THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEMARCH 19 4 6::M;sWM^:M':mM¦.;:; |ll|| ^Wmp/HBIG •••but notbig enough ,^fc»*uicr before the war, butTHE Bell System wasb^g ^ dsit has to be bigg" » ^ and it>s our ,ob toat the lowest possibleusing the telephone.BELL TBltPHOME STSIEI.LETT ERSDETROIT ALUMNI CLUB MEMBERSSEND SYMPATHY AND FEELKEENLY OUR OWN LOSS IN DEATHOF MR. BECK STOP WE WILLCARRY ON OUR PROGRAM WHICHBECK INSPIRED.W. P. LOVETT, '99, PRESIDENTA College PresidentI was deeply shocked and, frankly,terribly distressed to learn of CharltonBeck's death. He was one of the finestmen I have ever known and I havealways counted it both a privilege andan honor to be one of his host of friends.A very happy pre-war weekend somefive or six years ago Carl Beck, NatePlimpton, Lyman Flook and I wereguests of Johnny Moulds at his lovelyplace on the Lake Michigan shore. Itook my camera along and these snapshotswere taken by yours truly and LymanFlook.Carey CroneisOffice of the PresidentBeloit College, Beloit, Wise.Carl Beck, John Moulds, Nate Plimpton, President CroneisCarl Beck and President CroneisFormer Lansing Mayor... He was my friend, my fraternitybrother, and a citizen of whom his fellow men were proud. Carl Beck's contribution to his and our Alma Mater wastoo great for human calculation. It islike the national debt in size and incomprehensibility but is all on the good sideof the ledger. He will leave a "lonesomeplace against the sky" as Markham saidof Lincoln.Sam Street Hughes, JD, '29Lansing, Michigan A Former Associate Editor. . . You know, of course, how shockedI was ... I don't have to tell you howmuch he meant to me. You can't work asclosely with a man like Carl as I did without loving him. I never did get used tohim over in the new house, although aplace like that had been his dream. Forme he was always living in that cubbyhole on the top floor of Cobb, sitting inan old swivel chair with a rattly old desk.Actually the only fairly new piece of furniture, and it was his pride, was President Harper's old desk!Then there was his old fashioned telephone which he used to address at a distance of three feet to the eternal dismayof the College Library below. I remember also those stacks of letters piledaround his feet. Just before going on atrip he would answer them, not in anyorder, but digging into the pile at randomand dictating in his rich, melodious voice.He always put himself into each letter.An efficiency expert would quarrel withsome of his methods. Often correspondence lagged for months. It was only because there was too much for one manbut he insisted on a personal reply. Once,in his papers on the Harper desk I foundsome letter signed by President Harper.Not until he proved that he had drawnthem from the library did I cease believing that he still had not sorted his'papers back to 1906!Carl was the best man any school everhad for alumni secretary. I know his fellow secretaries elsewhere would agree. Hewas probably the kindest and most generous person I have known. And yet,with our close association, he never burdened me or anyone else with his personalproblems. He was talkative, gregarious,but there were some things about whichhe was most reticent. Again, part of hiswarm feeling toward others.I don't have to say anything about hisstories. His monument will be the thousands of people who have heard thosestories, laughed with him by the hourand gone away with just a part of Carl'sown cheerful spirit. I can get very sentimental about him. I feel his deathas a personal loss. I'll miss him whenI return. I'm glad, however, that someone who knew him as I did will succeedhim.Major Howard P. Hudson, '35APO 757, New YorkHist. Div. USFET (Main)Other Alumni Secretaries... I know that his accomplishmentsin the general alumni field were significantbut it was in The University of Chicago Magazine that his real greatnessfound expression. I regard him as oneof the few great alumni editors who haveyet appeared. His own writing had a rareflavor, a bit of whimsy as well as strengthand decisiveness, and he also had a nicesense of balance in his selection of articles and comment. . . .Herbert F. Taylor, SecretaryThe Alumni AssociationWorcester Polytechnic Institute This native of Bechuanaland issmoking tobacco in a sand pit.From an old print.— Bettmann ArchivesHere's a Lot Better Waysmoke an .STERNCRE"Millions of men prefer to smoke an LHSpipe, just as their fathers and grandfathershave for nearly 50 years. Select any LHSand you buy not only wood and bit, butthe pipe knowledge and experienceof half a century. « A good pipe isan investment in daily pleasure.Model r21,antique finish.Doz ins ofothers — plainor antique.Other -<? PipesImported BriarLHS Sterncrest Ultra-fine . . . $10.00LHS Sterncrest 14K 7.50LHS Certified Purex .... 3.50LHS Purex Superfine (Domestic Briar) 1.50at good dealers everywhereLHSJM£ . Tfrilt fi>r"Pipts—for a world ofpUasMt."I & H STERN, INC. . 56 Pearl St., Brooklyn 1, N.Y.1„ . . His sturdy, jovial spirit has beenan inspiration to me. ...Fred Ellsworth, SecretaryThe Alumni AssociationThe University of KansasI was really broken hearted over thenews of Carl's death. The last I heardfrom him was a cheery letter while Iwas down in bed — last August. . . .Please convey my sympathy to his familyand friends.George F. "Dixie" Heighway,SecretaryThe Alumni AssociationThe University of IndianaLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERLarge Limousines5 Passenger Sedans $4 Per Hour$3 Per HourSpecial rates for out of townEMERY-DREXEL LIVERY INC.5516 S. HARPER AVE.FAirfax 6400Ask for Dept. B.PETERSONFIREPROOFWAREHOUSE•STORAGEMOVING•Foreign — DomesticShipments55th & ELLIS AVENUEPHONEMIDway 9700 Anonymity By RequestI am enclosing that sonnet to AlonzoStagg (which you requested). I do notwish to have the authorship known atthe present time since I have alwaysbeen identified with plant physiology . . .and scientists are not supposed to fallfrom grace far enough to write verse !But my wife, being a poet and havingvery poor eyes, has had me do hertyping for about six years. By long association with her work I have occasionalmoments when rhymes and rhythms comenaturally. This one I set down becauseStagg has always been a sort of hero tome, although I was never in sports.I got my respect for him way backwhen; during that wonderful period from1902 to 1905. Eckersall's 105 yard runthrough the Wisconsin eleven is still vividly impressed upon my memory. Andthat slimmest of margin's defeat ofMichigan when Denny Clark forgot todown the ball behind the goal line ; attempted to run with it; and was thrownback across the line for a two-point winfor Chicago, breaking a long unbeatenstring for Michigan. Those were thewonderful days!ALONZO STAGGAlonzo Stagg, the peerless coach foryears !The fans remember his emphatic walk,The teams, his strategy and virile talk:A name the world of sportsmanshipreveres.His spirit hovers everywhere the cheersRing out across the field. How like ahawkHe watched the plays! You never heardhim balkAt rules, nor overrate a rivals fears.He gave the game a galaxy of stars:Pat Page, and Crisler, Bezdek, Eckersall.A toast to him, the Coach of Coaches,then.,Whose life reveals a greatness nothingmars ;Alonzo Stagg ... he stands above themall,Builder of both outstanding teams andmen.By an admirer.Frustrated!Have you any notion of the frustrationone feels in not being able to identifythe picture on the cover?Lillian Sattler, AM '28ChicagoThe January cover picture was President Ernest C. Colwell. You will alwaysfind the cover picture identified on thetable of contents page at the bottom of"In This Issue."— Ed.Amidst the RubbleIn December when I was in Berlin Idiscovered Anna Marie Durand-Wever,'10, who as you know was one of Berlin's leading gynecologists. I had noidea that she was alive but thanks to theArmy Intelligence I was able to locateher. She was bombed out of her homeand is now located at 3 Anspacher Str., Berlin. However, you can't communicatewith her yet as the ban hasn't been lifted.During one of the bombardments of Berlin she was in an air raid shelter whenRussians who have been sniped at byWerewolves set fire to the house. Shewould have been burned if a Russianofficer had not warned her in time. Shesaved virtually nothing. She was able toget an apartment in another buildingamong the ruins. I doubt if there arethree livable apartments in the entirestreet which is in downtown Berlin wherethe greatest havoc was wreaked.All her personal funds are frozen in thebank and she is forced to live on her fees.However, money isn't as much of a problem in Berlin as food. The time I sawher she was not complaining but it wasobvious that she was not getting enoughcalories to carry on her heavy practice.She told me that people, especially thepoor, had been very kind to her andcontributed enough of the things which,of course, cannot be bought, but which arenecessary just for living. A teacup here,a saucer there. I found her in her combined operating - consultation - bedroom-living room-office. There were two otherrooms in the apartment but because oflack of fuel they had to be closed off.There was no glass. The windows wereeither boarded up or covered with oilpaper. The hall was filled with waitingpatients.When I called on her last in her beautiful apartment she spoke in such contempt of the Nazis that I personally wasfrightened, but she told me that she hadlong been on the black list and wouldhave been in a concentration camp longbefore that except that they needed her.The war had just started then and shewas helping to evacuate patients in thehospitals to make room for the wounded.She speaks very calmly of the wholeaffair and is looking forward to the^ daywhen once again she can communicatewith her friends in America. She is thesame quiet, broad-minded, lively conversationalist that she always was, carrying on amidst the rubble.Although I was in Germany primarilyto cover the Nuernberg trials I was ableto spend some time in Berlin and madeseveral calls on Anna Marie.H, R. Baukhage, '11American Broadcasting CompanyWashington, D.C.Nominative vs. Objective*r-ATCH VOC/2,ENGLISH S SMI,J.—^ *We^Tre glad it turned out this wayfor who should we meet in his Lieutenant Commander uniform butGeorge B. Schick, '26, AM '28, onClipped from Page 18 of the Januaryissue and mailed without comment byFlorence Foley Howard, '14, and HelenHoward Link, '42, from Farmer City, Illinois. This always happens when wetry to be funny! — Ed.2KANSAS CITY ALUMNI TEAA regional meeting of the American Association of School Administrators in Kansas City gave the Kansas City Chicago Club and the University's Department of Education anopportunity to join in giving a teaat which Kansas City^ Alumni couldmeet visiting alumni attending theconference.The tea was held at the HotelMuehlebach, February 21. Morethan 100 dropped in for the socialhour including:From Chicago: Ralph W. Tyler,Chairman, Department of Education;William C. Reavis, Professor of Education; Robert C. Woellner, Director,Vocational Placement; and HowardW. Mort, Alumni Secretary.From Kansas: Charles O. Haskell,AM '20, Emporia; Clyde U. Phillips,AM '26, Hayes; W. R. Godwin, AM'32, Hutchinson; Carl B. Althaus,AM '23, PhD '27, Lawrence; AldenSalser, AM '24 and William R. Ber-ges, AM '26, Wichita; Evan E. Evans,AM '28, Winfield.From Missouri: Fred B r u n e r,Bonne Terre; Carl L. Byerly, AM '36,Clayton; H. Virgil Bower, AM '38,Liberty; John W. Gates, AM '38,PhD '45, and wife, Springfield; Gertrude Hosey, '18, AM '21, and Pauline A. Humphreys, '15, Warrensburg.H. Leigh Baker, AM '28, Lincoln,Nebraska; M. R. Chauncey, '31, Stillwater, Oklahoma; Lewis H. Mahoney,AM '34, Hot Springs, Arkansas.From Greater Kansas City: JackS. Beamer, JD '40; Rev. Paul F. Bech-told, AM '23; Frank L. Black, AM'08; Irene Blase, '18, AM '27; Florence I. Bradley, '15; Kathleen Bridges,.AM '43; Freda Bright Chappelle, '14;W. L. Crain, AM '25, PhD '37 andMrs. Crain, AM '25.A. L. Dailey, AM '22; Grace EadsDalton, AM '27; Maurice W. Decker,'30, AM '36 and Mrs. Decker (MaryPhillips, '29, AM '35); Theo. E. Ford,'13; Edward G. Gilbert, MBA '43;Arthur L. Guy, AM '31; R. R. Haun,PhD '32; Inghram D. Hook, '06;Edith Humphrey, '24, AM '30.Lester M. Kaatz, '24; Albert Kramer, '32; Gordon Leonard, '30, JD'32; Wesley R. Long, PhD '29; SamuelMarsh, '24; Martha McLendon, '26,JD '27; Mabelle M. Miller, '15; Mrs.B. F. Moore (Edith Hansen, '38);Ethel Harris Nagle, '23; B. H. Overman, AM '29; Martha Peters, '41;Harry R. Shepherd, '21, AM '27;John L. Shouse, AM '28; Charles V. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOMAGAZINEVolume 39 March, 1946 Number 5PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONHOWARD W. MORTEditor EMILY D. BROOKEAssociate Editor .IN THIS ISSUE PAGEThe Nuernberg Trial, Quincy Wright 5One Man's Opinion, William V. Morgenstern ------- 9News of the Quadrangles, Jeannette Lowrey - - 10We Want You To Know - 14A Great Gulf Has Been Fixed, Lawrence J. MacGregor - - - 15The Alumni Bookshelf 18News of the Classes --- ----_.. 21COVER: Quincy Wright, Professor of International LawPublished by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from Octoberto June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, atthe Post Office at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The American AlumniCouncil, B. A. Ross, advertising director, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y., is theofficial advertising agency of the Magazine.Stansell, AM '11 and wife; MargaretL. Taylor, '21; Mrs. Harry H. Terte,'24; Dr. D. T. VanDel, '22, RushMD '25.Mrs. Dorothy Heinlein, formerAlumni office manager, was present.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with tlie Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers. Her husband, J. C. Heinlein, who'swork on his Ph.D. was interrupted byUncle Sam, will return to the Midwayas soon as he is relieved from dutyin Korea.CATALOGUE ENGRAVING CO.CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions" BIRCK-FELLINGER CORP.ExclusiveCleaners & Dyers200 E. Marquette RoadPhone: Went. 5380Armin J. Deutsch (seated) and William W. Morgan, associate professor of astronomy, comparingspectrograms made at Yerkes Observatory of the explosion on Nova T. Coronae Borealis with thespectrograph attached to the 40 inch refracting telescope — largest of its kind in the world. Seestory in "News of the Quadrangles". (F. W. Goro Photo, courtesy LIFE Magazine).4THE NUERNBERG TRIAL• By QUINCY WRIGHTA sincere effortto strengtheninternational lawMY CONNECTION with the Nuernberg Trialbegan late in September, 1945, when I wasasked by former Attorney General Francis Biddle, who had been appointed American Judge on theTribunal, to serve as his technical adviser.Judge Biddle, with his alternate, Judge John J. Parkerof the Circuit Court of Appeals, and four of the American technical advisers, Herbert Wechsler, Professor ofCriminal Law at Columbia and Assistant Attorney General; James Rowe, late from the Navy and former Assistant Attorney General; Major Robert Stuart, and myself, went to England on the Queen Mary. We metevery day on the vessel to discuss the Charter of theTribunal and the points of law and procedures withwhich we would probably be faced.We landed at Southampton and at once flew to Berlin by way of Paris. The Judges and their alternates allassembled the next day and immediately the Tribunalbegan discussion of the formalities for the open meetingin Berlin to receive the indictment from the chief prosecutors. After this event, which occurred on October18th, we went to Nuernberg by air where we werehoused five miles from the center of the city in a villawhich gave us excellent living accommodations. Therewe were joined by Captain Adrian Fisher, another member of the American staff.The Charter which is the constitution of the Tribunal,sets forth in broad outlines the law and procedure ofthe Trial, the scope of the Tribunal's jurisdiction, andthe function of the prosecution and of the Judges, as wellas the relation of each to the Control Council for Germany. These outlines, however, had to be filled in andthe Tribunal sat in private session almost every day andoften until late in the evening to perform this task.These long hours of working together increased mutualrespect and the rate of progress steadily increased.A Common Desire— with DifficultiesThe differences of language, of legal thinking and ofpractice in criminal trials in the four countries causeddifficulties. All the members of the Tribunal, however,shared a common desire to achieve the goal, set forthin the Charter, of a fair trial without unreasonable delay and, before the actual trials began, rules of court hadbeen agreed upon settling most points of procedure andevidence. The Charter permitted decisions by majorityvote of the Judges but all recognized the value of acting with unanimity if possible. The experience illustrates thepossibility of cooperation among the great powers inlegal matters in spite of the wide divergence which in thepast has prevailed between the Soviet Union and theWestern states in this field.The members of the prosecution and of the Tribunal,while both appointed by the four governments, differedin functions and in point of view. The prosecutionwished speed in the trials and conviction of the defendants. The Tribunal wished a fair trial and adequateopportunity for the defendants to obtain counsel, witnesses, and evidence.Occasional conferences were necessary to iron out difficulties. On such occasions the prosecution always displayed a proper respect for the Tribunal and recognizedthat on most matters the final authority rested withit. The Tribunal, however, recognized the wisdom of utilizing the greater knowledge possessedby the prosecution, which had been long on the spotwith hundreds of agents finding evidence in Germany,on such matters as interpretation and translation of theproceedings, the nature of the evidence which wouldprobably be presented by the prosecution and the defense, and the methods and difficulties of obtaining persons and documents under the almost impossible conditions of communication prevailing in Germany.Military Government CooperatesWith Tribunal meetings in private and in public, aswell as American staff meetings, the American groupwas too busy to do much sight-seeing in Germany, butit was on one occasion necessary to go to Frankfort toconfer with General Eisenhower and several Sundaytrips in the vicinity of Nuernberg were possible.One is impressed by the overwhelming devastation ofGerman cities in contrast to the