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther 'Famous Makes of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDiriljo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, I'll.Platers, SilversmithsSpeciali,t. •• •GOLD. SILVER. R..,ODANIZESILVERWAREIt.paired, Reflni.lted, R.lacqu.r.dSWARTZ & COMPANY10 s. Wabash Ave. CEntral 6-6089-90 ChicagoLA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave •• ChicagoO,lter P'an',Boston·- N.Y. - Phil. - Syracus. - Cleveland"You Migltt A. Well Have Tit. 8.,t"CONCRETETraprock Industrial- FloorsMetallic Trucking FloorsMachine FoundationsSidewalksT'V�Dr. I.NOrmal 7-0433T. A. REHNQUIST CO.6639 So. Vernon Ave.CHICAGO 37 1945Charles E. Lindblom, PhD, associate pro­fessor of economics at Yale has come outwith a provocative thesis in his new book,"Unions and Capitalism." It is that laborunions are gradually forcing a radicalchange in the traditional American capi­talistic system by a trend toward syndical­ism, the discouragement of private in­vestment, and the weakening of the em­ployer's authority. It should be interestingreading between thesis and conclusion.Lindblom's closing remark is: "Paradox­ically, the labor movement is the onlylarge organized political force in the coun­try which might some day be the instru­ment for a vigorous and intelligent attackon the problem of union economic power."Francis W. Beare, PhD, was recentlyelected an associate in council of the So­ciety of Biblical Literature and Exegesis.Arthur' R. Koch writes from Oahu,Hawaii, that he is on the island for threeyears as a preacher with an inter-racialchurch in a sugar plantation town. He isworking with the Hawaii Board of Mis­sions. The rewards are satisfying. "Thepeople are most capable and energetic andat present are building their own churchin order to save expenses. Men give uptheir spare time to, get the project com­pleted."Theresa Weitzenhoffer, AM, is a' socialworker at Winter Hospital (MenningerClinic) Topeka, Kansas. 'Mrs. John P. Fort, Jr., is connected withthe U. S. Consulate General's office inMunich. Her husband is associated withthe U. S. Public Health Service there.Betty Lou Dieterich is in social servicework at Jamaico Plain, Boston.Jack B. Pfeiffer, AM, PhD '47, has leftthe history department of A & M Col­lege, Stillwater, Oklahoma, for Washington,D. C. where he is now' a civilian employeeof the Air Corps.Philip Glatzer, MD '48, is a resident insurgery in Boston, Mass.Charles Junior Buhrow, MD '48, is em­ployed in the' Industrial Hygiene Depart­ment, U.S.P.H., Washington, D. C.1946Elsie Mae Lewis, PhD, is professor ofhistory at Tennessee A & I State Collegein Nashville.James Leland Dack is assistant Directorof Hospital Administration in UniversityHospital, Baltimore, Maryland.Ruth D. Abrams, MBA, is with UnitedMerchants and Manufacturers, Inc., in.New York City.Robert w. Landry was graduated thissummer from the University of WisconsinLaw School.June McCormick Collins, AM, gives asher business address: Department of An­thropology, Northwestern University.Elizabeth Cline, SM, is working in childpsychiatry at the Emma Pendleton BradleyHome in Riverside, Rhode Island.Alton W. Potter, MBA, received his lawdegree from the University of Michiganlast June. He is now with the Trust De­partment of the First National Bank ofChicago in the Legal DivisionRev. Father Edward John Datig, AM,is principal of Mount Mary College inBritish West Africa. The college has thework of training native teachers. Katherine Avis Pumphrey, AM, is asso­ciated with the Social Service Division,Dep't, of Veterans' Affairs, in Ottawa, On·'tario.Dr. Bruce Robert Heinzen, MD, is con'nected with the Smoky Hill Air Force Base:Hospital in Salina, Kansas.Carlene M. Allen, SM '47, is a techni­cian at Argonne National Laboratories,She was married to John Robert RaperAugust 9, 1949.Phyllis Jean Findley was married to Wil·Iiam Maslow September, 1948.Frederick James Port, Jr., MBA, is gen­eral manager of Hein Werner Corporatienin Waukesha, Wisconsin.Charles E. Sherman, DB, is working willi:the student YMCA movement in collegesand universities located in the South.Birdsall