JAMES M. BANGHART. SAN FRANCISCOThings broke fast in 1940. In June I was graduated from Harvardwith a degree in Physics. By October I was a Meteorological Cadet inthe Air Force. Then, after five and a half years in the service, Iwas a civilian again. Cfe. � � a__.. �C. �. - -If;-t!.e.)That brought me to a career c.r-o s s r-oad , Physics was too far in thepast to return to, and meteorology didn't appeal to me as a lifetime job.So I decided to draw up a description 'of the career I'd !:�allylike. Some sort of selling was indicated, because I don't like paperwork, but do like to �ove around and talk tQ people. I wanted free­dom of action--a business of my own that didn't require a lot ofcapital. I didn't want a ceiling on my earnings, nor a slow climbthrough a seniority system. And, after seeing the inhumanities ofwar, I felt that if, in addition, I could be of some public service,the job would be just about perfect.Life insurance, it turned out, was the only field that fitte� allthese specifications. And that discovery brought me to the question,"Which company?". I began my search by calling on New Eng Land Mutual.Six weeks and eight companies later, after exhausti�e comparisons, I wasback at New England Mutual, taking an intensive training course. Afterthat, I started out on my own in San Francisco, the city of my choice.We,/)dd �.#300/dO� �����tfiur�-I(�e)Today, two and a half years later, I know I chose the right careerand the right company. I'm still getting the finest training available,and I'm at home in "The best paid profession in the world." My incomeis in exact proportion to the time and effort I put in. And bestof all, I enjoy the deep satisfaction of knowing I'm helping others-­helping them achieve that vitally important goal, financial s3curity.GRADUATES of our Home Office training courses,practically all of them new to the life insurancebusiness, are selling at a rate which produces aver­age first-year incomes of $3600. The total yearlyincome on such sales, with renewal commissionsadded, will average $ 5700.Facts such as these helped James Banghart solvehis career problem. If you'd like to know more,write Mr. H. C. Chaney, Director of Agencies,New England Mutual Life Insurance Company,501 Boylston Street, Boston 17, Massachusetts. These Univ. of Chicago men are New England Mutualrepresentatives:Harry Benner, 'I I, ChicagoGeorge Marselas, '34, ChicagoGet in touch with them for expert counsel on your life insurance pro�ram.EDITOR'SMEMO PADMonstrous MontageFrom the December issue of TOWERTOPICS Bernadotte E. Schmitt of Wash­ington, D. C., clipped the heading from theNew Testament story on page 2; pasted itunder the picture of the new Administra­tion Building on page .. 1, and mailed toAlumni House without comment.We doubt if anything would be gainedby sending him the lead article in theJanuary MAGAZINE on "Tradition andProgressive Design" by Maunoury, Frenchauthority on Gothic architecture.Club meetingsThe Denver Club, under the direction ofHarold H. Schlabach, '08, has a luncheonthe third Monday of each month at theDaniels & Fisher tea room.A recent guest was President Ernest C.Colwell, who was in the city to address anall-Denver meeting on the Great Booksmovement. At the luncheon, the followingday, more than fifty alumni enjoyed a visitwi th the Presiden t. .The Gary Club, E. M. Kratz, '16, presi­dent, had a dinner for alumni duringAmerican Education Week. Dorothy Dun­away, University entrance counselor, spokeand Walter J. Atkins represented alumniheadquarters.The dinner preceded an all-Gary meetingat 8 P. M. at which four members of theChicago faculty presented a round table onthe subject "Strengthening the Foundationsof Freedom." Members of. the local clubhelped in the plans and arrangements forthe evening meeting as well as the dinner.The Washington Club, Major WaldemarA. SoU, '35, JD '37, president, is one ofour most active clubs. Their last meetingwas January 6, 1949, when they had astheir guest Dean Wilbur G. Katz of theLaw School. He discussed the- World Con­stitution.Man working-DangerCapable, hard-working Clarence H. Faust,AM '29, PhD '35, is going to do too goodan administrative job one of these days andwind up as president of a university. Actu­ally, he has a foot in the trap now.At Chicago, Clarence was not only .oneof our best administrators (three differentdeanships) but best teachers. In 1937 hewas awarded one of the three thousand­dollar prizes for excellence in undergrad­uate teaching.He went to Stanford in 1947 as directorof libraries, moved on to the dean of thehumanities and sciences, and now is actingpresident of Stanford until July I whenWallace Sterling takes office.Don't say we didn't warn you, Clarence. Volume 41 Number 5THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOMAGAZINEFebruary, 1949HOWARD W. MORTEditorPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONVALERIE CRAIGClass News EditorVIVIAN A. ROGERSARTH UR R. DAYAssociate EditorsWILUAM V. MORGENSTERN JEANNETIE LOWREYContributing EditorsEDITOR'S MEMO PAD .:EDUCATION FOR DEMOCRACY, Jacob Van Staaveren - FrontispieceSAFER THAN CROSSING THE STREET-LYING-IN REPORTS 3CURRICULI-CURRICULUM, Joseph B. Harrison 5WHAT HAPPENED TO THE' POLLS? Clyde W. Hart and GordonM. Connelly - 6IN T HIS ISS U EBEHIND THE LINES IN No MAN'S LAND, Vivian A. RogersNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES, jeannette Lowrey -MIDWAY MISCELLANYTHE RETIRING PROFESS'&R AND THE '47 DODGE -WISCONSIN REUNION -NEWS OF THE CLASSES -CALENDARBase-ball bonenzeThe base-ball team had hoped andplanned for a spring trip south this year.But guarantees were slim and the budgetanemic-no trip.Then came Christmas and Charles K. Me­Neil, '25. Mac had always been interestedin sports and when he learned that SpringVacation would be just another spring va­cation for the base-ball team he sent a pres­en t in the form of a check in four figures.Enthusiastically the team and coaches in­vited McNeil to go along-which he indi­cated he might do.Charl!es A. EllwoodA former student of the late Charles A.Ellwood, PhD '99, of Duke University, iswriting a biography of Dr. Ellwood. Wehave been asked to request anecdotes orreminiscences from . any of the doctor'sfriends, which might be Incorporated in thebiography. Send your material to John E.Owen, 466 W. 35th Street, Los Angeles 7.1 -10- 14- 16- 17- 22- 23.- 24COVER: Nap-time in one of the lyi1ng-in nurseries.Published by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from Octoberthru June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscrip­tion price $3.00. Single copies 35 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, atthe Post Office at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The American AlumniCouncil, B. A. Ross, advertising director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y., is theofficial advertising agency of the Magazme.LETTERSConfusion correctedI just received the January issueand read it with the usual interest; in fact,with even more interest than usual, for inthe News of the Classes I found that JaneKesner Morris and I are again being con­fused.Much as I would like to have writtenWOMEN, INC. I was not the author.The same confusion existed at the timeshe worked at the Press and I in the Of­fice of Admissions, and later I undeservedlyreceived congratulations when the bookwas published.Life in the Alumni Placement Bureauat M.I.T. continues to be busy but I amoften nostalgic for the U. of C. and hopeto get back for the Sing next spring .....Jane Morris Becker, '40Brookline, Mass.Our apologies to both Janes. The authorof Women, Inc. was Jane Kesner, '32 (Mrs.Ted Morris), of Los Angeles,EIGHTH graders (above) voting in a student bodymeeting in Kusakabe, The girl has been electedtemporary chairman; the boy at the board is tabulatingvotes. Such meetings provide opportunity for the ex­ercise of leadership and practice of simple democraticprocedures.JAPAN -1948 SCHOOL children reading to the class from their newtextbooks (below). Text revision was a major prob­lem in democratizing education; in such courses as his­tory and geography distortion was so flagrant that bookshad to he rewritten.Education for Democracy'Back on the Midway again aHer a five year absence, Jacob Van Staaverenbrought with him these pictures from a two-year tour of duty as chief of the CivilInformation and Education Section of the Yamanashl Military Government Team.He holds an AM in history .('43). is now working on a PhD in the same field.AGROUP of mothers and young people (below) dis­cussing "democratically" the problem of arrangedmarriages. This was actually a demonstration staged atthe Otsuki Conference to illustrate the procedures in­volved in holding a democratic meeting.OLDSTERS listening to a panel discussion (above)on the purpose of an adult education program,part of the adult education conference held in Otsuki.2Chicago's Lying-in reports onthe year's advances in obstetricsSAFER THAN CROSSING THE STREETCHICAGO Lying-in Hospital performed 4,006 de­liveries during the year ending July 1, 1948. Therewere no maternal deaths. Chicago Lying-in Hos­pital had its last fatal case of true puerperal sepsis, orchildbed fever, in September, 1940.Chicago Lying-in Hospital had as many patientswith the symptoms which ordinarily lead to eclampsia( convulsions) in the year ending July 1, 1948, as in thepast, an average of 8 per cent, hut it had no patientswith eclampsia. Yet throughout the United States asa whole this dread complication of pregnancy con­tinues to kill as many women as it did ten years ago.Chicago Lying-in Hospital has delivered 51,975babies since 1931. Of these, 2,729· were by. caesariansection. Lying-in's last death by caesarian section wasin 1942. Its caesarian mortality rate-ll deaths in 2,729sections in seventeen years-is 0�4. This is among thelowest caesarian mortality rates in the world.Achievement of these four records has at times beena struggle, hut they are proof of what now is a common­place utterance at the maternity hospital founded fifty­three years ago by Dr. Joseph Bolivar De Lee: "It ismore dangerous by far to C!lOSS a street in modern trafficthan it is to have a baby at Chicago Lying-in."Lying-in's record is in part the result of modern pre­natal care, modern obstetrical methods, improved surgery,improved drugs, and asepsis. It is equally the result ofthe unremitting research into the problems of childbirthwhich goes on year after year at this great research andeducational institution.' The purpose of this report is toacquaint Lying-in's friends and alumni, both medicaland lay, with the steps being taken to maintain its hightradition of world leadership in solving these problems.In 1945, at the time of its fiftieth anniversary drivefor funds, Lying-in set as its dual goal the conquest ofpuerperal fe�er (the cause of which was thought to beseptic techniques, the cure of. which was unknown) andeclampsia (the cure for which was known but the causeunknown) . These, together with' hemorrhage, were thethree great causes of maternal death. Of the three, puer­peral or childbed fever was the largest single cause.The Scourge of ChildbirthLying-in reports with pride that it has eliminated deathfrom childbed fever. The year 1947 saw the closing, as an isolation wing, of the Mother's Aid Pavilion, a wingof the hospital constructed for the purpose of segregat­ing women with puerperal fever. Many factors havecontributed to this, a major one being the discovery ofthe sulfonamides, penicillin and streptomycin, anotherbeing the sharp aseptic precautions with which physicianshave policed themselves. Even more far-reaching, per­haps, have been the findings made at Lying-in by Dr.H. Close Hesseltine and associates.The Hesseltine studies have shown that the patientwith a common cold is more dangerous by far, from thestandpoint of contagion; than the woman with fever fromother causes after delivery. The cold cannot yet be con­trolled: puerperal infections can.These studies have shown that the. organisms causingpuerperal fever in a clean maternity hospital-that is,.those growing in the vaginas of normal women in theabsence of oxygen-s-can. be controlled by proper .tech­niques. Far from being hand-borne, as believed sincethe findings of Holmes and Semmelweiss a century ago,bacteria are shown by the Lying-in studies to be presentin the normal womb from one month to forty-five daysafter delivery,Under certain conditions, notably serious anemia and/or blood loss and long labor, these bacteria may causetrouble. Lying-in seeks to correct the anemic condition ..I t reduces long labor by altering labor in such a manneras to minimize infection.Among the collateral findings of this study are the dis­coveries that breast abscess can be almost completelyeliminated if the patient reports it within twelve totwenty-four hours and receives sufficient penicillin; andthat a condition in the mother known as vaginal mycosis,which in her newborn baby causes oral thrush, a grayspottiness of the mouth, can be cured with a materialfrom the castor-oil bean. Of the 3,500,000 women whowill have babies this year, more than 25 per cent, or870,000, are carriers of this germ. A considerable num­ber, possibly 87,000, will develop the condition duringpregnancy.Yet progress has brought embarrassments. Lying-inis primarily a research and teaching institution, but itstechniques and therapies in the field of infections of thewomb have left the hospital so short of any infectionsto work on that research now is handicapped. The hos-34 THE UNIVERSITYpi tal consequently has directed fervent pleas to the med­ical profession and other Chicago hospitals to send it allavailable cases of childbed fever, regardless of the pa­tient's ability to pay.The Unknown CauseEclampsia is a fearful thing. Annually it exacts thelife of thirteen out of every 100 pregnant women witheclampsia in the United States. It starts seemingly in­nocently. Certain women late in pregnancy gain exces­sively. Some go on and get high blood pressure andalbumen in the urine. From these some go to repeatedconvulsions and coma and, far too often, death.Its cause is as elusive as its path is insidious. Can toolittle protein be the cause? Too much protein? Toomuch salt? Too much water? Diet as a whole? Cli­mate?Until twenty years ago the medical profession placedthe blame on protein. Therefore, it was contendedpregnant women should eat only a limited amount ofprotein. Then the cycle reversed: a high protein diet,it was contended, would prevent- eclampsia. Thereuponpregnant women were urged to eat as much protein aspossible.Hoping to ascertain what truth, if any, lay in thesetheories, Lying-in embarked in September, 1946, on oneof the most extensive studies ever undertaken of eclampsiaand the symptoms foreshadowing it. The study, con­ducted under the supervision of Dr. William J. Dieck­mann, left no facet untouched. It included a two-yearstudy of dietary care centered on protein, studies onthe retention of salt and water, and the construction ofa climate room in which, by controlling humidity andtemperature, the staff hopes to learn whether there is aconnection between sudden changes of climate and theonset of convulsions and coma. The climate room isalmost completed; evaluation of the studies of salt andwater retention has been handicapped by an insufficientnumber of chemists; the protein study, completed in Sep­tember, is being fully analyzed.One result of the protein study is dear, however. In itLying-in actually had meat to give away, due to the gen­erous co-operation of the National Live Stock and MeatBoard. The hospital found to its astonishment and con­sternation that, even when meat is given away, with theprice of meat what it is today, pregnant women will noteat it in great quantity.Nonetheless, Lying-in has found that if the toxemiasof pregnancy which lead to eclampsia can be detectedsoon enough, they can be controlled and eclampsia canbe prevented. The problem has been how to detect theseat a sufficiently early stage. For some time science hassought a specific chemical, or biologic fraction, or reac­tion which by its presence, absence, or concentrationwould say, "Watch out. Here we go." Dr. Lester D.Odell, working under Dr. Dieckmann, thought the clue·OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmight be in an enzyme, specifically the enzyme beta-glu­coronidrase.F or every chemical reaction in the human body therehas to be an enzyme. This is illustrated by egg white.To break it down outside the body, one must add hydro­chloric acid and boil it for one and a half hours. Theenzymes in the human stomach do this in a few minutesat normal 'body temperature. The same procedure iscarried out in. every metabolic process of the body.Beta-glucoronidrase was selected for the Odell s'tudYbecause it is related to the metabolism of estrogen, oneof the two hormones high in pregnancy. Working withit, Dr. Odell effected the most complete work ever madeon an enzyme in pregnancy, making 4,000 determina­tions. He studied the blood concentration of the enzyme,the blood of the baby, the amniotic fluid, the endo­metrium, the urine, and finally the vaginal secretionsfrom cancerous patients, beta-glucoronidrase being ex­tremely high in cancer tissue.His findings reveal that during normal pregnancy theblood concentration or activity of the enzyme increasesabout three and a half times, but that in most patientswith pre-eclampsia the activity is higher than in normalpregnancy and that some cases with pre-eclampsia canbe spotted by that activity. Moreover, the increased. ac­tivity of the enzyme may develop several weeks in ad­vance of the pre-eclampsia, so that its onset can be pre­dicted by this method.The enzyme now is being applied to cancer in the hopethat a simple color method of perceiving cancer - onewhich would flash an immediate warning s-ignal- maybe found.The Great PainAnother major study completed at Lying-in this yearhas been that on spinal anesthesia in obstetrics.For untold centuries women in labor accepted as theirdue the curse of Genesis: "In sorrow shalt thou bringforth children." The Romans called it Poena Magna,the great pain. Not until Queen Victoria accepted whiffsof chloroform to ease the delivery of her eighth child didthe public begin to approve' the use of anesthetics inchildbirth.Regional or spinal anesthesia, the most effective meansof relieving pain in childbirth, has long been the mostcontroversial. The late Dr. De Lee was one of its chiefopponents, contending that, although the child benefited,it "killed the mother" and had "absolutely no place inobstetrics." Its virtue was that it numbed only a spewcific portion of the body, leaving the patient conscious,but prior to 1940 any of the spinal anesthetics was Con­sidered dangerous.Of the many regional methods the most publicized isthat called continuous caudal analgesia. Lying-in nowhas discarded this entirely, superseding it, on the basisof extensive studies by Dr. George Andros, with whatis known as "saddle-block" anesthesia. This derives its!(Concluded on Page 19)CURRICULI � CURRICULUMThe cards are slickand shuffle nicelyIT is a wel!