untouched conditionsof the rural villages and farms. Heidelberg alone ofthe cities I saw was intact. Nuernberg is 87 per centdestroyed in the central part including the old walledtown, and Berlin, Frankfort, Heilbronn are in almost asbad a condition. These cities are piles of rubble andthe Germans live in factories on the outskirts, in shelters made from rubble, or in half ruined buildings.The task of reconstruction to make life possible inGerman cities seems almost insuperable, but it was myimpression that Military Government is doing as wellas could be expected in the face of adventitious difficulties due to the rapid turnover of personnel consequentfrom the point system, added to the inherent difficultiesof the task. It is devoting first attention to clearingstreets of rubble, establishing transportation and publicutilities, preserving order and preventing epidemics.56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMilitary Government in the American zone, in whichNuernberg is located, gave every assistance to the Tribunal. It arranged details of the building and courtroom, provided necessary funds and a Secretary General for the Tribunal, and located, brought to Nuernbergand housed counsel and witnesses for the defendants afterthe Tribunal had approved them. Without these services of Military Government a fair trial would not havebeen possible.Military Government also gave full assistance to theprosecution in finding documents, taking charge of theprisoners, and providing much necessary personnel. Whileassistance of Military Government in the other zones wasless important, there was no lack of cooperation. Inherent conditions of security, however, still make operations across different zones in Germany difficult. Agreater unification of the administration would doubtlessbe advantageous.I remained in Nuernberg until the Trial had been under way for a month and returned, arriving on Christmasmorning in Chicago to resume my academic work forthe winter quarter.Considered in its larger aspect the Nuernberg Trialis carrying out an important war aim of the United Nations, is providing materials of great educational and historical value, is establishing an important precedent inthe development of international law, and is giving theworld an example of sound legal procedures in an areawhere lawlessness has been the rule for some time.Fulfillment of a War AimBefore Pearl Harbor, on October 25, 1941, PresidentRoosevelt vigorously denounced the German practice "ofexecuting scores of innocent hostages" and two days laterPrime Minister Churchill declared that "Retribution forthese crimes must henceforward take its place among themajor purposes of the war.55 On January 13, 1942, ninegovernments in exile in London declared that they "placeamongst their principal war aims the punishment,through the channel of organized justice, of those guiltyand responsible for these crimes, whether they hadordered them, perpetrated them or in any way participated in them.55At Moscow on November 1, 1943, Roosevelt, Churchilland Stalin, "speaking in the interests55 of all the UnitedNations, declared that persons accused of war crimes"will be sent back to the countries in which their abominable deeds were done in order that they may be judgedand punished according to the laws of those liberatedcountries and of the free governments which will becreated therein . . . without prejudice to the case ofthe major criminals, whose offenses have no particulargeographical localization and who will be punished bythe joint decision of the Governments of the Allies.55The Yalta declaration of February, 1945, called for "justand swift punishment55 of all war criminals.To consider the procedure to be followed in reference to the major war criminals, the President appointedJustice Robert H. Jackson Chief of Counsel for theUnited States in prosecuting the principal Axis warcriminals. Justice Jackson reviewed the situation inEurope and reported to the President on June 7, 1945,recommending a trial of the major war criminals by aninternational tribunal if possible.The TribunalFollowing this recommendation and the Potsdamdeclaration of August 2, 1945, emphasizing the "great importance that the trial of those major criminals shouldbegin at the earliest possible date,55 an agreement wasreached among the United States, the United Kingdom,the Soviet Union and France to establish an International Military Tribunal for the trial of major war criminals of the European Axis in accordance with the Charter attached to the agreement. This agreement signedon August 8, 1945, was open to adherence by any of theUnited Nations and a considerable number have adhered. The Charter stated the law and procedures tobe applied by the Tribunal as well as its organization andcomposition. Crimes against peace, war crimes, andcrimes against humanity were defined and the principle ofindividual responsibility irrespective of government position or superior orders was asserted. The Tribunal wasalso given competence to find that organizations of whichindividual defendants were members were "criminalorganizations.55The Tribunal was established with four judges andfour alternates appointed respectively by the four powers. In addition to former Attorney General Biddle, thejudges are Lord Justice Geoffrey Lawrence of the Courtof Appeals of the United Kingdom; Major GeneralJudge I. T. Nikitchenko, Vice President of the SovietSupreme Court; and Donnedieu de Vabres, Professor ofLaw of the University of Paris. The alternate judges inaddition to Judge Parker are Sir Norman Birkett of theHigh Court of the United Kingdom, Judge J. Volchkovof the Soviet District Court, and Judge Robert Falco ofthe French Court of Cassation.These men, all of judicial temperament, legal learningand practical experience in law, met in Berlin early inOctober, 1945, and there held the first public sessionof the Tribunal on October 18th: On this occasion thechief prosecutors of the four countries, Justice Robert H.Jackson of the United States represented by Assistant Attorney General Frank Shea, Attorney General Sir Hartley Shawcross of the United Kingdom, General Rudenkoof the Soviet Union and M. de Menthon of France represented by M. Dubose formally presented the indictmentin the four languages of the Tribunal.The IndictmentThis document charged twenty-four individual defendants with one or more of four counts: (1) participation as leaders, organizers, instigators or accomplicesTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7in the formulation or execution of a common plan orconspiracy to commit the crimes defined in the Charter;(2) participation in crimes against peace; (3) participation in war crimes; (4) participation in crimes againsthumanity. Six organizations, the Reich cabinet, theLeadership Corps of the Nazi party, the S.S., the Gestapo,the S.A., and the General Staff and High Command ofthe German Armed Forces were charged with being criminal organizations. On receiving the indictment, thePresident of the meeting, Judge Nikitchenko drew attention to certain rules the court had adopted for assuring notice to defendants at least thirty days before theTrial began and adequate opportunity to secure counsel.The DefendantsThe Trial opened at Nuernberg November 20, 1945,with Lord Justice Lawrence presiding. In the meantime at preliminary hearings the Tribunal had found thatone defendant, Gustav Krupp von Bohlen, head of thegreat armament firm, was too ill to be tried arid had refused a motion of the prosecution to add his son AlfriedKrupp to the Trial. Another defendant, Robert Ley,leader of the Nazi labor front had committed suicide. Athird, Martin Bormann, Nazi party leader, had not beenfound. It is probable that he is dead. .Ernst Kalten-brunner, Gestapo leader, was too ill to attend the opening session.The remaining twenty defendants included representatives of the main branches of Nazi leadership — Georingand Hess, political; Keitel, Jodl, Raeder and Doenitz,military and naval; Ribbentrop, Neurath, and Papen, diplomatic; Schacht, Funk, and Speer, economic; Rosenberg,Streicher, Schirach, and Fritzsche, propaganda; Frank,Frick, Sauckel and Seyss-Inquart, administrative. Thesemen listened to the reading of the indictment and pleadnot guilty. Later a plea by the lawyer representing thedefendant Rudolph Hess that his client be not tried because his lapse of memory would make it impossible forhim properly to defend himself was denied after Hess haddeclared that his lapse of memory had been assumed.The Court RoomThe court room on the third floor of the Palace ofJustice in Nuernberg presents an impressive appearancewith the eight judges and alternates sitting on the benchat the right hand side facing the defendants. The lattersit in two rows and are well guarded by eight white hel-meted GFs.At the front of the court room is a screen for movingpictures, several of which had been put in evidence, andin the front left corner a dozen interpreters repeat everything said in the four languages of the court (English,French, Russian and German) any of which may beheard through the ear phones provided at each seat byturning the switch. In front of the defendants sit theirlawyers, one for each defendant, and to the rear at tablessit the lawyers for each of the prosecuting countries and the technical advisers of the Tribunal. Behind the barare places for some two hundred and fifty press and radioreporters, and in the gallery a hundred members of thegeneral public.The ProsecutionThe prosecution began its case by an address, whichwas both cogent and effective, by the American ChiefProsecutor Justice Jackson. His assistants then presentedevidence in orderly fashion to support Count 1 of theindictment. The British prosecution followed with anable address by the Chief British Prosecutor Sir HartleyShawcross followed by the presentation of evidence tosupport Count 2 of the indictment.After the Christmas recess the French and Sovietprosecution respectively presented evidence from theWestern front and from the Eastern front to supportCounts 3 and 4 of the indictment. The defendants willthen have an opportunity to present their case throughcounsel followed by the prosecutions rebuttal, statementsby the defendants themselves, and the judgment andsentences by the Tribunal. It is probable that the Trialwill occupy at least six months from the time the Tribunal opened in November.An Unassailable RecordThe materials presented by the prosecution gleanedfrom some 700,000 documents found in Germany, manyof them top secret Nazi reports, will be subjected to acritical analysis by the defense lawyers. There will emergean unassailable record of what the Nazi leadershipplanned and did in Germany during the past twentyyears. The German and the world public are interested.The educational effect of this material is important as itis presented day by day in the press, and it will increasein importance as it is organized and integrated by theindustry of historians.The Law and the PrecedentsThe Charter lays down the law for the Tribunal, butthe Tribunal, by interpretation and application of itsrules and principles in the light of general internationallaw, will develop its concrete meaning. The Charter doesnot enact wholly new law but rather declares and applies principles which have been inherent in internationallaw for centuries.Grotius asserted in 1625 that every state has the rightto exercise criminal jurisdiction over any person whoanywhere commits acts which "excessively violate the lawof nature or of nations," and the fathers of the AmericanConstitution recognized that international law definedcertain individual crimes when they authorized the Congress "to define and punish piracies . . . and offensesagainst the law of nations.55Among the offenses so defined in 1794 was "the beginning, setting on foot or preparing the means for, anymilitary expedition or enterprise55 from the United States8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEagainst the territory of a foreign state with which theUnited States is at peace. Even before this act was passedmost of the members of the Supreme Court in chargesto juries had asserted that American citizens who engagedin hostilities in violation of anti-war provisions in treatiesto which the United States was a party committed anoffense against the law of nations and could be tried infederal courts.In the Henfield case, tried under this theory, the antiwar provision relied upon was that in the Peace Treatyof 1783 requiring "firm and perpetual peace55 betweenthe United States and Great Britain. Far more concreteanti-war obligations bound the states of the world including Germany and Japan in the Kellog-Briand Pact andother treaties before the defendants at Nuernberg committed the warlike acts with which they are charged.Since Germany itself was prohibited from authorizingaggressive war by these treaties, the defendants cannotshelter themselves by claiming that they acted on behalfof Germany.This is not the place to elaborate the international lawback of the Charter. Suffice it to say that the sourcesof international law existent before the acts chargedagainst the defendants give much support for the crimesagainst peace, the war crimes, and the crimes againsthumanity which that instrument sets forth, and also forthe proposition that government authorization cannot relieve the individual of responsibility for such crimes whenthe state itself is forbidden by international law to authorize the act in question.Although the legal principles underlying the Charterare not novel the Tribunal by applying these principlesin a concrete situation will emphasize the direct relationof the individual to the world community and the criminal responsibility of individuals for planning, preparing,initiating and waging a war of aggression. As every tribunal in giving concrete application to legal principlesestablishes a precedent in the history of law, so the Nuernberg Trial will move the world order nearer to a federalorder which may be able to prevent war in the atomicage.There is much talk of reorganizing the United Nations into a true federation by a new international conference, but concrete action in holding individuals criminally responsible to the world community and in establishing concrete procedures for protecting fundamentalhuman rights may do more to achieve the desired resultsthan more comprehensive proposals which might provetoo advanced to command the necessary public support.In his report to the President, Justice Jackson said,The American case is being prepared on the assumption that an inescapable responsibility restsupon this country to conduct an inquiry, preferablyin association with others, but alone if necessary,into the culpability of those whom there is probablecause to accuse of atrocities and other crimes. Wehave many such men in our possession. What shall we do with them? We could, of course, set themat large without a hearing. But it has cost unmeasured thousands of American lives to beat andbind these men. To free them without a trialwould mock the dead and make cynics of the living.On the other hand, we could execute or otherwisepunish them without a hearing. But undiscriminat-ing executions or punishments without definite findings of guilt, fairly arrived at, would violate pledgesrepeatedly given, and would not set easily on theAmerican conscience or be remembered by our children with pride. The only other course is to determine the innocence or guilt of the accused aftera hearing as dispassionate as the times and the horrors we deal with will permit, and upon a recordthat will leave our reasons and motives clear.A Model of FairnessIt has been the aim of the Tribunal to make the Triala model of fairness according to the best traditions ofcriminal procedure. In its early meetings the Tribunalprepared rules of court to assure the defendants opportunity to obtain counsel, to secure documents, to examinethe documents presented by the prosecution, and to obtain witnesses necessary for their defense. The Tribunalis a military tribunal and follows the practice of suchtribunals in its rules of evidence and its absence of ajury but its procedure and the opportunity given thedefendants to present their case resemble those in anAmerican or British criminal court.It has been charged that the Charter lacked legalfoundation because it permits one side in the war toprovide prosecution and judges, because it permits indictments for acts which were not crimes when committed, and because it limits the competence of the Tribunal to trial of persons who were acting in behalf ofthe European Axis.The Tribunal is not competent to deal with thesecharges. It cannot question the Charter which is its constitution, and when defendant Goering5s lawyer early inthe proceedings raised these issues, Lord Justice Lawrence,President of the Tribunal, simply referred to Article 3of the Charter which forbids either the prosecution orthe defendant to challenge the Tribunal. He stated,however, that if any of the arguments did not constitutesuch a challenge, they might be presented at a later stage.The justifiability of the procedures under internationallaw is, however, a problem of interest to lawyers.The ex post facto problem has been touched upon inthis article. The crimes stated have in principle beenlong recognized as offenses against the law of nations. Inrespect to the other points it may be noted that in allcriminal proceedings the Tribunal and the prosecutionare both creatures of the state which is one side in thelitigation. Defendants in a criminal trial have neverhad a voice in appointing the Tribunal. The Nuernberg[Concluded on Page 19)ONE MAN'S OPINION• By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, J.D. '22IN COMPARISON with the elimination of intercollegiate football, the recent decision of the Universityto withdraw entirely from the Big Ten Conferenceis an anti-climax, of relatively little impact. Footballis the preeminent college sport from the standpoint ofemphasis, money, and the public. If the University coulddecide to get along without football, it obviously couldget along without Big Ten basketball and the other"minor55 sports, and the decision might well have beenmade total in December of 1939, when Chicago quitfootball. Conditions in these other sports then were nodifferent than they are today, for the incongruity ofChicago teams in most Conference competition had beenapparent long before the war. Readers wishing to pursue this subject further may do so by consulting theirfiles