E. Blanchard, MA, gives us ashis address for the next two years: ErnestHarmon Air Force Base, APO 864, Boxnumber 45, c/o Postmaster, New York City.Lillian Seidler, MA, is chief psychiatricsocial, worker in the Psychiatric Clinic ofCedars of Lebanon Hospital in Los Angeles.Benjamin C. Roberts, MA, is mediatorand arbitrator for the New York State­Board of mediation.Sidney I. Lezak, JD '49, and his wife,Muriel Deutsch, '47, AM '49, have movedto Portland, Oregon where Sidney is prac ..ticing law.Catherine MacLeod took her master's de.gree in nursing last June at Western Re­serve University.Charles H; Kahn, MA '49, took oII forParis after June convocation. This fall heentered the' University of Paris as an ex,change fellow from the University of Chi­cago.1947Robert Roth, PhD, returned from Indialast year and is now teaching at AugustanaCollege in Rock Island, Illinois. While iriIndia, he had an interview with Gandhishortly before he was killed and also withNehru and Sheikh Abdullah of Kashmir ..Robert J. Bailyn is studying at the Uni­versity of Michigan.Our genial former Director of AlumniEducation, Bob Nottenburg, AM, andMarilyn Corn, AM '48, were married Sep­tember 17, 1949, in East Orange, New jer­sey.Janet Lowe, SM, was recently appojntedinstructor of biology and bacteriology atthe Central Washington College of Educa­tion in Ellensburg, Washintgon.Alvarita Newman, AM, and husband,Murray A. Newman, '49, are in Honolulu.They say it's a permanent address.Christine L. Oglevee, MS '48, has beenappointed director of the Department ofNursing at the University of Mississippiin Oxford. •Roger Alan Burt, married in June, 1949,to Patricia Taggart of Lansdowne, Pa., is anaero engineer in Buffalo, New York.Christine E. Haycock, SB '48, is a medicalstudent at Long Island College of Medicine,New York.Mary Ella Hopkins (Mrs. C. J. Jones) iswith Time and Life, Inc., New York City.Bernice Charlotte Lebowich is studyingadvertising at Columbia University.John Richard Von Steenberg, AM, is viceConsul in the American Embassy, Stock­holm, Sweden.Margaret Cecilia Warne, SM, is a grad­uate student at the University.Norman Lee Macht is associated withbaseball broadcasts and statistics for theAtlanta Baseball Club in Atlanta, Georgia.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEId S. Dennis, First Lieutenant,nafd1 States Air Force, is now studyingUniteLt. Dennisin Industrial Administration ata cour�F Institute of Technology, Wright­the VS Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio.Patterson f the Distinguished Flying Cross,Holder. 0Medal with four Oak Leaf Clus­and AIris served extensively during theDenl1l . h 8 h A'ters, B-17 Gunner with t e t rrwar as aForce.I D Robbins is a minister in Ma­SatJ1�e wisconsin.zomanlej e Lawrence is a post graduatecora . aI1nursing education at Johns Hop­student mital in Baltimore.kins B�PSebren '47, is going into his third,osep he Long Island medical school.year a� tR Miner MA '47, is father of aLouIS A' nn Ca:ol, born April 9, 1949, atd ghter, .au MissourI.Fult?n'beth Nicol, MA, is doing child wel-Eluak with the New York State De­fare wo� of Social Welfare in Albany, NewpartrnenYork. dall H. Travis was married June 16,Ran Priscilla B. Koraheck of Cleveland.1949 t� n Crumb Tulleck, JD, is vice con­GO� ;'ientsin, China, or was when wesuI ad of it in late summer.lear� Whitney Born, MS '48, is a chemistJOhn B F. Goodrich Company Researchfor t e .».'11 Ohiin BrecksvI e, 10.cent�r J Andre, MS '48, is employed asa :!et�or�logist for the Sa�dia Laboratory. Albuquerque, New MeXICO.Inest H. Tilford, MA, is a parole agen tEr�he State Agricultural and Industrial���ool in New York State.Robert Gemmer, BD, spent last sum-a.in Stutgart, helping to establish amer 1• fA" B· Tan version 0 menca s oys own.Gerrnthere he and his wife were to travel!rgrnover Europe as unofficial ambassadors� od will." The Holy Land at Christ-o gOthen India, Burma, China, Japan, andmas, h ..h Philippines were next on t e rtinerarv,t ;e h specific stopovers scheduled for allWJt rnission stations of the Disciples of�;rist. San Francisco b.y March of 1950Ill be the end of the