-esta. blished bureaucratic tradition, when­ever yet another problem arises, to appoint yet an­other committee; and far be it from one who isslightly tinged with bureaucracy and wholly c�rsed withcommittees, to be cavalier about these terms and thisprocedure. But I will admit that I became recurrentlyuneasy about the use of analogous methods in what couldbe the art but too frequently remains the business ofeducation.For in education the recourse is as often to a newcourse as to a new committee. In American universitiesan accepted way of stopping up an old gap or meetinga new need is the adding of a new course. If studentssomehow fail to understand and love diatoms or theRenaissance we add courses in diatoms and the Renais­sance. If they are afraid of marriage we give them acourse in the subject. We give them courses in sales­manship, in atomic fission, in basket-weaving, .in racerelations, in war, in Milton's minor poems, in peace, insex. Naturally we expect them to discriminate betweenbasket-weaving and atomic fission, between race rela­tions and sex relations; but also and somehow we' expectthem to put all these odds and ends together in somekind of philosophical relation, and we are surprisedand hurt when they don't.For we feel sure it is all their fault, since we haveprovided them with the means by which to do it. inthe registrar's office atoms and races, baskets and salesall stand snugly together in neat files ticketed as to kind,measured as to quantity, and graded as to quality. Fivecredits in baskets of grade A stand between five credits inatoms of grade C and five credits in Milton which maybe Incomplete, but which are certain to become Incom­plete Removed in time not to spoil the deck. The cardsin this deck are slick and shuffle nicely. The order isnot important, especially when -the deck is complete,for it contains all the cards in the requisite suits.Perhaps we should not be surprised if the cards some­times- yield a poor hand, for the only way we could pre­vent that would be to stack the deck. And sometimeswe. do' stack it. We get a philosophical card and anhistorical card and a literary card all into one hand andcall it Humanities or we get a race relations card anda labor problems card and a life insurance card into an­other and call it Social Science. Innumerable combina­tions are possible, for a deck' contains a little of every­thing.The theory involved is that every little bit added towhat you've got makes just a little bit more. Literature By Joseph B. Harrisonisn't anything without philosophy; so we add Philosophy,1. Philosophy isn't anything without science; so we addPhysics, 1. Science isn't anything without math; so weadd Mathematics, 1. But none of all this is anythingwithout correlations; so we add General Studies 154.We add but we never subtract. Once it's on a gradecard it's ineradicably in the mind. Whoever has takenEnglish I can write; whoever has taken Logic can think;whoever has taken salesmanship can sell. Especially ifone makes Phi Beta Kapa; no one makes Phi Beta Kappawithout being able to do almost everything awfully well.Phi Betes, as we all know, are especially good at think­ing. They are High Brows. I know a Phi Bete who ispouring gasoline at a filling station and he pours itawfully well. He thinks a lot, too, with the result thathe generally gets my tank filled with High Octane attwo cents a gallon more before I think to stop him. Idon't know just what use he makes of his five hours inmath or his ten hours in. modern languages, but he's athinker all right. I know he uses math and languagesbecause they are, on his grade transcript.It's a long, weary road, accumulating all those credits,especially at 2.0 or above. There seems to be some spe­cial magic about 2.0. Above 2.0 is culture, below it isprobation. (3.5, of course, is Phi Beta Kappa.) Andone nice feature is that the high points will balance offthe low ones. The important thing to to strike 'a good.average. If you strike a good average you've got cul­ture, even if you have to drag some of it up out of thedepths. You may have forgotten what it is, but you'vegot it. It's on the record. And grades-some kind ofgrades-are important. They prove that you can lasta whole quarter. Anyone who can last a whole quarterhas done enough. What did he last in? Ask the registrar.[A-4.0 B=3.0 G=2.0 D=1.0]I once had a student whom I was coaching in con-ference. I was helping him fill in his .gaps. He hadread some things, he couldn't quite remember what; butthere was a lot he hadn't read, too. So one day we gotto Hamlet. "Have you read Hamlet?" I asked him. "Ham­let?" he answered. "Hamlet? No-o-o, I haven't readHamlet." "Well, read it for next week," I said. Thenext week he came back all aglow. "Hamlet! Why ofcourse I had read Hamlet. As a matter of fact, I taughtHamlet in high school!"In the light of Chancellor Hutchins' oft repeated warningthat we are not. an adding-machine degree-granting institution�he following article, reprinted by permission from a receniIssue of "The Washington Alumnus" (University of Washing­ton), will surely be enjoyed by our readers.Joseph' B. Harrison,. for m.any years Professor of English Lit­erature at the University of Washington, is one of the mostpopular professors on the Seattle campus. He was a first RhodesScholar in 1910,. is president. of the University Senate, and isloved by generations of Washmgton alumni who call him affec-'tionately, "Jo." ,(Continued on Page 1�)-5WHAT HAPPENEDTO THE POLLS?By CLYDE W. HART, Director, and GORDON' M. CONNELLY,Speclal Representative, National Opinion Research Center.The I 48 fiasco andthe forecasting ifutureN the early morning hours of November 3, ElmoRoper remarked disconsolately to a national radio au­dienoe, "I couldn't have been more wrong". Not onlyhad he forecast the election of Dewey, but the pollingdata upon which his forecast was based gave Dewey thevictory by a margin of popular votes that was more thanthree times as large as Truman's actual plurality. Overother networks, George Gallup and Archibald Crossleywere making similar statements. All three national pre­election polls had gone wrong, and all the state and localpolls, with one partial exception, had failed to catch theimpending Truman victory.If the pollsters were more surprised and chagrinedthan the pundits of press, radio, and politics whov onthe basis of impressionistic and intuitive observation, alsoforesaw a virtual landslide for the Republicans, it wasbecause their forecasts rested upon what they thought tobe fairly solid bodies of data procured by research meth­ods which they believed to be reliable and which hithertohad seemed to' be so. In thirteen years of election fore­casting they had picked the winner of the presidentialelection correctly each time and had been almost equallysuccessful in state and local contests. Moreover, theyhad had fair success in estimating in advance the margin.Df victory.A recent compilation by the American Institute of Pub­lic Opinion listed -the forecasts made by polling organiza­tions in this country and abroad, prior to the electionof November 2, .as follows: 197 forecasts in local, state,and national elections by the American Gallup Poll ;141 forecasts by other polling organizations in this coun­try; and 66 forecasts by Gallup affiliates in other coun­tries. The mean error for these 404 forecasts was 3.9percentage points; that is, the difference between theproportion of the total number of 'votes forecast for acandidate and the proportion of votes he actually re­ceived was on the average 3.9. This compilation alsogave evidence of continuous general improvement inthe art of forecasting voting behavior from polling data:from 1936 to October 1940, the mean error of all fore­casts was 5.6 percentage points; from November, 1940to October, 1944, 3.4 percentage points; from November, 1944 to December, 1947, 2.9 percentage points.This record of apparent success had bred in the poll­sters considerable confidence in their methods and hadenhanced their prestige with the public. Even so, manylaymen were doubtful and many social scientists, weremoderately critical. The latter held that the polls werealmost certain to go wrong sooner or later because theywere not utilizing the best known sampling and inter­viewing methods and were not too careful in analyzingand interpreting their data. From the standpoint ofthese professional critics, the significant test is success,not merely in picking the winner out of a field of candi­dates, but in estimating his proportion of the total num­ber of votes cast within limits of error that can be cal­culated in advance by application of known statisticalmethods.Winner take allBut for lay critics the test of reputability has beensimply the ability to announce in advance who the win­ning candidate would be; they were favorably impressedin 1936 when Gallup forecast correctly a Roosevelt vic­tory with.a six percentage point underestimate of thesize of his popular vote, but were obviously not impressed'in 194'8 when Gallup 'and Crossley failed to' forecast aTruman victory with only a five percentage point un­derestimate. Roper, Gallup, and Crossley were all con­demned for their "wrong" guesses last November. Criti­cism ranged from the imputation of propagandist motivesand accusation of corruption to' charges Df complacency,carelessness, or stupidity, and even to assertions that herewas a final demonstration of the undependability of allsupposedly scientific methods of gauging humanbehavior.Recognizing that people's confidence in social sciencegenerally might be seriously impaired by the welter ofcharges and countercharges, most of which were basedupon little if any factual knowledge of either the poll­ing procedures used in this instance or of the specificpolitical developments to which they were applied, theSocial Science Research Council appointed a specialcommittee to analyze the pre-election polls and fore­casts-s-t'tc inquire into the practical applications ofspecific research techniques and to determine to whatextent errors were attributable to defects in the tech­niques themselves, or in their application, or in the infer­ences drawn".wIn announcing this committee, the Council said, "It6THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 7MAGAZINELate in December. the Social Science Research Council published the prelim­inary findings of its study of pre-election surveys. For the, first time. the interestedobserver had access to a careful and imperfiel appraisal of the pollsters' per­formance. Under this clear-weather sign. the authors analyze the recent recordand discuss its effects on the whole field of opinion research.is hoped that the committee's work, in addition to aidingresearch workers in this and other sociaiJ. science fields,will yield conclusions which will give the public as wellas industry, government, and other users of polls a firmbasis for judgments concerning uses which can or can­not safely be made of particular types of opinion andattitude measurement in their present stage of develop­ment. It is expected that the committee's .findings willalso suggest directions in which the study of political be­havior and other human attitudes and motivations maybe extended."The errant polling organizations welcomed the ap­pointment of the committee and immediately gave itaccess to all relevant records and full cooperation other­wise. A preliminary IS-page report of the findings andrecommendations of this committee was published bythe Council on December 27, and a final report of 200pages will be issued shortly. The interested reader willfind in these documents a careful, impartial appraisal.Drawing upon this report and other qualified sources,we will attempt here to state. what seem to us to be (I)'the problem involved in election forecasting on the basisof polling or survey data, (II) the chief sources of errorin: the Gallup-Roper-Crossley forecasts, and (III) the im­plications of their experience for polling practitioners,their clients, and the public.I.In working out an election forecast a polling organiza­tion has two related but quite different problems to solve.The first is to devise and conduct an adequate poll orseries of polls. The major subordinate problems in thisphase of the undertaking are: to design a' questionnairethat will yield reliable and valid data concerning the stateof opinion in the total group of eligible voters at thetime it is administered, to select a thoroughly representa­tive sample of eligible voters, to have each sample indi­vidual interviewed honestly and competently, and to an­alyze and interpret, objectively and perhaps ingeniously,the replies.But the results of this poll or series of polls pertain tothe entire group of eligible voters and are not necessanlyaccurate descriptions of the sub-group of actual voterswho will elect the president. The second problem is,therefore, one of forecasting on the basis of the pollingdata what will be the division of opinion among thatportion of the total electorate that casts ballots on elec­tion day. This problem' involves estimates as to how many people of what types in what proportions will actu­ally vote. It involves estimating what the undecided per­sons in the last poll will finally decide to do and alsowhat proportions of what types of voters are likely to regis­ter a different opinion on the ballot from that expressedduring the interview. It involves further the exerciseof good Judgment in the timing of interviews, the discov­ery and projection of trends, and the careful checking ofinferences or hunches arising from the inspection andanalysis of past interviews.Obviously the way in which each aspect of each ofthese two problems is resolved may contribute substantiallyto the total error in the forecast of an election outcome.As the S. S: R. C. committee points out, much is alreadyknown about avoiding biasing errors in drawing samplesand conducting interviews as well as about questionnairedesign, although much still, has to be learned. Knowl­edge of ways to detect and eliminate error in con­nection with the derivation of the forecast from theinterview data is tentative and far from adequate: Itwaits upon research into the "basic social sciences; par­ticularly social psychology and political science, whichunderlie the analysis of voters' behavior. Even if perfectsampling of individuals is employed, we now know toolittle about voting intentions, factors affecting change inopinion, prestige effects, and similar topics to predict whowill translate his 'Opinion into actual voting."These facts must be kept in mind in judging the pre­election polls and forecasts. - They are scientific only. inthe sense that-and to the extent that-they use whatlittle is available in the form of scientific knowledge, eithertheoretical or technical. At present they have to relyconsiderably on common sense, supported 'Only by analogi­cal reasoning and sketchy experience. They are an infantart, promising and well worth cultivation, but by no meansinfallible. What should be insistently demanded of theirusers now is that the best in theory and technique beemployed, and that clients and the public be fully in­formed of the limitations within which findings are trust­worthy.II.In order to appraise the methods used by the pollstersand to evaluate their possible contribution to the net error,it is necessary to observe what the polls did and to con­sider what they might have done in each of the severalbasic steps of polling.8 THE UNIVERSITYSampleThe initial step in surveying is to select a representativeadult sample, which is a miniature of the popular elec­torate in the hope that, through systematic interviewingand subsequent analysis, it may be possible to derive fromit a representative sample of those who will vote onelection day. Gallup, Roper, and Crossley all employeda method of sampling which, if accuracy were to be as­sured, required a fore-knowledge of the proportions ofdifferent components forming the total, which propor­tions could then be used to govern the interviewer's selec­tion of respondents. For instance, if such records asthose of the 1940 decennial census and related sourcesindicated that 20 per cent of the national adult populationlived on farms, then 20 per cent of the sample to beinterviewed would be farm residents. Gallup and Cross­ley, instead of attempting to interview a sample of alladults, designed a sample of likely voters which includedthe same proportion in each subgroup (age, sex, economic.status, etc.) that had voted in past elections, accordingto their own data.Interviewers were then told to select respondents 'fromamong persons meeting such descriptions as 21 to 39years. of age, 40 and over; men, women; economicallyabove average, average, below average; White, Negro;_ urban, rural; Easterners, Westerners, etc.Instead, they had at their disposal a method of samplingwhich did not require foreknowledge of the componentsof the whole voting population, a safer method inas­much as most records available are not complete or up-to­date or may not define the most significant determinantsof voting behavior. Because deciding who will vote is amajor problem and because the proportions of each votinggroup may differ from one election to another, drawinga sample from past experience may yield substantiallyerroneous results, For example, a much higher propor­tion of Negroes may have voted in 1948 than ever before,because factors affecting their enfranchisement have beenaltered recently and because the civil rights issue waspredominant in the past campaign. Once a sample ofthe whole adult population is available, there are poten­tial means within the interview itself to isolate voters fromnon-voters.Also evidence is abundant that certain constant errorsdo result from insufficient control over selection of re­spondents by interviewers, a weakness characteristic of thesampling methods used by the three forecasters. Al­though these errors may often be small in the net, thispurposive sampling lacks the guarantee of precision, whichforecasting dose elections or garnering data for vital deci­sions requires. Random geographical sampling now usedby the Bureau of the Census and some opinion and marketresearch agencies rigidly controls selection of each re­spondent so that known laws of probability become opera­tive, interviewer selection is eliminated, and every adultis given an equal or known chance to be interviewed, HadOF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthis precise sampling been used in the 1948 forecast, itwould now be possible to evaluate sampling as one sourceof the error.Choice of interview contentThe second step in surveying is the definition of infor­mation to be collected. Herein lies perhaps the greatestdifficulty in the whole operation, because knowledge ofwhat information is most appropriate to any forecast isvery limited and areas which can be explored are almostlimitless. To forecast an election, the pollster must haveenough information so that he can pre-determine, givenvarious personal, political, or even meteorological eventu­ali ties, whether each respondent will vote and, if so, forwhom.Intention to voteHowever he may draw his sample, the pollster mustdetermine from replies -to certain questions which re­spondents will, in fact, vote. Otherwise his forecast willinclude the preferences of the third to half of the popula­tion who do not vote, and their preferences often differat least in degree, from those of voters. Methods em­ployed by the three forecasters differed substantially.Gallup, rather than relying upon elicited information,weighted his turnout data according to external criteria,such as New York City registration, which for some pastelections has been a good barometer of the size of thenational vote, Reliance upon such historical relationshipsassumes a static political scene, a questionable position.Roper, at least in some of his interviews, did not obtaindata in such a manner that he could compare votersagainst non-voters. Crossley alone refied substantiallyupon elicited information and asked questions on eachfacet of turnout to permit a sophisticated pre-electionanalysis. Although the Crossley method of asking enoughquestions about voting intention would appear to be themost nearly scientific one, there is no right way yet tointerpret such findings as one gets. On a barometer ques­tion, for instance, it is obvious that one must include in thenon-voting column those who answer that they certainlywill not