of The University of Chicago Magazine at thetime it was a pocket-sized publication back in 1928.There is no particular profit in discussing the reasonswhy Chicago can not compete, as the communication tothe Conference put it, with "reasonable equality of competition.55 The disparity is as obvious in basketball asit had been in football, and the demonstration had goneon so long that even the sturdiest proponent of the "hitme again55 policy was convinced of the basic facts. Thisdisparity in sports other than football assumed new significance, however, last December, when the Big Tenbecame a playing league, awarding championships on apercentage basis in team sports. In partial round-robinschedules such as that in basketball, the presence of aChicago team introduced a deuces wild factor; thoseteams who got Chicago had a big advantage over thosethat didn't, and unhappiness resulted.When Chicago quit intercollegiate football there wasgreat skepticism in the outside world as to its ability tocontinue in existence. There is none now; the Universtyhas flourished. A few years after it withdrew from football, the University established its present College, witha four-year program of general education beginning atthe end of the sophomore year of high school. Amongeducators this step aroused greater emotion than disbanding the football team did in the public. The Collegewas a far more daring departure and a more criticalassertion of the intention to emphasize education thanwas the casting out of football. From one point of viewit might seem that the University was deliberately tryingto handicap itself by departing so radically from tradition and the status quo. It required courage to act onthe convictions the University had arrived at as to thepurpose and nature of its undergraduate program; whatever else, the two actions were not meant to be expedientconcessions to the popular taste.But even that was not all. Though the war wasdraining off a great part of the potential undergraduates, the College instituted the Placement Tests. In effect,this action said to an applicant that the College did notcare how many credits he might have; where he startedin the College depended on how much he knew. Thisagain was shockingly inexpedient; it violated the sanctityof academic currency, the credits which were supposedto pass at par in any college. The College bluntly toldstudents in the high schools and later the veterans thatwhat it offered them was a liberal education; if theywanted vocational training, a wide open elective system,or the daisy chain, they should seek them elsewhere.Despite all these apparently arbitrary actions, the Collegehas had a perverse attraction for students, and it hasgrown rapidly. When the University said that the choicewas education or a lot of other things, the customersvoted for education.The work in the College is exacting; students have toapply themselves with reasonable diligence, and in comparison with some standards, their effort might be calledexcessive. This fact is made clear in advance, too, butit likewise has failed to frighten away the kind of studentsthe University has always been interested in. With sofundamental a change in its undergraduate education,the character of student life has changed from the olddays. It is not a pompous assertion that the chief studentactivity today is education, though it is an assertion thatmay cause pain to those who like to think of collegeas a pleasant way to spend four years while absorbingculture through exposure to the environment.As a matter of brutal fact, the diminution of interestis not only in intercollegiate athletics, but also in manyother of the traditional student activities. It is not thatthe undergraduates are so completely immersed in theirstudies and the intellectual life that they engage in nothing else; these are normal young men and women whohave normal desires for recreation and frivolity. Theywaste as much time probably as any past generation everdid. Obviously, if there are some two thousand youngmen and women in a cohesive group they will not behermits. What has happened is that they simply are notinterested in the old kind of student life; they are creating a new kind. Activities no longer are a serious career;it is only a small minority which thinks holding office orbeng elected to an honor society is the ultimate in aspirations. Blackfriars is as dead as the Dodo, but dramaticactivities are flourishing; so for instance, is such an organization as the Student Forum, with a hundred or morestudents speaking before high schools, clubs, and evenappearing in debates in places as far apart as Denverand West Point. If all this strikes any of the alumnias lacking glamor, the current undergraduates are likelyto reply that the world does not strike them as presentinga glamorous prospect.9NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By JEANNETTE LOWREYA Star Is re-BornBY FAR the most exciting single astronomical eventto occur at Yerkes Observatory at Williams Bay,Wisconsin, since Otto Struve, PhD '23, has beendirector of the University of Chicago's Astronomy Department was the discovery of the second eruption ofNova T. Coronae Borealis at 2:30 a. m. February 9 byArmin J. Deutsch, graduate student.The discovery of a nova (star which suddenly becomesmany times bigger and brighter by shooting out a vastshell of white-hot gas) would have been exciting enough,Prof. Struve said of Deutsche findings, but the fact thatsuch a brilliant star has apparently not been discoveredindependently at any other observatory is particularlysurprising.Deutsch discovered the astronomical phenomenon ashe walked home from the laboratory after his shift ofobserving. Looking up into the clear sky, he saw a redglow which he'd never seen before in the constellationCorona Borealis. Something new, he reasoned, had beenadded to the sky.The remainder of the night all Yerkes, including thediscoverer, was awake to take a turn at the 40-inch telescope which was focused on the erupting star.The first known bright star to repeat itself, T. CoronaeBorealis was first discovered in 1866. After its first eruption 80 years ago, it remained invisible to the naked eyeuntil its second known eruption in February.When viewed by Deutsch, the nova was erupting hydrogen gases at 3,000 miles per second. Computed bythe scientists to have been traveling 1,000 years, the lightwas visible for only a week and could be seen after midnight just south of the star Epsilon.From the scientific point of view the most excitingfeature was the enormous velocity of expansion which wasobserved by Deutsch, William W. Morgan, '27, PhD '31,associate professor, and Guido Munch-Pammiagua,graduate student, during the first night. The velocity was4,500 kilometers per second or approximately 3,000 milesper second.On the second night, the first spectrogram by Morganand Deutsch showed that the violent explosion of 4,500km/sec. had completely disappeared. All that was leftwas a very much milder explosion with a velocity ofexpansion about 800 km/sec. By the end of the week, asProf. Struve had predicted the morning of the event, thestar was only slightly more luminous than before the outburst occurred.Yerkes, he believes, has the only "first nighter55 pictures and were it not for this evidence, there might always remain a doubt as to whether the large velocity ofexpansion had been correct.Astronomers the world round were as excited aboutthe velocity as Prof. Struve. Harlow Shapley, director of Harvard Observatory, was so amazed that when Prof.Struve wired Harvard the data for news distribution toobservatories throughout the world, he queried back, "DidWestern Union inadvertently add an extra zero?"News interest kept pace with the velocity of T. CoronaeBorealis as teletype operators wired the story around theworld. Life Magazine even held the presses long enoughto fly a reporter to New York with pictures taken thefirst night. ( See February 5 ) .A fellow passenger of Prof. Struve on the train betweenChicago and Oklahoma City, however, knew the mostabout the event and kept the car entertained with all thesecrets of Corona Borealis. The name of the constellation, not the nova, was quite sufficient to him, and theletter T was excess baggage.Freedom Rings AgainChancellor Robert M. Hutchins was the No. 1 manon the Washington news front twice in recent weeks. Heappeared before the house military committee February18, and with three of his faculty members before theatomic energy committee January 25.Speaking on conscription before the military committee, he declared that the time had now come to stop un-American sabre rattling and to get down to the task oflaying the foundation of a peaceful world."It is insane," he said, "when we have just participated in the establishment of a world organization, toproclaim the futility of it by announcing that we are going to base our plans for peace on our own overwhelmingmilitary strength. We blast and betray the only hopewe have."Militarists prove that there is no defense against theatomic bomb, and then ask for an enormous army todefend us against it. They show that this bomb can besent into other countries by rockets or smuggled in byagents and then ask for a large army, navy and airforceto carry it into other countries. They convince us thatin an atomic war forty million of us will be killed in onenight and then claim that it will be helpful to us to havewasted two or three billion dollars a year in teachingmillions of young men close order drill."In another war, Professor Albert Einstein estimatesthat about two-thirds of our population will be killed.And of all the kinds of training which the one-third surviving might need, the most useless is military training."We cannot beat the atomic bomb, and therefore wemust beat war. Our strength must lie in the intelligenceand spirit of our people. This intelligence and spiritmust be devoted to producing a world which can stay atpeace. If all efforts in that direction fail, we must withfortitude bear the consequences and defend the remnantsof our country as best we can."An educated, inventive, devoted people, united by a10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11common understanding of their common heritage andfilled with a determination to defend it — such a peoplewill have the best chance of winning an atomic war andof reconstructing their society amid the destruction whichan atomic war will visit upon both the victor and thevanquished."From the standpoint of defense, survival, and reconstruction the best expenditure of three billion dollarsa year in the atomic age would be an expansion of education among all Americans, young and old, until all ofus were united in a common understanding and all of ushad developed to the maximum the potential characterand intelligence we were born with. This is also the bestway to beat war, for it is a start toward the formation ofthat world community which is our only hope.55And AgainCarrying over the famous University of Chicago RoundTable discussion technique, Chancellor Hutchins andthree of his colleagues warned the Senate Atomic EnergyCommittee against legislation setting up military control of the atomic bomb.Joining Mr. Hutchins were Reuben G. Gustavson,PhD '25, Vice-President and Dean of Faculties, RobertRedfield, '20, JD 521, PhD 528, Dean of the Division ofSocial Sciences, and Edward H. Levi, 532, JD 535, Professor of Law. So unique was the presentation that thesenators reported they had difficulty irr refraining fromthe discussion until it was opened to them.Salient points on their proposal for the adoption of theMcMahon bill were :1. Chancellor Hutchins — "The discovery of atomicenergy is so important and so dangerous that the peoplethrough their elected representatives must supervise itsdevelopment. This discovery cannot be allowed to getout of hand. Since we have an unprecedented force, wemust reconcile ourselves to unprecedented methods ofdealing with it.552. Professor Levi — "Legislation must provide that nocartel, domestic or foreign, can interfere with the developments of atomic energy. We must be prepared tomodify our patent laws in this field. We believe that nosatisfactory bill can be drawn now to regulate industryin the field, and we favor a period of study, the formulation of a program, and the clarification of the international issues before the industrial development begins.553. Dean Redfield — "Social sciences recognizes in thisphysical event the initiator of changes in human livingperhaps greater than have occurred before, and swifter.We must have, therefore, the foresight which socialscience adds to the guesses of common sense, and therefore the bill must provide for study and report of theimplications of atomic energy for society. To prevent warand to promote peace the bill must, in first instance, beshaped."4. Vice-president Gustavson — "Given the means forresearch and freedom to investigate, new frontiers will be opened in pure science. Applied science will follow.Two conditions are necessary. Science must have adequate support, and it must be free.555. Final Conclusion — The McMahon bill carries outthe principle of trusteeship and gives us hope that wemay plan with some confidence to obtain for mankind thepeaceful benefits of our scientific knowledge and technical skill.CHICAGO QUITS BIG TENThe University of Chicago on Friday, March 8,informed the Intercollegiate (Big Ten) Conferenceof its intention to withdraw from membership atthe close of the present school year. The decisionwas communicated to the athletic directors of theConference, meeting in Chicago, by T. NelsonMetcalf, Athletic Director of the University, and tothe faculty representatives by Lawrence A. Kimpton,Dean of Students and Chicago faculty representative, by letter.Text of the communication to the Big Ten is:"As a result of extensive consideration of itsrelationship with the Intercollegiate Conference,the University of Chicago has concluded that itshould withdraw from regular competition in theConference at the close of the present academicyear."The University makes this .decision with regret.As a charter member of the Conference it has beenreluctant to end its tradition of fifty years of competition with the other members, and its associationwith them in establishing scholastic and adminstra-tive standards for intercollegiate athletics that havebeen widely influential and beneficial."Since, however, the University of Chicago is unable to provide reasonable equality of competition,the decision to withdraw is unquestionably for thebest interests of the Conference and the University."Withdrawal from Conference competition doesnot mean that the University of Chicago is nolonger interested in the standards for which theConference has stood, or that Chicago expects todiscontinue its program of intercollegiate athletics.Varsity teams will be continued in all sports inwhich students want to compete, and schedules willbe made with teams of approximately equal strengthand standards. The University hopes that its schedules will continue to include Conference teams insports where competition is mutually advantageous.55Schein-ing MesonsAs additional war veils of secrecy are lifted, the research activities of University of Chicago professors claimthe spotlight. Marcel Schein, Associate Professor ofPhysics, whose cosmic ray balloon flights in Chicago andon Mt. Evans have made history, has just been acclaimed12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfor his central role in the production of the first man-made meson.The meson, hitherto known only through cosmic raystudies is a particle considerably more massive than theelectron, lighter than the proton. Mesons are producedin the atmosphere high above the earth's surface by theprimary cosmic radiation from outer space and last, onthe average, but a few millionths of a second.One of the most important discoveries in science sincethe discovery of fission, which made the atomic bomb possible, the artificial production of the meson was achievedby the use of General Electric5s betatron and a Wilsoncloud chamber provided by the University. In additionto Prof. Schein, who served as a consultant to G. E.,A. James Hartzler, University of Chicago physics student on loan to General Electric, and G. Stanley Klaiberof the company research division cooperated in the study.Artificial production of the meson — hitherto knownonly through cosmic ray studies — is the first fundamentalnew knowledge concerning nuclear physics since the beginning of the war. Schein and his collaborators succeeded in "preserving55 by manufacture the importantconstituent of the cosmic ray so that further study cannow be made of nuclear forces.Prof. Schein began his experiments which led to theproduction of the meson in 1941 with a series of cosmicray tests with balloons. Cosmic ray detecting equipmentwas sent up by him and his associates into the stratosphereby means of the balloons and these instruments demonstrated that cosmic ray mesons are produced when theprimary rays, each carrying an electrical charge, hit thenuclei of the air atoms far above the ground.In the summer of 1943 similar experiments were conducted by Prof. Schein and J. Tabin, graduate physicsstudent at the University, on Mt. Evans, Colorado, andevidence was obtained that mesons can also be producedby high energy gamma rays in the cosmic radiation.From the Wild Blue YonderSixty former army, navy and marine corps airmen,representative of an estimated 300 former airmen nowat the University of Chicago, have polled a total of morethan two centuries of service in World War II, withhours aloft totaling nearly seven years of continuousflight.On 1,725 combat missions the group destroyed 97 J/2German and Japanese aircraft, along with several shipsincluding a light cruiser and two submarines. Forty-twomembers of the group serving in bomber crews flew 1,260of the total number of missions and dropped 3,150 tonsof high explosives, incendiaries and fragmentation bombs.High man in the group is Robert C. Murray, Chicago, with 575 combat hours flown on 115 missions inboth the Pacific and European theaters. His crew iscredited with two Japanese fighters on a single missionover Burma in which Murray's bomber was the only oneto return. Two friends from German prison camp days, Lowell Walker, of Columbus, Nebraska, and CharlesSteenbarger, of Jackson, Michigan, are reunited on theMidway campus. They lead the group in overseas service with three years each, two and a half years of whichwere spent at Stalagluft III near Sagan, Germany.The sixty airmen have a total of 473 combat decorations earned in combat theaters all over the world. Included in the list of military awards for valor in combatare: one Navy Cross, one Silver Star, 29 awards of theDistinguished Flying Cross, 188 awards of the Air Medal,6 awards of the Purple Heart and two awards of theCroix de Guerre, presented by the French government.HomebaseGreenwood Field where varsity baseball games haveheld the spotlight since World War I have a new diamondbrilliance. The lights of 100 prefabricated homes formarried veterans will burn brightly on the field for several years following World War II.In the shadow of Gothic Burton-Judson dormitory formen, the little white houses are set row on row. Twoand three unit homes, the prefabricated houses wereassigned to the university by the Federal Public Housing Authority. They were previously built for war housing centers at Badger, Wisconsin, and Charlestown, Indiana.Scheduled for occupancy sometime during the springquarter, one to two prefabs have been arriving at dawnevery morning since February 22. They are transportedready-built on a 60-foot trailer. The two bedroom unitsare 13 J/2 by 38 feet, and the one-bedroom unit, 13j/2 by29 feet.Ninety other prefabs will also be set up on the lots westof Chicago Lying-in Hospital and Dispensary betweenMaryland and Cottage Grove avenues, and south of theMidway on sixtieth street, between Ingleside and Drexelavenues. The project is part of a general housing expansion program begun by the university to accommodate500 additional male students this spring. Building property at 6208 Drexel will accommodate 178 men abovethe second year of the College. - Both Hitchcock andSnell Halls will be used for dormitories for women . . .and varsity baseball will be played at Washington Park.Phonetical DilemmaThere's always an authority at the University of Chicago. John Krc, lanky former air force lieutenant majoring in physical sciences found a university professorwho could do something neither the army nor any of hisnew acquaintances ' could do — correctly pronounce hisSlovakian name the first time.The name according to the student is just plain, Kirk,and he doesn't see why so many people have difficult withit. The professor who pronounced it without hesitationis Otto F., G. Schilling, associate professor of mathematics.