· . .T�� UNIVtRSITY O�·(�I(AGO MAGAZI:NtTHIS MONTH'S COVERONE day at lunch Jay Christ (Business Law) said.to us, "Have you seen the May issue of PopularPhotography? It has one of the most unique pic­tures of the Chapel I have seen."In the Loop that afternoon we purchased a copy. Sureenough, there was the Chapel done in what is termedbas-relief. But there were other surprises.The story, telling how the effect was obtained (match­ing, slightly off register, a positive and a negative film)was written by the associate editor, Ira S. Glick, '42.Ira was an associate editor on our MAGAZINE while hewas at Chicago.Frank Fenner And the editor of Pop­ular Photography? Noneother than Frank Fenner,Jr., '22. Of course weended up in the toweroffice of the editor at185 N. Wabash.When Frank Fennerregistered at Chicago hisplan was to head towardmedical research in bac­teriology and pub liehealth. By the .time hehad received his bachelordegree and was ready forhis specialization, sicknessin the family delayed his plans.During his student days, photography became Frank'shobby. Therefore, it was not surprising that Frank,stopped in his medical plans, should arrive in the displayadvertising department of the Chicago Tribune and fromthere branch into free-lance photography.The depression found him making portraits of young­sters in their homes. It was about this time he did anillustrated story of "A Day in the Life of the UniversityNursery School." His success with baby pictures attractedthe attention of Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, justthen starting Popular Photography and in the first volumeof that magazine there were pictures by Frank Fenner.Also in volume one was a story on the use of photographyin penal institutions written and illustrated by FrankFenner.From there it was a natural climb to the editorship ofthe magazine and a hobby has grown to a stimulatingprofession. With all this have come honors that wouldchoke a dark room including an associateship in both the Photographic Society of America and III the RoyalPhotographic Society of Great Britain.The original picture (taken with a 4x5 SpeedGraphic), from which this month's cover was made,was a Fenner inspiration that came on a late Sundayafternoon following a day on the quadrangles with acamera club, studying architecture. Frank was relaxingon a Midway bench when he noticed an. interestingshadow effect running the length of the chapel and ex­tending across the east transept. That moment our coverpicture was born.The unique bas-relief effect came years later whenFrank was checking his film files for a picture to illus­trate Ira Glick's article on bas-relief.Ira, incidentally, continues to use more than onefinger in the pies of his major interests. In addition toserving as an .associate editor of Popular Photography, heheads his own company: Stan-Ford (his middle namehyphenated) Associates, photo engineers.Ira has also designed and a developed a good deal oftelevision equipment. His training and production aidesare at present used in fourteen television stations andon two networks.Helping to keep Ira coordinated, while looking aftera multiplicity of details, is his good-natured and tolerantwife. Andrea Leonard, '47, who took Ira for better orworse, thinks it's better by the day. They're both havinga wonderful time!Class gift of 1912: Stagg Field gate opposite Hull Court. Bas-relieftreatment gives depth to faint iron scroll which otherwise barelyregisters in a camera shot.This, the June issue, is the last un­til October. It brings to a close oneof the best years in the recent history'of the Association.The constitution was re-writtenand the Cabinet revitalized. Officershave been elec'ted for next year (start­ing July 1). They are top flight andready to continue the record set thisyear.Your membership has meant moreto you this year than ever before. Ofcourse a membership always includesthe MAGAZINE. Last fall, when wehad a windfall of 350 copies of Cap &Gown, we first offered them to mem­bers, later distributing the remainderamong non-members.,When two of the courses . in ourwinter Alumni School sold out, pref­erence far the final seats were givento' members, which procedure was'also fallowed at the aver-flaw mid­winter Quiz Kids reception.Reading Lists, for which there is anominal cast-charge far non-members,were made available free to members.Membership cards were issued farthe first time in the history af theAssociation, And only this month youwill have received a complimentarycopy of the Maroon's fifty-fifth: anni­versary edi tion as a sort of member­ship dividend.$.fin.rlw�Chicago's Oufstandi'ngDRUG ST,O'RESMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PO RTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago Stet. 8750OFFICIA'L PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNI Our plans far next fall will expandthis program alang lines suggested byour readers. We have room here to'tell yau only about the new featuresfar the MAGAZINE.Beginning with October, there willbe a monthly sports section. Thiswon't be the Rase Bawl variety ofIllinois and Michigan but it will ac­quaint you with the scares of seasonalsports activities which, without bene­fit of headlines, involve mare studentsthan could be found an the athleticfields and in the gymnasiums duringour Big Ten days.There will be a column an studentactivities. This and the sports sectionwill be of particular interest to grad­uates who recently were a part ofthese programs and who will want toknow haw their favorite activities areprogressing.On our merna pad far fall is a seriesof articles we've been wanting to dofar years. These articles will tell thesuccess stories of alumni operating in­teresting companies. We plan to tellyou abaut the Wrisley Soap Cam­pany, '18; the Curtiss (Baby Ruth)Candy Company, '13 & '39; the Seat­tle Times, '96; the Fulton Market(skyscraper) Cold Storage Company,, 11; and the Northwestern NationalLife Insurance Company, '97 & '24.T .I.phone KENwood 1352J. E. KIDWELL Florist..826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago IS •. lUi,noisJAM ES E. KI DWELL1 PADLife via, LeicaHermon D. Smith was the speakerfar the Trustees at the. annual dinnergiven by the Trustees far the Faculty.Apropos of knowing your Universityhe told this story:A gentleman called the Universityand asked to' be connected with Dr.Herman FussIer. Because the title"doctor" at Chicago means a medicalman, the operator checked that cate­gory. (Fussler, then head of the Mic­rofilm Department, is now Director ofLibraries.) She replied that no suchman was listed in her directory.The gentleman was nat convinced:"Dr. FussIer, operator ; he's in chargeof film reproduction." Still confusedthe operator asked: "Would that beat Chicago Lying-in or Billings Has­pital?"Just under the wireOn May 18th we heard a banquetspeech by Arthur H. Motley, Presi­den t of Parade Publication, Inc. Hewas introduced after ten o'clock, thir­ty-four speakers' table introductions, aprofessional entertainer, three musical .numbers, fifteen awards and citationsand five ather speakers. Mr. Motley'sfirst wards: "I was asked to' speak onMay 18 and I'm barely going to' makeit!"Ajax Wa:ste Paper Co.2600-2634 W. Taylor St •.Buyer, oJ Any QutmtityWa8te PaperScrap Metal and Iron'or Prompt Serl/ice CaUMr. B. Shedro., VaD BareD 0230SARGENT'S DRUG STO,REAn Ethical Drug Store for 95 YearsChIcago's most com.pleteprescri',tfion stock23 N. Wabash AvenueChicago,' IlIino.isCHAUCER'S WORLD, compiled by EdithRickett, edited by Clair C. Olson and MartinM. Crow. Illustrations seleded by MargaretRickert. Colurnble University Press, $6.75.It was in the early days of the Chaucerstudies in England that Miss Rickert, shar­ing enthusiastically in the labor of theEnglish research staff then gathering basicmaterials for the work, first thought ofcompiling a source book that would meetscholarly needs and at the same time com­municate to its readers something of herown wealth of knowledge of medieval Iifeand her love of everything pertaining to it.To her trained imagination each bit culledfrom some dusty roll in the Public RecordOffice or froin some old volume seemed(0 materialize into a lively scene; and thesescenes gradually grouped themselves iFlltaa pageantry of Chaucer's world. With MissLilian Redstone 9£ the English staff shebegan to plan the book that would bringthe old records to life, and as the twoworked together they had . it always inmind.She did not live to complete the book.But she did [eave ample material for it;and she also left behind her students who,sharing her enthusiasm and knowing some­thing of her aims, were glad to take up(he task.Ed,ith RickettThus Chauoerians and medievalists, havenow a .volume comprising far more sourcematerial on Chaucer's life and times thanhas hitherto been so brought together, themajor portion of it, text and illustrations,never before published; and they and amuch wider circle of readers can findlively enjoyment in its portrayal of lifein the Middle Ages.What distinguishes the book from othersof its kind is its thoroughly executed planof organization. The ,grouping under thechapter headings=e.g., The Home, LondonLife, Careers-is not merely a loose associa­tion of items. Rather the various bits areso fitted together and joined as to producea series of composite pictures, rich in de­tail, which it is a delight to follow through.The pictorial quality of the text is en­hanced by the numerous illustrations, ch-osen�y Miss Margaret Rickert, always with aneye to the structural whole-scenes from lifeas depicted in illuminated manuscripts of the period. 'How fully the selections chosenare representative, bow vast an amount ofresearch underlies them, one can learn fromthe scope and variety of sources listed inthe bibliography. To commendation of thetext itself, appreciative readers will addtheir warm praise of the work of the Co­lumbia Press in bringing it out in so ap­propriately beautiful a volume.The editors have faithfully followed MissRickert's plan and method, made full nseof her notes, and continued the moderniza­tion of the language for the benefit of thegeneral reader. Obviously, theirs was noeasy task. But, as Mr. Crow wrote in aletter recently, "No OBe could work "longover the hundreds of 3 x 5 slips . . . theodd assortment of typed and handwrittenpages . . . without feeling that this massof material, so discouraging in appearance,was alive with interest. One" soon caughtthe enthusiasm of the original compilersand wanted to make others see and enjoywhat they had done." So aided, Mr. Olsonand Mr. Crow have done an excellent piece -of work. And they deserve high praisebecause they were wise and modest enough "not to attempt a substitute for the onething lacking-the introductory chapterMiss Rickert might have written.There could hardly be a better memorialto Edith Rickert. Chaucer's World repre­sents her accomplishment in the field ofone of her chief interests, and the con­tinuation of her work by students she hadtrained. It is evidence that the Chaucerstudies for which Mr. Manly and MissRickert laid such a broad foundation stillgo on. And the personal tribute is notlacking. The foreword written by her sister,Miss Margaret Rickert, is a, restrained bu trevealing account of a life of extra­ordinarily varied interests and achieve­ments, and an appreciation both just andeloquent, -MABEL DEAN, Archivist,University Library. .THE CREATIVE CRlne, by Carl' Grabo, As­sociate Professor Emeritus of English, Uni­versity of Chicago Press, $3.00.'Grabo is convinced that plays, novels, andmotion pictures greatly influence theiraudiences. He is convinced further thanif any civilization worthy of the name is,to survive, audiences must be exposed lessand less to trash, more and more to workswhich portray life as it is, or as underreason it might be.To have more such works produced, hebelieves, we must develop creative critics.Such a critic would be aware of the prob­lems confronting the artist as artist. Hewould also have more than a layman's graspof those sciences which affect life signifi­€andy.Instead of serving as appraiser after thebook or play was written, such a criticwould suggest to writers topics about whichthey should write in order to improve thecondition of mankind. Such a critic trainedin biology or sociology might be especiallyhelpful, Brabo believes.He pmposes that certain problemstroubling society might be dealt with by-teams of writers, as scientists have in­creasingly worked in teams. But scientistsnearly always work with limited objectives,whereas the good writer probably neverknows what. he is going to tum out untilhis pen has written it for him. As JamesT. Farrell has said, writing is a lonely art.Writing a novel is much like having achild: the initial incitement may be theresult of team-work, but thereafter the mostthat outsiders can do is to see that theexpectant mother has good care.One chapter modestly suggests that in2 plays and in fiction, writers might moreseriously investigate the supernatural. Whynot? Since scientists seem determined tomove us into the- fourth dimension as SOonas possible, if we can learn somethingabout where we're going, we might as well.To make certain that no worthy writingis denied its chance, Grabo suggests that anindependent foundation be set up to sub­sidize - through established publishers _plays or novels that would be useful to so­ciety but which probably would not yielda money profit. Such works exist; it wouldbe interesting to discover through somesuch plan just how good they are.Each page bears at least one statementabout which I should like to write as mUchas this brief note. The work is packedwith ideas. It reports skillfully the con­cern of a sensitive and observant mind withthe social ills that increasingly beset us.-MARTIN J. FREEMAN.THE UNITED STATES: EXPERIMENT INDEMOCRACY, by Avery Craven, PhD '24 andWalter Johnson, AM '38, PhD '41. Ginn andCompany. $5.00.Professors Avery Craven and WalterJohnson of the Department of Historyhave written a new one-volume history ofthe United States which is suitable bothfor a college textbook and for the generalreader. They have striven for a "balanced"treatment, and have, in the main attainedit. More than most one-volume textbOoks,The United States: Experiment in Democ­}'acy gives attention to significant state­ments of fundamental ideas of the Ameri­can past, and to their institutional imple­mentation. The authors give adequatecharacterizations of important works in thefine arts, literature, and science, and, atthe same time, keep the political storycentral,Professors Craven and Johnson have notpretended to eschew interpretation. Theyare convinced that an era in our historyhas ended, and that the American peopleare plagued by "the great task of adjust­ment" to their new position as an "integralpart of a. larger world." On some of themore important issues, as that of the causesof our entry into the First World War, theystate the leading explanations and thenmake clear their own choice, with reasonstherefor. Of course, every critical readerwill find some points on which he willdisagree. For example, one could wish fora better statement of the relationship be­tween democracy and the idea of prog­ress; limitations of space combined with adesire to make meanings dear sometimesleads to oversimplification or overgeneral­ization. For a work of its scope, the bookhas a good score for factual accuracy. Andthere are plenty of facts, well-selected andwell-organized, and interestingly presented.The college teacher who considers theadoption of this book as a textbook willfind it well supplied with the usual teach­ing aids of chapter bibliographies, maps,and an -unusual number (for a COllegebook) of good pictures. The type is largeand clear, and the binding most attractive.The thirty-six chapters follow a topicalorganization within a larger framework ofperiods, so that unity of treatment isskillfully combined with chronological con­tinuity. Some may think that the alloca­tion of only one-fourth of the total spaceto the period before 1812 and of an equalamount to the period since 1920 is pressingtoo far along lines of some recent trends;others will applaud this distribution. Thereviewer would have preferred a little lesson the period 1805-1823 (three chapters)and a littl� more on European backgrounds,but that IS a matter of personal taste.The United States: Experiment ill Democ­racy should be a popular textbook in thefreshman or sophomore year in 'college,and' a useful supplementary book in courseswhich use no textbook, or in which thetextbook is ancillary to other. It will alsobe of real use as a supplementary readingvolume in high-school history courses, and­will be most suitable reading for theadult who wants something more than acapsule treatment of our national historywithout, on the other hand, tackling themulti-volumed works. on the American.past.-ROBERT E. KEOHANE, Asst. Prof.,Social Sciences.ALL OUR YEARS, by Rober+ Morss Lovett.The Viking Press. $3.75.One of the early chapters of Lovett'sautobiography deals with Harvard, hisAlma Mater. Of President Eliot he says:"He tried to induce his colleagues to re­duce the prescribed [college] course to threeyears ... President Eliot lacked popularityamong undergraduates because of his dis­[ike of intercollegiate athletics .... Tactwas not Eliot's strong point. Sometimeshis promptness in rejecting a courteouslead was disconcerting ... ""President Eliot was disliked by the pa­tricians, partly because of. his policy ofmaking Harvard democratic, and he wasunpopular with. the masses, partly 'becausehe was a natural aristocrat.· The Bostonpapers were furious in their attacks onpolitical grounds ... " .Yet Eliot was an internationally- famouseducator. It all .sounded strikingly'��amHiaras we began the life story of one of Chi­cago's popular men of the faculty,Lovett's Chicago reminiscences will de­light the' graduates of earlier days. Heremembers so many anecdotes and humor­ous quips at surprising moments.Of President Harper: "A business manstopped at the Newberry Library one dayto inquire from. the librarian the name ofa ruined city of the Orient which he hadforgotten. [Baalbec] In the smoking roomof a Pullman the man from the universityhad pictured the desolation of Baalbec . insuch moving terms that he had made asubscription to equip an expedition to ex­cavate its ruins."Of Philip S. Allen: "I am grateful toAllen for breaking down my New Englandhabit of parsimony. I came to Chicago aswhat was known in our expressive meta­phor as 'Tightwad.' Allen had an unerringinstinct for money in someone else's pocket,and an invincible charm for abstracting itin the interest of the company's thirst ... ."Of Carl Buck: "A dinner of the Inter­national Club was the occasion of criticismof the Versailles Treaty by the President,Louis Wirth ... It was discussed whether todeprive Mr. Wirth of his degree at the nextConvocation. The matter was settled byProfessor Carl Buck, who remarked drylythat if the. University intended to makeapproval of the Treaty of Versailles a pre­requisite for a degree, it should be so statedin the entrance requirements."Of Will Cuppy: "There are various argu­ments against capital punishment ... Thewriters of detective stories should be com­mended by Will Cuppy, the highest crit­ical authority, for their good taste inusually permitting their villains to extin­guish themselves."Of Jane Addams: "When she .was ex­pelled from the D.A.R., of which she hadbeen made an honorary member, she re­IJlarked, 'I thought it was for life but itmust have been only during good be­havior.' "Wben Lovett beaded Snell Hall: "The Volume 40 June, 1948 Number 9T'HE UNlVERSITY OF CHICAGOMAG·AZINEVIVIAN A. ROGERSAssociate EditorPUB L I 5 H E D B Y T H' E A L U M N I A 5 5.,0 C I A T ION.... '.:..EMILY D. BROOKEAssociate EditorHOWARD W. MORTEditorWIUlAM V. MORGENSTERN JEANNETTE 'LOWREYContrihuting Editors >HILLBILLY QUADRANGLE GLUB REVELS 4CAN CONGRES,S AND THE PRESIDENT Do THE JOB?, Herman Finer 5THE PULLMAN STORY, Edwin A. Wahlen 7DEDICATION OF A BUILDING (JUDD HALL) Robert M. Hutchins - 10Charles E. MerriamM. N. Th£rstedA FIDDLE AND A FOIL, Emerson E. Lynn, Jr.NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLE, Jeannette LowreyFOOTBALL? WHAT'S THAT?Published by the AlumIii AssociatiOl1 of the University of Chicago monthly, from Octobecto June. Office of Publication; 573.8 University Avenue, Chicago 8.7, I11il1ois. Annual subscrip­tion price $3.00. Single' copies 35 cents. Entered as second class matter December' 1. 1934, atthe Post Office at Chicago, IUinois, under the act .)f March 8, 1879.. The American AlumniCouncil. B. A. Ross, advertising director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y., is theofficial advertising ag�ncy of the Magazine.IN T HISCover I12''''!''', - 11- 13- 14-- 15- 18- 18- 19- 22- 32Inside Back CoverTHIS MONTH'S COVER -EDITOR's MEMO PAD -BOOKS. MOVIE PROGRAM<._,.:.;.\,",;�,�""_ 'Y' . ' .. ::;;"NEW OFFICERS �r!i��·.�AssOCIATIONNEWS OF THE OiA:$i�'E�,. - -, - -J: -: .... - ><".� •.• 0. .� r.COLLEGE DIVISlhi�(�i�At;E�; '.." ,,,".1-'-,""'<"':,'.":;INDEX FOR VOLu��A�O'''J -.:'" _,-'.-height of disorder was an occasional waterfight ... One evening there. was a bonfirein front of. the hall . . . the fire departmentturned .out; the students cut the hose: tJ:lesergeant threatened to search the house... I heard a warning cry and jumped backto avoid a pail of water which inundatedthe officer."We marked the' book for many morequotes but there is no room. All OurYears is the story of a beloved Chicagoprofessor who, because he loved his fellows,lived a richer and more varied life than anyprofessor could reasonably hope to experi-ence. . >Robert Morss LoveW"",was, for peace,against capital punishment; .and for fairp}ay, with such conviction :,th�t his lifewas filled with dramatic episodes, policecourts, and congressional investigations.He was in on the Sacco and Vanzetti caseand the first sit-down strike; was editor of3 the New Republic and a member of thePulitzer Prize Committee •. He and his wifespent many interesting years with, J�ne:-,;Addams while living at Hujl House. . He':'/'refused the -presidency of the University ofWisconsin butrbecame .Government Secre­tary of the Virgin Islands .and later a pro­fessor at the University of Porto Rico. Hisprolonged Visits abroad are interesting ad­ventures, again with twinkles of humor:"We had a certain pride in doing the tripas cheaply [as a] Cook's schedule, andshould have succeeded if Ferd [SchevillJhad not brought along some gold twenty­mark pieces which he handed out uncon­sciously in place of twenty francs ... wherewe were .not pleased and meant to cut thetip."It's interesting reading, particularly forstudents before 1936, when Robert MorssLovett retired from his Midway teaching ..H.W.M.From the Hillbilly Quadrangle Club RevelsBeginning upper left: Mrs. John R. Lindsay (Director and star),Chancellor Hutchins (surpr-ise appearance). Carl R. Moore (Zoology).President Colwe'll .••. Dr. H. P. Jenkins with dummy, Dean F. J. Mul­!:in Bi,olog:ica!1 Sciences) and "dummy" Mrs. Dorothy Morgenstern .