7 «'»'*THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINENOVEMBER^^^^^^H Ha^^^^^^^^^^H^HHBi^^^HNEW I PEAS from GeneralElectricMATTER FROM ENERGYCreation of matter from energy — reverse of the process inthe atomic bomb — is only oneof the surprising things thatcan be accomplished with theaid of the 100,000,000-volt G-EBetatron. It can also:• free particles of mattertraveling at 99.99 per centthe speed of light,• Produce the most powerfulx-rays known to science,• generate radiations heretofore available only incosmic rays.The Betatron is one of thebig guns used by G.E. in finding nuclear facts that may beimportant in the production ofatomic power.GERM-KILLING LAMPLamps that disinfect the airthrough which their rays passhave been developed in the laboratories of the G-E LampDepartment.Hospitals, military barracks,factories and schools use themto clean the air of bacteria.Of particular importance tobakers, meat handlers andother food processors is the factthat G-E Germicidal Lampsalso kill molds. riiiillllllllllllimillllliimmilllllllllimiiillllllllllltllll±| BOUNCER {| In the G-E Research |= Laboratory, scientists turn || up interesting new sub- || stances first and look for |I uses later. |I Not so long ago they dis- || covered "bouncing putty," 1i a lively silicone by-prod- || uct. But no one could find || a use for it. |I A sailor did. Hospital- |= ized with an injured hand, |I he wanted something to || knead in order to keep his |1 fingers limber as they |1 healed. Bouncing putty did |I the trick. |7iiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiui^ELECTRONS AT WORKNew electronic devicesworked out in G-E laboratories include:• a canteen machinewhich grills hot dogs,hamburgers and cheesesandwiches in the heatof electronic oscillatortubes,• a filter which cleans airby electrically chargingmotes of dust and smoke,then drawing them tomagnetized plates,• an electronic newspaper,to be delivered on radiowaves soon in a dozencities,• a super-size 16-by-22-inch screen for G-E television receivers. X-RAY BUSESsi f, | ™n «i»«r ""H.Four G-E built x-ray buseshave been purchased by theState of Illinois to help in thefight against tuberculosis.These "x-ray rooms on wheels"will be used to conduct a statewide case-finding T.B. survey.X-ray buses make it possibleto provide such service withoutprohibitive cost because of special x-ray equipment. Thisequipment permits the use ofminiature film and cuts chestsurvey cost by 88 per cent incomparison with the cost ofstandard, large-size x-ray films.The State Health Departments in many other states arealso equipped with these unitsand conduct x-ray surveys inco-operation with local medicalgroups, and T.B. associations.TWO-WAY BLANKETGeneral Electric engineershave perfected an electric blanket with which different temperatures can be maintained onboth sides of a bed. Completewith two sets of wiring anddual-temperatures control, it ispossible for two people in thesame bed to adjust the bedwarmth to their individualneeds.GENERAL H ELECTRICTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO :MAGAZINEVolume 39 November, 1946 Number 2PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONHOWARD W. MORT EMILY D. BROOKEEditor Associate EditorWILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN JEANNETTE LOWREYContributing Editors 'IN THIS ISSUE pageScientists in Washington, John A. Simpson 3Merrills Move to California 8One Man's Opinion, William V. Morgenstern - 9We Adopt a University, Veva Schreiber 10New Member of Alumni Staff 12The Great Books 13Let Us Spray 14The Current College Controversy Continued,O. Meredith Wilson ----15Jack Woolams ¦> - - T 17The Editor's Memo Pad 18News of the Quadrangles, Jeannette Lowrey 19News of the Classes 22November Calendar 31Cover — New students entering the College: Richard Freeman, DianeDarrow, Charles Bidwell, Barre Seid, Carta Lurie, Dorothy Lieber.Published, by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from Octoberto June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, atthe Post Office at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The American AlumniCouncil, B. A. Ross,, advertising director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y., is theofficial advertising agency of the Magazine.ProEnclosed is my check for five dollars for membership for three years.I always thoroughly enjoyed theMAGAZINE before I let my subscription lapse. I thought it was distinctive. Further, it always carriedsomething from members of the faculty which was enlightening andhelpful. Each one of us needs steadyhelp and assistance from an institution like the University of Chicago.Sometimes I think that it ought to bea part of the granting of a degreethat an alumnus return each year fora week refresher course. Perhaps weought to work on the basis of thereserve corps in the Army and insiston coming back every so often forcontact and brushing up. We wouldall gain by it.H. B. T.East Lansing, Mich.ConYour MAGAZINE is quite, quitedull. Eighty per cent of its contentseemed to be dissertations by eitheralumni or members of the facultywhose purpose seemed to be to rivalother magazines of a general circulation. I am not particularly interestedin the views of these people since Ican find the same type of article inmany another magazine. I subscribedto your magazine because I expectedto find in it a magazine which discussed the University and the University alone. I want to keep in touchwith the University and know what'shappening — but your MAGAZINE ismost inadequate for that purpose.(Name withheld by request.)Kansas City, Mo.Freddy Starr... I forget to mention that whilein the neighborhood of Nara, I visiteda little museum called the Toyo Min-zoku Hakubutsukan (Museum ofPeople of the Far East), about 7 milesout of Nara on the way to Ikoma.The museum was founded by Frederick Starr and some Japanese friendof his many years ago, and is today virtually a memorial to him. There isa bust of Starr, lovingly enshrinedand embowered, a special memorialhut to him, and evidences of his handall over the place. In addition, nextmonth there is a Frederick StarrHoliday, at which commemorativeceremonies will be held.Starr was known among the Japanese as Ofuda Hakase, and the holiday is known as Ofuda Hakase Mat-suri. (The translation is roughly theTalisman Professor) . I enclose a picture which I had taken at the museum grounds.Lt. Herbert Passin, AM '41APO 500San Francisco Lt. Passin and bust of Starr1Left: Dorothy Baker, 18, a newstudent from Barnsdall, Oklahoma.Dorothy is the recipient of a MarshallField work-study scholarship, and isentering the College at the third yearlevel.Right: Joanne Rossiter, 15, winnerof a full scholarship to the Universityof Chicago College in national competition. Joanne, after completing herplacement tests enters at the secondyear level in some courses, third yearin others, and hopes eventually to goon to M.I.T. and industrial engineering.Her home is Valparaiso, Indiana.SCIENTISTS IN WASHINGTON• By JOHN A. SIMPSONThey did somethingabout the bombDURING the past twelve months the world, andthe United States in particular, has witnessed theunprecedented behavior of scientists determinedto inform the governments, the social scientists and thepeople everywhere of the imminent danger which theyface within a few years due to the development of theatomic bomb. This task is beginning to assume the proportions of a revolutionary effort. The scientists have beenable to provide factual material in a form readily understandable to an intelligent citizen — facts which are essential in making both national and international political decisions of very great import to the welfare of ournation and the world.Up to the time of the discovery of nuclear fission andits subsequent development into the atomic bomb, scientists were isolated by an extended time interval lyingbetween their direct contributions in science and the applications of their contributions through invention. Inthe past, by the time applied scientists and inventorsrecognized the value of the basic idea, the scientistswould already be off on another tangent far removedfrom the applied work.Violent successThis was not the case in the development of the nuclearbomb because a few brilliant scientists had no soonerverified the existence of fission than it was applied to theproblem of releasing nuclear energy under controlledconditions. These scientists along with others carriedon the research through to the final application. Thus,the time interval which had existed in previous great developments now disappeared with the scientist followingthrough all the way. In this manner a large group ofnatural scientists have been brought face to face withthe problems associated with a development so great potentially that it ushers in a new era of our civilization.All scientists saw the successful application of basicprinciples result in violent success during the war. Theeffects of science on our society cannot now be ignored.Having been a physicist in the Manhattan Project laboratory at Chicago all during the period in which ourinterest in the results of our work was aroused and having shared in the formation of a group of scientists atChicago, it is only natural that I emphasize the rolewhich the scientists in this area played in contributingtoward the educational program throughout the country.Memos in the lab.Memos were written in the laboratory during 1944and early 1945 covering topics such as the destructionexpected in cities, the probable political effects that might be expected if the United States were to use the atomicbomb on either Germany or Japan, and the peacetimeapplications which might be anticipated.Early in 1945, discussions had started within the laboratory, and by February, consideration was given to theformation of an organization of scientists, as soon assecurity would permit, to spread information essential tothe understanding of the problem.A committee of scientists under Prof. James Franckwas appointed within the laboratory to study and makea report for submission to the Secretary of War of thepossible ways in which the bomb might be dropped andthe probable repercussions that might result politicallyfor the United States. The report pointed out explicitlythe great responsibility that the United States was assuming in dropping the first atomic bomb on any nation.An integration of the contents of the memos which hadbeen circulating earlier was made for the report.In June, an extensive panel discussion was held withinthe laboratory by several of the younger scientists, covering subjects ranging from the ways of using the bombto international controls. Following these discussions, themilitary officials refused to permit more than three peopleto enter into discussions on the problem at laboratorymeetings. The scientists then resorted to the fantastictechnique of holding meetings in a small room, where asuccession of about twenty people would, one at a time,enter the room to discuss these problems with a panelof two or three scientists selected for the evening.A petition to the PresidentAt the same time, Dr. Szilard, who was instrumentalin urging our government to become the first nation possessing an atomic bomb, formulated a petition to thePresident of the United States, beseeching him not touse the atomic bomb on any city without adequate warnings, and then only if it was essential to the victory ofthe United States. This was circulated about the laboratory and received the signatures of a large numberof the scientists within the Metallurgical Laboratory.Somehow by the end of July, we had clarified manyof the important ideas essential to an understanding ofthe problem. We spent most of our spare evenings duringthose days pf July, August, and September reviewing ingreat detail the possible alternative solutions to the problems. An interchange of memos among the Los Alamos,Oak Ridge, and Chicago laboratories indicated thatscientists in all the areas were moved by exactly the sameset of facts and were agreed on the alternatives whichfaced us.A new era explodedWe were given assurance that the Manhattan Projecthad written articles to be released when the bomb was34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEdropped which would provide satisfactory backgroundmaterial for the intelligent formation of public opinion.This proved to be false. On August 6 the bomb wasannounced, and utter confusion began to spread throughout the newspapers and magazines in America.Weird and dangerous conclusions were being formedby citizens throughout the country. The situation hadto be clarified, and no one but the scientists could do itat that time. A new era had exploded into existencebefore the citizens of our nation and the world. Theimplications which it brought might well stagger theimagination. There is little wonder that anything butconfusion could exist.The Atomic Scientists of Chicago were quickly organized, along with the groups at Los Alamos, OakRidge and New York City.The Smyth report had been released, and in it wasincluded an astonishing array of what was once considered highly classified material. It was necessary to gono further than to interpret the full meaning of theSmyth report in order to be able to explain the socialand political implications which we felt must be madeknown to everyone as quickly as possible. For manyweeks, the scientists could make no statement withoutobtaining the approval of an Army censor. This interfered with our educational program only to a slightextent, however.Scientists turn publicists . . .Our efforts were directed towards the preparation ofspeeches, newspaper articles, magazine articles, radiotalks and conferences with community leaders. Reachingthe public was a new experience for us. We were uncertain as to what methods should be employed. Formany months we experimented, rearranged and shiftedemphasis on the various media at our disposal, to findthose methods which were most capable of getting ourideas across to the public.Unknown to most of the scientists on the project, General Royall and Mr. Marbury had been instructed towrite a bill for the domestic control of atomic energy.It was not until the bill was introduced in the Houseand came up before the House Military Affairs committee, about October 8, that the scientists began to realizethe full significance of this measure.The bill provided for the complete military control ofthe domestic uses of atomic energy, shifting completelyour emphasis on nuclear energy toward military applications and away from future essential peacetime developments. This bill failed to recognize the intertwining ofdomestic and international problems in the field of atomicenergy. It was evident that an attempt was being madeto railroad this bill through the House in record time.The hearings of Andrew May were a farce, lasting onlyone day and hearing only one point of view regarding thebill. Scientists had gone to Washington demanding that the hearings be reopened. The Kilgore Committee hearings then in session provided a temporary public sounding board from which the scientists could express theiropinions. The May hearings were forced open again,and this delaying tactic was extremely useful in marshalling our forces against the May- Johnson Bill.The Rye conference, sponsored by the University ofChicago at Rye, New York, formulated the principlegrievances against the bill and outlined what was considered to be a satisfactory bill for atomic energy. Widesupport was obtained for the proposals, and scientistsbegan to study possible forms of domestic legislation thatwould be acceptable to a nation dedicated to an extendedperiod of peace.. . . and head for WashingtonThe scientists were not out to defend themselves. Infact, they supported rigid legislation to prevent thepromiscuous use of fissionable material in the laboratoryand recognized the necessity for government control offissionable materials.Drs. Szilard, Condon and Urey with a few youngerscientists worked hard in Washington during October andNovember to defeat the May- Johnson bill and encouragethe formation of a Senate committee on atomic energy.The lack of information which members of the Administration, the House and the Senate had was appalling,and we resolved to remain in Washington until we couldcarry out a satisfactory educational program which wouldenable our responsible officials to recognize the close tieswhich existed between our domestic and internationalproblems of atomic energy.Early in the fall, the President made statements regarding our so-called "secrets" of the atomic bomb andour "monopoly" of information on the subject. Themajority of the people in this nation were talking in asimilar vein, as shown by the Denver poll of public opinion in September and early October. By November thepoll showed a decided swing away from false concepts,and the declaration of Truman, Attlee and King indicated a turn toward a more complete understanding ofthe problem at hand.A lone secretary— a borrowed officeOn November 1, representatives from Oak Ridge, LosAlamos, New York, and Chicago came together in Washington to form the Federation of Atomic Scientists withaims to carry on this broad educational program. In anoffice loaned to us and with one secretary, we went towork.Off-the-record dinners were sponsored by interestedindividuals in Washington and provided a mechanism forthe scientists to meet the senators and representatives anddiscuss with them at length the inescapable facts of oursupposed monopoly on atomic energy, the nature of the"secret" of the atomic bomb, and the possible peacetimeuses of nuclear energy. Frankly, the response was sur-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 5prising. It is true that the senators