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13Enrico FermiThe family car will probably not be driven by atomicpower, Enrico Fermi, Nobel-prize scientist and staff member of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the University ofChicago, states.The Italian investigator, who supervised the so-calledpile for the atom bomb under the west stands at StaggField, did a bit of prognosticating recently for membersof the University's Citizens Board. In his forecast, hesaid: "Atomic power for the family automobile will notbe feasible, for the engine itself would weigh between 50and 100 tons. Lighter units could be designed. No one,however, could get near them, for the machines emit aradiation that would kill anyone within a sizable distance."For one to sit in the car, a wall of shielding materialof thick bulk would be necessary, and such a machinewould be impractical on the modern highway."Limitation of weight, however, would not be seriousfor fixed installations, power plants, or ship propulsion."Fuel of atomic power, however, is exceedingly lightand can be transported at practically no cost. If onedesired, he might build a power plant at the North Pole,for it is possible to maintain the plant far from sourcesof supply and far from hydro-electric sources of energy."There will also be power — plenty of power — for manyof the common wants of man. £lhicago may be heatedwithout smoke. But the greatest of its applications willbe in the scientific field where scientists will have a tool ofthe same potency as the microscope — a tool which willhave considerable importance to human progression andhuman welfare." Etc.Graham Aldis, Chicago real estate man and residentof Lake Forest, has been appointed to the Board of Trustees. A major in the Military Intelligence of the GeneralStaff Corps, Aldis has recently been released from thearmy after serving five years abroad and in the states.He is a graduate of Harvard University. . . . EnricoFermi, Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor of Physics, was granted an honorary Doctor - ofScience degree from Washington University at the inauguration of Chancellor Arthur Holly Compton. . . .In his first public appearance as a private citizen since1933, Harold L. Ickes, '97, JD '07 cum laude, and recently resigned Secretary of the Interior, participated inthe Round Table broadcast on "The American Commonwealth Today" March 3. Thurman Arnold, formerAssistant Attorney General, and Edward H. Levi, Professor of Law, were the other participants.Eight of the University's scientists were among 91 cancer authorities appointed to develop a co-ordinated program of research for the American Cancer Society. Theyare: Dr. Charles B. Huggins, Professor of Surgery; CarlR. Moore, PhD '16, Chairman of the Department ofZoology; Dr. Allan Kenyon, '22, MD '26, Associate Professor of Medicine; Thomas Gallagher, PhD '31, AssociateProfessor of Biochemistry; Harold C. Urey, Professor ofChemistry in the Institute of Nuclear Studies; RaymondE. Zirkle, Director of the Institute of Radiobiology andBiophysics; Dr. William Bloom, Chairman of the Department of Anatomy; and Earl A. Evans, Jr., Chairmanof the Department of Biochemistry. . . .The Physical Science Library, which has been in restricted area for the past three years is in circulationagain. E. Briggs Caldwell, library school graduate of theUniversity of Illinois, is the newly appointed librarian. . . .Lt. Col. T. V. Smith, PhD '22, Professor of Philosophyon leave for military service, and Leon Carnovsky, PhD'32, Professor of Library Science, are in Tokyo with agroup of United States educators to reorganize theJapanese educational system at the request of GeneralDouglas MacArthur.Thirteen faculty members of the University are newcontributors to the University-owned EncyclopaediaBritannica for the 1946 printing of the 178-year-old reference work. The new contributors are: W. C. Allee, '10,PhD '12, Professor of Zoology; L. M. Graves, AM '20,PhD '24, Professor of Mathematics; B. F. Hoselitz, AM'45, Instructor in Economics; Clay G Huff, Professor ofParasitology; F. H. Knight, Professor of Social Science;D. H. Leavens, Lecturer in Economics; F. R. Lillie, PhD'94, Professor Emeritus of Embryology; L. W. Mints,Associate Professor of Economics; R. G. Sanger, '25, SM'26, PhD '31, Assistant Professor of Mathematics; O. F.G. Schilling, Assistant Professor of Mathematics; H. C.Simons, Professor of Economics; and Dr. W. H. Taliaferro, Chairman of the Department of Bacteriology andParasitology.We Want Vou to KnowCharles V. StansellCHARLES V. STANSELL, AM 'I IThe Kansas City Staris literally the newspaperof Kansas City, Missouri.It is the morning paper;it is the evening paper(combined circulation:600,000); and it is theweekly farm paper ( circulation: 350,000). Thethree-story, block-square,red brick Star Buildingdown Grand Avenue toward the Union Station,also houses the Star'sradio station, WDAF.In the midst of^this 'round-the-clock activity, at hisdesk in the second floor editorial section, most any time ofthe day or night, you are likely to find Charles V. Stansell,the Associate Editor.From those early days in 1907 when he received hisA.B. from Furman University in Greenville, South Carolina, Charles had determined to be a professor of English.So he came to Chicago for his master's degree in Englishand immediately landed on the faculty of Ottowa University in Kansas.The upsetting War I years did something to changeStansell's ambitions and he gave up his faculty position in1919. He traveled to Kansas City, walked into the Staroffice and asked for a job. They immediately gave hima desk and set him to writing — editorials, among otherthings.By 1923, he had become a specialist in national affairsand in 1934, he became the Star's associate editor. Twoyears previous to this the editorial department had wonthe Pulitzer prize for consistently good editorials.Then came the age of radio news analysts and Stansell,with his years of editorial alertness, was ready. Steppingfrom his editorial desk to the radio news room three nightsa week, commentator Stansell analyses the news for anestimated six million listeners.At home, Mrs. Stansell, who grew up with Charles inGreenville, keeps the gravy hot and hopes he'll get homebefore the baked potatoes petrify. Originally there werefour youngsters waiting for dad when he arrived home.Now Laura is with her husband at the University ofTexas where he is a history major; Margaret is Mrs.Walter North in Kansas City; Charles, Jr., is a studentat the University of Kansas; and Betty is at WilliamWoods (junior) College at Fulton, Missouri.Last May, Charles Stansell attended a homecoming at. Furman University where he was honored with a Litt.D.But Charles also has a real loyalty for Chicago---a loyaltywhich he has expressed, through the years, by many practical services as a leading alumnus in the city of TheKansas City Star.— H.W.M. Robert M. StrozierROBERT M. STROZIER, PhD "45The army had trans- * ^3^ *;*»"£f erred Captain Henry M.Lemon, '38, out of Chicago. Therefore, thefamily subleased theirapartment (which wasjust below ours) to acouple, with two youngsters, from Georgia. Thenew family proved to bemost friendly and soonwe were calling them Boband Margaret and thetwo boys Bob, Jr. (5)and Chuck (1 J.Robert M. Strozier was dean of students at the University of Georgia. Granted a year5s leave, he had cometo Chicago to complete his work on a Ph.D. in RomanceLanguages. The sublease of Lemon's apartment was justto his liking.We remember that spring afternoon in '45 when wepicked up Bob Strozier in front of the Classics Building. He looked a little bewildered, albeit happy, in apuzzled sort of way. As we drove toward home he said:"I have just been asked to become Associate Director ofInternational House and Assistant Dean of Students incharge of all foreign students."Of course, we were delighted. Here was a man withpatience, a sympathetic understanding, language background, a sincere interest in students and their problems;someone in the Administration was acting with excellentjudgment.In the rush of alumni affairs we missed seeing theStrozier family for a time. But when we did, Bob hada brand new Ph.D. and an appointment to the Universityfaculty.Dean Strozier is the youngest of six brothers. Hisfather, president of Southern Georgia College, died whileBob was still a boy. After successfully raising her family,mother Strozier, 78, has retired to Rock Hill, N. C.Bob earned his first two degrees at Emory University.After teaching in a number of Georgia colleges and spending a year at the Sorbonne, he arrived at InternationalHouse on a Sunday in 1935 to start his first summer quarter on his doctorate. Wednesday evening at dinner hesat across the table from Margaret Burnett, AM '39, whohad just arrived from Colorado. The experience becamea habit and he's been sitting across the table from herregularly since 1937.So . . . it was a rather romantic reunion — the Stroziersand International House. This year the building housesits largest foreign student enrolment (from 34; nations)with an unending parade of personal problems. But italso houses Dean Strozier who operates his own miniatureUNO with sympathy and understanding. — H.W.M.14A GREAT GULF HAS BEEN FIXEDe By LAWRENCE J. MacGREGOR, '16Jewels and FursMay Breed HatredAt the end of 1944, having been granted a leave ofabsence from The Summit Trust Company, I went toPhiladelphia to acquire as quickly as possible a knowledgeof refugee agencies and activities here and abroad, anidea of what food was needed in France, and detailedinformation about the activities of the Quakers in Portugal since 1940. The work of the American FriendsService Committee with displaced persons in the Iberianpeninsula was gradually decreasing and I had been askedto go to Lisbon to close down entirely the Portugueseoffice.The frantic rush of persons trying to escape the Naziarmies created a serious problem in 1940 and later forthe Portuguese authorities and for the refugees themselves. The Friends were greatly disturbed by the situation in Portugal and in cooperation with the Jewish JointDistribution Committee, the National Catholic WelfareCouncil and the Unitarian Service Committee — each ofthose three working on a well defined group of cases —started a re-locating program which continues and mustcontinue in one way or another for years to come.Portugal was (a possible source of the food supplies sodesperately needed in France, and it had seemed reasonable to the Committee to try to originate shipments fortransport across Spain and into Southern France. TheAmerican, British and French Friends were doing whatthey could in view of restriction of all sorts to establishrelief centres, and the delegates in France were urgentlyrequesting supplies. With this picture before me of homeless persons and need for haste in shipping food, I leftby Clipper from La Guardia Field. Weather conditionsforced the use of the southern route by way of Brazil andAfrica. I arrived at the mouth of the Tagus, with Lisbonspread out beneath me in the January sunlight, eightdays after we left New York. , I did not know then, butI soon learned, that I had reached a country whose language was difficult for me to understand, .where restrictions and equipment made travel a burden, where Germany served as model for museums and secret police,and where ruthless dictatorship and political imprisonment were the order of the day.No one who has been in Lisbon two hours can havefailed to notice the mosaic sidewalks, the din of taxi hornsand the beggars. The latter emphasized the poverty ofthe country which in turn explained at least in part theofficial refusal to permit refugees to work. That rulingcaused a deterioration of physique and personality thatin many cases is likely to prove irreparable. It was sur prising to see German goods, periodicals and stores. Itwas more surprising to, learn of the Government's nervousdread of Russia, which was carried even to a point oftrying to ban the color red and of ignoring the fact thatStalin's armies had something to do with the militaryevents of Spring 1945.Interviews in Six LanguagesIn that atmosphere I settled my luggage — and mytrunk two, months later — in a room of a moderate priced,moderately comfortable hotel on the Avenida de Liber-dade. I met the office staff which consisted, in addition totwo delegates en route for France, of one secretary (English), one secretary (French), one file clerk (English,later replaced by a Norwegian), one accountant (Portuguese), one office boy (Portuguese) . Interviews were heldin English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and occasionallyItalian or German. It would be "affirmative misrepresentation" (to imply that I got far in anything but the firsttwo. The secretaries were invaluable in discovering andrestating a caller's problem, while I sat and smiled inwhat I hope was an intelligent manner.The daily routine was not difficult. Offices opened lateand closed late. After one had accepted the fact thateverything comes to a standstill between one and threeit was possible to carry out a fairly uniform schedule.When the office doorbell rang there was no telling whothe office boy might let in or what the problem might be.Perhaps a Yugoslavian sales agent — and attractive youn^woman — might hopefully be offering roast whole chickens in tins as a desirable item for shipment to Frenchrelief stations. It might be a central European womanwho talked English, French and Italian inter-changeably,obviously unbalanced, and at odds with the legationwhich held her passport. Sometimes it was a Portuguesemother trying to get 'her daughter into the United Statesin spite of an immigration quota already overloaded withapplications. Another time it would be a Frenchman or aBelgian with funds on deposit in New York or Paris withsome novel and improper notion as to how foreign exchange regulations could be evaded. Again it was a casefrom the list of one of the other American agencies, displeased because a request for additional funds had beenrefused and optimistically inquiring elsewhere.One of the pleasantest features of my stay was the closecooperation between the offices of the Joint DistributionCommittee, the Unitarians, the Catholic Welfare Committee and the Friends. We were constantly exchanginginformation on cases, regulations, transportation, suppliesand specific local problems. Especially with refugees whostill knew how to be aggressive, who wanted generousmaintenance allowances regardless of source, without closecooperation we would have duplicated payments at theexpense of JXiar^iiLeedy cases.1516 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThere were frequent rumors as to what the Portugueseauthorities were about to do, and specially from the persons living in forced residence in small villages there wasa constant stream of surmises, guesses and occosionallyactual information as to the plans of the InternationalPolice. It took more time than we could spare to traceall the rumors down, particularly if we were getting someone on a ship or a train. Nervous tension ran high whenit came to the actual hour of departure. There was always some permit, some piece of luggage, some visa lacking, some member of the party who had gone to thewrong dock. Unfortunately there was good reason foranxiety, as failure to leave as scheduled in the past hadsometimes meant years of waiting, with funds depleted,visas expired and the whole dreary business of acquiringpapers to do over again, probably under different regulations. It is not wise to smile indulgently at a refugee whois worrying about starting on a journey. Many of themhave had bitter experience of what failure to get awayin time may mean. I would be nervous, too.Community CommunicationsMy first real jolt came on the subject of communications. Any one who has worked1 for years with an American telephone on his desk and the U. S. Air Mail alwaysavailable is spoiled, whether he realizes it or not, for anything slower. My adjustment to the Lisbon schedule wassevere: three weeks or more each way by Air Mail to thehome office in Philadelphia, ten days or more Air Mailto