vote, but what does one do with those who ansWerthat they will "probably vote"? Crossley alone was care­ful to consider the voting eligibility laws of each of the 48states and to eliminate the maximum number of ineligiblerespondents. Although much is unknown about thevalidity of turnout questions, it is a fact that a simplequestion of "Do you plan to vote?" has overestimatedturnout by as much as 25 per cent. -Sfa�Hity of prese-nt preferencesPreferences for a candidate are not absolute, -but amatter of degree. Althou�h a majority composed largelyof half-hearted supporters of a candidate may elect himover an opponent whose supporters are almost unanimous­ly loyal, it is valuable to know which candidate has thegreatest proportion of fickle followers. If nothing more,THE UNIVERSITYsuch information should alert a pollster to make a condi­tional forecast.In designing his questionnaire, Roper inquired simul­taneously into respondent opinions on various issues resi­dent in the campaign, but Gallop did considerably less,especially on his late interviewing. On the other hand,Gallup was more SOphisticated in his use of two formsof his ballot simultaneously on matched samples, whichpermitted many opportunities for research and analysis.Also, he should be commended for experimenting withquestions in which the candidates' names were transposed,and finding a 5 per cent difference in response betweenthe tW9 question forms. Apparently he ignored this signof irresolute candidate preference, however, when fore­casting the outcome without qualification. Hint of thesame instability was available to Roper when his analysisnoted that some voters were favoring a candidate whowas opposed to implementing their wishes. It seems notto have occurred to him to qualify .his forecast, nor toexamine the discrepancy more closely in auxiliary orlater studies, because his forecast was the most flat-footedof all.None of the three pollsters utilized as many related ques­tions as possible within their resources of time and money.The undecided respondentsWhenever the "undecided" percentage exceeds the dif­ference between candidates, common sense calls for an in­telligent appraisal of this decisive group. Perhaps' be­cause this category had been smaller previously, the poll­sters made two careless assumptions which preventedsound judgment both in planning follow-up research andin projecting their forecasts. Gallup has long held thatthe undecided persons when they do decide will divide insubstantially the same proportions as those whose mindsare already made up, and Roper has had the notionthat respondents with no candidate preference are in factthose same persons who distort intention-to-vote figuresby saying they will vote but who are really too little in­terested to do so.Gallup it is true, has attempted to diminish the num­ber of undecided voters by asking those who will not statea flat preference how. they "lean" at the moment, butthere is no evidence that he also used the same persons'answers to other questions in distributing the undecidedrespondents. This time Roper failed to employ his four­part opinion question, which did not request anoutrightstatement of voting intention or preference, but per­mitted an inference of preference from such a choice ofalternatives as "It is very important for the country thatRoosevelt be elected." Such a question may well reducethe number of "undecided" responses, including thosewho hide their refusal to express a choice under a veil ofindecision. Considerable experimentation on this andearlier elections has been done by the pollsters on the useof secret ballots, so "they are not remiss in" this respect,but on the whole there has been too little research intoOF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9-Abouf the auth�rs and NORC:I A recent news-release with a Washington dare-line.reported theNational Opinion Research Center on campus as one of two uni­versity research units being used by the State Department togauge public feeling on foreign policy. There is much more tobe said.For one, NORC is con­cerned with training andresearch and methodologyas well" as public opinionsurveying. The citizen'sfeelings about his neighborin the block, as well as his"fellow man abroad, comeunder the center's criticaleye. Moreover, in makingscientific study techniquesavailable to non-profit or­ganizations on a cost-basis,the center has done sur­veys for a number ofprivate as well as govern­mental agencies.Founded at the Univer-sity of Denver in 1941 as Director Hartthe first non-profit agencyin the field of public opin"ion, NORC expanded its program five years later and trans­ferred its headquarters from Denver to the Midway. Anaffiliate center at the University of Denver and an EasternOffice in New York were maintained. In' January 1947, ClydeW. Hart, professor of sociology at the University of Chicago,was appointed director. Since that transfer, the center hascontributed to the development of many significant researchprojects in the University's Division of Social Sciences.We were convinced that we had come to the right place forour story when we read the title of the first study undertakenby the center after its arrival on the Midway: "The sourcesand effects of 'interviewer bias' in public opinion surveys."We knew we had the writers when we met Messrs. Hart andConnelly and learned what they have been doing in the. field.The Director, a graduate of James Millikan University, lefta professorship in sociology at the University of Iowa in 1942to "serve as Chief of the "OWl Domestic Branch ResearchDivision. From 1944 to 1946 he was special assistant to theOP A public opinion research administrator.After taking home a B.S. from the University of Oregon,Mr. Connelly went to work as an interviewer for the AmericanInstitute of Public Opinion and the Elmer Roper polls, styleclinic manager for the Opinion Research Corporation, andwestern manager of Dan Clark II and Associates. At NORCsince 1942 as interviewer, assistant Eastern representative,special analyst, acting director and special representative hehas observed the panorama of public opinion polling with arare, fourth dimensional point of view.the most valid ways to elicit preferences. S. S. R. C.evidence suggests that a different allocation of the "un­decided" figure would have lessened the forecast error byperhaps 1.5 percentage points.Interviewing I lAfter a sampling design has been created and the in­formation to be obtained defined, the next basic step in sur­veying is obtaining the desired information from the minia­ture electorate and obtaining it uniformly. This requiresplanning the interview 'so that the interviewer will obtaininformation on the same subjects from every one inter­viewed, using a minimum of his own judgment in its elici­tation or recording. Uniform interviewing requires the(Concluded on Page 20)No Manis Land•W· HEN Chiang-Kai-shek was only fighting hisway to Nanking, her interview with the Nation­alist Party leader was the first to be publishedin the United States press. She travelled three days byschooner, punt and foot across South Sea island lagoons,up jungle rivers and over risky mountain passages to trackdown the story of the last cannibal of Fiji. And inTahiti, where larcency is a public scandal, she featuredas the penniless principal of- the island's greatest robberymystery.Any other Chicago woman with a similar record. would,long before now, have 'been a subject for the Sun-Times"No Man's Land". But Betty Walker '20 never has beenand is not likely to be interviewed for the popularwoman's column. The trouble is she writes it.At the same time that we wanted to learn more, wealso realized that the chances for the column's conver­sion to a six-day soliloquy were equally unlikely. Thatleft. us with the direct approach and we took it. Weinterviewed the interviewer.Meeting Betty, it is hard to believe that almost threedecades of a hard-boiled profession are behind her. Thelady-like composure, shiny gray hair formally styled, andthe boundless enthusiasm for people contradict the cus­tomary mold. Adding to the paradox is the reason shestarted writing in the first place: "It all began with ahanging I" I.The truth is, it did. The hanging took place her senioryear. Philosophy class any spring is difficult; in May ofLeft to right:Tokyo-cocktail 1927-style with convivialitythe sole objective andmovie queen Sunata to_ dispense it.Punt and foot acrossisland lagoons to thelast man-eater in Fij,i;then a swim to thescene olf the outlawedceremonial.Tahiti, where moneywes no handica p anda new hat could be, had for a sonq. By Vivian A. Rogers1920 it could be cut with the best syllogistic reasoning.Come June Betty would be looking for a job. For that. important first offensive the Michigan Avenue shops wereshowing the very last word. Besides, she had an alibi.A former campus mate turned City News Bureau cor­respondent, with his studied Richard Harding Davis de­livery, first gave her the idea by inviting her to attend ahanging with him. It grew as she remembered she hadwritten, at registration, "newspaper reporter" for hervocational target, and forgot she had thought the answeras preposterous as the question premature. (She hadmajored in sociology because she really wanted to be asocial worker.) The idea had its climax the morningshe cut philosophy and her Mortar Board sisters in theclass recalled that she was going to a hanging.ing.Guest seats to a ha'ngingFortunately, the reporter whose press privileges did notextend to guests seats to a hanging, was several milesaway at the County Court House covering the eventso her alibi was air tight. But the rumor of her exploitshad no such vacuum-brake.By the time she returned' to the campus at noon agroup of classmates, curious for first-hand impressions,stampeded her. It took fast thinking to stall for enoughtime to read the newspaper accounts, memorize her lines,and set her imagination to work She managed the featso well, half her audience turned pale, twitched at the10A hanging usually ends acareer-for Betty Walker '20it was oRly the beginn.ing.mouth and left with an the symptoms of impendingshock. Her acclaim by the loyal following that remainedgave her a taste for the heady brew of printer's inkthat still has savour many stories after.With equally dramatic effect-a setting of juvenile de­linquency and a court commitment-her first break inthe newspaper world came. After graduation in June,Betty took a temporary job compiling case histories ofCook County girls committed to the Illinois Home forgirls at Geneva. Meanwhile, every spare moment wasspent haunting the C�icago newspape� offices. It was onone of her many visits to the old Chicago Journal that.Richard Finnegan,' the managing editor, deep in thethroes of an editorial, suddenly looked up and asked:.?""What makes you think you would make a reporter.Quickly blurting out the details of her work as' an in­vestigator, the fact that she was interested in people, andher conviction that "anyone who knew life and could inter­pret it, could be one," she stopped only when Finnegan's.next remark had sunk in. The editor who had. cradledsuch top newswriters as Ben Hecht, Lowell Thomas, andMaxine Davis, had said: "O.K. Come back in threeweeks."One gown by Schiaparelli was the one thing mem�!ableabout the first month on the Journal. It symbolized herfirst great sacrifice to journalistic integrity, and the in­fluence of Upton Sinclair's Brass Check could take theblame. Betty had been assigned to cover a leading silkcompany's buye�s show. The director's generous offer of The trouble is she writes it.one of the gowns on display was interpreted as an out­right attempt at bribery. One year later, and �ne yearwiser, 'she could reason that five Iines of newsprint werenot going to influence. the Dow-Jones rating of ,an .i�­portant manufacturer's stock. But next year the assign­ment went to another newcomer, whose wardrobe wasprobably similarly limited to the Michigan Avenue label.It was in November of 1920, her third month on the[ournal, that the first real chance to write headlines came.The day after' election, Judge Arnold of the CookCounty Juvenile Court, as a favor to her paper? issued awrit ordering Betty to Geneva to make a study.of delin­quency. "Why Girls Go Wrong," written in 21 install­ments and carrying Betty's first by-line, .appeared in theJournal.Crime, the opera. and SheeanIn the four years she worked for the city desk of theChicago Journal) she covered every murder trial pepper­ing the hectic first years of the prohibition era. Assignedto cover the "human side" of grand opera, she had' thethrill of leaving Ben Hecht sitting in the Blackstone Ho­tel lobby when Mary Garden sent word for her to comeright up to her suite; the prima diva was giving thewomen of the press the breaks that season. Betty inter­viewed every movie star of note passing through theWindy City in the early '20's: Clara Kimball Young,Mary Pickford, the Gish girls, Gloria Swanson, RudolphValentino, David Griffith, and the unwilling Jackie Coo­gan who had to be coaxed "to be nice to the lady." Andonce, she pinch-hit for 1immy (Vincent) Sheean, '21,when he had a winning streak at poker and had tomake a deadline at the old Chicago Herald-Examiner.When she left the journal for the Herald-Examiner)one of her first assignments was to cover the Loeb andLeopold trial. Her training in sociology was nowherebetter apparent than in the excellent interpretive writingshe produced in reporting the "human side" of this real­life tragedy., "Again I talked too much. The winter of 1926, I wastaking advantage of the alumnae swimming privileges atIda Noyes Hall. One day I stopped in the library on theway out, and came across Pearl Buck's first novel about1112 THE UNIVERSITYChina, Easttoind, Westtoind. It read so much like a Sun­day supplement feature that I thought quickly to myself,'This country I must see,' and the next thing I knew myclosest friends .were demanding skeptically, 'When doyou go?'"She did more than just think about .it. By July of1927 when she sailed for the Pacific, she had arrangedto syndicate a weekly Sunday feature to 26 newspapers.One of the first stories on the wires was her interviewwith the soldier and future politician, Chiang Kai-shek,the first to be published in this country. In 1927 he wasstill far from his goal at Nanking. A Far Eastern corres­pondent arranged for Betty to meet the Nationalist Partyleader. H� wore the uniform of a soldier and spoke witha soldier's seriousness and modesty of the vigorous cam­paign ahead. His quiet, gentleman-like demeanor changedto uninhibited rage at the mention of Chang Tso-lin, thenChina's number one war lord. No one could doubt hissincerity as he previsioned a United China at last freeof the curse of very ancient rivalries. On a familiar note-his hope that American sympathy might become Ameri­can support-the meeting ended.Snubbing the daughter of SoongBetty admits that the language advantage and the vividpersonality of Madame Chiang Kai-shek would have madefor more colorful copy. But in those days the reportershared with many other observers on the scene a "super­cilious attitude" toward the American-educated daugh­ter of Soong, whose conversion of and marriage to the up­arid-coming Nationalist leader had been accomplishedwithout much Christian regard for the two wives she de­posed.Another high-light of the Pacific trip was the Sultan ofSulu, whom the humorist, George Ade, immortalized inhis Broadway hit, and Alice Roosevelt scandalized wlth'her story of his proposal to .add her to his 600 wives. TheSultan was still denying the proposal. To oblige the sen-Left: Text books call it "rap­port"; Betty calls it makingfriends an'd finds it easy inSulu.Ri,ght: Four ye'a1rs of Western culture then "back to themat" for the Jolo princess. . OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsitive sovereign, Betty diplomatically publicized his posi­tion on this most delicate matter.The story with the greatest local appeal was the dis­covery of the University of Illinois-educated Princess Tar­hata living. in a native tree-level hut in the heart of theJ 010 jungle. After four years' exposure to the culture ofthe West, she had gone "back to the mat" and herbeetel-stained smile was proof that she liked it.If nostalgia ever struck before, it never hit so hard asit did in Manila. One day as Betty was. dancing in thecasino of her hotel, she was startled to find her classmate,Stanton Speer) '20, and his wife seated at a ringside tableand staring back with equal surprise. Stanton was thererepresenting a San Francisco importing house. As ifthat was nor.enough, the following morning she was tofind another tie to home. Walking down Taft Avenuepast the Philippine Women's College she stopped, puzzledby what she heard. The students were singing a schoolsong in Spanish-to the music of "Wave the Flag of OldChicago." The explanation was simple. Conrado Beni­tez) '11, was the husband of the school president. It wasnatural to teach the young singers only the best.Japan, China, Manchuria, Korea, Borneo, the Philip­pines, and Hawaii were stamped on her passport by thetime she saw the Windy City again in the March of 19�8."The lush era" was her tag for the next venture. Fortwo years she wrote publicity for an advertising agencyhandling accounts like Helena Rubenstein and "loathedevery minute of i,t." Fortunately, her bank balance andimpatience grew in proportion, so that the day anotherWalker did too much talking, she could do somethingabout it. This time it was her brother who knew she wasreading up on the South Pacific. He had heard thatthere were still a few cannibals left in Fiji."If you wanted to get the story of one of them, therewould he some reason for your going," he remarked.It was a good excuse to visit Tahiti, the GreenwichVillage of the South Pacific. Besides, she certainly hada taste for "some more fresh coconut meat."Cannibal-huntingHer 'brother's remark took on more the character. ofa prediction when Betty began talking to the ship's doc­tor aboard the old Matson boarding house plying be­tween the American mainland and Asia. When she dis­embarked at the Fijian port of Suva, he introduced Dr.