•••Dr. F. M. Owens (Surgery.) with barefooted author J. l. Cafe (His­+oryJ by stove and Dr. Wrig,ht Adams {Medicine) through the arm.'Singing: the finale: lef�, Mrs. Lindsay, At'�ins (Alumni Foundation).Parme'nter ,( Rcmance Lang'uages) President Colwell, Dr. Dunham{Med:icine [.beMlnd Co'lwellJL Moore (Zoology). Dr. Ricketts (Medi­dne). Cate (holdil'l9 President's hand). Southern Senator Strozier(Dean of Students) •.:Juitors Wa·nzer a'l'Id Puttkammer (Law) with Great Books, PresidentColwell, E,ditor Mort, and Commentator Utley in background.' •••Mrs. Walter Gregory, Little Clarence Parmenter, and Mrs. Jane Wil­son ,i.n sp'ring dence, myst.ery man Bobrinskoy (Sanskrit) in blac�mustache and robe, Senator Stozier at left.CAN . CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENTDO THE JOB?Dr. Herman Finer gave the first three lectures in ourSpecial Alumni Course series on "Our Political and Eco­nomical Crisis." The February and March issues of TheMagazine published resumes of the first two lectures; Thisis a resume of the final lecture in the series.IN the two articles which previously summarized mylectures I asses'sed the domestic and international. problems which have fallen on the shoulders of, theAmerican nation. In the first there was the problem ofusing American power to promote justice and peace inthe world of seventy anarchic nations, and in the secondthere was the problem of overcoming the five evil giants:want, idleness, disease, squalor, and ignorance. These aref�rmidable tasks, terrifying in their urgency, terrifying ifthey are not accomplished and yet most difficult of ful­fillment. It is now necessary to consider whether the gov­ernment of the American nation is today fitted for thesetwo great twentieth century tasks.AH constitutions ,i'ntefpeMtrateThe world of nations has become so integrated, the in­terests of each nation so mixed up with those of all of usthat the constitution of each nation, that is, its internalmethod of government is part of the constitution of, theworld. No government has ever intended that its ownconstitution shall be part of the constitution and thereforethe fate of any other country�: But as we have seen, thepower possessed by any single country is a factor in theever changing .balance of power among all countries sincean increase in one may mean a decrease in the power ofanother. More freedom and charitableness' in one maymean more security in all others. Malice and caprice inone or some may threaten the security of and render hys­terical with fear their neighbors-which mean� all othernations.Especially is this fact true of countries with an excep­tional amount of power by reason of their resources, theirtechnology, their education and the size of their popula­tion. It is easy for us to see that the constitution of theSoviet Union, or to put it another way, the form andoperation of government of the Soviet Union, is a partof the constitution of the whole world. For we can seethe complete concentration of all the power in the societyof Russia in the hands of a few men, and their decisionsaffect the whole world. This is conspicuous because ofthe simplicity in the mechanism which concentrates allthe power at a single point within the will of a very fewpeople. If the Soviet government were more "compli­cated, were subject to democratic checks and balances,and if power were distributed among free local leaders,then the rest of the world would .breathe more easily. • By HERMAN FINERWhat is true of the Soviet Union's constitution is truealso of that of the United States, but in the sense onlythat the constitution of the United States is equally partof the constitution of the whole world. For a consti­tution prescribes who shall use power and what condi­tions they must fulfill before they may legitimately use it,whether for home or for international affairs.Therefore, the nature of the United States' constitutionin relation to the problems of the twentieth century needscareful consideration. There is no doubt that some re­forms in the institutions and methods are seriously over­due.The sepere+ion of powersThe vital defect of the United States' constitutionlooked at from the standpoint of the services it has torender today flows from its basic principle, namely, theseparation of powers. This was a principle of govern­ment designed to limit the power of government, torender government inactive and' to disintegrate leadershipin the fear that if leadership was not limited it might be­come as dictatorial and irresponsible as George III hadattempted to be and as some of the colonial governorshad actually been.This system gave the power to make laws to Congressand the power-to execute the ]aws to a President. Itdivided the making of policy from its fulfillment and en­forcement. It separated the five hundred legislators from "the single executive. It permitted the Congress.to have aresponsibility which went only to the point of giving Of­ders, that is, of making laws and yet of leaving the ful­fillment of orders to another person elected by a differentconstituency and for a different length of office.So determined were the fathers of the Constitution onthis separation that they very soon ejected departmentalchiefs from the halls of Congress.Disintegrated leadership •.This gave rise to two cardinal errors in government. Itleft to Congress alone the job of organizing its own lead­ership and it threw upon one single man, the President­I repeat, one single person alone-the responsibility forthe overall execution of all the laws and policies whichCongress had vested in the government departments.Let us consider the result in Congress first. Every leg­islature must provide for its own leadership because thereare many problems to be solved, hundreds of laws to' bemade and the administration needs watching from day today. Since there are over four hundred members in theHouse' of Representatives and' nearly one hundred Sena­tors and all theoretically have an equal right to the time.of the assemblies, some procedure had to be established56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfor producing an integrated coherent time, table and toprovide for settling which business shall be taken up, inwhat order of priority, and the length of time and atten­tion for each.Conqressicnal weaknessIn. this function no one can say that Congress has been. an outstanding success. In fact, in 1946, it was neces­sary to pass the Legislative Reorganization Act in order toattempt to deal with the most objectionable of the evils.There is no obvious plan to bring order into the work ofCongress. It is easier for men to be governed from theoutside than to govern themselves._ Consequently; Con­gress divided up its brains into scores of small congres­sional committees to which bills were sent for considera­tion. These 'committees, by their smallness, lose repr-e­sentative quality. Although the sessions for hearings areusually open, the. frequent executive session� 'make theresponsibility for decisions obscure to the public. Nor isthere any provision for leadership of the committees andtherefore they haye 'been led by seniority-that its, by age,almost regardless of the intellectual capacity of the menwho become chairmen by seniority.Furthermore, the cutting up of the work of Congressinto thirty or forty or more committees produces an un­natural slicing of the whole range of government business. into impossible pieces, and the coordination between thecommittees has never overcome this.Parties do not eoerdlneteIt might be said that party organizations and the caucuskeep the committees coordinated and responsible. If itwere true that the Republican and Democratic partieswere bodies of men united together for the fulfillment ofnational principles it might be true. But it does not needme to point out that the two major. parties are not blessedwith this unity of principle. Indeed, it has been saidthat American political parties are like two identical bot­tles, each with a different label, and nothing in either ofthem. This also is, an exaggeration but it is once whichemphasizes, an important truth. The parties are dis­jointed by the difference between sections, regions, states',great cities, economic interests-which are natural in sucha vast area as the United States. They are also dis­rupted hy the fact lthaJt for membership in Congress resi­dence in the Congressional district or state is necessary;and this puts a premium on locality against ability, andemphasizes the already strong regional feeling in the vari­ous parts of the United States.In some other countries party loyalty, party policy,party organization .resuit in a unified national policy anda high degree of natural selection of the legislators asagainst the local bosses. But in America it is the local'bosses who make up the large part of national policy. Asis well known, the platf orms of the parties are morenotable for what they themselves call straddling (whichmeans evasion) than decisive commitments.I t is all a question of degree and other constitutionshave their faults also. Since the integrating force of the parties is missing, theorganization of Congress springs apart and allows to everyman, to every group the right of dissent, however illogical,from the broad policy of the caucus. There is no nUcleuswithin the Congress to give the steady continuing drivewhich would affect the laws to be made, the generalpolicy to be pursued, and which, above. all, would lookforward across the coming years and t�ke responsibilityfor them. Furthermore, there is no firmly. established andyet loyal opposition to the President. The opposition isa little incoherent, resulting in spasmodic attacks in theform of Congressional investigating committees. Thesehave their indispensable uses, but they are not a steady,continuous method of controlling the work of an admin­istration which today consists of neatly two millionofficials.Consequences 'In domestic affairs, then, the laws that should be madeare not made, or, like the Full Employment Act of 1946,they are so full of inconsistent compromises that it is diffi­cult even to understand them, or they fall short as an'answer to the problem. This also applies to foreignpolicy. 'At any time the Congress can ,Oiffer from thePresident, at any time the House can diffe� from the Sen­ate, and at rany time the Senate can differ from itself.We have only to reflect on the inconstancy and confusionof the policy over Palestine to recognize the truth of this.A more recent example is the quarrel over the size of theAir Force. We cannot forget the difference of opinionbetween the House and Senate on the control of atomicenergy. And what could have been less rational than theinclusion in the European Recovery Program Act of theHouse resolution that Franco Spain should be included,when it was the clear intent of the Senate and the Presi­dent that Spain should be kept out?The PresidentThe Presidency was established as a single main execu­tive in order to secure the advantages of strength, speed,and responsibility. It was thought that a single person,providing the right man were chosen, would be strong be­cause he_ was one, whereas other countries had shownweakness in government by councilor cabinet which con­sisted of several members. They produced hesitation andcompromise. It was thought that a 'single person asPresident could make up his mind promptly and takeac-tion promptly. Also, it was believed_ that if only oneperson was in command of the executive then there couldbe no doubt as to his responsibility for actions taken oromitted, whereas if there was a multiple executive therewould be some obscurity about who really was responsiblefor the policy of the government. 'In acting in this way the founding fathers had sensibleideas, but unfortunately they were ideas more attuned tothe comparatively simple and inactive society of the 18thcentury. One hundred and seventy years have proventhat in none of the three respects mentioned above canthe single member executive satisfy the conditions.tOontinued on Page 19)THE PULLMAN STORYBehind course 51 Db (titled: Industrial Organization) in theLaw School Announcements, IS a fascinating and practicalactivity. This required course is designed to give the stu­dent first-hand experience in digging out solutions toproblems involving the organization and operation of in-dustry. .The student is assigned an industry. During the two quar­ters of the course, this law student must make an extenslivestudy of the industry. By interviews and research he mustgather together the pertinent facts pertaining to the his­tory and the opere+ionel phases of the ,industry and writea comprehensive report. AU s+e+ements and opinions mustbe supported by documented sources.From these studies have come illuminating reports on theorganization, structure, labor and trade practices of in­dustries ranging from the manufacture of nails to, the ex­ploitation of feminine charm.Directors of the studies are Edward H. Levi, '32, Ph.D'35,Professor of LayJ, recently returned from his War respon­sibilities as Speciel Assis+en+ to the Attorney General,and economists; Norman Bursler and Ward S. Bowman,formerly employed as experts by the federal government.The story of the Pullman companies has been edited froma report of more than a hundred pages. ActuaHy, this edit­ing is unfair to both the author and the Law School. Forpurposes of brevity and popular readability, tables, charts,statistics, and .qree+ chunks of supporting evidence, whichmake this report professionally significant, have beenomitted. We chose this report because everyone who hastipped a porter or climbed a shaky ladder to an upperberth has wondered (with some irritation) why the lumber­ing cars with the depressing green curtains, have not [oinedthe covered wagons in the museums.I··· N 1836 the first railway sleeping car was put in serv­ice on the Cumberland Valley Railroad, runningfrom Harrisburg to Chambersburg. This first sleep­ing car was a crude adaptation of a regular' passengercoach and consisted of wood racks or bunks on whichthe male passengers reclined, fully clothed. Nothing inthe way of service or mattresses or bed linen. was pro­vided.From this humble beginning the sleeping car businesshas developed into an industry with, at present, threelarge corporations engaged in the manufacturing branch(American Car and Foundry; Budd; Pullman-Standard)and one large corporation providing sleeping car service(The Pullman Company) on the vast network of Ameri-can railroads. .In the early days of the industry the construction ofsleeping cars was usually handled by regular commer­cial car builders, while the operation of sleeping carswas the business of separate service companies or therailroads themselves. There were some exceptions, such • By EDWIN A. WAHLEN. '42as the Wagner Palace Car Oompany and Pullman's Pal­ace Car Company, both of which were operating com­panies as well as manufacturers of sleeping cars.By 1900 the Pullman Company had absorbed all otheroperating companies and, by virtue of its contracts withthe railroads, it also became the sole producer of sleepingcars. This monopoly Ied to a civil action begun by thegovernment against Pullman Oompany in 1940 for vio­lation of the Sherman Act.The government's contentions were upheld and it wasordered that Pullman, Incorporated (the holding com­pany) dispose of either its car operating or its manufac­turing business. This breakup of the Pullman monopolyhas opened the door to other manufacturers and the in­dustry is, at present, in a state of flux. Already twoother manufacturers have entered the field and moremay follow. Likewise, the methods of car operationmay possibly change in the" future.. Threerenlnq a monopolyDuring the period from 1881 to 1941 the Pullmanmanufacturing divisions made sleeping cars only for, andon order from, the Pullman operating company. Untilthe advent of the inte.grated train and the streamlinedcars in 1933, the designs for sleeping cars were well. standardized. These so-called heavyweight, carbon steelcars were ordered by the Pullman operating companyas traffic required. "As car loadings went up the demand for sleeping- cars increased; when car loadings declined there wasno de�and for any type of rolling stock. Thisphenomenon characterizes the industry as "feast orfamine." When the loadings on' one road were up,loadings on all roads' were usually' up. Aggravating thisEdwin A. Wahlen's firstambition was to be a pro­fessional bas.ebaU player.So he entered the Univer­sity of Alabama. wherepros are frequently devel­oped. During his collegecareer he i:njured his backand realized he probablycould only hope to be asecond string pitcher. In '1940 he came to Chicagowhere he received hisbachelor's degree in 1942and. with time out toserve as a lieufenant inthe Army. he wini now re­ceive hi's J.D. in June.Edwin is married. has one child (5 months). a,nd lives inGary. Eventually he is interested in teaching although. forthe momen+, he is.. conslderlnq entering la,w practice inChicago.78 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsituation was the fact that many railroads built carsin their own shops and only passed the "overflow" to.commercial car builders.Before 1933 these "feast-famine" factors were notimportant in the manufacture of sleeping cars 'becauseof standard designs and because there was only one pur­chaser. With the advent of the streamlined train in1933, the railroads began to demand the new type sleep­ing cars. They also wished to have attractive-appear­ing, distinctive, integrated trains, Although .the Pullman.operating company, with minor exceptions, insisted on• owning these new-type cars, the demands for distinc­tive design were partially met, but only on terms favor­able to Pullman.The trend to Ia multitude of non-standard, distinctivecars was resisted by both Pullman companies. Pullman'soperating company opposed non-standard cars becausethey may not be readily interchangeable on the roads.Pullman's manufacturing company opposed them becauseeconomies of production can be realized when a long runof standard cars is put into production.Threatening Pullman's manufacturing monopoly in1933 was the Edward G. Budd Manufacturing Company,which put into operation the first lightweight, stream­lined train-the Burlington's Zephyr. During the periodfrom 1933 to 1942 a total of seventeen sleeping carsand four combination cars were built in the United Statesby companies other than Pullman. Budd built five forthe Santa Fe, ten for the Burlington, and two for theDenver Rio Grande and Western.· During that time thePtlllma�-Standard built a total of 609 lightweight, cars.Resisting the th,reatThe Pullman operating company at first refused to oper­ate the, Budd .. built cars. After much discussion, the Pull­man company agreed to operate and service the Buddcars on a special contract basis of all expenses plus 20%for overhead and profit. Thereafter, all contracts withthe railroads for the operation of new, lightweight sleep­ing cars provided that Pullman should operate only"'cars which the Pullman Company's manufacturingsources are now or may hereafter be equipped to build.'"This enabled Pullman to control the design, construction,and source of the new-type cars.The power of the Pullman grol\p wa:s too much for theBudd Company, even though the railroads liked Budd­built cars. Budd's frustration in trying to break into thesteeping 'carr industry apparently prompted it to lodgea complaint with the Department 0' Justice and out ofthis complaint came the anti-trust suit against Pullman.[The complicated but interesting history of the multi­tude of sleeping car companies who· operated from themiddle of the nineteenth century to 1900 and how theywere all absorbed by the Pullman company by the end ofthe period is next recorded by the author. We pick upthe story in 1900. Editor] Operating what they builtBy 1900, Pullman was the only company operatingsleeping cars in the United States, other than the rail­roads themselves. In the early days of the sleeping carsome companies rented their cars to the railroads andthe railroads operated and serviced' them. Other com­panies contracted with the railroads to provide sleepingcar service and these companies operated and servicedthe cars. Some railroads owned and operated their sleep­ing cars .. In those days two or more sleeping car com­panies often competed for traffic in the same area whilein. �ome territories the competing lines met but did notoverlap.After the Pullman Company established its monopolyit grew- to become the owner of over 6,000. sleepingcars, extensive repair shops, laundries, large supplies oflinen and bedding, as well as the employer of a staff ofmore than 30,000 highly trained operating and servicepersonnel.The Pullman Company always owned and serviced itscars. It made contracts with the various roads to pro-,vide, operate, and service the sleeping cars. In returnthe railroad agreed to haul the Pullman cars free ofcharge, to heat and light them without cost to Pullmanand to sell Pullman. tickets through its regular ticket;. .agents.Advantages of the monopolyPullman offered distinct advantages to the railroadsand these advantages were fully exploited by Pullman ina determined effort to maintain its. monopoly position.The chief advantage offered by Pullman was the largepool of cars which : it maintained, ready to meet anytemporary increase in traffic, thus relieving an individualroad from the prohibitive cost of its own pool for peakseasons.By signing up with Pullman, peak demands, such asvacation seasons, conventions, or special events, would bemet by drawing cars from the Pullman pool. Since Pull­man operated on a nationwide scale, it could shuttle itscars where needed, keeping a large portion of them in Usemost of the time.A second advantage offered by Pullman was that itscars could be operated over the lines of several railroadson through runs. Pullman also offered a uniformly highgrade service performed by a crew of trained personnel.All these advantages plus efficient operation which pro­vided service at lower cost accounted for the developmentof Pullman's monopoly.lrcncled contractsPrior to 1900, Pullman retained all the revenue col­lected for sleeping car service. Later, contracts stipu­lated that Pullman would retain all Pullman car receiptsup to a certain minimum per car.· This minimum variedfrom $1,250. to '$9,000r per car per year, based on.estimatedaverage operating expenses plus an initial profit of $1,000per car per year. Beyond this point the profit was split onTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa fifty-fifty 'basis. After 1921 contracts, provided for ac­tual expense, including depreciation, plus an additionalprofit of $1,000 per year with all excess revenue splitevenly with the road.Many contracts, .especially with the smaller roads, pro-vided that the railroad' guarantee the average operatingexpense per car and, if revenues should be insufficient,the railroad would -make up the difference._ Since therailroads were obligated to provide certain minimumsleeping car service as a public convenience, even thoughunprofitable, it is apparent that Pullman placed itself in awen nigh impregnable bargaining position.