London, four to eight days cable to New York, no mailat all to France and Switzerland. Nothing could be saidin a letter which one was not willing for American, British, Portuguese or Spanish officials to see. Telephone conversations with Madrid were always made in the knowledge that more than two persons were likely to be participating. Actually there was very little material thatwould have been even remotely interesting to the authorities, but the feeling of restraint was irksome and tendedto encourage a general vagueness of speech.Lawrence MacGregor,President of the SummitTrust Company of NewJersey, a Congregationalism went to the AmericanFriends Service Committeeearly in the war and offeredhis services at any time.Late in 1 944 they acceptedhis offer and, at our request, he has told us something about his work for theCommittee. The work with displaced persons was made more difficult by a shortage or complete lack of social services andagencies such as a well orgaized American communitytakes for granted. It is quite possible that my haltingknowlege of the Portuguese language (it was really verylimited) prevented me from discovering the existence ofcertain facilities, but both secretaries had lived in Portugal for years.A small village which suddenly finds its population increased by from 25 to 250 unemployed aliens with mentalstates varying from acute psychaneurosis to intense boredom can hardly be blamed if it is not prepared or evenwilling to provide counsel, advice and material assistance.It is rather disconcerting, though, to discover that theattitude of the village is apparently shared by the entirecountry, by many of the legations of countries from whichrefugees have come and that there is a very considerablequestion as to the position of official representatives ofthe United States and Great Britain as well. Any remarksabout the United States as a haven for the oppressedcould well be greeted by hoarse laughter by some refugeeswhose names I know. The only surprising element in suchcircumstances would be the fact that they still couldlaugh — even though hoarsely.A common expression used to describe a certain mid-European capital was "Ce'st vraiment sinistre!" Therewas a good deal of the sinister feeling about Lisbon, onereason being its admitted use as exit and entry point forAxis and Allied agents. It would have been reassuring toknow that American influence was being exerted uniformly and continuously on the side of democratic processes,but unfortunately such reassurance was lacking. Thegeneral atmosphere was shady, in spite of sunshine andpleasant weather.My formal reports to Philadelphia covered such progress as I made with regard to food purchases, refugeesand the final closing of the office. The Inter-Governmental Committee took over all cases not otherwise closed.In August I came back by Clipper, this time leavingLisbon at noon, with tea at the Azores, breakfast in Bermuda, lunch in New York and dinner at home. In letters to my friends I had been noncommital in view of thecensorship, and I had to consider what sort of report Icould make to them personally. I had been sent to workwith and find solutions for displaced persons and to buyand ship food into France. Especially in view of the political detachment scrupulously observed by the Friends intheir relief activities, it was emphatically not then andis not now my place to air my opinions as to Portuguesegovernmental and social problems. I might have suchopinions, and I did, but not as subject matter for a report.Confusing BarriersAccordingly, I had to give careful thought to what Icould report. I could report that displaced persons hadalmost no place to go because no country wanted themon terms it was possible for them to meet. True, certainTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17South American countries would permit refugees of certain nationalities, carefully qualified, to enter providedthey could get there. With Portuguese and Spanishsteamship lines charging terrific prices for thoroughly undesirable steerage quarters, how was a family to get toSouth America when they had lost everything 5 yearsbefore?I could report that if an offering of food supplies wasmade that seemed attractive it was necessary to get anexport license, a customs inspection, a transit permit acrossSpain, a British landcert, a French entry permit, an allocation of transport equipment and an insurance policy(sometimes unprocurable at any premium). The processmight require three months, and if water shipment wasinvolved, perhaps the ship would not even dock in Lisbonand new arrangements for transportation would be necessary.I could report that our office was more anxious to helpcertain American citizens than the U. S. Consular officewas, and I could report that if it were not for the generous and effective work of the Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees the outlook of many stateless refugeswould be utterly hopeless. And finally I could say withlittle fear of contradiction, that the average United Statescitizen has no comprehension whatever of difficulties oftravel and communication in Europe or of the dilemmafaced by a Roumanian, Czech or an Italian, to namethree, who finds himself in a neutral country without adequate papers and without effective consular representation. As for the occasional German deserter who thoughthe could arrange to be sent to an Allied prisoner of warcamp, a third class Portuguese prison was waiting for him,and even now I cannot bring myself to think of what wasin store for the Republican Spaniards that the PortugueseInternational Police returned to the border.And after making such a report what does it all mean?I knew a wealthy European family that had been in Portugal since 1940. They left in the Spring to resume residence in their chateau near Rouen. As a military headquarters it had escaped damage, and they were goingback home. They had bought new luggage, jewelry, newclothes, furs, delicacies and special foods of all kinds.With no lack of funds and no qualms as to methods ofobtaining export licenses, they were completely supplied—with one exception. They had ho imagination. I haveno idea what their arrival decked out like birds of paradise did to their neighbors who had been driven fromtheir homes and were living where the bare necessitiesof life were at a premium or were completely unobtainable.Indifferent AmericansThe American people at the present moment are notunlike that wealthy family. As they,go back into Europewith their furs and jewelry I am afraid that their European neighbors will look at them out of the woods andfrom the hills where war has driven them, with hate intheir hearts for a people that has no understanding. A gulf has been created between those who have suffered and those who have not, and I am afraid we aredoing very little to narrow or to bridge it. To begin with,we cannot talk to them. Of the three or four languagesthey may speak easily, we can speak one — badly. We donot know where their countries are, whether Bucharestis in Czechoslovakia or Budapest is in Roumania. Frankly,we are not really interested as a country in helping them.If you disagree, I would ask you to inquire how manyrefugees have been admitted to the United States in thelast five years— including the group of 1,000 that we havegraciously entertained in barracks near the shores of LakeOntario.In returning to this country after seven months workwith refugees, there inevitably came to my mind thestories of the rich man who pulled down his barns tobuild greater and of Dives and Lazarus outside his gate.The air was full of reconversion talk, and everyone waspleased with the prospect of new cars, steak dinners,nylons and appliances to make work unnecessary.I had seen plenty to criticize in Portugal, which is inall honesty a poor and relatively ignorant country. Butthis is the United States— a world leader by our own admission—and how do we lead? We lead in our intensedesire to own and keep any goods, commodities and gadgets that will contribute to our individual personal comfort. To be comfortable, to be undisturbed, is our goaland we pursue it vigorously. But even if it meant givingup nylons, streamlined kitchen cabinets and week-endgolf, might it not be worthwhile to try to understand someof those men and women that came over the Alps andthe Pyrenees, that have handcuff scars on their wrists,that have eaten in soup kitchens and fled at night fromthe secret police?At the moment we are living in a separate world, separate from these people that have been badly hurt, unimpressed by the acuteness of their distress. It will not beEuropean sales managers or State Department secretariesthat will bridge the gulf— the laws of commerce and highprotocol will intervene— but somehow the gulf must bebridged if we are not to become even more than at presentthe wealthy and hated intruder. In the meantime, whatlanguages do you speak besides French, and is Viennaeast or west of Rome, and do you need a British navicertif your trunk is going to Prague?SAVE June 8th on your Calendar for Reunion Day on theMidway. Details of the program will be announced later.SPEND time enough to write and mail your gift for thisyear's Alumni Fund which will be presented to ChancellorHutchins at the Alumni Assembly in Mandel Hall on theafternoon of Reunion Day.READ "Prelude to Vast Violence" in the next issue of theMagazine. It's explosively frank treatment of India writtenon the scenes by Don Ebright, Ph.D. '44.THE ALUMNI BOOKSHELFLaura KerrDOCTOR ELIZABETHNancy Kerr, a second - year student inthe College, has takenon a new responsibility; private secretaryto her mother, LauraF. Nowak, '25. Firstit's the phone, thenthe fan mail, or photographers, or something else that complicates living in theKerr household. SoNancy decided to stepin.All this because mother, between meals and the family washing, wrote a book which was published February6. It is written for older girls, is titled "Doctor Elizabeth," and is the life story of the first woman doctor andfounder of the New York Infirmary for Women andChildren.Doctor Elizabeth is dedicated to the four youthfulmembers of the Kerr family: Nancy; Jacqueline, a highschool freshman; Bill, junior, 11; and Kendra, 4. Dad,who contributed fifty per cent of the author's name onthe jacket (it reads: by Laura Kerr), is William D. Kerr,a member of Owl and Serpent of the class of '25. He isan investment banker with Bacon, Whipple and Company. The family lives in Chicago's Beverly Hills.Doctor Elizabeth by Laura Kerr, $2.50, Thomas Nelsonand Sons, New York.PEACE, SECURITY, AND THE UNITEDNATIONSNo longer is an American a good citizen if he justworks hard, educates his children, attends his weeklyluncheon club, and doesn't beat his wife. From now onto be a good citizen he must add to all these attributes adeep concern and interest in world affairs. In the atomicage, it is either an intelligently organized world society orno world at all. It is very heartening, in the light of theproblems that face the world, to have available a realisticbooks like Peace, Security, and the United Nations.The articles that comprise this book were delivered lastsummer at the University on the Norman Wait HarrisMemorial Foundation. They have been arranged andedited in an able fashion by Hans Morgenthau of theUniversity's Political Science Department. The book isnot technical and legalistic. All through the various articles there is a continual emphasis on the importance ofpower and political and economic considerations in thedevelopment of world politics and on the future of theUnited Nations Organization. The articles and their authors are: "Power and Justice" by Percy E. Corbett; "The Treatment of EnemyPowers" by Arthur Robert Burns; "Great Powers andSmall States" by Malbone W. Graham; "Regionalism andSpheres of Influence" by Frederick L. Schuman; and"World Organization on the Economic Fronts" by Eugene Staley.Both Graham and Schuman discuss the extremely vitalquestion of the relation of the Big Three to the smallerpowers in the world. Graham has an excellent analysisof the relations of large and small states over the lasttwo hundred years, while Schuman declares, in provocative language, that there can be no peace without unityof the Big Three. It is refreshing to read a writer oninternational politics who is not afraid of power. Schuman, whose views on Russia have just been expressed inhis recently published Soviet Politics, feels quite definitelythat Russia is no menace to the United States in its control of Central Europe. "If the super-powers," Schumanwarns, "in their mission of mastery over the. world, become rivals instead of partners, all small nations will betrampled down in the combat of giants, all colonial peoplewill become puppets of clashing imperialisms, all humanrights and liberties will be sacrificed on the altar of Marsin a global war which neither side can win but in whichboth sides will reduce what is left of Western culture toa rubble-heap."Peace, Security, and the United Nations is the type ofa book that the intelligent citizen, who wants to be informed on world politics, can hardly afford to ignore.It is a well written series of articles on issues of immediateimportance to the future of: world peace.Walter Johnson, Department of HistoryPeace, Security, and the United Nations, edited by HansMorgenthau, $1.50, University of Chicago Press.DUTY TO LIVE"Duty to Live" isrelated to the Midwaythree ways. The author is former Marooneditor, Emmett Dedmon, '39; the book isdedicated to CharlesE. Merriam, ProfessorEmeritus of PoliticalScience; and thejacket is designed byartist Lawrence BeallSmith, '31, whosepaintings have ap- c „ _ ,•, , Emmett Dedmonpeared on the coversand ^pages of the Magazine (Dec. '43; June '45).18THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19This novel has not one word about German prisoncamps where Air Force Captain Dedmon spent nearlytwo years of the war. Actually, the book was written insuch a camp when Emmett determined to keep his mindoccupied with something constructive to preserve his mental equilibrium. For paper, all his friends saved the whitewrappers from jumbo chocolate bars which came withthe Canadian Red Cross packages.The ten characters in the book compose the crew ofa B17. Although "any resemblance ... is wholly unintentional55 the action in the 272 pages covering less than24 hours is as authentic as Flying Fortress navigator Ded-inon's experiences.Emmett has a dramatic talent and versatile vocabularyfor vivid, not-too-lengthy description, used to full advantage in the ten flashbacks on the early lives of the bombercrew. You get back from Kansas, where tailgunner ElmerBlackston made the old farm hum because of leadershipqualities developed in part on the gridiron (shades ofStagg Field!), in time for Elmer to check his tail gunsbefore the swarms of Nazi fighters surround the fortress.You return from your final flashback in time for the dramatic air fight over Europe'-s wheat fields. .This story is so well written (five times over, accordingto Dedmon — and how he got it out of Germany is another tale) that we naturally asked Emmett what hisplans were for a second. With typical modesty and apractical philosophy he replied: "I have a few ideasbut will wait for the critics' verdicts before I decide. Inthis way I can correct my weaknesses and cultivate mystrengths — if I have any."Duty to Live by Emmett Dedmon, $2.50, HoughtonMifflin Co.DOCTOR! DO TELL!Dr. Victor F. Marshall, Rush '98, took time last fallfrom his accelerated war practice in Appleton, Wisconsin,to publish the fun, drama, and pathos from his experiences of nearly half a century in medicine and surgery.Doctor! Do Tell! by Dr. Victor F. Marshall, $2.50,C. C. Nelson Publishing Company, Appleton, Wisconsin. NUERNBERG TRIALS(Continued from Page 8)Tribunal is not trying Germany, but is trying individualswho, because of the acts charged, are within the criminaljurisdiction of the United Nations individually or collectively as that jurisdiction is defined by accepted international law.The Nuernberg Tribunal can, it is true, deal only withmajor war criminals of the European Axis. Criminaland military tribunals have, however, always had a limitedjurisdiction. The principles of the Charter apply, however, to all. As Justice Jackson said on signing theCharter:The definitions under which we will try the Germans are general definitions. They impose liabilityupon war-making statesmen of all countries alike.If we can cultivate in the world the idea that aggressive war-making is the way to the prisoner'sdock rather than the way to honor, we will have accomplished something towards making the peacemore secure.Foundations of PeaceThe statesmen of the United Nations in choosing todeal with enemy war criminals by legal trial rather thanby political act submit themselves to the principles theyassert. They announce their faith that the United Nations Organization will henceforth make it impossiblefor an aggressor ever to win a war, for should that happen the leaders of the victims of that aggression wouldbe in jeopardy. On this assumption Justice Jackson inhis recommendation to the President felt able to say:"Through these trials we should be able to establish thata process of retribution by law awaits those who in thefuture similarly attack civilization."The Trial will not be ended until the prosecution hasfinished its case and the defendants have had a full opportunity to answer. The results cannot be known untilthe court gives its judgment and sentences. The accusedpersons and organizations are not all in the same position. Their defenses will vary. The sentences will alsovary according to the evidence adduced. The final resultcannot be predicted but it can be said that the Trial, likethe United Nations Organization, constitutes a sincereeffort to carry out a proclaimed war aim in a mannerto strengthen international law and the foundations ofpeace.WHAT'S GOING ON HERE?WE'VE SEARCHED THE LIST of Great Books, for which Chicago has become more or lessfamous, but there's no indication that Conan Doyle has ever been among those authorspresent. And yet, in the same Loop classrooms of the University College where 572 students in1 8 classes are studying the Great Books, Jay F. Christ, who teaches business law on the quadrangles,has been spending Wednesday nights giving a c'ass in The Life and Times of Mr. Sherlock Holmes.Christ is a member of the Baker Street Irregulars. He knows the works anl background of Doylefrom the hounds to Baskerville. It's just another one of his thorough hobbies. With more space we'dtell you about some of his others — but there'll be another day and another Magazine.20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThere will be foliage when you stroll through these gardens on Alumni Day-June 8.