who came to thesedinners were selected, but they were far above our expectations in their eagerness to grasp the main featuresof the argument.It was at this time that Senator McMahon becamechairman of the Senate special committee for control ofatomic energy.In the middle of November, it was decided that aneducational program on a national level should bestarted. An organization called the National Committeeon Atomic Information was formed, with this basic purpose in mind and with the further directive that it workquite closely with the scientists in their struggle to carryon a program of education. By January, this organization had a director, was beginning to distribute printedmaterial to organizations throughout the country, andwas laying a program for the distribution of materialthroughout foreign countries.Naivete confused WashingtonIt is quite important to consider the factors which madethe scientists' role in Washington peculiar. We arrivedin Washington all of one mind and with the convictionthat if any person were willing to sit down and examinethe few simple facts which led us to our conclusions, thatthey, too, would become aroused to take action. Also,it is important to remember that no scientists had axesto grind. In fact, many of the things which they proposed could in no way be construed as benefiting thescientists. We did everything possible to show no political bias as a group.We were sincere in our efforts, but on many subjectswere quite naive. This surprised and confused many ofour friends and opponents in Washington. In order tosecure the best political opinion, we formed around us agroup of advisors high in rank in unofficial Washington.We were able to call on them at any time for advice onthe problems with which we were faced. Our closecooperation with many social scientists outside of Washington along with members of the law school at theUniversity of Chicago improved immeasurably our ownunderstanding of the legislative process and the draftingof good legislation.In the late evening hours in our hotel rooms, we couldmany times be found writing speeches for prominentcitizens and officials in Washington, who were anxiousto present an intelligent discussion of atomic energy. Ourmany friends in the press and radio were of considerablehelp in clarifying the political developments on atomicenergy for the public.There were a number of difficulties encountered inWashington. It was difficult to obtain scientists for extended periods of time. Funds to carry on the operationwere practically non-existent, and it was important thatno strings be attached to those funds which we did receive. We even had to resort to off-the-record dinners From Reed College(Portland, Oregon) in 1940,John A. Simpson crossed tothe Atlantic Coast to takeup graduate work at NewYork University in the fieldof nuclear physics. Whenthings began to happen inthe field of his specialty, heaccepted a position on theMidway as a Group Leaderin the Metallurgical Laboratories which includednumerous trips to otherbomb centers such as Han- , , . _.ford and Oak Ridge. Dr. John A' SimpsonSimpson is new on the staff of the Department of Physicsand the Institute for Nuclear Studies."Scientists in Washington" is condensed from a lectureby Dr. Simpson, the fourth in a series on "Creative Intelligence and Society — The Case for Atomic Research," heldat the University in August.in New York City to finance the Federation duringJanuary and February. All of this consumed a great dealof time on the part of the scientists, both in travellingand working in Washington.Atomic energy Republican or Democratic?"Atomic scientists" was a magic term, and many timesseemed to accomplish more than some of the basic arguments which we were trying to get across. Our abilityto reach both major parties was also partly due to thefact that the men in Washington could not determinewhether atomic energy belonged to the Republican orDemocratic party.We found in Washington that many political organizations were very anxious to join up with us or to include us in their program. It required a considerableamount of care to watch that our group did not becomeattached to any organization. Considerable pressure wasapplied at various times, but we have been able to survive successfully.Since this was purely a voluntary endeavor on the partof the scientists, it was necessary that they be taken offthe payroll of the Manhattan Project Laboratories whenever they carried on their political activities. It was general practice to send a scientist to Washington for aperiod of two weeks; then substitute another man beforehis return. In this way it was possible to maintain scientists from the various sites in Washington at the sametime.In Chicago, we kept in almost constant telephonic contact with our two representatives in Washington, so thatwe might know the situation and suggest a program ofaction. Scientists in this area worked seven nights aweek at the job and made substantial contributions tothe formulation of the new bill for the domestic controlof atomic energy.6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESocial obligations for the futureWith the formation of new scientists' groups at suchcenters as Cambridge, Philadelphia, and California, astronger and broader Federation was established to include the original activities of the Federation of AtomicScientists. The new Federation was called the Federationof American Scientists.It is dedicated to so placing science in the nationallife that it may make the maximum contribution to thewelfare of the people. It was established on the thesisthat once the problems of atomic energy are solved theremay appear within our generation or the next generation,another development in science of the same magnitude asthe discovery of nuclear energy. The scientists must beprepared to inform the public on such important developments. The Federation is, therefore, established foran indefinite period of time to carry out the social obligations of the scientists and to promote world peace.Early in the fall of 1945, the University of Chicagoformed the Office of Inquiry into the Social Aspects ofAtomic Energy, bringing together leaders in the fieldsof economics, social sciences, politics, and internationallaw at the University. To these groups were added fromtime to time various committees of scientists to aid inthe preparation of their studies. They partially fulfilledanother function, namely, the education of the scientiston the problems of international law, social science, andthe economic principles which were to govern the peacetime application of atomic energy. The scientists hotonly worked closely with the Office in Chicago, but metwith social scientists elsewhere in the country from timeto time. They contribute regularly to the Bulletin of theAtomic Scientists.Direct political action was assumed by leading citizensin the larger cities of our country whenever domesticlegislation on atomic energy met with difficulties.Emergency committees for the Civilian Control of AtomicEnergy were formed by these groups representing allshades of political opinion. They were encouraged intheir activities by the scientists.Several months were spent in the study of systems ofinspection for the international control of atomic energywith the Federation and Chicago being instrumental ingetting a committee appointed by the Manhattan District to study the problem of inspection and control ona world level. The scientists prepared memos and prepared an enormous report covering the subject. Thismaterial was made available to the Lilienthal committeewhich went to work in the early part of 1946.Is the time running out?While the fight for the bill was being concluded in theSenate and the House, many of the scientists turned toward the Atomic Energy Commission of the United Nations. It was the international problem which hadoriginally brought the scientists together, and it was this problem which they considered of paramount importance. It was unfortunate that the domestic problemfor atomic energy had apparently blurred the relativeimportance of the international problem during thewinter months.Actually, most of the thinking that the scientists hadbeen doing during the past year concerned the international problem, rather than the domestic problem, andthe real reason for the existence of a strong organizationamong the scientists was to promote an adequate solutionof the problem at an international level.There has always been the realization that the chancesare very small for achieving adequate international settlement in the short time which is still left. But this smallchance must be taken on the assumption that if a limitedamount of success in this restricted field of atomic energycan be achieved, then we may find a way of increasingthe probability that we will find a more complete solution to the problem.Most scientists believe that to follow any course for thecontrol of atomic energy which is only nationwide inscope will be extremely dangerous for the safety of theUnited States within a generation. During the past yearwe have tried to maintain perspective on the problemand realize that atomic energy is only a part of the mainproblem of preventing war throughout the world.No new problems exist. Atomic energy has merelyintensified the old ones by adding two unique factors:first, the magnitude of the physical forces released arebeyond the comprehension of men who retain their oldframeworks of thought and action; secondly, the compression of the historic time scale is shocking, both to therapid developments which can be expected in the fieldand due to the enormous amount of destruction in theworld that can be accomplished per unit time.After sampling how non-scientists have reacted towardsthe simple facts regarding atomic energy, we have foundthat a limited discussion of the facts, which encouragepeople to think internationally, can be used as a lever toforce people's minds into progressive channels of thought.In other words, the most useful purpose of atomic energyfor the next few years may be the fact that it is capableof shocking the minds of people so violently that theywill think in terms bold enough and radical enough tosecure at least a limited solution to the problem.The problem today still has definable boundaries, andatomic energy is still free from the usual vested interests.Thus, it is hoped that by solving this more limited problem of the atomic bomb, we will be able to see a wayto the solution of other more difficult and broader problems which face the nations of the world.With the nuclear armaments race already under way,there is not much time in which we can hope for a solution to this problem. It is principally for these reasonsthat scientists are watching closely the decisions that ourinternational politicians are making. Many of these de-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7cisions are without the scientific information that isreadily available to all nations.Some nations critically need atomic powerThere is another problem. It is possible that peoplesof most of the nations of the world can be given the factsof atomic energy. But this is not the case with countriessuch as Russia, and evidence indicates that none but avery small group within that country has any informationas to the import of this new weapon. On the assumptionthat an educational program in the United States, Britain,and many other countries should become successful, whathope is there that all nations may understand the problem?My visit to England and France this last winter convinced me beyond doubt that nations not so fortunate asours in having adequate raw materials and large suppliesof fuel are looking to the future of atomic energy as ameans of power and a means for providing a standardof living which they could never hope to have otherwise.In Great Britain, the coal supply is dwindling and requires new methods in mining engineering. The laborproblem has become quite severe, and it is becomingalmost impossible to get an adequate number of menback into the mines. Many of the leaders in Britain believe that an all-out drive for the development of atomicenergy in their country is essential for their well-beingand a continuing place among the "big" nations.Power application important nowThe possibility of declaring a moratorium on powerapplications and other peacetime developments of atomicenergy until the problem of the atomic bomb can besolved is idle talk. Only the United States could affordto take this position without seriously endangering herimmediate future. Other nations will not accept sucha proposal. Also, international decisions must be madebefore all these vested interests, which will surely beformed, are well established and able to block the progress on a broad solution to the problem of the control ofnuclear energy. Again it must be pointed out that thereis not much time in which to do this.The scientists, therefore, are focusing almost their entire attention on the international development on thesubject of atomic energy. It may well prove to be thatno single problem concerned with the problem of preventing wars is more important than the one isolated forconsideration by our group. And so, quite generally, itis clear that this "crusade" which has sprung up amongthe scientists is actually directed at preventing anotherwar in which we are convinced that the United Stateswould not have a reasonable chance for survival.Back to the laboratoriesPeople everywhere are saying, "Fine. Wonderful. Thescientists are at last recognizing their responsibilities and demonstrating them by appropriate action." This popular attitude toward our activities, however, may be quitedangerous in that it is assumed that a small group, whoselives are dedicated to science, are capable of carryingon this program as vigorously as they have in the pastyear. In this past year we have done as individuals morethan we can be expected to do in the future, if we areto remain scientists. We cannot be away from the laboratory without withdrawing completely from the extensive frontiers of scientific knowledge.The constant stream of interruptions day and night,phone calls, speeches and strange decisions have madeit impossible to think for any extended periods of timeon the subjects with which we are concerned. At theUniversity of Chicago alone, over twenty-four hundredhours per month have been devoted by the scientists, inaddition to their regular working hours, to carry on thisprogram of education and political action during themost active periods of this last year.For many of us it has meant the postponement or complete loss of a year of valuable research time out of theproductive part of our lives. We feel this has been justified in the past year, but cannot be justified over longerperiods of time. There are very few scientists and, because of the last war, not many are joining our ranksin the coming years.Necessary irresponsibility . . .We must accept the fact that so long as the minds ofmen are free, they will probe into the unknown in nature,and new discoveries will become inevitable. In fact, research in the natural sciences requires freedom from theconventions of thoughts and customs of our society — asense of irresponsibility on the part of the scientist inorder to achieve success. This must be recognized andaccepted as part of the scientific method. The researchis not carried out for "good" or for "evil", but only tofind the facts of nature.It is in the period following fundamental scientific discoveries — the period in which inventions and applicationsare made of a new discovery — that the minds of menreally produce beneficial or dangerous technical developments for our society. It is in this period of inventionthat we must search most carefully for the developmentof a social consciousness among scientists and engineers.So far, in our history it has not been until this period ofinvention was already molding man's environment thatsocial and political scientists could recognize the implications of the new technology.The modern scientist in fundamental research is nowin perhaps the best position to evaluate and extrapolatefrom what is known at any given time to determine themost probable inventions to be derived from a basic discovery, and he may see, at least in vague outline, someof their social implications. It is important to avoid con-8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfusing the ability to predict invention and developmentwith the unpredictable and somewhat random nature ofbasic discoveries in science.With these remarks in mind, we may now attempt toreestablish the responsibilities of the modern scientists.Their responsibilities most clearly lie in the area of informing their governments and the economic, politicaland social scientists of the implications of the applicationthat new basic discoveries may have on the national andinternational welfare. Due to their unique training, onlythe scientists, unfortunately, are in a position to possessand evaluate this scientific information. A strong moralobligation is thus placed upon the governments and social scientists to accept leadership in solving the problemswhich scientific developments create — an obligation whichuntil now they have only partially accepted. It is throughthese latter groups that the citizens of any nation mustbe informed of the social implications of new developments in science and technology.. . . but not political indifferenceIt is now obvious that I am making a distinction between the scientist's responsibility as an expert and hisobligations as a citizen in the world. It can never be aclean-cut distinction whenever scientific knowledge is involved in determining his actions. Only in the