i wT I*4i i^ri m^r^s.*2it. -»j-r -. .THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEMARCH 19 4 4LETT ERSTHE PRESIDENT'S REPORTI have just finished reading President Hutchins5 report on "The Stateof the University." I consider it oneof the most significant statementsthat I have read in a long time. Thisin spite of the fact that I have knownand followed his general point ofview for years! This is to ask if itwould be possible to secure additional copies of the report. I wantthem to put on "reserve" for some ofmy courses.Rex D. Hopper, '32University of TexasI will thank you for a copy ofPresident Hutchins' annual report. Ibelieve you refer to it in the Magazine as "The State of the University." All alumni should keep intouch with Dr. Hutchins' thinking.Most of his ideas have both theirpros and cons. He is a very youngman.* We must not assume that heknows all the answers.Richard T. Peek, '23Joplin, MissouriTo me, as an alumnus of CentreCollege and a member of a groupworking to make Centre ever a better college, Dr. Hutchins' report of"The State of the University" containing notes on the University'sexperience with military training andhis ideas on the future usefulness of*President Hutchins was born January17, 1899— Ed.PETERSONFIREPROOFWAREHOUSE•STORAGEMOVINGForeign— DomesticShipments•55th & ELLIS AVENUEPHONEMIDway 9700 the University's liberal arts college,are interesting and valuable. Willyou please tell me how I may obtainsix more copies of the bulletin?S. B. JonesI have just finished reading theNovember report on "The State ofthe University" by President Hutchins.It is a fine straightforward statementgiving promise that the post-war aimsof the University are far from beingforgotten in the crush of war training.PhM3c Richard Prescott, '38Fleet Post OfficeIf available I would appreciateyour sending me a copy of "TheState of the University," which I amsure would be helpful in consideringmatters before the Committee onEducation of the U. S. A. Chamberof Commerce.Harmon E. SnokeWashington, D. C.OVERSEASAdvance notices of New Guineawere never like this! I am at a forward airdrome in what is probablythe most beautiful spot on the island— a wide, grass-covered valley flankedby high mountains on both sides,which look as though a green velvetcarpet were spread over them. Climate is agreeable and temperaturesmild; unwelcome visitors rarely putin an appearance. I'm looking forward to fighting the "Battle of Sydney," if and when another leave isgranted. Still hoping to run intosome U. of C. men over here, butfor the present "Private Maroon" andthe Magazine are my only contacts.Lt. Julian A. Kiser, '37A.P.O. 713My new address gives all the latest"dope" that one can tell these days.Am interested in your new plan ofentering second year high school boysand girls, as I have a daughter andthree sons growing up. Would liketo know more about it. Appreciateall your alumni news. Keep it com-mS* Don Pardee Moon, SM '22• Rear Admiral, U.S.N.8th Amphibious ForceFor a number of years I was amember of the Alumni Asociationof the U. of O, but since my entryinto the Army, which event tookplace in the Gold Coast November,1942, I neglected to keep my duespaid up, with the result that theMagazine soon ceased arriving. Imiss the Magazine because for yearsit has kept me in contact not onlywith the U. of C, its faculty, alumni, and programs, but also with the university group at large in the UnitedStates. I have been in Africa continuously (with the exception of ashort sojourn in Arabia and India)for almost five years. Hence, I aminterested in things American.At present I am a chaplain withthe rank of captain in the U. S. ArmyAir Force serving in North Africa.Prior to entering the Army I taughtgeology at Achimota College, a British colonial institution in the GoldCoast. I expect to return to this postafter the war.With best wishes,Capt. Harold W. Rigney,'33, SM '33, PhD, '37A P.O. 622ALBION SMALLThe January number of the University of Chicago Magazine, onpage 32, speaks of Dr. Albion W.Small as having been a professor inone of the foreign language departments of the University. This is anerror, for he was head of the Department of Sociology from the day theUniversity opened until his retirement about thirty years later.Along with Judson, Coulter, Chamberlain (and possibly others) of theoriginal faculty, Dr. Small had beena college president elsewhere, but leftthat presidency to become head of adepartment at what was then the newU. of C, and, I believe, the first department of sociology to be established in any American college oruniversity.E. R. Elliott, '01ChicagoEXCLUSIVE BUT NOT EXPENSIVEJf ? &? iHanartfeJlerrfmnt bailorTBomes-tic anb SmpottebWoolens.tEatlot to JfflanpUmbertfttp of Cfjicajjo&lumm & jfatultp?Suite 1005-6-719 So. La Salle StreetPhone Central 6198THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONCHARLTON T. BECKEditor HOWARD W. MORT and BEATRICE J. WULFAssociate Editors SYLVESTER PETROAssistant EditorTHE COVER: The final campusobjective of all Chicago meteorologists— certificates and commissions. Photoby the Chicago Sun.CLARA S. ROE, who introducesus to some of her Estonianfriends in this issue, has recentlycompleted twenty-five years as a staffmember of the National Board of theY.W.C.A. From August, 1929, toMarch, 1940, her duties kept herabroad. She was in Madrid at thetime of the 1931 revolution; saw thefirst Paraguayan troops leave Asuncion for the Chaco war; was in Belgium in 1936 when Leon Degrellewas demonstrating with his Fascistfollowing; in Prague when the German troops occupied Czechoslovakia;in Rhodes the day Italy attackedAlbania; and in Spain followingFranco's victory. When we asked herto write an article for the Magazine,the problem was not what but whichto write about.NOW that industry is becomingmore and more imbued with theimportance of employee relations, theUniversity's Committee on HumanRelations in Industry is in a positionto make some intelligent contributionsbased on factual research. From thefindings of this committee to date,the final conclusions may point tosimpler solutions than company-financed honeymoons and four o'clocksandwiches with cokes or coffee."Human Relations in Industry" is arecent report from this committee THIS MONTHTABLE OF CONTENTSMARCH, 1944PageI Saw Them Struggle for FreedomClara S. Roe 3A Program of Research in HumanRelations in IndustryBurleigh B. Gardner 7Science in the World of TomorrowAnton J. Carlson 10Tale of Travail in the DunesFrederick S. Breed 12Education Asks No ProfitRobert M. Hutchins. 14One Man's OpinionWilliam V. Morgenstern 16French Canada in TransitionBook Review 17News of the QuadranglesChet Opal 18News of the Classes 21given by Burleigh B. Gardner beforethe American Management Association. Mr. Gardner was formerly personnel counsellor at the Hawthorneplant of the Western Electric Company.THE new president of Ripon College is Clark George Kuebler,Ph.D. '41. At his recent inauguration Dr. A. J. Carlson was one of theguest speakers. He spoke on "Sciencein the World Tomorrow." The speechwas so typically Carlsonian philosophythat we secured permission to pass iton to our readers. AS USUAL, we had difficulty deciding whether to publish Frederick S. Breed's manuscript or the letter which accompanied it. Both areso publishable. We compromise byprinting both. "Tale of Travail inthe Dunes" begins on page 12; theletter follows:"Why write a letter to explain aletter that explains itself? Or does it?And if the Tale of Travail in theDunes explains itself without justifying itself, I'll expect you to say, withcharming candor, after the manner ofa certain lady leaving the party: 'Idon't want you to think I didn't enjoy your article, for I didn't.' "AS THE nation's privately endowed universities and collegesturn, almost unanimously, to theiralumni for financial aid — with thepassing of large fortunes and thediminishing of endowment incomes—a lot of sentimental dust fills the collective alumni atmosphere. WilliamMorgenstern takes a deep breath, experiences mild irritation, and asks:Does the alumnus owe his AlmaMater anything?THE new acting director of theUniversity's press relations department, Chester Opal, reports thenews of the Quadrangles this month.He is an alumnus-in-law. Mrs. Opal(Zdenka Christine Zidek, '39) wasformerly a bacteriologist on the ZollerClinic staff. Mr. Opal came to hispresent position from the rewrite deskof the Chicago Her aid- American.Published by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue,Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago,Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of theUniversity of Chicago Magazine.Ladies in PinkAt Chicago Lying-in 1\ ~* ""^b"^""^ 1••W/^^ i(Photos courtesy of the Chicago Daily News)ON HAND to help welcome the brand newyoungsters to the University's ChicagoLying-in Hospital are the Ladies in Pink, avolunteer nurses' aid group, of which manyfaculty wives are members. In a year whichbroke all delivery records (3,813) the ladies inpink uniforms were godsends to a fifty per centwar depleted staff, particularly last Octoberwhen the stork averaged a round trip everytwo hours.In its forty-eight-year history Chicago Lying-in has become nationally known for its excellence in obstetrics. Although the recordsshow no mortality among fathers — there wereonly three sets of triplets last year — classes an{now being contemplated for expectant fathersto parallel those which are now conducted jotmothers.Ladies in Pink chauffeur mothers to anafrom the nursery, serve meals, cheer and attendthe new mothers. Before a volunteer is eligibkfor a uniform cap she must pass a physico*examination and have seventy hours of train'ing and service. Volunteer faculty wife, Mrs-George Bobrinskoy, demonstrates to her colleagues how to make a bed. Left to right : Mrs-H. T. Ricketts, Mrs. Bobrinskoy, Mrs. CharlesR. Rice, Mrs. C. H. Faust, Mrs. Louis Landa,Mrs. Thomas N. French, and Miss JosephsNewberger. All but two are faculty wives.VOLUME XXXVI THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 6MARCH, 1944SAW THEM STRUGGLE' FOR FREEDOMBy CLARAS. ROE, "10Democratic principleswere part ofEstonia s heritageON A sunny August morning in 1937 I sat on theoutdoor terrace before one of Tallinn's coffeeshops enjoying a glass of coffee and some goodEstonian rolls. As I shared crumbs with the fat lazypigeons and the bold sparrows which were doing theirbest to entertain me, my mind was busy rememberingand comparing.This was my second morning in Estonia after an absence of almost eight years. Behind me was a well appointed "Salon de Te" — entirely new; across the street,new business buildings. The sidewalks were comfortablyfilled with well dressed vigorous people. I had just visited the market where I discovered a variety and abundance of meat, fish, milk products, fruits, and vegetablessuch as seemed impossible for one small country to produce. The new buildings, the new street paving, thecomfortable homes, the abundance of food, the automobiles, and the faces and voices of the passersby indicated happiness and well being.I remembered my first visit to Estonia in August, 1929,and the deep concern of many leaders in the all too evident fact that wartime privations had been responsiblefor a great deterioration in health, especially that of theyoung. In order to help remedy this state of affairs theY.W.C.A. had acquired vacant lots and assigned smallgarden plots to its girl members who competed with oneanother in growing food for family tables. Parents, Iwas told, encouraged potatoes; but the Y.W.C.A., knowing that a variety of vegetables was needed to compensate for the lack of sunshine through the long northernwinter, exacted a minimum of five different vegetables ofeach girl and encouraged more. That need for suchprojects had long passed so that the Y.W.C.A. in 1937could transfer its attention to other matters, seemed tome almost incredible.In the month that followed I often asked myself: "How is it possible that these people, with less than twentyyears of freedom behind them, after seven hundred yearsof subjection to outside domination, depleted andscarred by the battle lines of the great war and their ownsubsequent struggle for independence, amid all themounting insecurities that threaten the peace of Europe— how could these people accomplish so much in so littletime?"I had gone to Estonia in 1929 as a representative ofthe foreign division of the American Y.W.C.A., servingfor nine months in an advisory capacity, and returningin 1937 for a month's visit as a staff member of theWorld's Y.W.C.A. In these relationships, involving numerous meetings over all sorts of problems, I came toknow the Estonian women well and to admire themgreatly. Through them I understood something of thespirit of their country.I found the Estonians a sturdy, vigorous people bothtenacious and flexible, full of wit and kindliness, directand sincere in their dealings with one another. Theywere a delight to me as they worked in groups. Theirdecisions were almost always by consensus and theirmeetings noisy and full of conflict. I attended literallyhundreds of meetings and yet I saw formal voting in onlyone instance. In this case a secret ballot revealed aminority of one!The Estonians are nothing if not concrete. I soon discovered that it is never wise to make a suggestion unlessyou are willing to have it acted upon. They will tryout your bright idea at the first opportunity and reportto you in due season as to whether or not it worked andwhy or not!The Estonians entered into their heritage of freedomWith a tradition out of their peasant past of equality between the sexes. Therefore women in the new republicassumed equal rights, privileges, and responsibilities withmen. Together, men and women undertook a tremendous task: to build a new, modern nation, to repair theravages of war, to organize educational opportunities,economic life, and social welfare, and to prove to theworld their right to be a nation. To accomplish this all34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe people worked. The Y.W.C.A., when it went toEstonia in 1920, found few "ladies of leisure" for itscommittees. Its corps of volunteer workers had to berecruited from women who could manage a home and ajob and still find time and energy for some general service to the community. The wife of a high governmentofficial, a valued worker in the Y.W.C.A., taught schooland managed a household in Tartu, the university city.Her husband's duties kept him in Tallinn" most of theyear. His salary was barely enough to pay his own expenses and maintain one of the daughters abroad in atuberculosis sanitarium. His wife's earnings maintainedthe rest of the family. It was through such toil andsacrifice that the Estonians struggled for freedom.Watching these women at work with serious interestand enthusiasm, seeing them settle their differences withfrank and open discussion, I could well believe that myEstonian friends had correctly informed me that prior tothe twelfth century they had achieved a well developedsocial structure, with elders elected at public meetingswhich frequently discussed matters related to the common interest. Thus democratic principles were a partof their heritage.I recalled what I could remember about their strugglefor freedom which began as early as the eleventh centuryagainst aggression from neighbors. They were finally in1227 completely subjected by Teutonic Crusaders whosettled down on the land and became the Baltic Germannobility. The story of the next seven hundred years isdark indeed — a story of suffering symbolized by the blackstripe which separates the white and blue of the Estonianflag. But it is also the story of how a conquered peoplekept hope of freedom alive, preserved their own tradition,maintained a spirit of resistance. This was done in theface of prolonged exploitation and oppression — until atlast the Estonian peasant lost his freedom of movementand was bound to the land.During one hundred years of Swedish rule certain important human rights were restored. However when in1721 the country was taken by Peter the Great, the peasants were again at the mercy of the feudal landowners. Nevertheless Estonians never fell into a complete aj3tellectual darkness. They never lost the spirit of resistance to oppressors nor did they forget what they hadbeen and what they felt their destiny should be.It was not until 1860 that Estonians gained the rightto become independent farmers. Within forty yearsthough handicapped by many restrictions favoring thelandlords, they acquired by purchase 40 per cent of thecountry's total farming area in family sized farms. Butthe nobility still owned 60 per cent of the land, and alarge part of the rural population remained landless.Estonians meanwhile took advantage of every possibility, however small, to acquire education and to trainfor professions. They organized cooperative societies,developed journalism and literature, and struggled withsome success for the election of their own people to localoffices. The collapse of imperial Russia gave them theiropportunity to begin at last an independent national life.As I looked about me on that August morning andlater as I visited new farm houses, saw the animals, thecrops, the new machinery, and above all the well nourished, healthy children, I concluded that independencehad brought many benefits. The land had been nationalized, the great estates divided among the peasants;generous treatment of minorities had removed bitternessfrom the hearts of Estonians who had suffered much atthe hands of those same minorities; industry, business,education, religion, social work, reflected devotion andintelligent effort.I remembered how in 1930 after the Estonian spring hadmade its welcome appearance I visited Petseri in southeastern Estonia, arriving on one of the special marketdays when the farmers brought produce and animals totown, and dealers came out from the cities to buy. In thispart of Estonia the costumes worn by the country peopleare striking. The men had white sheepskin coats, whitetrousers of home-spun wool tucked into greyish whitehomemade leather boots, white woolen caps on theirheads. The women wore white linen dresses under longwhite coats with bright embroideries on coat and dresssleeves, gay aprons, and over flat coronets of braidedEstonian farm homes were comfortableand the young people healthy and happy.T H E U N 1 V E R S 1 T V O F CHICAGO M A G A Z I N Ejiair, headdresses made of long linen strips with elaborately embroidered ends.The stalls in the market place were crowded withfriendly chattering people. My interpreter called attention to the handwork adorning the sleeve of a womanwho was selling butter and cheese. She let us admire hercostume but informed us that this dress was of slightinterest compared with some she had at home. Learningwe were to spend the night in Petseri, she invited us tovisit her home in the country.At six that evening we met our hostess, her husband,and the little fat white horse hitched to a small farmwagon on the corner near Petseri's then primitive hotel.We sat side by side on the straw in the rear of the wagon,feet swinging down. Our hostess occupied the seat infront and the farmer strode along beside the wagon. Hehad a shy and friendly smile but he was as silent as hiswife was talkative. Off through the twilight we followeda winding road toward the Russian border. The air grewchill and we became acutely aware that we had eatennothing since our breakfast of black bread and tea manyhours ago.It was almost dark when we drove into the yard ofthe farm house. We faced a lighted window and a doorwhich opened to let out six young people aged thirteento twenty-six, one of them a nineteen-year-old girl.The house, a long one-story thatched structure, occupied one side of a quadrangle. Barns, sheds and graneriesoccupied most of the other sides. In the center was a well.We had driven in through a break in the enclosureformed by the farm buildings.The furnishings of the big common living room of thefarm house consisted of two beds, a table and benches, abig stove. It was all new, having been made at home bythe oldest son in the years since the family had becomethe owners of this farm. The only factory made articleI could discover was a Singer sewing machine. We wereinformed that since it had been acquired the daughterhad received six proposals of marriage.Soon the main purpose of our visit unfolded. We likedhandwork! Well, we should see! Closets were unlocked. Chests were opened. Husband and children were pressedinto service and an exhibit was put on for our specialbenefit. A parade of costumes, ornaments, towels, bed andtable linen — the cherished work of six generations,handed down from mother to daughter — was begun.It was almost midnight before it occurred to anyonethat perhaps we were ready for supper. After some activity in the kitchen a feast was set before us : black breadand butter, bacon, boiled eggs, wild strawberry jam, tea,and a big bowl of milk. There were no knives or forks.Each of us had a small spoon for tea and a huge spoonfor everything else.We were interested in this farm and in the pride ofits owners to whom it had been alloted after it wascarved out of a baronial estate in 1920. They had alreadyacquired a few good cows, some ducks and chickens, onehorse, and all the family toiled early and late to improvethe home and to make the land fruitful.In some such fashion life began anew for thousands offamilies after the land was divided. I learned in 1937that over 53,000 new farms had been created and that theagricultural schools and experimental stations had morethan proved their usefulness to the new land owners.Industrial development was also evident and I heardmuch about the growth of the timber and textile industries and the new oil shale industry where the Y. W. C. A.operated a health center for mothers and children. Inthe summer of 1937 there was no unemployment andPolish workers came to help harvest the crops. The Estonians told me that at the time of the establishment oftheir independence no one ever thought of any other thana democratic form of government; and that when thegovernment assumed extraordinary powers, as war cloudsgathered over Europe, this was done in the endeavor topreserve their independence and to save democracy.When the American Y.W.C.A. went to Estonia, ittook with it certain cherished ideas and ways of work,many of which were accepted as the Estonian institutionevolved; for the women welcomed an organization whichthought of itself as a democratic fellowship of women andgirls, representing all the different groups of the commu-The sea gate to the old city contrasts withmodern apartment houses in Tallinn.