Ime.Waomer Vasels was married to EugeniaBbokides November 12, 1949, in Davenport,Iowa.Edward West Burgess, MA, Foreign Serv­ice Officer, Department of State, has l>e�ntr�nsferred from Damascus to Alexandriaas Vice Consul.Albert G. Ballert, PhD, is chief of re­search for the Michigan Departme�t ofEconomic Development. He was previouslya member of the geography staff at U.C.L.A. Kenneth George Scheid, MBA, is acandidate for a doctorate in economics atM.LT.Joseph Francis Reilly, Jr., PhD, is aninstructor in pharmacology at Cornell Uni­versity Medical College in New York City.His wife is an "alumni" too-joan Cowie�� ,Herbert S. Appleman, MS, is a meteor­ologist in Washington, D. C.Inez McCabe, MA, is a medical socialworker for the American Red Cross sta­tioned at the Naval Hospital, VallejoCalifornia.. 'MaI�em L. Ore, MA, is a professor ofeducation at State Teachers College, Eliza­beth City, North Carolina.Vasile Mihai Ratiu received his master'sdegree from Indiana University last June.Howard Randall Stanton is selling news­paper advertising and attending the Uni­versity of California at Los Angeles.Rochelle Bienenfeld was married April7 to Hayes Alan Bernstein '47 in LosAngeles, California. The bride is a grad-uate of UCLA..Eugene F. Trombley, MA, who has beenan assistant instructor at the Universityfor the past two years, has been appointedinstructor in mathematics at Illinois Insti­tute of Technology.Thomas W. Herringshaw dropped in atAlumni House in August to see the newalumni lounge he had heard so muchabout. He registered on the eighth pageof names representing alumni who visitedthe lounge this past summer.Joseph Francis Reilly, PhD, is an in­structor in pharmacology at Cornell Uni­versity Medical College, New York. Hiswife is Joan'M. Cowie, PhB '46, SB '47.Herman Louis Sinaika is a student at theUniversity.1948Captain Loyd G. Starrett, USAF, SM, isnow serving as a research meteorologist forthe global atmospheric observative arm ofthe Military Air Transport in Washing­ton, D. C.Anne B. Underhill, PhD, is with theDominion Astrophysical Observatory atVictoria, B. C.George Calvin Rogers, Jr., AM, ofCharleston, South Carolina, is stUdyingEnglish History at the University of Edin­burgh on a Rotary Foundation Fellowship.Grafton M. Thomas, DB, has a pastor­ate at two rural villages in northern Ohio.He comments, "It's an education for per­sons with an urban background to discoverthe values of rural living."Sanford Ferdinand Colbert, SM, is study­ing at the Universite de Nancy, Nancy,France.Dan H. Cooper, MA, PhD '46, has beenappointed associate professor in the collegeof education at the State University ofIowa. In 1942-46 Cooper was researchassistant in education at the University ofChicago. Since 1946 he had been assistantprofessor of education at the University.Dorothy J. Dodd writes from Dixon, Illi­nois, of an enjoyable trip to the Americaslast year. It started in the summer of 1948with a cruise down the east coast of SouthAmerica, paused for a year of teaching atCampo Alegre School of Caracas with holi­day interruptions for trips into the interior,Christmas vacation in Columbia and an­other excursion into Ecuador, and endedwith several stopoffs in Central America. 31TREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Dired Fadory DealerforCH RYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMidway 3-4200AI.oGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete Automohile Repair.Body. Paint. Simonize. Washand Greasing DepartmentsHYLAND A. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrchester 3-1579BLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's HotelIn theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering; Graceful Living to Uni.versity and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALLTelephonePLaza 2·33135748Blackstone Av ••Verna P. Werner, DirectorTELEVISIONDrop in and see II programRADIOSFrom consoles to portablesRadio-TV ServiceAt home or shopELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators RangesWashers BlanketsS'ORrlNG GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSPopular-SymphoniesFine collection