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21JOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882 NEWS OF THE CLASSESAjax Waste Paper Co.2600-2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Any QuantityWaste PaperScrap Metal and Ironfor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, Van Buren 0230BLACKSTONEHALLAnExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering, Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave. TelephonePlaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorFINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Spode and Otter FamousMakes. Also Crystal and GiftsGolden Dirilyte(.Formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID— NOT PLATEDService for Eight, $41.75GOLDEN HUED BABY SPOONS fl»1While they last V1 ecr._COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDiriga, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, III. RECENT VISITORS TO ALUMNIHOUSEPhilip W. Clark, '36, MBA '42Fred E. Hewitt, Jr., '39, MBA '41Sam A. Myar, Jr., '40, LLB '42Archie H. Hubbard, '33Nathan H. Morris, '35John F. Dunkel, '40Abraham M. Cherner, '32, MD '37Chester F. Lay, AM '23, PhD '31Richard G. Guilford, AM '391897William H. Allen is director of theInstitute for Public Service, and isthe author of "Why Tammanies Revive," and co-author of "DictatorIsms and Our Democracy."1899John Darwin Manchester, MD,served as medical officer with therank of Captain in the U. S. Navyfrom 1903 to 1939 when he retiredfrom service. He is now living inSan Diego, Cal.1900E. A. E. Palmquist, DB '04, retired last November after servingtwenty-five years as executive secre-AMERICANPHOTO ENGRAVING CO.Photo EngravenArtists — Electrotype™Makers of Printing Plates429 TelephoneS. Ashland Blvd. Monroe 7515TREMONTAUTO SALES CORP.Authorized DealerCHRYSLER and PLYMOUTH6040 Cottage GroveMid. 4200Used Car DepartmentComplete Automobile RepairsBody Shop — Paint ShopSimonizing — WashingGreasing tary of the Philadelphia Federationof Churches. He is now serving inPhiladelphia on the Mayor's Commission on Race.1903William J. Bardsley, MD Rush, ispracticing medicine and surgery inPark City, Utah. He is local registrar of births and deaths, and DistrictCommander of the American Legion.William H. Head, retired clergyman and teacher, is living in Piedmont, California.1904Jennison Station, third in a seriesof plant additions to the system ofNew York State Electric and GasCorporation was dedicated on December 13. It is named in honor ofRalph D. Jennison, president of thecorporation.1908Frank M. Dryzer, AM, is an examiner with the Patent Office inWashington, D. C.1910Ernst G. Fischer is teaching inWauwatosa, Wisconsin, and is alsoactive in Sunday School work.George H. Lindsay is a member ofthe Draft Board in Bronxville, NewYork, and Chairman of the Re-employment Committee.1912Captain Leonard B. Loeb, PhD '16,returned to inactive status at the request of the University of Californiaon September 8, 1945, to resufrie histeaching duties and assist in reconversion to peace time status.Telephone Haymarlcet 3120E. A. AARON & BROS. Inc.Fresh Fruits and VegetablesDistributors ofCEDERGREEN FROZEN FRESH FRUITS ANDVEGETABLES46-48 South Water MarketEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488 '22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1914Albert G. Bower, SM, MD Rush'16, served four years in the Army inWorld War I, and four years in theNavy in World War II. He has resumed private practice in Pasadena,and is clinical professor of medicineat the University of Southern California.Friends of Earl Riney, pastor of theRoanoke Baptist Church in KansasCity, Missouri, will be sorry to learnthat he has been forced to resignfrom his church because of poorhealth.Margaret F. Williams, AM '33, isthe head of the English departmentat the Evanston Collegiate Institute,a "self-help" co-educational juniorcollege.1915Mrs. Herbert Burkhart (Ella Burg-hardt) has been granted a sabbaticalleave from her teaching duties atFenger High School in Chicago, andwill return to the quadrangles forstudy.1916David Gustafson, AM '27, is nowthe pastor of the Memorial BaptistChurch in Weirton Heights, WestVirginia. He formerly was pastor ofthe First Baptist Church in Weirton.1917Edwin Cunningham, AM, is nowthe pastor of the Union Church inHurley, New Mexico.Dorothy Shaver was recently elected president of Lord and Taylor inNew York City, and is the firstwoman to head a department storeINDEPENDENT BUND TUNING SERVICESOUTH SIDE - 20 YEARS EXPERIENCE -SERVICE ON SPINETS, UPRIGHTS ANDGRANDSMember American Society of Piano TunerTech.1 164 E. 6 1st Street Hyde Park 5527 of such size. She is an authority onmerchandising, and has had underher direction the fashion promotion,public relations, advertising and display programs of the store.Jack Skirball, together with hispartner, Bruce Manning, are producing and releasing movies through Universal Pictures. In addition, he wasrepresented on Broadway with thehit play "Jacobowsky and the Colonel."Alfred Tonness, AM '18, DB '20,PhD '31, is at present executive secretary of the San Diego Council ofChurches in California.1918Frank R. Gay, AM, PhD '26, ischairman of the department of languages and literature at ChapmanCollege in Los Angeles, California.1919Lt. Comdr. Gilbert P. Pond, MD,is V.D. Control Officer for the 14thNaval District, stationed in the city ofHonolulu.1920Harry Manuel Davis lives inAlamo, Texas, where he is busy growing and shipping citrus fruit.Major George D. Stout is now onterminal leave, after serving at Randolph Field, Texas, and six monthstemporary duty at the Army-NavyStaff College in Washington, D. C.He is returning to his old job in thedepartment of English at WashingtonUniversity in St. Louis.After 3 J/2 years of military service, Perry D. Strausbaugh, PhD, hasreturned to his former position ashead of the department of Botanyand Zoology at West Virginia University.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency63rd YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd./ ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City* Mo.Spokane — New YorkUnivers ITYNational BankayaiXlqo$t CHECK PLAN PAY-AS-YOU-GOoffers a low cost checking plan, which is easilyunderstood. Its only cost to depositors is fivecents for each check written and five cents foreach deposit. For your convenience deposits canbe made by mail. Stop in or write our Pay-As-You-Go Department and open your accountUNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1345 EAST 55TH STREETA Clearing House Bank — Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 1921F. Elmer Crumly has been appointed associate general agent in chargeof training and supervision of careerlife underwriters with the NationalLife Company of Vermont.Lee J. Park, LLB, is Deputy Director of the War Department PriceAdjustment Board in Washington,D. C.Erdmann Smith is pastor of theFirst Baptist Church in Denver, Colorado.In November, Henry R. Luce (of"Time" and "Life") wrote to a University official: "... the man whohas just about the hottest job inChina, Governor of Shantung, is aUniversity of Chicago graduate, HoSze-Yuan, AM '21. He was in manyways the most interesting man I metin a kaleidoscopic visit through West,North and East China. Eight yearsa student in Chicago and Europe,eight years Commissioner of Education in Shantung, he has been for thelast eight years leader of the Government guerrilla forces in Shantung ..."Ho Sze-Yuan's official title is Chairman of the Shantung Provincial Government.1922Lt. Col. Herbert F. Fenwick, MD'25, started on terminal leave the endof January, and is living at SunnyCrest Farm, Orland Park, Illinois.Robert C. Matlock is chief chemistin the electronics department of theKen-Rad Division of General Electric Company, and is living in Owens-boro, Kentucky.J. Edwin Parek, AM, is manager ofthe industrial and technical divisionof Prentice-Hall, Inc., in New YorkCity.A beautiful new science building onthe campus of the State TeachersCollege in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, has been named Shearer Hall inhonor of Simon S. Shearer, SM, headof the science department and professor of biology.1923Captain W. J. Nixon Davis, Jr.,MD '27, is on terminal leave afterservice with the Medical Corps ofthe Navy, and plans to resume privatepractice in Chicago.Phones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23POINT OF SALESSPECIALISTIt was pretty obvious to the seniors of 1924 that their classmate,Charles L. Dwinell would probablybe selling or managing somethingthe rest of his life. Among his activities on the Midway he wasbusiness manager of the "Journalof Business," assistant businessmanager of "Cap and Gown," anda member of the Board of Superiors of Blackfriars.ifl38HHHHMK... When Charles stepped out fromunder the Hutchinson CourtSpring Convention tent with hisdiploma he had a district salesmanagership awaiting him with theMeyercord Company, manufacturers of decalcomania. Decalco-mania is a process of transferringpictures, designs, signs, etc., fromspecially prepared paper to windows, truck bodies, ad infinitum.Dwinnell's territory included Missouri, Nebraska and Kansas withheadquarters in Kansas City.New Year of 1939 put Dwinellin the advertising business for himself. Remaining in Kansas Cityand purchasing his own buildingon 8th Street, he headed out forwhat he now calls "Point of Sales"Specialists. In his reception roomyou will face models of signs thatglow, bubble, flash, stick, run, andmost anything else display advertising does. With a growing corpsof salesmen, Charles DwineU isnow prepared to brighten everymain-stem and animate every highway from Ohio to Colorado; theGulf to Canada. 1924Lt. Col. Allen D. Albert, Jr., AM'31, PhD '36, is on terminal leave andwill resume teaching the spring quarter as professor of sociology at EmoryUniversity in Atlanta, Ga.The newly established Universityof Maryland Business Research Bureau is preparing to make an economic survey of Cumberland and Allegheny County under the supervision of Eugene T. Halaas, AM '24,PhD '33.Erling A. Smedal, MD, is completing terminal leave as Major in theMedical Corps, and is returning tothe practice of opthalmology at Mansfield, Ohio.1925Lt. Col. Robert S. Bolin is completing his terminal leave, and will return to private practice, limited toeye, ear, nose and throat, in Elkhart,Indiana.Anna May Jones is guidance counselor in charge of guidance in J.H.S.83, Manhattan. Her book, "Leisure.Time Education" will shortly be published by Harper & Bros., N. Y.Jack H. Oppenheim, JD '28, formerly chief enforcement attorney forthe OPA in the Chicago area, announces the formation of a partnership with James A. Dayton for thegeneral practice of law, under thefirm name of Dayton and Oppenheim,209 South La Salle Street, Chicago.¦— ^^— —¦ — ^—SUPER-COLD CORPORATIONMANUFACTURERS OF COMMERCIALREFRIGERATION2221 South Michigan AvenueCHICAGO 16, ILLINOISTelephone KENwood 1352J. E. KIDWELL FhM826 East Forty-seventh StreetChicago 15, IllinoisJAMES E. KIDWELL Miss Ruth E. Wentworth has givenup her position as Secretary to theDean of Medical Students which shehas held since her freshman year inthe University. Miss Wentworth hasaccepted a job in the Office of Admissions.Harold Wolfson, SM '26, MD Rush'29, served as Lieutenant Colonel withthe Army Medical Corps, and saw action in the South Pacific and Philippines, where he was awarded theBronze Star Medal. He has now returned to civilian practice in Kings-ley, Iowa.1926Luella Overn has recently accepteda position in the Home EconomicsDepartment of Athens College,Athens, Georgia.1927Lloyd Allen Cook was recently appointed professor of educational sociology in the Wayne University College of Education, in Detroit.Thomas M. Field has been releasedto inactive duty and has returned tobusiness with Stein and Roe, Investment Managers and Consultants inChicago.F. Wilbur Gingrich, AM, PhD '32,who is professor of Greek and religion at Albright College in Reading,Pennsylvania, recently wrote an article on "New Testament Lexicography and the Future" which appearedin the July issue of the "Journal ofReligion."Alfred W. Hurst, AM, DB '30, ispastor of the Cleveland Park Congregational Church.Emilie A. Meinhardt, PhD, has retired from teaching French and German, and is living in Quincy, Illinois.Justin O'Brien, assistant professorof French at Columbia University andchief of the French Desk of the OfficeA. T. STEWART LUMBER COMPANYEVERYTHING inLUMBER AND MILLWORK7855 Greenwood Ave. Vin 9000410 West I Nth St. Pul 0034GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating— Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedxie 318624 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEALUMNI ON RADIO PROGRAMTwo University of Chicago graduates are appearing on a new radioprogram entitled "Ideas Immortal," heard each Monday evening overthe Associated Broadcasting System from Hollywood.They are Wilbur J. Jerger, '39, LLB '42, Director of Adult Seminarsfor the Boards of Education in Beverly Hills and Los Angeles, andQuentin Ogren, '39, Field Examiner for the National Labor RelationsBoard. Ogren formerly assisted Dr. Mortimer Adler at the University.Jerger is serving as moderator of "Ideas Immortal," a forum type program which each week discusses an "idea" as formulated in the mindsof the great scholars of all time. Members of the air seminar essay touncover all facets of these "ideas" and to prove that they are just asapplicable to the twentieth century as they were the day of their birth.On the opening program, February 4, Aristotle's precept "War Is forthe Sake of Peace" was subjected to a searching discussion by the panel,"Art Is the Imitation of Nature," a Plato tenet was presented to theaudience, February 11. "Nothing Is Too Wonderful to Be True" byFaraday and "Man Is the Measure of All Things" by Protagoras are"ideas" scheduled for future programs.Paul Clemens, nationally known artist, is the third permanent member of the panel. Each week a guest of national reputation is invited toparticipate. Program is heard Monday evenings 10:30 to 11:00 PM,EST.The Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324 Platers, SilversmithsSpecialists . . .GOLD. SILVER, RHODANIZESILVERWARERepaired, Re finished, RelacqueredSWARTZ & COMPANY10 S. Wabash Ave. CENtral 6089-90 Chicagoof Strategic Services during the war,has received the French Legion ofHonor with the rank of Chevalier.The decoration, one of the highestof the French government, was bestowed upon him for his work inestablishing intelligence networks behind German lines in France. TheLegion of Merit from the UnitedStates was presented to him in Parislast May for the same operations.Mrs. Alvin S. Thurston (MaryPlanert, AM) is busy keeping up witha country doctor husband and twoearly-teen daughters. In addition,she has been doing emergency teaching in the local high school for threeyears. She is living in Council, Idaho.Burton Smith is back in civilianlife, after serving as Lieutenant Commander in the Navy, and reports heis now back at work, and trying toreacquire a new (though less colorful) vocabulary.1928Theodore T. Cowgill, AM '28, isschedule maker for the Chicago Surface Lines, is an attorney in generalpractice, and is also operating a ranchwhich he inherited in Easton, Oregon. Looks like a busy schedule to us, butin his spare time he enjoys 16 mm.movies and sound recording.Glenn K. Kelly, AM, is superintendent of schools in Fennville, Michigan.Vergil C. Lohr, AM, is an instructor in physics and mathematics at theNorthern Illinois College of Optometry.Hugh A. Rice, SM '30, is instructorin zoology at the Northern IllinoisCollege of Optometry.1929Leon R. Gross, JD '30, is back practicing law in Chicago after over twoyears in the Navy where he servedin Panama and Guam with a CombatAircraft Service Unit.Lt. Col. Robert L. Stern, MD '34,is on terminal leave, and will resumeprivate medical practice in BeverlyHills, California, specializing in internal medicine.Eugenie L. Taylor, AM, has recently joined the faculty of NorthPark College as an instructor inFrench and Spanish. ECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893ASHJIANBROS.,IncESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — -Offset— Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182T. A. REHNQUIST CO. CONCRETEFLOORSSIDEWALKSV\\ V MACHINE FOUNDATIONS\\ EMERGENCY WORKVEST. 