<UCA.6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECLARA S. ROEWith the Y.W.C.A.overseas duringten dramatic yearsnity and making no distinction of creed, class or race.Considering the composition of their population — Estonian, German, Russian — and the historic cleavages wroughtby ancient wrongs, they said: "Our Y.W.C.A. must beinter-nationality." Considering, their two historic churches,Lutheran and Orthodox, not too understanding of oneanother, they said: Our Y.W.C.A. must be inter-confessional." Considering their own enthusiastic nationalismand the feeble efforts everywhere on behalf of world organization, they said. "Our Y.W.C.A must be international." Surveying the needs of Estonian girls andwomen they decided: "We must train leaders; we musttrain youth; we must build our work so that to be amember of the Y.W.C.A. means having a chance topractice democracy." The story of the evolution of thiswork is ably told in Lois Diehl's dissertation : "The YoungWomen's Christian Association in Estonia. A Study inthe Transplanting of an Institution."It was my good fortune to become acquainted withthe people of another small democracy who demonstratedpoignantly during the interim between two wars whatfreedom can mean — the people of the Czechoslovak republic.On the first of March, 1939, less than two years later,I shared a second class compartment from Zurich toPrague with four Czechs who dramatized for me themeaning of the struggle of both peoples for a nationalhome of their own. They were business men, they said,but I found them uncommunicative about themselves aslong as we were in Germany. They were interested inme, however, and full of questions, speaking alwayswith their eyes on the door of the compartment. Andwhenever a train official greeted us: "Heil Hitler!" Weresponded in chorus, "Guten Tag." They spoke no English and my German was more than somewhat inadequate; nevertheless we managed to communicate fairlyeasily.In the early evening we neared the borders of Sudeten-land, no longer part of the Czechoslovak republic. Therewas a nervous tension, almost visible, and as we crossedthe old border the barriers began to fall."This used to be ours, Gnaedige Frau.""Yes, I know.""Aber es ist nicht fuer immer, Gnaedige Frau!" As we passed the Skoda arms works they rose to theirfeet with one accord and bent over me."Here we are making guns for Hitler, Gnaedige Frau."The four fierce voices whispered bitter scorn. Four pairsof hands, crossed at the wrist, were thrust before mystartled eyes."Our hands are like this, and bound, Gnaedige Frau.But it is not forever. The day will come, Gnaedige Frau."The Skoda works slipped by and soon the train stoppedat a station suburban to Prague. Down came the windowwith a bang."Czechoslovak ham, Gnaedige Frau. The best in theworld. Allow me to present you with a sandwich. It isgood to be home, Gnaedige Frau. Czech beer, GnaedigeFrau, the best in the world; permit me to get you some.There's nothing like home food, Gnaedige Frau."As we slowly moved into the Prague station we shookhands in farewell. "Remember our hands are tied. It isnot forever. The day will come. Auf wiedersehen. Good-by."Two weeks later I saw Hitler's legions clatter throughthe grief-stricken streets of Prague. Then I rememberedthese four men. Somewhere they were watching the endof their beautiful republic. It had been built in twentyshort years by the hands and heart and head of Masarykon foundations laid by the Czechoslovak people throughcenturies of foreign domination in which their culturehad been kept alive by love and sacrifice and great courage. Not only Masaryk, but these four and their compatriots had built the republic.I asked myself: "Is this the death of a nation?" Ilonged for my four Czech friends, for they, too, lovedfreedom and they were men of faith. I asked the samequestion a few months later when troops of the strongneighbor to the east occupied Estonia.Estonia and Czechoslovakia had the strength to survive centuries of domination by aliens; both countrieswere able, at the end of the first world war, to organizetheir forces so as to make their claim to freedom, to wintheir independence, establish a democratic republic, andmaintain it throughout this uneasy quarter century; bothwere able vastly to improve the standard of living of theirpeople. The people of both nations entered into theirindependence politically immature after long years ofalien rule; nevertheless their affairs were managed withremarkably little violence, social conflict, and politicalconfusion — much less than prevailed in many neighboringcountries of Europe.Both countries, at the end of the period, yielded to thedemands of their powerful neighbors without resort toforce, hoping that by what they regarded as sacrificethey were helping to maintain the peace of Europe foryet a little while.Both were good stewards of freedom. It would haverequired a full century for many another nation to accomplish what these two created in twenty-five years. Theend of their struggle is not yet.A PROGRAM OF RESEARCH INHUMAN RELATIONS IN INDUSTRY9 By BURLEIGH B. GARDNERThe foreman isthe front linepersonnel manC' TT year there was formed at the University ofChicago an inter-departmental committee, headedby W. Lloyd Warner, professor of anthropologyand sociology, to work in collaboration with a group ofcompanies interested in research on the problems of human relations in industry.The problem of turn-over, absenteeism, poor morale,antagonism of workers towards management, etc., havebecome more and more serious at a time when maximumcooperation and efficiency are essential if we are to meetthe needs of wartime production. This condition hasfocussed increasing attention upon such problems andgiven rise to a host of preventive measures. Watchingthis struggle to develop and maintain a high degree ofmorale and cooperation indicates that much of the approach to the problem has been through the applicationof formulas or over-simplified remedies. Thus, we seelotteries, telegrams to absent employees, and other devicesgiven wide publicity as almost miraculous remedies. And,as with all over-simplified cures, the fashion changesfrom day to day.In view of these conditions, it is important that therebe developed a more adequate understanding of thefundamental problems, an understanding which will serveas a sound basis for diagnosis and treatment in any givencase. The Committee on Human Relations in Industryis directing its efforts to the study of human relationships,and brings together a group of men from various fields,all experienced and active in research on problems ofhuman behavior and social organization. The members,besides Mr. Warner, are: Professors Everett C. Hughes(Sociology) ; Robert J. Havighurst (Education) ; GeorgeH. Brown (Business); and Burleigh B. Gardner (SocialSciences) .Through the University the committee was able tomake connections with six companies which were interested in collaborating on this work and felt that it wouldbe of direct benefit to them. They are Container Corporation of America, Goodman Manufacturing Company, Libby, McNeill and Libby, Link-Belt OrdnanceCompany, Visking Corporation, and Western ShadeCloth Company. '*The research has been organized as follows: (1)Studies of the nature of the social organization and processes of the community in order to determine whohas affected the attitude, expectations, and behavior ofthe individual in the work situation. The studies areconducted through an interviewing program within various neighborhoods in which we try to determine thesocial organization of the neighborhood and the way itaffects the attitudes and behavior of the individuals.These studies are not confined to the workers of anygroup of companies, and in no case are they used to investigate the employees of any company. This is necessary if we are to gain the cooperation of workers. (2)Studies of the human organization of work situationsand problems arising out of it. These studies are conducted within plants in an effort to develop a clearerunderstanding of the systems of relationships in worksituations and the reactions of individuals within thesesystems.Although the work has not progressed to the pointwhere we can present any very profound conclusions,there are a few results which may be of interest. One ofthe things which stands out quite clearly are the factorswhich are especially significant in determining the attitudes of people towards their jobs. In general, it appears that a few factors in the work situation are generally responsible for active enthusiasm or dislike, whileother factors play a much more passive role.It is important to note that these active elements arethose things involving the individual's relations withothers on the job. The things that really "burn 'em up"are the things the boss says or does, or the things that goon in the gang, or the way other employees act towardsthem. And they respond with enthusiasm to the congenial group and friendly boss. This was well shown bythe statement of a driver of an industrial truck:I've had a lot of different jobs, I've worked in lotsof factories; but I've never seemed to feel quite rightabout them somehow. I mean that I never caredmuch about the job; it was just something I had todo. But this is different. I've never been on a jobbefore where the men help one another the way theydo out there. Why if one man is done with his workhe doesn't sit down and wait for something to turnup like they do on most jobs. He goes and helpssomebody else. And the men will ask someone tohelp them, and I never seen one of them get turneddowm Everybody always seems to want to helpeverybody else. And sometimes when I don't haveanything to do for a minute or two I go over andwatch one of the machines and the fellow who runs78 THE UNIVERSITY OFit, he'll explain it to me and tell me how it works.That's something I never seen them do any placeelse.Furthermore, it is quite clear that of all the relationships within the work situation the relation with the foreman or immediate supervisor is the most critical of themall. This is nothing new and is often expressed in thestatement that "the foreman is the front-line personnelman." It is interesting, however, to see the strong emotional significance of this relationship as it is expressedin interviews. For example, a former machine setterwith ten years' service left his job to take one for lesspay and said:On that job there wasn't a day went by withoutthe foreman would have some crack to make justto get your goat or just to be mean to you. He'ssupposed to be the foreman, but as far as I can figure he didn't do nothing but go around makingeverybody sore. If you'd ask him some questionabout the work, something about one of the machinesor something like that you wanted to know, he'dlook real nasty and he'd say, "You're the operator.What d'ya want me to do about it?" And thenhe'd walk off; he'd never give you any help. "You'rethe operator," he'd say. "What do ya want me to doabout it?" And that's all he would ever do for you.But if you'd argue about something with him ormake some suggestion or something, he'd tell you tojust mind your own business and do your ownjob. "I do the thinking around here," he'd say."You just tend to your work and I'll do the thinking for all of us." He does the thinking! Huh!Yeah, the hell he does. All I can see that he everdoes is to go around pickin' on everybody.And when you go over to ask him a question,any kind of question — well, maybe it does sound alittle dumb or something, but you're sincere whenyou ask it and it's something you want to know —but he'll just make fun of you for asking it andsay the question again, mocking you, and not giveyou any answer to it. He could never give you apolite answer, always got to be something sarcastic,so that you get so you don't want to have to talk tohim about anything if you can help it. And youget so when you see him coming you get all nervousand wonder what's coming now. What kind of anasty crack he's going to make to you this time.When you got someone like that around you allthe time it makes you get so you don't want to goto work at all. Some jobs you get up in the morningand you feel like going to work; you feel good aboutit and you're glad you got a job and that you'regoing to do it. But this job, I got so I'd lie in bed inthe morning and I'd think, "Gee, if I just didn'thave to go to work, if there was something the matterwith me so I wouldn't have to go to work, if I could CHICAGO MAGAZINEonly think up some reason for staying home today."I'd just wonder to myself, "Now what's he going tothink of today? What's he going to find that hecan pick on?" And then I'd start worrying. Andby the time I'd get to my breakfast I didn't evenwant to eat. And I'd just sit there trying to figureout if there was some way I could get out of havingto go down there; but there never was. You gottawork and if you have a job you gotta go to it.When we seek to determine the effects of such thingsas employee benefits, vacations, good working conditions, and all the morale building devices we immediatelyfind ourselves in a region of vagueness and contradictions. While the interviews were with all kinds of people from a wide variety of companies, there was littlespontaneous talk of such factors in the work situation.Even with workers from companies who were well knownfor their advanced personnel systems, it was rare to haveenthusiastic talk about these matters. What peopleseemed most concerned about, what they really wantedto talk about, were the matters of their daily relationships with their boss and fellow workers. Furthermore,where there was some show of enthusiasm for companypolicies or benefits, it was always coupled with statementsabout it being a friendly place to work or having aswell boss. In fact, if the supervisors were fine and fellowworkers friendly, almost anything might be referred toas showing what a fine place it was. For example, insome cases, after praising the boss, the individual wouldmake some such comment as this: "The company reallyis interested in the workers. Why, you know they evengive us a ten-minute rest period every morning andafternoon, and recently they put in a vending machineso we could buy a coke during rest period."Closely related to this problem of the attitudes of theworkers towards their jobs is the problem of turn-over.In considering this we found it useful to think of thework group as being subject to a number of forces,some of which tend to hold it together and others whichtend to_ force it apart. Furthermore, it is clear that someof the forces operating arise from the outside societyand are not readily controllable by management. On theother hand, many of the forces arise within the worksitution itself and can be influenced or controlled bythe management of the individual concern.When we examine present conditions we see that thewar has set in motion a variety of disruptive forces whichincrease the rate of turn-over. Obviously, unless suchdisruptive forces are compensated for by increasing thecohesive forces within the work situation, there is boundto be a sharp increase in turn-over. Unfortunately, theeffects of wartime expansion and conversion have alsoincreased the disruptive forces within the work situations,with the result that turn-over has increased excessively.Discussion with people concerning why they do or donot change jobs has shown several things. Just as theirattitude towards their job is strongly influenced by theirTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9relations with the superiors and with fellow workers,also their decisions as to whether to stay or leave oftenhinge upon these relations. As in the interview quoted, itis apparent that unsatisfactory relations with the bossconstitute a powerful disruptive force, while the foremanwho is liked is an equally powerful stabilizing force. -Toquote a worker who had made several changes in thelast few years:You know why people are changing jobs? It'ssimply because jobs are plentiful and people don'thave to take a pushing around by these dumbgrafters who call themselves supervisors. Sure, whentimes are tough a man has to work at his jobwhether he likes it or not; he has to take it. Butwhy should he today? You know, it's a funny thing,but when you work around here and there and seehow people are treated, you get so you enjoy tellinga foreman to go to hell — it's fun.My present boss I would go to hell for simplybecause he is the only man who has ever shown anyconfidence in me. It's the one company I workedfor where a man in supervision shows some consideration for the people under him. I think theentire management shows that attitude. These companies are always talking about backing up the foreman, yet the only backing that really means anything to a foreman is the backing of the men underhim. What the hell good does it do the companyto be constantly backing up the foreman if thatforeman has a big turn-over or can't get the cooperation of his men? My boss never has to ask thecompany to back him up, because he has the backingof the men. I would go to hell for him and so wouldthe other guys.In the same way friction among workers is very disruptive. Cases were observed where open quarrels resulted in people quitting their jobs, and in many casesthe unfriendly group is cited as a contributing cause forleaving. Many workers can recount experiences where thegang gets down on some fellow, will refuse to speak tohim or help him or play jokes on him until he finallyquits.On the other hand, the friendly group tend to stabilize its members. As one girl said:Well, I don't like this shift, but you know youkinda like to stick to your bunch. They like you andyou like them and you don't mind it so much whenyou like the people you work with. No, I wouldn'tchange cause I want to stick with them.One interesting aspect of the problem is the role ofWages. Apparently excessively high wages help to attractthose who are actively hunting for jobs and give thosecompanies a somewhat larger group to draw from. In spite of this, companies with low wages are still able toget and to hold people. Apparently for those fairly wellsatisfied with their jobs the chance of higher wages elsewhere does not pull them away. Also, high wages do notreduce turn-over if the other conditions are unfavorable.One important stabilizing factor is the development ofhabitual routines. In many cases people seem to stay onjobs because it has become a habit, and, except under thestress of very unpleasant conditions, it is easier to stayin the groove than to make the effort to get out. As oneworker put it:I think a man stays on one job a long time because he just gets to know the place. I know everyknot-hole in the building. I know everybody thatworks there. And I know every machine in the place.After you work at a place like that for seventeenyears, it gets to be like home and to think of leavingand going some place else would be like leavinghome.This is probably very significant in view of the processof wartime conversion, which has in many plants causeda complete breakdown of established relationships andhabits. Is it possible that this in itself has paved the wayfor increased turn-over, since the individual might justas well establish his new habits in some other company?In considering these problems of maintaining satisfactory relations between foremen and workers it becomes apparent that "good" supervision is not merelya matter of adherence of the foreman to some formulafor dealing with people. The good foreman. is one whois able to adjust his behavior constantly to the shiftingpattern of human relations within the group. Also it isapparent that the foreman is constantly responding topressures from above, from the workers, and from thework itself; and his behavior is as much due to suchpressures as to any lack of undertanding on his part.Thus he often pushes people around, because he feelsthere is nothing else he