for childrenHERI1J1IAI/\l/S935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Robert Gaertner, '34 Julian Tishler. '3332 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJoseph Thomas Klapper, MA '38, wasmarried to Hope Evalyn Lunin July 15,1949, at Flushing, Long Island. Klapperhas been appointed acting assistant profes­sor of sociology at the University ofWashington in Seattle. An article by him,entitled "Mass Media and the Engineeringof Consent," appeared in the autumn 1948issue of the American Scholar and his"'Trial by Newspaper" was printed in theScientific American last February. A bro­chure of his authorship will appear shortlyunder the title of "The Effects of MassMedia" under the sponsorship of the Bureauof Applied Social Research, Columbia Uni­versity.Sharvy G. Umbeck, MA, PhD '40, for­merly dean at William and Mary, is nowpresident of Knox College in Galesburg.Ellis Kohs, MA, now associate professor ofmusic at the College of the Pacific, Stock­ton, California, has had several of his com­positions included in last year's concertfare-Shur Dvorine played his piano sonatain Town Hall in January and the previousmonth Samuel Dushkin selected his vio­line sonatine for his Carnegie Hall ap­pearance.Lois E. Leavitt, MA (Mrs. O. L. Splinter),writes that she resigned her position as as­sistant professor of physics at NebraskaWesleyan last February. Reason?-ShirleyEarlene, born May 25, 1949.Henry Mick, MA, of Windsor, Ontario,had a second article published in THEMODERN CHURCHMAN, Oxford Uni­versity. Its title-"Prayer in the Religionof Jesus." THE UNITED CHURCH OB­SERVER, Toronto, recently published hisarticle, "The Quest for Peace."Edith M. Stansberry has been dischargedfrom the WAC after five and a half yearsof service, two of which were spent inGermany. She is now teaching again in theBellwood School System in Illinois.Elisabeth A. Borden Morrissey says thatwith son, Blair, in kindergarten she is freeto do part-time family case work with theNeighborhood Workers' Association in To­ronto.George O. Braden is superintendent ofreligious education, Old First PresbyterianChurch in San Francisco, fire insuranceunderwriter for the Fireman's Fund Groupin the same city, and sophomore in theGolden Gate Law School. For his sparetime? Wing personnel officer, reserve wingof Hamilton Field, United States Air Force.Louise Margaret Quinn, MA, is a psychia­tric social worker at Family Service Bureau,Oakland, California.Leonelle M. Hutton, MA, is senior li­brarian in the Ascot Branch of the LosAngeles Public Library.Cecil G. Frantz, MA, has been appointed,administrator of the Monmouth (Ill.) CityHospital.Melvin Seiden, MA, and Jacqueline SmithSeiden, MA, announce the birth of a son,John Reed Seiden, born July 21, 1949.BOYDSTON BROS .• INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.OAkland 4-0492 Ruth C. Carlson, MA, is .. certainl y en­joying the work as director of the FortDodge Branch of the Lutheran WelfareSociety of Iowa."Donald Herdeck, MA, and wife, Shirley,arrived in Paris last April and were soonthe lucky inhabitants of a beautiful apart­ment with a big sun porch open to thelovely French countryside in Seine. Theyare both enrolled at the University of Parisand plan to stay on the continent forseveral years while Don finishes writinga novel. Last summer they attended acourse in Shakespeare given at Stratford­on-Avon. Shirley writes her father, JoseWard Hoover '07, JD '09, that Don hasdeveloped 35 m.p.h. speed on his bikeon the French highways, with his better­half not far behind him.Mace de Buy Wenniger is working asassistant to the Director, MetropolitanHousing and Planning Council in Chicago.James Haruso Ashida, MA, is an eco­nomic analyst in the State Department inWashington.Paul E. Eiserer, PhD '48, and AdelaideAndresen Eiserer, '36 announced I he ar­rival of Susan Elizabeth on April l�, 191:9,to join Heidi, now five. Dr. Eiserer is as­sistant professor of education and psy­chology at the University of Oregon. Re­cently he was elected president of theMental Health Association in Lane County.He is also consultant in clinical psychologyto the Veterans