199 ALL PHONESWentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Av«.1930Dorothy Grace Cahill, AM '40,spent two years in the MediterraneanTheater as a hospital recreationworker with the American Red Cross,and is now back home, living in Wil-mette and working for the GirlScouts.Dexter Wright Masters is directorof publications, editor of "Science,Inc." with the McGraw-Hill Company in New York City.Loretta M. Miller, AM '38, is professor of Remedial Education at Central Washington College of Educationin Ellensburg, Washington.Ruth E. Perkins, AM, is socialservice consultant with the IllinoisPublic Aid Commission.Ralph S. Underwood, PhD, is professor of mathematics and astronomyat Texas Technological College inLubbock, Texas.Howard Hazen Wilson, PhD '41, isin the Department of State in Washington in charge of Cuban affairs. Heis married and has a son, HowardHazen Wilson, Jr., aged five.1931Charles F. Adler, JD '33, has beenTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25discharged and is with the ParkerFur Company in Chicago.A. Lenore T. Brock, AM, is a lecturer at the University of Manitoba,in Winnipeg, Canada.Margaret Lotz is out of the serviceand back teaching at Central HighSchool in Muncie, Indiana.We have received word that LouiseM e e b o 1 d, AM, a CongregationalChristian Missionary to China, hasbeen released from the Weihsien internment camp in North China. Atpresent she is in Tientsin getting intouch again with her Chinese fellow-workers. She plans to return to theStates next summer.William S. Minor has resigned hisposition as Professor of Philosophy atEarlham College, Richmond, Indiana,to accept a professorship in Philosophy at West Virginia University.Frank M. Petkevich, MD '37, hasa fellowship in Radiology at GarfieldHospital, Washington, D. C.1932Paul Ashley, MD '37, who servedas Lieutenant Commander in theNavy Medical Corps is back in civilian practice, and is living at 24Illinois Street, Chicago Heights. Bernard Brodie, PhD '40, is associate professor at the Institute of International Studies, Yale University.Mrs. Brodie is the former Fawn McKay, AM '36.Chaplain (Lt. Col.) Arthur C.Piepkorn, PhD, is Chief of the Chaplain Section of the Theater GeneralBoard (European Theater), and iscompleting the General Board reporton "The Functioning of the ArmyChaplain in the European Theater."1933Marion L. Castle, AM '36, is teaching in Morgan Park High School inChicago.Lt. Commander Marshall C.Foreen is Assistant Property DisposalOfficer for the contract terminationsection of the Inspector of Naval Material, New York City. One of thefirst persons he ran into there wasLt. Commander Wesson S. Hertrais,'31, who is Finance Officer there.Archie H. Hubbard was a recentvisitor to Alumni House, while onterminal leave. He commanded alanding craft in the invasions ofAfrica, Sicily, Salerno and Anzio, andcommanded a landing ship at thePhilippines and Okinawa. With active Navy duty behind him, he has accepted a position as Industrial Engineer with the Tennessee EastmanCorporation at Kingsport, Tenn.Robert H. O'Brien, LLB, is working at Paramount Pictures, Inc., inNew York.Major Robert B. Shapiro, JD '35,is on terminal leave and is opening aChicago office of Associated BusinessConsultants, management engineers.Lt. Sydney Titelbaum, PhD '38,JD '42, is in charge of physiologicalresearch at the AAF Aero MedicalCenter, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, inHeidelberg, Germany. He writes thatmany German scientists, some of themworld famous, are working in aviation medicine or allied fields there,with the American Army. The American staff is small and congenial; hereports that it also includes MajorWilliam Shelley, MD '41.1934William Braswell, PhD, has beenreleased from active Navy duty, andis returning to the faculty of PurdueUniversity.Wiley R. Holloway, AM '35, issuperintendent of schools in Stockton, Illinois, and is listed in "Who'sWho in American Education" andPUBLIC LECTURES and LECTURE-CONFERENCESDOWNTOWN — SPRING. 1946TOMORROW'S HOME, ten lectures by adistinguished group of community planners, architects and other specialists.Tuesdays, 7:30 p. m., Auditorium, 19South La Salle Street, beginning April 2.PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY, ten lecturesby Kurt Riezler, Visiting Professor ofPhilosophy. Thursdays, 6:45 p. m.,Auditorium, 19 South La Salle Street,beginning March 28.GREAT MEN OF WORLD RELIGIONS,ten lectures by Sunder Joshi. Fridays,6:45 p. m., 19 South La Salle Street,beginning March 29. AN INTRODUCTION TO CHAMBER MUSIC, five lecture-concerts. AlternateWednesdays, 8:15 p. m., Kimball Hall,beginning March 27.SPEECH— IN THE MAKING, directed byBess Sondel. A series of ten sessionsopen to those who wish practice inspeaking and listening. Wednesdays,6:45 p. m., Room 809, 19 South La SalleStreet, beginning April 3.LECTURES BY MORTIMER J. ADLER.April 12 and May 10, 7:30 p. m., 32 WestRandolph Street, 14th Floor.Series or single admission tickets available at University College officeor at door the evening of each lecture.For complete information about each lecture series, addressUNIVERSITY COLLEGE THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO19 South La Salle St., Chicago 3, Illinois Telephone DEArbom 724526 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"Who's Who in Chicago and Illinois."Emil K. Holzhauser, PhD, is teaching at the Breck School for Boys inSt. Paul, Minnesota.Carolyn R. Just attended the 4thConference of the Inter-AmericanBar Association in Santiago, Chile,recently as a delegate from six member bar associations, and presented apaper at that meeting on international cartels. She. is a Special Attorneywith the Anti-trust Division, Department of Justice, in Washington, D. C.Valdimer O. Key, PhD, was promoted to the rank of professor ofPolitical Science at the Johns Hopkins University in January. He hasbeen at Johns Hopkins since 1938,with the exception of three years ofwar service with the Bureau of theBudget in Washington, D. C.Lt. Col. Thomas E. Keys, AM, ison terminal leave and is returning toRochester, Minnesota, to assume thelibrarianship of the Mayo Clinic.Herman Odell, JD '36, has beendischarged from service and is working for Paramount Pictures in NewYork City.Ashley Offill is living in Villa Park, Illinois, and is working in the nationalretail advertising department of SearsRoebuck and Company.Marvin H. Pink, JD '36, has beendischarged and is working at DebsHospital Supplies in Chicago.1935John P. Barden, Jr., JD '38, is assistant dean of the University Collegeat the University of Chicago.Arthur J. Bernstein, JD, has beendischarged from service and is backin private law practice in Chicago.Lt. Col. William F. Beswick, MD,was released from active duty in December, and is now assistant professor of neurological surgery at the University of Buffalo.Lewis A. Dexter has joined the faculty of Bryn Mawr College at BrynMawr, Pennsylvania, as instructor inthe department of social economy.George F. Hall, PhD, has been thevisiting professor of religion at UpsalaCollege in East Orange, New Jersey,during the past school year. He isnow back in St. Peter, Minnesota,where he is teaching at GustavusAdolphus College.Lt. Comdr. Ellmore C. Patterson,Jr., is now on terminal leave, and expects to return to his former jobat J. P. Morgan and Company. Heand his wife and three sons will livein Pleasantville, New York.Dr. Jane R. Allen (Jane Reeve,MD '35) is pediatrician with the Victoria Foundation at Morristown, New'Jersey.Lt. Col. Conrad E. Ronneberg,PhD, has received a citation and theBronze Star Medal for planning, organizing, and conducting the firstArmy Information and EducationStaff School.1936Velma T. Ball, AM, is Dean ofGirls in the Oak Park and RiverForest Township High School.Herbert C. Brook, JD, is a civilianagain, and is back practicing law inChicago with the firm of Lord, Bis-sell, and Kadyk, and is living in LaGrange.Carl Walter Carlson, SM, is working as a chemist with the HeydenChemical Company in Fords, NewJersey.Calvin E. Eiler, AM, is assistantdirector of school inspection with theState Department of Education ofIndiana.Best by vote . . . mild, mellowSwift's P *remiumam!iHAM ~tfo<^o/vcyvcm Sitf)a/i LsiAtext Year after year, in nation-wide pollsof public opinion, the huge preferencefor Swift's Premium Ham shows amarked increase. Despite shortages,the superb quality of this bam hasnever been compromised.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27WILLIAMS, BARKER &SEVERN CO.AUCTIONEERSAuctioneers and AppraisersPublic auctions on owner's premises or at oursalesroomsAccept on consignment the better quality offurniture, works of art, books, rugs, brtc-a-brac, etc.We sell on commission or buy outrightOur specialty liquidating estates, libraries, etc.22? S. Wabash Ave. Phone Harrison 3777RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3192Serving the Medical ProfessionSince 1895V. MUELLER & CO.SURGEONS' INSTRUMENTSHOSPITAL AND OFFICEFURNITUREORTHOPEDICAPPLIANCESPhone Seeley 2180, all departmentsOgden Ave., Van Buren andHonore StreetsChicago 12Alfred E. Hoffman, Jr., is workingas a research chemist with Universal Oil Products Company in Riverside, Illinois, and he and Mrs. Hoffman live in Clarendon Hills.John M. Knowlton, JD, has beendischarged from the Navy, and isback in practice at Righeimer andRigheimer in Chicago.Frank Moss, AM '40, is workingfor the War Department in Arlington,•Virginia.We have received word that MarieRegier, AM, missionary of the Mennonite Board, has just been releasedfrom a concentration camp in China.Major Louis Yasinick is on terminalleave after three years overseas in thePacific, and is planning on takingfurther medical training.1937James S. Allen, PhD, has left LosAlamos, New Mexico, where he wasworking on atomic research, to accepta position with the Institute for Nu-lear Studies at the University of Chicago. The foremost decoration of France, the Legion of Honor, was awarded toLieutenant Joseph C. Varkala, U.S.N.R., '35, AM '36, by Vice Admiral R.Fenard, Chief of the French Naval Mission in the United States, on behalfof the French Government at a ceremony held in Washington on December27, .1945.The citation, signed by General Charles De Gaulle, President of the FrenchProvisional Government, stated in part : "For exceptional courage during theperformance of outstanding services rendered by Lt. J. C. Varkala, U.S.N.R.,to the Government of France during the war against Germany in France in1940, and for his outstanding work as U. S. Naval Liaison Officer 1944-45 withthe French Naval Mission."In 1940, Lt. Varkala was a member of the Paris office of the Armco International Corporation of Middletown, Ohio, and remained in France duringthe early phases of the war, returning to the United States in 1941 after sometrying experiences with the German Army and the Gestapo, who tried toprevent him from returning to the United States. After joining the U. S. Navy,he was assigned to duty on the Staff of the Chief of Naval Operations in aliaison capacity with the French Naval Mission for combined operations. Lt.Varkala is the son of alumnus Joseph P. Varkala, '09.Lt. Col. Heinrich G. Kobrak, PhD,is now on terminal leave and will rejoin the University faculty in the department of surgery.Lt. Col. Theodore S. Kurland, JD,was discharged from the Army in December, and writes: "After four years,including one and one-half years inthe European Theater with four battle stars to my credit, am happy togive up any rank for the title of 'Mr.'After life in the Army, even beingClaims Manager for the Fidelity andCasualty Insurance Company of N.Y. in Little Rock, Arkansas, lookslike heaven to me."John A. Nelson, MD, is returningto the private practice of medicineand surgery in Longview, Washington, after three and a half years inthe Armv Medical Coras. Ernest L. Snodgrass, PhD, formerly pastor of the First Baptist Churchin Lawrence, Kansas, is now ministerof the Bethany Union Church inChicago.Lt. Col. William Weinstein, MD, ison terminal leave, and will resumethe practice of internal medicine inSeattle, Washington.Capt. Cecil M. Young is on duty atthe Atsugi Army Air Base, Honshu,Japan.1938Mrs. Harold R. Corwin (FrancesD. Brown, JD '40) is a lawyer withthe Federated Metals Division, Whiting, Indiana.Leona F. Buker, AM, is an investigator with the Wage and Hour Division of the State Department ofLabor, and a member of the CitizensCommittee for Full F.mnlnvmpnt. anrf28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIplaefesstotte decorating^erbtcePhone Pullman 917010422 &fjobei$ mt., Chicago, 3U.OBERG'SFLOWER SHOPFlowers wired the world over1461 E. 57th StreetPhones: Fairfax 3670, 3671La Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston — New York — Philadelphia — Syracuse the Citizens Committee on Housing inPaterson, New Jersey.M. Ruth Butler, AM, recently accepted a position as executive directorof the Philadelphia Heart Association,an agency working for the preventionand treatment of heart diseasethrough an educational and researchprogram.Leonard Hoffman, JD '40, revertedto inactive status Christmas Day afterfour and one-half years service, andis now practicing law in Morris, Illinois.Blair Kinsman is an instructor inmathematics at Lake Forest Academy, Lake Forest, Illinois. He listshis hobbies as "flying, yacht racing,chess, chamber music and hot jazz,and inventing new cocktails."Captain Joseph T. Klapper, AM,is on terminal leave, and expects tostart work on a PhD in EducationalPsychology, with radio as a field ofmajor interest.Jack H. Knox, AM, is superintendent of schools in Salisbury, North Carolina, and is president of the Department of Superintendents of theNorth Carolina Education Association.Mrs. John W. Mattingly (PhyllisGreen) is still in Pensacola, Florida,with her navy lieutenant husband whoflies air-sea-rescue under the CoastGuard. She is teaching English toSophomores in the local high schooland sponsors the school newspaper.She will proctor the University'sscholarship examinations in April. InJune she and her husband will be going back to school after a much anticipated trout fishing expedition.Thelma Menzer headed the American Red Cross program at the 83rdGeneral Hospital in England for fifteen months, and in France fivemonths.Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones* Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Ssrvicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.CADILLAC EQUIPMENT EXCLUSIVELY Graham Newell is teaching in St.Johnsbury, Vermont, and is alumnisecretary in the Academy where heteaches. He is also justice of the peace,and owner of a book shop "The Newell Post."Lt. Theodore S. Pabst, Jr., JD '40,is stationed in Yokohama, Japan, asTrial Judge Advocate.Ithiel de Sola Pool, AM, '39, isworking on the Toxicology Project atthe University. Mrs. Pool is the former Judith E. Graham, '39.Richard Prescott has been discharged from service, and is doinggraduate work at the University ofCalifornia.Mars M. Westington, PhD, professor of Classical Languages and Literature in Hanover College and President of the Madison, Indiana, Kiwanis Club, has been elected delegate to Kiwanis International's "Victory" Convention to be held in Atlantic City in June.1939Robert M. Boltwood, AM, '40, recently accepted a position as instructor in the English department atWayne University in Detroit.Burr Cartwright Brundage, PhD, iswith the State Department in Washington, D. C, in charge of the Chilean Desk.Albert W. Hilker, MD, returned tocivilian life in November, and is associated with, the Midelfart Clinic,Eau Claire, Wisconsin.Fern V. Kruse, AM, has returnedfrom Europe, where she served on the"doughnuts fronts" with the American Red Cross, and is living in Milwaukee where she is supervisor in theDepartment of Municipal Recreationand Adult Education.Kullervo Louhi, MBA '40, writesthat he received his highest promotion— from master sergeant to civilian —on February 6. He had just enoughTimothy A. BarrettPLASTERERRepairing A Specialty5549 S. Cottage Grove Ave.Phone Hyde Park 0653BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAYmarket 79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critio work. Sendfor folder today.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29time after discharge to change clothesand freeze in the Minnesota winterafter 22 months in the Pacific for afew days before beginning the teaching of accounting at the Universityof Kansas.Captain John S. Mahony is now onterminal leave after serving with theAir Corps. He is the father of twins,born last October.Freeman E. Morgan, Jr. is a civilian again and has a position as Assistant Chief of the Classification Division of the Veterans Administrationin St. Louis.Desmond Murphy, AM, is directorof the Lower School at AllendaleSchool, in Rochester, New York.Esther G. Ortleb is living in LaCrosse, Wisconsin, where she is doingsocial work.Major Leonard W. Zedler writesus from Germany: "Still in the ThirdArmy. Have been in this outfit for3l/2 years, and it's about time I wenthome. Expect to be a civilian sometime this summer. I hope the folks athome will take this occupation inGermany more seriously in the future. There is so much that can bedone here for the future peace of theworld."1940Lt. Col. Otis R. Farley, MD Rush,is on terminal leave and is chief ofmedical service at St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington, D. C.J. Thomas Hastings, AM, PhD '43,has recently accepted a position asassistant professor of education at theUniversity of Illinois.Albert Newhouse, PhD, has accepted an instructorship at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas.Martha Louise Pearson is a secretary with the Massachusetts MutualLife Insurance Company in Detroit.HOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphlng AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesjMI Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 Chicago Overton Sacksteder, III. has beenreleased to inactive duty after serving in the Navy, and is now production manager of General Lamps Mfg.Company, and is living in Elwood,Indiana.Samuel M. Strong is associate professor of sociology at the Universityof Nebraska in Lincoln.Dennis J. Wort, PhD, has joinedthe faculty of the Department of Botany at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C.Marianne Yates is* assistant librarian at the Joint Reference Libraryserving the "1313" organizations(Public Administration ClearingHouse).1941James Brodsky is teaching in Chicago and doing graduate work atNorthwestern. He hopes to leave forCzechoslovakia soon to teach andstudy at Charles University in Prague.Joseph J. Eckert, MD RUSH, hasbeen discharged from service and isresident in surgery at the City Hospital of Akron, Akron, Ohio.Helen Huus, AM, PhD '44, was released from the Navy in October, andhas returned to Wayne University inDetroit as an assistant professor inthe College of Education.Richard C. Massell was dischargedon January 21, and is returning to theUniversity in the spring quarter forgraduate work in economics.James H. Murr has been transferred to Wichita, Kansas, where he iswith the central division of GeneralMills. Mrs. Murr is the former Cynthia Dursema, '44.Stewart I. Oost has been dischargedfrom the Army and is planning to reenter the University to work on hismaster's degree this summer.Mrs. James Wilson (Ruth Steel) isreturning to the University next fallHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD., Chicago, IllinoisTelephone Harrison 7793Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized as one of the leading TeachersAgencies of the United States.GEO. D. MULLIGANCOMPANYPAINTING CONTRACTORS2101-9 South Kedzie AvenuePhone: Rockwell 8060 ESTABLISHED 1908ROOFING and INSULATINGAlice Banner Englewood 3181COLORED HELPFACTORY HELPSTORESSHOPSMILLS FOUNDRIESEnglewood Emp. Agcy., 5534 S. State St.ENGLEWOODELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers ofELECTRICAL MATERIALS ANDFIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 EnglewoodS. Halsted Street 7500Arthur MichaudelDesigner and Maker ofDistinctive Stained Glass Windows542 North Paulina Street, ChicagoTelephone Monroe 2423Albert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, "21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChieagoTel. Cent. 4285-6Since 7878HANNIBAL, INC.UpholstersFurniture Repairing1919 N. Sheffield AvenuePhone: Lincoln 718030 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfor her veteran-husband to continuestudy. Ruth served with the WASP.William W. Sweet, JD, is workingin the legal department of the HuntOil Company in Dallas, Texas.Captain Alan Teague is back in theUnited States. As pilot of a LiberatorBomber he was shot down over enemyterritory and spent 13 months as prisoner of war in Germany. He is staying with the Air Forces until the summer of 1947, when he expects to return to the University for furtherstudy.Evon Vogt is doing field work on amaster's thesis in anthropology at theUniversity.Vinton Hodge Wright, MD, has atwo year residency in pediatrics atthe Los Angeles County General Hospital. He served 13 months overseasin England, France, and Germanywith the 99th Infantry Division.1942Karl A. Bosworth, PhD, was appointed associate professor of politicalscience at Western Reserve Universityin Cleveland recently.Frank B. Cliffe, jr., has been discharged and is back at the Universityworking on his master's degree in International Relations.Lt. John F. Dunkel expects to bedischarged the end of March, and willbe back on the quadrangles thisspring.Gerald G. Govorchin, AM, is anassistant in the history department atNorthwestern University.Erwin Haas, PhD, is assistant professor of experimental pathology atWestern Reserve University, and isliving in Cleveland Heights.Quentin F. Maule is a patient inHalloran Hospital, recovering from aleg injury received while serving as anambulancier with the American FieldService.NEILER, RICH & CO.(NOT INC.)ENGINEERSMechanical and ElectricalConsulting and Designing431 So. Dearborn StreetChicago 5, III.Telephone Harrison 7691Phone: Saginaw 3202FRANK CURRANRoofing & InsulationLeaks RepairedFree EstimatesFRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.8019 Bennett St. e Alfred H. Norling is a statistician in'. the research department of the Penn-y sylvama-Central Airlines in Wash-t ington, D. C, and is living in Alexandria, Virginia.e Mrs. John Tordella (Mildredr Rees) and her husband are moving toY Wilmington, Delaware. They havetwo children, James Michael, born- July 11, 1944, and Kathleen Mabel,born January 13, 1946.William G. Stryker, AM, is assist-r ant in the English Department atStanford University, where he isa working on his PhD,1943a Lt. William P. Albrecht, PhD, is at patient at U. S. Naval Hospital, GreatLakes, Illinois.s Charles R. Barton, MBA, has beeny discharged and has returned to Chicago to take a new job with the taxdivision of Container Corporation.His chief problem is finding a homehere for his family. Mrs. Barton is1 the former Jean Gore, '40, and theY third member of the family is MichaelBruce, 20 months old.Betty Berry, who is serving with the' American Red Cross, has been stationed in Frankfort-Main and vicinity, and expects to soon be on here way to Paris, Le Havre, and home.SPRAGUEIRON WORKS44 10 WEST ADDISON ST.TELEPHONEPALISADE ¦ ¦ 2210SWIFT'S ICE CREAMAt home, or at your favorite sodafountain, creamy-smooth, delicious Swift's Ice Cream is trulySWIFT & COMPANY S&ySwtf t's Y^Mw\' 4 Ice i'VIOHd7409 S. State Street &A Cream #SHPhone RADcliffe 7400 K^s=^x3H Lt. Urchie B. Ellis is stationed atAberdeen Proving Ground, but hopesto be back at the University to finishschool next fall.Theodore G. Gilinsky was discharged from service in December,and is back at the University in theLaw School.Efrem Ostrow is back on campusas a physicist working at the Metallurgical Labroatory after having beenat the Los Alamos Atomic BombLaboratory for the past year.Lt. (j.g.) Ralph D. Silver is stationed on Guam, where he has beensince October, 1944.Roderick Stebbins, AM, is with thePennsylvania Prison Society, in Philadelphia.1944Ensign Robert T. Morrison, PhD,is still in the Navy, serving in Cuba,and expects to return to civilian lifein May or June.Lt. George D. Ramspeck is stationed at the Base Weather Stationwith the Army Air Forces at Sedalia,Missouri.Hqward E. Tempero, PhD, is doingresearch work in personnel for theUnited Air Lines in Chicago.Richard S. Williams is a student atUnion Theological Seminary in NewYork.1945Marilyn Burkhart is now attendingthe Chicago School of Expression andDramatic Art. She expects to receiveher teacher's certificate in dramaticsin June. She will then leave for Plymouth, Mass., for her "actors-in-training" course. She expects to enterthe theatrical profession.Lt. Kay C. Montgomery expects tobe discharged in June, and plans toreturn to the University to do additional work in the field of psychology-BIENENFELDGLASS CORP. OF ILLINOISChicago's Most Complete Stock ofGLASS1525 PhoneW. 35th St. Lafayette 8400ACMESHEET METAL WORKSANIMAL CAGESandLaboratory Equipment1121 East 55th StreetPhone Hyde Parle 9500THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31SOCIAL SERVICERichard Eddy, AM '34, has recently taken a new position with theState Department of Public Welfarein Illinois. He is to be Superintendent of a new Illinois Children's Hospital School which will be opened inChicago in the very near future.Jules Berman, AM '37, has takena position as Legislative Consultantwith the Bureau of Public Assistance,Social Security Board, Washington.Willard Cargile, AM '37, has recently accepted a position as Psychiatric Social Worker with the VeteransAdministration.Thompson Fulton, AM '37, has recently accepted a position as Assistant Professor in the School of SocialWork at West Virginia University.Donald Hartzell, AM '37, has recently been released from the Service and has taken a position in theVeterans Information Center in SanFrancisco, California. He will be theLiaison Worker between the Centerand the Community Chest agencies ofthe City.Elizabeth Wilson, AM '37, has beenappointed Executive Secretary of theInternational Institute in Gary, Indiana.Sara Post Scott, AM '38, is nowField Representative for Children'sInstitutions with the New Jersey StateDepartment of Institutions and Agencies.Idabel Sine, AM ' 38, has beenmade Supervisor of Physical Restoration in the Oklahoma Vocational Rehabilitation Services.Bernard Miran, AM '39, is a FieldRepresentative in the Hospital Service of the National Jewish WelfareBoard, located in San Francisco.Edith Stander, AM '39, has left theChildren's Division of the State Department of Public Welfare in Indiana to become the Secretary of thePENDERCatch Basin and Sewer ServiceBack Water Valves, Sumps-Pumps6620 COTTAGE GROVE AVENUE1545 E. 63RD STREETFAIRFAX 0330-0550-0880PENDER CATCH BASIN SERVICE1545 EAST 63RD STREETBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492 Family and Child Welfare Section ofthe Council of Social Agencies of Indianapolis in Marion County.John W. Anderson, AM '40, is nowthe Executive Director of the FamilyWelfare Organization in Allentown,Pa.Lily Baral, AM '40, has accepted aposition with the Maternity and Infant Care Program in the Department of Health, Bureau of Child Hygiene, New York City.Norman Myers, AM '41, has recently returned from Service and hasbeen made Child Guidance Counsellor at the Illinois State TrainingSchool for Boys at St. Charles, Illinois.Catherine Roherty, AM '41, has accepted a position as Assistant Supervisor of Social Services, State SocialServices, State Social Security Commission of Missouri.Mortimer Goodman, AM '42, hasbeen released from the Service recently and is now a Caseworker in theFamily Service Association in Cleveland, Ohio.TuckerDecorating Service1360 East 70th StreetPhone MIDway 4404HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE AFTER20 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERTGraduate NurseMultiple 90 platinum needles can beused. Permanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrow ¦, Back of Neck or anySart of Body; destroys 800 to 600 Hairloots per hour.Removal of Facial Veins. Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. MedicalHydrology and Physical Therapy.Telephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth m Beonty MARRIAGESMrs. Miriam Leavitt, AM '36, instructor in field work, School of SocialService Administration, has recentlymarried William H. Brueckner, headresident of Emerson House, 645 NorthWTood Street, Chicago, where they aremaking their home.Mary Ruth Owens, AM '39, andMajor Heeren Samuel Eilts Krusewere married in Chicago on December 21, 1945.Marcia Harriet Dancey, AM '39,to Lt. George Goodman Gordon, atCleveland, Ohio, on January 20,1946.Y2/C Richard C. Dyer, '40, andCecile Power of Portland, Oregon,were married in June, 1944. He isnow on Tinian, "sweating out" discharge points.Lieutenant Lois E. Horlick, '40,and Major William E. McBride weremarried on December 28, 1945. Theyare living in Chicago.Samuel L. Gandy, '40, and FrancesWilliams were married on ChristmasDay, 1945, at Thorndyke Hilton Chapel on campus.John E. A. Schroder, '41, and Shirley Ann Wood were married in October, 1945. He is a civilian againafter more than four years in theNavy, most of them spent on and below the Pacific. They are living inChicago.Emily Norton, AM '42, was released from the Navy on January 7,and on January 9 married Edwin H.Dipple of the U. S. Army. They areliving in Brooklyn.Walter D. Rose, 44, and Zoe FernWilcox of Houston, Texas, were married recently. They are now living inTulsa, Oklahoma, where Walt iswith the Carter Oil Company in theirResearch Laboratories.SARGENT'S DRUG STOREAn Ethical Drug Store for 94 Years23 N. Wabash Ave.PHYSICIANS SUPPLIESChicago, IllinoisTELEPHONE HAYMARKET 4566O'CALLAGHAN BROS., Inc.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESigrid Grande, '44, was married onNovember 18, 1945, to Robert W. Salmon. They are living in San Francisco, where Mrs. Salmon is teaching.Jane E. Blair, AM '44, and ErichWeis, M.D., were married on September 1, 1945. Mrs. Weis is teachingmathematics and is director of testingat Waukegan Township High School.Irene Louise Conley, '45, was recently married to James S. Sweet.Mr. Sweet was recently released fromthe Army, after serving in the European Civil Affairs Division and Second Military Government Regimentin France and Germany.BIRTHSOn September 6, 1945, Julia arrived at the home of Charles D. Heile,Jr., '25. This makes it a threesome forthe Heile family. Barbara is ten andCelia, seven. Dad is with the insurance firm of Fred S. James and Company in Chicago.Wilton M. Krogman, '26, AM '27,PhD '29, and Mrs. Krogman announce the appearance of a new hom-inid form, John Winkley Krogman,born January 23, 1946, at ChicagoLying-in Hospital.Louis Sass, '32, and Mrs. Sass announce the arrival of a second son,Thomas Henry Sass, born October 10,1045, in San Tome, Venezuela.Alden R. Loosli, '37, and Mrs.Loosli announce the arrival of a babygirl, Hattie Louise Loosli, on December, 30, 1945, at Plainfield, New Jersey. Born to John McCaw, '39, andMrs. McCaw, a son, Clayle Franklin,on November 7, 1945.Major Donald C. Carner, '39, became the father of a daughter, Di-anne, who was born three weeks before his return from Okinawa in November, 1945. Major Carner is nowon terminal leave and is working forthe Commission on Hospital Care.The family of Lt. Frank F. Evans,'42, MD '44, now number four. Thelatest addition is Frank F. Evans, II. ,born January 4, 1946, at ChicagoLying-in. Lt. Evans is an interviewing psychiatrist on a G.I. separationline.Benson Ginsburg, PhD '43, andMrs. Ginsburg announce the arrivalof Judy on December 22, 1946.DEATHSFrederick A. Cleveland, '99, notedeconomist, on January 26, 1946, atNorwood, Mass.Mrs. Camillo von Klenze (Henrietta K. Becker, '00, PhD '03) on July20, 1945, at Palo Alto, California.Dr. Josephine Agnes Jackson, MDRush '03, first woman to graduatefrom Rush Medical College, on December 31, 1945, at Palo Alto, California. Dr. Jackson was a pioneer inthe field of psychiatrics, and theauthor of several books on the subject.Dr. Carrol Smith, MD '04, on September 6, 1945, at St. Louis, Missouri.Earl J. Walker, '05, a Chicago attorney for more than 35 years andformer alderman of the 21st ward inChicago, on February 5, 1946, at Chicago.ALICE TEMPLE, '09 Mary E. Zurawski '08, for twentyyears a teacher of history at HydePark High School, on February 24at Chicago.Mrs. Mark F. Sanborn (Mary Phil-ips Jenks, '10) on November 21, 1945,at St. Louis, Missouri.Harold K. Shearer, '12, on January17, 1946, in Brazil.Carrol M. Smith, '14, on December8, 1945, at Hutchinson, Kansas.Earle E. Eubank, PhD '16, formerlyhead of the Department of Sociologyat the University of Cincinnati, onDecember 17, 1945, at Sharpes, Florida.Joseph H. Saunders, AM '24, onFebruary 9, 1946, at Newport News,Va. He had served as superintendentof schools in Newport News for 25years, and had been a member of thestate board of education for 15 years.Mr. Saunders was chairman of theboard of trustees of the National Education Association at the time of hisdeath.Edith M. Ballenger, '26, on March15, 1944.Mrs. William H. Jame (Edna G.Bowles, '28) on December 13, 1945.Helen T. Boruke, '31, on January12, 1945, at Chicago.Virginia Bartlit Craver, '32, atHarvey, Illinois, on December 5,1945. Mrs. Carver taught for manyyears in the public schools in Chicago,and was retired in 1943.Alto L. Whitehurst, PhD '32, onOctober 31, 1945, at Dothan, Alabama.Francis Deane Harrobin, '38, onJuly 24, 1945, at Chicago, Illinois.At the home of herniece in Pelham Manor, New York, AliceTemple died January6, 1946. She wouldhave been 80 onMarch 1.Two years after theCivil War and fiveyears before the greatChicago fire, AliceTemple was born of aChicago pioneerfamily in their homeon the site of the present Central Station at 12th and Michigan. After beinggraduated from the Chicago Free Kindergarten Association in 1887 and receiving her bachelor's degree fromChicago in 1909 she joined the University faculty in 1909.Two years later she became director of kindergarten andprimary education which position she held until her re-Alice Temple tirement in 1933, when she moved to her country home inConnecticut.Miss Temple was a pioneer who helped to break thetraditional kindergarten practices based on Froebel'stheories and translated those theories into practices meeting the needs of children today. Generations of studentsnow alumni and outstanding educators in this field remember with pride their early training under and association with Miss Temple.Her pioneer work with the International KindergartenUnion (of which she was president in 1925-27 and heractive participation in the magazine, Childhood Education) and her book "Unified Kindergarten and FirstGrade Teaching" published in collaboration with SamuelC. Parker in 1926, all contributed to her national fame.She remained alert to the problems of her field to the closeof her life and followed the activities and successes of herthousands of former students through the news pages ofthis Magazine as well as the professional journals.January 6 marks the passing of another member of theChicago family who helped make this University great.9 Billion s worth offor 3,150,000 Equitable Policyholdersand Their FamiliesIf ALL MEMBERS of the Equitablefamily of policyholders were to call a singleplace home, "Equitable Town" would beabout the same size as Boston, St. Louis,Pittsburgh and San Francisco combined!It might look more like a fabulous Hollywood movie lot than an ordinary city, withTexas ranchers living next door to Connecticut school teachers, Iowa corn growers and Cape Cod fishermen. Doctors fromChicago and mechanics from Detroit wouldbe neighbors to Georgia cotton growersand Oregon foresters.The families of "Equitable Town" havejoined in a great co-operative enterprise offamily security. There are now 3, 1 50,000 members of this great family. In the past year theyincreased the life insurance they own to$9,172,440,000. Their membership in TheEquitable means peace of mind and the assurance of funds to carry out cherished plans.Last year these families received checks foran aggregate of $238,064,000— an average of$27,716 every hour throughout the year.These benefit dollars helped keep families together, assured children of college education,paid off mortgages, provided retirement income and served many other human needs.The Equitable Life Assurance Society of theUnited States is a mutual company incorporated under the laws of New York State. Assets guaranteeing this flow of benefitsreached a new high of $3,849,438,000, an increase of $341,455,000 for the year. Beyondtheir primary purpose of assuring the paymentof policy benefits, these funds are furnishingcapital for business and industry in every stateof the union. They are helping to financemillions of productive jobs. They are aidingfarmers and home owners.Truly, life insurance funds mean more factories, more work, more homes, and richerliving for all America.C2_set*0 f°£&HOP*** 4 PRESIDENT13 Questions to ask yourself to make sure youare getting the most outof your life insurance.Send today for a copyof "Your Policy" toEquitable Life Assurance Society of theUnited States, 393 Seventh Avenue, New York 1, N. Y.Name Address-City and State-No!" you say, grimly, "that youngster I've just tucked in must neverhave to fight a war as I did!"To which we reply, "Double check!"But your boy will have to fight theordinary battles of life. Maybe someextraordinary ones, depending on howyour luck runs, and you will certainlywant to keep your National ServiceLife Insurance for his futureprotection.Are you completely familiar with the conversion privileges and the optional methods of payment to yourbeneficiaries which your Governmentinsurance offers? If not, you can geta quick, simple explanation of all theseprovisions from the local New England Mutual Career Underwriter.lie's clarifying them for veterans everyday— and the fact that he doesn't makea dime on National Service Lifedoesn't matter. See him — he'll be ofreal help to you.New England Mutual\jfe \nsurance CowJ>a//y |9p of BostonGeorge Willard Smith, President Agencies in Principal Cities Coast to CoastThe First Mutual Life Insurance Company Chartered in America — 1835 ANYOTHERQUESTIONS?Is there other information you wantabout the G. I. Bill of Rights, pensions, hospitalization, vocationaltraining! This free booklet gives thefacts in brief, understandable language. It has been sent to servicemen all over the world — and hasbrought us thousands of letters ofthanks. We mail it ¦post-paid to anyveteran — just write for your copy to501 Boylston Street, Boston 17, Mass.These Univ. of Chicago— and hundreds of other callege men, represent New England Mutual:Harry Benner, '11, ChicagoCharles P. Houseman, '28, Los AngelesWe have opportunities for more Univ. of Chicago men. Why not write Dept. 0-8 in Boston?