can do under the circumstances.In the same way, the non-cooperative worker, and thefriction within the group, are results of whole sets ofconditions which affect the relations between the people.In dealing with such problems it is not enough to tryto teach people how they should act. We must also tryto modify the forces operating within the group or thework situation so that the individual will be able to acteffectively.We feel that the important objective of this research isnot merely to describe how people feel about their jobs,or what they respond to, but to go beyond this to a betterunderstanding of why people in work groups act the waythey do. For that reason we are constantly directing ourstudies toward the fundamental problems of human relations. It will only be through such work that we canlearn how to develop more effectively human collaboration within industry.SCIENCE IN THE WORLD OFTOMORROW• By ANTON J9 CARLSONBasic urges will continue —curiosity, human needs,and painI HAVE very little faith in many of the blueprints thatwishful thinking has written about the world of tomorrow. I said "wishful thinking." Science showsthat man tomorrow will be pretty much like man todayand man yesterday. And it is man, after all, that makessociety. It is futile to expect an Utopian tomorrow inany sense and it is equally wrong, to fear a permanentchaos and waste of war. Man has been here a long timeand he has not changed very fast.When I was in China for some months in 1935, I spentmy first day with a Peking man of at least 500,000 yearsago. He wasn'-t so very different from modern man.Now, if that is true, if in saying that I have both feet onthe ground, I may be able to say something about scienceof tomorrow, on the basis of the science of yesterday andof today — although I am neither a prophet nor a son ofa prophet.We hear much about the "conflict between science andreligion." But what is "religion?" The only serious conflict I see is between science, primitive ignorance, andbaseless hopes. For science, in its methods and in itsspirit, is not yet generally understood or followed evenby modern man.Some say that science dominates modern liberal education. I have reason to doubt this. My skepticism isbased upon such studies as time has permitted me ofscience offerings in the curricula of colleges and universities in the North Central Association, embracing sixteenstates. All the natural sciences taken together, as tofaculty and teaching budgets, in some two hundred colleges of this association during 1941, 1942, and 1943, comprise only 20 per cent of all the courses offered in thoseschools. Only 20 per cent! How can we then say thatscience dominates modern education?Even though science is far from dominant in educationtoday and even though science, in its major implications,scarcely touches man's understanding and conduct, it isnone the less a fact that science is firmly rooted in humannature and in human history, and that fact gives us somehope for the future. Man's earliest written records makemention of some aspects of science and scientific research,crude as some of those aspects may have been. Threebasic urges gave birth to science — primitive curiosity, hu man needs, and human pain. These factors are goingto persist for a long, long time. They are the drives ofthe past. They are the drives of the present. They willbe the drives of the world of tomorrow. No matter whathappens in the future, no matter what fanatics may arise,no matter what fears may haunt the human race, no matter what interferences may be thrown in the path of scientific progress, the fundamental drives of human curiosity,human needs, and human pain will continue. Of necessity science will continue and the science of tomorrowwill be at work on the unfinished tasks of today. Takeit from me, the unfinished tasks of the science of today areenormous, greater even than the greatest scientists realize.Before I go any further, let me say that the unfinishedtasks of science are of genuine concern to us as teachersand administrators, whether we be in a small college or ina large university. Fifty or one hundred or two hundredyears ago, colleges did not have science departments. Essentially there was no science instruction. The functionof that kind of college was primarily the training of ministers of the gospel, confirming youth in the religious faithof their fathers, and training lawyers and judges. Gradually science began to establish itself. Mankind had begun to learn that two of its greatest intellectual achievements were the conception and application of justice andthe development of the scientific method. By the latter Imean the procedures leading to the factual understanding of nature, the spirit and the courage to stay by thesefacts.The demands of war have inaugurated intensive college programs for the training of technicians.. There isapt to be confusion between technology and science. Theyare not the same thing. American liberal education mustsee to it that the post-war aims of science are not submerged in the drive for technical training.I have said that in the world of tomorrow we will continue to concentrate on the unfinished tasks of science.These tasks are numerous. How else could it be? Is itreally true that at the end of this war there is going to beno more pain, no more want, no more unknowns? Ifthis is really true, then indeed there will be no more needof science. If for all time we have eliminated pain, haveconquered want, and satisfied human curiosity, then weneed not concern ourselves with science. And if all thepresent problems are solved, do we not uncover new problems in the solving? As science changes the physical aspects of living, a new environment is created and the newenvironment in its turn presents new problems. By wayof example, we have learned through science to conquer10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11the stratosphere, but as we hurl men in planes through thehigh altitudes, we immediately encounter new problemsoccasioned by the physiological changes in those men.perhaps we are creating new environments so fast that weshall have difficulty adjusting ourselves thereto.Our medical science is constantly being overhauled. 1speak from experience when I say it will be necessary torevise many views held during the past twenty-five, fifty,or one hundred years. I have attempted to do researchand to teach in that field during forty years. I have donesome work on the problems of diabetes. There are justas many diabetics today as ever, actually more than therewere in 1923, when the climax of research in that medical field was supposed to have been reached. The conquest of that disease and others, obviously, lies in the fieldof preventive medicine. But we scarcely know whatcauses many of the diseases with which we have beenworking. Are they caused by wrong living, wrong diet?Are they hereditary? Just what is disease?During my visit to China in 1935 I looked around alittle and I kept eyes and ears open. I learned that aboutone out of every two children born in that part of theworld dies during its first year. There is no doubt thatmodern medical science, properly applied, could cut thathigh infant death rate considerably. But what if it did?The result would be more mouths to feed in a land of thestarving; and science must then direct its efforts to theproblem of food and agriculture, demonstrating againthat the apparent solution of one scientific problem always leads on to others.One of the chief characteristics of science is its tendency to look ahead. Therein it differs from the averageman and woman. They seem content with the present,or at most with the next day, the next year. Science, indealing with food and agriculture, must look ahead notonly ten or one hundred years from now, but ten thousand or even one hundred thousand years hence. Insome parts of China the soil has been tilled successfullyfor ten thousand years. In some parts of Iowa in ourown country the soil is already partly depleted, and thatwas done in less than one hundred years. Obviously weare not looking ahead, even on the basis of the little wenow know about food and agriculture. How can we prevent the waste of our land? How can we feed our population in the future if we do not now concentrate on thisone problem? If our soil is poisoned or wasted now, whatwill happen one thousand or one hundred thousand yearsfrom now? To preserve our fruit we spray it with arsenicand lead. And we haven't really stopped to learn whatthis might be doing both to the soil and to the humanframe. These problems are all interrelated. They alltypify the unsolved problems for the science of tomorrow.We don't even know today all the elements that mustenter the diet or the type of diet that will permit thehighest development of mentat and physical power inman. In the past we proceeded in darkest ignorance.We eat foods because they look better or taste better than other foods. What their influence on the system may be,we've barely begun to discover. When we polish rice andmill our modern flour white we are taking out of thosefoods some of the elements most vital to life and health.But white flour and polished rice appeal to the eye, so weeat them, regardless of what they may do to the stomachand kidney, liver and brain. Because the housewiveswanted to keep the boiling pot out of the kitchen, we havebeen provided with some ready- to-eat breakfast foods ofdubious value. And so great new food industries havearisen, and where such are established it is not easy tomake such adjustments in the products as may be bestfor human health. So we have another problem for thescience of tomorrow, for there is for a time a survival ofthe existing, fit or unfiit.Our food comes directly from the soil in the country.Our people live more and more in cities. This occasionsa host of problems in the proper preservation, transportation, and distribution of foods so that they may retain all the essential elements for human optimum health.We have scarcely begun to solve these problems.We think we have won some control of disease, especially infectious disease. Yes, monuments should beerected to the pioneers in that field. Some of the mostimportant discoveries here came by accident. But similarand greater discoveries await the active man or womanin science in the world of tomorrow. We have reasonto be proud of (though not content with) the accomplishments thus far during the past hundred years.The problems ahead are enormous, the unfinished tasksof science are great. Fundamental to continued achievement in science is the man and the woman imbued withcuriosity and cognizant of the needs of human health andhuman happiness based on understanding and justice. Itis that kind of man and woman our colleges should tryto develop.The most effective way to prepare the youth of todayfor the world of tomorrow, not only in the field of sciencebut in all fields of human endeavor, is not through theone hundred or the one thousand great books, and notperhaps primarily by word of mouth of the teacher, butby teaching through example — the teacher at work, theinfluence of a parent on a child. This simple principlewould hasten the transfer of the method and the spiritof science from the ivory tower down to the comprehension, acceptance, and service of the common man.We the teachers and laborers in science in the collegesseek excuses for our failures to really teach in the stupidityof our students, in lack of facilities and funds, in lack oftime, in lack of social approbation and support, in lackof freedom. Granted all these things, in some places, atsome time, we should still look at ourselves in the mirror,lest we forget that the spirit of science can in time conquer these and even more difficult obstacles. For, according to my understanding of man the drives forscience are nearly as potent and persistent in the humanminds as is the force of gravity in our known universe.TALE OF TRAVAIL IN THE DUNESDEAR CHARLTON BECK: This is a note of abject apology. Instead of reflections on the dunesI have nothing to offer but reflections on thewriter.You have egregiously exaggerated the possibilities of amentality and its milieu. Both, this morning, are deep indesolation and despair. Gloom shrouds the sandy dune-land wastes like a heavy fog rolling off the chill watersof Lake Michigan. The last few leaves that linger on thetrees are trembling in the winter wind. One by one theyflutter from forsaken boughs, sere and brown and dead.Witness the shriveled specimen still hanging precariouslyon that nearby limb. Its symbolism is obvious: a retiredcollege professor rusting unburnished in disuse. His penis poised for action, only poised and nothing more. . . .Observe the feathered bipeds perched out there uponthose cheerless branches. What have they to twitter about?Oliver Wendell Holmes could live to be the last leaf uponthe tree, so he said, and twitter about it. Not only flutter.Actually twitter. Even twit while he twittered. Give meinstead the man who said: "At 2 A. M. I went to bed,and then at four the damn birds began to sing." . . .How can anybody listen to that striding Oklahoman ashe bellows, "Oh What a Beautiful Morning." Were aman in the house instead of a mouse, he'd mangle thatmoony melody with a vigorous twist of a masculine wrist.Not me. The valiant may not taste of death but once,but a little discretion will certainly prolong their troubledlives. . . . What price tolerance? One can become apatient at Billings trying to cultivate the forbearance of aliberal.One cannot always achieve tolerance by a fiat of thewill, can one? Indeed one can't. Consult the record. Wewere in the throes of a rough Atlantic crossing. Whenthe hour to dine arrived, few besides two maiden ladiesand the writer appeared for dinner. (Not a boast; justan admission.) The three of us sat at a small table, theladies opposite the lonely male. Outwardly the dinerswere all composure and serenity until the dessert wasserved. Then things began to happen outwardly and inwardly. I was on the point of appropriating the firstgolden mouthful of cocoanut cream pie when one of theladies screamed: "How can you?" and bolted from thedining salon for the ship's rail. Paradoxically, there shetarried but kept on bolting.Intolerance? Yep. Type: Involuntary gastro-intestinal.The best laid schemes of mice and men get tangled inthe coils of the viscera ; yea, strangled in their folds. Temperament as much as intelligence molds the philosophiesby which men live, for which they even struggle to theuttermost. Temperament is the hidden premise of everymetaphysic. The fundamental drives of humans are notbegotten of the intellect. They are only discerned andinterpreted thereby. In the everlasting quest for harmony of the spirit, currently known among professional educationists as integration of personality, consistency 0fthought makes a contribution, but harmony of the deeperimpulsions is probably a more important factor. Faith inthe intellect has declined in recent days only to fit a truerestimate of its potentiality. The facts in this region ofhuman nature are better applied by politicians than bycollege professors. Most congressmen running for reelection know that logic uncolored by emotion makes fewadditions to their following.The human will moves in a mysterious way its wondersto perform. Even William James could lie abed of a morning pondering the perplexing problem of early rising,then find himself on the edge of his bed wondering howhe ever got there. "Work fascinates me," says a writerwho has a gift for fact as well as for fiction. "I can lookat it for hours without budging." When this peculiarfascination wears away, innumerable avenues invite toignominious retreat, offer paths of escape for resourcefulloafers. One idles and trifles, demurs and defers by givinghimself another unnecessary manicure, or his pipe anotherbowlful of Old Hillside. One derives an unwonted pleasure in letting the dog out or the cat in, shuffles conscience-stricken to the radio for another repetitive newsbroadcast, even lights up a devastating Christmas cigar.Happiness is said to be the summum bonum for humankind, but editors do little to spread its blessings amongprocrastinating and delinquent contributors. An editor,Mr. Beck, is a peculiar blend of executive fervor andliterary presumption. I speak from grievous memories.If he were in the poultry business, he would have eggslaid by executive decree. Sadly, he is not the only adherent of this philosophy. It is the school of divine vice-gerency. And when his literary judgment is challengedby simple-minded folk who believe that creative genius isan indispensable foundation for critical insight, he hasa ready retort. "I might not be able to lay an egg," hesays with real assurance, "but I certainly can tell a badone!"Of course something can be said for an editor's executive extravagance. Most questions have two sides or theywouldn't be questions. I once sat in a graduate groupwith a glib and garrulous goof who basked in the boastthat he could discuss anything. I haven't heard of himsince. He must have worn himself out. Lingual and laryngeal exhaustion, perhaps.An editor is a man of abounding faith. And he needsit. The empty columns of future publications loom inthe offing, blankly stare him in the face. They are thevisible signs of invisible manuscripts, the empty forms ofthings to be or not to be. They are the ghosts that haunthim by day and by night. If an erstwhile goose that laida golden egg turns recreant, even recalcitrant, he turnsa deaf ear to explanations and apologies. The cycles of12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13nature are as nothing beside the schedules of an editor.When a technological expert like Lieutenant GeneralKnudson points out in self-defense that a familiar process of production still requires a period of nine months,despite the advances of science and technology, an editorpages the office boy and roars : "Johnny, get Henry Kaiseron the phone." In the interim he grabs The Universityof Chicago Magazine for January, turns quickly to theregion adorned by the alert physiognomy of T. V. Smith,and exclaims: "See that poem. Masterful; momentous.Don't be deceived by its artless use as a 'clumsy illustration' given to the world without a name to call its own.It really deserves a magnificent title, such as: 'The Heartof Araby; or, the Everlasting Yea vs. the Ageless Nay.'And how long do you suppose it took the gifted professorto manufacture this midget masterpiece? Why, he tellsus. It 'filled a leisure moment.' Now, making due allowance for a philosopher's conception of time, a politician'ssense of veracity, and a poet's disdain for the linguisticcliches that hamper lesser men, let us assume that this'chronic author' took several moments to measure themood of the Arab and set it forth in song. Don't you seewhere that leaves the rest of you incompetent hacks whotoil over your paltry paragraphs in mournful misery?"Out of respect for Smith and fear of the editor thereis no possible reply.I confess to harboring a secret ambition. It is one ofthose luxuries of the imagination which we coddle with- secret habitudes in the delicate art of written expression.And it would be buttressed with documents in variousstages of imperfection, now hidden in neglected files.Today we have only fleeting glimpses of the back-stagemechanics used in the drama of modern scholarship. Howmany, like Leonard Ayres, the business economist, capturetheir best ideas while shaving in the morning? Do mostscholars get their cues for research from reading? Notso the distinguished Chicago physiologist, Jacques Loeb.Loeb spent little time on the publications of others, acontemporary in his field reports. He was too busy on hisown. How does a writer of parts like Thomas VernorSmith really achieve his literary effects? Or Edgar Good-speed? I once had the temerity to ask Goodspeed howhe worked on those exquisite contributions to the oldAtlantic. He said he went to his study of an evening,wrote perhaps a page; went another evening, wroteanother page. The statement is brief, but the unwrittenstory of literary endeavor is still sensed between the lines.I have nothing but awful admiration for those intolerably gifted members of our profession who snuggleup beside their stenographers, salute the memory of SirWalter Scott, then open wide as in the dentist's chair andlet the breezy chapters issue forth. I salute, rather, therevered memory of tweedy toilsome William James, whodid it the hard way.I have on my desk a James manuscript of five pages,each in a cellophane pocket purchased at the Universityte-n<jd Lstuae, to fix our ideas, a universe composed of \onTyy two fac];^:^Caesar dead & turned to clay, & me, saying "Caesar really existed". Mostpersona would naively deem 'truth* to be thereby uttered7Xj4ll*?, "ti'a^ ky aholdVsort of actio in distans my statement had taken direct cognitive^of theother fact.A paragraph from William Jamesout burdensome thought of translation into action. Itis a book that flourishes only in a dream. The plot is simple enough. This book would chart the intimate ways ofacademic leaders. Well, of course, not too intimate. Forcolleagues and students alike it would aim to show howgreat contemporary workers do the job. It would revealthe circumstances under which scholarly enterprises