- But Pullman buttressed its position even more with ...other provisions. Shortly �fter '-1900 '- Pullman began p>ro­viding in its operating contracts that only the PullmanCompany shouldbe permitted to operate sleeping cars onthe lines .. ':Ptj,Uman held the threat 'of refusal to::phmitthe railroad thebenefits or the Pullman pool as a weapon'to induce the railroads to agree to this exclusive dealingfeature. This .excluded any practical possibility of acompeting sleeping car' company entering the field._ Anew company could not build up a pool of cars unless ithad contracts and it could not get contracts until it hadbuilt up - a pool. It was also customary to stagger the ex­piration dates of contracts so that Pullman could bargainseparately with each road rather than with several at atime.When the railroads became' interested in the new-typeljghtweight streamlined cars, Pullman -was reluctant toprovide them because its tremendous investment in thefleet of old-time cars would soon become relativelyworthless. Pullman did build a few new-type cars but ittried to discourage the railroads in their demands. Pull­man also threatened cancellation of existing contracts ifthe railroads purchased cars from outside builders.Coach com-petitionThe differential between coach fares and first - classfares created Pullman's stiffest competition. The in­creasing attractive coach service currently featured onmost railroads_ plus the promotional efforts of the roadsin behalf of their new coach service, as well as the lowercoach fares caused diversion of traffic away from Pullman.. Pullman officials were clearly aware of this situation aswell as of the competition afforded' by private autos,buses; and airplanes. P�esident Crawford, of Pullman,Inc.jin his'l940 Annual Statement said, "An unfavorablerate situation remains the most ,important 'obstacle in theway of substantial recovery in the first class tail-Pullmanpassenger business, and will continue so long as first classrail fares are maintained at present levels over the coachrates." 9Furthermore, Pullman provided a type -of luxury travelwhich was vulnerable in time of economic stress. It hadlarge overhead costs in the form of depreciation,' -hpkeepand. storage on all its cars, shops, laundries, and mis­cellaneous supplies. A relatively .small drop in trafficcould result in a relatively large decrease in earnings.Pullman, expecting increasing competition from rail­road coaches, autos, buses, and airlines, launched an ex­tensive advertising campaign, stressing safety arid com­fort.During the recent war Pullman performed a mag­nificent feat in transporting 65,695,895 revenue passengersa total of 28,267,090,536 revenue passenger miles in 1944alone. Over seventy-five per cent of all troop traffic wascarried in Pullman cars. The entire fleet was in opera­tion. In addition, Pullman leased some 1,237 troop sleep­ers from the Defense Plant Corporation and operatedthem on a contract basis, providing for reduced fares.One of the most important developments' in the post­war operation of sleeping cars was the inauguration ofcoast- to-coast through sleeping car service on March 31,1946,. Commencing on that date, designated sleepingcars on the New York Central, Pennsylvania, and Balti­more and Ohio Railroads were switched to west-boundtrains of the Santa Fe, Rock Island, and BurlingtonRailroads at Chicago or St. Louis.The all-important porterThe Pullman Company employed about 30,000 per­sons. During the war this number increased to 39,703_ in 1944. The great bulk of Pullman employes werechamber-maids, cleaning personnel, and the all-impor ..tant Pullman car porter. The porter was perhaps themost important member in Pullman's labor team. It washis disposition, personality, manners, and efficiency whichcame to characterize Pullman service.Important as he was in the success story of the Pull­man Company, the porter earned a monthly salary of lessthan $100. He was dependent upon the generosity of thep'assenger to supplement his income. If he had a regularrun in the Northeastern or Northcentral States, he mightreceive as much as sixty to eighty dollars per month intips. However, if he was assigned to a run in the South ..ern States, his income from tips might average onlyfifteen to twenty dollars per month.There is a Brotherhood of Pullman Porters, but it isapparently not very effective. The fact that a job as aPullman porter is considered by many Negroes to besecond only to a profession makes the supply of potential'porters almost inexhaustible and greatly strengthens pun­man's bargaining position.Antitrust actionThe 'Governmeent commenced a civil action against thePullman companies in 1940 for violation of the antitrustlaws. The complaint charged that the Pullman group had,with unimportant exceptions, acquired exclusive control(Continued on Page 20,)DEDICATION OF A BUILDINGHonoring the late Charles Hubbard Judd, a two dey con­ference on education was conducted by the Departmentof Education April 15 and 16. The late afternoon of thefirst day was set apart to dedicate the Graduate EducationHall: the Charles Hubbard Judd Hall.At the. reception and dinner following the dedication, RalphW: TyJer, Chairman ofthe Department of Education, pre·sided and introduced the speakers, Chancellor Robert M.Hutchins and Charles E. Merriam, Dis+inquished ServiceProfessor Emeritus of Political Science. Their speechesfollow.Robert M. HutchinsVery early in my administration Mr. Arnett said toMr. Woodward and me that the Rockefeller Boards hadprovided for all the great men and all the great groupsat the University of Chicago, except Mr. Judd and hisgroup. He suggested that we ask Mr. Judd what heneeded. Mr. Judd produced the plans for a new buildingfor the School of Education in something under thirtyseoonds. He had been thinking about it for years. Thiswas the era of conditional gifts; the University was al­ready loaded -down with conditions which it was havingtrouble in meeting. Mr. Woodward and I therefore pro­posed to the General Education Board, borrowing aphrase from Max Mason, that it temper its. generositywith mercy. Because of its desire to recognize the con­tributions of Mr. Judd, the Board gave us the building.without the usual condition that the University mustraise a stated sum of money. It stipulated merely thatthe budget of the School of Education should be annuallyraised over a period of years, and, when the depressionhit us, even this condition was waived.The Graduate Education Building was conceived anderected as a tribute to Mr. judd. It is fitting that at lastit should be called by his name.He wanted it named after Mr. Judson, and this desireof his itlustrates one of the leading traits of his character.I have great respect for Mr. Judson's memory, because Ithink I have some idea of what he was. up against. Butit must be admitted that fifteen years ago it was difficultto find anybody in the University who would say a goodword for him. But Mr. Judd was first of all a goodsoldier, and a grateful one. Mr. Judson had given him afree hand in the reorganization of the School of Education-Mr. Judd could paint a very moving picture of what ajob that was. Mr. Judson had supported Mr. Judd inevery battle. He was president of Mr. Judd's university,and his name was never mentioned where Mr. Judd andI were present without Mr. Judd's coming to his defense.This loyalty of Mr. Judd to his administrative supe­riors was a little uncritical, as is best shown by my ownrelations with him. He and I became very dose friends ; J·udd Hallbut I am inclined to think that his official attitude towardme would have been much the same if we had not beenfriends at all. I was the president of his university, andthat was enough for him.The first telegram I received congratulating me on myelection as president came from the School of Education.I did not know till later how much effoit this must havecost Mr. Judd. He finally revealed to me that when I, was elected he had got in touch with one of his most inti­mate friends at Valle, who told him that he must preparefor the worst. His friend told him that I had gone to aprivate preparatory school and an endowed university,that I had no knowledge of or interest in public educa­tion, and that there was no hope that I could possiblyunderstand any of the issues which concerned Mr. Juddand the School of Education.Of course Mr. Judd's friend in New Haven was right.What he did not reckon on was that Mr. Judd Was agreat teacher. IJe could teach even a university presi­dent. And he was not easily dismayed by the difficultyof a task. I was willing to learn, because he made an enor­mous impression ott· me. He began to teach me about theorganization of education, the relation of public andprivate education, and the relation of the Federal govern­ment to education. When he got tired, he got GeorgeWorks and Floyd Reeves to help him. He and these twoassistants not only did ali they could with their pupil;they also played a 19reat part in the reorganization ofthe University that' went on in 1930,and 1931; thecreation of the College and the Divisions, the establish­ment of the Board of Examinations and the Dean ofStudents' 'Office, :and the ultimate formation of the .four­year college.10THE UNIV:gRSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEI never felt that Mr. Judd was particularly enthusias­tic about my views of the content of education. But hedid not tell me so, and he certainly did not tell anybodyelse so. In addition to being the president of his univer­sity, which was enough for him, I was his friend, andhe would support me even if I was taking positions con­trary to those which he had publicly taken in the past.The only difference I ever had with Mr. Judd arose outof what seemed to me his exaggerated view of my prerog­atives. He was a member of a committee which wasdiscus Sling the revision of the curriculum of some part ofthe University. The discussion was going against hi� andagainst me. He suggested to me that I should tell thecommittee that the curriculum was going to be the way Iwanted it. I replied that I had no power to tell the facultywhat the curriculum had to be. Mr. Judd answered witha rather lurid statement of the disadvantages of a legaleducation. 'I imagine that what was really troubling Mr. Juddwas that he thought I did not have the courage of myconvictions, and to him there was no deadlier sin thanthis. A man who would not stand up for what he believedor who did not believe anything deeply enough to stand'up for it was an object of that scorn which those flashingblue eyes could so well express. He had, the courage of hisconvictions. For the dean of a professional school whichhad just won its way to recognition to recommend itsabolition is, I think, unique in the history of Americaneducation. But this is what Mr. Judd did" and he didit because he was convinced that it was the right thingto do. He 'believed that there was a science of educa­tion. He believed that it was a social science. He believedthat the task of preparing teachers was not the obligationof a single school or department, it was the, responsibilityof the whole university. Therefore the School of Educa­tion should become a department in the Division of theSocial Sciences, and the University Committee on thePreparation of Teachers should assume .the duty of edu­cating teachers. This action on the part of the Univer­sity of Chicago is one of the landmarks in Americaneducation.As everybody knows, Mr. Judd was terrifically con­scientious and hard-working. So was another speaker ofthe evening, his friend Charles Merriam. Beardsley Rumlwas then dean of the Social, Sciences, and he and I got #together to see whether it was not possible to relievethese two eminent characters, then not far from retire­ment, of some of their routine work, so that they coulddo something more important. The four of llS met atluncheon at my house, and Mr., Ruml and I proposedthat for the rest of their period of active service Messrs.Judd and Merriam should do whatever they liked andthat they should .not do anything that they did not like.Mr. Merriam, who is of a naturally suspicious disposi­,tion, paid no attention: he was sure that we were only 11fooling. But Mr. Judd went white. He was deeplyshocked. The notion that he could earn hi's salary bydoing what he liked was so disturbing to him that hehad to go home that afternoon and lie down.Mr. Judd had character; he had intelligence; and, hehad knowledge. He 'had tremendous respect for facts, andhe knew a great many of them. He knew them in� sucha way that he could use them. He was impatient of alldiscussion which disregarded the facts. I have often seel}-..,him sit restlessly in a meeting, trying to control himselfwhile ill-informed persons expressed their theories.· Whenhe thought the time had come to put an end to all this,he would begin with his favorite opening, "I would liketo remind you gentlemen of tWD, or three facts." Theyalways were facts. They had usually been forgotten. Theywere frequently decisive.This combination of character, intelligence, and knowl­edge created the Department of Education and �adecontributions to the University and to education whichwill long outlast Judd Hall. The building is a monumentto that work. But it serves to remind me, too, of oneof my dearest friends, who guided my infant footsteps,whom I never repaid for his kindness to me, and whoseloss I sham continue to mourn as long as I live -.Charles E. -Merriam:Surrounded by Dean Tyler, Chancellor Hutchins, Su­perintendent Hunt, and scores of educational experts,I realize that I am presented as a primitive among thecivilized-as a strange specimen of educational unpre­paredness./ If there were time, I should picture "another sideof Dean Judd." I should picture him as shy, boyish,a fellow full of human feeling and kindness under the ex­terior order and discipline of an educational "blitz."As a poor politico may I speak on the content of poli­tical education-e-on what we need from education. We'ask for education fitting men for the problems of todayand tomorrow-1. In the spirit of a world with atomic energy.2. In the spirit of genuine democracy.3. In the spirit of world order.4. In the spirit of one civilization.1. Atomic EnergyOne of the implications of atomic energies is that wemust be prepared to reckon with fundamental changesin the basic factors of our social-industrial system. Wedo nDt yet know how rapidly it will be. possible to harnessthe new found energies to our system of production, dis­tribution, and consumption. Many estimators, I mustsay, seem as timid as the atomic bombers were bold. Someseem even frightened about proceeding' with nuclear :energies and would fold their hands a while. But· we are12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEon notice that within the not too distant future revolu­tionary changes will be made in this area. We will beobliged to' consider not alone the organization of work,but also the organization. of leisure time-the problem ofrecreational and cultural developments for millions of'workers. Once the basic essentials of a job, of food, ofshelter, of education, of medicine are satisfied, what newtype of social pattern emerges? Production, employment,stabilization, enterprise, profit, incentives, the balancesbetween goods, services, and leisure must be reconsideredin the light of new forces unleashed and attached tonew machines.The atomic bomb is an index of dynamic and revo­lutionary changes, the end of which is not in sight, andwhich I do not have the timerity to forecast. It is safeto' 'say that the era of scientific discovery "Flas not ended,but has just begun, and i am proceeding on this assump­tion.Even before the bomb was made there were revolu­tionary changes on the way. We were' on notice thatphysics, biochemistry, medicine were bursting with possi­bilities which staggered the imagination of the' moststarry eyed. This was 'before the 'bomb was dropped.Now we know that we were on the beam.We are'. now confronted by revolution, dimming inmeaning all human revolutions rolled into one.The meaning of atomic energies is 'often wholly mis­understood. The real marvel is not that these vast 'forcesexist, but. that they are found and harnessed by thehuman mind. The real explosive force isthat of the mindthat unleashed these giants and made them available tomankind. The mind is king, not the atom. We trappedthe atom; we, have mastered some secrets of it's latentforces, not by accident, but by deliberate design, by or­ganization and ingenuity. The atomic bomb is a symbolof death and destruction; but it may also be a symbolof life, of progress.Yet merely to parrot the phrase "reflection and, actionin terms of. the atomic age" means nothing if followedonly by types of action diametrically opposite or irrele­vant. The atomic age is not merely the atomic bomb ofwar times, but it symbolizes the whole body of man'scontrol over nature and himself in new forms and -withnew possibilities.To repeat the phrase "atomic energy" and then pro­ceed as if the new world could 'be made .up of angry •race relations, human inequality, aggressive nationalisms,exploiting classes, poverty, want, and fear-this is tomisunderstand the whole meaning of the atomic ageand to JaU back on mere chatter about troublesome fac­tors inherited from the pre-scientific age.How does this fit in with education?II. Genuine democracyIt beccmes increasingly dear that the implications ofdemocracy are' not confined merely to legal relations in'the narrower sense of the- term but extend to economic and social relations in the broadest sense of' the term.A modern bill of rights must include not only legal rightsbut economic and social rights. Corresponding responsi­bilities go with these rights which are in no sense purelynegative, in no Sense merely immunities. The dignity ofman, the consent .of the governed, participation on anequal basis, in the life of the community, have Iittle orno meaning, unless those who possess these rights haveways and means of using them effectively in a realworld. 'Democratic government cannot survive unless it canguarantee an order in which justice is done in the socialand economic' fields. Attacks upon despotism have ahollow sound: if they are merely means of escaping afair distribution of the gains of civilization. Twist andturn the argument as you will, there can be no escapefrom the logic of democracy which brings the recognitionof the dignity of man, the fundamental equality of men,and the formulation of such conditions as may be neces,.sary for the pursuit of happiness. .It is idle to declare that we must have a genuine dem­ocracy alike in spirit and in practice and then proceedcomplacently on the basis of undemocratic organizationand action in community affairs. Freedom to starve,. equality in want, justice twisted by economic advantage�these are precisely the conditions which destroy d�moc­racy�III . One worldIf we cannot organize a jural order of the world)establishing peace among peoples, there is a strong pro'h-,ability that the forces of destruction, constantly growingmore formidable, win bring about .universal destruction.No one can now prove such an outcome, but the prob­abilities of destruction are constantly rising around us.On the other hand our constructive powers are con­stantly increasing. There is sound basis for belief thathuman reason will be able to formulate implements thatwill put an end to anarchy and: establish world ,.orderand peace. ' , '- .The coming adjustments between government and theeconomic order must be made in the light of world orderrather than in the spirit of narrow nationalism and re­_ gionalism. This is as true of the area of economic etiter­prise as it is .of the order of government. A jural orderof the world' can bring both peace and prosperity to allpeople everywhere. Production and consumption alikeGOuld expand in the new environment.The alternatives are anarchy or world federation inone of many forms, but in any case the reign of law withhuman fraternalism,.' justice and liberty brooding overthe scene.Is education adequate at this point?IV. One civilization or noneViewing the diverse cultural patterns of the modernworld, the various systems. of religion and institutionalizedidealism, each long and tenaciously held by minions ordev�ted followers or worshippers, it might seem that anTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEagreement upon any significant cultural fundamentals isbeyond the reach of reasonable hope. Yet, on the otherhand, it is equally difficult to see how the emerging worldof peace, prosperity, progress can develop without somedeeper and broader understanding of what is commonto mankind. What does the world community have incommon?Behind the creeds and the cultures of men there maybe found guiding directives pointing to common valuesand common ideals. These patterns may fit into a typeof idealism which in turn fits in with a jural order ofthe world and with an industrialized democracy. Therewill not be found force enough or officials enough tomaintain the peace and harmony of the world, unlessthere is a broader basis of agreement on the goals ofcivilization and unless there is a way of preventing thegrowth of poisonous and malevolent types 'of individualsor of groups who may hurl destructive forces at the heartof mankind. The new synthesis wiJI not be .easy to bringinto being or effect. Yet out of it could come a newfaith in the future of mankind.The alternative is titanic struggles that involve thewhole world in savage destruction.Without the educators the new civic education cannotbe woven from the. materials here presented. We cantransmute the' wealth of experience and tradition intofaith in a finer and nobler future. But we cannot putthe new wine into the old bottles .. If the education of the near future omits these de­ments, the splendid Ebenezer we are raising today tothe memory of Dean Judd will not avail. The Philistineswili overturn our Ebenezer.Sergeant Judd of the IrregularsThe following was edited from a paper by M. N. Thisted,Dean of Men and Professor of Education at Western IlIii­nois State College, Macomb, Illinois, which was preparedfor the Judd banquet. During the period tha,t Dr. Juddserved at the School for Special Service" Deen Thisred wasa Lieutenant-Colonel. Cavalry, U.S. Army and was Direc­tor, Department of Educe+ion.The above unofficial military title was conferred onthe late Dr. Charles H. Judd, Emeritus Professor ofEducation, The University of Chicago, during his "tourof duty" in World War II with the School of SpecialService. The School was activated at Fort George G.Meade, Maryland, on March 1, 1942, and Dr. Juddwas persuaded to take a "leave of absence" from hisresearch work and writing in the Library of Oongressto serve as the School's Consultant on Education andas Dean of the Civilian Staff. 13It is difficult for anyone who was not either a memberof the military faculty of the School for Special Servioe.or a student at the School to visualize the reasons behindthe "ceremony" during which Brig. Gen. F. H. Osborn,Chief, Special Service Division, pinned a three stripeemblem on Dr. Judd's sleeve and presented him with awarrant inscribed to "Sergeant Judd of the Irregulars."It represented not only the unanimous praise of allthe student officers in the class for his incomparable lec­tures and conference sessions, but .it also represented therespect and cordial esteem that had developed towards"Sergeant" Judd among the military faculty.To complete the picture presented, one would have tosee "Sergeant" Judd equipped with a regulation gasmask and going through the required drill. ColonelQuincy Scott, cartoonist on the Portland Oregonian, andSecretary of the School, drew a cartoon of Sergeant Juddof the Irregulars wearing his gas mask and standing atattention.IN_ OUR OCTOBE� ISSUE LOOK FOR:Fifty years' of-College Splrit, the story of student activi,ties through the years from 1892. Michael,Weinberg., '47, president of the Student Union, is the Chronicler. 