Administration. Adelaideis continuing food writing on a free lancebasis.H. William Hey is working as a reporterfor the Southtown Economist, "the world'sbest community newspaper, here in Chi­cago."Greta Goldberg '48, and Robert Lee Wi­ley, '47, MBA '48, have returned to settle inChicago after a wedding trip to Nassau,Jamaica and Cuba. Greta is tutoring Eng­lish to students of the University HighSchool (of which she is also an alumna)and Bob is working as controller of .heBasement Stores in Mandel Brothers.Frank J. Estvan, PhD, is assistant pro­fessor of elementary education at the Schoolof Education, University of Southern Cali­fornia.Edwin (Joe) Fullmer, MBA, who hasbeen car distributor for Studebaker in theMinneapolis district office, has been trans­ferred to Bloomington (1008 E. Grove St.)Illinois and made district sales manager inthe Chicago branch working out of thatcity.Ralph D. Spencer, MBA, was marriedJune 25, 1949, to Beverly Podlesney inPortageville, New York. Ralph is withthe American Fore Insurance Group inChicago.Christine E. Haycock is now studyingmedicine at Long Island College of Medi­cine. She was New Jersey Open FencingChampion for 1949.Martin F. Sturman is a sophomore atSyracuse University College of Medicine.Elizabeth C. Kleinhans, MS, has beenappointed instructor of mathematics atIllinois Institute of Technology.Susanne Saxl, MBA, is a research assistan tin the Market Research Department ofthe Cruttenden and Eger advertising agencyin Chicago. •Jessica House and Markham T. McEnroe'47, MA '48, were married September 2,1949, in Saugatuck, Michigan.Nancy Goodman, MA '48, is an associateeditor of GOOD HOUSEKEEPING. 1949Donald Lieffer, AM, writes from theCrownpoint School, Crownpoint, "I amin the midst of some spectacular NewMexico scenery, learning by very hard elC..perience what it is like to teach a filllh.grade class in a Navaho boarding schoGl"L. Ross Chism, AM, is a social worker £orthe Family Service Association in Clc\1e.land, Ohio. He was married on June la,1949, to Joan M. Beckman, AB '46, AM '49.Virginia Elizabeth Johnson is health edu,cation director for Standard Oil Companyin Avenal, Cal.John E. Hurney is a classification ana1rStfor the Great Lakes Division, Corps ofEngineers in Chicago.DEATHSWilliam Lewis Grant, MD (Rush) '93,died March 30, 1948.Marshall Clark Keith, MD '96, died inCheyenne July 20, 1948. He had been Wyo.ming State Health Officer.A memorial service was held for the.late Dr. Wallace Walter Atwood, '97, PhI)'03, at Clark University, Nov. 6.Roland J. Dunn, MD (Rush) '97, diedMarch 10, 1949, in Chicago.Robert E. Graves, '98, MD '07, died July2, 1949.Arthur M. Butzon, MD (Rush) '98, diedNovember 28, 1948, in Chicago.Alice Haight Dains '98, died last July.Interment was in Oak Hill Cemetery, Law.renee, Kansas.Jose Kabigting Santos, '21, SM '22, diedAugust 6, 1949 of a heart condition inManila. He had been associated with theDepartment of Botany at the University ofthe Philippines.Edna S. Green, '24, of Merrill, Wiscon.sin, died December 9, 1948.Clara Weltring '2�, died January 19, 1949.Wm. joseph Drake, '26, died April 1,1949, in California.Howard R. Ogburn, '34, son of'Sociol_ogy Professor William F. Ogburn, in Ran.goon on October 10, 1949.John Milton Sellers, PhD '37, died June18, 1949. He was living in New Castle, Ind.Anna M�y. Huling, '�2 (Mrs. F. J. Klapp),died at Billings Hospital October 8, 1949.She was the daughter of Col. John DulingJr., '17, and Mrs. Huling (Helen L. MOffet''20; the niece of Anna E. Moffet, '13 (Mr;.Bruce W. Jarvis); and the wife of F. J.Klapp, MBA '47, of LaGrange, Illinois.She is also survived by three children, John,Charlotte and Joseph. Anna May and theBillings staff won over polio but lost topneumonia.CHIPS INSTilLS SELF CONFIDENCEINSPIRES SELF tEXPRESSIONAND GENEROSITYCHIPS LETTERS913 S. Third StreetBozeman, MontanaChips' Assistant - Jessie Brown Marsh, '16CHIPS IS A CHIPMUNKwho writes monthly letters tochildren around the worldLet Chips write a sample letter :to your child. If you and your child like Iit, send$2.75 for year subscriptionAn extra 25c will include all children from4 to 8 at same