�Sylvester Lambert, the South Pacific Director of theRockefeller Foundation, and later author of the book,Yankee Doctor in Paradise, explaining, "If anyone canfind you a cannibal, Lambert can."It was through Doctor Lambert that she learned ofthe Ministry of Native Officers' report: The censusshowed that two cannibals, one of the privileged and theother of the servant class, still lived in, the interior. Be-. fore the sensitive British banned the offensive ritual ofthe native culture in the 1880's, the distinction had beenimportant for only the members of the chiefly family wereTHE UNIVERSITYprivileged to eat. Further questioning revealed that thelone survivor of the privileged class was living a quiet lifeanonymity in Namosi, a native village about three daysaway.The next week with a guide, an interpreter, a coupleof carriers, and two. flat-bottomed punts, she set offfrom, N avua, across the lagoon from Suva, to. call on thelast map-eater in Fiji. Part of the trip was up a precipi­tDUS mountain river; the rest on fDot through heavyunderbrush and high coarse grass across the mountainsthemselves. A Fijian educated in a mission SChDDI, namedRatu Isei, was the official interpreter, and, when they­reached Namosi, arranged for the actual interview. Bettywas the second white woman to visit the village and so.the first comment of the chief, was at least reasonsable,if not original: "why has she come so. far to. sleep?"The cannibal was "the most demure looking indivi­dual" she had ever seen, He was very old, with hundredsof wrinkles creasing his nut-colored skin. The attention,of the press seemed to. please him for he took great careto explain every detail of the cannibal ceremonial. One.day Betty had to. change to. a bathing suit to swim overto. the side of the stream where the religious acts of hisancestors and contemporaries had taken place. Withtwo. weathered pieces of timber he beat on the villagewar-drum trunk the message that a half-century beforewould have spelled death for the unwary traveller. Tomake the scene more realistic, he gave a convincing pan-tomime of the victims' fate. .The. message that ,�pelled deathFrom Suva she left for Nukualofa, the capital ofTonga where she signed aboard. a British tramp steam­er as stewardess in order to visit the out islands of theArchipelago. It was at Nukualofa that Betty met the350-pound Queen Salote, the last Polynesian monarchin the Pacific. There was a purpDse for the island'stitle - "The New England of the Pacific.'; Its rigidblue laws had all the marks of the Puritan conscience,OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe 350 pound QueeneSalote and the royal out­house with five privateentrances.and the royal outhouse with its Victorian architec­ture and five private entrances was a symbol of thatdecorum.The tramper headed for Samoa after leaving Tonga.At Pago Pago, Betty stayed at Delbert Reed's board­ing house, which had not only provided shelter forSomerset Maugham when he was writing "Rain," butalso. the setting for his Broadway success. Then camestops at Australia, New Zealand, and finally the vividGauguin landscape, Tahiti.Theft in TahitiThe first day at Papeete she rented a house for amonth; for ten dollars more she engaged a housemaid.When she asked the agent for the key, he wasaghast; "No one in Tahiti has a key." Four days Jatertoward evening she joined Vaite, the housemaid, onthe beach where a native sing-song was in progress.N ext morning, when she had occasion to look for herpurse, it, complete with travellers' checks, tickets, andcash, was gone.Robbery was such an unknown phenomenon inthis friendly, easy-going community that the petty theftassumed . the proportions of a public scandal. Everycoconut radio in Tahiti carried the story. As far asBetty's comfort was concerned, the theft, if anything:made her stay doubly enjoyable. Strangers would stopher on the street to. ask about the details of the crime.The merchants offered her unlimited credit. As a con­sequence, every day the circle of her friends widened.The thief was eventually arrested and all the travel­lers' checks refunded, but secretly Betty felt a debt ofgratitude to him. His larcency had been her key to anisland hospitality few other visitors had known.After the relative calm of the tropical economy, itwas rough sailing back in the States in' 1931 whenshe returned. Her good-bye to the "lush era" ,twoyears before was by now a mutual affair. But Bettyalways had the knack of turning trouble into adven­ture and even a major depression could not change thepattern for long. In the next five years she wrote"Hawaii and The South Pacific-A Guide Book"(Concluded on Page 18).NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESThe time {or trifling in American education is past,Chancellor Robert M. Hutchins declared at RockefellerMemorial Chapel.·"The fate of the whole world depends from minute tominute on the intelligence and character that the Ameri­can people bring to their common task of democratic citi­zenship," Chancellor Hutchins told the 596 graduatingstudents in the university's largest Autumn graduatingclass.. Speaking on "Education and Democracy" at Convoca­tion Sunday, Hutchins attacked the assertion of someeducators that liberal education is "aristocratic" and "un­democratic.""The foundation of democracy is universal suffrage.Universal suffcrage makes every man a ruler. If everyman is a ruler, every man needs the education that rulersought to have. If liberal education is the education ofrulers, then every man needs a liberal education."To attack liberal education as aristocratic is -to mistakeits origins for its con ten t.""The way to determine who is to have liberal educa­tion is to ask who are to be rulers of your society."If the answer is everybody, then the conclusion fol­lows that everybody must have a liberal education. Ifyou do not like this conclusion, you do not like democ­racy; you do not like universal suffrage, and you shouldmove to abandon democracy and universal suffrage. Theone thing you cannot do is to say at one and the sametime that everybody has the right to vote and only thefew have the right to liberal education."The slogan, 'education for all,' cannot mean merelythat all young people must go to school. It cannot meanthat the education system has done its duty if everybodyis in school up to the age of twenty, regardless of whathe is doing there. Education for all, if it means anything,must mean that everybody is to be educated."It must mean, Mr. Hutchins added, that everybody isto have that education, to experience that moral and in­tellectual growth, which will fit him for his dominantvocation of democratic citizenship. It does not meanthat he may remain indefinitely in the educational systemat public expense."When the system has helped the student get startedon liberal education-it is a process that should go onthrough the. whole of life, and the educational systemshould .be able to do its part by the time a young personis 19 or 20-then_ specialized education" education forindividual interests and special callings, may begin."No limitation can be permitted of liberal education.Our political system and our political ideals' require usto find out how to give that education to everybody, nomatter what we assume his capacity to be."The usual answer is that it can't be done. I say thatit must be done and that there is no evidence that it can'tbe. By JEANNETTE LOWREY"Liberal education consists fundamentally in learninghow to use the mind so that it can operate well in allfields and deal with new problems as they arise. The ob­ject of the educational system is the development of therational powers of men."I t is impossible to use the mind without knowing howto read, write, and figure. It is impossible to use themind to operate well in all fields and to be prepared fornew problems as they arise without having studied themodels of greatness in all fields and without having someunderstanding of the way in which the great issues thathave concerned mankind have been met by the best mindsof the past."Failure to educate the rulers of a democratic societycannot be excused by saying that they have no minds,or that all of them do not always care to learn ,how to. use them, Mr. Hutchins said. The blame for failure, headded, must be placed where it belongs, first, on the edu­cational system, which has found it easier to say that thestudents cannot do the work than to find out how to helpthem do it; and second, on the community, which hasbeen satisfied to cherish the illusion that the educationalproblem is solved through numbers-numbers of pupils,numbers of buildings, numbers of teachers, and numbersof dollars."To prDpose liberal education for all is certainly notproposing to limit education to an intellectual elite. Itis proposing that every citizen have the education thatused to limited to an intellectual elite; That is what itmeans to -take democratic education seriously."Thermometer of fossilsA thermometer of fossils, buried in the rooks for hun­dreds of millions' of years, may be a basis for determiningpast climatic conditions, according to Harold C. Urey,distinguished service professor of chemistry in the Insti­tute for Nuclear Studies.Speaking on "Measurement of Paleo-Temperatures"before the Chicago chapter of Sigma Xi, the Nobel-prizewinner revealed that research on the temperature coeffi­cient of calcium carbonate deposited by animals, if ex­tended, may be an important factor in determiningwhether the earth is cooling down Dr warming up as astellar body."If an animal deposits calcium carbonate in equili-.brium with water in which it lives and the shell sinks tothe bottom of the sea and is buried securely in the earthand remains unchanged from that time to this, it is onlynecessary to determine the ratio of the isotopes of oxygenin the shell today in order to determine the temperatureat which the animal lived," Urey said.Research which Dr. Urey and three colleagues havebeen working on for the past year and a half in the In­stitute of Nuclear Studies, the measurement of fossils wasundertaken, however, not from the standpoint of trying14THE UNIVERSITYto solve an age-old problem,. but as the result of a sideline from other scientific research dealing with the dif­ferences in the chemical properties of isotopes."The data thus far secured in research of temperaturesof fossils are not sufficient to draw extensive and variedconclusions in regard to past geological temperatures, butthey are sufficient to lead us to believe that at least somemeasurement of past temperatures can be made," Ureysaid."The 'fossil' thermometer may provide an instrumentfor geologists equivalent to the mercury thermometer inthe present study of climate."The problem of the past climatic conditions of earthis one that has many facets," Urey stated. "Among thefactors affecting change in temperature are the flow ofheat from the interior of the earth, "generation of heat byradioactivity, possible changes of the distance of the earthfrom the sun, the, shape of its orbit or the inclinationof the axis of the earth to that orbit, fluctuations inthe, sun's temperature, and possible presence of dust ininterstellar space."We know from geological history that the climate ofearth has fluctuated very considerably, and in particularthat substantially warmer climates have existed both inthe neighborhood of the north pole and the south polethan exist there now."A number of organisms," he said, "do lay down theirshells approximately in equilibrium with the sea, and itis thereby possible to secure an empirical temperaturescale." •Two sets of samples, he explained, have' been investi­gated at the Institute for Nuclear Studies in considerabledetail.A set from the English chalk, consisting of belemnites,oysters and brachiopods indicate, according to. Urey, thatthe belemnites record a reasonable temperature for theregion. The ,?ysters and brachiopods were unreliable.The temperatures secured from the belemnites fromthe upper Cretaceous of 60,000,000 years ago varied from17 or 18 degrees centigrade to 26 or 27 degrees centi­grade.Belemnites collected in South Carolina are approxi­mately contemporaneous with the English samples whichindicate a temperature of 19 degrees centigrade. Some12 of the South Carolina specimens indicate a tempera­ture of 20 degrees centigrade,' with a maximum spread ofall the measurements of only two degrees centigrade, avariation that may be partly experimental error, but alsois probably a natural fluctuation of temperature."These specimens are all 'contemporaneous and con­tiguous to each other," Urey said: "The data indicatesthat we are measuring a very reproducible quantity, andit seems relatively certain that the temperatures of theseancient seas, some 60 million years ago, was 19 degreescentigrade."In measuring geological temperatures by these meth­ods, it is well, however, to remember that the whole prob-OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15lem of deducing what happened in the past ages cannever have the certainty that other physical measure­ments have, for they cannot be repeated," Urey said.Future studies, he revealed, will include temperaturereading from fossil samples of Denmark, New Jersey, andMississippi dating 60,000,000 years ago and from samplesof Scotland of about twice that age.In the fossil research, Urey has been assisted by CharlesMcKinney, John McCrea, Samuel Epstein, and HeinzLowenstam, all of the Institute for Nuclear Studies.T wenfy-Four+h for the PressCancer Research, a scientific journal reporting researchdirected toward the understanding and conquest of can­cer, will be published at the University of Chicago, be-·ginning January, by the University of Chicago Press, Wil­Ham T. Couch, director, has announced.The official organ' of the American Association forCancer Research, the journal, which was previously pub­lished by the Ann Arbor Press, will be edited by Dr. PaulE. Steiner, professor of pathology and cancer specialist atthe University.Also .assisting Dr. Steiner in editing the journal will be: .D�. W. U. Gardner of Yale University, Dr. Balduin Luckeof the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Harold Rusch, ofthe University of Wisconsin, and an advisory staff of 26.Dr. Charles B. Huggins, 'Chairman of the University'sCommittee on Cancer, Dr. Austin Brues, associate pro­fessor of medicine and member of the Institute of Radio­biology and Biophysics, and Albert L. Lehninger, assistant. professor in biochemistry and surgery, are University ofChicago members of the advisory staff.One of 24 scholarly and scientific journals pub­lished by the University of Chicago Press, oldest collegi­ate press .in the United States, the journal, in its twelvenumbers, will constitute one volume of approximately750 pages. -. The monthly journal, now in its ninth year, is spon­sored, in addition to the American Association for Can­cer Research, by the Anna Fuller Fund, canoer researchdivision of the Donner Foundation, Inc., the Jane Cof­fin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research, and theElsa U. Pardee Foundation. .Gray to EgyptWilliam Scott Gray, professor of education and na­tionally known authority on reading, has been appointeda visiting professor at the Higher Training College inGizeh, near Cairo, by the Egyptian Ministry of Educa­tion.While in Egypt during the winter quarter, Prof. Graywill cooperate with the Ministry in conducting a study ofreading among children and adults in Egypt.. His work will include visits to schools in various sec­tions of Egypt; advising committees appointed by theMinistry of Education on problems connected with theteaching of reading and the campaign, against illiteracy;16 UNIVERSITY, OFTHEround-table examination of existing books and readingmaterials for various ages; lectures and seminars in Cairo,Alexandria, and other teacher-training centers in Egypt;and planning and directing research on the methods ofteaching reading to children and adults, as well as thepreparation of materials.Gray has been a member of the University of Chi­cago's department of education since 1914, and has heldprofessorial rank since 1921. He has served as presidentand secretary of the American Educational Research As­sociation, president and vice-president of the NationalSociety of College Teachers of Education, and as secre­tary and president of Section Q of the American Asso­ciation for .the Advancement of Science.He developed the Standardized Oral Reading Pan),­graphs and Silent Reading Tests in 1916, and appliedthem in five significant surveys, demonstrating the valueof objective tests of reading in determining the achieve­ment of pupils and in studying' differences in the progressof pupils of different nationality and of pupils taughtunder different conditions.Gray received his bachelor's degree at the Universityof Chicago in 1913. He took his master's degree at Co­lumbia University (1914) and his doctor of philosophydegree at the University of Chicago in 1916.Among his books and scientific articles are: WhatMakes a Book Readable � J mprovement in Reading, Read­ing Interests and Habits of Adults, and Reading in Gen­eral Education.Honored for cancer researchDr. Charles B. Huggins, professor of urology and chair­man of the University of Chicago committee on cancer, CHICAGO MAGAZINEwas one of six internationally known scientists awardedthe, francis Amory prize of the American Academy ofArts and Sciences.The $21,000 septennial prize for outstanding work withreference to the alleviation or cure of men's urologicaldisorders was first awarded in 1940.Dr. Huggins, who received one of the six $3,500awards, was honored for his development of the treat­ment of prostatic cancer by suppression of the male sexhormone by surgical operation and by the use of estro­gens.Dr. Huggins, discoverer of the' first chemical test todetect the presence of a form of cancer (prostatic), wasrecently awarded the third annual award of the Ameri­can Urological Association for research in the humanmale reproductive tract.. He 'has also received the GoldMedal of the Congress of the- Societe Internationaled'Urologie, the Charles L. Mayer prize of $2,000 of theNational Academy of Science and the Katherine BerkanJudd prize of $1,000.Dr. Huggins is the second University of Chicago re­cipient of the award. Carl R. Moore, professor andchairman of the department of zoology, received theaward in 1940.Phemister electedDr. 'Dallas B. Phemister, Thomas D. Jones ProfessorEmeritus of Surgery was elected president of the Ameri­can College of Surgeons at the 34th Annual ClinicalCongress held in Milwaukee last "all. With the electionwent the newly adopted Presidential Medal, presentedto Dr. Phemister by the outgoing president, Dr .. Arthur R.Allen.MIDWAY MISCELLANYVoices of doomThe 596 students who were graduated this fall leftwith the voice of educational doom ringing in their ears ..On Sunday, jammed into Rockefeller Chapel, they hadheard Chancellor Robert M. Hutchins charge the Ameri­can educational system with failure to provide demo­cratic education at a time when the world's fate hung onjust such training (see News of the Quadrangles)..Next Friday at Convocation Dean of the College F.Champion Ward warned them that U.S. higher educationwas losing sight of its goals and in danger of losing itsindependence. There would be _ "grave danger to thenation if the universities. became centers of dependentthought where professors sing for their suppers."Some notable achievementsFor some, graduation that day represented a notableachievement. Audrey and Martin Rieger would take_their twin Doctorates back to 10 month old daughterPamela. Audrey Rieger, working for a personnel con- sultant firm and preparing her dissertation, had takenfour weeks off to have her baby before returning to bothjobs. Her PhD was in Human Development, his inChemistry.An 18 year old mathematician named George E.Backus had compiled 23 A's for his traditional bachelor'sdegree. He was elected to Ph'i Beta Kappa.T'ne 'five-year-old Committee on Social Thought con­ferred its first doctor of philosophy degree on Karl H.Hertz, now an assistant professor at Capital University inColumbus, Ohio. His thesis was written on "Bible Com­monwealth and Holy Experiment: Two Political Formsof Protestant Theology."Not present at the ceremony was College graduateNella G. Fermi, daughter of famed nuclear scientistEnrico Fermi.. She received her degree in absentia.Cut-rate sunshineCut-rate vacation tours, sponsored by student groups,brought the Florida sun, Colorado ski slopes, and the(Concluded on Page 19)A mysterious delay .......a surprise delivery.THE RETIRING PROFESSORAND TH,E '47 DODGEEzra J. Kraus, PhD' 17, Distinguished Service Profes­SDr and Chairman of the Department of Botany, has re­tired=-with a 1947 Dodge sedan."NO' innuendo is intended, although Dr. Kraus has beenstruggling with his conscience since the Dodge enteredhis retirement plans.The sedan. was owned by the University and it was upfor sale. It had been a botany department war accessionand Dr. Kraus could trace nearly every one Df the fivethousand miles on the speedometer. He wanted to' pur­chase the car.Kraus was retiring to' his favorite Oregon country nearCorvallis. He needed the car to'. visit his DId haunts ofthe days when he was on the faculty of Oregon Agricul­ture College and state field man for the horticultural de­partment. It was agreed that Kraus could purchase thecar.The retiring chairman was anxious to' close the deal.Christmas was approaching and the day after ChristmasKraus was to' start west. J ohn M .. Beal, acting chairmanto' succeed Kraus, was to' drive west with him and returnby train.But there were extended delays in delivery from thepurchasing department. Kraus, never noted for his pa­tience with administrative red tape, began to' ShDW irri­tation ; Beal began to' IDDk as though he had been feedingSIDW poison to' a rare orchid specimen.As complete frustration was closing in Dn the retiringchairman, visitors were announced. They wyref�e:qry R.Kraybill, student collaborator with Kraus around 1917on joint research which earned doctorates for both, andLaurence F. Graber, PhD '30, a former Kraus studentnDW professor of agronomy at WiscDnsin.After a brief reunion visit, these gentlemen remem­bered they had been instructed to' deliver an envelope.Kraus opened it to' discover a bill of sale, certificateof title, license plates for 1949, and a set of keys for theelusive Dodge sedan. It represented the spontaneous giftfrom more than a hundred colleagues and former stu­dents.Dr. Kraus, who has ,an overdeveloped conscience anda giant-sized stubborness, refused the gift on the groundsthat he did not merit such an. elaborate going-awaypresent. It took the committee, friends, former students,and colleagues from then until Christmas to' convincehim he should accept the gift.But, as YDU read this, the sedan is probably parked infront of the Benton Hotel at Corvallis, where Dr. Krauswill live.