'A FIDDLE AND A FOILMuch modern musiccan't be fo,llowedBORIS ZLATICH is seventeen and a fourth yearstudent 'in the College. He is also a virtuosoviolinist and a member 'Of the Varsity fencingteam.In the ten years he has 'been playing the violin Borishas piled up a stack 'Of honors that would be the envy'Of an artist 'Of thirty. He 'has toured the East and Middle­west twice; WQn two music scholarships: placed first inthe regional competition 'Of the Paul Laval NationalScholarship contest; and appeared in a SQIQ recital atCarnegie Han as his entry for the final competition inthe Laval contest.B '0 r n 'Of Yugo­slavian parents whocam e to Chicagothirty yea r s ago,Boris en tered theninth grade 'Of U ni­versity High School'On a scholarship. Hewas SOQn numbertW'O man 'On the U.High fencing teamwhich took the statechampionship .. Grad­uating into the CQ1-lege, w her e heco n tin u e d 'On ascholarship, he madethe fencing teamwhere he is nQWthird man. "NQ, 'Of Zlatichcourse I see no CQn­nection between violin playing and fencing. I enjoybQth.' If 'One helps the 'Other I am completely unaware'Of it," 'CQmments Boris."I plan to take my Master's degree at Chicago," heo'Ontinues.' "Here they teach theory-+precisely what Iwant. Few schools 'Of music can afford the best teach-ers for work 'On instruments. I learn my theory here [heis already taking courses in the Department] and takemy violin work under George Perlman down town, It'sa perfect combination."Avoiding too-high hopes, Boris IQQks into the futuremodestly, recognizing tWQ alternatives: "I'd like totake 'Out a year and play my fool head off. [He prac- • By EMERSON E. 'LYNN. JR.tices from three to five hours a day now l] If I pan 'Out,I'll g'O into SQI'O work. If I don't-s-well, I'm taking myMaster's SQ that I'll be able to teach."Teaching doesn't represent an unpleasant alternativeto him despite his hopes for the concert stage. He isinstructing a class 'Of future violinists now at the Lab'Ora­tory Schools and is enjoying it. "It gives me great satis­faction to see a student gr'Ow better and better. It makesme feel that my work is important. No, I wouldn'tbe at all disappointed to end up as a teacher."The chances are he can have his choice, With a fullacademic schedule, the fencing team, fraternity affairs(Delta Upsilon), his practice hours, his music classes andhis studying, Boris still finds time for a recital at KimballHall now and then and t? direct, book, and play in the"ChicagoCivic Trio."This trio consists of Boris 'On the violin and two Chicagogirls who play the cello and the piano. They appearon programs around Chicago and give occasional recitals.When pressed, Boris modestly admits he is also ConcertMaster of the University Symphony Orchestra, is Assist­ant Concert Master of Collegium Musicum 'On the quad­rangles, and has been on two. tours totaling ten weeksduring the year.If you think this leaves no time for: social activitieswe should tell you that he attends all fraternity par­ties, wins his share 'Of the ping pong games, and squiresthe queens of the campus to their balls. "Women?Of course I like women. They're wonderful things toha ve around."Boris was reluctant to name a favorite cQmposer.Pestered, he narrowed the field to Prokofiev and Ravel."Prokofiev combines the classical quality of a melodicline with modern innovations. I don't like music whichneglects melody. TQO much 'Of 'Our modern cQmpositioncan't be followed without a score; to me, melody is ab­solutely essential to music.".Ravel has a blank check S'O far as Boris is concerned."I can't think of anything he's written that I don't like."This summer he will take the scholarship he won Iromthe Chicago Artists' Association in April and go to theJulliard School of Music in New York. By that timehe win have the results from the Laval National CQntest.This contest was open to violinists, vocalists, and pian­ists; only one winner will be announced. "H'OW they aregoing to cQmpare my violin work tQ somebody's voice orpiano is beyond me," he wonders. "All I can hQpe isthat the judges are fond of violins."14NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESThe only hope for mankind lies in ,a world govern­ment, federal in structure and democratic in spirit, Chan­cellor Hutchins declared in Frankfurt, Germany.Speaking in German, before more than 1,000 rectorsand delegates at the centennial observation of Germany'sfirst democratic movement, the German National Assem­bly, Chancellor Hutchins called for intellectuals every­where to unite to lay the foundation of one good world."World government must be federal in order to pre­serve the cultural contributions of the extant states,"Chancellor Hutchins continued. "It must be demo­cratic, because only democracy guarantees the Rightsof Man, and men will fight until they get their rights."The sorcerer's apprentice now struggles desperatelywith the forces which he has himself released. His sci­ence, his technology, his weapons, and his machine gunshave turned upon him."Half mankind is starving; the other half, not ex­cepting the United States, is afflicted with a great fear."The totalitarian animal, the man with the machinegun, appeared in the world because of a profound deg­radation of the ideas of man and the state, of justiceand liberty. For that degradation the intellectuals ofthe world must bear the prime responsibility."The place for the hard intellectual work which mustbe done if democracy is to be instituted and is to endureis the universities. A university is a place where peoplethink. The motto of a university should be the sentenceof Descartes: 'I think, therefore I am.'"A university must stand for something, it must standfor the civilization of the dialogue. It must stand forthe Rights of Man. It must stand for the highest pow­ers and the highest aspirations of man. A university isa microcosm. Its aim is not to .mirror the macrocosm,but to show what the macrocosm might be,"A university is therefore a dedicated community. Inone sense, its task is always the same. Its, task is al­ways to think, to think as coherently and as profoundlyas possible about the nature of the world and the destinyof man. Partly because of its concern with the educa­tion of the young, partly because of its concern withfundamental problems, a university looks toward thefuture."But what if there is no future? The sorcerer's ap­prentice now struggles desperately with the forces whichhe has himself released. His science, his technology, hisweapons, and his machines have turned upon him. His­tory is looked upon as the struggle for power. If thatconcepti.on is correct, history is about to close, for thestruggle for power now leads fatally to war, which canhave no end except annihilation."When there is no future, the universities have tomake one," Hutchins continued. "Learned men havein the past made a future by going into remote fastnessesand keeping the lamp of learning alight. Now there is • By JEANNETTE LOWREYno hiding place. We have to stop war. We have toput an end to nationalism. We pave to get rid of thegreat fear in the world."The democratic world is a work, and it is first ofall an intellectual work."The questions before us are of this order: whetherthere is some way in which modern man wiu be ableto live without becoming daily less and less human;whether it is possible to organize economic life so thatthe needs of the community take precedence over theprofit of individuals; whether it is possible to accommo­date the legitimate demands of the society and the im­prescriptible rights of the human person; whether. itis possible to integrate the currents of contemporaryideas and modern scientific knowledge in a more or­dered vision of the world and arrive at a synthesis which,while preserving variety and difference, Jays Jh�J�unda­tion for understanding, communication," community; andthe continuity of the great conversation. These are in­tellectual questions."They are not German questions or American ques­tions; they are world questions. The world is now one.But if the world is one geographically, it is not one polit-THE SiEVEN FROM CHICAGO(An editorial from the German "Neuen Zeitung" of April. 1948)While the hailstorms of a cold war fall upon the budsof recovering European countries and as the firstAmerican boats bring help and economic recovery to/Europe. seven professors of The University of Chicagoboard an airplane bound for Germany and are heartilywelcomed in Frankfon by the Rector. the City Fathers.and the students�.They br,·mg, •. in lectures. which in most Instances �i.1Ibe deUvered in German. not only the most recent I.A­+emeflenel developme·nts that are connected with theirfi,elds of knowledqe but also ,a spiritual Ma1rshall Planfor Europe-a Hutchins' Plan which the Chancellor ofthe University of Chicago enunciated on May 8. 1945.before thousands of students and professors. "Thepeace of the world hinges upon the recovery of Ger­many and Japan." he said. "We are now confrontedwith the need to prove· the genuineness of the idealsfor which we waged war." In these sentences Mr.Hutchins snnounced the new humenlsm which he andhis adherents are eager to put a!gainst the crises ofcivilized menkind, His words were quoted in the UnitedStates. were understood and were often transfo'rmedinto deeds. Perhaps some of our readers will recallthe first post-wa.r Christmas. and the receipt of CAREpackages by German and Ausrrlen students.In this spirit of mutual. understanding these sevenscholars have come from Chicago to Germany in or­der to present +e thei.r German hearers a picture ,oftheir fields o'f knowledge-socirology. psychology. Eng­lish literature, medlclne, biology. and church histo'ry.We welcome them warmly.1516 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAG'O MAGAZINEically, morally, or intellectually. Since the world is onegeographically, it will become one politically. Whetherwe have one good world or one bad one will depend inlarge part on the leadership that the intellectuals ofthe world are prepared to exert,"Fussrer" Heads LlbreriesHerman H. Fussler,Associate Director of theUniversity Library, hasbeen appointed Directorto s u c c e e d Allen T.Hazen, who has resignedto become • professor' ofEng 1 ish at ColumbiaUniversity.FussIer who will takeoffice July 1, has beenon the staff of the Uni­versity Library and amember of the GraduateFussier Library S c h 00 I since,1940.The microfilm laboratories, which Fussler headed asscience librarian for over five years, are the largest andmost completely equipped of any educational. institu­tion in the world. For several years, Fussler also servedas associate editor of the Journal of Documentary Re­production. He was .appointed an Associate Directorof the Library and Assistant Professor of Library Sci-ence in 1947. 'Fussler holds the A.B. and B.L.S. degrees from theUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and thePh.D. degree from the University of Chicago. Beforecoming to the Midway campus, he served on the NewYork }lublic Library staff, and was a delegate to theWorld Congress on Documentation in Paris, and to theConference of International Federation for Documenta ..tion at Oxford University, England.During the war (1942-1945) FussIer served as AssistantDirector of the Information Division and Librarian ofthe Metallurgical Project on atomic energy. In 1946, hewas consultant to the Manhattan Project on the han­dling of scientific information.Mr. Fussler has been consultant on photographic prob­lems at the University of California, University of Illi­nois, and Louisiana State libraries, and adviser on build­ing to the Stanford University Library. He was editorof the book" Li.brary Buildings for Library Services,published last faU by the American Library Association.Mr. Fussier, who is a native of Chapel Hill, NorthCarolina, is married and has one daughter, Barbara Lynn.HonorsTwo University of Chicago scientists who contributedto World War II scientific investigations were honoredwith election to the National Academy of Sciences. Edward Teller, internationally-known atomic scientistwho worked on the bomb at· the University of Chicagoand Los Alamos, and Hermann I. Schlesinger, Professorof Chemistry who worked on research methods of gen­erating hydrogen for meteorological balloons for theSignal Corps, were among the 30 new members electedto the national honorary society.Election of Teller and Schlesinger brings the totalnumber of University of Chicago members to 27. Ac­tive membership is limited to 350. Carl Moore, Chairmanof the Department of Zoology, was appointed a mem­ber of the council.Teller, Professor of Physics in the University's Insti­tute for Nuclear Studies, became interested in nuclearenergy in 1939 shortly after the discovery of fission.He has worked on the problem since that time at GeorgeWashington University, the University of Chicago, Co­lumbia, and the University of California.Born in Budapest, Hungary, 40 years ago, Teller re­ceived his doctor of philosophy degree in physics fromthe University of Leipzig in 1930. Before coming to theUnited States in 1935, he was on the faculty ofthe University of Gottingen as a research associate andthe University of London as a lecturer.In 1942 he became associated with the metallurgicallaboratory and during the war was transferred to theLos Alamos division of the Manhattan project wherehis work was relative to theoretical prediction of util­ization of nuclear energy and the reaction of the, bomb.An expert on molecular and nuclear physics, Teller isa frequent contributor to the Bulletin of the AtomicScientists.A member of the University of Chicago chemistryfaculty since 1907, Schlesinger has been doing researchon hydrides of light elements for the Naval ResearchLaboratory and Office of Naval Research since 1943in addition to his work at the University.He also served as an official investigator on volatileuranium compounds from 1940 to 1942 for the OSRD.Author of General Chemistry and Laboratory Manualof General Chemistry (with AD.S. Link), Schlesingerserved as executive secretary of the department of chem­istry at the University from 1933 to 1945 and as sec­retary from 1922 to, 1933. He received his bachelorof science degree from the University of Chicago in1903 and his doctor of philosophy in 1905.Both Teller and Schlesinger are "starred men of sci­ence."Crippled, children from AlaskaTwenty-four children from the Alaskan Crippled Chil­dren's Service in need of specialized medical care andhospitalization will be treated this year at the Home forDestitute Crippled Children, a unit of" the Universityof ", Chicago Clinics.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA mercy mission undertaken by the Home to allevi­ate the suffering of the most difficult and complicatedcases among Alaska's orthopedic cases, the service willmake possible medical care and hospitalization for twochildren each month. Three boys and three girls havealready arrived by air transportation to' make their tem­porary residence at the Home."The Home for Destitute Crippled Children project isan excellent way of helping to meet the health needsof Alaskan children," Ernest Gruening, governor ofAlaska, stated at the announcement of the program,'which is approved by the Commission of Health, UnitedStates Department of the Interior.Children under 21 years of age will be admitted tothe Home for Destitute Crippled Children, and willremain in the cli�lCs for four to six months.The Home for Destitute Crippled Children, now inits 57th year, was founded in 1891 when Mrs. EmmaE. Stelle organized a group of interested persons to buildand conduct a home and provide for destitute crippledchildren. Since that date, the board of directors hasplanned the hospital program to make it possible forcrippled children to lead as useful, and normal lives astheir physical conditions will permit.The services available include those of orthopedicsurgeons, other physicians, and dentists, provided entirelyby the University of Chicago, free of all charge to theHome, a graduate nursing service, a social service de­partment, occupational therapists, a bedside teachingservice . provided by the Board of Education, and com­plete operating room, x-ray and laboratory services ob­tained from the respective departments in the UniversityClinics.In memory of their playmate, Billy Nuveen who died of cancer .IastDecember, fhe sixth grade studen,ts of Kenilworth's Sears Scheel pre­sent Dr. leon O. Jaeebsen with a microscope to be used in the Uni­versity's fight against cancer. Sixth graders Peter Flemiingi' WilliamAlger, and Ro1;,ert. Tenner present the .mlcrescepe, Bi,ny Nuyeen, wast�e son of John Nuveen, Jr., "i18, Trustee _of the Unive.rsHy. 17Taxes and marriage contrecfsA valuable group of Arabic papyri from Egypt hasbeen acquired by the Oriental Institute of the Uni­versity, making the University's collection of such docu­ments the largest in the United States, Thorkild Jacob­son, Director of the Institute, announced last month.The world's most important collection is that in theNational Library at Cairo, Egypt. Other significantassemblages of Arabic papyri are known to have existedin pre-war Europe, especially in Berlin and Vienna, andsmaller groups are located in England, Russia, and inthis country, at the University of Michigan.The Oriental Institute's recent acquisition <consists ofdocuments dating from the early eighth to the tenthcentury of the Christian era. It includes a small groupof the comparatively rare literary papyri, which con­tains fragments of grammar, poetry, tradition, and magic.Arabic papyri are invaluable primary sources on ArabEgypt in the early Middle Ages. Mohammed, theProphet of Arabia, preached and established the religionof Islam in the early seventh century of our era. Hisfellow Arabs and zealous followers spread the new faithwith their rapid conquest of neighboring lands, puttingan end to the Persian Empire and annexing key prov­inces of the Byzantine Empire.A number of the documents deal with the . financialadministration of Egypt with emphasis, on tax notifica­tions and registers. Leases of agricultural state landsare also represented. Private legal documents includethe lease or sale of private property and wholesale trans­actions in commodities. Marriage contracts, an inter­esting, gmup in themselves, invariably stipulate the bride'sdowry, which' varies with her economic status,· and ex­acts. a promise from the groom to treat her fairly andkindly "in accordance with Allah's command in theBook (Qur'an) and the example of the Prophet."Fees climb fo meet costsIncreased student fees, to offset in part the effectof higher costs which will result in a deficit for thecurrent year, will be effective with the beginning ofthe summer quarter, June 29 .. Colleges and universities throughout the country areall faced by the problem of increased costs and lowincome from endowments, and are finding increases infees inescapable, Rdbert M. Strozier, Dean of Students,said. Harvard recently announced an increase of thirty­one percent in' fees, and Columbia one of thirty-threeand one-third percent, he added.Fees in the College will be raised ten percent, to $495for an academic year, and in the graduate divisionsand the professional schools, except Law and Medicine,will be raised 16.67 percent, to $525. In Law \ Schoolthe new rate will be $555, an increase of 15.1, percent,and in the Medical School, $690, up 15 percent. In­creases also were made in University College courses,the Laboratory Schools, and in Horne Study.FOOTBALL?Football on the Midway?Did you know as many students played football lastfall.at Chicago as played on the varsity when Chicago. competed in the Big Ten Conference? Eighty-one stu­dents in college and divisional teams played out theseason last fall. On some Saturday afternoons goal postshad to be set up simultaneously at Stagg Field, NorthField and the Midway. Even without the cheer leadersenthusiasm ran high because every scrub made the team.Did you know that whilevarsity football is a thing of thepast, a full intercollegiate pro­gram in all other major sportshas con tin ued? The U niversi tyhas withdrawn from the BigTen Conference, but in threesports-fencing, gymnastics andtennis, full Western Conferenceschedules have been continued.Varsity teams have been spon­sored, too, in cross-country, bas­ketball, wrestling, swimming, in-.door and outdoor' track, baseballand golf.Did you ever consider thehandicaps encountered in train­ing teams at the University forsuccessful inter-collegiate com­petition? Two-thirds of the fa-Director Metcalf cilities of the Physical EducationOffice, both inside and out, have been lost to provide.space for veterans' housing, University building andnuclear research.Furthermore, the varied study program of the stu­dent body has made it tough sledding in those sportsrequiring a big squad to gather . at. the same time.The results have been different when the individualhas been able to come in for training and practice inhis own free time. The record of the last year bear�this out.The swimming, team won ten out of thirteen meets,and in one meet broke four pool records. WimamMoyle 'coached the team, led by Elmer. Walsh ofChicago. Six members were elected letter men: Walsh ;Peter C. Anderson, Annisport, Massachusetts ; RobertC. Glasser, Oak Park; Craig Leman, Chicago;' GuyNery, Chicago; and Louis River, Oak Park.The gymnastics team, coached by Erwin F. Beyer,'47, had two letter men this year.. William Vrettos ofChicago, who won second in the NCAA long horse, andfifth in free' exercise, and Richard Kadison, New York.consistent winner in the flying rings. WHAT'S' THAT?The varsity fencing team took third place in theNational Collegiate Ohampionships. Arthur Cohen ofChicago, captain, is a member of the United StatesOlympic squad. Cohen, Leon F. Strauss, Chicago;Donald G. Thompson, Shaker Heights, Ohio; andJohn L. Westley, Denver, were named major letter­men. Alvar B. Hermanson coached.Coach 'Nels Norgren, '14, reported the basketball teamhad six major lette� winners. They were Ray Freeark ofChicago, team captain and most valuable player awardwinner; William Gray, Chicago, co-captain and highpoint man; Spencer Boise, Bismarck, North Dakota;Charles Lindell, Chicago; Gene Podulka, Chicago; andJ olm Sharp, Chicago:The wrestling team won 'five and lost two meets andearned two firsts and a third with three entries in theWheaton Invitational T�urnament. Coached by H. H.Blake, the team had seven lettermen. They are George V.Gulp, Forty Fort, Pennsylvania ; John A. Dooley, DesPlaines; Leslie A. Gross, Denver; Watts S. Humphrey,Jr., Washington, D. C.; Joseph P. Muldoon, ElkinsPark, Pennsylvania; Garl M. Tausig, Jr., Chicago; andRoy Walford, Jr., San Diego, California.The spring baseball season under the coaching of KyleAnderson got off to an encouraging start by defeatingHlmhurst and North Central College by scores of 10 to 6and 17 to 5.MOVIE PROGRAMSOpen to University students and faculty, International HouseResidents, and members of the Alumni Association .Tickets on sale at the door. Movies will begin at 8:30 in theAssembly Hall of International House, 1414 East 59th Street:July 5-Open City (Italian) a story of German occupation, andCoffee, Pride of Colombia, the ,story of coffee and Colombia •. 