areconjured up, and how they are brought to maturity. Itwould indicate the value the intellectual worker attachesto discussions and books ana diversions. It would provide the inside story of studies that have made the namesof the authors bywords in their fields. It would portray Bookstore. It is the manuscript of a famous article inprocess of preparation for publication. Philosophers willidentify it when I state that it contains James's proposalsregarding the use of the terms "truth" and "truthfulness,"which he later retracted on the advice of Dewey.The typing of the article is bad. James must have doneit himself. With the indulgence of the reader, I beg leaveto present the second paragraph. It provides the settingfor a discussion of truth about the past.The paragraph does not, could not, register all theanxious care of composition devoted to it. What one seesmight have been typed from an earlier and much more14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbescribbled copy in longhand. But the present draft obviously underwent revision at least twice.I shall pass lightly over the shift of "only" and theminor difficulty with "say" and "hold." The change inthe position of "only" was probably dictated more by theauthor's sense of euphony and rhythm than by rules inHill's Rhetoric. And after "say" had been changed to"hold," the author reverted to "say," obviously to avoidan unpleasant repetition of "hold" in the fourth line.Much more subtle is the task of composition in thesecond line. So far as content is concerned, it would havebeen enough to write, "Caesar dead & me saying 'Caesarreally existed.' " Instead of "Caesar dead" the text reads,"Caesar dead & turned to clay." It makes no differenceto the philosophy involved what Julius turned to afterdeath, or where he went. Dust were as good as clay,even better to a stickler for precision in nonessential detail. An earlier draft of the article might show that thephrase "& turned to clay" had been inserted as an artisticafterthought. But "Caesar dead & turned to clay" didnot yet embody all the literary refinement felt desirable.The epithet "imperial" was deemed necessary to roundout the job. With this addition, the passage reads, "imperial Caesar dead & turned to clay." Superb, one says.It seems quite perfectly rounded out. In its final form itreflects the Jamesian fondness for rhythmic prose and theWITHIN the past few months the Board of Trustees of the University of Chicago has made twoimportant decisions concerning the relationshipof faculty members to the University and to the public.The first was the adoption, July 8, 1943, of a policydeclaring that neither the University nor its faculty couldprofit financially by means of patents, royalties, or licensing agreements arising out of research conducted at theUniversity.The second action was the adoption by the boardJanuary 13, 1944, of the policy that all new appointmentsto the faculty of the University should be on a full-service basis. These contracts require that all earningsof faculty members from work done outside the University, including royalties on books, lecture and consultant fees, and similar activities, be "turned back to theUniversity. To compensate for this loss of outside income,the salary level has been adjusted, particularly in thelower ranks of appointments.The Board of Trustees, at this time, numbers thirty-three distinguished men who have demonstrated theirability and judgment in undertakings of large importance.I had recommended these steps to the board, but theiraction was not taken to please me. The policies were* Reprinted from the Chicago Daily News, February 17, 1944. iambic foot. In fact the meter is the Shakespearean favorite, iambic pentameter. More than that, James hasunconsciously plagiarized a line from one of Shakespeare's plays, faithful to the original except in a singleunimportant syllable, for Shakespeare wrote: "ImperiousCaesar dead and turned to clay."Sir, this is enough. Too much, indeed. I have goneclear around Robin Hood's barn to say there'll be nosketches of the dunes today. Reflection on the dreadfuldrudgery of the task has paralyzed the will and filled thesoul with darkness and dismay. You've heard, perhaps,of the young lady who fell, not from grace, but from thelack thereof. Me too. In the midst of plenty a scribblerlanguishes. Matter, matter everywhere, but not a hint ofartistic form. So, the t result as described. The one thingneedful is something committed to the tender care of thehumanities. And yet one hears that the sands of timeare running out on humanistic education. When themanner no longer adds anything precious and practicalto the matter of life, then only will the fate of humanisticstudies be sealed. Until that far off day the obsequiesmust be deferred. And life will be made the richer therebywhen we emerge from the valley of the shadow and thelight goes on again all over the world.Cordially yours,Frederick S. Breedadopted only because the board believed that the University's responsibility to the society which supports itwould be clarified and improved.The University of Chicago exists because citizensof the country give it financial support. They have givenmoney generously over the past fifty-four years becausethey believe that the University makes unique contributions through teaching which produces intelligent citizensand research which advances knowledge. The supportwhich has been given the University was not intended toenable it to engage in research to make money. Theintention was that if research produced anything whichwas to the advantage of society, society was entitled toit without restriction.The extent to which the University is now engagedin research for the government, on nonprofit contracts,raised this general question of obligation to the countryin a new way. We know that many new inventions willbe developed from results already obtained. The citizens,through their government, have paid the cost of theresearch from which these new applications will develop.It seemed to the board that no private institution, andcertainly none which is dedicated to the service of society,could justify the appropriation of these inventions to itsown profit. The argument that it should do so becauseEDUCATION ASKS NO PROFITBy Robert M. HutchinsTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15it then would have more money to serve society is afalse one, for the point at which it would be agreed theUniversity had amassed enough money to return to research for its own sake might constantly recede.The purpose of scholarship is understanding, notmoney. Understanding is arrived at by a cooperativeprocess, a patentable result being attained usually onlyafter a series of experiments and investigations by various individuals over a period of time. The advancementof knowledge therefore requires the free exchange of ideasand information. If the practice becomes general for thefinal result of many investigations to be royalties andprofits for that individual who happens to come at theend of the chain of investigation, ideas and informationwill not be freely exchanged. But there is even more thanthis to the case against patent profits taken by a nonprofit institution engaged in the service of society. Apatent means that thereafter all research looking towardfurther development or improvement is rigidly controlledby the patent holder, who can shut off all his scientificcolleagues from further work in this field. Any scientistcan cite numerous current instances where progress hasceased because institutions have looked for the moneywhich is in patents rather than to their obligation tosociety.A distinction can be made between patents and copyrights, and their consequences. There is usually a greatdifference in the monetary return, for one thing. Further,as Dr. Alan Gregg of the Rockefeller Foundation haspointed out, hundreds of people can use a copyrightedbook, but a capsule of a patent-controlled medicine canbe used by only one person.Also, a copyright does not have the same effect as apatent in limiting research; only the arrangement of aparticular set of words is protected. By its nature, acopyrighted book is intended to circulate and so transmitideas and information. A professor who writes a bookprotected by copyright is usually benefitting society.Nor is there any question that there is value in otheractivities outside the classroom. A professor often canlearn much and so become a better teacher by engagingin outside work. A professor who spreads his ideas andknowledge by lecturing often serves society. But thedifficulty is in determining whether the professor is engaging in outside work to advance his competency, orlecturing or writing a book only so that others maybenefit from his ideas. The Board of Trustees agreesthat the only practical way in which you can make surethat professors are doing the work, making the speech,or writing the book, solely for the usefulness of theoutside activity and not for the money that is in it, isto take the money away and use it for the University.A faculty member, and certainly a faculty memberwith permanent tenure, dismissible only for moral turpitude or gross incompetence*" is not an employee of theUniversity in any ordinary sense. He is a member of acommunity of scholars, with great powers in its manage ment, including the determination of educational policy,and through his department chairman and dean, theselection of his colleagues.His authority far exceeds that of the president, whocan make no decision on educational policy, nor appointanyone to the faculty without a recommendation fromthe faculty, transmitted through the dean. The powersof the president are limited to persuasion and suggestion;the faculty has the deciding voice in all academic matters.A faculty member enjoying such status and such rights,including those of absolute academic freedom, can hardlymaintain that he is on an eight-hour day, free outside ofworking hours to engage as he desires in any pursuits forprofit.- When the University was in the process of organizingthe new project in medical education and research basedon the University clinics, the board faced this problemof the special status of faculty members in its most difficult form. The tradition was that these activities werethe concern of practicing physicians who spent part timein them . In its medical development, the Universitywanted to make education and research full-time interestsof the staff. In the face of predictions that able menwould not give up the financial advantages of privatepractice, the Board of Trustees decided in 1927 to putthe medical project on a full-time basis.The arrangement has worked with distinguished success in the last seventeen years. The action of the boardin making all new appointments in the University on afull-time basis is, therefore, simply an extension of aprogram that has been in productive operation for avery long period.The pressure on a faculty member to make extra moneyby engaging in a variety of extraneous outside jobs, tolecture to the women's clubs, or to compile another textbook, is greatest when the man is in the lower ranks ofthe faculty, and is at that age when the economic pressure of supporting a family is greatest. If the sourcesof outside income are denied to him, the Universityobviously must pay him a salary that will enable him tolive decently and with that freedom from worry whichwill enable him to do good work. The board has recognized this fact, and the full-service contracts will beaccompanied by increases in salary, particularly for assistant professors. It is to be noted that the new contracts will be used only for new. appointments, exceptfor promotion of present instructors to the rank ofassistant professor. This exception is made because anassistant professor is moving toward the permanent tenure which accompanies the next rank of associate professor.Members of the faculty now holding appointmentswith rank of assistant professor or higher may voluntarily apply for service under the new contract. Becauseof budget considerations their applications will be grantedonly on a quota basis and preference will be given toassistant, associate, and full professors in that order.ONE MAN'S OPINION• By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, J.D. '22NEXT month the Alumni Foundation starts itsseventy-day endeavor to raise the annual AlumniGift. This activity suggests an examination ofthe nature of the reciprocal obligation, if any exists, between alumni and their Alma Mater. This is not a question peculiar to the University of Chicago; it has beenasked and answered in a fashion by countless campaignsof universities and colleges throughout the country. Agood deal of the uncertainty which prevails in educationsurrounds this problem, a condition which should not besurprising. If a college doesn't know just what it is trying to do for a student while he is enrolled, it is notlikely that it will have any logical idea of what its relationship is to him after he leaves the campus. Andan alumnus who has spent four years in which manyactivities have been made to seem as important as theeducational process is not to be blamed if he is somewhat fuzzy as to what he expects from the old school.What has happened therefore is that when Alma Matergoes to its sons and daughters for money, it has a notionthey owe it something, and it surrounds its collection ofthe debt with sentimentality. Usually there is heavy emphasis on the friends and excitements of the bright college years; recalling these, the alumnus is supposed topay up. In its most obvious form, Bicuspid, '14, isurged by the class fund chairman to give because of thewonderful time he and his classmates had putting thecow in the belfry or trussing up the town marshal. It isnot surprising, either, that this kind of approach hasworked very well for a long time. The class organization has been an effective agency in advancing this kindof argument, because it stands as the symbol of the goodtimes. The old grad isn't quite certain whether he isgiving the money to his class associates for a beer partyor to the school for educational purposes. There havebeen some disturbing indications lately that this approachisn't getting its former results, and that something elsemust be substituted.The notion that the alumnus owes the institutionmoney is often vaguely associated with the idea that asa student the alumnus paid only a part of the cost ofhis education. The major share was paid by the institution, either with tax money or the gifts of donors, andthe alumnus therefore should pay back what was spenton him. There is no more logic to such a position thanthere is to the sentimental wrapping with which it is disguised. It would be very difficult to produce the accounting figures to prove that an undergraduate studentdoesn't come fairly close to paying his own way, unlesshe has a scholarship. The facts are easily demonstrable,however, in the case of graduate or professional education, which is expensive business. But if the alumnus has been subsidized as a student, even on a scholarship,he is justified in answering with some indignation thatthe deal wasn't so presented to him when he matriculated. If he thinks that far, he might reflect further, anddecide that in plain terms he had been gypped, becauseno honest attempt had ever been made to enable him toget an education. Any general feeling of this kind amongalumni might have serious consequences to higher education. But so far, the colleges and universities are relatively safe from this reaction. Any grievance the alumnus has is more likely to be related to his feeling thatthe school should remain just as it was in his day, thatit continue to provide him with the big game, and thatthe current generation should be permitted to frolic ashe did.In part the pattern of appeals to alumni has been setby their origin as outgrowths of special occasion campaigns. The oldest annual alumni fund is that of Yale,which began in 1890; almost all the others are comparative upstarts dating back only a decade or two. Collegesand universities did not generally go to their alumni formoney until the lush twenties, when the campaign techniques developed for war funds were applied to manycharitable and educational causes by organizations whichspecialized in "drives." These were built on pragmaticmass psychology formulas, emphasizing high-pressurestampeding tactics and a considerable element of coercion,frosted with sentiment. When a lower tension annualgift evolved out of the special campaign and was conducted by the institutions themselves, often by the alumnisecretary, these amateur fund raisers salvaged some ofthe devices of the commercial fund promoters, includingthe stock items of sentiment and unliquidated debt.In the usual sense, neither side owes the other anything. The alumnus has no right to control the courseof his institution, and the institution has no basis for assuming that the one-time presence of the alumnus bindshim to a continuing obligation. The only basis on whichalumni can be asked for money is that the college or university is serving the country by doing what it was created to do — to educate the citizens, or to engage in research of such quality as will contribute to true progress.The one vested right an alumnus has is not that of clubprivileges, but of the integrity of the degree which heholds. The only glory of which he may rightly demanda share is that he is one of the products of an educationalinstitution which is entitled to respect. It all sums upinto the simple fact that if Alma Mater has contributedto the old grad's enlightenment, and is continuing to doso for succeeding generations, it may look with some confidence to having the understanding which will merit hissupport.16FRENCH CANADA IN TRANSITIONA Book ReviewIn the course of the past two decades the social scienceresearch program at the University of Chicago has earnedfor the- Chicago area the reputation of being the beststudied metropolis in the world. If Chicago is not thebest city in the world the fault cannot be laid at the doorsteps of the University. Even though the University's social scientists have not been recognized asprophets in their own home town, the results of their labors have been put to useby other cities far and near throughoutthe world.The pioneer studies of the urban community, which had their original localein Chicago, however, have always beensomething more than parochial inquiries.Although they used Chicago as this laboratory, they were designed from the outset to be generic in scope and to be applicable to all human communities in alltimes and places. Though these studiesof the structure of the urban communityand of human behavior in the urban environment rested upon the concrete evidence derived fromobservation of the life in our own city and were undertaken in the hope of conferring some benefits upon thiscity, they were never intended to reflect merely the localscene, nor even urban communities alone. As scientificenterprises they were using Chicago merely as a convenient platform from which to view all cities and indeed alltypes of human communities. Their primary aim was toanalyze the process of urbanization itself.Mr. Hughes' book, French Canada in Transition,represents a logical continuation of the traditions andmethods of research that have been so successfully employed in Chicago. He himself has been trained in theatmosphere of the Department of Sociology at the Uni-Everett C. Hughes, Ph.D. '28versity of Chicago. His doctoral dissertation on the "Chicago Real Estate Board" was a highly original study ofone of the most characteristic of urban institutions.What Hughes observed in his obscure Quebec community is a process that is cosmic in scope and importance. Drummondville, Quebec, has been infected bythe virus of urbanism which has a closeaffinity for another virus, namely industrialism. The immediate communitywhich he selected for his specimen andregion of which it is a part is particularlywell suited to the analysis of urbanizationand industrialization, for there these revolutionary changes are arriving somewhatbelatedly and at a pace which makes themdramatically apparent.It is of particular interest to those ofus who have been watching the impact ofthe new industrialism upon the UnitedStates what likenesses and differencesFrench Canada reveals. Whereas in theUnited States it was largely the oldersettlers who became the entrepreneurs and managers,while the recent immigrants became the workers, inFrench Canada it is the recent English immigrants whoare the capitalists and monopolize the managerial posts,while the native French make up the bulk of the workingforce. Because of this uniqueness Mr. Hughes' study presages what we may encounter on a world scale when thewar ends and the so-called backward regions will beawakened from their pre-industrial slumber by the magictouch of modern technology. This book helps us to envisage the consequences that may be expected to flowfrom the spread of industrial-urban civilization throughout the world. Louis Wirth, Professor of SociologyFRENCH CANADA IN TRANSITION is one ofthe two best books of recent years about Quebec.The other is St. Denis, a study of a lower St. Lawrence parish published in 1939, by Horace Miner [A.M.35, Ph.D. '37]. Here is its companion volume [theU. of C. Press]. Miner described one of the few intactsurvivals of the old peasant culture of Quebec, now disappearing under the impact of industrial revolution.Hughes describes, with the same meticulous care, the disjointed urban medley that has succeeded it.Primarily, of course, it is a work of scholarship. Hughes,formerly of McGill, is now associate professor of sociology at the University of Chicago. As a sociological report14 is excellent — careful, complete, with enough tablesand appendices and footnotes to satisfy the most exact-lng researcher. But it is also much more. It is the portrait°f a people, done with a sympathy and humor, a back ground of intimate knowledge and shrewd observationthat make its pages not merely an education but a delight. No resident of Quebec, French or English, shouldfail to read it. Most will find enjoyment, all will findinstruction, and perhaps the ones who enjoy it least willbenefit most.Most of the book is about "Cantonville," a slightlyanonymous industrial town which bears a strong resemblance to Drummondville. Dr. Hughes and his wife[Helen MacGill Hughes, A.M. '27, Ph.D. '37] spentmonths there, living among the people, talking to allclasses and races, going to churches of all creeds andpolitical meetings of all colors, mingling with the golfclub set on the one hand and the "Jeunesse OuvriereCatholique" on the other. They report their experiencewith a detachment that most readers will find startling.