* Actually, Dr. Kraus is on leave until October; 1950, becauseof time owed him for extra quarters worked during the war. andsince. In October, .1950, he will become professor emeritus. Around 1909, in spite of warnings that there wereIndians on every street, Ezra Kraus left the east coast to'join the staff of Oregon Agriculture College (nDw OregonState) at Corvallis. In the following nine years he cameto' enjoy the mild winter rains and early springs of theWillamette Valley.He left Oregon to' escape administrative duties whenWisconsin offered him the opportunity to' do full-time re­search and teaching. It was at Madison he met MaxMason, WiscO'nsin's tDP physicist.Mason had been President of Chicago only a shorttime when he was faced with a vacancy in the chairman­ship of his botany department. SO' he telephoned hisgood friend "Ez" to' come down and take over. ButKraus didn't want an administrative job-remember?SO' Mason went to' Madison with the avowed threatthat he would not return without Ez. Kraus braced hisfeet ... but Mason returned to' Chicago ; and studentsand faculty of the botany department have been foreverglad that he did-witness the 1947 Dodge sedan.Meanwhile Dr. Ezra Kraus has been selected by Ameri­can horticulturists as one of the three greatest contribu­tors to' horticulture in the -past century.A member of the National Academy Committee -onBiological Warfare, and a consultant on wartime projects,Dr. Kraus made the initial suggestion to' the Secretaryof War in 1941 for government research of plant CDn­trols of crop destruction should biological warfare beused in military operations,Dr. Kraus, a pioneer in the use of synthetic growth­regulation substances, was the first to use 2,4-dichDIDphen­oxyacetic acid, hormone-like chemical, as a growth regu-DR. E. J. KRAUS- _j1718 THE UNIVERSITYIator for the destruction Qf noxious weeds in grain-bear­ing fields, for the ripening of fruit and for the settingof fruit on trees and plants.Chrysanthemums and day lilies have had special Krausattention. He developed an early-blooming, winter-hardychrysanthemum (half a million from seedlings) whichare nQW withstanding severe climatic hazards all over theStates and in foreign countries,At Corvallis, Dr. Kraus will continue his research whileteaching advanced and beginning horticulture at OregonState College. We sort of hope he doesn't read this (wewaited until he left to' write it) because he has suchvigorous objections to' publicity. Anyway, we'll drop inand make our peace next time we are in Oregon,H.W.M.N'O MAN'S LAND(Continued from Page 13)(which was published) and "The Autobiography of aCannibal" (which was not, but almost-s-it was one of fivefinal selections in the 1933 Atlantic Monthly non-fictioncontest). She covered Chicago assignments for Scripps­Howard's NEA Service; free-lanced for the "AmericanWeekly," the New Tork Times and the Christian ScienceMonitor magazines; and to' vindicate, her four ye�rs; onthe Midway, completed a scholarly article, entitled"Vanishing Races" for Asia Magazine."Don't ever decide to' write seriously and take Qff to'a small Michigan town to' do it," she warns, havingdone just that herself in the years from 1937 to' 1940.Her mother had been ill and sO' Betty had movedtrunk and typewriter to' the family week-end homeoutside Dowagiac and took over."The only thing yQU want to' do better than any­body else in a small town is cook. It's a serious in­door sport, I decided to' become a good CQQk and all,my Chicago friends trekked up weekends to' try mylatest kitchen conquests, As a result I seldom went near,,'the typewriter." ,In 1940 Betty reluctantly dosed "Angel's Hill," (hermother had died three years before). Taking herspaniel, Cherub, along with her back to Chicago, sheresumed the quickened pace of Big City life. For awhile she edited a drug company hpvse organ. Thenone day after the war had started, she dropped in to' seeFinnegan, the same Finnegan who twenty years before hadasked her another challenging question, This time it waswhat was she doing to' win the war. His paper .( it was theChicago Times now) had a column aimed at glorifying!.w�l' jobs for women. A few weeks later she became its!�Qnductor.The first year and a half she interviewed suchvaried personalities as the ex-rodeo queen turned as­sembly worker, Emily Taft Douglas after her husband's.enlistment, and Alice Bradley when she took the oath tojoin the WAC. As the war progressed and the line be­tween civilian and defense jobs became more and moreOF CHICAGO MAGAZINEephemeral, women from a great crQSS section of Amer­ican industry were featured in her column. Conse­quently when the war came to' an end, the SCQpe of thecolumn had already been enlarged to' include the wholefield of business and professional women. There wasno problem of reconversion,Nor was there any doubt that the column shouldcontinue. The idea of highlighting the work of careerwomen was in keeping with 'a Chicago Times tradi­tion, which also explains why the paper dropped itssociety column after war was declared: women hadto' do something to warrant newspaper space.The Sun-Times merger left the column intact andthe direction unchanged. Since that uniQn, the achiev­ments of scores of colorful and unusual women,Chicago and country-wide, many University alum­nae included, have been recounted with the Walkertouch. A glance at the clippings of only the last fewmonths brings into fQCUS many familiar names. Tomention only a few: Mary Trigg, MA '37, whose ex­cellent Spanish was the start of a new South Americannovelty shop; Betty F. Kidd, '21, vice president of N. W.Ayres and Company; and Rae Fisher, '32, MA '48, re­cently returned from Germany where she had directed alarge D. P. center.Seven years of one thing, however, seems like a rad­ical change. Betty admits it is a departure from theearlier pattern, but adds that it is not an unwelcomechange. Of course, she may try her hand at fiction."In the early twenties I went hack to' the campus to'take a short story writing course taught by RobertLovett. His idea was that if the story is there the writingwill come easily. Well, the germs of a good number ofstories have gathered since then .. Yes, I'd really like to'try fiction next. But, again, I'm talking tQQ much."Well, we'll see.CURRICULI-CURRICULUM(Continued from Page 5)And he had studied Hamlet in a course, tQQ. He hadcredits in Hamlet-at 2.0. I didn't make him read Ham­let any more. I was ashamed of having made such' anassignment, when Hamlet was right there on his grade­credit record all the time. This student had taken acourse in philosophy also, and philosophy is the integra­tion of all knowledge. I think he is teaching in juniorcollege now, He is giving out grades and credits in thephilosophy of Hamlet.It's wonderful,But someday someone is going to question the magicof grades and credits. Someone is going to' suggest thatlearning and thinking are organic and continuous prQ­cesses and that the flow of the mind is stopped by theseterminal deposits. But what can we dor We have 18,000students in prQcess. That costs money, We can't be tDQfinicky about the flow of the mind. Besides, we canalways go back to Hamlet. There he stands. 2.0. Passed.THE UNIVERSITYLYING·IN(Continued from Page 4) Lname from the fact that the anesthesia it produces is con­centrated in the area that grips the saddle-the buttocks,rectum, lower birth passage, and bladder, the nerves ofpain from the uterus and its mouth, the cervix, beingalso affected.The saddle-block method was first reported at CharityHospital in New Orleans in 1946. Lying-in was one ofthe first large maternity centers to give it a compre­hensive trial: This was done in the most complete studyever made of spinal anesthesia. As of July 1, 1948, Ly­ing-in had employed saddleblock in more than 3,000cases without a maternal death or a near-death attribut­able to the anesthetic. Its virtues are a comfortable andsafe delivery, with the mother conscious at the time ofdelivery and feeling no pain and the baby born un­drugged and generally crying at once. It has been foundto be best used for delivery itself and for the last houror two of labor.The administration of the anesthetic itself is brief andsimple: The patient sits over the side of her bed, a fineneedle is passed through the spine between two of thelower vertebrae into the sac surrounding the spinal cord,a minute amount of anesthetic is injected, and the needleis removed. The patient lies down again, the discomfortsof labor disappear in a few minutes, and the uterus con­tinues its active contractions-painlessly. Lying-in nowteaches this method to all its resident physicians.The Opening DoorLying-in's research is not directed solely toward women.In its sterility clinic, maintained for fully fifteen years,husbands as well as wives are studied clinically and aretreated in an effort to restore or induce fertility.Research into the causes' of fertility and infertility,however, is one of the primary objectives of the clinic.Here again no. facet is being neglected in meticulousstudies under the direction of Dr. M. Edward Davis. Inthe past research has been concerned with such mattersas the mechanism of ovulation and the methods of de­termining ovulation-that is, of determining the time ofovulation-for when fertility is below normal, it is im­portant that the method and. time be known.It is now known that the life of the female egg or ovumis very short, probably less than twenty-four hours, andif the male spermatozoa are, not available during its im­mediate discharge from the, ripe and ruptured follicle,conception does not take place. This period is indicatedby a rise in temperature. For some time science has beenpuzzled by the cause of this rise. In a series of paperspresented in 1948 Dr. Davis has shown the rise to be theresult of the production and liberation of progesterone,one of the two hormones high in pregnancy, by the ripefollicle prior to and after its rupture.If a woman has regular cycles" if her Fallopian tubesOF CHICAGO 19MAGAZINEare open (and a third of the women coming to the ster­ility clinic have tubal blockade, usually due to disease,for opening which Lying-in has devised new plastic op­erative techniques), and if her husband is healthy, thechances are she will become pregnant, but Lying-inwould like to increase fertility by knowing more aboutthe mechanism of fertility.Thus intricate studies are being made of the male sper­matozoa and the seminal fluid, a fluid different fromany other in the body. Fructose, for instance, is presentin the seminal fluid, yet it is found nowhere else in thebody. The human body as a whole seems unable to me­tabolize it. Lying-in therefore is determining the amountof fructose and seeks to learn its function in the fluid,for it believes the fluid important to the motility of thespermatozoa-and on the motility and strength of thespermatozoa hang male fertility ..The ingenious mechanism of the spermatozoa also isbeing studied. This is the only cell in the body that canbe studied outside the body from this standpoint. Ly­ing-in is charting the effect of various chemical substanceson this metabolism, for certain substances speed up themetabolism and others make it sluggish.All this knowledge, while physiologic, is basic to ex­tending science's scant understanding of male fertility.It is possible, Lying-in believes, that, although a manmay have only a few spermatozoa, by speeding up theirmetabolism he may be made more fertile. It isn't num­bers alone.MISCELLANY(Continued from Page 16)sidewalks of New York within reach of student pocket­books this Christmas.For 58 dollars apiece, Student Union's outing depart­ment took a bus load of campers to the Florida keys fortwo weeks. For 65 dollars another group spent theirvacation on the ski slopes of Empire, Colorado.Student Assembly chartered busses and took over 70students to New York and back for the modest sum of22 dollars.No brass bandA most significant anniversary slipped by last Novern-.ber unattended by any celebration other than a five pagepress release. The nineteenth of that month repre­sented the nineteenth anniversary of the inaugurationof Robert M. Hutchins as head of the University ofChicago.Now in his twentieth year, Chancellor Hutchins hashad the longest period in, office of any president in theAssociation of American Universities.He has also served this institution longer than anyottl�l;: executive, the longest previous administration hav­ing; 'been that of Harry Pratt Judson, president foralmost 16 years.A.R.D.20 THE UNIVERSITYWHAT HAPPENED TO THE POLLS?(Continued from Page 9)employment, training, and supervision of interviewers inthe most i�telligent and thorough manner. While theselection of interviewers may appear remote as a sourceof error, there are ways to recruit a staff without bias.Gallup's interviewers have been largely recruited by re­quests for suggestions to various prominent persons, buthis. contacts have been more with bankers and lawyersthan union officials. This practice may partially accountfor the Republican bias of his staff, although there areother reasons, including' the virtual need to have welleducated interviewers.Respondents' questionnaires filled out by interviewersoften reflect the interviewers' own biases, but presenceof this bias in the election studies is difficult to determinebecause of the limited way records of the organizationsare kept-in itself an indictment .. Efforts to eliminateinterviewers with strong preferences were made, hut thisonly increased the Republican bias of the Gallup staff.Roper's interviewers have been hired and supervised per­sonally, but no direct efforts were made to guard againstinterviewer bias other than a written caution accompany­ing each assignment. Improvements in field practicesnow controlled only by rules of thumb would permit moreconfidence in election forecasts and other opinion surveys.Survey timingEvidence suggests this is the biggest source of error inthe 1948 polls. The S. S. R. C. report admits that theremight have been no net error had the electi�n taken placeat the time of the surveys. It attributed 3 points "ormore" of the error to shortcomings in timing.The pollsters were delinquent in several respects, most­ly as a result of "evidence" from past elections that votersmade up their minds before the campaign. AlthoughGallup's own surveys in January, 1948, showed Trumanahead of Dewey "if the election were held today" and hisown forecast release of November 1 said: "During histhree years in office, President Truman's popularity hasswung up and down almost as dizzily as the tracks of aroller coaster," Gallup timed his pons as though minds'change slowly, if at an. His final national data were col­lected about two weeks before election day, and his statedata a month or so before. In addition, Truman's sup­port was inching up on Dewey in Gallup's last four or fivereleases, but the trend was generally ignored. In his pre­mature forecast of September 9;Roper wrote: "The win­ner, it appea'rs, clinches his victory early in the race andbefore he has uttered a word of campaign oratory." Uponthis assumption Roper forecast a Dewey victory u-nquali­fiedly while the campaign was still a "cold war" and con­ducted only a superficial checkup in lateOctober whichhe combined with August interviews. Crossley's forecastw�, based on data collected over a two-m�nth span:' r , , ••OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMore careful judgment would have included laterinterviewing and careful trend studies, but even in theirabsence the pollsters had enough data on hand to indicatean election so close as to preclude a forecast, had theybeen sufficiently observing. Of course, they had beencriticized in the past for hedging too much; maybe theyrecalled the statement of the social scientist, Daniel Katz,after their 1940 performance: "It seems to the writer ...that the poll predictor attaches too much importance tolast-minute shifts."III.What are the implications of the most recent andsomewhat disastrous experience in election forecastingfor persons engaged in opinion surveying, for their clients,and for the lay public?Some journalistic critics have said that all polls andsample surveys -are now as dead as the Literary Digest.This is nonsense. Tide's leadership panel-advertisers,,agency representatives, public relations, etc., 84 per centof whom use opinion sampling studies in connection withmarketing operations=-reported January 7, 1949, that thechief effect of faulty election polls would be insistence onimproved techniques, more astute analysis, .and better useof results. Only a tiny fraction, however, felt that theusefulness of opinion and attitude research should be dis­counted. Late in November the National Opinion Re­search Center repeated some questions about election andother polls that had been put to a national sample in De­cember, 1947. The answers revealed a little more interestas a result of the publicity about the election polls but nosignificant change in the popular judgment of them andno reason for- believing that refusals to be interviewed willincrease. Perhaps a greater skepticism on the part ofboth clients and the lay public will be a wholesome result,if it occurs.But of far greater importance is the question, whateffects will this experience have on the practice of pollingarid other types of sample surveying in the future? Ifthe practitioners are now motivated to follow the threeleading recommendations of the S. S. R. C. committeereport, the long-run effects will be good; polls will becomean increasingly reliable instrument of research:"1. To improve the accuracy of polls, increased use shouldbe made of the better techniques now available, particularlyIn sampling and interviewing. Since the reduction of anypart of the error greatly increases the chances of a successfulforecast, the Committee urges that polling organizationsexert every. effort to adopt more reliable techniques. ."2. Increased attention should be paid to the developmentof research on each step of the polling operation to attemptto improve methods used in opinion research. This wouldinclude research on sampling methods, interviewer bias,concealment of opinions, selection and training of inter­viewers, etc. . . ."3. Research should be expanded on the basic sciences,particularly social psychology and political science, whichunderlie the analysis of voters' behavior. Even if perfectsampling of individuals is employed, we now know too littleabout voting intentions, factors affecting change in opinion,prestige effects, and . similar topics to predict who will trans-late his opinion into actual voting." . .THE UNIVERSITYSTUDYINGWITHGENERALELECTRIC OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21In 1948, enrollments in G-E courses totalled more than 21 _thousandTo graduate engineers, including women, General Electricoffers further study in its "Test" Course, in its A, B, and CCourses of increasing specialization in engineering prob­lems, or in its Sales Engineering Program. Business ad­ministration and liberal arts students study the broad listof subjects provided by the Business Training Course. Thereare other courses for advertising recruits, chemists, stenog­raphers. Young people without college degrees may enrollin the company's Apprentice Training Program, offeringtraining in subjects ranging from blueprint reading to appliedmetallurgy. All in all during 1948, the company providedfree instruction in 96 courses, taught by more than 500instructors. Total enrollments numbered 21,482. By develop �ill'g new skills and new talents, G-E employees improvetheir jobs and increase their contributions to the quality ofGeneral Electric products.'llfU4 .CQ,H. put lfCJ.UI/. � IAGENERAL. ELECTRIC22 THE UNIVERSITY' OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHokanson's home fo:r happy HoJsteins.WISCONSIN· REUNIONAT the time we should have been writingour MEMO PAD for the January issuewe were .iN Madison, Wisconsin, attending aconference of alumni executives from sevenmid-western states. The conference wouldn'tinterest you but the news about Wis­consin alumni gathered between sessionsmight. We'll report by class years like wedo in the News of the Classes.,Ii 905Ana Euke (Mrs. H. N. Calderwood, Jr.)has a most comfortable home in Madison.In addition to the bulb beds and the arbore­tum there is a woods where the wild flowershold spring coming-out parties. Mrs. Calder­wood's husband, a former Wisconsin chem­istry professor, furnished the army (as alieutenant colonel) with chemical' know­how during the war and followed this withresearch at the University of Florida. Allthis time, however, Mrs. Calderwood re­mained in Madison keeping the home flow­ers blooming. The Calderwoods are nowenjoying retirement together.1909We had never met Harry W. Harriman,JD 'II. But two minutes after we intro­duced ourselves we might have been oldclassmates. We remembered the Reynoldsnub social events=he, of the first decade:we, of the third and fourth-and the color­ful Washington Proms.He had roomed in Lincoln House with.OMr mutual friend, Roy Baldridge, '11. Wetalked about Benjamin Wilke, '11, the deanof all student promoters who organized thefirst campus commercial club, to affiliatewith the Loop organization. There wereHarry Hansen, '09, and Bill McDerm.id, '07,and scores of others, brought back from thescenes of yesteryear to join us momentarilyat Harry Harriman's three-acre estate onthe banks of Lake Manona, Those weregreat days and don't think you can talkHarry out of them.With his law degree, Harry Harriman setup a practice in Milwaukee. Ten years laterhe moved to Madison to become, counselfor the Securities Commission-which posi­tion he held until retirement in 1939; Meanwhile he bought the three acres onthe lake and installed a Guernsey cow tohetp raise three healthy. children. Now,with his forty-tree orchard, he enjoys his'flowers, the garden, and the successes of hisgrown children.Around the corner from our hotel wasthe top-floor legal office of Ray M.' Stroud,]D. We spent an hour together with thenew Law School Directory remembering oldfriends and bringing each other up to dateon their current activities.A few months after his graduation RayStroud joined an established law firm inMadison. The firm has since becomeStroud, Stebbins & Wingert. Sou Donald,with his bachelor's from Dartmouth and hislaw degree from Michigan, joined the firmmore recently; his brother, from the sameschools, is practicing in Milwaukee.1910We telephoned Nels M. Hokanson. Beforewe could enquire into his recent activitieshe said, "What are you doing tomorrowmorning?" "Well, there's a convention thatis being held ... " "Listen, grab a cab at9' A. M. and come out to, the house. I wantto take you out to our farm."You don't turn down a command per­formance, particularly on a crisp, sunshinyday. Already the Jeep town car. was warm­ing up outside the three-car garage whenwe arrived at the attractive home of theHokansons. Lady Tarbaby, the dog, haddisappeared so, with only a chicken cratein the hack, we headed for the farm, sevenmiles out of Madison.There are six hundred acres of rollingWisconsin land; two sets of modern farmbuildings complete with families; ,eightythoroughbred Holsteins; a thousand chick­ens; trucks (not a single horse); polishedbarn floors; hens laying eggs so fast theyhave no time to cackler sixty head of youngstock; half a dozen milking machines; anda picnic grounds down by the brook whereNels hopes the Madison alumni will joinin: a reunion next spring. This is the way the president of the Ev­anston real estate firm of Hokanson &Jenks, Inc., retires.,Even in his busiest real estate days Nelsfrequently ignored the grindstone for otherinterests. After, visiting all the importantSwedish communities in America, he � wrotea book, SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN LIN­COLN'S TIME, with an introduction byCarl Sandberg. Harpers published it in1942 and carried it to three editions. Ofcourse author Hokanson has another vol­ume in mind.On the ranch he has introduced numer­ous scientific experiments, many in coopera­tion with the agriculture department of theUniversity of Wisconsin. The hay is chop­ped, blown into the loft, and dried-in thatorder-retaining a lot of vitamins and stuffthat would be lost in sun curing. The sii­age lacks only cream and sugar, with frujtin season, to make it America's favoritebreakfast food. The hens get such scientifictreatment and comforts that they doubleegg production in sheer appreciation, know­ing, however, that the chart on the wallmeans eggs or necks. As you read this theHokansons are wintering in Tucson whereNels is doubtless dreaming up other ideasto carry out in his retirement.Bly's bungalow on U.S. 12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOWISCONSIN REUNION1923Charles G. Winslow, with headquartersin Madison, is factory representative forthe Howard Zink Corporation of Freeman,Ohio. He keeps Wisconsin, Minnesota, andthe Dakotas well supplied with auto acces­sories, particularly seat covers. He has beenwith the company nineteen years.There are three children: Robert, 12;Charles, 24, a junior at Wisconsin followingnavy service; and a daughter, 20, a junior'at Oberlin, alma mater of mother andwhere dad attended his first two' collegeyears.1927On the return trip from Hokanson'sHome for Happy Holsteins we asked to bedropped off at the white colonial bungalowon U. S. 12, a few blocks below the Wis­consin campus. We wanted to test theveracity of the sign which boasted THEBEST MILK SHAKES IN MADISON.(Madison would have to beat a shake inwhich our straws stood perpendicular with­ou t leaning on each other or the tumbler'sedge.) The bungalow was built in 1940 by JamesA. Bly, who was out of a job because hesold his Bancroft Dairy Company, whosethirty drivers cover Madison back stepswith milk daily.A dairy bar bungalow was a pressure­release, thirty-minute-a-day operatioh forBIy, who never intended to settle com­fortably in his bungalow second-floor of­fice. Sales promotion, to Jim, is the realfun in any business. So, while the bunga­low staff serves milk shakes and ham­burgers, he travels Wisconsin and northernIllinois, handling sales promotion for num­erous large companies. At home are hiswife: Patricia, a sophomore at Wisconsin;Judith, 15; James, 13; and Kathleen, 10.1942Richard V .. Andree and his wife, Jose­phine Peel, SM '44, are going great guns inMadison. Dick, who got his master's atWisconsin in 1945, is working on his Ph.D.while teaching mathematics at the Uni­versity.Josephine, also a math major, is one ofthe few girls to get a master's in meter­ology. She is on the mathematics staff ofthe Wisconsin Extension Division (home MAGAZINE 23study). You'd think all this would keepthem busy. But, no ....You should see what they have underthe bedl A lot of equipment for grindingand polishing semi-precious stones. Itseems that when the Andrees settled inMadison time slowed down for Josephine.She perused the adult vocational schoolcatalog and came up with gem cutting.Now she exchanges specimens with similarhobbyists across the nation. Contacts aremade through the pages of the LAPIDARYJOURNAL.It's only _a step from stones to silverjewelry interspersed with sewing while Dickplays around with cameras-color, blackand white, movies, and stills. In fact, hetook a prize . at the Milwaukee show lastyear.1947John H. F. Hoving has lived a brief butinteresting and 'promising life in Madison.First he was news editor for local radiostation WIBA. In May, last year, he movedto the CAPITAL TIMES to become a po­litical reporter in the center of one ofthe hottest political spots (in season) inthe nation.NEWS OF THE CLASSES1896Cora de Graft (Mrs. Walter F. Heine­man) and her husband, Walter F. Heine­man, '00, recently moved to Evanston, Illi­nois, after 41 years i� Beverly Hills.1904Frederick Oscar Tonney has been ap­pointed Medical Director of the newlyestablished Shelby-Effingham Bi-county De­partment of Health with headquarters inShelbyville, Illinois, Doctor Tonney hadT onney and 'Familybeen formerly Director of Research, Chi­cago Health Department and later CountyHealth Officer for Northern Illinois Dis­trict No. 12. Until his' recent assignment,he was City-County Health Officer forMansfield and Richland County, Ohio,1906Cecil C. North, PhD '08, recently retiredas professor of sociology at Ohio StateUniversity. Dr. North first came to: the Ohio State campus in 1916 as assistantprofessor of economics and sociology, andwas advanced to the. rank of full professor­ship two years later.1907Orlando F. Scott, MD (Rush) '08, psychia­trist-director of the National Detection ofDeception Laboratories, Inc., of Chicago,has developed through these laboratory re­searches the Psycho-De tecto-Meter, an elec­tronic lie detector based on brain electricalchange. This device is widely used in thecommercial field for pre-testing employeesfor dishonesties, loyalty, etc., as well as atthe Juvenile Court of Chicago for the pro­tection of those children.1910Leverett S. Lyon, AM '18, PhD '21, chiefexecutive officer of the Chicago Associationof Commerce, presented the Commence­ment address for the Executive Group grad­uating from the School of Business lastJune. Dr. Lyon also gave the principaladdress at the luncheon celebrating the50th Anniversary of the University of Chi­cago School of Business in September. Thespeech was entitled "The Road to Here inBusiness Education." I1911From the Alpha Delt Lion's Head welearn for the first time that S. Edwin Earle"has located with the Watkins office equip­ment and furniture store at Winston-Salem,N. C. Ned went to North Carolina some.: months ago because of ill health. 1912Leo H. Hoffman, JD '14, has offices.at 120Wall Street, New York City.Arthur Washington Wolfe is owner andmanager of Snowbird Mountain Lodge atRobbinsville, North Carolina.1913Hazel K. Allen, executive secretary of theCleveland YMCA, who has resigned after30 years of social welfare service, was thehonored guest at the 80th annual meetingof the Cleveland YWCA last May. MissAllen started her career as a home econom­ics teacher at the University of Kansas.She came to Cleveland in 1941. Her retire­ment became effective in September, 1948;Hiram L. Kennicott, secretary of theLumbermens Mutual Casualty Co., Chi­cago, was elected president of the National'Association of Mutual Insurance Companiesat its 54th annual meeting in St. Paul,October 14, 1948. In the insurance busi­ness for more than 30 years, Mr. Kennicottand his wife, the former Mary A. Whitely,'13, reside in Des Plaines, Illinois.Mrs .. Zillah E. Wilson of Seattle sent theAlumni House family a generous box ofnative Washington holly with lots of redberries for the holiday season, adding tothe Christmas atmosphere at 5733 Univer­sity Avenue.1915J. Ernest Cannan, PhD, and Grace A.Stewart, PhD '22, represented the depart­ment of geology of Ohio State Universityat the first post-war meeting of the Inter­national Geological Congress in Londonlast August.(Continued on Page 26)CALENDARTuesday, February 1PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center)Room 809', 19 South LaSalle Street, 8:00 P.M. "The Opera:The Problems of Early Opera (1600-1700)", Sc.ou G�ldth�aite,Acting Chairman of the Department of MUSIC, University ofChicago. Single �Admission, $0.75.�PUBLIC LECTURE - Alden-Tuthill lecture. "The Nature ofthe Present World Crisis," Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam, co-presi­dent, World Council of Churches. 8:00 P.M., Rockefeller Me­morial Chapel (59th S1. and Woodlawn Avenue), Free.Wednesday, February 2PUBLIC LECTURE-(University CoUege-Downtown Center andWomen's National Book Association) Woodrow Wilson Room,13th Floor, 116 South Michigan Avenue, 6:30 P.M. "Merchan­dising Print: Book-Editing." Admission, $1.00.PUBLIC LECTURE - (University College, Downtown Center),Room 809., 19 South LaSalle Street, 6:'30 P.M. "Speech in Hu­man Relations: Obstacles to Understanding." Bess Sondel, in­structor in Speech in University College. Admission, $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE - The Pythagorean Tradition series, publiccourse, illustrated. "Proportion and Norm," Ernst Levy, pro­fessorial lecturer in the humanities, University of Chicago.7:30 P.M., Room 122, Social Science Building, 1126 East 59thStreet. Admission, $0.82.PUBLIC LECTURE-Alden-Tuthill lecture. "Christian Strategyin the Light of the World Crisis," Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam,co-president, World Council of Churches. 8:00 P.M. Rocke­feller Memorial Chapel, (59th & Woodlawn Avenue). Free.Thursday, . February 3BASKETBALL GAME - Varsity vs. University of Illinois - NavyPier. 8:00 P.M., Field House, 56th & University Avenue. Ad­mission, $1.00; students, free.PUBLIC LECTURE-Thomas Foundation lecture. "Ethics andInternational Politics," Arnold o. Wolfers, professor of inter­national relations and master of Pierson College, Yale Uni­versity. 8:00 P.M., Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, 59th andWoodlawn Avenue. Admission, free.Friday, February 4UNIVERSITY THEATRE-"Oedipus Rex," 8:30 P.M., LeonMandel Hall, 5714 University Avenue. Admission: $0.80.Saturday, February 5TRACK MEET-Varsity vs. Marquette College. 2:00 P.M., FieldHouse, 56th & University Ave. No admission charge.SWIMMING MEET-Varsity vs. Beloit College. 2:30 P.M., Bart­lett Gymnasium, 57th & University Avenue. No admissioncharge.BASKETBALL GAME-Varsity vs. Cae College. 8:00 P.M., FieldHouse, 56th & University Avenue. Admission: $1.00; students,free.UNIVERSITY THEATRE-"Oedipus Rex," 8:30 P.M., LeonMandel HaU, 57H University Avenue. Admission: $0.80.WRESTLING MATCH-Varsity vs. University of Wisconsin.9:15 P.M., Field House, 56th & University Avenue. No ad­mission charge.Sunday, February 6UNIVERSITY RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller MemorialChapel, 11:30 A.M" Rabbi Ferdinand Isserman, Temple Israel,.St. Louis, Missouri. -UNIVERSITY THEATRE-"Oedipus Rex," 3:,00 P.M. and 8:00P.M., Leon Mandel Hall, 5714 University Avenue. Admission:$0.80.Monday, February 7_PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Woodrow Wilson Room, 13th Floor, 116 South Michigan Ave­nue, 4:30 P.M. "Approaches to Peace: The Economist," D.Gale Johnson, Assistant Professor of Economics, University ofChicago. Admission, $1.00.PANEL DISCUSSION-New Testament Club lecture. "Are theCriteria for the Study of Christianity the Same as Thoseof Science?" William A. Irwin, professor of Old Testamentlanguage and literature; Bernard M. Loomer, associate pro­fessor of philosophy 'of religion; and James H. Nichols, associateprofessor of church history. 7:30 P.M., Common Room, SwiftHall (on the circle at 58th Street and University-Avenue). Ad­mission: free.PUBLIC LECTURE-Confusius: The Man and The Myth Series,"Confucius' Life," Herrlee G. Creel, associate professor of earlyChinese literature and institutions. 8:00' p.M., room 122, So­cial Science Building, 1126 East 59th Street. Admission, Free. FOREIGN AND DOCUMENTARY FILM SERIES-(Interna­tional House, 1414 East 59th Street, Auditorium), 8:00 P.M.,promptly. "Die Fledermaus," German. Admission: $0.55.Tuesday, February 8PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Room 809, 19 South LaSalle Street, 8:00 P.M. "The Opera:Libretto and Music in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-CenturyOpera," Elio Gianturco, Research Assistant, Library of Con­gress. Single Admission, $0.75.Wednesday, February 9PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College=Downtown Center andWomen's National Book Association), Woodrow Wilson Room,13th Floor, _116 South Michigan Avenue, 6:30 P.M. "Merchan-dising Print: Sales Promotion." Admission, $1.00. .PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Room 809, 19 South LaSalle Street, 6:30 P.M. "Speech inHuman Relations: Practical Devices Toward Togetherness,"Bess Sondel, Instructor in Speech in University College. Ad­mission, $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-"The Pythagorean Tradition Series,""Architecture I," Ernst Levy, professorial lecturer in the hu­manities, University of Chicago. 7:30 P.M., room 122, SocialScience Building, 1126 East 59th Street. Admission: $0.82.PUBLIC LECTURE-Archaeological Institute of America Series."Excavations at Ancient Ostia," Henry T. Rowell, director ofthe summer session, American School of Classical StUdies,Rome. 8:00 P.M., Breasted Hall, Oriental Institute, 1155 East58th Street. Admission, Free.Thursday, February 10PUBLIC LECTURE-Confucius: The Man and The Myth Series,"Confucius Thought," Herlee G. Creel, associate professor ofearly Chinese literature and institutions. 8:00 P.M., Room122, Social Science Building, 1126 East 59th Street. Admission:Eree.Friday, February 11SWIMMING MEET-Varsity vs. University of Illinois-Navy PierBranch: 3:30 P.M., Bartlett Gymnasium, 57th and UniversityAvenue. No admission charge.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Fourteenth Floor, 32 West Randolph Street, 7:30 P.M. "TheGreat Ideas: The Theory of Democracy." Mortimer J. Adler,Professorof Philosophy of Law. Admission, $1.50.WRESTLING MATCH-Varsity vs. University of West Virginia.8:00 P.M., Bartlett Gymnasium, 57th & University Avenue.No admission charge.UNIVERSITY CONCERT-Beethoven Cycle: The Late Quar­tets, performed by the Budapest String Quartet (Josef Rois­mann, first violin; Edgar Ortenberg, second violin; BorisKroyt, viola; Mischa Schneider, violoncello). Quartets, E fiatmajor, Opus 74; A Minor, Opus 132. Mandel Hall, 5714University Avenue. 8:30 P,M., Admission, $1.50.Saturday, February 12FENCING MATCH-Varsity vs. Illinois' Tech. 2:00 P.M., Bart­lett Gymnasium, 57th & University Avenue. No admissioncharge. '._BASKETBALL GAME-Varsity vs. Knox College. 