50<::July 12-The Magnificent Brute, with Victor McLaglen; Poland,on the geography of Poland, and Indiana State Fair, showingpictures and the story of the fair. . 35cJu�y [9-Les Miserables (Fre n eh) and .Wings Over Latin America;travel film , �.,� ' •....................... 50(:july 26-House ot,.Seven 'Gables, Nathaniel Hawthorne's dc;tssic;'The Shortest Way Home,' the .story of a restless veteran:' andlSdl Century Life in Virginia, a picture of life in Williamsburgtwo centuries ago. .August 2-Dona Barbara (Spanish) from the novel by RomuloGallegos and Land of Mexico (Spanish) a travel film 5OcAugust 9-Seventh Veil, with James Mason, Ann Todd; andWings to Ireland, a travel film. . � 50cAugust 16-Spring Parade, a story of old Vienna and BoundaryLines, on the problem of .separation of peoples. • : •......... 35cAugust 23_;The Well Digger's Daughter (French): wi$. ,Raimuand Fernandel, a. Marcel Pagnol film; and Weekeiid In Ber-muda, a travel film, ." 50cAugust 30-Brief Encounter, with Celia Johnson and TrevorHoward, and Bread and Wine, a film of Italian agriculture ... 50cSeptember 6-0ur ToWJI, Thornton Wilder's famous play, andScien.ce Spins a Yam, the story of creation of rayon. . ..... 35cSeptember 20-As You Like It, with Lawrence Olivier and Eliza­beth Bergner and Sweden, a travel film. . ..............•..• 85�18NEW OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATIONThe new officers of the Alumni Association for theyear beginning July 1 are: Arthur A. Baer, ' 18, Presi­dent, and Harriette Lou Kemp, '40 (Mrs. John Kaye),Vice President.Arthur Baer, Presidentof the Beverly State Bank( Chicago) , has neverceased being active at theUniversity since his DeltaSigma Phi days when hewas Managing Editor ofthe Maroon, AssociateEditor and later BusinessMan age r of Cap &Goum, Vice President ofInterfraternity Council, amember of Iron Mask,Owl & Serpent, and aUniversity Marshall.He has served withenthusiasm and effectiveness on a variety of Alumni com-mittees and boards through the years. Art's loyalty tothe University and the Association has never droppedbelow the boiling point. He is an ideal choice for thepresidency.Mrs. Kaye has been an industrious Cabinet member,as a representative from the School of Business division of the Association. For the past two years she has beena member of the Reunion Committee, which committeehas been responsible for personalizing Alumni Day withits Reynolds Club receptions. When she isn't work-ing for the Association,Harriette Kaye, with herhusband, has put intopractical use her busi­ness school training. T 0-gether they have devel­oped a line of cosmeticswhich have' crossed your,beauty trial under thename of "Harriet Kaye"- including a lipstickwith a mirror on the con­tainer.The retiring officersare Frank J. Madden,'20, JD'22, and Elizabeth Edwards, ' 17. During theiradministration the Association has taken on new post­war vitality: an improved educational program with apart-time director, a revival of the Alumni Reading Lists,- highly successful mid-winter reunions (through the Col­�ege Division), membership cards, an increase in mem­bers to nearly 8,000, and the mailing of the Maroon an­niversary edition to all members in good standing.CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENT(Continued from Page 6)No sin.gle person strong encuqhFirst and foremost, no single person can be strong in thePresidency, because the task of surveying the work ofnearly one hundred departments and two million officialsis beyond him., It may be said that he has his department­al chiefs, or Cabinet, as it is called wrongly. But thesemen are also of some ambition and they have no continu­ing loyalty to the President. They are' appointed by thePresident and the Senate, sometimes on special technicalqualifications, sometimes on the basis of party policy,sometimes because they are local bosses in the party rna­chine, sometimes because they are personal friends of thePresident, sometimes because he owes them a debt forservices in the presidential campaign. The Oabinet nomore than Congress is united' by party devotion. TheCabinet meeting is not a place where decisions or policiesare made, because the President does not feel that he canallow men who have not his single, unique, constitutionalresponsibility to use power for which he will have to, an ..swer .. He does not feel he can delegate; but since it.isonly by delegating that things can be done, not to delegateis not to act. It is also well known from the stories ofother administrations, that department heads are verycareful to keep their own departments from being dis- cussed at Cabinet meetings. It is also well known thateach departmental chief prefers to talk with the Presidentprivately and discuss policies directly with him.Intolerable respo'nsibilityIn other words, the whole Presidential system puts theresponsibility of government on the plans and characterof one man. It does this because the Constitution saysthat the executive power shall belong to the President;and so he really can never share it with others. A Wash­ington, a Jefferson, a Polk, .a Cleveland, a Lincoln, thetwo Roosevelts can get more done because they person­ally have ideas and because great explosive emergenciesconfront them. It is these emergencies which producefor them, whether they want it Or not, willing followers­and they get something like a party following because ofthese emergencies. Otherwise the picture of every admin­istration is a picture not of cooperation between Presidentand party chiefs but of competition. They are not sup­posed to promote legislation without Presidential consent,they are not supposed to go .to Congress without Presi­dential consent; but it is an open secret that they do.Therefore, a regular, planned domestic and foreignpolicy all brought together into one harmonious schemeis possible only very occasionally. Even at the point ofgreatest crisis it depends On whether the President ,is braveor timid, wise or foolish,' active or lazy minded,19speaking in different voices at the same time. This hasthe most disturbing effect on all groups within a countrywhose economic system must be coordinated to function. well, and a gravely disturbing and disrupting effect uponforeign relations.Third, whatever policy is decided upon by conscious­ness should be maintained without change and with uni­form loyalty over the period necessary to bring it to frui­tion. For example, it is wrong to say in November, 1947,that partition in Palestine is' justice, and then to say inMarch, 1948, that it cannot be carried out. It is betterthat one should cut ore's coat to the cloth in the begin­ning. If this had been done many Arab and Zionist liveswould not have been lost in vain.Finally, whatever is decided as a result of consciousnessand constancy must be carried through with conscience.That is, once the decision is made the sacrifice must beundertaken, It is no use believing that mere words willsolve any domestic or foreign difficulties, and that plati ...tudes about. freedom, equality, Justice and Christianitywill solve our problems. Hobbes once said, "Covenantswithout the sword are but words."· We have to say thatjustice without power or the sacrifice to fulfill it is alsonothing.So many illustrations of these ideas have surged intothe mind of the reader that I make no apology for nothaving given them myself. I hope only to have provokedthem, and thereby to have raised the issue of the reformof the working of the United States Constitution, the mostpotent part of the constitution of the world.20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENo, speedIn saying all thisI have said that the system is not oneof speed which is what the founding fathers wanted. Ifthe President acts by himself, as has been shown on severaloccasions his actions have to be retracted when his ad-,. visors have shown him the consequences 'Of an immatureaction. If the President waits for his advisors, be has notthe advantage of the Cabinet system which operates insome other democratic countries. By the time his variousindividual counselors have met and the problems havebeen smoothed over, time has passed, sometimes irre­vocable time has been lost.'Crushing burdensFinally, arid we always come back to this, the Presidentis responsible. No man, however, can bear this weight ofresponsibility. He cannot rely for companionship uponhis formal department chiefs. SO' he turns to his "kitchen.cabinet" like Jackson, or his "brain trust" like FranklinRoosevelt, or his confidants .like Mr. Truman. This, how­ever, darkens responsibility rather than .illumines it,. he­cause the President is being -advised by �er who are notholding fully responsible jobs, who are .not liable: to ques..,tion-ing by Congress, and whose part in the policy is thesubject of rumor and gossip. '.That is not all. At any moment Congress can use itspower of giving or withholding funds to interfere directlyin what is supposed to be the President's function, namely,controlling and guiding everyday administration.If the President had the company of another twelve orfifteen men like himself, all equally leaders' of a greatpolitical party and all equally loyal to its general policy,then they could relieve him of some of this paralyzingresponsibility. This, as I have explained, does not exist.Consequently, what the President feels he would lik�to' do is not always what his department chiefs, and in for-.eign affairs particularly, the State Department wouldadvise. He has no active way of subduing these depart­ments to his will, nor has anyone department the power'to secure cooperation from the others. Therefore theyspeak with different voices at the same time or at differ­ent times on all phases of domestic and foreign policy.The four quelifles of statesmanshipThere are four qualities of leadership indispensable tosuccess in the higher ranges of statesmanship. Theseare: 1. Consciousness" 2. Coherence, 3. Constaney, 4.Conscience.The first means that there must be a thorough under-I standing of every aspect of policy, facts, guess work, fore­sight and interpretation. The separation between. 'Con­gress and the President, the disjoined nature of bothbranches, makes this hard to obtain in the 'Americansystem... The second point; coherence, means that whateverpolicy IS recommended by consciousness should be: carriedoutwith a harmony of expression by ali'ag:ent_ie� of gov­ernment=-the Congress, the Senate?' the' Senate Fdreign'Relation� Committee" the House. They should �'riot: he THE PULLMAN STORY(Continued from Page 9)over the manufacture and operation of railway sleepingcars in � the United States; that it had pursued policies _designed to consolidate and expand this monopoly; that ithad restrained trade in the manufacture and operatiQnof sleeping cars through interlocking. directorships, non­competitive 'bidding for new cars, monopolization of new,car design, and, by retarding the change-over to. new­type lightweight sleeping cars .... Ul-:cl�r'l.�. The court rendered its .decision on April 20, 1943, up­holding the Government's contention. The court pointedto', . the contracts between Pullman and the railroads andlaid special emphasis 1,lpon, the lack of alternatives open tothe roads. On May .8, 1944, the final judgment washanded down. .A few of the important provisions were:1. Pullman was directed to 'dispose of either its car oper­atlng or its manufacturing business.2. Interlocking directorates' of the Puilman companie-,were forbidden. " ..3. Pullman Company was directed to purchase its carsIn open competitive bidding up to the time of the''separation. ". . .4. Pullman Company was directed to offer__ to furnishservice to railroads not now having contracts with it.5. Pullman Company was directed to furnish through-line-sleeping car service to any railroad desiring suchservice.The new Pullman CompanyPullman did not appeal this judgment, fearing thatthe provision permitting it to choose which business tosell might 'be withdrawn. On October 2, 1946, Pullmanfiled details of its offer to sell its car operating business.The -, bid went to a group consisting of almost all therailroads in the United States.The participating railroads were to contribute pur­chase money for the stock in proportion to the numberof sleeping cars operated on their .lines and were to re­ceive -Pullman Company stock in the same proportion.As .new cars became necessary, the plan provided that theindividual roads should purchase the cars and lease themto the Pullman Company for operation.The management intends, to, continue Pullman Com­pany 'as' a. service organization serving a:ll railroads on anon-discriminatory ba�i�. The company does not intendto purchase any new cars and by December 1, 1948, itexpects to be purely a service company supplying so­called "hotel service" to the railroads. Ultimately, therailroads expect to dispose of their stock to independentinterests outside the railroad' industry.Three factors may tend, to create undesirable condi­tions in the industry. Six railroads within the buyinggroup own over 50% of the stock. This means that fifty­one smaller railroads may be at the mercy of the sixlargest roads. As yet there is no indication of any dis­crimination, but such a development is possible.A second factor is the probable decline of the PullmanpooL At present, on1y the railroads are buying new cars.They lease these new cars to the Pullman Company foroperation, but provision is made in the lease that suchcars may be operated only on the owner road.-��c:r.r:n���-���'-'The majority of the standard sleeping cars in the Pull­man pool are over twenty years old; some are thirtyyears old. This points to an early dissolution of the poolunless car replacements are made soon and at a rapidrate. The Pullman Company has not placed an ordersince 1941. If the pool is allowed to disintegrate, thepublic will either have to suffer with less service or payhigher fares, or both. '--After long years of monopoly by Pullman companiesin the construction of sleepers the industry is now opento' all car builders. But there is no reason to> believe thatPullman-Standard will not remain one of the foremostcar builders. Pullman-Standard has a wealth of experi­ence in the construction of sleeping cars and technical"know-how" is important in this industry. Furthermore,Pullman-Standard is an efficient producer and can suc­cessfully compete with other car builders.dent of the First National Bank of NewYork in April. He was formerly with theGuaranty Trust, and served as president ofthe New York Alumni Club from 1927 to1931.Donald W. Riddle, PhD '23, Professor'of Social Science at the Chicago branchof the University of Illinois, delivered theconvocation address at their Navy Pierauditorium May 7. The convocation hon­ored 372 students and the huge auditoriumwas packed. Dr. Riddle was formerly amember of the New Testament faculty atChicago.NEWS OF THE CLASSES1903Frank W. DeWolf writes he . is enjoyinghis retirement. With Mrs. DeWolf he wentto Guatemala last January. This June theyare going to the Canadian Rockies andAlaska, From there they will go to. Eng­land and later attend the InternationalGeological Congress. "Sorry to miss thereunion of '03," is the postscript.Helen Solomon (Mrs. Emile Levy) tookone of her college years at Wellesley beforereturning to the Midway to finish fOF herbachelor's. This year, when she was hon­ored with an invitation to speak at the 45threunion of the Well:esley Class of '03, she. called Alumni House to be sure her Chi­cago class was not celebrating its 45th an­niversary. When she found it was not, sheaccepted the invitation and she is spend­ing a part of June in New England.1905Harvey A. Carr, PhD, former Chairmanof the Psychology Department, and Mrs.Carr, were quadrangle visitors from Culver,Indiana in early May. They left their gar­dening (Dr. Carr does the flower beds, Mrs.,the more practical vegetables), to visit theirdaughter, Vivian, '36, and son-in-law ClaudeBuxton, in Evanston. Mr. Buxton is amember of Northwestern's psychology de­partment. The Carrs did some extendedbaby sitting with the three Buxton chilodren while Vivian and Claude attended apsychelegy conference in Minneapolis, Wesaw the Carrs at the Quadrangle Clubwhere they were having thick lamb chopswith the Paul Cannons (Pathology) and theCharles Swifts (Anatomy). Everyone butthe stubborn lamb chops was having ajovial time.1907Herbert Francis Evans, DB, Phn '09, waselected president of the Southern Cali­fornia Council of Churches this past Feb­ruary.Grace Williamson (Mrs. R. RandolphChamberlain) of Prescott, Ontario, Canada,wrote 'enthusiastically about the Australianarticles by Professors Craven and Gerardin the Aprii MA:GAZINE. She orderedthree extra copies which she will send tocousins who are students at Sydney Uni­versity.1908William H. Leary, JD, Dean of Law atthe University of Utah, has been conferredone of the highest honors granted to alayman by the Roman Catholic Church­knighthood in the Order of St. Gregory.1909:Oma Moody (Mrs. John J. R. Lawrence)writes that her major interest is. a grand­daughter aged three and a half who; withher mother, makes her home with grandma.Mrs. Lawrence reports that the Iittle lady'is a whole research project in child psy­chology, and lots of fun, too.1911Just received: the early spring edition ofPAUL BUNYAN'S NOTE BOOK fromBlaney Park; Michigan, "The playgroundof Paul Bunyan' owned and operated byG. Harold .Earfe. It reports that Earle hasadded three more eight room houses andenlarged the airport since the last reunionof the class of E-o-leven on the estate acouple of years ago. He invites everyoneto come up any month of the. year. TheEarles will be there with good food, lodg­ing, and 'scenery. REUNION IN HAWAIIVice President Emeritus Frederic Wood­ward and Mrs. Woodward flew to Hono­lulu for their annual vacation in March.They were greeted at the plane by Dr.William J. Holmes, '30, MD '34, whohad plans made for a Chicago reunion.Forty-five alumni with wives and friendsdined at the Queen's Surf. Restaurant anddanced on the floor over the beach.1914Lydia Lee (Mrs. 1- W. Pearce), who livesin Pasco, Washington, writes that her hus­band, Who was with the James ConstructionCompany, has resigned to form his owncompany:. :MiUer-Pearce, Inc. The Pearceslive at 521 W. Yakima Street, Pasco.William M. Sebring . has been electedVice-President of Columbia Mills, Incorpo­rated. He wHI continue as treasurer andsecretary as well. He is also a director ofthe George H. Hoes Son and Company,Ltd., of Toronto, Canada.1915John William Chapman, JD '17, secre­tary to the governor of Illinois, is servingas a member of the committee making ar­rangements for the Ohio River ValleyWater Sanitation Compact. When signedJune 30, the compact will inaugurate thelargest project undertaken by states as acooperative endeavor without federal as­sistance.Reginald 'Charles McGrane, PhD, will be­come head of the Department of Historyat the University of Cincinnati August 1.He has taught at Cincinnati since 1915.1916Ro'Y White Bixler, AM '25, of DesMoines, Iowa, has been Registrar of DrakeUniversity:since April, 1947. Previously, hehad been with the United States Office ofEducation.MenilI Dakin is an instructor of Englishat Sampson College, Sampson, New York.Varro E. Tyler, JD, is now presidingjudge of the Court of Industrial Relationsof the State of Nebraska. He is living atNebraska City. I1917Maxwell (;. Park. is head of the Depart­ment of Education, State Teachers College,Cortland, New York.Daniel: C. Plummer has been elected. chairman of. the board of directors of theNu-Enamel Company.1920James M. Nicely was elected a vice-presi-;22 1921Floyd W. Reeves, AM, PhD '25, Professorof Administration in the Departments ofEducation and Political Science, UniverSity Iof Chicago, has been serving as Director ofStudies, New York State Temporary Com­mission to Study the Need for a State Uni­versity.1923Emily Eleanor Becht is with the Account­. ing Division of the Treasury Department inWashington. Her occupation: "statistics, re­search, claims reviewer, and translator."Clarence B. Day, AM, gives as his newaddress: Hangchow University, HangchowChekiang, China. '1924Silwing P. C. Au, formerly with theChinese Consulate at Portland, Oregon, isback in Chicago where he has been trans­ferred to the office of the Chinese Consu­late General. Mrs. Au is the former MayToy Chu, '28.Avery O. Craven, PhD, Professor of His­tory, who collects double' dividends forkeeping abreast of the most recent bOOksin his field by writing many reviews forthe Chicago Tribune and the New York-Herald Tribune Books sections, is one ofthree jurors to select the winners of awardsof $2,000 each for the two best books inthe field of American History. The prizesare given annually by. Columbia University.Leon J. Goodman, MD '26, is a physicianand surgeon, practicing at Macon, Georgia.Roy W. Johns, JD '25, of PhiladelphiaGeneral· Counsel of The Atlantic RefiningCompany, is serving this year on two com­mittees of the American Bar Association_the Committee On Oil of the Mineral Sec­tion, and the Special Committee on Bill ofRights, and has been elected a life memberof the American Law Institute. .Cynthia Jane Townsend, AM, is principalof the Girard High School at Girard, Kan­sas. After school hours she is president ofthe Kansas Dinner Club, an organizationof Kansas women educators.1925R3Iph Decker Bennett, PhD, is technicaldirector at Naval Ordnance Laboratory,White Oak, Maryland.Philip G. Davidson, Jr., AM, PhD '29,Dean of the Senior College and GraduateSchool of Vanderbilt University, was onthe quadrangles in April looking very sus­picious. To his many friends on the quad­tangles he admitted he had some vacanciesin his school. No one pushed him furtherfor reasons for his Chicago visitlAmy Irene Moore,. AM, has been ActingDirector of the Laboratory School as wellas Mathematics Supervisor at. MoreheadState College in Morehead, Kentucky. Shehas been a faculty member there for six­teen years.THE UNIVERSITY OFREUNION IN BERLIN13 April 1948Mrs. McKibbin (Helen Sunny '08), and Iinvited all alumni and former students ofthe University of Chicago to our home inWannsee on Sunday afternoon, April l l th,Twenty-five responded and we asked themto write their names, attendance at theUniversity of Chicago, and their presentwork. Enclosed please find the record theymade according to our request.Dr. Anna-Marie Durand-Wever '10, whoo:Mrs. McKibbin had known at the UOl­versity as a fellow student and had not seenfor forty years until we came over herelast summer, has been our houseguest forthe last six weeks, recuperating from an at­tack of pneu�onia. As a par�yless woman,neither NaZI nor Communist, she hasplayed a -leading part in women's activitiesduring the past few years here 'and hasjust retired as president of the DeutchesFrauenbund.We. in Germany are very happy to wel­come the first contingent of the Universityof Chicago faculty which arrived in Frank­furt last week. I had the pleasure of spend­ing an evening with them. As you areprobably aware, this rotating faculty ?eingsent to the University of Frankfurt IS !ora period of three years, eacfi group staym�one semester, except for Mr. Oake who ISmanager of the group and who plans tostay throughout the term. They have beenwelcomed enthusiastically by the Germal!