[Concluded on page 20)17NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By CHET OPALLOCAL newspapers betrayed a slight tremor of academic excitement in mid-February at the an-nouncement by President Hutchins that WilburC. Munnecke had been elected a vice-president of theUniversity.The bold fact was that Mr. Munnecke had resigneda» vice-president of a vast business enterprise (MarshallField and Company) to become one of a triumvirate ofvice-presidents of an educational institution.This, the news wags said, indicated something orother. Was the trend of events going into reverse gear?Wasn't it a fact that professors and others from theschool cloisters were making rapid and deep inroads inthe business and administrative worlds? Did the electionof Mr. Munnecke now mean that the lords of educationwere conceding a business man could import somethingof value to their realm?While editorial writers were fumbling to set up anequation, Mr. Munnecke, without fanfare, prepared toslip into his post beside Vice-Presidents Emery T. Filbeyand William Benton and take over the task of co-ordinating the business and administrative affairs of theUniversity. He had, according to Mr. Hutchins, decidedto "enter the field of education."Until July 1, when he assumes his new post, Mr.Munnecke will continue to devote all his time to theUniversity's war projects, for which he has served asadviser since last June. He was serving as assistant chiefof staff for personnel in headquarters, Army ServiceForces, when his assignment to handle the Universityprojects came. Mr. Munnecke, a native of St. Louis,Missouri, and an alumnus of Dartmouth College, isthirty-eight years old. He was elected a vice-president ofMarshall Field and Company in 1940.A Grim View of the FrivolousThe wind which bloweth hot and cold on the Quadrangles (winter has played shuttle-cock with spring inChicago in recent weeks) carried echoes of two addressesby President Hutchins in which he flayed the Americanuniversity for its "colossal frivolity.".Reviving some of the grim passion which made himattack ten-cent football several years ago, Mr. Hutchinstold audiences in St. Louis and Evanston that universitiesare frivolous, professors are frivolous, and football remains the symbol of higher learning in America."It is impossible for me, an old and practiced exag-gerator, to exaggerate the frivolity of higher education,"he declared. "I could invent the most monstrous taleswithout shocking you in the least. I have often tried toinvent something that some American university wouldnot do, only to find out the next day that several weredoing it." As "obstacles" to education Mr. Hutchins cited thecredit system, the course system, the department system,the 8-4-4 system of slicing up one's education, and thetextbook apparatus which burdens student and teacheralike."The president," he said, "should be the responsibleexecutive of a high-tension democracy. All universitiesthat I know of are very low-tension democracies."Wanted: A New MottoHis addresses, which were anything but frivolousended with an attack on "these interchangeable monosyllabic Latin mottoes that universities have and whichmean nothing to them or anybody else." He offered"free" to any endowed university in the mid-west a newmotto to help any institution "to do battle for therevolution that must come if men are to live togetherin peace." It was a line from Walt Whitman, whichreads like an introit or a ringing anthem: "Solitary, singing in the West, I strike up for a new world."Earlier, this assault on the ancient mottoes which blessthe portals of modern temples of unlearning broughtfrom a University trustee the offer of $750 for the personswho suggest the best mottoes for the University ofChicago. The Chicago Maroon has undertaken to publicize a nationwide contest, open to anyone who has asuggestion and fifty words to support the appropriatenessof his offering. First prize of $500 will go to the personwhose motto (it need not be a quotation) is acceptedfor use.College Federation Meets at U.Sixty Illinois college presidents and administrators converged on the Quadrangles for a one day session, February 22, — the fortieth annual meeting of the Federationof Illinois Colleges. Ernest C. Colwell, dean of the faculties of the University of Chicago, extended a formal welcome to the conferees, who gathered in Swift Hall.Discussion was focussed on the problem of higher education in the war and post-war periods, and the stagewas set a few days before by news from Washington thatthe Army had decided to cut out a large section of theA.S.T.P. program and shunt these thousands of militarystudents from the campus to the warfront. The movewas expected to result in the removal of props from under many a small college in the country.Francis J. Brown, consultant of the American Councilon Education, told the group in a paper read in hisbehalf, that this body blow could be countered in threeways: special programs for men prior to induction age,rehabilitation programs for discharged military personnel, and a "vital" curriculum centered about the war andpost-war training of women.Keynoting the afternoon session, George A. Works,18THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19professor emeritus of education at the University, discussed plans for a survey among the 110 post-secondaryinstitutions in the state, with a view to assessing theirpromotion of education — the privately endowed beingset off against the public schools. One of the needs tobe studied is that for a second state university in Illinois,Mr. Works said.Hutchins Heads Press InquiryWith our Bill of Rights serving as a high-power lens,a Commission of Inquiry, headed by President Hutchins,is launching a two-year study into the status of freedomof the press in the United States. The commission willoperate under a grant from Time, Inc., publishers ofTime, Life, and Fortune magazines, but will be as independent of the donor as of the University of Chicago.The sweeping probe, which will embrace radio programs and advertising as well as regular news outlets,and go into nothing for news content alone, will be conducted from headquarters in New York City. OtherUniversity men on the commission are Professor CharlesE. Merriam and Dean Robert Redfield. Also includedare Beardsley Ruml, chairman of the Federal ReserveBank of New York, and Hu Shih, former Chinese Ambassador to the United States.Robert E. ParkAlready long departed from the campus he made thesource of new thought, Robert Ezra Park, 79, formernewspaper editor who became a University of Chicagosociology professor and turned the city into a sociologicallaboratory, died on February 7 at his home in Nashville, Tennessee. He was given retired status in 1930,after sixteen years, and remained as professor emeritusuntil 1936.Racial relations and the relation of the newspaper tosociety were the principal problems of his study. Bothwere conditioned before his advent to the Quadranglesin 1914 by his friendship with Booker T. Washington(author of Up From Slavery) with whom he collaborated on other works, and by his city editorship on theDetroit Free Press.The classic, The Gold Coast and the Slums, was oneof a series of books he edited in addition to texts whichhe authored himself.Memorial services were held for Mr. Park in BondChapel, with Professor Edward Scribner Ames performing the offices, on February 9. Burial was in Freeport,Illinois.Dean Redfield, son-in-law of Mr. Park, added the following personal note: "To me, Robert Park has seemedfor many years the best and most stimulating of menand fathers. ... He led us, his family (which now includes one great-grandchild), on walks through theMichigan woods and along the shores, worked with usm felling trees, read to us on Sundays and in the evenings about the fire, commanded and exhorted and corrected and loved his whole family ardently, and occupieda unique position as head of the clan." Arthur E. BestorArthur E. Bestor, '01, president of his College class,first executive secretary of the Alumni Council, one-timemember of the University's faculty, and special representative of the alumni at the Quarter Centennial celebration, died in New York City on February 3. FewChicagoans were more widely known to the alumni family and none was more highly regarded.Arthur Bestor's first interest was the Chautauqua Institution, Chautauqua, New York, which he saw growfrom a small summer gathering place for Sunday schoolworkers to a national educational institution, once calledby Theodore Roosevelt "the most American thing inAmerica." His first connection with Chautauqua was asan assistant director in 1905. He became director in1907 and had been the institution's president since 1915.But Bestor's educational interests and activities wereworld wide, as is shown by the positions that he heldthrough a lifetime of unselfish service to humanity. During World War I he was named by President Wilson asdirector of the speakers division of the Committee onPublic Information. After the close of the war he traveled widely, especially in the Balkans, Egypt, and theNear East. He was chairman of the board of the NearEast Relief, trustee of the Near East Foundation, andmember of the executive committee of the AmericanSchool of Sofia, Bulgaria. Dr. Bestor was chairman ofthe board of trustees of Town Hall, Inc3 and of theLake Placid Educational Foundation. He was a leading authority on adult education and was especially activein its development through the medium of the radio.During the present war he had served as chairman ofthe War Council of the American Platform Guild. Mr.Bestor leaves a widow, the former Jeanette Lemon, twosons, and a daughter.From the PodiumLectures punctuated life on the campus, as usual.Rockwell Kent, who wields a pen as mighty as the brushor woodcutter's stencil, gripped the lectern in MandelHall the evening of March 2 and delivered himself ofan address on "The Arts in Democracy." Speaking underthe auspices of the William Vaughn Moody Foundation,he invoked the tale of Mahomet and the mountain, andtold his audience that if the mountain won't come toMahomet, Mahomet must go to the mountain — meaningthe artist must go to the people, and do so speaking acommon language.Joseph A. Brandt, who resigned the presidency of theUniversity of Oklahoma to become director of the University of Chicago Press, addressed the Friends of theLibrary February 24 on books as "merchants of light." 'The American mind is doomed to continued adolescence unless educators give up the "myth" that thenation's average mentality is at the twelve-year level,he declared. He pointed out that the University Presshas pioneered in the dual task of printing books forboth scholar and layman, and said this fact, coupled with20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe radio Round Table and Erpi Films, led him to believethe University could take national leadership in changing "our concept of the mental age of American citizenship."Hans J. Morgenthau, visiting professor of politicalscience, told a lecture group that peace can be maintained if an international body is set up which, supportedby cohesive social impulses, combines law with the instruments for enforcing it — a body analogous to thatwhich maintains order within a democratic nation, forexample.The Issue: Peace or War PeacemealA blizzard burying the campus in drifts of snow sweptacross the gothic city on February 11, but did not barthe footsteps of several score faculty members and students who trekked to the bookstore that day. MortimerJ. Adler, professor of the philosophy of law, stood within,pen in hand, ready to autograph copies of his latestbook, How to Think about War and Peace.The success of the occasion was phenomenal (to coin apraise) . Word had gone around that Mr. Adler waslooking down a vista five hundred years long towardultimate peace, but the long prospect, uncommon in thesedays of dreams of perpetual peace beginning when thelast gun sounds, proved not too forbidding to the prospective readers. They were enthusiastic about reading,and, Mr. Adler hoped, about taking up his thesis andbeginning now the spadework of the next millennium.He was asking them to invest in thought and effort nowwhat might reap dividends for their remote descendants.Sports from Pit to PoleMeanwhile, the University of Chicago basketball team,with its steadily changing composition, continued to keepthe record straight. On February 26 the Maroons bowedto Minnesota, coming in on the distaff side of the scorefor the 47th time in succession. Of late, they have threatened to upset the unblotted tradition of their predecessors by taking the lead in the first half, hanging on to itfor several minutes. But they relinquished their mortgageon victory in the last phase of the contest, showing, afterall, that they were only fooling. They have, as per custom,, pitched their tent in the conference cellar. Theirlast victory, incidentally, was over Minnesota, the authorof their latest setback. That was back in the year 1940.An ensign named Clyton Bromley played Frank Mer-riwell last month, and saved the hapless Maroons froma zero record in their own track show. Track Coach NedA. Merriam was brooding over his fortunes when EnsignBromley appeared out of the west, looked over the terrain, and announced he had pole-vaulted some 12 feet6 inches for good old Denison University at Granville,Ohio, back in the spring of 1938. This was an hour beforethe trackmeet here. The Navy meteorology studentdonned track togs, grabbed him a pole, and politelysoared 11 feet, to ring in five points for the Maroons.And, he hadn't handled a pole for almost four years.Physical Education Instructor Erwin F. Beyer has been displaying proudly Lou Levit, the University's own1943 A. A. U. sidehorse champion — and with reason.Levit, who recovered from infantile paralysis a fewyears ago, came under Beyer's tutelage in 1941. He hasbeen trained to use his legs and to compete in the moststrenuous athletics. Mr. Beyer believes the physical education program he undertook portends good things forreturning servicemen with injuries to their lower limbs.Room with a ViewThe post-war outlook reveals itself in the strangestquarters. Pfc. Eliot Freidson, of Brookline, Massachusetts,former University student, now stationed at MacDillField, Florida, has a post-war plan of his own. He plansto return to school. His confidence can be measured fromthe fact that he already has reserved a room at International House.FRENCH CANADA{Continued from page 17)Books on this province, be they ever so bonne ententish,almost invariably regard one of the two ethnic groupsas "we" and the other as "they." To the Hughes eye, allCantonvillians are equally "they." French-Canadianfactory hands in a St. Jean Baptiste parade are describedwith no more objectivity than English-Canadian managers' wives at an Anglican tea. Acts, attitudes, opinionsare set down with a knack of arrangement and contrastthat sheds a clear; and sometimes cruel light.On the one hand are the French-Canadians, bewildered, frustrated, resentful. Their own ways and valuesare being shattered by a new set in which theirs have noplace. Industrial economy has no outlet for their talents,no release for their aspirations, no regard for their standards, no role for their best men. Only the masses in industry are French; even at the level of skilled workman,English predominance begins, and from the rank of shopforeman upward, the minuscule English minority has analmost intact monopoly.It is made clear that this domination is not altogetherdeliberate. There is a minute account of the French"dead end (public) school, leading to no higher coursesand fitting its best students only for minor clerical work."There is note of the sole alternative in the convents andthe classical colleges, and emphasis on the fact that not asingle young French-Canadian could be found who wasstudying or intended to study applied science.But if Hughes leaves all the warts in his portrait ofthe Cantonville French-Canadian, he is equally unsparingwith the English. The typical figure that emerges — documented too well to leave many cheeks unblushing — isan unlovely cross between George F. Babbitt and the OldChina Hand, with a touch of pukka sahib. We are shownfor what too many of us are, smug aliens who cannotunderstand even the language of the country, let aloneits customs and its feelings.Blair Fraser in the Montreal GazetteTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21NEWS OF THE CLASSES? IN THE SERVICE *For extraordinary heroism in attacking enemy dugouts single-handedly as a member of the First ParachuteBattalion of the Marine Corps, thelate Lieut. Walter X. Young, '40, wasposthumously awarded the NavyCross. His mother, Mrs. John J. Mc-Geeney, received the medal early inJanuary. Lieut. Young was promotedto the rank of captain the day hewas killed in action on Gavutu Islandin the Solomons on August 7, 1942.The citation accompanying the NavyCross told of his courageous initiativeand his single-handed attempt to neutralize a dugout which commandeda portion of the dock and constituteda grave menace to his comrades. Hedeterminedly continued his voluntaryaction until, while effecting a daringentrance, he was fatally wounded.Lieut. Young's outfit, the First Marine Division, was also given a Presidential Citation.Cecilia Quigley, '19, has been promoted to a full lieutenancy in theWAVES, in which she became oneof the first officers on November 10,1942. She is stationed at the Lake-hurst, N. J., Naval Air Station, whereshe is an instructor in the aerogra-phers' school. She taught school forseventeen years before entering navalservice.Donald W. Riddle, PhD '23, hasrecently been advanced to the rankof major and has left for overseas."It's strictly work now," writesCapt. Lambertus Beeuwkes, MD '30.He is with a hospital unit somewherein Italy. His wife and three-year-old son Bill are living in Dearborn,Michigan.Major Ray Vane, '32, is executivefor the Ordnance section at Secc ridJtidimttt^FOR CAREER-MINDED WOMEN• That bright future you've dreamedabout — College education plus Gibbstraining insures it!SPECIAL MIDYEAR COURSESBEGIN FEBRUARY 14Right now, smart girls from 147 seniorcolleges who want more than a temporary stop-gap job are training tobecome Gibbs secretaries. Hundredsof permanent, well-paid, patrioticpositions are open to Gibbs -trainedcollege women who need never fearcompetition. For catalog, addressCollege Course Dean.NEW YORK 17 230 Park Ave.BOSTON 16 90 Marlborough St.CHICAGO II 720 N. Michigan Ave. I Army headquarters, Memphis, Tennessee. His wife, Marjorie CahillVane, '31, writes that her sister, Dorothy Cahill, '30, AM '39, is doing hospital recreation work with the RedCross in North Africa. Living conditions are pretty rugged, but thework is rewarding and she has mademany friends among the FrenchNorth Africans via her fluent French.Lieut. John P. Barden, '35, JD '38,is chief of the legal section of AMGin one of the southern Italian provinces and is attached to the British8th Army. His wife writes that hiswork demands sound judgment, skill,and a knowledge of international law,so it is exactly suited to his abilities.Mrs. Barden adds: "On the domesticfront, our son was born in Augustand, while he is living his early daysin New England, he is already slatedfor the University of Chicago."Lieut. Robert Blakey, 38, SM '39,has been in the Navy since July, 1942,and was ordered to Honolulu recently. His wife, Mildred ZahrobskyBlakey, '39, was commissioned ensignin the SPARS five days before he left.Lieut. William Rasmussen, '38, SM'39, is assistant operations officer onthe staff of a water supply battalion.Before entering the service he wasa ground water geologist for the U. S.Geological Survey. His wife andbaby daughter are living in Hettinger,North Dakota, while he is overseas,and try to satisfy the lieutenant'swish for lots of mail from home.S/Sgt. William J. Tallon, '39,writes: "Africa was fascinating. Sicilyis not so bizarre — not so utterly foreign, and therefore more easily understood and absorbed. We've seena good part of the island — most ofit is perpendicular or nearly so.There doesn't seem to be a squareyard that has not a mountain on it."Constance B. Webb, AM '39,American Red Cross hospital fieldsupervisor, arrived safely in Hawaii,it was recently announced. Untilher Red Cross appointment, Mrs.Webb was an instructor at the Montreal School of Social Work and director of the social service department of the Montreal General Hospital, and previously taught at Western Reserve University, Cleveland.She was also director of the socialservice department of Universityhospitals in the same city.On October 31, 1943, Lieut. Robert Sorensen, '39, Navy flyer, received PRISONERS OF WARThe following have been reported as being held by theJapanese:Comdr. Robert G. Davis,MD'09.Major Jay E. Tremaine,MD'30.Capt. Mark T. Goldstine,Jr., '31, AM'37.Lt. Robert B. Greenman, '32,MD'37.Lt. Lincoln R. Clark, '38.Lt. Jacques V. Merrifield, '41.George R. Weiland, '42.Capt. R. Emmett Deadman,'39, after being listed as missingin action in a raid over Hamburg, has now been reporteda prisoner of the Germans.the Navy medal for bravery in engaging "an overwhelming force ofenemy fighters" in the Solomons areaon February 4, 1943. He destroyedone Zero before his own plane wasshot down into the sea. He was rescued by natives and returned toGuadalcanal. Former swimming starat the University, he had been basedon the Wasp and Hornet. He wasdecorated with the Distinguished Flying Cross by Adm. William F. Halsey,Jr., in New Caledonia for shootingdown a Japanese bomber which hadsighted one of his carriers.William Boehner, Jr., '39, receivedhis wings on January 7 when he graduated as flight officer from the Marfa,Texas, AAF Pilot School. He completed a course in training in twin-engine planes and was assigned toMarfa from Pecos basic flying schoolin Pecos, Texas.The latest word from Stanley P.Dodd, '39, informs us that he is withthe 40th Chemical Laboratory Company stationed at Fort Ord, California. After a variety of duties he isnow chief of the chemical section inthe company, with the rank of firstlieutenant, and feels lucky to be doingthe work for which he trained incivilian life.Corp. Richard Ranney, '39, hasbeen assigned to Walter Reed Hospital in Washington to do the samepersonnel work that he had beendoing in civilian life. "Lucky me,"writes Richard, "I can live at home,although I do have to get up early toget to work on time." The Ranneysare living in Arlington, Virginia.Among the SPARS commissionedat the Coast Guard Academy at NewLondon, Connecticut, in November22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwere the following: Ensign Clara H.Pagel, MBA '42, former accountantanalyst and office administrator; andLieut, (j.g.) Nellie M. Eastburn, whotaught physical ed at the Universityand was head resident of Kelly Hall.Lieut. Saul Weisman, '40, writesfrom Puerto Rico and calls it a windswept land of the rhumba and dark-eyed senoritas — and at the Universityof Puerto Rico, the Chicago Plan!He was pleasantly surprised recentlyto see rows of familiar survey coursebooks in the college library. The Planwas introduced recently and is, naturally, well-liked.Lieut. S. A. Telfeyan, '40, MD '42,is with a station hospital overseas.James B. Charlton, '40, has been alieutenant in the Army Air Corps formore than a year and has been piloting a bomber in North Africa sincelast April. On August 24 he wasawarded the Air* Medal with OakLeaf Cluster.Ensign Herbert E. Ruben, '41,went through diving and salvageschool in New York, fire fighting inBoston, communications in Seattle,and is now on duty on a ship put incommission in Portland. He had aninteresting sojourn in Alaska, butsays he prefers a warmer climate.Lieut. Gordon L. Murray, MBA'41, has had plenty of opportunity tosee North Africa on his latest assignment. He says that life has beenvery interesting over there — in fact,a bit too interesting at certain times.HUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7798Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally reeognlzed as one of the leading TeachersAgencies »f the United States.BOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492HOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579 Ser^t. Arthur Brake, '41, is stationed at Brookings, South Dakota,where he is an ASTU-er in electricalengineering at the State College.Somewhere in China Sgt. Frederick Swanson, '41, with the AirForces, and Lieut. Daniel Orloff, '42,weather observer, reminisce withpleasure of riding together on thedear old "L" from the far northwestside of the city to attend 8 o'clockclasses on the campus. The sergeantwrites: "One feels a certain humilityat being privileged to have graduatedfrom the greatest university in theworld. I still have a good deal ofstudying to do when I get back.Hope it won't be too long."WAVE officer J. Ann A. Hughes,SM '41, of Louisville, Kentucky, waspromoted from ensign to lieutenant(junior grade) on the first of thisyear it was recently announced. Lieut.Hughes is attached to the medicaldepartment of the Jacksonville NavalAir Station as assistant in the executive department of the station's dispensary. She entered the Women'sReserve in 1942 and completed indoctrination in December of thatyear. Since her assignment to Jacksonville immediately following indoctrination, Lieut. Hughes has beenWAVE regiment athletic and recreation officer, permanent officer of theday for WAVES, and at present isin an assignment with the medicaldepartment. Before entering theNavy she was a laboratory technician,and in 1941 she organized the healthand recreation program for NYA infourteen southern counties of thestate of Illinois.Overseas for over 18 months as amember of a squadron of the "Earth-quakers," the oldest medium bombardment group operating in theMediterranean, S/Sgt. Thomas Remington, '41, has served in Egypt,Libya, Tunisia and other bases. Hisship is named "Fleegie Jr.," — Juniorbecause his first plane was wreckedwhen a British aircraft crashed into itand exploded with its bombs just fiftyyards away. Tom was working on hisplane at the time and was thrownfrom his ladder by the concussion andknocked unconscious, but has fullyrecovered now.His ship has over one hundred missions to its credit, a record of whichthe sergeant is very proud. Whenworking at night he lights his workwith a captured German generatorwhich he has reconditioned and putinto service powered with a salvagedmotorcycle. He has used Germanbomb boxes to make a floor and sides RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 3192CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions"for his tent and states that theyserve very well to keep out the frigidItalian winds and rains. He was recently awarded the good conductmedal by his commanding officer.Lieut. Leonard W. Weigel, MBA'42, took a group out to the SouthPacific the first of the year. He iswith the Navy Amphibious Force.Corp. William L. Baker, Jr. '42, islearning to speak Chinese at StanfordUniversity and doing "amazinglywell" at it. He says he hasn't theslightest notion where he will be sentwhen the course is finished, but hopeshe will end up in China.Serving with a supply detachment,Thomas R. Hall, PhD '42, has anoverseas address.Robert G. Nunn, JD '42, is a second lieutenant and now has an overseas address. On March 27, 1943, hewas married to Holly Geary of Fairfax, California.Lieut. John L. Campiche, Jr., '42,writes that since his arrival at thestation hospital at Camp Robinsonin Arkansas he has acquired a "promotion, a horse, a wife, and twentypounds of posterior health." Hespent Christmas in Chicago, visitedthe campus about midnight onenight, and sat in Hutchinson Courtand reminisced just long enough todevelop a lump in his throat for thedays of yore. He is feverishly waiting until he can get back to theMidway.Recent graduation ceremonies atthe naval training school for midshipmen on the Northwestern University campus saw four U. of C.graduates receive their commissionsas ensigns in the U. S. Naval Reserve. The three - month trainingperiod completed, the newly commissioned officers will serve as deck officers. They are: Robert Cross, '43;John Diederics, '43; Seymour Lozan-sky, '43; and Warren Pursell, '42.THE UNI VMacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63 rd St. H. P. 21,30GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86John A. Stephens, '42, is at theCoast Guard Academy at New London, Connecticut, in the midst of afour-months' course for reserve officers.After completing his V-12 programat the University of North CarolinaJohn Cox, '43, moved to ParrisIsland, S. C, where he finds lifepretty rough and time passing byrapidly. The "chow" is good (withplenty of butter) he writes, but theboys do their own washing, and Private Cox would aDDreciate a laundryat this point.Pvt. Bernard Apple, '44, is stationed at Fort Adams, Rhode Island.Pfc. Charleton C. Bard, '45, is atLehigh University in Bethlehem,Pennsylvania, in the A.S.T.P. group."Life is extremely pleasant," hewrites, "and why shouldn't it be?There are plenty of girls and no guysin these parts. Fate, in her typicallyironic manner, has made me an assist-ai.: gym instructor at this school.Took my physical ed. at U. of C.under 'Bud' Beyer's famous tutelage.His instruction has certainly helpedme a lot in the Army."Due entirely to Army consideration Pfc. Eliot Freidson, '45, spentlast spring in Michigan (comfortable), last summer in Wyoming (cool,6000 feet up), last fall in Michigan(comfortable) and this winter inFlorida (warm!). "I can't complain,"he writes, "even though my personalEden has become merely civilian lifeand surroundings." Of his Army career, Private Freidson says: "I wasyanked out of ASTP with my threeterm course only two-thirds over,and sent down to Tampa to SignalIntelligence, attached to the AirCorps. My work will evidently con-Slst of 'oral interception,' whateverthat may be." ERSITY OF CHICAGOTHE CLASSES1893Frequently called "Chicago's firstcitizen," to a multitude of people Clifford W. Barnes,AM, needs no ¦|iPp"VM^VBilfurther identifica- jtion. For more Wthan half a cen- Mry or*i£ftury he has beenlaboring for the |welfare of Chi- [cago. Although Wkto^tir ^\he prefers to be jknown as a lay-ma n, it was as Clifford W. Barnesa Congregationalclergyman that he started his distinguished career, when back in the'90s he was pastor of a little churchin a congested North Side area. Hehas spent most of his life helping theneedy — and his cleanup campaignshave ranged far and wide.Probably his greatest contributionhas been to the Chicago SundayEvening Club, which he organized in1907 to "maintain a service of Christian inspiration and fellowship in thebusiness center of Chicago and topromote the moral and religious welfare of the city." Today it is ratedone of the great religious institutionsof the country, its platform havingdrawn many a notable figure. Everyyear it crowds Orchestra Hall andcontinues to do so in even greaternumbers this year. Clifford Barneswas also founder of the ChicagoCommunity Trust which has acquired more than $10,000,000 inendowments for the welfare of Chicago. Civic leader Barnes is a member of the University's Citizens Boardand was honored with an alumnimedal at the Fiftieth Anniversarycelebration.1903Mary Meroe Conlan teaches atMorgan Park high school and hasbeen convincing her students for thepast twenty years of the values oflearning French and Latin.Gertrude Hubbert Wylie, AM, retired from school teaching a whileago. She lives in Chicago and recently reached her eightieth birthday.1904Leaving high school mathematicsto her successors, Sarah Vickery isspending her retirement in Evansville, Indiana, where she was formerly connected with the Centralhigh school.1906News to be proud of reached Albert W. Sherer, (Alumni Citationist, MAGAZINE 231943) and his wife when they learnedthat their son, Capt. Albert W.Sherer, Jr., had been awarded the Air1 Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster fortaking part in aerial attacks on theGilbert Islands previous to the American occupation in November.| We are sorry to learn of the passing away of Rev. James Henry Larson's wife, Maud Parsons Larson, oni December 28, 1943, in Northampton,j Mass. Mrs. Larson studied music atSmith College, Boston, New York,I and Paris. For over ten years she ledJ the chorus choirs of Mr. Larson'schurch in Watertown, New York, ands in his preaching missions. Togetherthey traveled over 500,000 miles intheir auto from church to church,e from Maine to California. Mrs. Lar-ti son was the author of a special songe book entitled, Hymns from the Heart.e 1908s Gertrude F. Murrell is superinten-a dent of the Florence Crittenton Homefor Girls in Nashville, Tennessee.1 1909The firm he was connected withe having been dissolved, Albert S. Longwill continue to practice law in his"own sanctum, 208 South La SalleStreet, Chicago.s News reaches us that Walter A.=> Weaver of Fowl River, Alabama, has^ four sons in the service, three in theAir Corps. One of the- latter is ar prisoner of war in Rumania and wass a pilot on the Ploesti raid last fall.Di Albert K. Epstein, '11'B. R. Harris, "21i Epstein, Reynolds and Harris1 Consulting Chemists and Engineers' 5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6La Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston — New York— Philadelphia— SyracuseESTABLISHED 1908ROOFING and INSULATING24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMORE HONORS TO ALUMNIDesignation of Evarts A. Graham, MD Rush '07, SD '41, professor of surgery at WashingtonUniversity and surgeon-in-chief atBarnes Hospital in St. Louis, asCharles Mickle Fellow for 1943was announced recently by theUniversity of Toronto. The awardwas made in recognition of his research in the field of cancer ofthe lung and for his discovery ofa method of testing gall bladderfunctions by the use of certainorganic compounds. This awardis made annually to a member ofthe medical profession consideredby the council of the medical faculty of the University of Torontoto have done most during the preceding ten years to advance knowledge of a practical kind in medicine. Dr. Graham's work in surgery has won him wide recognitionin recent years. Last Novemberhe was presented an honorary fellowship in the Royal College ofSurgeons of England, and last Maywas named to receive the ListerMedal given every three yearsunder the auspices of the Royal College of Surgeons in recognitionof distinguished contributions tosurgical science. He also receivedthe John Scott Award in Philadelphia in 1937 for his applicationof the x-ray in study and diagnosisof gall bladder conditions. In 1942he was the tenth recipient of theannual St. Louis award for outstanding service to the community.Mrs. Graham is the former HelenTredway, PhD '15.The Callahan Memorial Awardfor 1943 was presented to Professorof Physiology Arno B. Luckhardt,'07, SM '09, PhD '11, MD '12, atthe annual meeting of the OhioState Dental Society in Clevelandon November 8. Dr. Luckhardtis a member of the Council onDental Therapeutics of the American Dental Association and received the award "for outstandingservices to dentistry." Dr. Luckhardt presented a paper on theevents leading to his discovery ofethylene-oxygen anesthesia. Thepresentation was made by ThomasJ. Hill, professor of oral pathologyat Western Reserve University.1910Bradford Gill, formerly of the Gilbert and Gill insurance firm, has become a partner of the Moore, Case,Lyman and Hubbard associates. Theiroffices are in Chicago.Horace B. Horton, Alumni Cita-tionist in 1943, has been elected vice-president of the Beverly State SavingsBank of Chicago. He has been a director of the bank since 1924 andserved as vice-president from 1926 to1942. He is treasurer of the ChicagoBridge and Iron Company and amember of the War Labor Board.Mrs. Horton (Phyllis Fay, '15) is contributing to the war effort as a hardworking member of the ration board and of the Travelers Aid in DearbornStation.Emma S. Weld helps run a farmin Pavilion, New York, and calls herself a "farm home maker and poultrywoman," enjoying the good countryafter twenty years of teaching in thehome economics field. Another farmlady whom she sees occasionally isDorothy Buckley Clark, '11.1912Harry Herwitz commutes from hisfamily dwelling in Alexandria, Virginia, to the Dupont Circle Buildingin Washington where he is chief administration analyst for the UnitedRelief and Rehabilitation Administration. Harold K. Shearer has been in Brazil for a year. He is senior geologistand is connected with the Bureau ofEconomic Warfare, with headquarters in Rio de Janeiro.1915At an RAF rest home in England,somewhere near the bombed villageof East Grinstead, a fabulous rest cureis offered to the men and boys whofly droves of Spitfires, Hurricanes,Mosquitos and Beaufighters across tothe enemy. The program at the home,which is located on a baronial estateof magnificent proportions, is run byan American - born officer. He isSquadron Leader Cowan DouglasStephenson, born in Bear Creek, Tennessee. "Stevey," as everyone callshim, has fought for England in twowars. He had just graduated from theUniversity when he joined the RoyalFlying Corps, parent body of theRAF. Later he flew for the RoyalNaval Air Service and was a chartermember of the RAF. He remained inEngland after World War I and became a citizen in 1923, by which timehe was a star reporter for the LondonExpress. He had written sports forthe Chicago American while at theUniversity. He achieved success inseveral business ventures, but at thestart of the war returned to the airforce, where he was control officerof a Spitfire drome that recentlybrought down its thousandth Germanplane. From that position he wasplaced in charge of this new experiment with the minds and spirits ofshaken RAF fighters, where his bland,good-natured personality and quietefficiency help remake the irreplaceable flyers. His wife is Jeanne DeCasalis, actress and playwright.1916Donald McFayden, PhD, took aleave of absence from the Universityof Colorado to secure his doctoratefrom Chicago, after which he returned to Boulder to continue on theancient history staff until he joinedthe University of Nebraska faculty in1919. In 1922 he became a memberof the Washington University historyfaculty where he is now not only directing the study of ancient historystudents but teaching current historyto 400 members of the pre-flight aircrew. McFayden was in Chicago latein January and dropped in at AlumniHouse between visits with old friendson the faculty.1917Among Washingtonians is John C.Weigel. He administrates at the Officeof Foreign Economic Administration.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25John W. Elliott, AM, has beenpresident of Alderson-Broaddus College in Philippi, West Virginia, since1939, and writes that this small Baptist college is out of debt for the firsttime in many decades. There is nomilitary unit on his campus, so thedebtless condition is not due to government subsidy.1918Directors of the Beverly State Savings Bank of Chicago recently electedArthur A. Baer its president. Baer,vice-president of the bank for twoyears, has owned and directed since1920 the Baer's Junior DepartmentStore which he will continue to headalong with his new duties. A PhiBeta Kappa, he was editor of theMaroon during his undergraduatedays and also head student marshal.Since his graduation he has been oneof the leaders in alumni activities —has been a director of the Foundation the past three years and dean ofthe Alumni School last June. In thelast two decades he has taken an active part in civic affairs. He is amember of Mayor Kelly's advisoryboard to the Chicago Plan Commission and was president of the Beverly Commercial Association from1934 to 1941; he has also served inlocal war agencies and has beentreasurer of the Washington HeightsOCD since its inception.1919Esther Greisheimer, PhD, hasmoved to Philadelphia to take up herprofessorship in the physiology department at Temple University'sSchool of Medicine.Sik-Chu Lui, SM'27, is workingfor the U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, located inCollege Park, Maryland.1920Albert Wilson, SM, has joined theteaching staff of the high school inSeymour, Indiana.At a meeting of railroad men andWPB officials in Cleveland, O. Crandall Rogers, WPB salvage chief ofthe region, helped touch off a recentcampaign by the nation's railroads togather three million tons of scrapmetal as part of the WPB's nationalvictory scrap bank" drive.Faber Birren is a color consultant,with offices on Fifth Avenue in NewYork and with the Crimson Press in"estport, Connecticut. He has written many a book on color, running'he gamut from a comprehensive ref-erence book on the history of color^titled, The Story of Color, to Color:" Modern Packaging, and The Won derful Wonders of Red-Yellow-Blue,a book for children. Numerous articleson color embrace the fields of physics,art, psychology, and printing andhave appeared in national publications. He has been designated as "notonly a pioneer, but a great leader inhis chosen field."Marguerite Newmeyer Mayer iscase work supervisor of a socialagency in Washington, D. C.1921Henry L. Cox, PhD, is assistantto the vice-president of the RubberReserve Company in Washington, D.CVivian Carter Mason is at presentin Norfolk, Virginia, recuperatingfrom a train accident in September,and will later return to her post asdirector of the division of social service in the Department of Welfare inNew York City.Irving C. Reynolds of Toledo, Ohio,was recently appointed chief of thedairy products, fats and oil rationingbranch of the OPA. Mrs. Reynoldswas Ruth Irene Hamilton, '21, whenshe was on the Quadrangles. 1922Horace Levinson, PhD, directs andis treasurer of the L. Bamberger Company of Newark, New Jersey.Leo Rice is with the PrudentialInsurance Company's office in Chicago.Sidney J. French, professor ofchemistry at Colgate and coordinatorof the institution's Naval Flight Preparatory School, was recently initiatedinto Phi Beta Kappa as an honorarymember. French was professor ofchemistry at Franklin, Indiana, College for four years prior to joiningthe Colgate staff in 1932.Ruth Kern, SM, has left Laredo,Texas, to go to the Panama Hospitalin Panama where she expects to livefor the next two or three years.Edgar Johnson, PhD '31, residesin Washington, where he is researchanalyst with the Office of StrategicServices.Edith May Bell, AM, continues asprincipal and teacher of social scienceat Milton high school, Milton, Iowa.1923Lars Carlson has migrated fromEMILY TAFT DOUGLAS IN A NEW ROLENOMINATED by the Democratic party of Illinois as itscandidate for congressional representative at large, Emily TaftDouglas, '19, (Mrs. Paul Douglas)has a colorful background. Daughter of Lorado Taft, the sculptor,she had early contacts and travelwhich have been useful in herpresent position. After graduatingat twenty from the University shewent on the stage, where for twoseasons she played the leading role,both on Broadway and the road,of The Cat and the Canary. Fourhundred odd performances of thesame part were enough for her,but incidentally acquainted herwith all types of audience.A childhood trip to Europe firstawakened her interest in otherlands and since then she has traveled widely. In all she has beenabroad five times and has lived inEurope during momentous events.She and her husband were in Italythroughout the Abyssinian Warand learned at first hand the significance of total war and Fascistambitions., ,Back in the United States, Mrs.Douglas began to talk on themeaning of Fascism. From thatperiod until our entry into thewar, she served as chairman of theforeign policy section for either the Cook County or the IllinoisLeague of Women Voters. To theDouglases the issues were neveracademic, but called for action aswell as words. Mrs. Douglas tookthe lead in starting one of the largeproduction centers of the RedCross and is general chairman forthe Hyde Park committee. Whenher professor-husband finally enlisted in the Marines, she becamefull time secretary for the newInternational Relations Center inChicago, whose pamphlet shop andspeakers bureau offer resources toother organizations in building aninformed public opinion.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESpokane to Seattle during the pastyear to take up his duties as regionalmanager of the Committee for Economic Development in the PacificNorthwest.Philla Slattery, AM '24, has takena teaching position at Notre DameAcademy at Belleville, Illinois.Abraham Kouperman, SM, is astatistician for the Jewish Charities ofChicago and lives with his family inWinnetka.Russel Ward has been elected president of the First National Bank ofNeenah, Wisconsin.1924Having accepted the position of associate professor of biology at LenoirRhyne College, Harold E. Miller hasgone to Hickory, North Carolina. Hewill have charge of the biologicalwork at the institution. He was formerly with the OPA in Sunbury,Penna.Formerly with the U. of C. Libraries, Catherine Sturtevant, AM,PhD, '31, is associate editor of theCornell University Press. She is alsothe editor of "Man and Wife andOther Plays," by Augustine Daly.Esther Schwartz Cohn lives in Chicago and engages in personnel work.J. Duncan Brite, AM, PhD '37, isassociate professor of history at UtahState Agricultural College, Logan.1925Moving northward from Gregory,South Dakota, Norman L. Rice, AM,FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Spode and Other FamousMakes. Also Crystal and GiftsGolden Dirilyte{Formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID— NOT PLATEDService for Eight, $41.75GOLDEN HUED BABY SPOONS «1While they last «PX ta.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDingo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, III. is now situated at the CongregationalChurch in Grand Forks, North Dakota.Theodore Weber, amusement andadvertising manager of the StandardClub in Chicago, also writes for theChicago Sun.1926John Cappon is on the teachingstaff of St. Johns Academy at Dela-field, Wisconsin.M. King Hubbert, SM '28, PhD'37, recently left the Board of Economic Warfare to become associatedwith the Shell Oil Company in Houston, Texas. With the Shell Companyhe will be associated with DarrelHughes, PhD '31, who has been withShell for the past eight years or so.Harold Gibson Caldwell, AM, is anauditor with the Department of National Revenue in Canada's nationalcapital.North Side House in Ithaca, NewYork, is supervised by Rose Klumb,the settlement's head worker.1927Margaret Minton Swartz teachesat Senior high school in Fond du Lac,Wisconsin, where she is head of thehome economics department.Ethel Pate, AM, is the commissaryclerk at Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary.Henry E. Otto, Jr., is co-ordinatorin the pyrotechnic plant of the Kil-gore Company near Dayton, Ohio.1928Out in Flagstaff, Arizona, JuniaMcAlister, SM, is on the staff of theTeachers College.Charles Kette manages one of theoffices of the United States Employment Service in Chicago.The Department of Physical Education for Women at U.C.L.A. isheaded by Eleanor Metheny.Heading the central Europena section of the Office of Strategic Services keeps Eugene N. Anderson, PhD,pretty busy in Washington these days.The appointment is announced ofWalter S. Ryder, PhD, as associateprofessor at Central Michigan Collegeof Education, Mount Pleasant.1929George Lynn Cross, PhD, actingdean of the Graduate College of theUniversity of Oklahoma, became acting president of that University onJanuary 1 when ex-prcsident JosephA. Brandt left to become director ofthe U. of C. press. Mr. Cross tookhis degree at the U. of C. in botany,and after that spent another yearhere doing research on plant proteinsas a research fellow with a Rockefel ler grant. His chief interest has beenin research, attested by many scientific papers and recognition from national scientific societies.Ethel Annan Elder is principal ofthe Oak Ridge schools in Oak Ridge,Tennessee.On the faculty at Illinois State Normal University, Helen E. MarshallAM, continues as associate professorof American history.Army maneuvers and housing conditions have forced Paul HollisterSM, to move to Nashville from Lebanon, where he was head of the biology department at Cumberland University. He is taking a short contractto teach in Middle Georgia Collegeat Cochran.Evalyn Van Stratum Brinkman,SM '41, is part-time teacher of artat Oak Park-River Forest Townshiphigh school, Illinois.M. Ethyl Rivers, SM, instructs atBucknell University in Lewisburg,Pennsylvania.Frances Johnson Locke teaches akindergarten class at Jackson schoolin Phoenix, Arizona.Prof. Ernest Lauer, PhD, is at present in the history department of Montana State College at Bozeman.BOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.CADILLAC EQUIPMENT EXCLUSIVELYPhone: Saginaw 3202FRANK CURRANRoofing & InsulationLeaks RepairedFree EstimatesFRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.8019 Bennett St.BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27Carlton Speed, who did graduatework here in 1927-29, occupies a highadministrative post in the Office ofthe Petroleum Administrator for War.During the intervening years he hasbeen in the oil business in Texas.Waldo Waring (who really belongsto the class of 1926) visited Washington last winter. At that time, he hadjust returned from Colombia wherehe had been in charge of explorationfor the Tropical Oil Company. Hiswife and children are now living inPittsburgh while he is in governmentservice.1930Since 1939 Meyer Ryder has beenwith the NRLB and is now its regional director for the Buffalo, NewYork, area.Edward Sayler, AM, is dean of theSeminary at Yankton College, SouthDakota.Harry T. Fields is the agent for theLos Angeles Times in Santa Barbara,California, where he makes his home.At Columbia University, CatherineMerriam Dunn, AM, is on the facultyof the New York School of SocialWork.Montana Faber Menard has become active in the Woman's MusicClub since moving to Wheeling, WestVirginia, a year and a half ago. Shemade her debut as a composer onCLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency61st YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSTANDARDBOILER and TANK CO.524 WEST 42nd STREETTelephone BOUIevard 5886HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS— — SINCE 1906 + WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES ?+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ?? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE +pRAYNEIT• DALHEIM &CO._2QS4r W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO. their November program when sheplayed her suite for piano and aquartette of female voices sang her"Jubilate" — a Christmas carol. Sheis the historian of the club and hasbeen made chairman of publicity fortheir guest artist program this month.With a permanent address at thephysics department of the Universityof Missouri in Columbia, Newell S.Gingrich, PhD, is at present in Washington with the Office of ScientificResearch and Development.Harriette Krick Bartoo, PhD, isprofessor of biology and botany atAustin Normal Peay School in Clarks-ville, Tennessee. Her husband, DorrRaymond Bartoo, PhD '28, formerlyat Tennessee Polytechnic Institutewhere he was professor of biology,passed away on November 25, 1943.Margaret H. Waters is an adjustment teacher in the Oak Park schools,Oak Park, Illinois.1931Ernest Landy, MD, gives his medical attention to the patients at theU. S. Veteran's Hospital at Marion,Illinois.Army classes at Agricultural andTechnical College at Greensboro,North Carolina, learn their lessonsfrom civilian instructor Donald Edwards, SM.1932Alice Stinnet, of New York City,is employment manager of the Research Institute of America.Mary Jo Read, SM, holds the postof assistant professor of geographyat the University of Washington, Seattle.1933On our own campus Edith BradleyWells, AM, is a photographer at theOriental Institute.Jane Fulton Jordan is a technicalassistant for the Ethyl Corporation inDetroit. She resides in Birmingham.Foster Myers divides his time between the oil producing business andbeing high school principal in Tulsa,Oklahoma.John G. Albright, PhD, who wasformerly with the Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland has movedto Kingston, R. I., where he has begun his duties as head of the department of physics at Rhode Island StateCollege.Annie Lee Davis, AM '38, is seniorconsultant for social service for theState of Illinois.1934Sidney Circle, PhD '41, is researching for the Hiram Walker & Sonslabs in Peoria, Illinois. William Nels Simonds, Jr., is a staffmember of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's radiation laboratory.1935Elizabeth Riggs Caldwell, AM, is asenior editorial clerk with the CensusBureau, Department of Commerce,in Washington, D. C.Geraldine Smith is a teacher atLincoln school in St. Charles, Illinois.Pauline Lacy Smith teaches at theBailey junior high school in Nashville.Radio advertising is Willson Tut-tle's field and New York his headquarters. He operates from the officesof Ruthrauff and Ryan, Inc.David J. Harris has been elected avice-president and director of Sills,Minton and Company of Chicago.He is taking over the duties of William Sills, '34, president, who is nowan ensign at the Naval TrainingSchool at Princeton. Clarence W.Sills, '05, chairman of the board, willbecome president of the company.Harris has been with the United Drilland Tool Company for the past yearand formerly was with Sills, Mintonfor seven years.Celanese Corporation of Americaemploys Fred Fortess as researchchemist. He and his family live inCumberland, Maryland.With offices in the state capital,Frank Oneal, AM, is assistant superintendent of public instruction in Illinois.1936Beginning in October, Perry LeeStarbuck, MBA, became assistantprofessor in the University's School ofBusiness.SivifkJce Cream\&E£\Wfi?GZ%&MM%<LEXTRA CAREMAKES THEEXTRA GOODNESSA Product ojSWIFT & CO.7409 S. State StreetPhone Radcliffe 740028 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMorris Malbin, MD '38, is radiologist at St. Mary's Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin.Merrill Krughoff, AM, is welfareconsultant for the Community Chestsand Councils, Inc., of New York City.As assistant story editor for RKOStudios, William Koenig lives in Hollywood.Louis Ludwig, SM, is researchchemist for the Goodrich RubberCompany in Akron, Ohio.Mildred Barnes is librarian at theFederal Public Housing Authority inthe nation's capital.Robert B. Giffen, who left his position as assistant to the dean of theRockefeller Memorial Chapel a fewyears back to become director of theWestminster Foundation at Princeton,is devoting part of his time to theFederal Council of Churches' WarTime Campus Mission, which involves setting up religious programsat universities and colleges wherethere are trainees. Bob also was lastfall's director of Princeton's successful community fund campaign. Thereare three youngsters in the Giffenfamily: John, 8; Phoebe, 5; andBobby, 2.For two years Vivian Klemmi Sa-ratso was secretary in the Departmentof Pharmacology at Columbia University. Last September she left herposition to join her husband, Lieut.Clifford Saratso, MBA '43, stationedin the replacement pool at Stark General Hospital in Charleston, S. C.Prior to his entrance into the ArmyMedical Administrative Corps, he hadbeen an associate in the division ofrural hospitals of the CommonwealthFund in New York.One of the new members of thestaff at Indiana University in Bloomington is Morris Goran, SM '39.William Mackensen, AM, is fieldsecretary for the Friends GeneralConference. He is residing in Washington, D. C.!937Ruth Wolkow, SM, teaches physicsat Indiana University, Bloomington.Blanton Black, SM, preaches andteaches theology at the Morris BrownCollege in Atlanta, Georgia, andmakes his home in Macon.1938Viola E. Walberg is mistress of thepantry at Hutchinson Commons inher capacity as food supervisor.Irene Geary Poole is a first gradeteacher at the public schools of Peoria, Illinois.Rex W. Allen has traded the zoological division of the Beltsville Research Center, Maryland, for the ACMESHEET METAL WORKSGeneral Sheet Metal WorkSkylights - Gutters - SmokestacksFurnace and Ventilating SystemsMM East 55th StreetPhone Hyde Park 9500Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson DoesPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park AwningINC. Co.,Awnings ana Canopies tor All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueTELEPHONE HAYMARKET 4566O'CALLAGHAN BROS., Inc.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.Zoological Laboratory of the U. S.Department of Agriculture located atthe Custom House in Chicago.Mary Frances Hedges, who lives inSan Francisco, is now educational director of the International Institutewhere she is specifically responsiblefor group work activities. This is oneof forty such institutes established inthe United States. The San Franciscounit acts as a clearing house for theU. S. Army civil affairs trainingcourses at Stanford and the University of California. Miss Hedges hascharge of this project and is enjoyingher new work very much.In September William Robinson,AM, joined the staff of Western Military Academy, Alton, Illinois, wherehe teaches English. He also holds therank of captain in the Infantry division of the Illinois National Guard.1939Charles Farace, PhD, teaches highschool in Inchelium, Washington.Sidney Lash Simon, PhD, is associate physical chemist in the aircraftengine research laboratory, NACA, atCleveland Airport. From Peoria Alice F. Gibson hasmoved to Mobile, Alabama, where onthe first of the year she assumed theduties of port medical executive ofthe Port of Mobile with the WarShipping Administration, medical division.Since leaving the Quadrangles witha doctor's degree, Harrison W. Stra-ley, III, PhD, has busied himself withteaching, employment by contracting,mining, and oil companies, and operating his own consulting office. During the past two years he has beenwith the Foreign Economic Administration as a mineral economist. Thewinter and spring of last year werespent in the Caribbean as a memberof a governmental technical missionwhere his function was to participatein the investigation of the mining andfuel resources of the area. Mrs. Stra-ley (Garnet Brammer, '29) was, fora time, editor of the alumni magazine for the Sigma Sigma Sigma national educational sorority, but since1933 has devoted her time to her1940Fay Mary Dillon, AM, is a highschool teacher at Lemmon, South Dakota.Irma A. Buell, SM, continues assupervisory principal of Joliet cityschools, Illinois.Riley Herman Pittman, AM, leftTexas Christian University last Juneto become associate minister at theHuntington Park Christian Church,California. His wife (Marion Hayes,AM '41) is working with the Y. W.C. A. in Los Angeles.1941Beginning in November, John Willard is now instructing at Lexingtonhigh school, Lexington, Illinois.Robert M. Johnson teaches historyat the Chicago Latin School for Boys.Rosaltha Hagan Sanders, PhD, isresearching in chemistry for the KraftCheese ;Company in Chicago.Washington school in Sheboygan,Wisconsin, has appointed Sara-JaneHaven, AM, to its staff and she willteach music and English.1942Kathryn E. Beckman, AM, coversthe third and fifth grades as criticteacher at Michigan State NormalCollege, Ypsilanti.The elementary supervisor ingrades of the Normandy publicschools in St. Louis County, Missouri,is Ursula W. Kern, AM.Gordon M. Kehler is a training assistant with the Sperry GyroscopeCompany in Brooklyn. He and Mrs.Kehler live in Bronxville, New York.