political,social and economic field dissociated from science, where he is usually poorly informed, does he exercise his right*-solely as a citizen.In the assumption of such responsibilities it may becomenecessary for the scientist to insist on sharing in thedecisions of how the results of his labor may be used.Certainly his vital interest in maintaining science free andinternational in character compels him to demand thatthe results of his researches be not twisted toward selfishor ultra-nationalistic ends.With this somewhat sharper definition of responsibilities it is quite evident that the major burden for carryingout the dissemination of information on the implicationsof new scientific developments rests with the intelligentcitizens of the world; the intense and continuing cooperation of the scientists is assured.What I am saying is that the scientists are returningto the laboratories. They will work there effectively solong as they have the freedom required to carry on original research. This return to the laboratory does notimply an evacuation of the scientists from the politicalscene, but rather a leveling off of activities to a level thatwe can maintain over a period of years.Scientists will further be able to demonstrate their new,informed outlook in the future through cooperation witha National Science Foundation, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization andthrough international atomic energy development organizations.MERRILLS MOVE TO CALIFORNIAAfter more than aquarter of a century atthe University, Robert V.Merrill, PhD '23, andhis wife, Mary LetitiaFyffe, '14, are leaving forLos Angeles where Dr.Merrill will 'become Professor of French at theUniversity of Californiain Los Angeles.In his undergraduatedays at Chicago, RobertMerrill was captain ofthe fencing team. In1914 he went to England Robert V. Merrillon a Rhodes Scholarship where he fenced with the Oxford team against Cambridge. Three years later he returned to the Midway where he became a member ofthe French faculty.Fencing continued to be his extra-curricular activity and for years, as the fencing coach, Dr. Merrill broughtmany championships to Chicago. Proud of his amateurstanding, he never accepted pay for this service.The Merrills were always generous with their time forcivic and University activities. Dr. Merrill was a mostactive and conscientious member of the Settlement Board. until his resignation. Mrs. Merrill was formerly studentsocial director.Mr. and Mrs. Merrill are spending the autumn at theirsummer home in Maine since he does not have to reportto the California campus until February. The manyfriends of the Merrills will be pleased to know that theyare keeping their summer retreat in Maine, which meansthey will be dropping in between trips each spring andfall for brief visits.During their present sojourn in Maine they have beenjoined by their daughter Dania, '45, and her husband,H. Daniel Brewster, a foreign service officer with theState Department. The Brewsters were married January19 and will soon leave for his assignment at Beyrouth.ONE MAN'S OPINIONAlumni have heard a great deal in recent years aboutthe College, the University's notable contribution to undergraduate education, but they have heard practicallynothing about Clarence Faust, who as Dean of the College, implemented the idea of constructing and relocating a true program of general education. This seemsto be the time to. remedy in a small way the omission,for Mr. Faust, who did a superb job of leadership, administration, and creative thinking in making a goingconcern of the College, is retiring after five arduousyears to become Dean of the Graduate Library Schooland to resume his scholarly work.Readers of the Magazine will recall that the presentCollege is the evolutionary result of the Chicago Plan of1930. This plan replaced the specialized sequence typeof quarter courses with general, integrated year-longcourses, and substituted for the accumulation of creditsthe principle of achievement measured by comprehensiveexaminations. The purpose behind these measures wasto provide a basic general education for all students,restoring a kind of education that had become extinctthrough proliferation of the free elective system and thepressures for specialization.Once under way the plan commanded the enthusiasticefforts of many members of the faculty, both fromthose directly engaged in undergraduate education andthose in the higher reaches of research and graduateinstruction. The technical problems of creating generalcourses that achieved their purpose were considerable.Year after year many of the faculty worked continuouslyon the revision. The record of that labor is in the file ofsyllabi for the past sixteen years, where the evolution istraced out. Then in 1937, the last two years of University High School were roughly joined to this generalprogram of the College to determine by experiment if afour-year unit of general education were not possible.Mr. Faust became Dean of the College in 1941. Whenthe decision was made in 1942 that the evidence wasconvincingly in favor of the four-year organization, theresponsibility of developing it become his. Viewed withdoubt and hostility, the College was a precarious venture. And despite all the progress which had beenmade since 1930 on the two-year plan, the educationalproblems were tremendous. It was one thing to beall out for a liberal education; it was another to findout what it was, what curriculum would provide it, andhow it could be measured.There were collateral problems such as establishing aguidance and counselling system and of housing andsupervising students of the first two years — the 14 to 16year old youngsters who ordinarily would be high schooljuniors and seniors. Since liberal education was extinct,no teachers had been trained to impart it. Instead, it was By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, J.D. '22necessary to find the relatively few who had achievedone by themselves, or to find those who were capableof acquiring it. All these difficulties were increased bythe dislocations of the war.Time was short; the decision to adopt the College wasmade at the start of the year, and the new system wasto go into effect in the autumn quarter. Because ofthe background of experience, this was not a reckless attempt, but it created many administrative problems.Even when that urgent period was over there was noslackening, for the courses of the second, third andfourth years had to be revised to dovetail into the newpattern. Some important new elements had to be introduced, such as the Placement Tests, which the Officeof the Examiner had been formulating. These were essential to the integrity of the educational operation, toplace students in the College where their attainmentsindicated, but their adoption put one of the manyemergency strains on the administrative machinery.The College is now definitely established in the University. Its influence on undergraduate education is becoming apparent throughout the country; liberal education is now the slogan of everyone, even though in manyinstances it is nothing more. But the syllabi of the general courses have been the model of similar courses incountless other colleges. University presidents and committees make speeches and issue reports which echo theprinciples of the College. Once again, by virtue of itswillingness to experiment and its ability to perform, theUniversity has had a notable effect on the rest of theeducational world.Creation of the College was not the work of Mr. Faust ;it was the product of many devoted individuals, includingpioneers of the Chicago Plan as well as newcomers. Butenthusiasm for it was sustained by the sincerity, energy,and clarity which Mr. Faust exhibited as Dean. He wascontinuously engaged in staff discussions of the purposeand content of the courses, in maintaining the level ofinstruction, in searching for teachers and making hurried trips to interview them, participating in the legislative councils of the University, where the College wasoften up for discussion, and making the unending decisions which the administrative control required.All these things were necessary, but the measure ofMr.! Faust's success in the College actually is in the factthat he would never compromise its purpose or performance. The College in principle and fact has establishedtrue liberal education and not a spurious facsimile. Perhaps the best proof* of the leadership which he gave theCollege is that after five years of refusal to compromisethe fundamentals, he leaves no bitter antagonisms tothreaten the future of the College.9WE ADOPT A UNIVERSITY .• By VEVA SCHREIBERClasses meet in Quonset hutsBuildings were completely destroyedInterior showing effect of bombing QUONSET huts stand bleakly beside the shell ofthe once-beautiful structure which housed th«|Philippine Women's University in Manila before;World War II. The campus is marked with the scars ofwar. But spirits are high as students and faculty puttheir minds and hearts to work recovering that whichwas lost and pushing ahead.Before Pearl Harbor and the later, tragic fall of Cor-regidor, the university was one of the most active in theIslands. Enrolment varied from 1,000 to 1,200 students.A non-sectarian private school, headed by Mrs. ConradoBenitez, it offered classes from nursery school level tograduate university work. Boys were admitted only forthe first eight grades. Girls, however, had continuousschooling through high school and into the various colleges of liberal arts, education, junior normal, businessadministration, home economics, pharmacy, music andthe graduate department.During the liberation of Manila, the university wascompletely destroyed. Its library was demolished. Itschairman of the board of trustees, who served as actingpresident of the Islands when Quezon left, was killed bythe Japanese.Immediately after Pearl Harbor, the Philippine Women's University was taken over as an American militaryhospital. When the Japanese marched into Manila, theyconsidered the campus enemy property because it hadserved as a military hospital. Eventually the facilitieswere returned to the trustees for use as an academic institution, but the going was difficult.Of the school's 400 boarding students, ranging in agefrom four years, more than 80 girls were stranded inManila early in 1942. Cut off from their distant islandhomes, they were taken in by instructors and the Benitezfamily. One by one, as parents could hire boats to comefor them, these students returned home. As best theycould, students and instructors carried on during theyears of the Japanese occupation. When Manila was declared an open city, the Benitez took the stranded boarding students out into the country to a farm, where all ofthem slept on floors and made their living a cooperativeventure.Not until July 1946, could regular classes be resumed.At that time, the Quonset huts were acquired from theU. S. Army, and today they are serving as classrooms,chapel and dormitories. Older students, whose educationwas cut off short, are now returning to resume theirwork despite hardships and lack of supplies. And newstudents, as many as the school can care for, are arriving.Helene Benitez, daughter of the university's presidentand of Conrado Benitez of the University of Chicagoclass of 1911, came to the United States last spring. One10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11of her first stops was Chicago. A former resident of International House and graduate education student on theMidway, Miss Benitez was invited to speak before anInternational House Sunday afternoon group. She toldthem something of the Islands and of the university'splight. In the audience that afternoon was Mary Jordan, an ex- WAC and graduate student in the Englishdepartment. After hearing the story of PhilippineWomen's University, Mary decided something must bedone. She contacted fellow students and professors forsuggestions which might lead to action. Together, theydecided the most urgent need was for books, and so abook drive was launched.Meanwhile, a 1911 class reunion breakfast on June 8"snowballed" into a full-fledged University of Chicagoalumni movement. At that breakfast meeting, ConradoBenitez spoke briefly on the effect the class has on theindividuals who make it up. Casually, he told the classwhat this effect had meant to him in his work in thePhilippines. Among other things, he told the story ofthe Philippine Women's University, that acted as a catalyst for action among his friends.The 191 l's now have organized a regular committeefor aid to the Philippine Women's University. In addition to Conrado Benitez and his daughter Helene, ValleeO. Appel, S. Edwin Earle, Mrs. Charles W. Gilkey, MissEthel Kawin, Frederick Kuh, and Paul H. Davis willlead the group. The 191 l's plan to keep their campaignfor funds on a strictly personal basis. Besides contactingthe 400 members of the 1911 class, the committee willsend out pleas to about 1100 other alumni friends. Bothmoney and books, of course, will be welcome from anyinterested University of Chicago alumni.First goal of the 1911 committee is to collect $2500for the immediate purchase of basic books to supplementthe books received in the student drives. Eventually thealumni hope to collect $10,000 to be used on school supplies, periodical subscriptions, books, and other thingsnecessary for a working library.The student book drive, started in June, is still inprogress. When initial plans were being made, HeleneBenitez warned the sponsor committee: "Most bookscollections are likely to be stray collections. Copies ofthe latest whodunits and library castoffs won't accomplishmuch toward building up a sound university library."Faculty members on the committee suggested that thecollection should be one which the University of Chicagowould unofficially endorse as a suitable starter for a university library. It seemed that the collection would haveadded value, if books selected were in harmony withacademic ideas on the Midway.The campus sponsor committee has compiled a listof some 1,000 books for the PWU's library. Supplementary books to the basic list will include texts for students from the nursery level through graduate work. All Native dancers entertain at International House benefitfor P.W.U.Indian students at benefit danceStudents danced to raise funds at International HouseBenefit12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsuch books collected, the committee decided, should beara University of Chicago crest sticker inside the frontispiece. The crest would serve as a reminder that this isnot just impe)rsonal aid, but real friendship in action.With the book drive underway, the students and faculty members decided to sponsor a benefit ball. International House agreed to co-sponsor the ball on August10. Proceeds, which topped $200, will be added toalumni funds for restoration of the University.During the next year, the officially-recognized Philippine Sponsor Committee on campus will continue theirhelp to the PWU. Ruperto Mendiones, a Filipino student who works in Harper Memorial Library and attends classes on the Midway, is arranging for the actualcollection of books. The Smithsonian Institute, with theUniversity of Chicago's library's permission, has promised to crate and ship the books gathered to Manila.The aid which the University of Chicago communityand alumni are giving the Philippine Women's University is not the first influence the U. of C. has had on theFilipino educational institution. When Conrado Benitezreturned to school and newspaper work in the Islandsafter his graduation, he became a trustee of the Philippine Women's University. His influence is revealed bythe fact that one of the school songs is a modified version of a University of Chicago song. Even the schoolcolors for the PWU are similar — maroon and white.The University of Chicago-conscious Benitez familybelieve strongly in friendly relations between the Philippine Islands and the United States. Many of the 120faculty members have been trained in the United States,and English subjects are handled by both American andFilipino-born teachers.Ideologies and cultural patterns which strongly resemble American ones are encouraged in the PhilippineWomen's University. Conrado Benitez, who serves as Helene Beniteztrustee, Helene, who is dean of women and professor ofhome economics, and charming Mrs. Benitez, who mademany Chicago friends in her 1938 visit to this country,see to that. Helene, in fact, is doing additional graduatework this fall at the University of Chicago.As a result of the adoption of the Philippine Women'sUniversity by the University of Chicago community andalums of 1911, those Manila students should soon havesufficient supplies and books. They will be enabled tocarry on in the educational tradition started in 1918 whenMrs. Benitez and far-seeing Filipino women like her decided that "education for useful womanhood" was wellworth all the effort and time it cost.NEW MEMBER OF ALUMNI STAFFWalter James Atkins,'40, has been appointedAssistant Secretary of theAlumni Association filling the vacancy left byHoward Mort, who wasappointed ExecutiveSecretary in January.From Tulsa, in 1936,James Atkins came tothe University on ascholarship. He was amember of the tennisteam, played on the football squad one year, andwas active in the Dramatic Association. He is Jim Atkinsa member of Alpha Delta Phi. After graduation, Jim taught history and civics at theLeelanau Schools in Glen Arbor, Michigan, with classesin tennis and boxing on the side. During the war helearned to pilot a plane in the Air Corps but in October,1942, transferred to the Marines, landing with them onsuch islands as Tarawa, Saipan, Tinian, and Okinawaon his way