-sas well as the Americans. This is a splendidexhibition of the kind of cooperation thatwill be necessary in order to rebuild Ger­many. We are particularly pleased to knowthat President Hutchins will be here onMay 18th to participate in the. very im­portant celebra�ion that is bein� plannedfor the centennial of the convenmg of thefirst German parliament in Frankfurt onMay 18, 1948.George B. McKibbin, JD '13Deputy DirectorOffice of Military Governmentfor Germany (U. S.)Berlin, GermanyThose at the reunion in addition to Mr.and Mrs. McKibbin and Doctor Durand­Wever were:Mary G. Kelty, '15, AM '2.4, who, as c?n­sultant in Social Studies to the EducationBranch, Education and Cultural Affairs Di­vision, is assisting in the writing of historytexts to be used in German schools.Robert M. Barnett, '20, and Mrs. Barnett(Emma A. Barnett, '22). Mr. Barnett is Di­rector of Civilian Personnel, Office of. theCommander in Chief.Beryl Rogers McClaskey, MA '22,. whosenote read: "I came to Berlin in early1946 and this is my first chance to get CHICAGOtogether with the people from my favoriteUniversity." ..Earl Rucker Beckner, AM '24, PhD '27,and Mrs. Beckner (Meta Schoeder, PhD'23). His job: Chief Wages Labor Sta!l��rdsand Housing Branch, Manpower DIVISIon,Office of Military Government. Hers: house­wife' hobby-German hausfrau problems.M�s. Emmanuel von der Muhll (MaryElizabeth Arnold, MA '26), whose husbandis an interpreter in the Allied ControlAuthority.June Rosenhaupt, '29, who is commandhostess, Headquarters, Berlin Command.Elizabeth Paxton Lam, AM '30, PhD '39,Education Specialist, Group Activ�tiesBranch, Education and Cultural RelationsDivision, Office of Military Government.Alice Christine Shaffer, AM '35, seniorrepresentative of the American FriendsService Committee at the NeighborhoodCenter "Mittelhof" in Nikolassee, Berlin.Sterling W. Brown, PhD '36, is also at­tached to the Education and Cultural Rela­tions Division.Neil F. Van Steenberg, PhD '38, ChiefHigher Education, Education and CulturalRelations Division.Mildred Biklen Smith, '39, Chief, PublicWelfare Board, Civil Administration Divi­sion, Office of Military Government.Judson W. Allen '39, who "came to Ber­lin in March 1947 as a soldier and becamecivilianized in March of this year with anassignment at the Berlin Command._"David R. Hunter, AM '40, and WIfe. Heis with the Civil Administration Division,Legislation Branch.Erwin W. Wendt, AM '40, assigned tothe United States Political Affairs Division,American Foreign Service, Berlin.Lucille Elizabeth pay, AM '41, who ha.sbeen working in Germany with' the Amen­can Friends Service Committee since Sep­tember, 1946.Jack I. Stone, AB· '41, who is manage­ment analyst for the Office of the Com­mander-in-Chief, European Command.James L. Sexton, '42, with the Educationand Cultural Relations Division, Office ofMilitary Government. /Horace Taylor, Professor of Econo�ics .atColumbia and a member of the Universityof Chicago faculty during the summers of192[ and 1922.Ruth C. Weiland-Freeman, who lecturedat the University in the Social Science De­partment in 1927, and her husband, JohnH. Freeman, Berlin Correspondent of theLondon Times, who wrote:· "May I expressmy high esteem for those who have em­barked on this bold adventure of forginglinks between Chicago and Frankfurt. It isa fine idea, and I pray from my heart thatthe utmost success may attend its applica­tion. Well done, Chicagol"1926Morris Leibman, AM '31, is AssociateDirector, Bureau of Jewish Education, LosAngeles, California. Besides being in chargeof fifty schools in the Los Angeles area, heteaches at the. College <of Jewish Studies,conducts in-service seminars, and serves asexecutive secretary of the Board of Reviewand Certification.Constance Marie Lloyd, personal .sec:r:e­tary to Governor Dwight H. Green, was thesubject of the first in a series of successfulSpringfield women by that city's daily pa­per. She has been with Governor Greenthirteen years, starting when he was aChicago attorney and she lived in OakPark.Leroy H. Mayes, AM, is with the Foreign Office Institute, Office of Director, Depart­ment of State, Washington, D. C.Kenneth B. Pierce on Route 1, Holland,Michigan, is raising registered Jerseys anda family, the latter consisting of Anne, 9,and Kenneth, jr., 4Y2.1928John C. Kennan, Executive Vice Presi­dent of the Western Golf Association, isheaded into another busy' season. The As­sociation assists its members to improvecaddie service, awards college SCholarshipsto deserving caddies, and promotes theWestern Open, Western Amateur, andWestern Junior Championship tourna­ments.On . weekends, Dean B. McNealy takestime out· from his business as a publicrelations counsel in San Francisco and MAGAZINE 23IMPORTANT!Subject matterand t.reatmentmake the new bookby the author of.A STUDY OF HISTORYof i.mmediateimporta'nce to youARNOLD J�rrOYNBEEtSCivilizationon TrialWhether you read, meantto read, or heard of AStudy of History, youwill find'CIVILIZATIONON TRIAL a volume oftwo-fold importance. Byexamining. present-dayconflicts in the light ofhis overall philosophy, itshows us the greatToynbeean concept ofcivilization in operation.By projecting currentproblems against thebackdrop of the past, itmakes clear the scope. and significance of to-day's crisis. $3.50• • •UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO BOOKSTORE5802 Ellis AvenueChi�ago 37. III.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOCareer woman, responsible, con­scientious, wil'l sit several eveningsweekly with child or "shut-in" inexchang,e for room in speclousI South Side home. References ex­'changed. Phone, evening, Dor­chester 2684RESULTS •• ,.,depend/on getting the details RIGHT, PRINTINGImprinting-Processed Letters - TypeWo�itingAddressing - Fold,ing - MailingI ' A Complf!te Service lor Direct AdvertisersChicago Addressing Company722 Sa. Dearborn se., Chicago 5, Ill.(Wabash 4561)POND LETTER SERVlClEEverything ,in Letter.Hooven Typewrltlnl Mlmeogr:aphlnlM,ultlgraph,lng; AddressingAddreisograjlh SeMlI.. Malll,.gH'lahut Quality Servl... Mlnlm,lIm PI',le ..All PhonesHarriison 8"11,8 418 So. Mar�et St.Chicago:CLARK;E·,McE,LRO'YPUBL1ISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935'�Good Pritntin, 01 A.ll Descriptio","E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Pilano9'raph-Offset-Printing:731 Plymouth CourtWabash' 8182GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, [nc,Painting-Decorating-Wood Finishing3123 Phonetake Street Kedzie 3186 turns poultry farmer on his Napa valleyfarm about 65 miles away in the heart ofthe wine country. Skiing and photographyare his hobbies. His daughters, Gail andJane are llY2 and 3Y2,James Parker of Glen Ellyn, Illinois, willchairman the 1948 fund campaign of theDuPage County Family Service Associationon a voluntary basis. Mr. Parker is na­tional manager of an appliance departmentof Sears, Roebuck and Company, and a di­rector of Family Service Association.Oden Elbridge Sheppard, PhD, is withthe Chemistry Department of MontanaState, College.1929Philip M. Hauser, AM '33, PhD '38, hasreturned to the University as Professor ofSociology after an absence 'of 14 years spentin Washington, D. C. Evidence' that he wasnot idle' can be seen by the titles he hasheld: Deputy Director of the Census;' As­sistant to the Secretary of Commerce; andUnited States Representative on PopulationCommission of the United Nations.Walter T. Lillie is director of the RexallDrug Company at Los Angeles" California.Paul L. Lollister, SM, of Cookevrlle,Tennessee, writes that he is developing anew laboratory manual for freshman biol­ogy. This, in addition to performing theduties as <elder of the Cookeville Presby-.terian Church, has kept him "reasonablyoccupied."Ellen Elizabeth Micb.ael, AM, is a stu­dent at Quebec, Canada. She expects to gether Ph.D. degree in French this June.1930l.illy Fluke, writes: "Just a notice ofchange of address. I transferred to theHolloman Air Force Base at Alamogordo,New Mexico, from Wright Patterson Head­quarters at Dayton, Ohio, where I wasemployed in Civilian Personnel, for six.years, I will be very glad to have anyU. of C. alumni contact me at civilian per­sonnel at Holloman A.F.B."Verle N. Fry, JD, Executive Vice Presi­dent of the Builders' Control Service, LosAngeles, called Alumni House from: theLoop late in .April.. He and Mrs. Fry werein Chicago between trains on their wayto New York for a vacation. They wereplanning to swing south on their return toCalifornia. 'Adelaide Johnson, Ph.D.,' M.D. '32, isnow a member of the .staff of the Institutefor Psychoanalysis in Chicago and- Associ­ate, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Univer­sity of Minnesota.1:9'31Marcel J. E. Golay, PhD, is research con­sultant to the Signal Corps at "Port Mon­mouth, New Jet:sey.Don C. McMillan spent thirty minutesat Alumni House between trains the lastof April. He was returning to ,Massachusettsafter visiting his mother in Hutchinson,Kansas. Don is the pastor of the" SouthWeymouth Universalist Church and an ac­tive member of a number of the Church'sinternational committees. During the Warhe taught water safety at the Summit, NewJersey Y.M.C.A. In his senior year at Chi­cago he had been. captain of the wate! poloteam. The McMIllans have two children,Marcalin, 4 and Hobart Meredith, 2.Margaret Gilpin Reid" PhD, head of theFamily Economics Division, Bureau ,of f!iu­man Nutrition and Home Economics,United States· Department of Agricultu:;e,has been appointed Professor of EC�)llomlcsat the University of, Ulinois efJieclllve Sep­tember 1.John, B. Stout, AM, Professor of Educa- MAGAZINEtion and Director, Teacher Training andPlacement, 'Northwestern State College,Alva, Oklahoma, has been serving as amember of several state professional or­ganizations. He was Group -Chairman atthe Oklahoma, UNESCO Conference t}iispast year. As President of the Alva RotaryClub, he attended the Convention of ·Ro­tary International held in San Francisco.1932Lorraine Robie is a, secretary for theFranklin Life Insurance Com pan y inSpringfield, Illinois.Moneta Troxel Soper, MA, (Mrs. Ed­mund Soper), will sail with her husbandfor Jubbulpore, Central Provinces, Indiain August. Mr. Soper will be a visitingprofessor at Leonard Theological Collegeand Mrs. Soper will be doing curriCUlumwork and teaching in religious education.1933William Haeck, Jr., MD '37, is practiSingmedicine at Grand Rapids, Michigan:'Marshall T. Newman is doing researchin anthropology for the Smithsonian In­stitute.Thomas C. Poulter, phD, has resignedhis position as associate director of the Ar­mour Research Foundation of the IllinOisInstitute of T.echnology to join the staffof the' Stanford Research Institute in asimilar capacity. A noted Antartic explorer,Dr. Poulter has been' awarded two Con­gressional Medals of Honor and the Spe­cial Gold Medal of the National GeographicSociety for his scientific accomplishmentsin polar exploration. .,1934s. W. Connelly, now with the em­bassy in Stockholm, Sweden, will returnthis July to teach in the department ofordnance at the United States MilitaryAcademy, West Point.William H., Sills of the Chicago bankingcorporation of Sills, Minton and Company,Incorporated, has been elected presidentof .the Illinois' Securities Dealers AssOCia-tion.1935Robert H. Harris, MD, after four yearswith the United States Air : Force, has l"e­tired with the rank of Major. He is nowattending the University of Illinois medicalclasses. • He is a dermatologist.Edwin L. Ramsey, Jr., and wife SaraGwin; who have been living in BeverlyHills, California, have just moved into theirnew home at 12612 Collins St. in 'NorthHollywood. Ed. is with the �exall ·�rugCompany workmg 'on such thmgs as Costcontrol, pricing, and dividends.1936Mrs. Stanley E. TeIser (Henrietta Fein­'gold Chase) is teaching voice in Chicago.She has made three .Orchestra Hall appear­ances and is vocal soloist at Sinai Congrega_tion and at Anshe Emet Temple. She sangthe role of Leonore in the final scene ofFidelio given in Rockefeller Chapel 'lastmonth.George Vincent Meyers is Assistant' Comp­troller at the Westinghouse Air Brake, Wil­.merding, Pennsylvania.Rose Strutz has retired and writes fromLansing, Michigan, that now she'll havetime to read the Great Books,1937Sanford Goodfriend, MD, is in privatepractice in New York City.Lloyd E. Harris, MD, is: a pediatricianin practice at Rochester, Minnesota.IJuan Horns, Jr. is with Pan-American,-promoting both passenger, and cargo serv-THE UNIVERSITY OFice between the United States and Argen­tina. He is living in Buenos Aires.Richard J. Ketterer is a chemist withUnion Process Company of Akron, Ohio,Mrs. Morton Epstein (Dena J. Polacheck)is in the Music Division of the UnitedStates Copyright Office.Nettie E. Reeps has been Mrs. Harry H.Schmuckal since last October, and she andher husband have bought. a horne in thecountry south of Downers Grove.John E. Sheedy, MD, who, is with theUnited States Lines, has been assigned to,the S.S. America.1938John William Chapman has. been trans­ferred to, the Chicago, Office of the VeteransAdministration, which is agreeable to, himsince he has purchased a horne at ParkRidge, Illinois,Ernest P. DuBois, PhD '42, is a geologistwith the International Petroleum Companyat Talara, Peru. .Phyllis Greene (Mrs. john W. Mattingly)writes: "john and I leave Urbana for goodin June when he gets his degree and Icomplete two, years in the French Depart­ment. We'll head west to, the next advan­ture-a new job, home and business some­where west of Denver in the Rockies where �the fishing' is good and the mountains arehigh. I'll probably teach again-it's in myblQQd!"Ernestine Heilman, AM '38 (Mrs. johnMacPhail) is teaching fifth, sixth andseventh grades in the Socrates Greek Amer-ican School in Chicago, .Robert W. Hughes is with the SocialSecurity Administration at Milwaukee, Wis-consin. . ... ..Prescott Jordan, Jr., AM,· PhD "41, is aphysician at Receiving Hospital, Detroit,Michigan:·Samuel A� Lynde, AM, is an instructorin English and Latin at the St. Louis DaySchQQ1, St. Louis, Missouri,Harold Richard Morris, MD, is a special­ist in radiology at Redlands CommunityHospital, Redlands, California.Retha Rosenheimer Mason, AM '45, ismusic consultant for Girl Scouts on theSouth Side of Chicago. She has taken partin several Station WBKB radio, and tele­vision prQgrams.Paul Roger Roesch is living in CollegePlace, Washington, and is practicing lawwith offices in WaHa Walla.Earl L. Smith, MBA, is an economist withBabson's Reports Incorporated and Direc­tor of the Advisory Department.1939Robert M. Borg, SM '40, is a rodent CQn­trol . specialist for the National Committeefor Rat CQntrQI, United States Departmentof the Interior, Washington.Martha Branscombe, AM, ,PhD '47, isworking for .the Children's Bureau of theFederal .Security Agency in Washington,D. C.Evelyn R. Dansky, AM '46, who, becameMrs. Maurice S. Alperin in January, 1948,is living at 3102 Dodge Street in Omaha,Nebraska, and lists her occupation as house­wife; ..Robert H. Harlan is practising law andpractically engulfed in all the civic activi­ties of Freeport, Illinois. He writes theGreat BQQks course has taken the town by'storm-Yin fact, Freeport has the highestper capita participation of any communityin the nation."Lewis E. Haskins, MBA, is assistant divi­sional controller of the Wurlitzer CompanyQf North Tonawanda, New York. He andMrs. Haskins, the former Marion L. Pear- CHICAGOson, '39, live in nearby Kenmore, NewYork.Francis W. Hennings, MD, is a physicianand surgeQn at' Western Clinic, Tacoma,WashingtQn.Marie Kan, AM '42, is doing graduatework in social service while teaching asfull time instructor in English. at the U ni­versity of Wisconsin Extension in Mil­waukee. She is keeping her 'hand in musicby . giving piano, lessons, Last season sheconducted a music appreciation series called"Symphony Circle" at the Jewish Center inMilwaukee.Robert E. Meyer, in addition to his in­teresting work as Public Office Manager ofthe Illinois Bell Telephone Company, hasbeen officiating at Big Nine basketballgames; He makes his own home runs atHinsdale, Illinois, for the benefit of hisdaughters aged four and one.Blanch M. Scholes has changed her nameand address to, Mrs. Michael Lepinskie,Comberrnere, Ontario" Canada.Edwin R. Walker, PhD, is Professor ofPhilosophy and Chairman of General Edu­cation at Oklahoma A & M College inStillwater. 1940Edwin H. Badger, Jr. writes "am nowattending my first year of Seminary, study­ing for the priesthood in the EpiscopalChurch, at Seabury-Western TheologicalSeminary, Evanston, Illinois. I received myRegular Army Commission in the AirForces last June, and had a tough decisionto, make, as I had thought that I had foundmy career." ..Wilbur Charles Bohnhoff is living in Chi­cago, where he is working as Air RQU teTraffic Controller with the C.A.A.Thomas Hale Hamilton, AM, PhD '47,has been appointed Vice-President of Penn­sylvania College for Women, He is nQWAssistant Dean, University College. From1943 to 1946, Doctor Hamilton was a navalofficer and' the following year served onthe staff of the Commission on Implicationsof Armed Services Educational Program.His new appointment will become effectiveAugust 1. 'Alfred Pfanstiehl is teaching physics andmathematics at Putney School, Vermontand lecturing to grQups around New Eng­land on nuclear energy. "Atom SmashingIdeas" is the title of his talks.Jack Rapaport is General Manager forFabrico Manufacturing Corporation withheadquarters in Chicago.Glenn Ward Slade, Jr., is purchasingagent for Shell Oil Company at Houston,Texas. .Annida C. Slavens, AM, is Director ofthe Troy tJay Horne, TrQY, New York.Heber C. Snell, PhD, is at the Instituteof Religion, Logan, Utah. He expects to,publish a college text this summer on thehistory of Israel. He was married lastJune to, Mrs. Phebe Linford Rees.1941.Robert Baum, living at Shawnee, Okla­homa, writes: "No, change, but RobertPatrick was a year old on St. Patrick's Dayand Lorelei will be 4 next Hallowe'en."Henry R. Gass is an accountant in Chi-cago. .Henry F. Goodnow, AM, has acceptedthe position of City Manager of Keen, NewHampshire: 1942Alfred J. Davis, after five years of serviceas Director Qf Adult Education at the Cen­tral Branch. of Y.M.C.A., Montreal, has be­come General Secretary and Director ofAdult Education of the Y.M.C.A., Belle­ville, Ontario" Canada. MAGAZINE 25CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency66th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices-One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis-Kansas City. Mo.Spokane..,...New YorkTHE HUGHES TEACHER.S AGENCY,25 East Jackson, Chicago 4, Hlinois; isusing this space to remind college andhigh school teachers and administratorsof its dignified, professional, efficientservice. It invites correspondence.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVA,RD,CHICAGOA Bureau of Placement -wlilcli Hmits itswork to the university and C()Uege Reld.It is affiliated with the Fisk Teacher!Agency of Chicago, whose. work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.Our service Is nation-wide.Since J88SALBERTTeachers' AgencyThe best· i,n placement service for Universit,y.College. Secondary and Elementary. Nation·wide patronage. Call or write us at25 E. Jackson Blvd.Chicago 4, IllinoisAMERICANPHOTO ENGRAVING CO.Photo f:ngraveFlArtists - Electrotyper.Make.r. of' Println; ,Plate.429 TelephoneS. Ashla,nd Blvd. Monroe 75,15w. B. CONKEY CO,.H.AMMOND, INDIANASALES OFFICES: CHICAGO AND NEW YORK26 :THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE•Auto L'iiv'ery•Qufef, uno&'rutiv. .. w'c.When you wan' It, ". you wan"" ICALL AiN EME,RY FIRSTEmery :Dr,erel Livery', Inc. I;5516 Harper AvenueFAliRFAX 6410 I,I Jr-....--.··-..·-.··-.··-..·-...-...-.··-...-..·-.··l! �$$$ !�� $11 lt ll ti 1t 1l iI I1 ll How Much Do You l! Wallt to Eorll? Il Would you like to have the upward ,,', ,limit of your income determined by tl your own efforts? To be given a l1 free rein, with full recognition and 1t upper bracket earnings available to tl you right from the start? If so, a: t,,,1 career in life assurance may be the jt answer. �l There is a challenge to it . . . but l'i'l to the man of initiative and ability ,1t who makes life assurance selling his tl life-work the Sun Life of Canada l! offers opportunities for quick and ,1., lasting success unexcelled ill any �other business. t1 This leading international life' eom- "t pany with extensive business in the, lIt' United. States and Canada has a t,unique training plan for those whocan qualify. Its representatives en-r joy a liberal agency contract includ- li.' ing .such privileges as guaranteed 1immediate income, group life and t1 hospitalization coverage, and pension ,i! plan. ii Write for furthe1' details today to: il J. A. McALL.ISTER i1. Assistant Genera.1 Manager andl Director 1t of Agencies tl !! SUN LIFE Ii ASSURANCE COMPANY !t OF CANADA' tI Heed, OIRce: MONTREAL, QU'EBEC,' l�__._.,_.._.._--,,_.,_..,_..._._..-\ HEADLINERSSHORT-STOP FROM OSAG!EThe first baseball diamond George H.Sawyer, '99, ever played on was a sandlotin Osage. Iowa, where he was short-stop forthe Osage Kids" Nine. He never forgotthe humble origin of his first horne-run.Not even the fame of his days as, captainof Chicago'S championship baseball teamcould fog his memory. The day he leftthe Midway he returned to Osage andsigned his first contract to teach as gradeinstructor. The next year he signed an­other document-a marriage contract-withNora Vaughn, an Osage primary teacher.This July, after more than a half-centurywith the Osage Schools, George is retiringas dean of Iowa superintendents.His classmates will remember many ofhis off-the-diamond accomplishments onthe Midway. They will recall how he couldhandle the jobs of waiter, laundry agent,and Christian Union secretary and stillstand high-man on the scholastic score­board. They will remember particularlythe "T.I.W." dub which he formed withH. D. Abells, '97, M. P. Frutchey, '98,W. O. Wilson., '97, and H. I. Ickes, '97, JD'07, who like himself were working theirway through. When translated from theGreek, the initials stood, 'Simply for "LO.U."It appears now that George and his wifewin finally find time to see how the grassgrows OR other diamonds and sandlots.Interviewed for the local press, Georgeconfided, "We'd like to travel as long asour health will permit."Incidentally, Sawyer bas spent only sixweeks.of sick leave in his 52 years of service.:PAID IN FULLNathaniel J. Quickstad, '23, was a verysurprised man March 29 when his namewas read to receive the' first Award ofMerit ever granted by the Royal OakChamber of Commerce. He need not havebeen. As the citation explained, "he wasthat. person who had given most unselfishlyof himself in the service of his community."The lengthy and impressive list of titlesmentioned by the toastmaster gave con­vincmg evidence that the good influenceof this alumnus had been felt in almostevery phase of life in this Michigan City.After completing almost 40 years of teach­ing, 15 of which were spent as Superin­tendent of the Royal Oak schools, Quick­srad, stiU could look with pride at themany instances outside the classroom wherehe had given freely of his time and efforts.His leadership in the Boy Scout movement,the Red Cross, the American Legion, andthe Chamber of Commerce had been ou t­standing. For fifteen years he had servedas Director of the Council of Social Agen­cies. And these are only a few of hismany positions.If Quickstad was slow to rise to acceptthe honor, he was quick to share it. First,with his wife who was gravely ill and un­able to be with him. Then with the citizensof. Royal Oak who had. worked with him.And finally, with his mother, an immigrant.who 'had fostered the personal belief of hi.