address.THE The wallet. That had always been ast�nding j?ke. between them-the way�e d pack It with cards and papers untilIt would hardly fold, and then she'd haveto make him sit down and go through it ...And then there was the time he'd takenher out to dinner on their anniversaryand when he got up to pay the check thewallet was home and . . . There were somany memories in that wallet.As she was day-dreaming - a li ttlemisty-eyed-she heard the front dooropen and close."Tha t you, Jim?" she called."Yes, Mother." Jim came into theroom. He was about twelve. He looked atthe table. "They're Dad's things?"Anne nodded. "Would you like to havethem?""Yes, Mother. Very much.""Will you take good care of them if Ilet you have them now?""You bed" he said. He looked at thewatch, the knife, and then, with a boy'scuriosity, opened the wallet.Inside it, tucked away in a small com­partment, he found some business cardsand papers.One card read: "Robert Martin, Agent,New York Life Insurance Company.""Mother, isn't Mr. Martin the manwho came to see us after Dad died?""Yes," she said. "He was a good friendWALLET-ONE BY ONE Anne Carson touched thearticles that lay on the table beforeher. The wrist watch she had given himthat last Christmas, five-or was it six?_ years ago .. The cuff links �e had tr�a­sured since his college days. HIS fraternitypin. His wallet. of your father's." She remembered thetimes Mr. Martin had stopped at thehouse ... the hours he had spen t wi th herhusband talking about life insurance ...the letter he had sent, after little Jim wasborn, suggesting some additional insur­ance. She remembered how her husbandhad joked about it at the time-s�id hewas getting pretty valuable. Yet It wasthat extra insurance that would make allthe difference, now, to Jim's schoolingand his whole future ..."Yes Jim" she said, "Mr. Martin wasa very �ood friend of ours."NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY51 Madison Avenue, New York 10, N. Y.FEW OCCUPATIONS offer a man so much inthe way of personal reward as life under­writing. Many New York Life agents arebuilding very substantial futures for them­selves by helping others plan ahead fortheirs. If you would like to know moreabout a life insurance career, talk it overwith the New York Life manager in yourcommunity-or write to the Home Officeat the address above.Naturally. names used in this story are fictitiousIn safe hands ... even at 60 below!Do YOU REMEMBER when winter meant storing the familycar till spring? Not so many years ago, a car-owner's fearof an ice-shattered motor was a dread reality ... if he didn'tdrain his radiator and store his car once cold weather hit!What :was needed-acutely-was an automobile anti-freezethat would prove always dependable yet economical. Onethat would hold up under any operating temperature. Thatwouldn't foam and boil away. That would resist rust andcorrosion to the nth degree.That's where Union Carbide research entered the picture.The result? "Prestone" anti-freeze. Since then this product-the first all-winter anti-freeze-has assured millions uponmillions of motorists of ever-improved driving performance, with assured safety ... throughout the bitterest weather.This is but one example of the way the people of UnionCarbide are helping to better our .daily living. And UCCstands ready to help solve other problems ... whereverbetter materials and processes are needed.F R E E: If you uoultl like to know more aboutmany of the things you use erery day, send forthe illustrated booklet, "Products and Processes."It tells how science and industry use VCC'sAlloys, Chemicals, Carbons, Gases and Plastics.Write for free Booklet 1.UNION CARBIDE.s.s:» CARBON CORPORATION30 EAST 42N.D STREET � NEW YORK 17, N. Y.--------------- Trade-marked Products of Divisions and Units include ---------------PRESTONE and TREK Anti-Freezes • NATIONAL Carbons • EVEREADY Flashlights and Batteries • ACHESON ElectrodesSYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS • PREST-O-LITE Acetylene • LINDE Oxygen • PYROFAX GasBAKELITE, KRENE, VINYON, and VINYLITE Plastics • ELECTROMET Alloys and Metals • HAYNES STELLITE Alloys