to the Japanese mainland.Relieved from active duty last February, Jim returnedto Tulsa to become assistant to the public relations director for the National Oil Conservation Committee.Succumbing to nostalgic fever, James Atkins visitedthe quadrangles during the summer; dropped in to paya visit at Alumni House; brightened at the offer to spendthe years ahead working with his many alumni friendsfrom an office at 5733 University Avenue; and wired hisacceptance late in the summer.THE GREAT BOOKSFrom a brochure on the Great Books recently published by the University we herewith reprint thoseparagraphs explaining the philosophy back of theirselection with suggestions on the order in which thesebooks should be read. We have room only for therecommendations for the first year. For a completelist covering a five-year program of readings, writeUniversity College, 19 South LaSalle Street, Chi-cago 3. EditorTHE aim of liberal education is the improvementof the mind. Our minds grow with the acquisition of any sort of knowledge or skill, but thecrucial phases of our mental development occur whenwe gain new insights, when our understanding deepens.How does this happen? Usually as a result of ourthinking more clearly and thoroughly; as a result of reviewing the familiar elements of our experience underthe penetrating light of basic ideas; as a result of having the truly fundamental and perennial problems of human life and society focus our knowledge and direct ourthinking.What every schoolboy does not know, but what everyintelligent adult, and certainly every honest teacher,does know is that liberal education, so conceived, cannot be finished in school or college. It can be begun there,but the very immaturity of youth is the insuperable obstacle to its being done there. The conditions of adultlife — the seriousness and responsibility of mature minds,the stability of character, the breadth of experiencewhich comes only with, the years — are prerequisite forthe ultimate stages of liberal education.Only adults can really become deeply possessed byideas. Only adults can realize the importance of thegreat human problems. Graduation from school or college does not make a liberally educated man or woman.To become liberally educated, to achieve the resultsfor which all schooling is ats best a preparation, thosewho have finished with formal schooling must keeptheir minds at work. They need only recognize that,unlike the body, the mind can always grow, and that,with the weight of years, it becomes more rather thanless educable.The Great Books as TeachersThere are five reasons why the reading and discussion of the great books of Western civilization seem, toconstitute an ideal program of adult liberal education.First, these books, consisting of the great works of philosophy and history, of science and poetry, deal with thefundamental theoretic and practical problems which haveconfronted mankind in every epoch. They contain therelatively small number of basic ideas through which menhave gained insight, clarified problems, and directed theirthinking in every field of subject matter. Second, the great books do not contain a single, coherent doctrine. On the contrary, they represent thevarious sides of every major issue and determine thebasic oppositions in thought. Introducing us fairly tothe great intellectual controversies, they challenge usto make up our own minds.Third, the authors of these books, being the great original minds of our civilization, are its greatest teachers.If education consists in the elevation of a mind by itsbetters, then the great books are the most effective instruments for the education of all of us. To make themwork as our teachers, we need only learn how to readthem, and how to engage in the many-sided conversations which they carried on with one another, and whichthey stimulate us to carry on among ourselves. We learnto read these books by asking and answering questionsabout them. This is one aim of the discussion seminars; another is to discover the questions the authorsof the great books themselves raised and the answersthey tried to give.Fourth, a program of adult education should providea way of continuing year after year. Now the greatbooks are indefinitely rereadable. We can never exhaustthem. They are always "over our heads" and hencealways a source of stimulation and instruction. Theyreadily become the substance of a series of readingcourses which offer adults the opportunity to pursueprogressively the goals of liberal education. And itshould not be surprising if the pursuit occupied a wholelifetime!Finally, the great books are all contemporary in theirsignificance, though many of them are hundreds or thousands of years old. We do not read or discuss them asif they were archeological monuments, reflecting thehighlights or past eras or dead cultures. We read themfor the intelligence and illumination they bring to bearon our own experience in the modern world. Our aim,in short, is not to gain knowledge of the past but toreach for the best wisdom of all the ages, for our ownenlightenment, and for the understanding of contemporary problems.The books to be readThe phrase "the hundred great books" is misleading.In all the lists which have been compiled during thelast twenty-five years, there have been fewer than onehundred great authors and many more than one hundred great books.It would obviously take anyone years to read all thegreat books, even quickly and superficially for the firsttime. This raises, for adult readers with limited leisure,several related problems. Should all the books be read,or only some of them? Of those to be read, shall theybe read in their entirety or only in part? In what ordershall the books or parts of books be read?Given unlimited time and ideal conditions, the proper1314 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEanswer to these questions would seem to be: read allof them in their entirety and in the order in whichthey were written. If our aim is to read the great books,then certainly all should be read; and since each is anartistic whole, it should be read in its entirety. But whyin chronological order? Because the prerequisite for theintelligent reading of one great book is the reading ofother great books which form its intellectual background.The great authors are engaged in a conversation withone another across the centuries. The reader is bestdrawn into this great conversation by following the lineof intellectual development which the chronological orderrepresents.But if, with limited time, we were to proceed in thisfashion, it would not only take many years to go throughthe basic list of readings, but years would be spent reading in their entirety the works of only the ancient authors on the list. We have, therefore, constructed booklists which take the reader through the scope of the wholetradition each year, with the readings of that year soarranged chronologically that a section of the great conversation is quite intelligible. Each year's reading byitself has continuity and coherence. In each year's list,ancient, medieval and modern books appear in chronological order.Readings for the first year1. Introduction and Exemplary Reading of the Declaration of Independence.2. Plato: Apology, Crito.3. Plato: Gorgias.4. Thucydides: History, Book I, chaps. 1, 2, 3, 5;Book II, chaps. 6, 7; Book V, chap. 17; Book VI,chap. 18; Book VII, chap. 23.5. Aristophanes: Lysistrata, Birds, Clouds.6. Aristotle: Ethics, Book I.7. Aristotle: Politics, Book I.8; Plutarch: "Lycurgus," "Numa," and "Comparison;" "Alexander" and "Caesar."9. St. Augustine: Confessions, Books I-VIII.10. St. Thomas: Treatise on Law (Summa Theo-logica, Books I-II, QQ. 90-97).11. Machiavelli: The Prince.12. Montaigne: Selected Essays: "That the Taste ofGood, etc.," Book I, chap. 14; "Of Custom," BookI, chap. 22; "Of Pedantry," Book I, chap. 24; "Ofthe Education of Children," Book I, chap. 25; "Itis Folly, etc.," Book I, chap. 26; "Of Cannibals,"Book I, chap. 30; "Upon Some Verses of Virgil,"Book III, chap. 5.13. Shakespeare: Hamlet.14. Locke: Of Civil Government (second essay).15. Rousseau: The Social Contract, Books I-II.16. Federalist Papers: Nos. 1-10, 15, 31, 47, 51, 68-71(along with the Constitution).17. Smith: The Weath of Nations, Book I, chaps. 1-9.18. Marx: Communist Manifesto. LET US SPRAYAbove HawthorneBridge on the west bankof the Willamette Riverin Portland, Oregon, arethe laboratories andmanufacturing plant ofMiller Products Company.Owner Roy Miller,after attending OregonAgricultural College(now Oregon State)came to Chicago for hisS.M. in Botany (1917).In the garage behindtheir home on the East R°y M'"erSide, Roy and his wife mixed the first batch of spray thatwas to start the Miller Products Company of Portlandin the ever expanding field of agricultural chemicals.Today, with scores of concoctions to kill fungi, insects,weeds, and all manner of pests or to fertilize growingplants; with an expanding manufacturing plant; withocean liners pausing to pick up shipments for foreigncountries; with a radio program, Miller Products are becoming internationally famous.If you don't believe all the multi-colored pamphletsstacked on the reception room tables, Roy will take youout to his own garden where he practices what hepreaches. You'll get lost in the tall corn while lookingfor the perfectly formed, bugless beds of beautiful bouquets.And with the same untiring ambition which put MillerProducts on the world map, Roy Miller put Portland wellout in the running last year as local Chairman for theAlumni Foundation.B & G thoughtfully installed bleachers for spectatorsat the new Administration Building site to keep the narrow walks clear. Anyway, it was a worthy experiment!THE CURRENT COLLEGECONTROVERSY CONTINUED• By O. MEREDITH WILSONA RECENT article in the University of ChicagoMagazine, entitled "The Current College Controversy" has created some misunderstandingsabout the nature of the program of the College of theUniversity of Chicago. The article dealt with recent publications about colleges and college curricula in America.Since the author is a Professor of Education at the University of Chicago, some readers of the Magazine haveunfortunately assumed that it described the college program on the Chicago campus.There is so wide a gap, however, between a collegeprogram which the article criticizes and the educationalprogram of the College at Chicago that it seems worthwhile to clear up some of the confusion which has resulted from a misinterpretation of the article. No bettermethod occurs to me than to call attention to possiblemisunderstandings point by point:Conscientiously constructed curriculum1. The article divides college curricula into twogroups. One it designates as "content centered," theother as "student centered." The College of the University of Chicago seems to be placed in the "contentcentered" classification. I do not wish to debate thequestion whether a significant college program has everbeen organized without a keen concern for the students'needs. There may be or have been such a college,though I doubt it.The College of the University of Chicago, however,prides itself on having taken careful stock of the needsof men in a free society. The curriculum has been consciously constructed to help students meet those needs.More care is taken at Chicago to see that the individualneeds of each student are considered than is possible inmost colleges. For example, in determining what a student already knows, and, hence, where he should beginin the college program, the College at Chicago does notrely upon age or high school credits.Each student is given a "battery" of placement tests.These tests are designed to measure the extent of thestudent's previous preparation for the College coursesand to indicate any mastery of their content acquiredbefore entering the College. The student is not requiredto take those courses in which he shows sufficient competence, nor is he registered in courses in which heis inadequately prepared. Thus, repetition of subjects already mastered is eliminated, and possibility of failure isgreatly reduced.As in all sound educational institutions the centralconcern of the College at Chicago is the student. Thetest of a student-centered institution should not be, "Does the curriculum follow the student's whims?" but rather,"Is it organized to meet his needs?"Don't sell freedom shortAt this point an objection to the educational philosophy of the article is inescapable. The article says: "Justhow a 'free man in a< free society' should act is a question philosophers will have to answer. They seem tohave great difficulty formulating their answer, becausethe question is not an easy one. The reason may bethat there are no free societies or free men unless thebasic meaning of the word 'free' is distorted for propagandists purposes."The College at Chicago in setting its educational objectives has begun with the assumption that it is educating free men in a free society. We are unwilling toabandon the enterprise of education for freedom on thecharge that there is no perfect free society or no freeman to live in it. The business of an educational enterprise worth the name is to improve the culture whichsupports it. Neither an education nor an ideal can beeffective unless it aims beyond the boundary of normalachievement.When the Declaration of Independence was writtenit was certainly true that there was no agreement as towhat was meant by the phrase "all men are createdequal," yet it can hardly be denied that this phrase hasbeen a most effective force in liberalizing Americanpolitical life. It has been important because it has assumed more for America than we yet have been ableto achieve, and America has been the better for havingtried to live up to it. The College at Chicago seeks totrain "free men in a free society," and is not embarrassedif, hereby, it too seems to be urging America to betteritself.Eliminating the middleman2. Paralleling the discussion of content-centeredschools the author of the article has introduced a criticism of the Great Books curricula. Friends of the Uni-When Stephen M. Corey discussed "The Current College Controversy" in the June MAGAZINE, he indicatedthat many of the Great Books were not written for adolescents and "a Great Books curriculum for afl young peopleneeding a general education leaves much to be desired."Fearing that readers of the MAGAZINE would concludefrom this article that the College is founded on the GreatBooks course, O. Meredith Wilson, Association Dean ofthe College (at the Editor's invitation) enters the "controversy with a slightly different philosophy and an explanation of how the Great Books are used in the College program.IS16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEversity have assumed that this criticism applies to theCollege at Chicago.The College program is divided to give the studenttraining in broad fields of knowledge: the Humanities,Mathematics and Natural Sciences and the SocialSciences. General courses in these fields are supplemented by work in writing foreign languages, and by acourse in the interrelationships of knowledge whichserves to provide a sense of the unity and interdependence of the disciplines. An additional integrating courseto provide historical perspective is now being planned.No effort is made to satisfy the educational requirements in these fields exclusively by the examination of aseries of Great Books. In fact, to the charge that theGreat Books were not written for adolescents it is temptingly easy to reply that the only Great Books coursestaught at Chicago are adult education classes sponsoredby University College.Such a response, however, dodges a central element inthe controversy. For, while the College has not createda Great Books curriculum it has recognized that to meetthe needs of any given discipline it should always choosefrom the list of available books the greater rather thanthe lesser ones. Hence, in the Humanities program students read Plato, Aristotle, Gibbon and Hume instead ofreading about them. In the Social Sciences they readAdam Smith, Hobbes, Locke, and Machiavelli insteadof being content with what some intellectual broker hassaid about them.The charge that these books are too difficult for aCollege student is made without careful consideration.The difference between a great book and a lesser onelies in the significance of the ideas presented rather thanin the difficulty of comprehension, and great authorsare more frequently distinguished by a power of clearexposition than by the lack of it.Intellectual eliteThe article says that those who prescribe the greatbooks for college students "take no cognizance of thefact that most of these classics were written at a timewhen only the intellectually elite could read." This suggests a strange misunderstanding of the history of socialoperations.There was never a time when men and women wereselected from the mass and given an education only because they were possessed of great brain power, thoughWashington, Adams, and particularly Jefferson wouldhave liked to establish such a system for America. Wehave come closer than most countries only because bymore lavish expenditures we have excluded a small number from the opportunities of education. But in ancientGreece even more than in the modern world illiteracyhas been a better index to lack of opportunity than tolack of intellectual power. Conversely, the ability toread has been a general index to opportunity, but itwould be wrong to call all who can or could read intellectually elite. Unfortunately, the economic and social elite, whosemembers could read, did assume that the significant difference was in intellectual power, not in money. Inconsequence, when the liberal movements of