�remark: "Let's pay back through serviceto this land of ours for the opportunity ithas given us," SUCCESS FORMULAGeorge O. Curme, Ph.D.George o. Curme, Ph.D. '13, a pioneerin the American organic chemical industry,has been elected Vice-President of UnionCarbide and Carbon Corporation.The original research on acetyline doneby him at the Mellon Institute of Indus­trial Research resulted in the formulationof Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation28 years ago. In the years that havefollowed, Doctor Curme has witnessed the�commercial output of his research findingsexpand to an annual production of over 9billion pounds. IDoctor Curme was first to develop thechemistry of aliphatic compounds in theUnited States. His achievements have. re­ceived recognition many times. Amonghis awards are the Chandler Medal fromColumbia University. the Perkin Medalgiven by the Society of Chemical Industry,the Elliott Cresson Medal from the Frank­lin Institute, the National Modern PioneerAward from the National Association ofManufacturers, and the Willard GibbsMedal from the American Chemical So.ciety. .After leaving the Midway, Doctor Curmewent abroad to study with Fritz Haberat 'the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute andwith Emil Fischer at the University ofBerlin. At the outbreak of World War I.he returned to the Unjted States to beginhis work at the Mellon Institute. Formany years he was Vice-President and Di­rector of Bakelite Corporation and Car­bide and Carbon' Chemicals Corporation.He now lives at White Plains, New York.THE LAWYERS' LAWYERThe idea of practising law in Oregonwas farthest from George Rossman's mindwhen he left the Midway thirty-eightyears ago with the shiny new initials­J.D.-tagging his name. His ticket was forTacoma, Washington. Today his nameis tagged by the title, Chief Justice of theOregon Supreme Court. And therebyhangs a tale.Rossman reached Tacoma in March,1910. His shingle would hang over thefamiliar Washington state territory. Butthe shift in scenery had its basis in law, aWashington State law that declared allapplicants for the bar must have regis­tered by January, 1910, or wait another• two years. Well, Rossman. did not wait.Instead, he entrained for Portland, passedthe Oregon bar exams, and formed a Part­nership with two local fledgling barristers.His present title has a more impressiveexplanation because Oregon is the onlystate where the members of the highestcourt select their own Chief Justice. Onlyan .outstanding record of judicial workcould win a favorable decision from thattribunal.27THE UN I V E R S I TY 0 F CHI C AGO MAG A Z IN ERossman's first seven years before theb�r were largely as a lawyers' lawyer win­nmg respect in all courts of the state. Itwas in 1917 that he took his first appoint­ment as municipal judge "for a year orso." He has been on . the bench ever since.From the outset, his work was character­ized by a concern that both civil and crim­inal justice in the lowest courts shall beadministered fairly. with kindness, andhuman understanding. He wished the greatnumber of people having contact onlywith those courts to believe in their in­tegrity and regard for fair-play.Promotion to the Circuit Court of Mult­nomah County came in 1922. To help themany persons he saw coming into the Pub­lic Welfare Bureau which was located onthe same floor with his courtroom, he con­verted his chambers into an unofficial legalaid agency on Saturday afternoons.In 1927 he was appointed to the OregonSupreme Court where his competent serv­ices really won him his case. His associatesmade him Chief Justice for a term whichbegan January 1, 1947.THE INDEPENDENT GENIUSTo encourage not isolated geniuses butmen who will do the work of the worldthe Society of Fellows was organized atHarvard University 15 yeats ago.Every spring since, eight of the nation'stop college graduates selected for promiseor original thought have joined the Societyas junior fellows. As members they havehad the privilege of three years of inde­pendent study at Harvard. Rather thantaking the prescribed program of studyleading to the traditional PhD� degree, theyhave been allowed to follow "the alterna­tive path more suited to the encourage­ment of the rare and independent genius."Have the fellows been doing the workof the world? A case study published thismonth reporting on the 64 member schol­ars would indicate they have. Contributingto this impression is the work of Universityof Chicago alumni and faculty members.Dr. James G. Miller, Chairman of theDepartment of Psychology at the Universityof Chicago served as a neuropsychiatrist,assessing personalities of secret agents forOSS during the war. His book, "Assess­ment of Men," was cited as an example ofaction in print.Before writing on such contrasting areasas "The Street Corner Society" and "TheMan in the Middle: Position and Problemsof the Foreman," Associate Professor ofSociology William F. Whyte had investi­gated at first hand the social organizationof slums and industry.CONC'RETEFLOORSSIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSWentworth 4422T. A. REHNQUIST CO.6639 So. Vernon Ave.- At a time when the language barriercan have unfortunate consequences in hu­man affairs, Francis J. Whitfield, AssistantProfessor of Slavic Languages has comeforward with "A Russian Reference Gram­mar."Two important texts have come from thepen of Paul A. Samuelson, '35, in. the past24 months. The M.I.T.· Economics Pro­fessor is author of "The Foundations ofEconomic Analysis" and "Economics: AnIntroduction Analysis."For the first time many students haveunderstood the mathematical terminologyin Aristotle's logic. The research of Bene­dict S. Einarson '26, Associa te Professor ofGreek can take the credit.Members of the Society are inclined towithhold judgement of their contributions"perhaps until a generation of Americanscholars has gone by." By that time wecan report on the work of Saul Levin '42,who this moment is taking "the alterna­tive path" on the Cambridge Campus. Ifthe trend of the present record continuesthe hundred year mark should dictate aremarkable story.COMMANDANT OFCHAPLAINSChaplain (Lieutenant Colonel) ArthurCarl Piepkorn, PhD '32, has been namedCommandant of the United States Armyand Air Force Chaplain School, CarlisleBarracks, Pennsylvania.The new commandant has travelled topractically all corners of the globe sincehis departure from the Midway. In 1932-1933 he held the Annual Fellowship of the. American School of Oriental Research inBagdad. Returning. to this country he heldpastorates in Chisholm, Minnesota, andCleveland, Ohio. Commissioned in theOfficers Reserve Corps in 1936, he partic­ipated in the training of more than 4,000war-time chaplains at the Chaplain Schoolat Harvard University. In 1944 he wasnamed Corps Chaplain of the XXIII Corpsand served with it in England, France andGermany. After V-E / Day, he was desig­nated Senior Chaplain, United States Occu­pational Forces in Germany. Later hebecame Chief of the Chaplain Section ofthe General Board, United States Forces,European Theater, which prepared theofficial critique of American land opera­tions in Europe. Upon his return to theUnited States in March, 1946, the Lutheranclergyman rejoined the faculty of theChaplain School as Assistant Director ofTraining, and then as acting commandantuntil his recent appointment.3 HOUR S.ERVICEEXCLUSIVE CLEANERSAND.DYERSSinet 19201442 and 1331 E. 57th St.•EVENI,N'G GOWNSAND FORMALSA SPECIA,L TY• We call/orand deliverMidway��.3 HOUR SE.RVlCE III found my careeron thethird try III"I t wasn'tthat I failed inmy first twojobs," writes Ed­ward L. Sittler, Jr. of Uniontown, Pa.- "But I was dissatisfied with my prog­ress. So one day I took stock of myself."What did I want out of life? Well"my wife and I liked to travel, and docommunity work ... and I felt capableof earning a larger income. Above all, Iwanted to know that I was doing workmy neighbors recognized as important."So I tried a third career. I became aMutual Life Field Underwriter. For 10years new, with time out for the Army,I've devoted myself to building securityfor the families of my community. Do Ihave what I wanted? Decidedly yes! Myincome has increased substantially andit is steadily rising, I enjoy a professionalstanding and I have plenty of leisurefor hobbies and outside activities."* * *Are you seeking a career thac can givefull scope to your abilities? Have youthe drive and enthusiasm to "work foryourself"? We invite you to spend 30minutes in your own home, taking theMutual Life Aptitude Test. If youqualify, you'll hear from the MutualLife manager whose office is nearestyou. He'll explain our excellent on-the-. job training course, designed to help youlaunch your new career. And you'll findthat the Mutual Lifetime Compensa­tion Plan provides liberal commissionsand a comfortable retirement income.Many Mutual Life success storieshave started with this Aptitude Test.Just mail the coupon below. -THE MUTUAL LIFElNS'URANCE COMPAiNY of NEW VOlfR"W Alexander E. Pafters�n� President34 Nassau StreetNew York 5,N.Y.GENTLEMEN:Please send me your Aptitude Teet.Name •...........•..........•.•. Age .••..• '.'Ho�e Address .........................•.•..•.110228 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHIC AGO MAG A Z I N E'Platers, Silversmiths'Spec;al;sts • • •GOLD. SILVER, RHODA'NIZESILVERWAREaepaired, aeflnished, aelacqueredSWARTZ & 'COMPANY10 S. Wabash, Ave. CEN'tr.1 6089-90 Chi •• ,.ECONOMY SHEET 'METAL WORKSEstablished in 1922Cornices, Skylights, Gutters, Downspouts,Boiler' Breachings, Smoke Stacks, Furnacesand RoofingE. C. Delchma,nBuckingham 1193 1921 Mel,ose StreetChkago, IllinoisLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 Ealt 57th Stre.tPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1·2DAWN FRESH FROSTE.D FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERTel.ephone Haymarket 3120[ A .• AARON' & BRo.s. Inc.Fresh Fruits a.n·df Vegeta"'es, Distributors 01CEDERGREEN ,FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketGolden Dirilyte(formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID - NOT PLATEDComplete sets and open stockFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther 'Famous Males of Fine China. AlsoCrystal, Table Linen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigu, IUE.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago 4, HI. OUR WASHINGTON CLUBThere are more than 1200 Chicago alumniin the Washington, D. C. area. In few citiesare there as many alumni of recent genera­tions. To few cities/ do as many Chice qofaculty men and administrative officers makeas frequent business visits. The combinationis a natural for a live-wire Chicago Club,which is [usr what we have always had inWashington. So impressed were we with thediversified program of this club in the year[us+ ending that we asked its alert presidentHoward P. Hudson, '35, to give us a. report.Howard Mort seems to think that theAlumni Club of Washington did a goodjob this year. My understanding throughthe years is that they have always done so.I think we could have done a better jobthis year, but perhaps distance contributesto Mr. Mort's euphoria. Anyway we triedenough different things so that one of themwas bound fio dick.1 think I am most pleased with theweekly luncheons which we started in No­vember. Every Wednesday noon we havea table reserved in the LaFayette Hotelwhere male alumni are free to come on thepromise that there will be no program, nospeeches, no reservations needed. We fixedit at the same time and place each weekso that it would be remembered. We havenever had more than eight men present,but enough different people have come sothat we can say that it has caught on. IfYOU want to know who they are, there's� register book �n the table. Thi� is ':lot anofficial function of the Club, WhICh IS whyit is limited to men. The group whostarted it wanted it that way. We stillhope that some of the ladies will take t�pthe idea. Anyway, the luncheons are stillgoing on and now that the season is aboutover, the newspapers have begun to carrya notice of it in their calendars of events.Our year started with the first dinner'meeting last October when Dean Strozierand your alumni secretary spoke. Theyprovided an excellent orientation on theUniversity of today. The effects of their in­spiration remained long enough so that wehad a double header in December. We tied in with the 'Illinois State Society dance atthe Shoreham and had a room for Chicagoalumni. The next night quite a numberwere on hand at a meeting which Chancel­lor Hutchins addressed.No matter when we scheduled an eventwe always had someone write that hecould never come on Wednesday, whydidn't we meet on Thursday, etc? So Wehad dinner meetings on Tuesday, Wednes­day, Thursday, two luncheons on Wednes·day and Friday, a Sunday breakfa�t, as,well as the other two events menuom-.jwhich were on Saturday and Sunday nightsrespectively.The dinner meeting in January had a re­vealing and informative tal� by. Dr.. Hog.ness on the role of the University 111 theAtomic Age. In February, alumnus EdWinNourse of the President's Committee ofEconomic Advisers, gave us an inside viewof the work of this Committee in dealingwith the economic health of the country.For variety, we had two luncheon meet.ings for the Members of the Club. Vice­president Lynn Williams told us about theGreat Books program and subsequently anumber of our alumni became active herein Washington. At the luncheon in MarchDean Ralph Tyler discussed aptit';lde testswhich evoked a number of questions andin addition gave an excellent capsule Viewof the status of the University to date,The grand finale was on April 25, anoon Sunday breakfast at the SheratonHotel at which Nathaniel Peffer and H. R.Baukhage of Ee-o-lev-en, gave a magnificentperformance. I don't know if Mr. Pefferknows that he spoke a solid seventy ruin.utes, but we will recall that long afterhis formal address, we had to cut off thequestions from the floor so we could gohome for supper. If we had had supperreservations with the hotel, I'm sure every­one would have stayed. It was a provoc­ative speech and seldom have we heard aswitty an introduction as that WhICh Mr.,Baukhage provided. ..Looking back on it now I guess we didhave a pretty good year. But I think thatWally So1£ and the other new officers willdo much better.H�ris B. Jones is completing a coursein hospital administration at the U. of C.He will begin an internship with the W. K.Kellogg Foundation at Battle Creek, Michi-gan, July 1.. .Richard H. Logsdon, PhD, IS ASSIstantDirector of Columbia University Libraries.Raymond H. McEvoy, AM '47, at presenta ,gradliate student and fellow in Econ?micsat the University, has accepted an assistantprofessorship in Economics in the Collegeof Commerce and Business Administrationof the University of Illinois. He will assumethe post September 1.Raymond H. Wittcoff was recently deco�rated with the Breast Order of Yun Hui, by the Republic of. Ch!na for me�it?riousservice in the orgamzanon �nd tralDll1& ofthe Chinese Navy while servmg as a UnitedStates Naval Officer during the war.LEA'RN UPEWRITING nus, SUMM1ER!Mornings 9 to 12 - 5 days6 Weeb - Special InstructorsStart July 12, 1948V .. ur 1948 opportuBity to loon typ�riting quickly.ThorouDlh train'i'nID. coveri.n'DI all phases frem k�board�o speed. Reasonable tUition.Vis:if. write 04' phon:eBRYANT & STRATTON, COLLEGE18 So. Miehlgan Ave., Chicago 3 Randolph 1575 1944Mark S. Beaubien, MD '46, is serving aresidency in internal medicine at Presby­terian Hospital in Chicago.Mary Laura Collins, who received herB.F.A. from the Goodman Memorial Thea­ter since leaving the Midway, has been busyin summer and winter working with theWoodstock Players at Woodstock, Illinois.This month she is going to Tucson, Cali­fornia, where she will be leading lady forHoliday Stage, Incorporated.J. D. Hartwig, MBA, was graduated fromHarvard Law School last June. Last Octoberhe was admitted to the Michigan Bar Asso­ciation and opened a law office in BentonHarbor. He and his wife, Marjorie, areproud parents of a -year-old daughter,Pamela Jean..,Awning. and (anopie. lor All Purpo •••4508 Cottage Grove AvenuePhones Oakland 0690-0691-0692The Old Reliabl.Hyde Park Awning Co.;lNC.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29BOYDSTON BROS .• INC.operatingAuthorized Ambulance ServiceFor Billings HospitalOfficial Ambulance Service forThe University of ChicagoOak. 0492 Oak •. 0493Trained and license·d attendantsSUPERFLUOUS HAIRREMOVED FOREVERMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of hair from face, eye­brows, ba<:k of neck, or any part of body;also facial veins, moles, and warts.LOTTIE A. M,ETCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXP:ERT20 years' experIenceGraduate NurseSuite 1705. Stevens BuildinCJ17 N. ,Stat·e Street -T elephene Frankli.n 4885FREE CONStJLTAT'lONEASTMAN COAL GO.EdabBahed 1902YARDS AtL OV'E,R IOWNGENERAL OfFICES,3'42 N. Oakley Blyd'.T elephon. Seele.y 4488Real Estate and Insurance1500 East 51th Street H'yde, �ark 2525'ASHJIAN BROS.,ID,?IITABUIIIEO 1111.Orien tal and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 Soulh Chiealo Phone ReleDt 6000ANI:MAL CAGESofAdvanced Sc:i.elitific: DesiCJnACME SHEET METAL WORKS1121 East 55th St.Chicago 15, 'III.Phone: Hyde Park 9500 Dan A. Williams, BLS '45, is going intohis' third year as chief librarian of theMuncie Public Library System, though cur­rently on leave of absence to complete hisMaster's in Library Science on the campus.1945Frank R. Hall, MD, expects to go oninactive duty in July. He is with the UnitedStates Navy.Mary Denise Petr, AM '46, is with theadvertising firm of Needham, Louis andBrorby in Chicago. She is working in themedia department.Charles Jacob Ruth, MD '47, is an in­tern at Doctors Hospital, Seattle, VVashing­ton.Herbert W. Siegal, AM, is teaching inthe San Antonio Public Schools. He hasa son who will be one year old next month.1946William W. Savage, AM, is a niemberof the staff of State Teachers College, Farm­ville, Virginia.Mary Elizabeth. Bailey, AM, is instructingiEnglish at Wayne University. The signa­ture is now: Mary Bailey Campbell. Shemarried Jack Campbell last December.Ernest Borinski, AM, is Chairman of theDivision of Social Sciences at Tougaloo Col­lege, Mississippi. He writes enthusiasticallyof the Social Science Laboratory which hasbeen set up in answer to the Negro stu­dents' demand for practical application oftheir learning in terms of their everydaylife .. The laboratory serves as an informa­tion and communication center for theneighboring communities and helps thecommunity people to devise and. carrythrough community projects. It furtherhelps teachers and preachers in the smallrural Negro communities to recognize anddefine their community problems and towork out constructive solutions. A state­wide distribution of informative materials,extension courses and a testing programsuited to the specific environmental experi­ences of' the Southern Negro student areamong the laboratory projects in the fu­ture.BUSINESSC'AREERSEnter the buslneas world well prepared. ,��I��;Y tto:t t�:e p�:fga�;ly�e�:e�1atJ'��g s:sonnet; Since 1904, young men and womenof Chicago have increased the.ir earning­capacity through MacCormac training.Register now . for any 'of the followingcourses:• Typing • Aeeountlng'• Shorthand • Busine88 Administration• S.tenog'raph • Advertising• Comptometry • E�eeutlve SecretarialDay or evening qlasses. G. I. Approved.Visit us.Phone or write for cafalogMac CORMAC SCH09LSLOOP57 W. Monroe St.RANdolph 81i95 SOUTH SIDE117. E. 63rd St.BUTterfield 6868BIENENFELDChicago', Most 'Complete Stock ofGLASSGLASS CORP. OF ILUNOIS1525 .W. 35th St. Pho .. eLafayett. 8400 ASunciaeTreat lorAny DaylSWIFT"S IC,E· CR.EAMSundaes and sodas are extra goodmade with Swift's Ice Cream. So'delicious, so creamy-smooth, soPHILCO R. C. A. CROSLEYMOTO�OLA G. E. FARNSWORTHRADIO SERVICERECORDS REFRIGERATORSWASHERS RANGESSPORTING GOODSIIIER�J1IAI!\Vj�.935 EAST 55th STREETAt Inllleside AvenueTelephone Hyde Park 6200Robert Gaertner, '34 Julian Tishler, '33Phone: Saginaw 3202FRA.NK CU,RRANRoofing & Insulati:on :Lea".. Repai",eclFr.. E.timate.FRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO'.8019 Bennett St.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF ·CHICAGO MAGAZINELA TOURAINECoffee and TeaLa r oureine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoO,he, PIan',o BOlton - N.Y. - Phil. - Syracule - Clevelando "You Migh' A. Well Have Th. Be.'"BOYDSTON BROS.. INC.IJ NDERT AKERSSince 18924227-29-3'1 Cottage Grove Ave.Oat 0492 Oat 0493Albert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris. '21Epstei'n. Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTelephone State 8951The Best :Place to Eat on the South Side\.,COLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodl!awnl Ave.Phone Hyde 'Park 6324Tucker.Decorating Service1360 East 70th StreetPhone MIDway 4404lOCAL AND LONG DISTANCE HAULING•60 YEARS OF DEPENDABLESERVICE TO THE SOUTHSIDE•ASK FOR FREE ESTIMA 'E•55th and ELLIS AVENUECHICAGO 15, ILLINOISPhone BUTterfield 6711 0DAVID L. SUTTON, Pre,. Mrs: Jack Stelling (Lois Bradwell) isteaching mathematics at the Chicagobranch of the University. of Illinois.Robert C. Dwyer is a salesman for theA. W. Richardson Rug Company in Chi-cago.1947Bruce Bixler is employed by Bixler andRobinson, an accounting firm in EI Paso,Texas, and is studying accounting at TexasCollege of Mines. He represented the ElPaso YMCA at the Southwestern AAUgymnastics meet 'in Dallas in April.Dorothy E. Deeth, SM, recently acceptedan appointment as Director of Nurses, St.Francis Hospital, San Francisco, California.Robert L. Fleming, PhD, has been princi­pal of the Woodstock School, Mussoorie,United Provinces, India, since April of 1947.Woodstock is a school primarily for mis­sionaries' children. Both the American andEnglish systems of secondary. education op­erate in this school.Henry George Fundakowski is employedas a research bacteriologist for Kraft FoodsCompany at Glenview, Illinois.Stanley T. Gabis is a public service con­sultant in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.James D. Laurits, AM, is teaching inPlato Center, Illinois.Thornton N. McClure is business mana-.ger at the University of Denver.Francis J. Maher, LLM, is practicing lawat La Mesa, California.Evelyn Paper, who. has been Mrs. GeraldHimelgrin since August, 1947, is living inDenver, where she and her husband areattending the University of Colorado. Mr.Himelgrin is a social science major andMrs. Himelgrin is majoring In interiordecoration.Stanley Scott, Jr., AM, is research tech­nician for the Bureau of Public Adminis­tration, University of California.Ralph S. Saul is with the Foreign Serv­ice of the Department of State. His presentassignment is at Praha, Czechoslovakia.Richard A. Voegeli, of Seismograph Serv­ice Corporation, writes: "This is a realU. of C. company. Gerald H. Westby '20,is president. My party chief is Edwin H.Kurk, SM '41.194'8Margaret Mary Hanauer, AM, is workingat Billings Hospital on campus as MedicalSocial Worker.ENGAGEMENTSMr. and Mrs. Thomas B. Freeman ofWinnetka have anllo�nced the engagementof their daughter, Bennette, to WilliamHomer Hartz, Jr., '39.Announcement was made recently ofTREMONTAUTO'SALES CORP.Direct Fodor, 'Dealer.' forCHRYS,LER and PilY,MOUTHNEW CARS6040 Cottage GroveMid. 