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MA G AZINE 29John Van Male, PhD, is librarianand professor of library science atfyfadison College in Harrisonburg,Virginia. Last year he held the post0f director of the Pacific NorthwestBibliographic Center.Elizabeth Hull, AM, became Mrs.Charles Colman in November. Weekends are spent in Seattle with herNavy husband and the rest of thetime in the fruit-growing country ofTieton where she teaches school."Since I began teaching here I haveassumed sponsorship of the juniorclass, a play, the newspaper and theannual," she writes, "and exchangedmy one easy subject of public speaking (easy because I knew nothingabout it) for plane geometry."1943Frank Walsh is in the market planning and research division of Montgomery Ward and Company in Chicago.Elva Lanneau Chaplin, AM, is atthe Norfolk Polytechnic Institute asinstructor of English.Betty Urquhart, MS, is an instructor at Wheaton College, Wheaton,Illinois.Frances D. Acomb, PhD, has takena position as instructor of history atNew York State Teachers' College,Albany.Martin McGill, AM, teaches atHowe Military School in Howe, Indiana.Rose Ella King, AM, is an instructor at Clark College in Atlanta,Georgia, and also acts as assistantcounselor.Ruth Weinberger, SM, has returned to Brooklyn to become an instructor at Brooklyn College, NewYork.Having received his doctor's degreein September, John B. McConaughyhas become professor of social scienceat Duluth State Teachers' College inMinnesota.Silvia D. Gaetti, AM, teaches Spanish at Mundelein College, Chicago.Louise Pettaway, AM, has accepteda teaching position at State Agricul-tural and Mechanical College,Orangeburg, South Carolina.Raymond de Roover, PhD, continues as assistant professor of economics at Wells College, Aurora, NewVork.SOCIAL SERVICEAudrey Sayman AM '36, has recently left the Red Cross psychiatricunit at Gardiner Hospital, Chicago,where she has been chief psychiatricWorker and has supervised field work students for the School, to go to LaGard Hospital in New Orleans. MissSayman will also teach at the Schoolof Social Work at Tulane University.Henry Waltz, AM '36, has recentlyjoined the staff of the Council ofSocial Agencies of Los Angeles andwill serve as director of the groupwork division.Recent word has been receivedfrom Capt. Mark T. Goldstine, AM'37, who is in a prison camp held bythe Japanese. It is understood thatCapt. Goldstine may receive mailwhich is printed or written in capitalletters, twenty-four words only, addressed to Capt. Mark T. Goldstine0284559, American P.O.W. Headquarters, Military Prison Camp No.2, Philippine Islands, via New York.Joseph E. Baldwin, AM '37, director of the Lake County Departmentof Public Welfare in Indiana, wasrecently elected president of theAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade arid Critic work. Sendfor folder today.HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE AFTER20 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERTGraduate NurseMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused. Permanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600 HairRoots per hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy. Also Electrologists Associationoj Illinois$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in Beauty Indiana State Conference on SocialWork.Cleta W. Davis, AM '37, has beenmade the executive secretary of theCharity Association of San Antonio,Texas.Word has been received that Virginia Ruth Mayer, AM '40, whojoined the Red Cross in the springof 1943 and was sent to North Africa,was killed in an airplane crash inNovember of last year. A Ruth MayerMemorial Fund has been establishedin Palo Alto by the Y.M.C.A. andshould any of Miss Mayer's formerfriends wish to contribute to this fundsuch contributions should be sent tothe Ruth Mayer Memorial Fund, c/oMr. Dwight O. Welch, Young Men'sChristian Association, 367 UniversityAvenue, Palo Alto, California.Franklin Hockreiter, AM '40, hastaken a position with the social protection division of the Federal Security Agency and is working in Louisiana.Rosebud Savage, AM '41, has beenmade the assistant director of homeservice in charge of training in themidwestern area office of the American Red Cross in St. Louis.Leona Olson, AM '41, is a medicalworker with the University hospitalsof Cleveland.Ruth Pierstorff, AM '41, has accepted a position as psychiatric socialworker with the Neurological Institute in New York City.Aileen McBrien, AM '41, is withthe American Red Cross in the CanalZone. Her present address is 333rdStation Hospital, APO 827, c/o Postmaster, New Orleans.Dean Krueger, AM '42, has beenappointed public assistance analystwith the Social Security Board inWashington, D. C.Iwalani Smith Mottl, AM '42, hasleft the Department of Public Welfare in Honolulu to join the staff ofthe Child and Family Service, a private agency of Honolulu.Violet Fischer, AM '43, who hasbeen field representative on the statestaff of the Department of PublicWelfare in Indiana, has recentlytaken the position of medical consultant in the public assistance division in that department.Marie Connor, AM '43, is medicalsocial worker with the PresbyterianHospital in Chicago.Alice Deckert, AM '43, has taken aposition with the Red Cross in themedical social work department ofthe Schick General Hospital in Clinton, Iowa.Of the students who took the mas-30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEter's degree at the autumn convocation, 1943, Ruth Aho has accepted aposition with the Illinois Children'sHome and Aid Society; Arnold Aron-son has returned to his position asexecutive director of the Bureau onJewish Employment Problems in Chicago; Alma Atherton Oktavec hasaccepted a position with the BrooklynNursery and Infants' Hospital inBrooklyn, New York; Mildred Bealehas returned to her position as fieldrepresentative in the Department ofPublic Welfare in Alabama; Eva Cur-less has accepted a position with theIowa Children's Home Society in DesMoines; Geraldine Gourley is a medical social worker with the Red Crossunit at Fitzsimons General Hospital,Denver, Colorado; Julie Grenier hasbeen appointed instructor in thegraduate school of social work in OurLady of the Lake College, San Antonio, Texas; Laura Ligia Noya hasreturned to her position as child welfare supervisor, health department,Santurce, Puerto Rico; George Pikseris district representative with thepublic assistance division of the Illinois Public Aid Commission in Chicago; Annie Pruitt has accepted aposition on the faculty at the Schoolof Social Work, University of Louisville, Kentucky; Dorothy Russell is a.case worker with the United Charities of Chicago; Gertrude Seefeldtreturned to her position as caseworker with the Lutheran WelfareSociety of Wisconsin in Milwaukee;Ethel Shufro is field assistant withthe Bureau of Old Age and Survivor'sInsurance of the Social SecurityBoard in the Chicago office; BarbaraSnoke is a medical social worker inthe University of Chicago Clinics.Cleon Morgan, AM '43, has beenmade field representative with theState Department of Public Welfarein Kansas and is located in Winfield.E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planoqroph — Offset — Pr inting731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182T. A. REHNQUIST CO.\i "'"7 CONCRETEw/ FLOORSWvr7 SIDEWALKS\\ V MACHINE FOUNDATIONSw EMERGENCY WORKv ALL PHONESEST. 192* Wentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Ave. LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERQUICK TRAININGIntensive Courses to meet the needs ofindustry and government— Stenographic, .Bookkeeping, Typing, Comptometry, etc.Day and Evening — Catalogue FreeBryant^ StratumC O LL)E G £18 S. Michigan Ave. Tel. Randolph IS75Marjorie Robinson Eckels, AM '43,has accepted a position with the NewYork Children's Aid Society.Rose Waxer Levinson, AM '43, hasaccepted a position with the JewishSocial Service Bureau in St. Louis.Michael Hitrovo, AM '43, is working with the Immigrants' ProtectiveLeague in Chicago.Andrew Newman, AM '43, is asenior social investigator with theFamily Court of Milwaukee.Rita Spalding, AM, '43, is employed with the Jewish Social ServiceBureau of Chicago.The following students who tookthe A.M. degree in 1943 are workingas medical social workers with theAmerican Red Cross: Jean Ross, U.S. Naval Hospital, San Diego, California; Margaret Best, U. S. NavalHospital, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Elsie Rockier, Barnes GeneralHospital, Vancouver, Washington;Mary Lesher, Station Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, Missouri;Lida Schneider, Neuropsychiatric Section, Bushnell Hospital, Brigham,Utah.ENGAGEMENTSThe engagement of CatherineSears, daughter of Paul B. Sears, PhD'22, and Mrs. Sears, to Aviation Cadet Robert L. Hamilton, son of Clarence H. Hamilton, '10, PhD '14, andMrs. Hamilton, was announced at aChristmas tea given by Mrs. Sears.Miss Sears is a sophomore at Wellesley College and Cadet Hamilton isin flight training at Maxwell Field,Alabama. An alumnus of WesternReserve Academy, he attended Oberlin College and Yale prior to his enlistment in the Air Corps.Mr. Sears is professor of botanyand head of the department in Oberlin College, and Mr. Hamilton is pro fessor of the philosophy of religionand of Christian missions in the Oberlin Graduate School of Theology.The engagement was announced ofEvelyn Jeanne Geiger, '41, of Berwyn, Illinois, to Sgt. Clifford W.Stabenau, Jr., on December 20, 1943.Lois M. Regnell, '44, recently became engaged to Paul H. Jordon, Jr.,'41. Paul, a private first class in theArmy, receives his MD in Augustand will interne at St. Luke's Hospital. The wedding will take placeon April 6 in the Graham TaylorChapel.BIRTHSLinda Ellen Klein arrived at Chicago Lying-in Hospital just ahead ofSanta Claus (December 22) on theQuadrangles where both mother —Lois Pauline Cromwell, '34 — and dad—Franklin W. Klein, JD '32— polished off their educations. Linda Ellen has two sisters: Janet Lois, 6/2,and Mary Frances, 5. Her address is12722 S. Maple Avenue, Blue Island,Illinois.To Leo Ralph Brown, MD '34, andMrs. Brown, a son, Michael David,on December 20, 1943. His sister,Mollie Ann, is three years old. Thefamily is living at Newport News,Virginia.To Charles F. Axelson, Jr., '37,MBA '37, and Mrs. Axelson, on November 27, 1943, a daughter, LindaJeanne, in Chicago.To James C. Plagge, '37, PhD '40,and Mrs. Plagge (Dorothy Wells, '38)their second child, a son, RichardGeorge, on December 29, 1943.To Dr. and Mrs. Dwight E. Clark(Eleanor Melander, '38) on August10, 1943, a daughter, Elizabeth Ann,sister to Judith Lynn. Dr. Clark isinstructor in surgery in our MedicalSchool.A son, John Randolph Van deWater, Jr., to John R. Van de Water,'39, JD '41, and Mrs. Van de WaterThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324Tuck PointingMaintenanceCleaning PHONEGR Ace land 0800CENTRAL BUILDING CLEANING CO,CalkingStainingMasonryAeid WashingSand BlastingSteam CleaningWater Proofing 3347 N. Halsted StreetTHE UNIVERSITY, OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31MEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeBEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAYmarket 79171404-08 S. Western Ave., Chicago(Harriet Doll, '37) in Long Beach,California, on September 11, 1943.To Herta Prager, JD '40, andFrank D. Prager, a daughter, Katharine Renee, on December 26, 1943.To William E. Frye, PhD '41 andMrs. Frye (Elizabeth Sayler, '35) onDecember 12, 1943, a daughter, AnnHagman. The Frye family lives inWashington, D. C.To John Howard Donnelly, '42 andMrs. Donnelly on January 21 inSanta Fe, New Mexico, a daughter,Joan Louise, sister to Mary Margaret, one year old. Their paternalgrandfather is Leonard Galvin Donnelly, '11.MARRIAGESKate Gordon, '00, PhD '03, professor of psychology at U.C.L.A., toErnest Carroll Moore on March 8,1943. They are living at 516 Woodruff Avenue, Los. Angeles.Kathleen Patton to Gerald Holin-beck Westby, '20, on February 2at the home of the bride's parents,Mr. and Mrs. John E. Patton ofTulsa, Oklahoma. After a weddingtrip to Mexico, the Westbys are athome at 2515 East Twenty-eighthStreet, Tulsa. He is president of theSeismograph Corporation.Howard A. Vernon, '27, AM '40,to Bettie Sue Gudakunst on December 25, 1943. He is an instructor inthe Army Air Corps at WittenbergCollege.Esther Rygg, '33, on June 17, 1943,to Edgar Sandberg. They are keeping house at 1455 West 78th Street,Chicago. She is continuing her dutiesas a commercial teacher.Gladys Dolvin to Ralph E. Siegel,'35, MD '37, on September 28, 1943.Dr. Siegel is physician and surgeon atthe Grace Hospital in Welch, WestVirginia. The couple are at home at111 Virginia Avenue.The marriage was recently an nounced of Gloria L. Klopot, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Klopot of Hyde Park Boulevard, Chicago, to Franklin B. Orwin, '37, sonof Mr. and Mrs. O. Orwin of HarperAvenue. The bride attended the University of Wisconsin. They are athome at 5140 Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago.Muriel M. Levin, '38, to Peter E.Siegle, '38, on September 6, 1943, inChicago. They are at home at 5447Cornell Avenue in Chicago. She iscontinuing to teach music at Lindblom high school and he is on thestaff of Morgan Park Military Academy.Ruth E. Parsons, '38, AM '39, toWilliam Hampton in Los Angeles onDecember 4, 1943. He is a graduate of the University of Texas, 1940.The couple are living at 1817 y2 Griffin Avenue in Los Angeles.Carol Cotton, PhD '39, to WilliamN. Bowie on July 9, 1943. They areliving in Chicago where she is psychologist for the Psychiatric Instituteat the Municipal Court.Milancie Hill, '39, to Major William Sheldon, PhD '26, MD '34, ofthe Army Air Forces, on December17, 1943, in a quiet ceremony on theU. of C. campus. The major is aninstructor in the school of aviationmedicine at Randolph Field, Texas.Mrs. Sheldon is remaining here, temporarily at least, continuing herwork as editorial assistant on theUniversity's Journal of Modern History. Major Sheldon formerly taughtpsychology at the University and hasbeen in the Army since 1942.Lieut. Oscar Sugar, PhD '40, toDorothy Cohn on February 8 atSanta Ana, California. Lieut. Sugaris with the Medical Corps at theSanta Ana Army Air Base.Lois V. DeVall, MD Rush '41, toLieut. Otto Rath, MD, of the Med-Alice Banner Englewood 3181COLORED HELPFACTORY HELPSTORESSHOPSMILLS FOUNDRIESEnglewood Emp. Agcy ., 5534 S. State St.HARRY EENIGCNBURG. Jr.STANDARDREADY ROOFING CO.Complete Service10436 TelephoneS. Wabash Ave. Pullman 8500 JOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882Ajax Waste Paper Co.2600-2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Any QuantityWaste PaperScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, Van Buren 0230ical Corps, on September 10, 1943.Her present address is anywhere herhusband is stationed, but she can bereached via her father, Dr. Fred DeVall in Garretson, S. D.Patricia A. Lyding, '42, daughter ofMercedes Jones Lyding, '19, to Stanley H. Moulton, '43, on December18, 1943, at Hilton Chapel. He iswith the Naval Medical Reserve andstudying at the Medical School,while Mrs. Moulton is at Billings.Doris Argile, '43, to Lieut. FrankW. Johnson, on June 5, 1943. He received his MD from Rush in 1942and while he is stationed at CampLyson, Tennessee, Mrs. Johnson iscontinuing her studies on the campusand also serving on the Universitylibrary staff.Dorothy F. Hoskins, '42, SM '43, toWalter O. Haas, Jr., PhD '41, onDecember 27, 1943, at St. Thomas'Chapel in Chicago. The weddingtook place just ten days after shereceived her master's in bacteriologyfrom the University. They are athome at 5541 Woodland Avenue inChicago.Sally Adams, '43, to Lieut. GregoryHuffaker, '41, on January 3 at thehome of the bride's parents, Mr.and Mrs, Theodore Adams of Wil-mette. The couple are at home atthe Walnut Park Plaza in Philadelphia while he is stationed with theOrdnance department there.Marjorie Robinson, AM '43, toArthur R. Eckels on January 1. Theyare at home in Astoria, Long Island.The new Mrs. Eckels is a case workerwith the Children's Aid Society inNew York.Shirley Jane DoBos, '43, to BradleyH. Patterson, '42, AM '43, on December 26, 1943, at RockefellerChapel. They are at the CranbrookSchool at Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEnsign Joan Sill, '43, of theWAVES to Ensign Robert ClydeCummins, '43, at Bond Chapel onFebruary 5. The evening ceremonywas followed by a reception at theSouth Shore Country Club. Thecouple spent their honeymoon atVirginia Beach, Virginia, near thebridegroom's station, after which thebride returned to her duties at GreatLakes. Daughter of Mr. and Mrs.Vincent D. Sill, she received hercommission at Smith College. Ensign Cummins is the son of ClydeCummins, AM' 17, and Mrs. Cummins.David A. Heller, '43, to DeaneFons, '46, on February 12 at Thorndike Hilton Chapel.DEATHSWord reaches us of the death ofFrank Salmeron Smith, MD '82, physician and surgeon, in Nevada, Iowa,on May 18, 1943.William E. Ham, MD Rush '82,85-year old physician of Beattie,MOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.W.B. CONKEY COMPANYH AMMON D, INDIANAPRINTERS and BINDERSOF.BOOKS and CATALOGS Kansas, on July 30, 1943. Dr. Hamhad been a resident of Beattie forsixty years and practiced medicinefrom the horse and buggy days untila few years ago when he retired.He had always maintained an activeinterest in his community, havingserved as mayor of the town, councilman, member of the board of education, and postmaster.Albert J. Hodgson, MD Rush '86,retired physician of Waukesha, Wisconsin, on October 5, 1943.Henry R. Caraway, '95, retiredstock broker, on January 29 in NewYork City, where he had recentlybeen living. In addition to his estateat Carmel, N. Y., he owned a 1,000acre farm near Tuscola, Illinois, hisbirthplace. He is survived by hiswife, Glenrose Bell Caraway, '97, aformer president and now a lecturerof the Women's National RepublicanClub.Sales Offices: Chicago and New York The news of the death in Januaryof Georgiana Rose Simpson gives riseto a sense of real personal loss and Iam grateful for the opportunity ofmaking this statement with referenceto my affection and my regard forher. Miss Simpson came to the University of Chicago first in the summer of 1906. She took work in theRomance languages and made a verygood record. She returned the fourconsecutive summers, taking duringthese quarters courses in Latin, Greek,and mathematics. She received herbachelor's degree in 1911 and wenton for the master's degree, which,however, she was not able to takeuntil 1920. The work for the doctorate was completed in 1921. MissSimpson studied both in Germany andin England and had become quite intimately associated with the Friendsand with a number of distinguishedGerman scholars. She was a personof simple and direct but gracious anddignified manner, and she was characterized by both racial and personalself-respect. She was a valued teacher,first at Dunbar high school in Washington and then at Howard University, where she held a professorshipuntil the time of her retirement. Ithas been said that she was the firstNegro to take the degree of Doctorof Philosophy. Of that I cannot speakwith authority. I can only say thatduring the years since the summer of1907, when I first became acquaintedwitu her, I have cherished the highestrespect and a warm and affectionateregard for her.Sophonisba P. Breckinridge. John Inglis, MD Rush '96, in Den.ver on November 20, at the age 0f74. Dr. Inglis was a noted Denverphysician and surgeon, and author ofauthoritative volumes based upon hisresearch and experience. In 1898 'hemarried Theodora M. Marshall andsoon after was appointed physicianin charge of the An Ting hospital atPeking, China, where he witnessedthe historic siege of 1900. One of hisliterary works, Siege in Peking, wasthe outgrowth of this experience. Another of his books is Chemistry %nAbstract. He is survived by his wifeand three brothers.John Franklin Daniel, '06, on November 2, 1942. Mr. Daniel had beena member of the zoology departmentof the University of California since1911, when he was appointed instructor. He became full professor in1919. He was widely known for hiswork in zoology and was decoratedas Chevalier of the Legion of Honorin 1936. He was the author of a bookon animal life of Malaysia and manyscientific papers on such subjects asthe breeding of mice for scientificAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000ENGLEWOODELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers ofELECTRICAL MATERIALS ANDFIXTURE SUPPLIES5801S. Halsted Street Englewood7500POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893purposes, experimental studies in alcohol, morphogenesis, etc.George Sass, '06, JD '07, on September 1, 1943, at Billings Hospital.He was senior partner of the Chicagolaw firm of Sass and Hood and hadbeen Westchester village attorneysince 1934. He is survived by hiswidow, Bernice, and a son, Capt.Robert Sass, '39, who is on activeduty in Australia.Mrs. Fred D. Farrar (Cora E. Hin-kins, '13) of Birmingham, Michigan,on May 29, 1943, following a severeillness of two months. Mrs. Farrarhad led a very active life and hadbeen one of our own regional advisers. She had served as director ofthe Birmingham Center of the English Folk Dance Society and as Michigan state president of the AmericanAssociation of University Womenfrom 1936 to 1939.James O. Engleman, AM '18, onSeptember 15, 1943, while on a fishing trip on Lake Erie. He was formerpresident of Kent State Universityand had served as superintendent of schools at Terre Haute, Indiana, andDecatur, Illinois.Rowland Campbell, '20, in Apple-ton, Wisconsin, on October 19, 1943.He headed a chain of stores, withheadquarters in Appleton, and wasthe brother of LeRoy Campbell, '15,JD '18 and Tom Campbell, '20, oftrack fame.Frank H. Anderson, '22, of Kenil-worth, Illinois, suddenly on October14, 1943, at Stuart, Florida. He wasvice-president of the Canteen Company of America (vending machines) .He is survived by his wife and fivechildren, four sisters and a brother.Julian S. Waterman, JD '23, atFayetteville, Arkansas, on September19, 1943, at the age of 52. Mr.Waterman had been vice-president ofthe University of Arkansas since 1937and was dean of its Law School,mediate past-president of the Southwest Athletic Conference.Rev. William J. McGucken, PhD'27, on November 5, 1943, in Chicagowhile on a visit to Loyola University. Up to that time he was prefect-general of studies for Jesuit Colleges ofthe Missouri province and directorof the Department of Education ofSt. Louis University. He was fifty-four years old at the time of his death.Bernice A. Tucker, AM '30, onNovember 9, 1943. Previous to herdeath she had been instructor andsupervisor of home economics at Illinois State Normal College.Henry W. Prescott, professor emeritus of classical philology, on June 13,1943. Mr. Prescott took his degreesat Harvard, receiving the A.B. in1895, the A.M. in 1896, and the Ph.D.in 1901. He taught Latin and Greekat Trinity College, Harvard, and theUniversity of California, and in 1909came to the University as associateprofessor of philology. He remainedin the department until his retirementin 1940. He was an outstandingscholar in his own field and to hispupils he was known not only as abrilliant teacher but a wise and kindlycounsellor.Aga in voted Jd mertcasfavorite oo, this baconwith thesweet smoke taste*ln a new, nation-wide pollSwift's Premium Bacon wonoverwhelmingly, led the runner-up more than two to one.'Your flat duty to your country BUT WAR BONOSSHE HAS THE VOICEWITH A SMILE, TOO•She' s your personal representative at the telephonecompany— the girl in the Business OfficeAny time you'd like to know anythingabout service, or equipment, or bills, or wartime telephone regulations, she's there to help.Sometimes, because of the war, she cannotgive you the exact type of equipment or service you want — or just when you want it.But you can be sure of this:She will do her very best at all times and doit promptly, efficiently and courteously.When you are calling over war-busy Long Distance wires, the operator may ask you to "pleaselimit your call to 5 minutes." 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