moderntimes forced the expansion of the base of educationthe offerings of colleges and secondary schools werecheapened on the premise that lesser minds were to befed.The College does not want to sponsor intellectuallyundernourished graduates. On the other hand, it recognizes the danger of too great difficulty and has no sympathy with a curriculum so severe that it accustomsstudents to failure. Our courses are, it is true, continuously "reprocessed." In the process of reexaminationthe faculty is not indifferent "to the young people wholearn from these courses." Rather, alterations are constantly being made to adjust the complexity and weightof assignments more nearly to the capacity of the youngstudents, and to restate the objectives of courses moreprecisely to meet student needs.Incidentally, in reworking the curriculum, the facultyof the College, far from having "no interest in anythingbut reading," also recognizes "that learning is not bybooks alone, but by field trips, motion pictures, laboratorywork, discussion groups, lectures, individual criticism ofbooks, expression of ideas in writing, and work in thecommunity."Sports for spectators or students3. The content-centered school is presumed to have noconcern for the student's extra-curricular activities. Thishas been a common complaint about Chicago since itfirst began to de-emphasize intercollegiate athletics.Before accepting the discontinuance of Big Ten football at Chicago as the end of interest in the student'sextracurricular activities it would be well to considerwhether the aim of athletics is to make spectators or toimprove the physical coordination of students.Even if teaching of football were an objective of college life, it is doubtful if as much can be learned fromthe spectacle provided by gridiron classics as is learnedby actual play on one of the College intramural teamson which any boy who wishes may play the game himself under appropriate supervision and with suitableequipment. Moreover, some actual training in golf, tennis, wrestling, boxing, badminton or hand ball will probably provide greater stimulus to continued post collegephysical recreation than either intercollegiate athleticcircuses or classroom gymnastics. The College also sponsors amateur theatricals, plays its role in the publicationof a campus newspaper and campus periodicals, and aspart of a great University has access to a succession ofbrilliant lectures.Overhaul, not overthrowThe author of "The Current College Controversy"acknowledged that young people have rated the intellec-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17tual consequences of college life very low. If some college graduates have found little to remember in the organized curriculum, but much of value in their outsideactivities, it may follow that the cure is further expansion of extra curricular life and further constriction ofthe education program, as the author seems to suggest.But it would seem more likely that the curriculum, theintellectual enterprise for which the college exists, shouldbe overhauled. Because some college programs havefailed in the past, it does not follow that all intellectualcontent in the college should be jettisoned, and thecampuses turned over to non-academic directors of acountry club existence.The College at Chicago has been somewhat morecourageous. It holds that the cure for a weak curriculumis an improved curriculum. It refuses to be frightenedby the claim that College students are dominated by personal concerns, for adults in that sense are still youngpeople. But such important problems as domestic peace and tranquility, public prosperity, freedom of press andreligion, international courts and world government arethemselves matters of personal concern. They dominatethe thinking not only of "highminded evangelical adults"but of an even greater number of the young men andwomen of college age.When we regard college students as thinking men andwomen, they place their personal concern on a highlevel. A trivial college curriculum may defeat the student interest in enlightened reform of a free society, butmore certainly it will destroy the student's respect forthe college.Through the use of rich and significant materials, often bound in volumes now called "Great Books," theCollege may restore respect for college life. In anycase, the colleges must train a free citizenry for its obligations in a free society or our recent struggle for survival in a conflict against arbitrary power will have beenmeaningless.JACK WOOLAMSOn August 28th, justthree days after qualifying for the Thompsontrophy race at Cleveland,Jack Woolams, A.B. '41,was killed when his redP-39 crashed into LakeOntario. He had justtaken off from Niagaraairport in a final checkflight in preparations forthe finals of the race onLabor Day.Jack attended the University from 1935 to 1937and at that time obtainedthe then necessary college prerequisites for admittanceinto the Army Air Corps. While studying here he participated in athletics and also became a member of AlphaDelta Phi. , >Upon graduation from Kelly Field in June, 1938,and after serving with the 79th Pursuit Squadron, hereturned to the University to complete work toward hisdegree, which he obtained in June, 1941. While attending school, he financed his education by instructing in flying and the ground school for the C.A.A.Jack Woolams He and his wife, Mary Margaret Mayer, A.B. '41and a member of Sigma, moved to Buffalo, where Jackbecame a test pilot for Bell Aircraft Corporation. During the war, he pioneered in the development of Bellplanes, with particular emphasis on new speeds and altitudes. This work gained for him the position of ChiefTest Pilot of the Bell organization, which he held atthe time of his tragic accident.Easygoing Jack was anything but that when in thecockpit. Because of his aptitude and careful applicationwhile in the air, Jack, the father of three children, hadbeen chosen to test the world's first supersonic flight,to an altitude of 80,000 feet, in the newly developed BellXS-1. The proposed flight, during which a speed of1500 miles per hour was expected to be reached, washeralded by the Army Air Forces as "the most importantmission ever undertaken by an airman since the WrightBrothers' first flight." In order to dispel the layman'sassumption that it was to be a one-man sideshow, articles discussing the diligent planning and research involvedin the flight recently appeared in many of the popularand scientific publications.The impact of his death was felt throughout the aviation world, since men were quick to realize the important part he had played in the progress of aviationand the vast store of knowledge which he acquired concerning the next outstanding adventure.BOOKS RECEIVED"Human Dignify and the Great Victorians," including chapters on Coleridge, Southey, Carlyle,Kingsley, Arnold, Ruskin, and William Morris. By Bernard N. Schilling, A.M. "28, 246 pp., $3.00,Columbia University Press."Honor Above All." A narrative poem based on the true experiences of returned woundedsoldiers by Captain O. Irving Jacobsen, A.M. '26, 53 pp., $2.00, Bruce Humphries, Inc.THE EDITOR'S MEMO PADJake ...used to pause on the steps of fraternity row, arms full of soiled sweatshirts, spotted trousers, and C jackets,to tell of the days of the ProgressTailoring Company; of Eckersall,Phil Allen, President Judson andother old timers whose clothes he hadgathered for cleaning.Later it was Varsity Tailor but itwas still Jake who made the wrinkledclothes circuit. We remember the dayJake appeared on University Avenuein an old rebuilt Model A Ford witha hump-backed blue body lookinglike a bantam-sized overturned Victoria which didn't quite get acrossthe track of the 5:15 limited. Wealso remember the snowy day whenthe back end dropped out and Jake,in disgust, telephoned the junk man.Jake traipsed on afoot, the thicksoles of his shoes shuffling closer andcloser to the pavement. Past eighty,Jake joshed about his feet whichcouldn't keep up with him.Then last summer we passed theold 57th Street Varsity shop. BossNewberger no longer rocked andwatched near the front window; Jakeno longer stood under the faded blueshade at the counter laboriouslymarking slips. The Famous- Varsitytailors of half a century had sold outand retired. It was the passing of another Midway tradition. Gibby ...the quiet, good natured, alwayswilling Reynolds Club janitor ofnearly two decades put away hisbroom, gathered up his luggage andhis wife, and left for Texas. GabrielSkeok, who left Scotland in his youthin favor of the coal mines of Illinois,came to the University after the famous Cherry mine disaster. WhenAlan Chidsey, Dean of Student Activities, left Chicago to establish theSt. John prep school in Houston hetook with him Max Mertz, Directorof the Reynolds Club, and WalterHebert, of the Athletic Department.Gibby, at a better hourly rate, is justthe man to keep the offices and classrooms spic and span.Deborah . . .a current best-selling novel, waswritten by Marian Johnson Castle ofthe class of 1920. Marian, who haslived in Denver for some twentyyears, has written for many popularmagazines: HARPERS, FORUM,COLLIERS and THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE.In March, 1938, she won first prizein our manuscript contest with aclever essay on "An Alumna Looks atHer Kind." Marian's latest noveltakes on added interest for alumni because Deborah sends her daughter,Arden, to Chicago in 1920 whereArden has classes in Cobb Hall during the days of President Judson,meets friends at Ida Noyes Hall, anddances at the Washington Prom.Of all things!On the open highway last summera horse stumbled into Nelson Metcalf s car and broke the arm of theChairman of Physical Education!How to carve a turkeyTake a map of the United States,and turn it upside down so that theGreat Lakes will rest comfortably onthe platter. Insert the fork firmly ia San Antonio, Texas. Drawing theblade of the knife across northernFlorida from Pensacola to Jacksonville, carve in the general directionof Chicago to Chattanooga. GraspMiami with the thumb and forefingerof the left hand, pull it gently towardyou and, with the aid of the knife,completely sever Florida from theUnited States. A similar attemptfailed in 1861-65, probably because*too much of the bird was included.Two slices with the knife will separateDaytona Beach from Tampa andleave you with a number of appetizing slices of dark meat ready to serve.Ignoring Massachusetts, which hashad its share of Thanksgiving limelight, turn your attention next to California. Still keeping the fork inTexas, cut a series of thin slices offthe coast line. These should be considerably thinner than we are accustomed to having the Los AngelesChamber of Commerce serve us. Youare now ready to begin placing a bitof the dark and a bit of the light meaton each plate with a ladle of richgravy from the bottom of the platteramong the Great Lakes.18NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By JEANNETTE LOWREYEducation between 6 and 21: "Not Enough1'WITH his desk clear — or as he put it "the University of Chicago in good shape both academicallyand administratively" — Chancellor Robert M.Hutchins began a nine-month leave of absence from thequadrangles October 1.He assumed leadership in his own crusade in adulteducation, and is now serving officially in the expandedadult education activities of University-owned Encyclopaedia Britannica. President Ernest C. Colwell will actas chief administrative officer during his absence.Emphasizing, at a press conference, his philosophy thatif education is the hope of the world, adults — not merelysome, but all — must be educated now, ChancellorHutchins said: "The world may not last long enoughfor us to rely on the restricted campus education oftoday to bring order of chaos. If a choice had to bemade between adult education and the instruction ofyouth between the ages of six and twenty-one, adult education will have to come first because of the urgency ofthe times."Liberal education is one of the means by which wehave got to save ourselves from suicide."Mr. Hutchins, who already held four positions onBritannica, assumed a fifth title when his leave was announced. He became chairman of the board of editorsof Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. His other titles are:director of Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, editor-in-chief of the set of the Great Books of the Western Worldto be published in 1948, member of the Board of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., and chairman of its executive committee.He will be mainly concerned with two projects — thepublication of the 54-volume set of the "great books" andthe development of educational films.The publication of the great books — "the commontextbooks of mankind" — Mr. Hutchins believes will beanother milestone for the "grass roots movement of thegreat books classes" that already sweeps the country."The University of Chicago," he said, "could at thismoment have as many as 15,000,000 enrolled in a national adult education program if it had the books andthe staff."At the Encyclopaedia Britannica, Mr. Hutchins willwork in conjunction with E. H. Powell, president of bothcompanies, Walter Yust, editor and vice-president ofBritannica, and L. C. Shoenwald, vice-president.The Britannica, world's oldest continuing publication,came to the University in 1943 through a gift made byits former owner Sears, Roebuck and Co. EncyclopaediaBritannica Films, Inc. was acquired by purchase of ErpiFilms and a gift to the University by Eastman Kodak Co.of its film library. College opens with record enrollmentWhen the 72-bell carillon of Rockefeller MemorialChapel pealed out a call to classes this fall, 2,800 students, an all-time high in the five-year history of theCollege, appeared on the Midway. Their number, plus8,200 students in the divisions, professional schools, andUniversity College brought registration figures to 11,000,a record-breaking enrollment for the University.Nine hundred and fifty of the 2,800 College studentswere new registrants. Four hundred and thirty-five ofthe 950 were veterans.Altogether, the new students represented 41 states inthe nation and three foreign countries, Mexico, thePhilippine Islands and Palestine. The largest numbersoutside Illinois are from New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio,Indiana, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Massachusetts, andMichigan.Among the new students are a 13 -year-old student,eight 14-year olds, the nephew of alumnus Harold L.Ickes, former secretary of the interior, a pair of twins,and 51 "alumni children."Students with an alumnae mother and an alumnifather include: Chicagoans Claire E. Bradley, RobertFeitler, Charles J. Boebel, Ruth F. Jacobson, Joan A.Long, Joanne Redfield, Geoffrey L. Zubay; Edward H.Cams, LaSalle; Robert S. Laves, Dallas; James C. Mead,Baltimore; Charles D. Mintz, Newark; and James A.Lessly, DeKalb.''Boom and bust"Capitalism has given America a higher standard ofliving than any other nation, but it must solve the problem of "boom and bust" before poverty can be abolishedand the American dream of equality of opportunityachieved, Paul G. Hoffman, president of the StudebakerCorporation and trustee of the University, declared ina recent Round Table broadcast.Participating with Mr. Hoffman in the discussion of"What Is Capitalism?" were Paul H. Douglas, professor of economics, appearing for the first time on theRound Table since his discharge from the Marine Corps,and Vice-president Neil H. Jacoby."In the next 20 years," Mr. Hoffman said, "the capitalistic system can double the income of the averagefamily. I think it can abolish poverty. And above allthings I think we can come very close to reaching theAmerican goal of not only equality but also of certainty of opportunity for every individual to grow intellectually and spiritually as well as materially."Exactly how to avoid the "boom and bust" of periodicdepressions was termed the "sixty-four dollar question"by Mr. Hoffman, who pointed out that it was presumptuous to give an answer until more careful research hasbeen done. Certain measures, however, can contribute1920 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE*toward eliminating depressions, he said, such as unemployment compensation and insurance.In discussing recent trends among nations toirardcollectivist forms of economy, Mr. Hoffman stated thatAmerican GI's stationed in England during the war hadan important influence on Britain's change to socialism."One of the forces that made for this change," hedeclared, "was the fact that many of the GI's in England were invited into the homes of the English peopleand began telling about the glories of America. TheEnglish people began to wonder if some system wouldgive to them what the American system has given tothe average American. The reason for England'sabandonment of capitalism was that its former capitalistic economy was not a competitive capitalism, but an'anemic economy' of owners who thought it 'ungentle-manly' to compete and workers who didn't want to work.Major Douglas defined capitalism as involving threeessential features — private ownership of enterprise,private control, and the bearing of risks and profits bythe owners. Vice-president Jacoby added an additionalfeature — prices determined by competition on a freemarket rather than by government edict.A $2,500 apple for teacherThirteen-year-old Rita Eversole of Avon Lake, Ohio,gave her teacher more than the traditional apple. Shewon for her a $2,500 scholarship.And the teacher, Mrs Edith G. Binker of Sommerville,New York, who was judged "best of 1946" by the QuizKid Show (owned by Louis Cowan, '31), last May has arrived on the campus. She will work toward a master'sdegree in personnel and guidance work in the department of education.A teacher in the upper grades for the past 22 years,Mrs. Binker received her bachelor of science degree fromRutgers University. Ralph W. Tyler, chairman of thedepartment of education, under whom Mrs. Binker willstudy, was a member of the committee which selectedher as "the best teacher of 1946."Tale of four citiesMore than 5,000 adults in four cities — Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland and Indianapolis — will be offered opportunity this fall to study the "great books" in 140 centers, Cyril O. Houle, dean of University College of theUniversity of Chicago, has announced.The courses, which will be presented free of chargeby moderators who have been trained by the Universityof Chicago in the famous Hutchins-Adler method ofdiscussion, will open early in October under the auspicesof local libraries and schools.Sponsoring institutions in the four cities are: DetroitPublic Library, University of Michigan Extension department, Wayne University, University of Detroit, Cleveland College of Western Reserve University, ClevelandPublic Library, Indiana State Library, Indianapolis Public Schools and Public Library, Butler University, Wabash College, Chicago Public Library, the University of Chicago and Chicago suburban libraries, schools, and community centers.The community group seminars, organized on a permanent basis, will read and discuss 18 of the "greatbooks" during the coming year. The list of these bookswill be found at; the end of the article on "The GreatBooks" elsewhere in this issue.Major, your slip shows!Irving Kupcinet, columnist of the Chicago Times,picked up a story about Paul H. Douglas, professor ofeconomics, that is well worthy of twice-told tales.The scene of the story was in Washington a shorttime ago at the office of Congresswoman Emily TaftDouglas, '19, where Mrs. Douglas' secretary was besieged with requests for tickets to a joint session of Congress. To each of the ticket seekers, the secretary explained that the congresswoman received only one ticketto the session, and that one had been awarded to the firstcaller.One young man persisted in making a nuisance ofhimself. In explosive terms, he demanded a ticket.Major Paul Douglas overheard the visitor's belligerenttones and rushed to the secretary's defense. For once,the usually calm Douglas lost his self-control and exclaimed:"See here, I'm the congressman's WIFE and I can'tget a ticket!"The signal for lifting the first shovel of dirt at the siteof the University of Chicago's new $920,000 administration building is given by President Ernest C. Colwell.Looking on at the ground-breaking ceremony are fromleft to right Vice-president Wilbur C. Munnecke, W. J.Lynch, Sr., contractor, and Joseph Z. Burgee, architect ofHolabird and Root.The administration building (October magazine) is thefirst academic building to be constructed on the Midwaysince the building of the Graduate Education Building.ALL THINGS HUMAN CHANGE . . .r ^djf ^wji r*-» i ¦p^r^# « - i F^r ''JF*» — -'ijfc1936 1940 1944~~iL. ifo/trft<{%&& 7A L1946 1950 1956If this were your family, you'd know what you want to see infuture photographs. But will you?Have the children's education and mother's needs been provided for— just in case you step out of the picture? Or, even if youlive long past your span— will you be free from financial worry?Perhaps you're all set— no matter what happens. But remember, all things human change. The perfect insurance programof a year ago may not fit your needs now. Wouldn't it be agood idea to check up on your policies with your New EnglandMutual Career Underwriter today? New England MutualL#£ \nsurance Company 11 ^*RostonGeorge Willard Smith, President Agendas In Principal Cities Coast to CoastThe First Mutual Life Insurance Company Chartered in America— 1835These Univ. of Chicago— and hundreds of other college men represent New England Mutual:Harry Benner, '11, ChicagoDavid E. Loebe, '16, ChicagoCharles P. Houseman, '38, Los AngelesWe have opportunities for more Univ. of Chicago men. Why not write Dept. 0-11 in Boston?THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEimported Mediterranean briar .and. ..hard rubber bitsan INr,. . . Sterling Silver bandsmmsMsmmsmssmammmnmmsm...the "know how" of fifty yearsput them alltogether andyou haveModel 28,Smooth Finish.Many otherhandsome models, plain andantique finish.Other IHS Pipes$1.50 to $25At all good dealers NEWS OF THE CLASSESWrit* for your copy ot "Piptt-tor a World of Measure" «£EI * H STERN, 56-64 Pearl Street, Brooklyn I, N.Y. 1907George M. Crabb, MD Rush '10,is living in Mason City, Iowa, wherehe is surgeon at the Park Hospital.He lists his avocation as farming, inaddition to his duties as Trustee ofGrinnell College at Grinnell, Iowa.1908Seth S. Walker, SM '10, is livingin Tampa, Florida where he operatesa commercial laboratory doing research on citrus fruit products.1911Francis Patton is President of hisnational fraternity, Delta Tau Delta,and presided at their recent convention in Chicago. Of the nine livingmembers of the Class of 1911 initiated into the fraternity, eight werepresent at the convention. They are:Frank Paul, Amarillo, Texas; CarlDegenhardt, St. Charles, Illinois; DonCrighton, South Bend, Indiana; Dr.Ralph Cobb, Chicago; Robert Godfrey, Cleveland; E. H. Powell, Chicago; William H. Rothermel, Chicago, and President Patton, of Highland Park, Illinois.Arthur G. Deaver has retired fromschool work in Chicago, after acareer which included the positionsof District Superintendent of Schoolsand Principal of Harper High School.He writes us that his avocation is"being a great-grandfather."1915Edwin G. Nourse, PhD, was recently named chairman of the Presi-'dent's Council of Economics, a newthree-man board to help steer thecountry around economic pitfalls.1916Lois MacGregor, daughter ofLawrence J. MacGregor, has beenawarded the Theodore Lee NeffPrize at the University for excellencein the study of French language and-literature. Miss MacGregor is an undergraduate student in the Divisionof the Humanities.Charles O. Hardy, PhD, resignedhis position with the Federal ReserveBank of Kansas City, effective September 30, to accept a position aseconomist with the Chicago Association of Commerce.1917Velma D. Whipple is teaching Biology at the Arlington Heights Township High School, and lists as herhobbies photography — 35 mm. Koda- chromes, Girl Scouts leader training,and anything connected with NewMexico!NEW APPOINTMENTAndrew C. Ivy, '16, SM '18,PhD '18, MD Rush '21, outstanding Chicago physiologist and clinical investigator, was appointedVice President in charge of theChicago professional colleges ofthe University of Illinois and asDistinguished Profesor of Physiology in the University's graduateschool, effective September 1. Dr.Ivy is chief administrator of theUniversity's Colleges of Medicine,Dentistry and Pharmacy and itshospitals and institutes located inChicago.Since 1925 Dr. Ivy had beenthe Nathan Smith Davis Professorof Physiology and Pharmacology,and Head of the Division of Physiology and Pharmacology at theNorthwestern University School ofMedicine.During the war he was Director of the Naval Medical ResearchInstitute at Bethesda, Maryland,as well as consultant to the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery ofthe Navy, the Nutrition laboratoryof the office of the Surgeon General of the Army and the PlanningDivision of the QuartermasteiGeneral. This summer Dr. Ivyserved as the U. S. representativeon an international commission toadvise the Nuernberg judges onthe Nazi human experiments.1918Homer Hoyt, JD, PhD, '33, is anurban land economist. He has juststarted an economic analysis of Jersey City, and has just completed asurvey on Orlando, Florida. He isAssociate Professor of Land Economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a lecturer in Real Estateat Columbia University, as well asreal estate consultant for FederalDeposit Insurance Corporation inNew York.Fay L. Bentley, Judge of the Juvenile Court of Washington, D. C,was awarded an honorary degree ofDoctor of Letters in June by IllinoisWesleyan University for outstandingwork in child welfare.THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 231922John R. Rowe, AM, is living inWestern Springs, Illinois, where heenjoys boys camp work and birdstudy, when he can spare time fromhis duties as Educational Director ofthe Encyclopaedia Britannica.Mrs. Charles B. Mohle (Eula B.Phares, AM) is living in Houston,Texas, where she is testing veteransfor the public schools and runninga home for her husband and twosons, David and Jon.Leo Frederick, Principal of theBradwell School in Chicago, was recently elected President of the Chicago Principal's Club for 1946-47,and has been Secretary of the SouthShore Chamber of Commerce for thepast two years.1923Robert Willis Grubb has for thepast 17 years been a mathematicsteacher in the High School at Elizabeth, New Jersey.Students in the Department ofPsychology since the twenties willremember Kwang Yum, AM, PhD'30, in charge of the Psychology Library and Research Associate in theDivision of Psychiatry: Dr. Yum leftfor Korea this fall to become Chairman of the Department of Psychology at Seoul University (called Imperial University under the Japanese). As soon as conditions warrant, he will send for his wife andson, Kaye, six. It was in 1914 thatYum came to America from Seouland entered Meridian College, a prepschool in Mississippi, where he couldbe with a friend of the family. Hestudied his way to the Midway viaAsbury College in Kentucky. Because he hoped to return to his nativeKorea to serve his people in the fieldof education, Dr. Yum never becamean American citizen. It is not hardto imagine how happy he is now thathis people have been freed from theJapanese domination and he canfinally realize his ambition.H. W. Stewart, AM, has retired,and is living in Highland, Kansas.He writes us that although he hasnot been at the University since 1925,Alma Mater is still very dear to him,and he is a great admirer of Chancellor Hutchins.Harold J. Noyes, MD '33, andwife, the former Elizabeth Owen, '22,have moved to Portland, Oregon,where Dr. Noyes is connected withthe University of Oregon DentalSchool. 1924Ralph R. Pickett, PhD '30, has recently joined the staff of the University of Kentucky as. Professor ofEconomics in the College of Commerce.Aryness J. Wickens (Aryness I.Joy, AM) recently became actingcommissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, pending presidentialappointment of a commissioner. Shehas been in the Labor Departmentsince 1938.1925Donald J. Grubb, MD Rush '29,has been in service of the VeteransAdministration for the past 17 years,and has recently accepted an appointment in the new V.A. Department of Medicine and Surgery at theV.A. Hospital in Alexandria, La.There are three children in theGrubb family: Carol, 17/2, whohopes to major in Anthropology atthe University; Erwin Ronald, 15,who aspires to be a concert pianist;and Margaret Gweneth, age 9, ayoung water sprite who aspires tobe a champion swimmer.1926John A. Mourant, PhD '40, reported in September to PennsylvaniaState College, at State College, Pennsylvania, where he assumed his newduties as Assistant Professor of Philosophy.1927John M. Forney, MD Rush '27,has returned from about four yearsof duty with the Navy Medical Corps,and is practicing in Birmingham,Alabama, limiting his work to General Surgery and holds the positionof Assistant Professor in the Department of Surgery at the MedicalSchool of Alabama, a division of theUniversity of Alabama.1928Ben A. Sylla, AM '33, is living inChicago Heights, Illinois, where hehas been Superintendent of Schoolssince 1933. He enjoys fishing, marksmanship, gardening and golf whennot busy with his administrative duties.Last June President Trumannamed David L. Krooth, JD '30,acting commissioner of the FederalPublic Housing Agency. Mr. Kroothhad served as general counsel of theagency since its establishment in1942. BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAYmarkot 79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoPETERSONFIREPROOFWAREHOUSESTORAGEMOVING•Foreign — DomesticShipments•55th & ELLIS AVENUEPHONEMIDway 9700Telephone KENwood 1352J. E. KIDWELL mrisT826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 15, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELLBLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering: Graceful Living to University and Business Women a*Moderate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave. TelephonePlaza 3313Vorna P. Werner, Director24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESTENOTYPYLearn new, speedy machine shorthand. Lesseffort, no cramped fingers or nervous fatigue.Also other courses: Typing, Bookkeeping,Comptometry, etc. Day or evening. Visit,write or phone for data.Biyant^> StrattonCO LL)ECE18 S. Michigan Ave. Tel. Randolph 1575SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store .for 94 Years23 N. Wabash Ave.PHYSICIANS SUPPLIESChicago, IllinoisLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492 We have recently been notified ofthe appointment of Norman M. Reid,AM '32, to a position at the University of California, Los Angeles, asInstructor in Speech.1929Elsie M. Bush has been appointedDirector of Religious Education atFaith Congregational Church inSpringfield, Mass.1930Sophie V. Cheskie, MBA '46, hasaccepted a position as teacher in theCommercial Department of the Highland Park Junior College in HighlandPark, Michigan.Ray W. Rutledge, PhD, has recently assumed the position of Associate Professor of Botany atClemson College, Clemson, SouthCarolina.Margaret Waters is adjustmentteacher in the Oak Park elementaryschools. In addition to| her regularwork she has a large following of private pupils, and has given 12 lecturesthis past year on atypical children.Ernest H. Hahne, PhD, is living inOxford, Ohio, where he is Presidentof Miami University.1931Aerol Arnold, AM '33, PhD '37,is on the campus of the Universityof Southern California at Los Angeles as Visiting Assistant Professor ofEnglish.HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE AFTER <20 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEEIECTROLYSIS EXPERTGraduate NurseMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused. Permanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 800 to 600 HairKoots per hour.Removal of Facial Wins, Moles andWart«.Member American Assn. MedicalHydrology and Physical Therapy.Telephone FBA 4885Suite 1705. Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth %n Beauty 1932Erie E. Emme, PhD, Dean ofDakota Wesleyan University resignedat the close of summer school to accept an Associate Professorship inPsychology at Bowling Green, Ohio,State University.Gilbert F. White, SM '34, PhD '42,has been elected president of Haver-ford College. Dr. White, a memberof the faculty of the University ofChicago, went to France in 1942 forrefugee relief work and children'said under the American Friends Service Committee. He was interned bythe Germans with the American Diplomatic Staff when the German armyoverran unoccupied France in 1942.After a year of confinement in Baden-Baden, he returned to this country and then administered theQuaker Committee's activities in India and China.1933Erwin Levin is working as Research Assistant at the University ofChicago Clinics.Mrs. H. Z. Oldham (BirdieVaughn) has been appointed principal of the Moorehead ElementarySchool at Lakeland, Florida.John M. Lynch, assistant to thechief of the statistics and analysisdivision of Social Security Administration in Washington, D. C,dropped in at Alumni House late inthe summer on his way west for avacation. His wife and son, JohnDavid (Buck), 7, preceded him toWahpeton, North Dakota, earlier inthe summer where Mrs. Lynch's folkshave a 560-acre ranch. John seniorplanned to join them and spend arelaxing time worrying a few pheasants with a twenty- two.1934Mrs. Carl Hopkins (Doris S. Baldwin) is serving with UNRRA inChinkiang, Kiangsu, China, as Social Welfare Director.1935M. Wesley Roper, PhD, was recently appointed Head of the Department of Sociology at TusculumCollege, Greene ville, Tenn.Jerome W. Kloucek, AM '40, willserve as veterans' counselor and English instructor in Montgomery JuniorCollege in Bethesda, Maryland.Leonard Tornheim, SM '36, PhD'38, is a member of the faculty of theUniversity of Michigan in the Department of Mathematics.HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS— — — SINCE 19 O 6 —+ WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES' -f-r ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED' +? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE +-RAYNEIT•* DALHEIM £xCO. •2 OS* W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25Mrs. Marjorie Rochek (MarjoriePutnam) is teaching geography inthe high school at Wisner, Nebraska.In September Conrad E. Ronne-berg, PhD, assumed his new dutiesas Professor and Chairman of theDepartment of Chemistry at DenisonUniversity, Granville, Ohio.Lynn H. Wood, AM, PhD '37, isProfessor of Archeology at the Theological Seminary in Takoma Park,Washington, D. C.P. C. White, PhD '38, has recentlybeen named chief chemist of theWhiting, Indiana, refineries of Standard Oil Company.Richard A. Waite, Jr., of HarvardUniversity has recently been appointed Dean of Norwich University,Northfield, Vermont. Dr. Waite hasbeen assistant dean of Harvard College and graduate secretary of Phillips Brooks House.Philip C. Doolittle is assistant chiefclerk in the Freight Traffic Department at the Union Station in Chicago.1936Barriss Mills, AM, is AssistantProfessor of English at Iowa StateCollege, Ames, Iowa.Essie Curtwright, AM, has recentlyjoined the faculty of Morehouse College at Atlanta, Georgia, where sheis teaching in the Department ofRomance Languages.Princess Serge Troubetzkoy (Dorothy Ulrich) is living in West Hartford, Conn., and doing free lancewriting. Her daughter, Daria Ser-geivna, will be two in December.1937Nicholas E. Collias, PhD '42, hasjoined the faculty of Amherst Collegeas an instructor in Biology.Kenower Weimar Bash, Jr., SM'37, is living in Zurich, Switzerland,where he is engaged in the practiceof psychiatry. He was married in1942 to Dr. Hanni Leichti.Aubrey W. Naylor, '37, SM '38,PhD '40, and Mrs. Naylor (FrancesV. Lloyd, PhD '40) have joined thefaculty of the Department of Botanyat the University of Washington inSeattle, Washington, effective withthe fall quarter.James O. Purdy, AM, has joinedthe faculty of Lawrence College inAppleton, Wisconsin, as instructor inSpanish and English.William R. Jacobs, MD, is backin Lewiston, Idaho, after serving as Flight Surgeon and Medical Parachutist during the war, receiving theAir Medal and Clusters for his rescueparachute jumps.After receiving her AM in art atChicago, M. Pearl Porterfield continued her pleasant task as artteacher at Tilden Tech High Schoolin Chicago until her retirement lastFebruary. Last spring she took atrip to Mexico with George Buehr'sSketch Class, which she writes us"made a nice beginning of enjoymentof new found leisure."Howard A. Vernon, AM '40, isliving in Orono, Maine, where he isan instructor in History at the University of Maine.Charles D. Thomas, PhD, has beennamed to the faculty of Illinois Techand will work in the Physics Department of the Armour Research Foundation. Since 1932 he has servedon the Physics Staff at West VirginiaUniversity at Morgantown. His research activities have been devotedto wave forms of ion discharges andthe interaction of elementary particles.'William B. Hart, AM '39, is Assistant to the President of Johnson &Johnson de Argentina and Johnson &Johnson do Brasil, with headquartersin Buenos Aires. During the war heserved in military intelligence in theOffice of the Military Attache, American Embassy in Buenos Aires..NEWENGLISH CARSIMMEDIATEDELIVERYAlsoNEW HOUSE TRAILERSJoseph Neidlinger7320 S. Stony IslandButterfield 5600 Telephone Haymarket 3120E. A. AARON & BROS. Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributor* ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketENGLEWOODELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers ofELECTRICAL MATERIALS ANDFIXTURE SUPPLIES5801S. Halsted Street Englewood7500TELEPHONE HAYMARKET 4566O'CALLAGHAN BROS.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.Phone: Saginaw 3202FRANK CURRANRoofing & InsulationLeaks RepairedFree EstimatesFRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.8019 Bennett St.Ashjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000The Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324LATOURAINECoffee and TeaLa Touraine Coffee Co.209 Milwaukee Ave., ChicagoOfher PlantsBoston — N.Y. — f hil. — Syracuse — Cleveland"You Might As We// Have The Best"26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO M AG AZ I NEAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicagolutabliahed J 8*6. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kindi of teachingpositions !<arge and alert College andState leachers' College department! forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent ot ourbusiness. Critic and tirade Supervisors forformal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure fineposition* through w« every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best matrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency63rd YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkChicago's OutstandingDRUG STORESMacCormacSeliooS ©f CommerceEstablished 1904Accounting, BookkeepingShorthand, Stenotypy, TypingMorning, Afternoon and EveningClasses — Home Study InstructionBULLETIN FREE ON REQUESTAsk about G. /. TrainingVisit, phone or write1 1 70 E. 63d St. TelephoneNear Wood/awn Butterfield 6363Since 1865Surgeons' Fine InstrumentsSurgical EquipmentHospital and Office FurnitureSundries, Supplies, DressingsalsoOrthopedic AppliancesInvalid RequirementsEverything for SurgeryV. MUELLER & CO.All Phones: SEEley 2180408 South Honore StreetCHICAGO 12, ILLINOIS Give Tree-RipenedRe J Blush GrapefruitWonderful for business acquaintances as well as family andfriends. Bushel gift box (50 lbs.)prepaid to most of midwest $9.50;regular bushel $8.00. Oranges orpink grapefruit $5.95. Add 50c toMich., Minn., Ohio, Wise, and asfar as N. Y. State.Other gifts $2.50 to $57.25. Writefor illustrated booklet.Jj^pilk (Paint (Pcmxj Onckand^^^^L^^ji| San Benito, Texas1938Mrs. John McPhail (ErnestineHeileman) was recently granted a lifemembership in Pi Lambda Theta,honorary fraternity for women inthe educational field.Harvey Greenuer Umbeck, AM,PhD '40, was recently named Deanof the Faculty of the College of William and Mary. Dr. Umbeck hasserved in various administrative postsat the college, and has been Chairman of the Department of Sociology.In his spare time he coaches the tennis teams, and in the past year directed the team to an unbeaten season and second place in the NationalInter-collegiate Athletic Associationchampionships.Charles B. Olds, AM, is child welfare specialist with UNRRA in Lui-chow, China. Mrs. Olds is the formerDoris Pinney, AM '39. Their son,David Charles, celebrated his firstbirthday October 5.S/Sgt. Edith M. Stansberry hasrecently arrived at Wiesbaden, Germany, Headquarters for UnitedStates Air Forces in Europe, whereshe will be connected with the Educational phase of the I. and E. Department.William J. Tancig, SM '39, is groupleader in charge of analytical methods application with Standard OilCompany at their Whiting, Indiana,refineries.Lloyd N. Rahn is living in Ithaca,New York, where he is working asAssociate Vocational Appraiser ofVeterans Administration at CornellUniversity.George Clarke McElroy, AM '39,has recently returned to the Statesafter service in Japan, and has joinedthe faculty of Wayne University inDetroit in the Department of English. Simon Rodbard, PhD '41, is assistant director of the CardiovascularDepartment at Michael Reese Hospital Institute for Medical Researchin Chicago, and lists as his hobby:research.B. LeRoy Burkhart, PhD, andMrs. Elizabeth Z. Burkhart, PhD'40, have left The College of Emporia, at Emporia, Kansas, to acceptpositions on the staff of Cedar CrestCollege in Allentown, Pa. Mr. Burkhart will be an Associate Professorof Religion and director of religiousactivity and Mrs. Burkhart will beInstructor in Biology.1939John S. Winston, AM, is livingin Sioux City, Iowa, where he isAssistant Professor of Physics atMorning-Side College.Marione Kohn is living in NewYork City, where she has a positionas Department Manager with R. H.Macy and Company under their executive training program.Donald S. Strong, PhD, is living inTuscaloosa, Alabama, where he hasrecently accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Political Scienceat the University of Alabama.Major Frederick C. Bock was Aircraft Commander of one of the B-29's that dropped the atomic bombon Nagasaki. He is now on inactivereserve and is living in Chicago.RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 3192Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Serviee MailingHighest Quality Serviee Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEE. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INCPlanograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182ACMESHEET METAL WORKSANIMAL CAGESandLaboratory Equipment1121 East 55th StreetPhone Hyde Park 9500Benjamin Draper and his partner,Jack Simmons, have formed a business called Georgetown Enterprises,which is engaged in restoring Georgetown, Colorado, a once world-famoussilver mining camp to its former 1880glory. This is a tourist attraction, 47miles from Denver, and is in theheart of the Colorado High Mountain Country.Robert H. Mohlman, JD '41, hasreturned to civilian life and accepteda position in the Treasurer's Department of Inland Container Corporation at Indianapolis.We have recently been notified ofthe appointment of John MorrisHandsaker, PhD, to a position at Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvaniaas Associate Professor and Chairmanof the Economics Department.John E. Fagg, AM, PhD '42, hasrecently accepted a position as Instructor in History at New York University, University Heights, Bronx,New York.1940Hedin Bronner is teaching Norwegian language and Survey ofNorwegian Literature on the quadrangles.Elizabeth Barineau, AM, reportedto Agnes Scott College in Decatur,Georgia, in September to assume hernew duties as instructor in Spanishand French.Robert E. Merriam, AM, has beenappointed director of the Metropolitan Housing Council of Chicago. Hehas recently returned from overseas,where he was a captain in the army.He was an official historian of thebattle of the bulge. Mrs. Merriam isthe former Jane Jungkung, '41.Erminnie H. Bartelmez, AM, hasaccepted a position as Assistant Pro fessor of Languages at the Universityof Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.Elmer B. Tolsted, SM '41, receivedhis Ph.D. from Brown University inJune, and has been appointed to thefaculty for the year 1946-47. As anavocation he enjoys violincello playing, and received a scholarship tothe Berkshire Music Festival atTanglewood this summer.Lee J. Cronbach, PhD, has recentlybeen appointed Assistant Professor ofEducation at the University of Chicago.Constance F. Kent, AM, is livingin New York City, where she is working in Pennsylvania Station for theTravelers' Aid.William T. Dean, Jr., JD, has beenappointed Assistant Professor of Lawat the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.1941Sgt. and Mrs. Robert V. Reynolds(Annette Ball) who were married recently, are living in Rochester, Minnesota, where Sgt. Reynolds is stationed. He is a survivor of theBataan death march, and is the author of "Of Rice and Men" whichsoon will be released.Jessie S. Bynum, AM, is AssistantProfessor of History at Queens College, Charlotte, North Carolina.PENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUE1545 E. 63RD STREETFAIRFAX 0330-0550-0880PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE1545 EAST 63RD STREETBIENENFELDGLASS CORP. OF ILLINOISChicago's Most Complete Stock ofGLASS1525 PhoneW. 35th St. Lafayette 8400BOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.CADILLAC EQUIPMENT EXCLUSIVELY Since 1878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholstersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 7180Phones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park AwningINC. Co.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueAMERICANPHOTO ENGRAVING CO.Pnofo EngraversArtists —Makers of ElectrotypersPrinting Plates429S. Ashland Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 7515EASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488ECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing•1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893Albert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6A. T. STEWART LUMBER COMPANYEVERYTHING hLUMBER AND MILLWORK7855 Greenwood Ave. Vin 9000410 West I Nth St. Pul 003428 THE UN IVAjax Waste Paper Co.2600-2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Any QuantityWaste PaperScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, Van Bnren 0230CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of AU Descriptions"SUPER-GOLD CORPORATIONMANUFACTURERS OF COMMERCIALREFRIGERATION2221 South Michigan AvenueCHICAGO 16, ILLINOISBIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: Went. 5380Golden Dirilyte{formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID — NOT PLATEDService for Eight $54.50FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Royal Crown Derby, Spode andOther Famous Makes. Also Crystal, TableLinen and Gifts.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDingo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, 111. RSITY OF CHICAGOJohn Howard Slocum has joinedthe faculty of Rensselaer PolytechnicInstitute at Troy, New York as aninstructor in Political Science.Carl Q. Christol, Jr., PhD, servedwith the 69th Infantry Division,taught political science at BiarritzAmerican University, and completedterminal leave as Lieutenant Colonelrecently. He has now resumed hislegal studies at Yale Law School.Robert W. Shideler, SM, has accepted a position on the faculty ofHendrix College at Conway, Arkansas, where he is teaching Chemistry,Zoology and Anatomy.1942Raoul M. Perez, PhD, is with theUnited Nations at Lake Success, NewYork, where he has accepted a position as interpreter and his job is toput into Spanish the French wordsthat reach him over the earphones,as part of the simultaneous systemof interpretation now being used experimentally. He writes that he findsthe work much more interesting thanhis duty with the army of occupation in Tokyo, from where he returned just a few months ago.Robert I. Jackson, who spent 20months as Logistics Officer on Eni-wetok in the Marshall Islands, is nowa graduate assistant in Plant Breeding at Cornell University working forhis PhD. His wife, Carol Miller, '45,is an assistant manager at the HomeEconomics cafeteria at Cornell.Mrs. Charles Smythwick (VivienneL. Cheatham, AM) who has been engaged in social work at the EdwinGould Foster Home in New York,has left to open a "Shrimp Fry" at734 E. 165th Street in the Bronx.Richard F. Dorsey was recentlynamed station manager of the Washington, D. C. station of United AirLines.CONCRETEFLOORSSIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONST. A. REHNQUIST CO.for. inWentworth 4422T. A. REHNQUIST CO.6639 So. Vernon Ave. MAGAZINECharles W. Meister, AM, was Assistant Chief of Education and Religious Affairs Section, Office of Military Government, Berlin District, andis now writing a book on his experiences. He expects to be backon the quadrangles this fall, workingon his doctorate.1943Mrs. Walter J. Gensler (KinerethDushkin) writes that they have exchanged their New York apartmentfor a pleasant place on Everett Streetin Cambridge, where her husbandwill be instructing in organic chemistry at Harvard, while she works,long-distance, on her masters' thesisin history at Columbia.Betty Miller who served with theRed Cross during the War, is teaching French and English Literatureat Berkeley Hall School in BeverlyHills, California. In addition, she isstudying Russian at the Universityand keeping up on her ballet, butwrites that she has no intention ofcrashing the Ballet Russe as the combination of her outside activitiesmight imply!William P. Albrecht, PhD, hasbeen appointed Assistant Professorof English at the University of NewMexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico,starting with the fall term.Louise M. Tibbetts, AM, has returned to the United States after twoyears of relief work in Italy andFrance for the American FriendsService Committee (Quakers). Sheis the daughter of Dr. Norris Tibbets, for many years minister of theHyde Park Baptist Church, and since1942 minister at Riverside Churchin New York.Ronald E. Cramer is returning toChicago where he will be associatedwith Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fennerand Beane in the Board of TradeBuilding.Benjamin Leass, AM, is instructorin English at Illinois Institute ofTechnology in Chicago.Robert F. Foster was dischargedfrom the Army in June and is nowworking for George Fry and Associates, counselling management engineers in Chicago. He expects toleave soon for a problem in Germany,and return next January.1944James W. Christopher, AM '45,recently resigned the position of ChiefDistribution Officer fori UNRRA inChina.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29Glenn G. Wiltsey, PhD, is teaching in the Department of PoliticalScience at the University of Roches-tev, in Rochester, New York.1945William Kemp Ivie has been appointed a Teaching Fellow at TexasChristian University in Fort Worth,Texas.Josephine Balaty, SM, is Directorof the School of Nursing at LakeView Hospital in Danville, Illinois.In September Lois Ruth Wells reported to the Child DevelopmentCenter at Waialua, Oahu, T. H.,where she is, to be Nursery SchoolInstructor.Mrs. Mary Helen Robertson(Mary Helen Bassett) was graduatedfrom the Eastman Kodak Company'scourse for dietitians in May.Guy E. Swanson is living in Bloomington, Indiana, where he is an instructor in Sociology at Indiana University. Prior to coming to Bloomington, he was a member of the facultyof Boston University.Maurice E. McGauch has joinedthe faculty of the State Teachers College in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, asAssistant Professor.Barbara L. Morehead is living inPhiladelphia, where she is on thefaculty of the Department of Englishat Temple University.Janet M. Calkins, SM '46, has beenappointed instructor of Biology atWells College, Aurora, New York.Eleanor J. Mountford, AM, has returned to China as a missionaryteacher, and her address is BridgmanSchool, West Gate, Shanghai, China.1946Mozell C. Hill, PhD, has been invited to serve as Visiting Professorof Sociology in the graduate schoolof Atlanta University, and is on leavefrom Langston University as Director of Research to accept the position.Nancy Vogelsang is living in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, where she isworking as Fashion Coordinator atthe Boston Store.SOCIAL SERVICEGeorgia Ball Travis, AM '31, hasrecently been made Director of Medical Social Service at the ColoradoGeneral Hospital.Janet Pleak, AM '39, has beenmade Chief of the Division of Standards and Service of the Illinois Public Aid Commission, located inChicago. Marjorie Browne, AM '40, has recently come to the Social ServiceDepartment of the Veterans' Division of the Chicago CommunityClinics.Elizabeth Parmelee Haun, AM '41,has been made Director of the Social Service Department of Wads-worth Hospital, West Los Angeles,California.Martha Parrish Home, AM '45,has returned to her position as Supervisor of Personnel in the StateWelfare Board in Jacksonville, Florida.Dorothy Johnson, AM '45, hasaccepted a position in the MentalHygiene Clinic of the Veterans Administration in Chicago.Harriet Law Johnson, AM '45, hasrecently joined the staff of the Illinois Children's Home and Aid Society in Chicago.Dorothy Lauterbach, AM '46, hasaccepted a position with the UnitedCharities of Chicago.Gertrude Dworkin, AM '46, hasjoined the case work staff of theMental Hygiene Clinic of MichaelReese Hospital in Chicago.Frances Greene, AM '46, hasjoined the staff of the Family Welfare Society of New Orleans.Florence Shoch Kensen, AM '46,has taken a position as case workerwith the Children's Service Bureauof San Antonio.Marjorie Forsyth Ferguson, AM'46, has accepted a position with theIllinois Children's Home and AidSociety in Chicago.John Kahlert, AM '46, has beenappointed Director of Research withThe Ohio Welfare Council and islocated in Columbus.Gladys Denison, AM '46, has accepted a position with the UnitedStates Children's Bureau in Washington, D. C.Marjorie Meyers, AM '46, hasjoined the staff of the United Charities of Chicago.Geraldine Nott, AM '46, has returned to the State Staff of the Department of Public Welfare in Oregon.Lyndell Scott, AM '46, has joinedthe faculty of the School of SocialWork at the University of Minnesota.Marion Stern, AM '46, has beenappointed case worker with the Jewish Social Service Bureau of Chicago.Charles Story, AM '46, has joinedthe staff of the Children's Divisionof the State Department of PublicWelfare of Indiana and is located inIndianapolis. AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.W.B. CONKEY COMPANYHAMMOND, INDIANAOF«BOOKS and CATALOGSSALES OFFICES: CHICAGO AND NEW YORKpiatMone decoratingg>erhtcePhone Pullman 917010422 fthobes mt., Chicago, 3U.GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3186A SundaeTreat forAny Day!SWIFT'S ICE CREAMSundaes and sodas are extra goodmade with Swift's Ice Cream. Sodelicious, so creamy -smooth, so^£&A.A Product ofSWIFT & COMPANY7409 S. State StreetPhone RADciiffe 740030 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETuckerDecorating Service1360 East 70th StreetPhone MIDway 4404Arthur MichaudelDesigner and Maker ofDistinctive Stained Glass Windows542 North Paulina Street, ChicagoTelephone Monroe 2423MOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579Alice Banner Englewood 3181COLORED HELPFACTORY HELPSTORESSHOPSMILLS FOUNDRIESEnglewood Emp. Agcy., 5534 S. State St.Auto LiveryQuiet, unobtrusive serviceWhen you want it, a$ you want itCALL AN EMERY FIRSTEmery Drexel Livery, Inc.5516 Harper AvenueFAIRFAX 6400 OBERG'SFLOWER SHOPFlowers wired the world over1461 E. 57th StreetPhones: Fairfax 3670. 3671MARRIAGESMary Eleanor Evans, '46, was married to Lt. Albert Charles Houghton,'37, on February 14, 1946, and theyare living in New London, Conn.June B. Cohen, '45, was married inMay, 1946, to Herbert S. Manning,'42. Mr. Manning served in theNavy as Lieutenant during the war.Marion Laing, '46, and DonaldShorts were married June 20, 1946,at Crear Memorial PresbyterianChurch in Chicago.Announcement has been made ofthe marriage of Gertrude Hoffman,'44, and Selwyn Herbert Torff, JD'45. The ceremony took place onJuly 1 at Thorndike Hilton Chapelon campus, and they spent theirhoneymoon in Canada. Mrs. Torffis a senior at the University LawSchool, and Mr. Torff is associatedwith the law firm of Seyfarth, Shawand Fairweather in Chicago.Geraldine Lucille Schoech andLieutenant James Jerome Jenkins,'44, of the Army Air Forces weremarried August 11, 1946, in KansasCity, Missouri. They are at homeat 478 E. Mill St., Liberty, Missouri,where Lt. Jenkins will continue hisstudies at William Jewell Collegeupon completion of terminal leave.Carol Jane Baumann and Rev.Perry Deyo LeFevre, DB '46, weremarried September 5, 1946, atThorndike Hilton Chapel on campus. Mrs. LeFevre, who was graduated from Stephens College, isstudying for her master's degree atthe University. Rev. LeFevre wasgraduated from Harvard and theChicago Theological Seminary, andplans to continue his studies at theUniversity.Ellen Frances Lindsey, '44, andJohn Charles Heckler were marriedAugust 24, 1946, at Bond Chapel oncampus. They will live in Manhattan, Kansas, where Mr. Heckler willattend Kansas State! College Schoolof Architecture. Marian Morse Crane (Marian LtMorse, '32, AM '39) was married toJoseph M. Valerio on April 25, 1946and they are living in Chicago. Dur'ing the war she served as Lt. (j.g.)in the Navy.Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Janousekhave announced the marriage of theirdaughter, Mildred Helen, to MelvinT. Tracht, '41, on August 10, 1946,at Chicago.Mrs. Alice Ratcliffe Gurnett Mac-Lean and Catesby ap Thomas Jones,'38, were married July 3, 1946, inWashington. Judge Fay Bentley, '18officiated at the civil ceremony. Mr.Jones was recently discharged fromthe Army after 3/2 years service.He saw combat duty in France andGermany, and was a prisoner of war.BIRTHSPaul E. Wenaas, PhD '34, haswritten us of the birth of a son, JohnHomer Wenaas, on June 4, 1946,at Lying-in Hospital, Chicago.Charles Frederic Axelson III arrived June 23, 1946, to Charles F.Axelson, MBA '37, and Mrs. Axelson.The new baby is the brother of LindaJeanne, almost 3.Barbara Alice Hough was bornApril 23, 1946, in New York Hospital, to Jack Luin Hough, SB '32,SM '34, PhD '40, and Mrs. Hough(Alice E. Carlson, '32). The Houghsare living in Murray Hill, New Jersey, and Jack is with Standard OilDevelopment Company in Rockefeller Center.DEATHSWinifred Johnson, '25, on May 16,1946, at Fly, Ohio.Anna E. Elfreth, '05, on August12, 1946, at Milford, Delaware.Fred H. Batman, MD Rush '04,on August 4, 1946, at Bloomington,Indiana, where he had practiced for41 years.Daniel P. Trude, '02, veteran Chicago lawyer and judge, on July 24,1946, at Chicago.Helen Gardner, '01, AM '17, onJune 6, 1946, at Chicago, followinga long illness. In 1942, she was therecipient of an Alumni Citation.Cedric Merrill, '16, on May 17,1946 at Chicago. He is survived byhis wife, the former Alice Kitchell,'17, and a son Richard, now a graduate student at the University in theDepartment of Anthropology.Russell Lowry, '01, on July 1851946, at Oakland, California.NOVEMBER CALENDARFriday, November 1LECTURE— "India: The Legacy of Mysticism and Its Role inOur Time," Sunder Joshi. University College, 19 So. LaSalle St.,6:45 P.M. 75cLECTURE— "Science and Philosophy," Mortimer J. Adler (Philosophy of Law) 32 W. Randolph St., 7:30 P.M. $1.50Monday, November 4LECTURE— "The Disruption of the British Empire," WalterJohnson (History), University College, 19 So. LaSalle St.,7:30 P.M. 90cTuesday, November 5LECTURE— "The Disruption of the British Empire," WalterJohnson (History), University College, 19 So. LaSalle St., 11:00A.M. 90cLECTURE-'Cultural Ideals: Truth, Beauty, Goodness," T. V.Smith (Philosophy), 32 W. Randolph St., 7:30 P.M. 75cLECTURE— "The Military and Industrial Mobilization," DonaldNelson, president, Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers, formerly chairman, War Production Board. MandelHall, 57th St. and University Ave., 4:30 P.M. FreeWednesday, November 6LECTURE— "Baroque Sculpture," Ludwig Bachhofer (Art), SocialScience Building, 1126 East 59th St., 7:30 P.M. 82cLECTURE-CONCERT-'Jean-Philippe Rameau, The First Modern Musical Theorist," V. Howard Talley, lecturer. Musicalillustrations. Program of works by Corelli, Couperin, Martini,Rameau. Kimball Hall, 306 So. Wabash Ave., 8:15 P.M. $1.50Thursday, November 7LECTURE— "Crime and Punishment," C. Herman Pritchett (Political Science), Eckhart Hall, 5734 University Ave., 8:00 P.M.$1.00LECTURE— "Government of Conquered and Dependent Areas,"T. V. Smith (Philosophy), Social Science Building, 1126 E. 59thSt., 4:30 P.M. FreeLECTURE— "The Process of Nondirective Therapy in Counseling," Carl R. Rogers (Psychology), 32 West Randolph St.,7:30 P.M. 90cFriday, November 8LECTURE— "China: Oriental Humanism and Two ThousandYears of History," Sunder Joshi, University College, 19 So.LaSalle St., 6:45 P.M. 75cMonday, November 11LECTURE— "A New Nation Emerges," Walter Johnson (History),University College, 19 So. LaSalle St., 7:30 P.M. 90cMUSIC— University of Chicago Concert. Guilet String Quartet,in a program of Haydn, Randall Thompson, Debussy. MandelHall, 57th St. and University Ave., 8:30 P.M. $1.50Tuesday, November 12LECTURE-" A New Nation Emerges," Walter Johnson (History),University College, 19 So. LaSalle St., 11:00 A.M. 90cLECTURE-'Civil-Military Relations In UN," Adlai Stevenson,alternate member, U. S. Delegation to the United Nations.Mandel Hall, 57th St. and University Ave., 4:30 P.M. FreeLECTURE-'Politics and the World's Cultural Community,"T. V. Smith (Philosophy), 32 West Randolph St., 7:30 P.M. 75c mmTraditional favoritein millions of homesEXTRA GOOD MAIN DISH: Wrap bacon around bundles of cooked macaroni; fasten with toothpicks; bakeat 400° F. about 15 min., basting occasionally.TpROM one generation to another, the¦*- tradition has been handed on . . . whenyou would serve the finest, serve Swift'sPremium Bacon. In times of shortage as intimes of plenty, its superb quality has beenstrictly guarded . . . guarded so successfully that, in recent checks of public opinion,the national preference for Swift's PremiumBacon reached a new all-time high.7iemium>aconWITH THESWEET SMOKE TASTE32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWednesday, November 13FORUM— The University Forum, Anton J. Carlson, DistinguishedService Professor of Physiology, Emeritus. 32 West RandolphSt., 7:30 P.M. $1.20LECTURE— "The Indigenous Roots of Chinese Painting. TheImpact of Central Asia and Its Absorption," Ludwig Bachhofer, (Art), Social Science Building, 1126 E. 59th St., 7:30 P.M.82cThursday, November 14LECTURE— "Labor's Day," C. Herman Pritchett (Political Science), Eckhart Hall, 5734 University Ave., 8:00 P.M. $1.00LECTURE— "The Military and Atomic Power," Henry A. Wallace,former Secretary of Commerce. Mandel Hall, 57th St., andUniversity Ave., 4:30 P.M. FreeLECTURE— "Research Studies of Nondirective Therapy in Counseling," Carl R. Rogers (Psychology). 32 West Randolph St.,7:30 P.M. 90cFriday, November 15LECTURE— "Judaism: Our Manifold Debt to Israel's Sense ofTotal Justice," Sunder Joshi, University College, 19 So. LaSalleSt., 6:45 P.M. 75cMonday, November 18LECTURE— "America and the European Balance of Power, 1790-1823," Walter Johnson (History), University College, 19 So.LaSalle St., 7:30 P.M. 90cMUSIC— University of Chicago Concert. Albeneri Trio in a program of Schumann, Mozart and Mendelssohn. Mandel Hall,57th St. and University Ave., 8:30 P.M. $1.50Tuesday, November 19LECTURE— "America and the European Balance of Power, 1790-1823," Walter Johnson (History), University College, 19 So.LaSalle St., 11:00 A.M. 90cLECTURE-"Secular Ideals: Skills, Thrift, Sportsmanship," T. V.Smith (Philosophy), 32 West Randolph St., 7:30 P.M. 75cLECTURE-"From Soldier to Citizen: The Political Role of theVeteran," Dixon Wecter, Chairman of Research, HuntingtonLibrary. Mandel Hall, 57th St. and University Ave., 4:30 P.M.FreeWednesday, November 20LECTURE— "The Great Masters of the T'ang Dynasty," LudwigBachhofer (Art), Social Science Building, 1126 East 59th St.,7:30 P.M. 82cStatistically speaking, Registrar Ernest C. Miller states inhis annual report for 1945-46 that 14,572 different students,including both civilian and government service men, wereenrolled during the four quarters; that of the 14,572, 7,627were men and 6,945 were women.That the spring enrollment of 9, 174 was the highest quarter registration in the history of the University.That in the total figures for the year, enrollments were:College, 3,01 1; divisions, 5,035; professional schools, 2,146;and University College, 4,302.That 2,980 of the students were veterans of World WarII studying under the GI Bill. That 605 of the veteranswere enrolled in the College, 1 ,467 in the divisions, 559 inthe professional schools, and 419 in University College.That since 1892 and up through the summer quarter ofthe University 238,101 students have matriculated at theUniversity; that 54,935 different degrees have been LECTURE-CONCERT-"The Meaning of Mozart Today," Musical illustrations. William Bergsma, lecturer. Program of worksby Bergsma and Mozart, Kimball Hall, 306 So. Wabash Ave.8:15 P.M. $1.50Thursday, November 21LECTURE— "Bureaucracy: No Alien Intruder," C. HermanPritchett (Political Science), Eckhart Hall, 5734 University Ave.,8:00 P.M. $1.00LECTURE— "Security Without Militarism: Preserving CivilianControl in American Political Institutions," Charles E. Merriam,Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Political Science.Mandel Hall, 57th St. and University Ave., 4:30 P.M. FreeLECTURE— "The Implications of a Client-Centered Approach inCounseling," Carl R. Rogers (Psychology), 32 West RandolphSt., 7:30 P.M. 90cFriday, November 22LECTURE— "Greece: Reason, Freedom, and Democracy Are ItsEnduring Ethos," Sunder Joshi. University College, 19 So.LaSalle St., 6:45 P.M. 75cMonday, November 25LECTURE-"The Growth of Democratic Thought, 1800-1860,"Walter Johnson (History), University College, 19 So. LaSalle St.,7:30 P.M. 90cTuesday, November 26LECTURE-"The Growth of Democratic Thought, 1800-1860,"Walter Johnson (History), University College, 19 So. LaSalle St.,11:00 A.M. 90cLECTURE-"Secular Nature of International Politics," T. V.Smith (Philosophy), 32 West Randolph St., 7:30 P.M. 75cMUSIC— University of Chicago Concert, Arthur Gold and RobertFizdale, duo-pianists in a program of Mozart, Olivier Messaien,Debussy, Marcelle de Manziarly and Milhaud. Mandel Hall,57th St. and University Ave., 8:30 P.M. $1.50Wednesday, November 27LECTURE— "The Rise of Landscape Painting: The Great Mastersof the Sung Dynasty," Ludwig Bachhofer (Art), Social ScienceBuilding, 1126 East 59th St., 7:30 P.M. 82cFriday, November 29LECTURE— "Rome: The Symbol of Law, Order, Military Tradition and Empire," Sunder Joshi. University College, 19 So.LaSalle St., 6:45 P.M. 75cgranted to 31,721 men and 23,214 women; that 7,889students have received more than one degree; and that47,046 are full-fledged alumni with degrees.That this year 1,316 degrees were granted during theschool year; that the degrees were as follows: Collegebachelor's degrees, 442; bachelor's degrees in the divisions and schools, 277; master's degrees, 293; doctor ofphilosophy degrees, 97; and professional degrees, 207.That geographically the 1945-46 students representevery state in the nation, seven of the territories and possessions, and 23 foreign nations; that 4,315 of the studentswere Chicagoans and 522 from Cook county outside Chicago; that all in all, there were 5,375 lllinoisans; that thesecond highest state enrollment came from Indiana, andthe third highest from New York.That Canada was represented by 85 students and Chinaby 52.SAY IT WITH FIGURES"Wow! This jobsure keeps mehopping ! ""TJF.LIEVE me, fitting: ail the new dial and manualJ3 switchboard equipment and long distance facilitiesinto Bell System central offices all around the countryis keeping me mighty busy!"In a single big dial exchange there may be 4,000miles of wire. I may have to solder 2,500,000 connections before everything's ready for you to dial anumber."Besides installing this complex apparatus, I buildit. That's part of my job as manufacturer for theBell System."I also purchase all manner of things for the BellTelephone Companies. . . and distribute these suppliesto them along with the equipment I make."Ever since 1882, I've been helping to makeour nation's telephone service the best in the world.Today. ..with the Bell System's construction programof more than $2,000,000,000 in full swing ... I'mbusier than ever."Remember my name. . . it's Western Electric."MANUFACTURER..of 43,000 varietiesof telephoneapparatus. PURCHASER... DISTRIBUTOR... INSTALLER...of supplies of allkinds for telephoneCom ponies. of telephoneapparatus andsupplies. of telephonecentral officeequipment.^ 'esrem ElectricA UNIT OF THE BELL 2A SYSTEM SINCE 18827f is not the finding of a thing, but the making something out of it after it is found, that is of consequence"—JAMES RUSSELL LOWELLWhy some things get better all the timeTake the modern electric light bulb, for example. Its parts were born in heat as high as 6,000 ° F.. . . in cold as low as 300° below zero . . . under crushing pressure as great as 3,000 pounds per square inch.Only in these extremes of heat, cold and pressuredid nature yield the metal tungsten for the shiningfilament . . . argon, the colorless gas that fills the bulb. . . and the plastic that permanently seals the glassto the metal stem. And it is becauseof such materials that light bulbstoday are better than ever before.The steady improvement of theelectric light bulb is another instance of history repeating itself. For man has alwayshad to have better materials before he could makebetter things. Producing better materials for the use of industryand the benefit of mankind is the work of UnionCarbide.Basic knowledge and persistent research are required, particularly in the fields of science and engineering. Working with extremes of heat and cold,and with vacuums and great pressures, Units of UCCnow separate or combine nearly one-half of the manyelements of the earth.TTnion CarbideV-' AND CARBON CORPORATION Gffl Products of Divisions and Units include —ALLOYS AND METALS • CHEMICALS • PLASTICSELECTRODES, CARBONS, AND BATTERIESINDUSTRIAL GASES AND CARBIDE