8:00 P.M ..Field House, 56th & University Avenue. Admission charge:$1.00; students, free.Sunday, February 13UNIVERSITY RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller MemorialChapel, 11:30 A.M., The Reverend Archibald J. Carey, Jr.,Minister of the Woodlawn A.M.E. Church, Chicago.Monday, February 14PUBLIC LECTURE-Walgreen Foundation lecture, Literatureand the American Environment Series, "An Ideology in Exile,"Leon Howard, professor of English, Northwestern University.4:30 P.M., room 122, Social Science Building, 1126 East 59thStreet. Admission: Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center)Woodrow Wilson Room, 13th Floor, 116 South MichiganAvenue, 4:30 P.M. "Approaches to Peace: The Theologian,"A. Eustace Haydon, Professor Emeritus of Comparative Re­ligion, University of Chicago. Admission, $1.00.PUBLIC LECTURE-Confucius: The Man and The Myth Series,"Confucius' Influence," Herrlee G. Creel, associate professor of24THE UNIVERSITYearly Chinese literature and institutions. 8:00 P.M.,. r�om122, Social Science Building, 1126 East 59th Street. Admission:Free.FOREIGN AND DOCUMENTARY FILM SERIES-(Intema­tional House Auditorium, 1414 East 59th Street), 8:00 P.M.,promptly. "The King's Jester," Italian. Admission: $0.55.Tuesday, February 15UNIVERSITY CONCERT-Beethoven Cycle, performed by theBudapest String Quartet. Quartets, E flat major, Opus 127; Csharp minor, Opus 131. Mandel Hall, 5714 University Avenue.8:30 P.M. Admission, $1.50.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Suite 631, Opera Building, 20 North Wacker Drive, 8:00 P.M."Existentialism: . Philosophy and Literature-The Philosoherand the Artist," Marjorie Grene, former instructor in Philoso­phy, University of Chicago, and author of DREADFUL FREE­DOM, a recent study of existentialism. Series ticket, $3.00 (5lectures); single admission, $0.75.Wednesday, February 16PUBLIC LECTURE-Walgreen Foundation Lecture, Liter�tureand the American Environment series, "The Centrifugal Force,"Leon Howard, professor of English, Northwestern University.4:30 P.M., room 122 Social Science Building, 1126 East 59thStreet. Admission: Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College=Downtown Center,and Women's National Book Association), Woodrow WilsonRoom, 13th Floor, 116 South Michigan Avenue, 6:30 P.M."Merchandising Print: Book-making." Admission, $1.00.PUBLIC LECTURE-The Pythagorean Tradition series, "Archi­tecture II," Ernst Levy, professorial lecturer in the humanities.University of Chicago. 7:30 P.M., room 122, Social. ScienceBuilding, 1126· East 59th Street. Admission: $0.82.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Room 809, 19 South LaSalle Street, 7:30 P.M. "The Develop­ment of Organized Crime: Backgrounds of Criminal Organi­zation: Its Roots and Traditions," Joseph D. Lohman, pro­fessorial lecturer in Sociology, University of Chicago. SeriesTicket (5 lectures), $3.00; single admission, $0.75.Friday, February 18PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Room 809, 19 South LaSalle Street, 7:30 P.M. "PressureGroups and How They Work: What Is a Pressure Group?",Kermit Eby, Associate Professor of Social Sciences, Universityof Chicago. Series Ticket (6 lectures), $3.60; Single Admission,$0.75.WRESTLING MATCH-Varsity vs. Wheaton College. 8:00P.M., Bartlett Gymnasium, 57th & University Avenue. Noadmission charge.UNIVERSITY CONCERT -Beethoven Cycle, performed by theBudapest String Quartet. Quartet, F major, Opus 135; B flatmajor, Opus 13.0; Grand Fugue, Opus 133. Mandel Hall, 5714University Avenue, 8:30 P.M. Admission, $1.50.Saturday, February 19FENCING MATCH-Varsity vs. University of Wisconsin. 1:30P.M., Bartlett Gymnasium, 57th & University Avenue. Noadmission charge.TRACK MEET-Varsity vs. Chicago Quadrangular. 2:00 P.M.,Field House, 56th & University Avenue. No admission charge.SWIMMING MEET-Varsity vs. De! Pauw University. 2:30P.M., Bartlett Gymnasium, 57th & University Avenue. No ad­mission charge.GYMNASTICS MEET-Varsity vs University of Minnesota. 8:00P.M., Bartlett Gymnasium, 57th & University Avenue. No ad­mission charge.Sunday, February 20UNIVERSITY RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller MemorialChapel, II :30 A.M., The Reverend Victor Obenhaus, AssociateProfessor of Social Ethics, Federated Theological Faculty.Monday, February 21PUBLIC LECTURE-Walgreen - Foundation lecture, Literatureand the American Environment Series, "The Sea: Change ofSymbolism," Leon Howard, professor of English, NorthwesternUniversity. 4:30 P.M., room 122, Social Science Building, 1126East 59th Street. Admission: Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center)Woodrow Wilson Room, 13th Fleer, 116 South Michigan Ave­nue, 4:30 P.M. "Approaches to Peace: The InternationalLawyer," Quincy Wright, Professor of International Law, Uni­versity of Chicago. Admission, $1.00. OF CHICAGO 25MAGAZINEFOREIGN AND DOCUMENT ARY FILM SERIES-(Interna­tional House Auditorium, 1414 East 59th Street), 8:00 P.M.,promptly. "Peter The Great," Russian. Admission: $0.35.Tuesday, February 22PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Room 809, 19 South LaSalle Street, 8:00 P.M. "The Opera:Mozart and Opera," Siegmund Levarie, Assistant Professor ofMusic and Director of Collegium Musicum, University of Chi­cago. Single Admission: $0.75.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Suite 631, Opera Building, 20 North Wacker Drive, 8:00 P.M."Existentialism: Philosophy and Literature-Either Or: TheDialectical Poetry of Kierkegaard", Marjorie Grene, former in­structor in Philosophy, University of Chicago, and author.Admission, $0.75.Wednesday, February 23'PUBLIC LECTURE-Walgreen Foundation lecture, Literatureand the American Environment Series, "Earth and the Over­Soul," Leon Howard, professor of English, Northwestern Uni­versity. 4:30 P.M., room 122, Social Science Building, 1126East 59th Street. Admission: Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College-Downtown Centerand Women's National Book Association), Woodrow WilsonRoom, 13th Floor, 116 South Michigan Avenue, 6:30 P.M."Merchandising Print-s-Direct-Mail Promotion and Sales." Ad­mission, $1.00.PUBLIC LECTURE-The Pythagorean Tradition series, "Inor­ganic Science," Ernst Levy, professorial lecturer in the humani­ties, University of Chicago. 7:30 P.M., room 122, Social Sci­ence Building, 1126 East 56th Street. Admission: $0.82.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Room 809, 19 South LaSalle Street, 7:30 P.M. "The develop­ment of. Organized Crime: Organized Crime as a Way of Life:The Professional Criminal," Joseph D. Lohman, professoriallecturer in Sociology, University of Chicago. Single Admis­sion, $0.75.BASKETBALL GAME.,.. Varsity vs. Chicago Teachers College.8:00 P. M., Field House, 56th & University Avenue. Admissioncharge: $1.90; students, free.Friday, February 25PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),. Room 809, 19 South LaSalle Street, 7:30 P.M. "Pressure Groupsand How They Work: Organizing a Pressure Group," KermitEby, Associate Professor of Social Sciences, University of Chi­cago. Single admission, $0.75.Saturday, February 26TRACK MEET-Varsity vs. Western Michigan. 1:00 P.M., FieldHouse, 56th & University Avenue. No admission charge.SWIMMING MEET-Varsity vs. North Central College. 2:00P.M., Bartlett Gymnasium, 57th & University Avenue. Noadmission charge.FENCING MATCH-Varsity vs. Ohio State University. 2:00 P.M.,Bartlett Gymnasium, 57th & University Avenue. No admissioncharge.Sunday, February 27UNIVERSITY "RELIGIOUS SERVICE-Rockefeller MemorialChapel, 11:30 A.M., The Reverend Wallace W. Robbins, Asso­ciate Dean of the Chapel.Monday, February 28PUBLIC'LECTURE-Walgreen Foundation lecture, Literatureand the American Environment series, "The Republic of Let­ters," Leon Howard, professor of English, Northwestern Uni­versity. 4:30 P.M., room 122, Social Science Building, 1126 East59th Street. Admission: Free.PUBLIC LECTURE-(University College, Downtown Center),Woodrow Wilson Room, 13th Floor, 116 South Michigan Ave;nue, 4:30 P.M. "Approaches to Peace: The Humanist," G. A.Borgese, Secretary, Committee To Frame a World Constitution;Director, "Common -Cause". Admission, $1.00.PANEL DISCUSSION�New Testament Club. "Are There Cri­teria by Which the Superiority of Christianity Can Be Demon"strated?" James L. Admas, Caleb Brewster Hackley professorof religious ethics; and Joachim. Wach, professor of the historyof religions, University of Chicago. 7:30 P.M., Common Room,Swift Hall (on the circle at 58th Street and University Avenue).Admission: Free.FOREIGN AND DOCUMENTARY FILM SERIES-(Inljerna­tional House Auditorium, 1414 East 59th Street), 8:00 P.M.,promptly. "The Scarlet Letter," American .. Admission: $0.35.26 THE UNIVERSITY CHICAGOBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women·s HotelIn theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering, Graceful Living to Uni.versity and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748BI"chtone Ave. TelephonePLaza 2·3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorSince 1878HANNIBAL, INC.Upholster.Furniture lepa,iring1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 9-7180TuckerDecorating Service1360 East 70th StreetPhone Midway 3-4404GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting-Decorating-Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186Jjladtstont jlltCOr a lin g�trbictPhon� PUllman 5-9170•10422 l\bobtj, �bt., £bfcago, 3tH.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6·31'92 OF(Continued from Page 23)Ira Julian Gaines, AM, passed away inSavannah, Georgia, on September 23, 1948,following a heart attack. His illness beganwith his first attack on April 28, 1948,after which he was unable to resume hisduties as head of the language departmentof Savannah High School. Mr. Gaines hadbeen on the faculty of the High Schoolfor 31 years. Prior to that time he taughtat Teachers College, Commerce, Texas.Janette Woodward (Mrs. H. O. Teisberg)is living in Madison, Wisconsin where herhusband is an assistant professor and as­sistant librarian at the University of Wis­consin.1916Ivah May Lister (Mrs. O. Finstad) writes,with her membership renewal: "I neversee any [alumni] in this part [Bison, S. D.]of the world. That is why I enjoy readingthe MAGAZINE," If any of you are visit­ing Custer National Forest next summer,you might drop in and surprise her.1917Victor H. Gottschalk, PhD, having re­tired after 24 years of government service,June 24, 1948, is now undertaking to helpthe University of Maryland establish ametallurgy curriculum. as an option intheir Chemical Engineering Department.Harry A. M€Donald, of Detroit, Michl­gan, is Commissioner of the U. S. Securitiesand Exchange Commission in Washington,D. c.Dressed in an old look gown and a blackpompadour wig, Lyndon H. Lesch was theonly "woman" in a nine-man saloon-scenepicture published across five columns ofthe Chicago. Daily News in December. Lyn.was "The Lady Known as Lou" at theChicago Real Estate Board's Christmasparty.1918Gladys S. Stillman, SM '29, is associate'professor of home economics in the exten­sion division of the University of Wiscon­sin and extension nutritionist.1919Stewart G. C�le, AM, DB '20, PhD '29,Executive Director of the Pacific CoastCouncil on Intercultural Education, LosAngeles, Calif., was awarded a prize of$500 in a contest sponsored by the : Insti­tu te for Religious and Social Studies, NewYork City. Dr. Cole's contribution was"The Cutting Edge of Democracy: TheDirection of Its Social Growth,"David C. Graham, AM, PhD '27, formerlya Baptist missionary in China, has re­turned to the United States and is nowliving in Rochester, New York.Grover C. Hawk, SM, was recently ap­pointed professor of biology at SimpsonCollege in Indianola, Iowa. Prior to this,Mr. Hawk was professor of zoology at Par­sons College.Alpha Kelsey (Mrs. Guy C. Thompson)is Home Service Director for ConsumersPublic Power Distributors in York, Ne­braska.H. Rowland English, AM, is chief of thebureau of business information, ExtensionDivision of the University of Wisconsin. MAGAZINE1920Earl K. Hillbrand is professor of edu­cation and head of the department ofEducation at Washburn University in To­peka, Kansas. In addition to these dutiesMr. Hillbrand is dean of the Evening Col­lege and director of the Summer Session.Paula M. Kittel is assistant professor ofGerman at the University of Wisconsin.Arvill S. Bar is professor of educationat t?e University of Wisconsin.1921Frank G. Frese, PhD '47, is a chemicalcontrol enginer in Chicago, Illinois.Lucile Gillespie has been at the NationalBureau of Standards in Washington, D. C.,for five years, first as a mathematician andnow as a Physical Science Editor in theCentral Radio Propagation Laboratory.Harold DeBaun is professor of businessadministration at the University of Wis­consin.1922L. E. McAllister, PhD, is head of thedivision of science and mathematics atBerry College, Mt. Berry, Georgia.Lawrence M. Lew, AM, formerly Deanof the University of Nanking, China, isnow at Bradley University, as associate pro­fessor of political science, specializing inthe Far East. Professor Lew has also servedas executive secretary of the ChineseUNRRA and professor of public adminis­tration at the Great China University ofShanghai and recently studied in Englandas an UNRRA research fellow.J. Edwin Pasek, AM, of 35 Ridgeway Cir·cle, White Plains, N. Y., who has an ex­ecutive position with Prentice Hall, writes(with his renewal order): "I need two orthree more salesmen in my division-chapswho like books and can sell them." Likethe radio, where you are not permitted tosay "Hello, mom," on the air, we can'tcarry advertising in our news copy. Butinadvertently we have given you Ed'saddress, abovel1923David G. Einstein has written a book onFrederick II, to be published by the Philos­ophical Library of New York. Mr. Einstein,a student of the late James WestfallThompson of the history department, is amember of the Chicago Bar Association.Pauline A. Harris is an office supervisorin the Engineering Department of ThePacific Tel. & Tel. Company of San Fran­cisco, California.1924Agnes L. Adams is elementary educationand teacher consultant with the TeacherTraining Center at Seoul National Univer.sity in Korea. The Center was establishedjointly by a special U. S. Congressionalappropriation and funds from the SouthKorean Interim Government to aid hun­dreds of Korean teachers and administra­tors who could not travel to the UnitedStates. Miss Adams was formerly in thefaculty of National College of Educationin Evanston, Illinois.1925Irene M. Coons, AM, is reference libra­rian at Colorado A. & M. College, FortCollins.MAGAZINETHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 27They 'have w"hal it laikesTELEPHONE LINEMEN have the traditionalBell System spirit of service that aims to"get the message through." They also have whatit t�kes in the way oj equipment and supplies.Their wires, cables,. poles, tools and count­less other things are provided by WesternEleotric=-maker or supplier of practically every­thing used in your telephone service. We carrystocks of 31,000 different items to help an BellMANUFACTURER PURCHASER DISTRIBUTORof telephone apparatus forthe.fiBells. ystem..'\ 1 •). -­O· of supplies for BellTelephone compenles. telephone people, not only to do their dailyjob of maintaining and. expanding telephonefacilities but also to meet sudden emergencies.• Western Electric has been a part of the BellSystem for many, many years-ever since 1882.Our people share in the System's spirit ofservice. We, too, are always ready to answer theunexpected hurry call-to help "get the messagethrough" for you.A UNIT OF TtlE BELL@SYSTEM SINCE 1882'28 THE UNIVERSITY CHICAGOBOYDSTON BROS •• INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOAkland 4-0492Trained and license·d attendantsSUPERFLUOUS HAIRREMOVED FOREVERMultipllil 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of hair from face, eye­. brows, beek of neck, or any part of body;. ':also facial veins, moles, and warts.LOTTIE A. METCALF·EELECTROLYSIS EXPERT20 years' experienceGrad:uate NurseSuite 1705. Stevens BuUdi.nCJ17 NI• State StreetTelephone FRanklin 2-4885FREE CONSULTATION. EASTMAN COAL CO.Estahlished 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. - Oakley Blvd.Telephone SEeley 3-4488Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phone: WEntworth 6-8620-1-2-3-4Wallon'. Coal Makes Good-or­Wallon Doe.Real Estate and Insurance1500 'East '57th Street Hyde Par.k 3-2525The Best Place to Eat on the South SideI·COLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone HYde Park 3-6324 OFNelle Elizabeth Moore, AM, is assistantprofessor of Education at San FranciscoState College.1926Myron C. Barlow, PhD, formerly headof the psychology department of the Uni- •versity of Utah, is in the real estate busi­ness in Los Angeles, California.ROscoe R. Burley is a pilot with UnitedAir Lines, flying the coast route from Seat­tle to Los Angeles twice a week. Thefamily, including Billy (7), live in Seattle.Between flights they fish, Mrs. Burley be­ing an expert fly caster, leads the family.She grew up in the famous Muskegon, .Michigan, fishing country.1927Elizabeth Coolidge, who has her master'sfrom Columbia, is a kindergarten teacher inSeattle. Like many of our 200 Seattle alum­ni, she spends much of her summer in herflower and vegetable garden.Harold E. Christensen, JD, is secretaryand counsel for Eversharp, Inc., Chicago.Rolland Hays Waters, PhD, for the past20 years professor of psychology at the U ni­versity of Arkansas, has become professor ofpsychology at the College of Wooster(Ohio).Leslie G. Templin, AM, is professor ofrural ch arch and director of the rural train­ing center at Scarritt College Rural Center,Crossville, Tennessee.! _ Arthur C. Owens, AM, is principal of theShanghai American School in China.Doris Mode has been in practice as aRankian analyst with the Institute forRankian Psychoanalysis, Inc., in Dayton forthe past four years.1929Marltha Hollinger, SM, is associate nutri­tionist in home economics at the LouisianaState University. Miss Hollinger attendedthe summer quarter at the University ofChicago, taking graduate work in humannutrition.Charles N. Burris is the sales and adver­tising director for Telenews Productions,Inc., New York City.Stanley A. Ferguson recently became Su­perintendent of City Hospital, Cleveland,Ohio. With the exception of a 38-monthtour of duty as administrative officer ofEspiritu Santo Evacuation Hospital in theNew Hebrides, he has been superintendentof Chicago Lying-In Hospital.1930Harold Hughes, JD, is on the faculty ofthe College of Commerce and Business Ad­ministration at Tulane University.Robert R. Page has been appointed in­structor in philosophy at the Navy Pierdivision (Chicago) of the University ofIllinois.Rita M. Sammon of St. Paul, Minnesota,edited a holiday gift book of poetry andpros� called A Christmas Book. It wasedited by the Leigh Publishers of Chicagoand sold for $1.50.1931Brant Bonner is professor of economicsat the University of Western Ontario, Lon­don, Ontario, Canada. MAGAZINELA TOURAINECoffee an_d TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave.. ChicagoOther Plant.BOlton - N.Y. - Phil. - Syracule - Cleveland"You Might As Well Have The Be.t"LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: HYde Park 3-9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERTelephone HAymarket 1-3120E. A. AARON' & BROS. Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributors ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketThe Lifetime TablewareSOLID - NOT PLATEDGolden Dirilyte(fOf'mnly Dir;qoltl)Complete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther 'Famous Makes of Fine China. AlseCrystal, Table Linen 'and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.'70 E. Jackson Blvd.. Chicago 4, I'll.Platers, SilversmithsSpecialis,. • • •GOLD. SILVER. RHODANIZESILVERWARERepaired, Refinished, 1.lacqueredSWARTZ & ·COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CEntral 6-6089-90 ChicagoTHE OF CHICAGOUNIVERSITYRoy A. Burkhart, AM, PhD '36, is min­ister of the First Community. Church ofColumbus, Ohio, president of the NationalCouncil, of Community. Churches, and amember of several boards and commissionsof the Federal Council of Churches ofChrist in America.Ralph S. Twist, student in the LawSchool from 1927 to 1931, has been nameddirector of property for United Air Lines.Twist will direct United's negotiation ofleases and agreements covering the use orsale of airport facilities, hangar and officespace and other company property.'Twist-He joinedlJIlite{l in 1941. from 1942 to1946 Ralph 'was on leave-with the Navy andwas discharged with . the rank of com­mander. On- his return to the company,he was assigned to the property depart­ment, 'serving as assistant to the director.1932Ruth L. Bradish, AM, is teaching socialscience at the Union High School in Phoe­nix, Arizona ..Jenness W. Eertmoed, SM, is now a stu­dent at the University of Pittsburgh.Charles -Elson is a broadway stage de­signer and associate .professor of drama atHunter College, New York City.Earle E. Emme, PhD, has joined the fac­ulty of Bradley University as professor ofpsychology after having served as head ofthe psychology department at BowlingGreen State College for the past two years.Dr. Emme is author of three text books andtwenty articles in professional publicationsand has also served as department head atWeslyan University, Mitchell, S. D., andat Morningside College in Iowa.,193·3Sherman M. Kuhn, AM, PhD, '35, is amember of the faculty of the English de­partment at the University of Michigan. Heis also associate editor of the Middle Eng­lish Dictionary.Wesley F. Bosworth, MD '37, is a physi­dan with the St. Croix Clinic, Calais,Maine.Albert J. Galvani, Maywood, Illinois, isvice-president of Reliance Mfg., Companyof Chicago, president of. the Chicago WashApparel Association and vice-president ofthe House Dress Institute of New York. Mr.Galvani also reports that he is the fatherof Wayne Wadsworth, 6Y2 years old, andGail Mae, 4.1934Marion E. Bunch, PhD, formerly on thefaculty of Washington University, is nowprofessor of psychology at the University of111inoi8. Helen L. Bell, who earned her A.M. atthe University of California in 1942, isteaching psychology and history in the Lan­phier High School, Springfield, Illinois.Herman L. Getner, JD '36, is with thechief attorney's office of the Veterans Ad­ministration in Los Angeles.William B. Goodstein, JD '37, is practic­ing law at 77 W. Washington Street, Chi­cago. His firm is a partnership: Samuels &Goodstein.1935Edward D. friedman, JD '37, is in theoffice of the general counsel, National La­bor Relations Board, Washington, D. C.Max L. Feinberg, JD '37, is general coun­sel for the National Institute of Cleaningand Dyeing in Silver Spring, Maryland.George V. Kempf, JD '37, is a member ofthe legal firm of O'Rourke & Kempf, Mont­rose, Colorado.John William Rice is an Examiner withthe Reconstruction Finance Corporation inDallas, Texas.1936Orville W. Richter is principal of theFirst Lutheran School in Buffalo, New York.Fernando Laxamana, AM, is pastor ofthe Miller Methodist Church, Miller, SouthDakota. A native of the Philippines, Rev.Laxamana served with the U. S. Army aschaplain, seeing service in Cuadalcanal,New Guinea, and the Philippines.Benjamin Libet, PhD '39, has left his po­sition as assistant professor of physiology atthe University of Chicago, to become staffneurophysiologist at the Kabat-Kaiser In­stitute for Neuromuscular Diseases, Dr.and Mrs. Libet (Fannie Evans, '40), are re­siding in Vallejo, California.�William' B� Ballis, PhD, is currently onthe staff of the Far Eastern Department ofthe University of Washington. Prior tothis position, Dr. Banis was on the facultyof the Department of Political Science, OhioState University, and served with theUnited States Navy, with the rank of Com­mander.1'937Winston B. Ashley, AM, was ordained tothe priesthood of the Catholic Church atthe Dominican House of Studies at RiverForest, Illinois.James S. Allen, PhD, is associate profes­sor of physics at the University of Illinois.John B. Biesanz, former faculty memberof the Bniversity of Pittsburgh, has beenappointed associate professor of Sociologyin the College of Arts and Sciences at Tu­lane University. Dr. Biesanz has served asexchange professor of Sociology at the Uni­versity of Costa Rica and United Statesvisiting professor of Sociology at the Uni­versity of Panama. Serving on the facultyof Iowa State University from 1939 to 1940,he was awarded his doctorate in 1941 atiowa.BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners (, Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: WEntworth 6-5'380 MAGAZINESwiFt 's Ice CreamSundaes and sodas are special treatsmade with Swift's Ice Cream. So de­licious, so creamy-smooth, so refresh- ,ingly yours. . . .A product ofSWIFT & COMPA'NY7409 S. State StreetPhone RAdcliff 3-7400. I',lOCAL AND LONG DISTANCE HAULING•60 YEARS OF DEPENDABLESERVICE TO THE SOUTHSIDE•ASK FOR FREE ESTIMATE•55th and ELLIS AVENUECHICAGO 15, ILLINOISBUtterfleld 8-61'11,DAVID L. SUTTON. Pres.3 HOUR SERVICEEXCLUSIVE CLEANERSAND DYERS8'nu1930H42 and 1331 E. 57th St.•EVENING GOWNS, IAND FORMALSA SPECIALTYMidway ::���� • w. call/orand deliver3 HOUR SERVICE--30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOTREMONTAD'TO SALES CORP.Direct Factory DealerforCH RYSLER and PLYMOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMidway 3-4200AlsoGuaranteed Used Cars andComplete A'utomobile Repair,Body, Paint, Simonize, Washand Greasing DepartmentsAlben K. Epstein, '1"2B. R. Herris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTelephone STate 2-8951q;g��UCJ'R'CAl SU,.,.lY co.Dlstrlbulars, Manufacturers and Jobbers ofELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES'5801 Halsted St. - ENglewood 4.7500TELEVISIONDrop in and see a program.RADIOSFrom consoles to portablesRadio· TV ServiceAt home or shopELECTRICAL APPLIANCESRefrigerators RangesWashers Blankets ,SPORTING GOODSFor all seasonsRECORDSPopular-SymphoniesFine collection for childrenIIIERI1J1IAI/\lI�5935 E. 55th StreetAt Ingleside AvenueTelephone Midway 3-6700Robert Gaertner, '34 Julian Tishler, '33A. 1. STEWIRT LUMBER COMPANYEVERYTHING InLUMBER AND MILLWORK7855 Greenwood Ave.-t 4'10 West Illth St. VI 6-9000 'PU 5-0034 Walter J. Brooking, AM, Dean of the Le­Tourneau Technical Institute, was awardedthe degree of Doctor of Education at thespring commencement at the University ofTexas. .1938. Frances Brown, JD '40 (MFS. Harold Cor­win), has her own legal practice in Chicago.She is secretary of the Women's Bar Asso­ciation of Illinois of which she was for­merly treasurer.Hunt Dom Crawford is working on lan­guages and Iinguistics at the University ofLouisville and writing for the InfantryJournal.Elizabeth Cannon (Mrs. Robert G. Mann). is manager of the Cannon's Book Store,Inc., in Oak Park. .1939Jerome S. Katzin, JD '41, is with the Se­curities and Exchange Commission inWashington, D. G.Irving L. Janis is an assistant professor ofpsychology at Yale University.William E. Murphy, member of Chicago'Sfamous tennis twins, is now on the staff ofthe athletic department of the Universityof Michigan at" Ann Arbor. His brother,Chet is on our Chicago coaching staff.1940Norton Jay Come, JD '42, is with theNational Labor Relations Board in Wash­ington, D. C.Jack J. Carlson, formerly of Seattle, hasbeen appointed District Manager of HenryJ. Kaiser operations in the South" Mr. andMrs. Carlson (Elise C. Young, '40) reportfrom their home in Los Angeles the arrivalof their third daughter, Elise Christine,born April 20, 1948.Cyrus C. DeCoster, AM, is now assistantprofessor in romance languages at Carle­ton College, Northfield, Minnesota.Carter Hamson is an associate editor inthe college department of Houghton Mif­flin Company in Chicago.1941Ralph W. Barris, MD, is a clinical neu- .rologist With the Northwest Clinic at Minot,North Dakota.Ingram Bloch, SM, PhD '46, is assistantprofessor of physics at Vanderbilt Univer­sity. Dr. and Mrs. Bloch (Muriel Holz­hauer, '42) are residing in Nashville, Ten­nessee.G. Merle Bergman, AM '42,' was ap­pointed assistant professor to the school oflaw a.t the University of Kansas City. Berg­man IS a member of the board of editors ofthe Illinois Law Review.1942George A. Beebe is now director of theAlfred University Extension in JamestownNew York, advancing from the post of as�sistant to the director.Do�ald C. Bergus is now serving asAmerican Charge d'Affaires, American Le­gation" Jidda, Saudi Arabia.Jo�?- H. Donnelly, MD '46, is practicingmedicine at Carlsbad, New Mexico .. Gordon Donald, AM,' was appointed as­sistant professor of business administrationat the University of Massachusetts.LeRoy W. Earley, MD,. is now assistantprofessor of psychiatry at the University ofIllinois College of Medicine. MAGAZINEBIENENFELDChicago's Most Complete Stock ofGLASSGLASS CORP. OF ILLINOIS1525W. 35th St. PhoneLAfayette 3-8400CONCRETEFLOORSSIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSWEntworth 6·4421T. A. REHNQUIST CO.6639 So. Vernon Ave.HOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone DOrchester 3�1579Phone: SAginaw 1-3202FRANK CURRANR�ofing & InsulationLeak. RepairedFree Edimate.FRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.8019 Ben'nett St.TELEPHONE TA)-lor 9-IS43G0' CALLAGHAN BROS.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves. Sumps-Pumps1545 E. 63RD STREET6620 COTIAGE GROV� AVENUEFAirfax 4-0550PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE1545 EAST 63RD STREETTHE OF CHICAGOUNIVERSITY1943Telephone KEnwood 6·1352J. E. KIDWELL Florist826 East Fori y-seventh StreetChicago ,15. IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLAjax Waste Paper Co.2600·2634 W. Taylor St.Buyen 0/ Any QuantityWaste PaperScrap Metal and Iron'or Prompt Service CallMr. B. ShedrotJ, VAn Buren 6.023�SARGENT'S DRUG STOIREAn Ethical Drug Store for 95 YearsChicago's most completeprescription stocle23 N. Wabash AvenueChicago. IllinoisSfin_rlwaq.,Chicago's OutstandingDRUG STORES•Auto Livel'Y'.Quiet, unobtru.ive .. rv;c.When you want it, a. you wall' ItCALL AN EMERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery" ,Inc.5516 Harper Ave.nueFAirfax 4·640'0 Richard E. Carpenter, MD, is a physicianin the Medical Aits Building at Duluth,\ Minnesota.Donald B. Cronson, JD '48, is with thefirm of White & Case, 14 Wall Street, NewYork City.Elizabeth C. Carney writes that she leftthe staff of Vogue magazine in June, 1948,to come to Japan as Air Force Hostess atHoneda Air Base, between Tokyo and Yoko­hama. "Just love Japan and have seenGeorgia Anderson, '43, and AU Bodian, '47,quite a lot."After earning his degree at Chicago, JohnB. Fuge, SB,. remained on the quadranglesto teach' for one year before returning tohis home town, Seattle, where he is nowchief meteorologist with Northwest Air­lines.David A. Heller, JD '48, is with theClaims Division of the Department of Jus­tice at Washington, D. C.1944Jack R. James is the office manager atthe Seattle branch of the Independent Pneu­matic Tool Company of Aurora, Illinois.James J. Jenkins continued his work atthe University of Minnesota where he re­ceived a master of arts degree in August,1948.Cyril O'Donnell, PhD, former presidentof the Indianapolis Distributing Company,is now on the faculty of the College ofBusiness Administration, University of Cali­fornia, in Los Angeles.Rev. Paul C. Reinert, S.J., PhD '44, deanof the College of Arts and Sciences at St.Louis University, was recently named tothe newly created post of vice president ofthe institu tion.1945Billie D. Bichacoff, SM, of Fort Wayne,Indiana, is in her junior year at the JohnsHopkins Medical School and is enjoying herwork very much although being kept verybusy.Mrs. Emma C. Barnes, AM, is now a so­cial worker in Los Angeles, California.Dorothy I. Cline, AM, instructor in gov­ernment at the University of New Mexico,is working on a study of state recreationalfacilities and is co-author of "RecreationAdministration in New Mexico." Miss Clinewas assistant director of the housing projectat Willow Run, and more recently served asassistant .to the director of overseas clothingcollection for UNRR .1946Kathleen Black is Director of NursingEducation' at The Menninger Foundationin Topeka, Kansas.Ann Marie Budy is a research assistant inthe Department of Physiology of the Uni­versity of Chicago.Lyman C. Gabrielsen, MD, is a captainin the United States Army Medical Corps,stationed in Petaluma, California.Lilliam E. Smies, SM, is now on the staffof the C.M:C. Hospital, Vellore, NorthArcot, South India.Lawrence F. Smith, MD, is serving withthe United States Navy, as naval doctor. MAGAZINE 31Since 1895Surgeons' Fine InstrumentsSurgical EquipmentHospital and Office FurnitureSundries. Supplies. Dressingsv. MUELLER & CO.All Phones: SEeley 3·2180408 SOUTH HONORE STREETCHICAGO 12, IlliNOISPhones OAkland 4·0690-4·0691-4·0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning CO ..INC.Awning. and Canopies for All Purpo.e.4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOYDSTON BROS.. INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.OAkland 4·0492ASHJIAN BROS., Inc..ITABUINED 1121Orien tal and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicalo Phone REgent 4·600032 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOPOND LETTER SERVICEEvery thins in Letter.Hoove. Typ,wrltl ••MultlgraphlngAddrtl80graph' Servl •• M Im,ographla.Addr ... I.1Malll ••Highest Quality 81rvl.. Minimum Prl ...All Phones 418 So. Market St.HArrison 7-81'18 ChicagoAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement "bleb llmIts Itswork to the unIversity and coHege fteld.It Is afflllated with the Fisk Teacllel'8Agency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist In the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.OUl: servIce is nation-wide.Since J885ALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best in placement service for University,Colleg'e, Secondary and Elementary. Nation­wide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, IllinoisCLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency67th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices-One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago,Minneapoli .... Kanaaa City. Mo.Spokcm�New YorkSTE',NOTYPYLearn nlW, II.peedy machine Ibortband. Lelleffort, no cramped fingers or nervoul fatiffue.Abo other coarsea: Typinl(. Bookkee_P-lng,Comptometry. etc. Da, or evening. Vilil.1 wnt, or ,1t0fl', for .ala.· Bryant��·· StrattonCOLLEGE" '-, 18 S. MICHI:GAtN AVE. Tel. RAndolph 8·11175AN,IMAL CAGESofAdvanced Scientific DesignAC·MiE S'HEET METAL WORKS1121 East 55th St.Chicago 15, III.Phone: HYde Park 3-9500 Miss PetersonShirley Ann Peterson has won the wingsof a United Air Lines stewardess followingan intensive three week course at the com­pany's Cheyenne, Wyoming, training school.Miss Peterson is now flying on United'sMainliner flights out of New York.1947Bessie B. Craig, AM, reports that she isnow director of family service for the As­sistance League of Beverly Hills, California,and is residing in Glendale.Albert G. Ballert, PhD, former geogra­pher and transportation expert on the To­ledo, Ohio, Chamber of Commerce staff, isnow head of the research division of Mich­igan's new state department of economicdevelopment.Frank B. Ebersole, PhD, has left CarletonCollege, to join the faculty of the Univer­sity of Kansas as assistant professor ofphilosophy.1948Michael P: Bums, AM, is a member ofthe English faculty at the University ofArkansas in Fayetteville.Wallace W. Booth, Jr., MBA, after ashort stint with Marshall Field & Co., as anassistant buyer, is now Financial Analystfor the Ford Motor Company in Dearborn,Michigan. Quoting Mr. Booth-"Comparedto the cruel business work, the Universitywas a soft touch."Hazelle R. Bergstrom, AM, is now withSears & Roebuck, Chicago, engaged inpsychological testing.BIRTHSBorn to Mr. and Mrs. William A. Greene(Marjory Mather, '46), a daughter., JudithAnn, November 17, 1948. The Greens liveat 950 Spruce Street, Aurora, Illinois.MARRIAGESAudrey A. Holzer, AM '48, became thebride of Harold Douthit on July 17, 1948,in Cincinnati.DEATHSHelen Cody Baker, '12, died in Chicago,November 21, 1948 at the time when sheand her sister, Caryl Cody Farr, '15 ofHighland Park, were planning a vacationtrip together to Arizona. Helen, who wrotea weekly column for the CHICAGO DAILYNEWS and who was active in social agen­cies, needed a rest but her death came asa shock to everyone. MAGAZINEBEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICEIJCENSED '" BONDEDINSUREDQUAIJFIED WELDERSHAymarket 1-7917i 404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoE. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph-Offset-Printing731 Plymouth CourtWAbash 2-8182RESULTS •••depend-ott getting the details RIGHTPRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypewritingAddressing - Folding - MailingA Co-mplete Seraic« for Direct AdVertisersChicago Addressing Company722 So. Dearborn St., Chicago 5, Ill.WAbash 2-4561CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3-3935"Good Printin, 01 All Descriptions"-AMERICANPHOTO ENGRAVING CO.Photo Engrav.,.Artists - Electrotyper.Maker. of Printin9 Plate.429 TelephoneS. Ashland Blvd. MOnroe 6-7515w. B. CONKEY CO.HAMMOND, INDIANA'C�ad�'P�ad'C�SALES OFFICES: CHICAGO AND NEW YORKCOMES THE REVOLUTION!It's here-now-today!For you-the American citizen-arethe greatest revolutionist in history!You have met those age-old tyrants­cold, hunger, dirt, disease-and hurledthem back.True, they have not surrendered. Westill have poverty. We still have sharpups and downs of prices and jobs. Therevolution still goes on.But it has gone farther here. We havewon for ourselves more comfort, moreconvenience, more security and inde­pendence, than any other people sincethe world began. "Right now the people of many nationsare faced with a choice-between dicta­torship and a free economy.And they are taking a long look at us.At the promise of individual rewardthat has stimulated American inventionand business enterprise.At American technical progress, which has made mechanical energy performmiracles of mass production, reflected inconstantly lower costs-and in the longrun, lower prices.At American workers-free to organ­ize, to bargain collectively with their em­ployers, to choose their jobs and tochange them at will-with no ceilings onadvancement and constantly increasingreal wages for shorter working hours.If we continue to make that systemwork-if we constantly turn out morefor every hour we put in-if we keep oncreating more wealth for all of us andmore jobs for more people-then othernations will follow us.Let's make our free, dynamic Americansystem run so well at home that otherswill want to follow our example.If we do that we will give new hope tomillions everywhere.THE BETTER WE PRODUCETHE BETTER WE LIVEApproved for the PUBLIC POLICY COMMITTEE of The Advertising Council by:EVANS CLARK, Executive Direc- PAUL G. HOFFMAN, Formerly Pres- BORIS SHISHKIN, Economist,tor, Twentieth Century Fund ident, Studebaker Corporation American Federation of LaborPublished in the Public Interest by:The B.E Goodrich ce. ,-----------------Send for thisinterestingbooklettoday!Approved byrepresentatives of Management,Labor and the Public.In words and pictures, it tells you-How our U: S. Economic System started- Why Americans enjoy the world'shighest standard of living- Why we take progress for granted-How mass productionbegan- How we have been able to raise wagesand shorten working hours-Why more Americans have jobs thanever before- Why the mainspring of our system isproductivity-How a better living can be had for allMAIL THE COUPON to Public Policy Com­mittee, The Advertising Council, Inc., 25 West45th St., New York 18, N. 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