4200�'.o,Guaranteed Used Co'rs and:,Com:pJefe A'utomob;:Ie Re,pair,Bod''I, "atini. Simonize,. W,as"and Greasing Departmenfs the engagement of Arlene Beverly Gettle­man, a graduate of the National Collegeof Education, to Marshall Theodore Ben­nett, '42, son of the Theodore Blumenthalsof Chicago. During the War Mr. Bennettwas a navy lieutenant.The engagement of Miss Janet Hornof New York City to Donald R. Petterson,'42, of Elmhurst, Illinois, has been an­nounced. Miss Horn graduated from MountHolyoke College, '47, and is working forher master's degree at Ohio State Uni­versity. Petterson was with O.S.S. duringthe war and served overseas with theD.W.I.Charles R. Feldstein, AM '44, writes:"My engagement to Janice Josephson ofSouth Orange, New Jersey, was announcedrecently. We met while I was at the Har­vard graduate school and she at Rad­cliffe-but we've already agreed that 50%of our children go to the U. of C."Mrs. John Wolfgang Mattern has an­nounced the engagement of her daughter,Patricia Bourke Ellis, '46, to Dr. CarlAsher. The wedding will take place June7 in the Chicago home of. Miss Ellis'mother, known in literary circles as Flor·ence Bourke Ellis.Mr. and Mrs. Orvill Tyron of Highland,Indiana, recently announced the engage·ment of their daughter, Venita June Han­sen, to Lloyd Fons, '48.MARRIAGESOn Easter Sunday at her parents' homein Pekin, Illinois, Helen Hiett, '34, wasmarried to Theodore Waller, '37. Bothbride and groom have been active partici­pants in the international scene since leav­ing the Midway. Helen has done graduatework at the Institut Universitaire d'HautesEtudes Internationales in Geneva, Switzer­land, and the London School of Econom· iics and Political Science. She was warcorrespondent for the National Broadcast­ing Company in France, Spain and Gibral­tar. In the summer of 1945 she went toOdessa as the only non-Russian on allallied ship repatriating 1,500 Soviet dis'placed persons. She is author of "No Mat­ter Where" and contributing author to"Deadline Delayed." Since July, 1945, shehas been Forum Director of the NewYork Herald Tribune.During the war, Theodore was in theinformation education ,division of the ArmyService Forces. He recently returned tothe United States after 'more than a yearin the U.S.S.R_ where he served for severalmonths as_ chief of the U.N .R.R.A_ missionto Byelorussia. Since his return he hasbeen associated with the Committee forthe Marshall Plan.Since 1895Surgeons' Fine InstrumentsSurgical EquipmentHospital and Office FurnitureSundries, Supplies, Dressingsv. MUELLER & CO.All Phones: SEEley 2180I 408 SOUTH HONORE STREETCH�CAGO 12, ILLINOISTHE uNivERSiTY OF c rt t c x c o MAGAZINERichard G. Bolks, '42, was married May14 to Marion Green at Paducah,· Ken­tucky, where Mr. Bolks is operating super­intendent of Sears, Roebuck and Company.Elizabeth Ann Barickman, '43, to HenryReifsnyder, Jr., last September. They areliving in Chicago.Richard V. McKay, MD '43, was marriedApril 24, 1948, to Elizabeth Ann Ryanof Rochester, New York. They are at homein Dubuque, Iowa, where Dr. McKay ispracticing medicine.On April 25, 1948, Richard L. Wallens,'43, was married to Barbara Friedman ofChicago. Miss Friedman is an alumna ofBrenau (women's) College, Gainesville,Georgia. Dick is associated with his fatherin the wholesale-retail paper business.The Wall ens live at 939 E. 80th Street.Robert L. Wegner, who left the quad­rangles in 1943 for Army service and hasspent the last 21'2 years as Informationand Education Officer in Korea, is just outof service and returning to the quadranglesfor the Summer Quarter. Another impor­tant June event .is his marriage on June9 to Bernice Parmley. Miss Parmley isthe daughter of a Colonel and graduatedfrom the University of Texas 9 days beforethe wedding. Robert met her in Koreawhile her father was stationed there. Fol­lowing his work at Chicago, Bob will attendthe Harvard School of Design to prepare tobecome a specialist in city planning.Ruth E. Chapin, '45, was married toJohn P. Fort, M.D., last October. The,couple lives in Brooklyn, New York.Shirley P. Fox;: '45, to Edward JosephDowling, '47, January 31 this year. Theyare living a t Avenger Field, Sweetwater,Texas.John Lorin Welch, '45, was married MayI to Margaret Ann Swanson at Galesburg,Illinois. They are at home in Leseur,Minnesota, where Mr. Welch is Sanita-ryEngineer for the Minnesota Valley Ca:n­ning Company.Dian Jo Gorgas, '46, became' the bride ofLucien W. Fitzgerald recently. - They areliving at 1967 East 73rd Place, while Mr.Fitzgerald completes his studies in theUniversity's School of Business.Jacqueline Alice Luce, '47, to GeorgeKlein last December 29th.Charles W. Gardner, Jr., MD '48, wasmarried on May 15 to Josephine Sperry ina ceremony at the Monroe CongregationalChurch, Monroe, Connecticut. EdwardEllis, M.D. '48, was best man. After July1 they will be at home in Rochester, NewYork, where Dr. Gardner is interning atStrong Memorial Hospital. BIRTHSSamuel Lincoln Jenkins, 4, has a brandnew sister, Theodora Neil, who joined thejenkins family on April 6. Daddy is Dr.Hilger P. Jenkins, '23, MD Rush '27, for­merly of the Billings surgical staff, nowChief of Staff of the Surgical Division ofWoodlawn Hospital and Clinical AssociateProfessor of Surgery at the University ofIllinois School of Medicine. Dr. Jenkinswas also instrumental in organizing andestablishing the Medical Division of theAlumni Association.Stephen Coyner Smith, born March 10,1948, is the third son for Burke Smith, Jr.,'33, SM '39, and Mrs. Smith (Pauline Som­mers, '36, AM '37) of Oak Park, Illinois.Burke is with the Western Electric Com­pany.Harry Mason Kent was born April 22,1948, to William P. Kent, '38, AM '41,and Mrs. Kent (Helen S. Hirsch, '43). Thebaby's maternal grandfather is Edwin F.Hirsch, PhD. '14, MD '15.Born to Bradley H. Patterson, Jr., '42,AM '43, and Mrs. Patterson (ShirleyDoBos, '43)· a son, Bruce DoBos Patterson,on March 23, 1948, at Washington, D. C.They have a daughter, Dawn Marie, whowill be three in July.Henry Edmund Platt, JD '47, and Mrs.Platt (Julia Glee Rogers, '46) announcedthe birth of John Rogers Platt on April17.George Rusteika, AM '47, announces thebirth of a son born last December. Hisname-John Peter Rusteika.DEATHSHarry N. Gottlieb, '00, veteran Chicagoattorney, former president of the ChicagoBar Association and former president ofMichael . Reese Hospital, on April 13, atChicago.Frances L. Walshe, '-00, in March atEvanston, Illinois. She had been Secretaryof the Chicago Public School Art Society.Mrs. Milbank Johnson (Isabel Simeral,'05), at Pasadena, California, last February.James Dysart Magee, AM '06, PhD '13, onApril 6, at Cleveland, Ohio, following along illness. For 25 years prior to hisretirement in 1946 Dr. Magee had beenhead of the department of economics atN ew York University.George W. Cottingham, '15, editor since1935 of the Houston (Tex.) Chronicle andchairman of the State Public Safety Com­mission, suddenly on April ·12 in NewYork City. He and his wife and daughterhad just arrived in New York for a briefvisit.Thomas Marshall Smith, SM '16, at Lex­ington. Kentucky, August 24, 1947. Dr.Smith was a professor of chemistry at NewYork University for 30 years before hisretirement in, Tune 1946. From l'946-1947he served as professor and head of rheChemistry Department of TransylvaniaCollege. Author of "General Chemistry"and "Qualitative Analysis." Doctor Smith'sname has been listed in "American Men ofScience."Charlotte Ella Truman, '21, at her homein Berkeley, California, on February 26,1948.Alice Winter, AM '36, March 23, atChicago. She had been principal of LakeView High School. TELEPHONE HAYMARKET 4568O'CALLAS·HAN BROS.PLUMB'ING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chiceqo Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620·1-2-3· ...Wallon's Coal Makes Good-or­Waslon 0081BLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's HotelIn theUniv,ersity of Chicago DistrictOffering; Graceftd living to Uni­versity and Business Women atModerate T • riff ,BLACKSTONE HALL5748Bladstone Ave., TelephonePlaza ,3313Verna P. W·erner,. DirectorBIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: Went. 5380Jjlladu�tone iBetorating&erbitePhone Pullman 9170•RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & .DECORATING1331W. Jacuon Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3192'3iCOLLEGE DI:VISI'ON SENATEThe lerqes+ division of the Alumni, Associeflon is the College Division. Its governing bodies are the Executive Com­mittee of twelve and a Senate of one hundred.The revision of the CoHege Constitution in January was fvllowed by an election of Senators to bring that body up tofull strength: two representatives for each class year of the past thirty-five plus thirty representatives at large. Theterm is for five years. You may be interested in locating your friends in the following current roster:19141915 From the ClassesHoward Ellis, 33 N. LaSalle Street (2)E. K. MacDonald, 479 Washington Road, Lake .ForestGeorge S. Lyman, 910 S. Linden Ave., Highland ParkMrs. Ernest G. Patterson, 4402 Lake Park Avenue (15)Mrs. H. Earl Hoover, 1801 Green Bay Road, GlencoeHarold T. Moore, 735 Park A venue, HinsdaleCarl A. Birdsall, 231 S. LaSalle St. (90)Leo J. Carlin, 77 W. Washington Street ,(2)Miss, Mildred C. Berleman, 7859B. South Shore Drive (49)Miss Ethel V. Bishop, 7321 Harvard Avenue (21)Walter H. Oehmig, 447 Lenox Street, Oak ParkBernard Nath, 77 W. Washington Street (2)Frank J. Madden, 765 Willow Road, WinnetkaMrs. Robert M. Eisendrath, 2350 Lincoln Park West (14)Miss. Lucile Gafford, 5605 Dorchester Avenue (37)Mortimer Harris, 1349 West 35th StreetGeorge W. A. Rutter, 2602 Harrison Street, EvanstonDr. C. H. N. Janson, 17930 Homewood Avenue, HomewoodDr. George E. Wakerlin, 1008 Hinman Avenue, EvanstonArthur T. Fathauer, 679 Carol Court, Highland ParkDr. Eugene T. McEnery, 945 Linden Avenue, Oak ParkHelen C. Wells, 207 East Chestnut Street (11)Mrs. Edgar Bibas, 4830 Greenwood Avenue (15)Miss Kathryn A. McHenry, 820 North Michigan Avenue (H)Mrs. Keith J. Springer, 1735 North 76 Court (35)Mrs. Nick Jaifee, 73'(}6 Merrill Avenue (49)Gerald R. Gorman, 10456 Hamilton Avenue (43)Arnold M. Holmes, 123 South LaSalle Street (3)Miss Anna Block, 701 Bittersweet PlaceMax 8. Bloom, 2.623 Ridge Avenue, EvanstonHarry Hagey, jr., 9921 South Win,chester Aven1'l.e (43)Emmett G. Barr, New York Ufe, 1M S. LaSalle Street (3)E. It. Bjorklund, 5709 Dorchester Avenue (3'7)Mrs. James A. Griffin, Jr., 10444 South Ben Avenue (43).Mrs. James E. Baker, 4534 Woodlawn Avenue (115)Errett I. Van Nice.. 1430 Lake Shore Drive (10)Chester W. Laing, John Nuveen & Co., 135 S. LaSalle StreetMiss Louise P. Beck, 7716 North Paulina Street (26)Keith I. Parsons, 23J. South LaSalle Street (4)R. B. Shapiro, 7346 South Euclid Avenue (49)Frank D. Carr, 2022 East 77th Street (49)Miss Helen C. Hansen, 1950 East 73rd Street (49)Edwin S. Galusha, 208 North Central Avenue (44)B. Franklin Gurney, 1409 East 62nd Street (37)Elmore J. Frank, 5423 Maryland Avenue (15)Ferdinand Svoboda, 190 East Pearson Street (11)Mrs. James Plagge, 608 Grove Street, BarringtonCharles Axelson, Jr., 1226 East 70th Street (37)Mrs. Dwight E. Clark, 5742 Drexel Avenue (37)Daniel C. Smith, 5707 Kimbark Avenue (37)191619171918191919201921t922192319241925192619271928192919301931193219331934193519361937193'8 1939 Mrs. John M. Clark, 5626 Kimbark Avenue (37)Miss Dorothy L. Dallman, 215 South Elmwood Avenue,Oak Park1940 Mrs. John J. Berwanger, 1372 East 57th Street (37)Mrs. Charles R. Reid, 156 North Raynor Avenue; JOliet1941 Mrs. William Chiera, 10729 Longwood Drive (43)John E. A. Schroder, 3210 Potomac Avenue (51)1942 James W. Degan, 600.7 South Drexel Avenue, (37)Mrs. Naomi S. Devoe, 3926) Lake Shore Drive1943 George T. Drake, 2322 Commonwealth Avenue (14)Carl F. Christ, 4850 Greenwood Avenue (15)1944 Jerome R. Reich, 6917 Crandon Avenue (49)Alice K. Sheehan, 7148 Jeffery Avenue (49)1945 John A. Cook, 38 North Menard Avenue (44)Miss Beverly Marie Hill, 2141 East 67 Street (49) •1946 Jerome H. Gilbert, 7420 Colfax Avenue (49)Miss Barbara C. Rossman, 5716 Washington Blvd. (44)1947 Alan J. Garber, 6020 South Drexel Avenue (37)Miss Emilie Rashevsky, 9938 South Hoxie Avenue1948 Allen E.. Cahill, 6104 Woodlawn Avenue (37)John M. Frank, 2060 Fargo Avenue (45)At Large1885 Miss Elizabeth Faulkner, 4746 Dorchester Avenue1899 Miss Josephine T. Allin, 4932 Lake Park Avenue1899 Ainsworth W. Clark, 7059 South Shore Drive (49)1900 Miss Helen V. Chase, 3251 Wabash Avenue (16)1900 Dr. Carl B. Davis, 122 S. Michigan Ave., Evanston (3)1901 Mrs. Elliot R. Downing, 5529 University Avenue (37)1901 Mrs. Sylvan Hirschberg, 208 South LaSalle Street (4)1902 Mrs. Frederick A. Ingalls, 5844 Stony Island Avenue (37)1903 Charles V. Clark, 33 North LaSalle Street (2)1903 Mrs. Charles H. Perrine, 6936 Crandon Avenue1904 Miss Edna C. Dunlap, 6157 Kenwood Avenue (37)1904 Miss Anna May Waugh, 6636 Yale Avenue (21)1905 Miss Eleanora A. Binna, 2434 North Kedzie Blvd: (47)1905 Paul Van Cleef, 4845 Kenwood Avenue (15) .1906 Miss Ella May Jones, 5457 Woodlawn A;e7]tJ5) , �f"'i]o�_ ,R�!ph H. Norton, 4930 Woo4I�!Vn_�'y'�!! e 15 �"1907 Mrs.--ShermmrW:'""Dean,TID6 W. Brassie Avenue, Flossmoor1908 A. C. Allyn, 100 West Monroe Street, Chicago (3)1908 Mrs. Thurlow G. Essington, 5811 Dorchester Avenue (37)1909 Frank H. Templeton, 565 Linden Avenue, Highland Park1910 M. Ralph Cleary, 428 North Sheridan Road, Highland Park1910 Bradford Gill, Moore, Case, Lyman & Hubbard, 175 W.Jackson (4)1911 Vallee O. Appel, 1000 Fulton Street1911 Miss Marion Schaffner, 210 East Pearson Street (11)1912 Miss Florence E. Clark, 5529 University Avenue (37)1912 William C. Rogers, 2'19 Lake Shore Drive (11)1913 Kent Chandler, 941 Westminster Road, Lake Forest1937 Perry Cafferty, 3526 North Reta Avenue (13)4u��UCJ'IUCAl .U,.,.LY CO.Dlstrlbulors, Manufaclurers and Jobbers .fELECTRICAL MATERIALSAND FIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 Halsted St. - Englewood 7500IHOWARD F� NOLAN'PLASTERIN6. BRICK•• dCEME:NT WORKItEPAI'RIN6 A SPECIALTY .5341 S. Loke P,rk Ave.T .I.phon. Dorch .... r U579 PINDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBaCik Water Valves, Sumps"Pumps6620 COnAGE GROVE AVENUE1545 E. 63RD STREET'FAIRFAX 0330-0550-0880PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE1545 EAST 63RD STREETBEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICEIJCENSED _, BO:ND£l)INSUREDQUAUFJEl) WELDERSHAYmarket. 79171'04'·08 S. We.lem A:t'e., Cbic.QgoS'llce 1878HANNIBAL, INC.Upfl;oJsfer.Fu,rn·;fu:re .Re:palr"'ft'1919 N. Sheffleld1 AvenuePhone: Un.coln 1180 A. T. STEWART LUMBER COMPANYEVERYTHING 1ftLU,MBER AND MU.I.WORK7855 Greenwood Ave.. 410 West U Ith St. Vin 9000Pul003432INDEX FOR VOLUME 40 (1947-48)ARTICLESMonth-PageALUMNI CITATIONS OCt. 19ALUMNI EDUCATION DIRECTOR Jan. 15ANTIDOTE FOR COMMUNISM, Paul H. Douglas ..........•. Dec. 5ARCHEOLOGY AND CATASTROPHE, Sherman E. Johnson Feb. 14BASKETBALL-ENTERTAINMENT, Carl Gylfe Jan. 14CAN CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENT Do THE JOB?,Herman Finer June 5CANCER AND OTHER RESEARCH May 13CANCER RESEARCH, Charles B. Huggins Jan. 3CLASS OF '97 Oct. 4COLLEGE DIVISION SENATE June 32CONSTITUTION OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION March 22CONSTELLATIONS, LTD. . May 7CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR ALUMNI. Oct. 18COOPERATION' BETWEEN UNIVERSITIES Oct. 5DEDICATION OF A BUILDING-Judd HallRobert M. Hutchins June 10Charles E. Merriam June 11M. N. Thirsted June 13DISCRIMINATION DEMONSTRATION Jan. 15THE DOCTOR AND THE PATIENT,Robert M. Cunningham, Jr Dec. 12DON'T SELL AMERICAN CULTURE SHORT,Daniel C. Rich Jan. 10EAST COAST ALUMNI MEETINGS Dec. 21EDITOR'S MEMO PAD Each issueA FIDDLE AND A FOIL, Emerson E. Lynn, Jr June 14FIVE EVIL GIANTS, Herman Finer March 3FOOTBALL? WHAT'S THAT? June 18GANDHI'S LIFE' AND DEATH March 5HANS O. HOEP.PNER , May 12PAUL GRAY HOFFMAN May Cover IHUTCHINSON HALL : Jan. 17ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS FROM THE RICKETTS COLLECTION,Margaret Rickert Oct. 9INQUEST OR INFLATION, Theodore W. Schultz April 18FRED CONRAD KOCH, Hermann 1. Schlessinger March 14LAND OF ETERNAL SPRING, Charles T. Holman Nov. 7LET THE CHURCH EDUCATE, Paul Harper Feb. 10 .HARLEY FARNSWORTH MACNAIR, Jeannette Lowrey Oct. 11ANDREW CUNNINGHAM McLoUGHLIN Dec. 21MOVIE PROGRAM June 18NEW ASSOCIATE EDITOR May Cover INEW OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION June 19 /Nr.w YEARS DAY IN HONOLULU, Edgar J. Goodspeed March 8NEWS OF THE CLASSES Each issueNEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES, Jeannette Lowrey 'Each issueNOSTALGIA '" Jan. 22OLD HASKELL Dec. 13ONE MAN's OPINION, William V. Morgenstern : Oct.I2Feb. 15Mar. 13THE PROBLEM OF WORLD GOVERNMENT, Robert M.Hutchins May 3THE PULLMAN STORY, Edwin A. Wahlen June 7QUADRANGLE CLUB REVELS April 2June 4READING LISTS Feb. 21May 15RECENT PROGRESS IN SURGERY, Dallas B. Phemister Nov. 5REUNION PROGRAM May 22SEEING AUSTRALIA, Ralph W. Gerard April 8Avery O. Craven April 11SENIOR MEDICAL DINNER May 10SHALL WE SAVE FREE ENTERPRISE? Garfield V. Cox Dec. 9SHIRLEY JACKSON CASE , .. Feb. 13So You KNOW YOUR UNIVERSITY Oct. 13Nov. 10SPEAKING AS AN ALUMINUS, Clifton Utley Jan. 8THE SPOILED CHILD, Richard M. Weaver. April 5STUDENT WORLD, Emerson E. Lynn, Jr May 11TENTH REUNION, John G. Morris Oct. 8TESTIMONY OF AMERICAN YOUTH, Charles Morris Jan. 12TWENTY-FIFTH REUNION Oct. 7THE UNIVERSITY Is IN BUSINESS, Vivian A. Rogers May 3THE WASHINGTON PROM Feb. 8THE 'WORLD CONVULSION, Herman Finer.............. . Feb. 5YERKES GOLDEN ANNIVERSARY Nov. 13 BOOK REVIEWSMonth-PageAdams, Evelyn C.: "AMERICAN INDIAN EDUCATION" March 3Baldridge, Cyrus LeRoy: "TIME AND CHANCE" Jan. 2Feb. 2Craven, Avery, Johnson, Walter: "THE UNITED STATES:EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY" June 2Day, James Edward: "BARTHOLF STREET" Oct. 2Dunbar, Olivia Howard: "A HOUSE IN CHICAGO" Dec. 2Duskin, Ruthie, "CHEMI, THE MAGICIAN," Dec. 2Finer, Herman: "AMERICA'S DESTINY" Jan. 2Grabo, Carl; "THE CREATIVE CRITIC" June 2Gunther, John: "INSIDE U.S.A." Oct. 2Halstead, Ward C.: "BRAIN AND INTELLIGENCE" March 3Johnson, Walter: "WILLIAM ALLEN WHITE'S AMERICA" Oct. 2Jones, Anna May: "LEISURE TIME EDUCATION" March 3Lovett, Robert Morss: "ALL OUR YEARS" June 3McCaleb, Walter: "THE CONQUEST OF THE WEST" Jan. 2McNeill, William H.: "THE GREEK DILEMNA" Oct. 2Merriam, Robert E.: "DARK DECEMBER" Oct. 2Mitchell, John W.: "GROWTH REGULATORS FOR GARDEN,FIELD AND ORCHARD" Dec. 2Rickett, Edith: "CHAUCER'S WORLD" June 2Rippy, J. Fred: "LATIN AMERICA AND THE INDUSTRIAL AGE" .. May 3Simon, Herbert A.: "ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR" Oct. 2Tebbel, John: "THE MARSHALL FIELDS" Feb. 2AUTHORSColwell, Ernest Cadman, COOPERATION RF.TWEENUNIVERSITIES Oct. 5Cox, Garfield V., SHALL WE SAVE FREE ENTERPRISE? Dec. 9Craven, Avery 0., SEEING AUSTRALIA WITH AN HISTORIAl'; .April 11Cunningham, Robert M. Jr., THE DOCTOR AND THEPATIENT. Dec. 12Douglas, Paul H., ANTIDOTE FOR COMMUNISM Dec. 5Finer, Herman, CAN CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENT DoTHE' JOB? June 5FIVE EVIL GIANTS March 3----, THE WORLD CONVULSION Feb. 5Gerard, Ralph W., SEEING AUSTRALIA WITH APHYSIOLOGIST April 8Goodspeed, Edgar J., NEW YEARS DAY IN HONOLULU March 8Gylfe, Carl, BASKETBALL-ENTERTAINMENT Jan. 14Harper, Paul, LET THE CHURCH EDUCATE Feb. 10Holman, Charles T., LAND OF ETERNAL SPRING Nov. 7Huggins, Charles B., CANCER RESEARCH Jan. 3Hutchins, Robert M., DEDICATION OF A BUILDING(Judd Hall) June 10----, PROBLEM OF "WORLD GOVERNMENT May 3Johnson, Sherman E., ARCHEOLOGY AND CATASTROPHE Feb. 14Lowrey, Jeannette, HARLEY FARNSWORTH MACNAIR Oct. 11----, NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES Each issueLynn, Emerson E. Jr., A FIDDLE AND A FOIL June 14----, STUDENT WORLD May 11Merriam, Charles E., DEDICATION OF A BUILDING-JUDDHALL June 11Morgenstern, William V., ONE MAN'S OPINION Oct. 12Feb. 15Mar. 13Morris, Charles, TESTIMONY OF AMERICAN YOUTH .Jan. 12Morris, John G., TENTH REUNION Oct. 8Phemister, Dallas B., RECENT PROGRESS IN SURGERY Nov. 5Rich, Daniel C., DON'T SELL AMERICAN CULTURE SHORT Jan. 10Rickert, Margaret, ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS FROM THERICKETT'S COLLECTION Oct. 9Rogers, Vivian A., THE UNIVERSITY Is IN BUSINESS May 3Schlessinger, Hermann 1., FRED CONRAD KOCH March 14Schultz, Theodore W., INQUEST ON INFLATION April 18Thirsted, M. N., DEDICATION OF A BUILDING-JUDD HALL .. June 10Utley, Clifton, SPEAKING AS AN ALUMNUS Jan. 8Wahlen, Edwin A., THE PULLMAN STORY June 7Weaver, Richard M., THE SPOILED CHILD April 5Food -. ours to have and to holdQUICK-FR.OZEN or in cans, dried or powdered, processed orin bulk, foods can now he kept fresh and flavorful from har­vest to harvest. .. or longer,For this we can thank research ... and better �ater'ials.There;s nitrogen, for example, that protects the flavorand nutritional values of packaged foods. It is also used toprotect delicate foods ... butter and vegetable oils ... keep­ing them sweet and free from undesirable odors.Plastic-lined cans resist food acids and alkalies for monthsOIl end. They eliminate all contact with metal ... and thusserve as an added guard against flavor contamination.Plastic-treated milk bottle hoods keep pouring surfaces ster­ile-clean ... and new plastic containers, tough and pliable,"seal in" food's flavor and freshness.Stainless steel, too, easily cleaned and sterilized, gives us spoilage-free tanks, vats, hoppers, filters and great kettlesthat help prepare and process food for our use.The people of Union Carbide produce many materialsessential to the growing, handling and preservation ojfoods. They also produce hundreds of other materials forthe use of science and industry, thus helping maintainAmerican leadership in meeting the needs of mankind.FREE: You are invited to send for the new illustrated booklet, "Prod­ucts and Processes," which shows how scien-ce and industry useVCC's Alloys, Chemicals, Carbons, Gases and Plastics.UNION CARBIDE..t.1.lVD CABDOR CORPORATION30 EAST 42ND STREET � NEW YORK 17. N. Y.-----------------"--- Products oj Divisions and Units include -----------------­. BAKELITE, KRENE, VINYON, AND VINYLITE PLASTICS • NATIONAL CARBONS • ACHESON ELECTRODES • EVEREADY FLASHLIGHTS AND BATTERIESLINDE NITROGEN • LINDE OXYGEN • PREST-O-LITE ACETYLENE • PYROFAX GASELECTRO MET ALLOYS AND METALS • HAYNES STELLITE ALLOYS • PRESTONE AND TREK ANTI-FREEZES • SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS