j\ji^tZc,u*£a-*J erf Mjru^/ A^c^WrJ 0/ {^mJXPk&^ k^^rur- ^rr ^Lee^, £?/yu^n^t^iJ, ^TUS^€' Jy-es $L^s-l!r%-*aCe~*»<jf «/ fin^^^r '^n&^t^ A^t^jLjwtk^* fhtfu* i^v^^ &*¦ jtn-*^^o &*r-vi~] p-^-ou t^ fihjUyTHE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEA WOMAN GIVES A MAIMMORE planes might be namedDiamond Lil if pilots and crewsknew what this woman knows — thatbombers wear jewels!This woman is one of a little groupof war workers whose job is producingsynthetic jewels for electric aircraftinstruments. The jewels are tiny bearings for moving parts which must be asaccurate, and are almost as small, asthe parts of a fine watch. They aremade from glass by a secret processat a mass production rate, but eachjewel must pass an inspection as exacting as a jeweler's appraisal of a preciousstone. These jewels, which women aregiving men to fly by, are given in pains-faking devotion to precision — in manufacture and inspection. The development of these jewels isan example of the application of General Electric research and engineeringto small things, as well as large. Beforethe war, and before G-E scientistsdeveloped a special process for makingthese jewels synthetically from glass,we used sapphires for these bearings —importing many of them. Think whatit would mean, with America's thousands of planes requiring millions ofinstruments, if we were still dependentupon a foreign source!Small things perhaps, these jewelsa woman gives a man — but in war, asin love, there are no little things.General Electric Company, Schenectady,New York.Hear the General Electric radio programs: "The G-E All-girl Orchestra" Sunday 10p.m. EWT, NBC— "The World Today" news, every weekday 6:45 p.m. EWT, CBS.JThis magnified glass jewel, one ofseveral types, is actually smallerthan a pin head. As one ofthe largest makers of aircraft instruments, and as a supplier ofjewels to other instrument makers,General Electric is unofficialjeweler to many American planes.GENERAL » ELECTRIC952-G00C1-211192,000 employees of General Electric are on their jobs producing war goodsand buying over a million dollars oj War Bonds every week to hasten victory.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONCHARLTON T. BECKEditor HOWARD W. MORT and BEATRICE J. WULFAssociate Editors SYLVESTER. PETROAssistant EditorTHIS MONTHTHE COVER: Exactly eighty years TABLE OF CONTENTS professor of educational psychologyago another war President was hoping 'pa e and suPermtendent of the Laboratoryfor a successful spring campaign. Peace Problems Schools. He has been borrowed byFrom Lincoln Letters, published by t^JSSs'^ 3 Encyclopaedia Britannica Publicationsthe Bibliophile Society, included in Marshall Field 7 and Films to become educational edi-the University's Lincoln collection. °Nvfr.]fiAN's °PINION tor of the two groups. -William V. Morgenstern 9Sound Movies for Sound Edu- __ ,. „„ „n^ TATTORNEY George Maurice cation SUCCESSFUL geologist and oilMorris and Mrs. Morris frankly ^^^^f^^^ producer/ C. W. Tomlinson ofadmit that for twenty-five years they William Benton 7 '. ., 10 Ardmore, Oklahoma, advances hishave lived in a state of disagreement The; ^Instructional Use of theories on the use of natural re-on methods of maintaining world - Stephen M. Corey 11 sources and applies his economic andpeace. Therefore the Washington Natural Resources in Post-War religious convictions to geo-politicalAlumni Club meeting at which Mr. c. ^W?* Tomlinson 12 problems.' Mr. Tomlinson taught theMorris presented his peace views Back from Japanese Internment.. 13 first course offered in petroleum geol-proved to be a lively one when Mrs. A Typical Month at the Settle- ogy at the University of Illinois be-Morris, acting on the members' sug- MngZrite K. Sylla : 14 fore g°ing into the commercial fieldgestion, provided the rebuttal, sup- The New Testament Club in 1918. After doing geological workported by Harold Moulton. Only NEwTot ^Quadrangles ^ "* twent^four states and tw° LatinGeorge had a manuscript so you will TylveTtefTetro UADRAN°LES 17 American countries, he became hishave to supply your own rebuttal if WlTH °UR Alumni in Detroit 20 own producer in 1925. Mr. Tomlin-_one be needed-to "Peace Problems." News of the Classes 24 son is a member of the General Con- — — - vention of the Episcopal Church andA MONG the first Chicago business T JNDE?- ** tiU? °1 "S°Und ,^°V" carries his share of civic responsibili-A\ , .-ii i ^-^ ies ror Sound Education are +:~c¦f *• men who contributed generously . ¦, « . T, r .. ._ XT . . printed two talks given on Januarytc .the founding of the University was 24 before the Citizens Board of the TJEAD Resident Marguerite K.Marshall Field. Fifty-four years later University. They concern the acqui. j"l gylk rf fte University of Chi-his grandson and namesake, a mem- sition of Erpi Glassroom Films Inc. cago Settlement makes such humanber of the University's Board of Trus- Mr. Benton came to the vice-presi- monthly reports to the Board of Di-tess, addressed the faculty at the an- dency of the University with a con- rectors that it was thought readersnual trustee-faculty dinner. Quietly viction that radio and sound films would enjoy sitting in on one of theand earnestly he placed on the shoul- could be made powerful mediums for board meetings.ders of the professor the responsibility advancing education. It is appropri-and privilege of tomorrow's leader- ate that he should tell the story of F^ROM the founding of the Uni-S^P- this historic development. Mr. Corey A versity the New Testament Clubwas professor of educational psychol- has stimulated and brought to expres-MR. MORGENSTERN is not en- ogy at the University of Nebraska and sion an esprit de corps which has re-couraged by the back-to-nor- later professor of education and as- suited in an unusual record of scholar-malcy attitude of the Association of sistant dean of the graduate school ly achievement. Harold H. Platz,American Colleges and frankly says at the University of Wisconsin before divinity graduate student, streamlinesso in his column this month. coming to Chicago four years ago as the club's fifty-year history on page 16.Published by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue,Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago,Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of theUniversity of Chicago Magazine.Through the corridor between Kent and Ryerson, Hull Gate is sky-lined over a driftat Harper Library. . . . Ellis Hall (now Home Study- headquarters with the Bookstoreoccupying the north half) after a shovel squad has moved on. . . . Cobb Hall from thewalk in front of the Swift Hall site. Swift was built eight years later. . . . A shovelsquad leaving the Reynolds Club via University Avenue. Can anyone identify the men?'WJFT'ITH a thousand weather-spying meteor-r V ologists on the Quadrangles, Winter hasbecome self conscious and forgotten our snow.This is the reverse of World War I, when onJanuary 6, 1918, Winter — in a sustained airblitz — unloaded from three to fifteen feet ofdrifting snow on Chicago.Classes were dismissed, the city delivered250 snow shovels to the Reynolds Club, whereheadquarters were established. The Department of Military Science organized shovelsquads, and everyone from Professor HaroldMoulton to Dean Marion Talbot moved againstthe blizzard. Chapel attendance dropped from 750 to 150, and the University shared its coalpile with Hyde Park and Woodlawn neighbors.Editor James Weber Linn of the Universityof Chicago Magazine ran the above picturecomposite in his February, 1918, issue. Wefound the plate in the morgue while searchingfor a snow scene. We can't help wonderingif, when you read this, Chicago will be diggingitself from under its most severe snow stormsince 1918! In the meantime, while Universityof Texas students made snow men, the January Minnesota Alumnus announced: "SnowWeek at the University of Minnesota had tobe postponed because of good weather."VOLUME XXXVI THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 5FEBRUARY, 1944PEACE PROBLEMSBy GEORGE MAURICE MORRIS, J.D. "15As viewedby alawyerTHE word "peace" has several meanings. One ofthese, as applied to nations, is that period inwhich a nation is not engaged in armed conflict,externally or internally. In other words, so far as thatnation is concerned, order prevails. Another meaning ofthe term "peace" connotes tranquility; that status inwhich a nation's people are relaxed and without threatof force are willingly accepting their government withoutthought of armed revolt. The second meaning differsfrom but embraces the first.We may have order without peace (in the largersense) but we cannot have peace without order. If civilization is to survive, we must have order. If civilization is to flourish and flower, we must have peace in thelarger sense..The first problem facing the world after a great scalewar is acquiring and maintaining order. The secondproblem is securing that kind of order which is not incompatible with the greater peace for which mankindlongs. :The immediate objective in a war is to eliminate resistance on the part of the opposition. The objectivesin a war include, however, not only the overcoming ofthe enemy's current resistance but putting him in a condition in which he will not, or cannot, again make disorder by attacking us or resisting us.When the members of the human race lived in relatively isolated communities, had no inter-tribal trade,and quarreled only over hunting grounds, it was notdifficult to evolve a formula for eliminating future resistance. After defeating your enemy's fighting men yousimply killed all the members of his tribe you could find.This procedure -was drastic, but effective. Our NorthAmerican Indians appear to have been among the followers of this technique.As the tribes of the world settled down and began a producing economy, manpower problems appeared. Thevalue of enslaving members of a defeated enemy andtaking them back home with you as a labor force became apparent. Later, your manufacture and trade withyour search for materials and markets gave you an interest in preserving at least some of your enemy population in situ, so to speak. Also other tribes or nationsbegan to manifest an interest in the preservation of conquered peoples, not only because of the economic interest those nations had in the conquered community,but because of the military interest they had in your notbecoming too strong.Another factor came into the situation. For a longtime now wars have been fought between rival groupsof nations, sometimes through active military aid, sometimes through economic aid and sympathetic action. Theallies, either formal or informal, have had after victoryvarying interests- in the status of the conquered groups.These interests have usually been adverse to the annihilation of those groups and have favored their continuance.All of these considerations have posed the problem ofhow the beaten groups are to go on living in what thewinners and their friends deem to be the best interestsof the latter group. For meeting this problem, it is oneof the most natural phenomena that military force shouldbe a keystone in the structure. It was superior forcewhich made the arrangement possible; it is the memoryand threat of a renewed application of that force whichwill most likely prevent, at least for a time, the recurrence of the situation which made the use of that forcenecessary.Once it was conceded that annihilation of the enemycommunity was undesirable, but that force, or readinessand preparedness to use force, was to be a feature ofthe new arrangement, you had to determine whether thekey to the order system should be the maintenance of aperpetual readiness, for using force of a size sure to overwhelm the enemy, or whether the key should be a gradualletting down of immediate readiness with a reliance onthe inherent capacity for again using the force whichpresumably resided in the conquerors.3 -4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWith the advent of wars between groups of nationsrather than between single nations, the use of the allianceof the victors to secure the order which they had momentarily achieved was a natural development. Such anarrangement removed to some extent at least the burdenon any one country of maintaining the overwhelmingmilitary force necessary to keep the beaten enemy inplace. As a consequence, the victorious allies, with aneye to each other as well as to the defeated enemies,have tried various post-war plans or variants and combinations of them.Treaties of aid and support upon the arising of conditions specified in the treaties are ancient devices. Ashort explanation of their failures to maintain the orderthey were designed to secure is either that they provedto be inadequate to supply the force later found to benecessary to maintain order, or that they were not livedup to by one or more of the parties to them. The "balance of power" concept failed either because changingconditions destroyed the balance or some of the partiesno longer found it to their national interest to have thebalance continued and worked its destruction. Wars followed.The "spheres of influence" formula failed for a varietyof reasons. Chief among these were collisions amongthe spheres and subsequent dissatisfaction with the original allocations or the manner of operating them. Sometimes the quarrel was between the "have" nations andthe "have not" nations. Sometimes the fight arose because one of the "have" nations wanted more and thoughtit was strong enough to take what it wanted."Collective security" has not succeeded in maintainingorder. The failure of the League of Nations, the mostinclusive arrangement in this category, is fresh in mind.It seems also true that with one or two notable exceptions, such as the experience of Switzerland, nonpar-ticipation by a nation not only does not preserve international order but doesn't even result in the withdrawingnation's abstaining from participation in subsequent disorder. Witness the recent experience of our owncountry.A weakness of all of these plans, or courses of procedure, has been the fundamental, inescapable fact thatthe governments of all nations follow a policy whichseems to them best designed to achieve the economicand material interests of their peoples. To some degreethe more representative a government is the more sensitive it is to the wisdom of this course. Officials whocannot persuade the people that those officials are serving what the people think are the people's best interestsdon't stay in office. A corollary is that if a people's objectives are primarily economic and material so in general will be the objectives of their government.Unfortunately from the aspect of the durability of aorder-keeping plans, the interests of nations change. Economic conditions are altered. A nation develops froman agricultural to an industrial community. Growth ina nation's manufacturing activity may make control over foreign-held raw materials a paramount objective. (Youwill recall Japan's seizure of Manchukuo.) New ideologies spring up and seize upon the thinking of a people.(We are familiar with Communism in Russia, Nazismin Germany, and Fascism in Italy.) New methods andinstruments for making war develop (the airplane, forexample) which give one nation a fancied advantageover others. Leaders change, if only through the marchof the calendar. Influences such as these cause thethinking, the interests, and the attitudes of all governments to veer and even do an about face. Old alliesbecome new enemies (witness the position of Italy andJapan in World War I and in World War II) .Not only do your recent allies alter their objectivesbut your own country changes its aims. Thus a planfor maintaining international order may be entered intowith the best of good faith and intentions by all the participants and yet break down for reasons over which hoone has any real control and for which the inauguratorsof the plan have little or no responsibility.Of course, the task of maintaining order is a policingfunction. If all any of us were interested in were doinga policeman's job, that end would not seem to be soimpossible of achievement.There is, for instance, one fairly effective method ofproviding world order. We are in the midst of violentlyrejecting it. That method is to entrust to a single nation all the armament for war and to let that nationrule and enforce. The Romans did the job rather wellfor a while with their pax Romana. Other single nations have also done it for limited periods. Herr Hitlermore recently volunteered to assume a similar sort of"white man's burden." There were those who did notappreciate his offer, however, and there is no currentindication of a general agreement to accept any othercandidate, either individual or nation. Regardless ofthe possible effectiveness of such a method, it appears tobe definitely out of consideration.There is another system which has been much talkedabout in recent years but which has never been tried ona large international scale. The nations of the worldcould come -together as a community does, select andappoint a police force, agree upon the laws which wereto be enforced, lay down the arms of everyone but thepolice, and go back to living without ration cards.As a matter of logic, so long as order continues to bea state which can be secured only by the use of force,a universal single police force seems to be the onlymethod, short of designating one nation as the world'spolice agent, of securing such order. As long as wehave rival police forces in the form of national armiesand navies, we virtually invite eventual conflict. Armiesand navies, as we have known them, are instruments ofsovereignty. A police force, in our domestic acquaintancewith it, is an instrument of law. If we continue ourarmies and navies as the instruments of sovereignty anddo not convert them into the instruments of law only,wars are virtually inevitable. By creating a single inter-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 5natioud.1 police force and making it obedient to the lawwe would leave the police with no rivals and with thegood of the whole world as provided by law the objective of that force.The great difficulty with this single police force solution of the problem of preserving order is that we reallyare concerned with much more than mere order. Otherobjectives are dearer to us. Active or latent in the heartsof peoples everywhere is a desire to rule themselves. Millions of men and women are now giving their lives tocontinue or to achieve that objective. Those peopleswho are strong enough to avoid doing so don't wish totake a chance. They are wary of putting themselves ina position where they will be dominated by a police forcewhich may some day turn out to be controlled by foreigners and become a weapon of oppression in the hands ofsuch foreigners.To put the matter somewhat more technically, agreement to disarm and accept a police force not of a government's own creation involves a surrender of a vitalaspect of sovereignty. Policing connotes authority to useforce, to make war. The right to make war is a rightwhich governments go to war to preserve. That rightis fundamental to sovereignty. The authority of sovereignty is one to which nations cling as individualscling to their lives.Thus far this discussion has dealt with a few of themyriad of problems involved in preserving internationalorder. What about attaining and preserving that condition of tranquility which results when a people without threat of force accept and support the governmentunder which they live? By definition, you cannot "enforce" that kind of peace. In a sense, the more effectively you are organized to preserve order the more certain you are not to get a peace of tranquility.One of the many demonstrated causes of war is theeffort to rule a nation by force. History has taught usthat a people with the faintest potential for armed resistance become a latent explosion point, if they believethat they are faced with a perpetual rule of active force.If the force is imposed upon them by a conquering nation, they never allow the embers of revolt to die. Unlessa definite hope is held out to a conquered people thatby following the paths of peace they will achieve freedom and home rule, they plot a bigger and better war.A result of this attitude on the part of the humanrace is that it is inherently difficult to move towardpeace by starting with force. Unless some group is beingrestrained from securing their objectives, you don't needforce. If they are being restrained from their objectives,they are prone to believe that their freedom, their "placein the sun," their "manifest destiny," or some other realor fancied, natural and inherent right is being deniedthem. They plot revolt, or, in other words, war.With all the failures the world has witnessed in theeffort to maintain order through force there is groundfor argument that our whole approach may be wrong.We may be like the dwarfs in the Niebelungen Ring story GEORGE MAURICE MORRISwho were fruitlessly trying to repair the great brokensword by patching or bolting it. Along came Siegfriedwho decided that only an entire reforging of the bladewould do the job. He thereupon reforged the weaponand by this radically different method did what thedwarfs, even with the most patient labor, had been unable to do.Possibly the Society of Friends, or Quakers, or similargroups who will have no war under any circumstancesare right. It may be that unless we turn to a processwhich has no force in it we cannot succeed. The difficulty with this approach is the extreme hazard whichputting it into practice entails. If you are mistaken inyour premises and lay down all your arms, you may bedestroyed. In a world in which man is still far from aperfect image of his Maker, it has been difficult to bringto a general laying down of arms any very large numberof persons who have authority to make that decision.Some day we may achieve a state of development whichwill bring enough people into the group with such ideasto risk a trial. At the moment that point does not seemto be in sight.If this attempt at a brief analysis of the world's experience has produced conclusions which are even partlysound, it must be admitted that the prospect for evolvinga plan that will produce lasting order or orderliness in theworld could be better. The chances for achieving thestate of tranquility connoted by the term "peace" in itsbroader sense could be very much better.Well, what are we going to do about it?The first thing for us to do about the situation is tokeep always prominent in our thinking the fact that thetask of achieving international peace has baffled men ofgood will for a long time. As with all other real problems of human relationships, it isn't reasonable to expectthat this one will be solved in any short period of time orby the mere invention of some new kind of machinery. Ithas taken quite a time to educate individuals to live together without trying to kill each other. Individuals or-6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEganized into nations is a phenomenon of relatively recentorigin in the experience of the human race. A nation'smanaging itself is a more complicated operation than is anindividual's managing himself. If it has taken so long forman to lift himself to his present imperfect stature as anindividual, what reason is there to expect him to solvequickly the complicated problems of national conduct?Such a mental attitude should make us view with greattolerance the efforts of those men in authority who aresincerely trying to find the answers. Such an attitudeshould make us slow to be carried away by any groupwhich is sure that it has the answers. Let us not expecttoo much too soon.It is interesting to observe that the Moscow conference appears to have operated, consciously or unconsciously, from such a basis. The announced results reflectthe thinking of men who know no panaceas, who preferto go a little slowly and allow ample latitude for adjustment as the situation and the thought and temper of thepeople concerned with it develop. This type of procedure may be irritating to persons agitated about specialsituations or who are sponsors for overall plans. Forthose of us, however, who are trying to measure the universal good and yet are not comforted with the valor ofcertainty as to the efficacy of any one plan, there is somesatisfaction in the current pace of development.With all the obstacles there are to the working ofgroups of men in concert, we know that large groupsof men are working together and are evolving improvingtechniques for the purpose. The United States of America is a going endeavor in concert of 130 million people.We have evolved police and enforcement measures whichare reasonably effective. We have overcome the obstaclesto success which were before the thirteen sovereign stateswhich formed the original Union. We have fought onewar with each other, but none of our states or none ofour peoples is held in this Union by active or threatenedforce. The judgments of our courts against a memberstate have no power for enforcement except public opinion. Thus far that instrument has been most effective.The Russians, although they speak over fifty differentlanguages and constitute an even greater number of racialgroups, are managing to hold together rather well. Forcehas played a large part in conforming certain elements inthe population to the will of the governmental leaders,but the capacity of a great mass of people to put togethera government, manage it, and defend it, is being demonstrated. They are managing, with what seems to be anaccelerated approach to unity and harmony among themselves, the largest single dominion of the populated earth.Wars result, of course, from conflicts of interests or disputes between nations. In the settlement of .disputes between nations it is of some consequence, therefore, thatthe Permanent Court of Arbitration in the period 1902-1935 settled twenty-one such disputes. It also may surprise you, if you have not been following the record, tolearn that in the period from 1923-1940, the PermanentCourt of International Justice decided eighty cases or dis putes between nations. It probably is safe to say thatamong the lawyers of the world, at least, there is greaterconfidence in the potentialities for peace which lie in theseor some similar arbitral and judicial processes than in anymachinery yet devised.Other machinery successfully operating for discussionof conflicts and potential conflicts, for giving smolderinggrievances a chance for early airing, might be cited asevidencing growth toward peaceful settlements. The Assembly and the permanent commissions of the League ofNations have contributed valuably to our experience inthis respect. The Pan-American Union and the manycompacts and agencies for peaceful settlements which areoperating among the Americas also instance progress toward an ideal. These and many other media for international cooperation can be pointed to as instruments foreducation.Members of the legal profession, because of their education, are probably more patient with education throughgrowth than are many other men. They probably have,because of their experience greater confidence in discus-cussion and debate as instruments for settling disagreements or conflicts of interest. They are sensitive to theslow rate of progress, to what Justice Holmes described as"every painful step and every world shaking contest bywhich mankind has fought its way from savage isolationto organic social life."Possibly because of this professional education and experience it is difficult for one who has been exposed tothem to expect the early dawn of the millenium. On theother hand he finds it difficult to deny the approach ofthat era even though its arrival be remote. In the meantime, the. more argument he hears respecting methodswhich will achieve peace the more encouraged he feels.That all goes to man's education of himself. Man hastaught himself the behaviors which have led him to war;why may he not teach himself those which will lead himto peace?Permit me to conclude these thoughts with the comment that in the case of individuals an observer will findadequate confirmation of the principle that what a manmost desires he is most likely to get. The reason is thathe shapes his thinking and his action to that end. Doesnot the same law of cause and effect apply to groups ofindividuals? If there predominates in enough of mankind the passion for fighting which possessed our ancientprototypes, we probably shall continue to have fightingand wars. If on the other hand there prevails in enoughof us the desire and determined will for peace, we shallprobably be able to direct the energies of those who lovephysical struggle and competition into less destructivechannels, and enable the rest of the world to follow thepaths of peace.The moral is, of course, that if you as an individualreally want peace, your chances for helping to bring itto the world will be improved by the degree your wantingit translates itself into thinking and acting for peace. Therest we shall have to leave to God.THE PROFESSORS RESPONSIBILITY• By MARSHALL FIELDON THE evening of January 12 at the South ShoreCountry Club the Board of Trustees held its annual reception and dinner for the faculty of the University. As 550 chairs were pushed back from banquettables and after-dinner cigars lighted, Trustee WilliamScott Bond, toastmaster, said:"Since the first dinner in 1920 we have come througha period sometimes called the 'Dividend Decade' — adecade when money came easily and was given freelyand at that time seemed to be easily protected. Thiswas followed by years of commercial and financialdifficulty when- throughout the country trustees responsible for the protection and preservation of endowmentfunds had continuous anxiety both for maintenanceof income and protection of principal. Then as thisperiod was passing and we seemed to be entering atime of financial stability, the shadow of war aroseover Europe and finally spread to include us and mostof the world. And now here we are with an over-supply of all varieties of predictions and a great scarcity of real knowledge of what is ahead. ..."Mr. Bond introduced the three speakers: Simeon E.Leland for the faculty; Marshall Field for the Boardof Trustees; and President Hutchins. Presenting Marshall Field, Mr. Bond said:"The speaker for the trustees tonight is a grandsonof Marshall Field, who in 1890 gave the first ten acres,, of land for the University campus and so helped makeit possible for it to open its doors in 1892. . . ."Mr. Field was born in Chicago and was a studentin England at Eton College and Cambridge University. At the beginning of the last war he enlisted inthe Army as a private and rose through the grades toYOU will perhaps understand, and sympathize with,my awe in addressing this gathering, when I tellyou something of what in my opinion you meanfor the future of the human race.There is I believe today a great restlessness amongpeople — a restlessness not due entirely to the war. A greatfeeling that we are on the verge of a period which presents an opportunity for attainment of a better life formore people than history has ever known. Perhaps thisis entirely emotional on my part not justified by reason,but I think it is justified and my feeling is shared bymany. It is accompanied by a feeling of frustration, afeeling that our present knowledge is just inadequate.Human nature, being what it is, has to throw the blamesomewhere, and one finds a very widespread belief thatour educational training has failed us. We are unhappyabout it, whether or not we have been diligent in makinguse of the opportunities which have heretofore existed.This is by no means news to you. Perhaps that is thereason that so many eyes are focussed upon you, andears are turned to you, and why my awe in your presencemay be understandable. MARSHALL FIELDa captaincy, serving in France with the ExpeditionaryForces. The large business responsibilities which heinherited have been carried with distinction and hehas had an influential part in the business life of Chicago; notably he has made it possible for us to havetwo morning newspapers as the founder of that welcome addition to our daily papers, the Chicago 'Sun.'And more close to us than that, he has been a generous donor to our University. One motto of Hie 'Sun'is: 'Tell all the Truth.' While that is a large orderfor one evening I'm sure we shall have some of ittonight."Men react to periods of rapid flux as their naturesdictate. Most dangerous of men at this time, I think,are those who know all the answers without inquiry,who need no pursuit of inconvenient facts, who disputeany conclusions which depart from the conclusions theythemselves have reached. Most of these men, as I see it,have arrived at their opinions emotionally rather thanintellectually, actuated either by an active self-interestor by a kind of nostalgia for a world in which they feltan illusory security. It is they who truly reject all progress by education just as they reject any other force orchange which threatens the existing status.We have always had such men with us. But I cannotresist quoting Thomas Jefferson, familiar as his wordsmay be to you:We should be far, too, from the discouragingpersuasion that man is fixed, by the law of his nature,at a given point; that his improvement is a chimera,and the hope delusive of rendering ourselves wise,happier, or better than our forefathers were. . . .What, but education, has advanced us beyond thecondition of our indigenous neighbors? And what8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEchains them to their present state of barbarism andwretchedness, but a bigoted veneration for- the supposed superlative wisdom of their fathers, and thepreposterous idea that they are to look backward forbetter things, and not forward, longing, as it shouldseem, to return to the day of eating acorns and roots,rather than indulge in the degeneracies of civilization.That was the challenge which Thomas Jeffersonuttered in the nineteenth century. Today, of course, nobody openly disputes this — well, hardly anybody. Ofcourse we have a serious problem* to face as to whetherlaw or some other hindrance should be instituted to prevent students of this state, or even possibly of this city,from leaving to get their education in centers of learningin other states or cities. You are probably thoroughlyaware that in times past certain citizens have devoted* their money for the establishment of scholarships in otherparts of the world, some of them quite distant. Shouldwe not consider whether these may have been designedto lure students from these parts into an alien atmosphere? Some people from this state might become contaminated by the subtle and sinister influences of theseplaces and might even come to believe that the institutions of this state were susceptible of change. They mighteven come to believe that the constitution of the State ofIllinois is not a perfect instrument, or that our city government could be examined with critical eyes, or thattheir daily press was not perfect. They might even come tothink that the welfare and commerce of other states of theUnion were of considerable concern to them. You canreadily see the danger of exposure to such subversiveideas. I shall leave this great problem with you to ponderin 1944.Now I will return to those who are afraid — afraid ofyou, afraid of ideas, afraid of the future. They do notwelcome discussion, they shun it. They wish to tell peoplewhat is good for them and they become highly critical ofany disagreement on the subject. Their tendency is tohold and promulgate their opinions with great violenceand they use every material means at their disposal —economic, social, and legislative, even resorting to forceat times — to prevent the opinions of others from beinguttered or debated or acted upon.But the approach of another and larger section of ourpeople is entirely different both in spirit and in method.They are perfectly clear in their realization that they donot know everything that is to be known; they welcomeany contribution from any source to the sum of theirknowledge.It is these men and women who are the hope of our*The serious problem seriously raised by a metropolitannewspaper recently: What to do with Americans who arecleverly lured to Oxford via Rhodes scholarships and,after returning to their homeland, filter into strategicgovernment and university positions to indoctrinate America with British philosophy! — Editor democracy. They will strive to accord to every man themaximum of education which he can absorb. They willinsist that that education shall include an examinationof the ideas of the past. They will be equally insistentthat new ideas shall be heard and freely debated. It "istheir conviction and their faith that given the facts fullyand fairly people will be more likely to attain in theirown way the ends that satisfy them.Unless the spiritual and intellectual climate of thiscountry during the next decades is the climate madeby men who are unafraid, the democracy of which wehave boasted and which has been the source of so manyhuman aspirations since the founding of the Republic,can never come to full fruit. That fruition has not yetbeen attained in any history of which we have knowledge; you have only to look about you. to see that it isnot attained here; nevertheless in the prospect of its attainment lies the hope of a great part of mankind.In this forest of conflicting approaches and attitudesyour responsibility is tremendous. A train of circumstances and brilliant individuals, many of whom are heretonight, have made this University in the space of fiftyyears a focal point in the aspirations of this country — -and perhaps of the world. So many peope are looking toyou for that kind of thinking, teaching, and researchwhich will help to create the world for which they yearn.They have, as I have said, lost much of their belief ineducation as they have watched the disintegration whichhas come over the western world. There is still, however,a hard core of faith which can be easily rekindled, andthat is your task.The task is a tremendously difficult one. Every newinvention, every improvement in communication, increases the complexity of the problem. You are expectedto use your knowledge of the past and your knowledgeof sciences to set out on a voyage of discovery. Whateveryou discover will have to be proved to a world containing many unbelievers. Every jeopardy of every vestedinterest will create new centers of opposition to the detached seeker after truth and justice. You who may belooked upon as the educational leaders of the world tocome will bear the brunt of the conflict. In addition tothis voyage of discovery it will be you who are lookedto for creation of better means of transferring knowledgeto others, and for putting them into effect. The stakeswill be nothing less than the future of our civilization.Yours, then, is the responsibility and yours the privilegeto lead us. I believe I can speak for the Trustees when weoffer you our cooperation in one basic area, a necessarycooperation if you are to achieve the success that thetimes require. We have in the past guarded scrupulouslyyour freedom of inquiry and freedom of expression. Ourresponsibility to guard it will continue. And I am convinced that I can say without reservation on behalf ofthe Trustees that they realize that responsibility to its fullextent, and will do their utmost to discharge it.ONE MANS OPINION• By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, ,20l J.D. '22THE SLOGAN IS NORMALCYEVERY indication is that the post-war policy ofeducation will be based on the simple thesis of"back to normalcy." The automobile manufacturers, the producers of refrigerators, the makers olradios, can produce new models gleaming with plasticand chromium if they want to, but that other great industry of the country, education, is completely satisfiedwith the pre-war model. By and large what the educators seem to have gotten out of the war is a greatweariness. They yearn for peace which will permit themto go back to the status quo ante. They are so tired ofit all they have forgotten to do some thinking about thenature and purposes- of liberal education.At the recent meeting in Cincinnati of the Associationof American Colleges the assembled delegates looked ateducation in war and pronounced it good. They foundthat education had demonstrated its "vitality," by whichthey apparently meant that the system had continued toexist. What it was kept in existence for was to returnto what it had been doing before the war interrupted. Alay observer has considerable difficulty in understandingwhere there has been very much difference between education in 1940 and education in 1944. Much of the vitalityto which the Association convention pointed proudly wascertainly injected by the Army and Navy programs,whicrj substituted students in uniform for students inplaid shirts. The Army and the Navy wanted technicaltraining, but that ought to have been all right with thecolleges, which had been busy emphasizing the values oftheir vocational training before Pearl Harbor. The Armyand Navy were willing to have some non-technicalcourses in their training programs, including English andAmerican history. In area and language courses theArmy certainly emphasized languages, foreign politicalinstitutions, and geography, both the hills and rivers kindand the economic type. By pre-war formulas, this is apretty heavy dose of what passes for liberal education.The educators now have an eye to the fact that in thepeace there is likely to be some rather heavy subsidizingof education through support of demobilized veterans.There will be lots of students, and a lot of high-gradefootball teams when the boys come marching home, withthe added advantage that the colleges will have no onetelling them what kind of education they should provideor who may play football. It is right that they shouldhave this freedom, of course, but what use they will makeof it is another question. Everything points to their usingit to train their students for jobs, and it is a good betthat there will be considerable emphasis in the catalogson fancy courses in plastics and electronics. At Cincinnati the assembly found that liberal education as exemplified since the days of Eliot had emergedtriumphant from the war. Why? Because everyone wastalking about the values of liberal education, and everyone had a good word for it. It is true that theeducational literature these days has as many articlespraising liberal education as the Saturday EveningPost has advertisements by manufacturers who havewon the war. Just as the war has been won alikeby the producers of carbon paper and airplanes, so theliberal education which is getting so much attention in thejournals today serves as a high sounding slogan.If any new theory is being injected into the post-warplanning, the Association's deliberations point to its beingthe theory of maturation. This deadly word means thateducation takes time to soak in, and the time requiredfor absorption is an even four years, just as whiskey incharred oak casks requires four years to achieve thebonded label. Just any four years, however, won't do; onlythe four specific years after completion of high schoolwill season the educational product. The capabilities ofthe student, the kind of teaching which he is given, thecurriculum through which he is conducted and the principles on which it is based, are incidental to the fact thatif you expose a young man or young woman who hasgraduated from high school to four years of ivy-coveredbuildings you will get a citizenry which will see the nation through the easy days ahead when we are all enjoying those wonderful new conveniences which the war isto create. There was general condemnation at Cincinnati of "acceleration," which the colleges had inventedand hailed in 1941 as the means of adapting educationto the war. Acceleration interferes with maturation, because it reduces the calendar period for absorption ofeducation; the summer vacation, devoted to reflectionand contemplation of two semesters of study, is a necessary feature of post-war education. Those revolutionariessuch as Mr. Hutchins who have said that accelerationwasn't a fundamental improvement anyway, because itmerely meant doing the same thing faster, probably willnot object to its abandonment. At any rate, the opinionat the meeting was that after the war the colleges shoulddo the same thing, but do it slower."Back to normalcy" will be a popular slogan when theshooting stops, and not only in education. A lot of peopleother than the educators are getting weary, too. It likewise promises to be a policy that will give every appearance of success, for once the demobilization period ispast, things ought to hum in this country for a time. Noone worried much about education for nearly a decadeafter the last war, for prosperity was abroad in the land.{Concluded on page 19)9SOUND MOVIES FOR SOUND EDUCATIONINTRODUCING ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA FILMS, INC.By Williarn.BentonUPON the recent acquisition of Erpi ClassroomFilms Inc. by the Encyclopaedia Britannica, Mr.Hutchins said that through classroom films theUniversity of Chicago has perhaps a greater chance toinfluence American education in the next twenty yearsthan through all the rest of its activities put together.President Hopkins of Dartmouth seven years ago compared the coming development of the classroom film withthe invention of printing. For decades many men in education and outside of it have agreed that in the classroom film lies the potential of an educational revolution.America has had entertainment moving pictures for almost half a century. Why, then, have so few films suitablefor the classroom been produced and distributed to theschools?First, producers who have known the techniques ofproduction have not correlated their knowledge with thethe knowledge of educators. This is in part due to theresistance of the educators. Educators, like other people,will resist anything which compels them to change theirhabits. Educating the educators is perhaps the longestof all educational jobs.A more important reason, perhaps, is the nature ofthe moving picture industry. The big companies havenot known good instructional films from bad ones. Theyhave always concentrated on the quick-profit opportunities in entertainment pictures. The two fields are entirely different, as different as a textbook on physics andthe Saturday Evening Post. Only one company has produced instructional films in collaboration with educators.This company has been a wholly owned subsidiary ofthe American Telephone and Telegraph Company. It isErpi Classroom Films Inc. E-R-P-I stands for Electrical Research Products Inc.Fourteen years ago, when this company was launched,the phone company through its subsidiary, the WesternElectric Company, was manufacturing movie projectors.The development of a new field for talking pictures inthe schools of the country offered rewards through royalties on patents and the sale of projectors. No one elsewas ready to enter this difficult field. The phone company to its ultimate regret moved into it itself.In 1932 the University of Chicago started to produceclassroom films through a contract with Erpi. Thesewere the first talking films produced on any universitycampus. During the past twelve years forty Universityof Chicago films, made specifically for the general coursesin the College, have been produced under this contract,with the result that our faculty has learned more aboutmaking classroom films than any other faculty has hada chance to learn. The University is dedicated to the improvement ofeducation. The first experimental elementary and highschools founded in connection with a university werestarted by John Dewey fifty years ago when he was onthe University of Chicago faculty. Professor Stephen M.Corey who has been superintendent of these schools forthe past four years, is now taking a leave of absence fromthis post to devote himself to new responsibilities as educational adviser to the Britannica publications and toErpi Classroom Films.Since 1930 the phone company has invested more than$3,200,000. in Erpi Classroom Films. The company issmall, but it is the giant of its field. Perhaps two thirdsof all the films shown in the classrooms of the countrytoday are Erpi Classroom Films. These films are madefor all school grades, from nursery school through college.Some of the college films, incidentally, are shown successfully as low as the sixth grade. The so-called "library"of Erpi films now exceeds two hundred in number, alldesigned for use by the teacher, all integrated with existing curricula, and all produced in collaboration witheducators at various institutions. These films do not goout of date. Some films made nine and ten years ago areselling better than other films made last year. The filmsaverage about eleven minutes in length. Dozens of scholars often collaborate in the making of just one film.They are made to be shown after instruction by theteacher, after textbook and laboratory study, and theyare shown again and again to the same students duringthe course of the year's instruction.DIRECTORS OF BRITANNICA FILMSWilliam Benton, Vice-President, University of Chicago, Chairman of Board, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.Chester Bowles, Director of OPAMarshall Field, PublisherWallace Harrison, Architect, Harrison and FouilhouxPaul G. Hoffman, President, Studebaker CorporationErnest Hopkins, President, Dartmouth CollegeRobert M. Hutchins, President, University of ChicagoHenry Luce, Editor, Time and Life MagazinesE. H. Powell, President, Encyclopaedia BritannicaBeardsley Ruml, Treasurer, R. H. Macy Company,and Chairman, Federal Reserve Bank of New YorkHarry Scherman, President, Book-of-the-Month ClubE. E. Shumaker, President, Encyclopaedia BritannicaFilms, Inc.M. Lincoln Schuster, Simon and Schuster, PublishersJohn Stuart, Chairman of the Board, Quaker OatsWayne C. Taylor, Under-Secretary of CommerceMr. Hutchins, believing that the development of classroom films should be in the hands of educators, madehis first effort to wean Erpi Classroom Films away fromthe telephone company in 1937, the year I joined theUniversity. One of my first assignments was to workwith Mr. Hutchins, and with Nelson and LauranceRockefeller, on a presentation to the Rockefeller Foundation urging the acquisition and development of ErpiClassroom Films. As far back as this, A. T. & T. itselffrankly conceded that it could not do justice to this field ;its position as a big utility company forbade the development of needed films in the social sciences. Economics,sociology, and political science involve controversial material that the phone company could not risk.• Following the gift of the Encyclopaedia Britannica tothe University by Sears, Roebuck and Company a yearago, Mr. Hutchins wrote Mr. Gifford proposing the giftof the Erpi Classroom Film company to the Universityof Chicago. Reticence is not a valued characteristic inuniversity presidents. Out of this letter grew a fifty-fourpage printed contract by which the Encyclopaedia Britannica last month purchased Erpi Classroom Filmsthrough an issue of debentures, representing the bookvalue of Erpi, to be retired over a period of years outof profits of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and, it ishoped, out of profits from classroom films.The management personnel of Erpi Films will continue unchanged under Britannica's ownership, and selling and pricing policies will continue as in the past. Theassociation of Erpi with the University will make fullyavailable the broad knowledge and pedagogical skill ofthe University staff and should result in an expansion ofproduction of films for classroom use and perhaps of extracurricular films for use outside the classroom. •* \STEPHEN M. COREY WILLIAM BENTONThe Army and Navy are today producing thousandsof teaching films, mostly technical and vocational. TheNavy Bureau of Aeronautics alone has thus far producedmore than 3,500. Thousands of men are being trainedin production of these films, and millions are being exposed to them. Our soldiers and sailors, when they return to their communities and take their places on theParent-Teachers Associations and as members of localschool boards should have an interest in the use of teaching films which will perhaps cause them to prod reluctant school superintendents and budgets.Thus the University of Chicago has another greatchance to pioneer in the further development of American education. General Wood will be interested toknow that the new venture is being christened Encyclopaedia Britannica Films Inc. (formerly Erpi). To General Wood and to the other directors of Sears, Roebuck,who made this opportunity for service possible to theUniversity, the University again extends its thanks.THE INSTRUCTIONAL USE OF FILMSBy StephenMOST educators would agree that the classroomuse of sound motion pictures represents potentially the greatest advance in teaching practicesince the invention of printing. I say potentially becausethe vast majority of American school children today donot see instructional films. Of the 9,000 one-room ruralschools in Illinois less than 1 per cent are equipped withprojectors. This should not be surprising, however, because educational institutions at all levels, and includingthe University of Chicago, have barely scratched thesurface with respect to the intelligent use of sound films.Yet every research investigation that has been conductedindicates that such motion pictures are appreciably moreeffective than lectures or readings or demonstrationswhen it comes to teaching certain kinds of lessons. It isdefinitely known, for example, that viewing a ten minutesound film can do more to shift the attitudes of childrenthan any other procedure adaptable to the schoolrodmsituation. Those responsible for the training of men in M. Coreythe armed services have come closer to a realization ofwhat instructional films can accomplish than any othergroup. Consequently, the Army and Navy, during thepast two years, have produced more good classroom filmsthan had been produced in the previous fifteen years.The basic reason for the effectiveness of sound filmsas instructional material is that through their use thewords which students learn can be rooted in experiencesthat are almost firsthand. One of the great curses of allformal education at any level is the ease with whichteachers are convinced that the boys and girls have learned something important when as a matter of fact allthat they have learned to do is to hand back some words.This distinction between learning words and learningmeanings is a crucial one. John Dewey, who foundedthe Laboratory Schools at the University of Chicago,illustrates the distinction in an anecdote about a one-room rural school in northern Illinois which he visited(Concluded on page 19)11NATURAL RESOURCES INPOST-WAR PLANS• ByC.W. TOMLINSON, Ph.D. "16An orl geologistrecommends globalgolden ruleALACK of desired resources is the excuse of all theAxis powers for this war. No nation has withinits boundaries enough of every resource needed tosupport all types of modern industry. It can satisfy allits needs only by exchanging some of its own produce forthings produced elsewhere.There is yet no "miracle of alchemy" which would enable any nation to make everything from anything. Notransmutation of elements is involved in making plastics,synthetic rubber, or synthetic motor fuels — only rearrangement of elements in carbon compounds. You must havethe carbon and the power to drive your engines. And ourchief source of power is also carbon and hydrocarbons,used as fuels. Coal, oil, and iron ore are today's primerequisites of industry. No substitutes are available in adequate quantity at equal cost.The minerals so far extractable from air and sea-waterinclude no fuels. Instead, these processes require consumption of great quantities of fuel or other sources ofpower.Many of the post-war plans already offered have soughtto solve the problem of unevenly distributed resources byrearranging political boundaries or by regrouping territories. But no nation can be completely self sufficient unless it has at its disposal all the world's resources. Thatseems to have been the real goal of the Axis nations —world conquest. The Germans justified this action byacclaiming themselves a master race, a people born torule.Diametrically opposed to the doctrine of a master raceis the thesis that all the world's resources belong equallyto all men. This position has been urged by certaingroups in Britain and America. At first blush it appealsto our American democratic consciences. But some nations have developed the natural resources .available tothem far more fully and effectively than other nations havedone. The resulting higher standards of living are thefruit of their labor, initiative, and efficiency, of betterorganization and cooperation, and of the superior education which is itself made possible by increasing productivity.Nor is this progress confined to the nations or stateswhich possess great industrial resources. Look at Denmark—a small country without important mineral resources, without large-scale manufactures, producing little but raw materials, produce of the soil and of the sea. YetDenmark's standard of living before the war comparedfavorably with any in Europe. She produced food thatBritain and Germany needed and paid for. Naturalresources, once found and developed, in actual peacetime practice have become available to anyone whocould offer in exchange some useful produce of his own.The fewer the restrictions on enterprise- and trade, themore fully this has been true. The greater the area inwhich investment of capital was welcome and reasonablysafe, the more rapidly such development took place. Andeach new discovery or development increased the productive capacity and the aggregate well-being of mankind.To raise its standard of living by its own efforts, a nation, must increase its production faster than its population. Some nations have done this, others not. To relieveoverpopulation, some propose removal of all restrictionson immigration. Men would then move, as they dowithin the United States, from less to more prosperousregions: tending to equalize prosperity (or poverty) andpopulation density. This would deprive the less populousnations of any control over their own future racial composition, and would bring them willy-nilly toward thesame state of overcrowding and poverty from which theothers sought escape. And it is doubtful if such vastmigrations would reduce the population of the overpeopled lands. We have received thirty million immigrants to the United States; but with few exceptions thelands from which they came have more, people today thanever before.Between the doctrine of the master race and the doctrine of equal ownership, lies a golden mean: the doctrineof equal opportunity. The Declaration of Independenceasserted that all men are created equal, with equal rightsto life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The pursuitof happiness: that is, freedom to seek it for yourself, notthe right to have it handed to you at the expense ofothers. The equality asserted was equality of rights, ofopportunity, not equality of assets nor equality of rewardregardless of merit and service.This ideal of equal opportunity was incorporated intothe Atlantic Charter, in these words: "They will endeavor with due respect for their existing obligations, tofurther the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victoror vanquished, of access on equal terms to the trade anato the raw materials of the world which are needed fortheir economic prosperity." Note the qualifying clause,"with due respect for their existing obligations." Sornepeople did not like that phrase. They wanted a free handto redistribute the world's wealth, and that phrase recog-12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHI CAGO MAGAZINE¦mrrmmC. W. TOMLINSONnized that prior rights exist, the rights of those who havediscovered, developed, and produced that wealth.What concrete action is needed to implement this doc-Into the alumni office on Monday, January 24, walkedH. Foster Bain, Ph.D. '97, recently repatriated from aJapanese internment camp in the Philippines. He leftManila September 26 and arrived in New York on theS. S. Gripsholm on December 2, in time to spend Christmas (the first since 1933) with his family. He was onhis way to Washington on official business.The many friends of Conrado Benitez, '10, A.M. '11,will be glad to learn that, according to Mr. Bain, Conrado is working with the Philippine government andhelping his people through a difficult period. He andhis family are apparently in good health.After receiving his doctorate in geology, Mr. Bain became director of the Illinois Geological Survey and laterdirector of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. In 1937 he wascalled to the Philippines as a technical adviser on minesto the president of the Philippines. When the Japanesemoved in, Mr. Bain, with over three thousand othercivilians^ was interned at the University %i Santo Tomasin Manila where the group set up housekeeping.Using laboratories for kitchens and classrooms forbedrooms, (32 square feet per person) they made themselves as comfortable as possible. Friends were permitted to bring them cots and bedding. For the first sixmonths the Red Cross assisted in providing food, afterwhich the Japanese government gave them thirty-fivecents per day per person and permitted them to set up trine of access for all on equal terms to the trade and resources of the world? Have we, for example, violated itin the past? Foreign capital has been welcome to sharein our development. In the main, our resources havebeen sold to ethers in free competition with all other suppliers, and have been offered on equal terms to anyonewho would buy. The only important obstruction we haveplaced in the way of foreign trade has been the tariff,which tended to restrict our imports, and thus indirectlythe purchasing power of our foreign customers. Thathigh tariffs have been beneficial to the American publicgenerally is so doubtful that an experiment in free trademight well be justified, even from our selfish nationalviewpoint.As we have maintained at home an "Open Door" toforeign enterprise, we have sought to obtain that privilegeabroad. But there can be no Open Door to a countrywhere only State enterprise is tolerated. Therefore itseems unlikely that we can soon secure throughout theworld that equality or freedom of industrial and commercial opportunity which we have proclaimed as our ideal.But we should work toward it, none the less. Progress willbe more rapid, the more fully opportunity is held open forevery nation, every man, under rules of fair play, to makethe most he can of the resources available to humanity.a purchasing department with agents who were allowedto shop in the markets for food. About half the amountwas used for food; the other half for additional expenses including light, gas, water, and other camp necessities.No one is over-fed, of course. The children have threemeals a day with a reasonable amount of milk. Adultshave breakfast about 8 o'clock and dinner about 4:30,with no noon meal. Some have friends who are permit- •ted to bring baskets of food on alternate days which areshared so that there is a minimum of actual suffering.The camp governs itself within general regulationsand has local governing bodies including those whichprovide for schools, religion, and cultural programs. Animportant and active participant in these groups is DonW. Holter, Ph.D. '34, who was director of the UnionTheological Seminary of the Philippines when the Japanese took over. He lectures, preaches, and takes partin the study groups. His family lives in the city outsidethe camp and is getting along very well.During the two years of his internment, Mr. Bainnever managed to get in touch with his family in theUnited States nor they with him. Although he willdoubtless need to spend most of his time in the East thefamily will remain at his farm in Nevada: TomachonckRanch ("Home of the Beaver") near Steamboat. Hisson-in-law's name, incidentally, is Beaver!BACK FROM JAPANESE INTERNMENTA TYPICAL MONTH AT THE SETTLEMENTBy Marguerite K. Sylla, Head ResidentThe Universjty of Chicago SettlementTHE most terrifying happening of the month wasa bad fire which broke out just after midnighton November 14, a block away. The Settlementwas opened for the families of the fire victims. Members of the staff took hold and diverted the children bytelling them stories. Lunch was prepared for them. Threeadults spent the night with us and a mother and her twochildren from a rain-soaked dwelling used our livingroom. The Red Cross responded to our request for helpand sent in a worker and their mobile canteen servedbreakfast. Ten families were rendered homeless. In allprobability the houses will not be repaired so that someof the families have moved out of the neighborhood, andothers have had to move some distance from the Settlement. It was a frightening experience for children andgrownups.The meeting of our neighbors, board, and staff onSunday evening, November 21, considered what the waris doing to our neighborhood. Mr. Daniel Prescott introduced the subject clearly and simply so that the twodiscussion groups could follow through. Miss EleanorRedwin led the group on the problems of the youngerchildren and Mr. Charles Litteria's group discussed theproblems of young people. The supper hour which followed was a very social get-together. The new technicolor movie of Camp Farr was greatly enjoyed. Therewere sixty people present including nine board members.The plan is to have another gathering in the spring witha committee made up of board, house members, and staffarranging the program.Girls' DepartmentTeachers College placed their volunteers in the various. settlement houses in November this year. Our quota wasfive young women, but nine asked to be assigned to us.Some of these young women are already showing realpossibility. Four of them attended the November 21meeting and made very favorable comments on it.The set-up in the department has been changed thisfall due to the fact that volunteer leaders have beenvery few. In the open game room activities such as artand dramatics have been provided and our. girls' worker,Miss Eleanor Kroll, has worked much more closely withthe children. The only regular club activities we havebeen able to offer have been a Girl Scout group and aBrownie club. Both are overflowing with members. Thetroop gave a' supper during the month which applied toward their household arts merit. They are planning to filltwo servicemen's bags for the hospital at Great Lakes.The Brownies were longing for uniforms, so Miss Krollsketched possible uniforms and bought brown gabardine.Now these girls are busy making twenty uniforms. The sewing room hums when they get together. One littlegirl ripped out the carefully sewed hem instead of thebasting, byt she took it in very good spirit.The American Youth Reserves, which Miss Kroll hasfostered in the area, had two affairs during the month.Four representatives went to the annual recreation dinnerconference and twenty attended one of the NorthwesternUniversity football games. It is very difficult for youngpeople over sixteen to come to the Settlement with anyregularity. During the month our employed girls had afolk dance on a Saturday evening but very few couldattend. However, the affair was very successful and thosepresent had a grand time.Boys' DepartmentThe program in the boys' department has gotten wellunder way and fifty additional boys took out memberships in November, making a total of 235 in the department. An effort is being made to give more attention tothe individual boy. In the workshop the boys have beendivided into definite groups. Although many suggestionsfor projects are offered to these boys, the desire to makea gun is practically universal.Five groups of smaller boys meet in the afternoons withMr. Ber-reth and they are gaining more and more groupspirit. He is enjoying his work because he is able to givetime to the troublesome boy and is working with MissEleanor Redwin on the most severe problems.Our evening programs in the gymnasium are in chargeof Norman Leftwich. There are very few older teams.There are five made up of boys of sixteen and seventeenyears of age. We have one team of boys over eighteen,who for one reason or another are not in the Army.Teams have been entered in four different leagues. Agroup of our Mexican boys has entered the South Chi-Chicago's Flag Day parade provides plenty ofopportunity for Mexican-Polish cooperationin designing the Settlement's Victory float.14THE UNIVERSITY OFNursery school children learn their table manners at afternoon tea on the Settlement rooftop.cago Community Center League and* reports of the behavior of these boys have been excellent. Duringperiods when we have adequate help for our game room,the boys are gradually settling down and taking holdmuch better than earlier in the season. In the evening,since there is no leadership, twenty boys have been usingthe game room for more than a month and have showna real sense of responsibility.Nursery SchoolNovember ends with an enrolment of 31. Four weredropped from the register, two because of illness, onelives too far away,. and another is out because of familydifficulties. Three new children entered during themonth. One of these was a very difficult child who hasbeen told frequently that he is bad and he has no understanding of what good means. His mother was very fearful to even ask that we enrol him and was greatly relieved when she was told that if he was well physically,he could enter. During his first week he showed a favorable change in behavior.New problems arise constantly. Twice during themonth children did not respond as they customarily didand it was found in both cases that they had not hadbreakfast. A little food completely changed their outlookon life. Another child came in looking very tired and whenit was suggested that she lie down, she responded willingly and immediately went to sleep. It seemed wise toput her to bed and she slept all morning.Older brothers and sisters who come in for the childrenare allowed to remain, as they hate to go home when itis cold and their mother is still away. Some of them haveproved very helpful. One little girl plays the piano verynicely. A boy who comes for his little sister often readsstories to the group.The child welfare inspector and the fire inspector haveboth visited the nursery school and they reported that alicense will be forthcoming.We have volunteer workers for three days of the weekand all have proved to be good helpers. We still needvolunteers the other two days. CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15Adult DepartmentA class in Spanish and a cooking class were both organized during the month and we are very fortunate inhaving excellent teachers. Mrs. Saravia, the teacher ofthe Spanish class, is a Mexican— a former teacher andcase worker in Mexico. Mrs. Blakemore, the cookingclass teacher, was formerly a demonstrator at MarshallField's. Our sewing teacher, Mrs. Carr, expects to have aclass again in the winter. She has recently returned fromFlorida. The English class is small as most of the membersare working ten hours a day. However, the interest ofthe few warrants continuing. The nursery school mothersenjoy their meeting very much and would like to meetmore frequently if they could give the time. We also include in this group older sisters who have the responsibility for looking after a brother and sister.In the recommendations from the child welfare in^spector who investigated our nursery, the need for toiletsand bowls for the children was made very apparent.Therefore, women's groups of the Settlement sponsoreda food demonstration at the Food Research Corporationat 14 East Jackson Boulevard. The proceeds amountedto about $2 1 . The sale of tickets went very slowly, largelybecause so many people are working. However, it broughttogether friends of the Settlement who seldom see eachother these days.- The McDowell discussion group had a regular meetingin November, a theater party, and spent an evening working on the newspaper, the Homing Pigeon. Miss ToshiKawako told of life in the relocation centers and of schoollife in Japan, and an informal discussion followed. Aformer member now in service was present at the meeting. Several of the members of this group have been active in the Funference, the city-wide group. Their chiefactivity during the month was a weekend on the southside to help the group become more familiar with thespecial problems of Chicago's large negro population.Members who took part in this weekend felt it was a veryvaluable experience.Social ServiceRequests for workers from hotels, industries, and otherfirms come in constantly, but most of our neighbors arealready at work. One department store wanted us tofind them a Santa Claus.The requests for nursery school care come in frequently, but often for infants in arms. The principal ofone of our public schools sent one mother and child to us.He told us that he had attended the Settlement when hewas a child andhad a real interest in it. We are havingsplendid cooperation from the Infant Welfare Societyin looking after the health of the nursery school children.Miss Eleanor Redwin has been coming regularly andhas helped us on a number of serious behavior problems.Children respond to her very quickly. One child who hasbeen called "dumb" by the members of her family as well(Concluded on page 19)THE NEW TESTAMENT CLUB• By HAROLD H. PLATZTHE New Testament Club recently had occasion toreview its history and to recall its splendid tradition. The intention of those who planned themeeting was to observe the club's fiftieth anniversary,but in preparing an historical sketch, it was discoveredthat the year 1943-44 marks the fifty-second year of theclub's activity. The meeting, therefore, was announcedas a commemoration of the continuous existence of theclub since its origin in 1892-93. Such a commemoration ismade appropriate and significant by the "fact that theNew Testament Club is the only departmental club whose«history is continuous with that of the University.The records"*are complete except for the earliest years,so that it is possible to gain a distinct impression of howeffectively the club has functioned. The lack of a writtenrecord of the origin is more than compensated by information supplied by Professor C. W. Votaw and Professor E. J. Goodspeed. Mr. Votaw, a member of theoriginal group, can speak as an eye-witness of the firstyears of'the club's existence. He was an active participantuntil he retired from the faculty in 1930. Mr. Goodspeedwas first associated with the club in 1894-95, and continued to contribute to its meetings until he acceptedemeritus relationship.Sometime during the University's first academic yearthe New Testament Club was conceived and born. Professor E. D. Burton, as the senior member of the facultyand head of the department, was rightly the "supremeperson" of the club. The membership included only theteaching staff and the fellows. The earliest record nowheld, a printed program for the year 1894-95, indicatesthat in that year the graduate students of the department were also members. In 1907-08 at the suggestionof Professor Burton it was decided to hold open meetingsand to include "those members of the faculty and studentbody who, having special interest in the New Testamentstudies, purpose to attend regularly the meetings of theclub, to contribute to its program, and to participate inits discussions." The club has continued on this basisuntil the present time.The club now has a complete record of programs, mostof them in printed form as well as in minutes. From thefirst the programs were adapted to the interests and needsof the members, designed to maintain awareness of current scholarly views and to promote research and study.Faculty and students worked together in a sort of informal seminar. Often the programs provided stimulusfor individual work of permanent value. A classic example is the meeting of February 24, 1920. ProfessorGoodspeed read a paper on the modern speech translations, and in the discussion which followed someone suggested that he produce one. Mr. Guy Grippen of the CLYDE W. VOTAWUniversity Press was present and became so interestedin the idea that he presented it to the editor, Mr. Laing.The result is well known to the thousands who have usedthe Goodspeed New Testament.Many memorable meetings will be recalled by thosewho have been associated with the club; occasions wheneminent scholars participated in the meetings, and occasions marked by extraordinary events.A particularly memorable club meeting occurred April23, 1928, when the newly acquired Rockefeller McCormick New Testament was exhibited. From this pointforward the acquisition and the study of manuscripts havebeen a major interest of the club and of the New Testament department. The significance of the occasion isreflected in the collection of manuscripts now held by theUniversity and in the numerous manuscript studies whichhave been published by members of the club. A bibliography compiled by H. R. Willoughby under the title,"The Rockefeller McCormick Manuscript and WhatCame of It," presents graphic evidence of the worth whilework which was stimulated by the acquisition of thismanuscript.The true distinction of the New Testament Club isneither the continuity of its existence nor the numberof years that it has been active. It is rather the productive scholarship that the club has inspired. The namesof E. D. Burton, C. W. Votaw, Shailer Mathews, E. J.Goodspeed, and Shirley Jackson Case remind us howsignificantly leading personalities of the club have contributed to New Testament study. The club's great heritage is the tradition that such distinguished personalitieshave wrought into its life. Its true distinction is thatto the shaping of such men the club contributed inspiration, experience, and direction.16NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By SYLVESTER PETRI), '43PROFESSOR Anton J. Carlson, for forty yearsone of the University's most loved and respectedteachers, has been elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, one ofthe highest tributes American scientists can bestow upona colleague. "Highest tributes" should be reserved forexceptional men, and in this case reality has conformed.professor Carlson is an exceptional man. Those whowere privileged to listen to his physiology lectures inthe biological sciences survey may remember him as aman who was concerned with the social aspects of scienceand medicine, or as a sharp old fellow who devastatedconvention by barking questions instead of droning on,as many lecturers do. Maybe you remember him for theway he used to swallow a rubber tube to illustrate themechanics of digestion. At any rate, the Medical Schoolclass of 1915, in dedicating its section of Cap and Gownto Professor Carlson, remembered him as "a man whocompels our respect, admiration, and honor."Professor Carlson's response to this dedication demonstrates the breadth of his vision and the qualitieswhich have carried him from a carpenter's apprenticeto his present eminence. "The cure of disease in theindividual will always constitute an important part ofthe day's work for the medical profession," he wrote,"but the physician's most important duties in publichealth and preventive medicine are related to societyas a whole. In this larger public service the physicianof tomorrow will have greater opportunities and responsibilities than any other social group." Thus, ProfessorCarlson has spent an important part of each day in thephysiologist's laboratory; but though it involved takingliberties with the ordinary man's concept of a day'swork, he has spent over the last forty years an equallyimportant part of each day in the humanist's laboratory. Professor Carlson is famous throughout the scientific world not only for his own research but as a lecturer,editor, adviser, legal expert, organizer, and executive.During World War I, for example, as a member of thefood rehabilitation group Lt. Col. Carlson played an important part in feeding the European nations.This sense for the panorama of humanity has carriedthe good doctor to the point where his retirement issomething of a farce. His solid presence — cap on headswimming in the smoke of his pipe, like the U.S.S.Missouri under full steam — is a reality on campus.And on the national scale he is or has recently beenconsultant to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration,Federal Trade Commission, Office of War Information,Aero-Medical Service, Office of Price Administration,National Research Council, U.S. Public Health Service,and the Medical Advisory Committee of the NationalFoundation for Infantile Paralysis. At the University and in the world, therefore, the fact of Professor Carlson's existence has been important. He has executedthe scholar's summum bonum: he has searched deeplyfor truth, and having found it, applied it for the common good. Around the University there is a suspicionthat he is a presence.The Kids Come Back for More in '44While civilian student enrolment for the Quadranglesas a whole has decreased some 17 per cent since thewinter quarter of 1943, enrolment in the first two yearsof the College is up 36 per cent. And as Mr. Morgenstern pointed out in the last issue of the Magazine, theyoung students merit the characterization of "a self-selected group from intelligent families that have a realistic sense of values." By the time you read this, theCollege enrolment figures will have climbed still higheiowing to the registrations for the mid-year program,starting in the first week of February. Among those entering this program will be five high school sophomores whowon four-year scholarships in the recent competition involving aptitude tests, high school records, and othermeasures useful to the ascertainment of potential collegiate ability. In all, $16,500 in honor entrance scholarships was awarded on the basis of the battery of testsgiven on December 5, 1943. Thirty-two of the 245 contestants shared the total. Twenty-eight of the winnersare from the Chicago metropolitan area, and the youngestin the group, Rosemarie Vihovich, was only fourteenwhen she took the test.A.S.T.P. AlumniOn January 28 another group of soldiers (380) assigned, to Chicago's Army Specialized Training Program received certificates of graduation. In both the area andlanguage and the basic engineering units, one-year University scholarships for use after the war were awardedthe top ranking men. Each area and language graduate,who had to know one foreign language before enteringthe program, has learned the language of an allied orenemy country. In addition he has studied the historyof that country and has been made familiar with thesocial, political, and economic conditions. A basic engineering student must complete a nine months' coursein the essentials of physics, chemistry, mathematics, geography, history, and English.In the nine months these boys have been on the Midway, many have formed an attachment to the University.These men have expressed a desire to become a part ofthe alumni family. Their names have been recorded atAlumni House and, during their service in the Army, theywill receive Private Maroon, the Alumni Association'smonthly servicemen's publication which has met with1718 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEstriking popularity among the seven thousand alumniin service.Action in -the Department of MusicLast month Cecil Smith, executive secretary of theDepartment of Music, voiced the intention "to give theart of music the importance and prominence it deservesin a great University." Since then concerts on the campushave featured chamber music, too little noticed of late,and the works of contemporary composers. Darius Mil-haud, the leading French composer, was the first of thecontemporary artists to present his own works. On January 21 Igor Stravinsky appeared in a concert of his owncomposition. Accompanied by Willard MacGregor, well-known American pianist playing in Chicago for the firsttime, Stravinsky presented the highlight of the program— his Concerto for Two Pianos. President and Mrs.Hutchins attended the concert with Mme. Stravinsky asthe guests of Remi Gassmann, member of the Universitymusic faculty and music critic of the Chicago DailyTimes, who arranged the composers' concerts.The composers' concerts will continue on February 15with compositions by Paul Hindemith, and on April 7,featuring the works of young American composers. Concurrently, the popularity of the series of chamber musicconcerts featuring the works of such composers as Beethoven, Mozart, and Haydn, indicates that the middlewest is not insensitive to this type of music, which wasonce the prerogative solely of princes. The first program, on January 14, included works of Beethoven, Mozart, and Brahms, with John Weicher, violinist, andFlorence Kirsch," pianist, performing. Subsequent programs will be given on February 11, March 10, andApril 21.Virginia Dogwood to Zu-Zu*The strongest "blow" to Anglo-American unity since1776, the Dictionary of American English brazenly presents 50,000 words, with their definitions and history,which originated or acquired new meanings in the UnitedStates. In 1926 Sir William Craigie, the noted lexicographer who completed the work on the new (Oxford)English Dictionary, started the project which was totrace the origin and illustrate the change and growth ofAmerican English. Since then the big room on thefourth floor of Wieboldt Hall has been dog-eared withold manuscripts, books, newspapers, magazines, advertising material, and even circus posters. -Veterans suchas Mitford M. Mathews, assistant editor engaged sincethe inception of the project, and Professor James R. Hulbert of the English department, co-editor with Sir William since 1936, have culled these dry old sheets andemerged with the origin of such salty philological phenomena as "whoopee" (Mark Twain's contribution), "O.K." (attributed to Andrew Jackson), and "holding thebag" (courtesy of Thomas Jefferson). Mark Twain is*Title of the twentieth and final section which completes thefour volumes of the Dictionary of American English, Universityof Chicago Press, January, 1944. credited with more original uses than any other source.Total cost of editorial preparation and the manufacture of the dictionary was approximately $420,000.Of this, receipts from sales will balance off about $120,-000, and the net deficit of $300,000 will be met bycontributions from educational or philanthropic institutions and funds of the University of Chicago and theRockefeller Foundation. The edition was limited to 2,500copies when publication was begun, a figure far beyondthe estimated demand. With the work completed, however, less than a hundred sets remain, and the type hasbeen destroyed.The dictionary has won for the University Press theCarey-Thomas Award of Publishers' Weekly. This awardis based on creative ideas, cooperation with authors, careful production and imagination, and successful market-Quadrangle Round TableLeonard D. White, Ph. D. '21, professor of publicadministration, has been elected president of the American Political Science Association. Professor White, whobecomes the fortieth president of the association, is oneof America's foremost authorities on municipal government personnel and administration. Class and seminarrooms have never held Leonard White. His extra-curricular activities since he joined the University faculty in1920 have included service as an investigator on theHoover Commission of Social Trends in 1930; membership on the U. S. Civil Service Commission and CentralStatistics Board from 1934 to 1937; and consultant onthe President's Committee on Civil Service Improvementin 1939 and 1940.Captain Mildred H. McAfee, A. M. '28, director of. the WAVES and on leave as president of Wellesley College, returned to the University as guest speaker atRockefeller Memorial Chapel on Sunday, January 16.Radioman third class Ralph Mathias Wagner of Hol-gate, Ohio, who completed on January 13 the nineteen-week course in our Naval Training School, was awardeda one year University scholarship for use after the war.This is the fifteenth scholarship the University has awarded to top record graduates of this school since it wasestablished.The Reverend Reinhold Niebuhr of the Union Theological School was the Chapel speaker on Sunday, January 23.Linus Pauling, Sc. D. '41, of the California Instituteof Technology gave the 1944 Julius Stieglitz memoriallecture at the Chicago Medina Club on January 27.Professor Stieglitz was a member of the University'schemistry faculty from 1892 until his death in 1937.Arthur H. Compton, Charles H. Swift distinguishedservice professor of physics, received the annual awardmade by the League of Fraternal and Benevolent Organizations of the Jewish Education Committee of NewYork for his "effective promotion of justice, amity, understanding, and cooperation among the peoples of allcreeds."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19SOUND MOVIES(Continued from page 11)almost forty-five years ago. He was observing a teacherquizzing children on physical geography. He asked ifhe might conduct the class and for fifteen minutes hetried unsuccessfully to learn from the boys and girls whatthings would be like at the bottom of a hole boredstraight down into the earth for fifteen miles. Eventually,the teacher could stand her anxiety no longer and shetold Mr. Dewey that they knew the answer but that hehad not asked the question properly. She tapped on thetable with a pencil, the children came to attention, andshe said: /'Children, what is the status of matter at thecenter of the earth?" The children sighed with reliefand answered in chorus: "Matter- at the center of theearth is in a state of igneous fusion."The argument of the advocates of the use of films inthe classroom, assuming the condition of matter at thecenter of the earth makes any difference to young children, is that the two words igneous fusion might havehad some meaning had they been learned in associationwith a sound motion picture which would have made itpossible for the boys and girls to hear and see moltenrock as it bubbles and puffs vapor in the crater or onthe sides of an active volcano.There are three fundamental reasons why classroommotion pictures have not yet come into their own. Thefirst is the lack of a sufficient number of good films. Eventhe company which has just become affiliated with theUniversity of Chicago — •¦ and this company is by all oddsthe best of the producers in this field — has a list of onlytwo-hundred titles. There is, for example, only one 11-minute film on "Life in China."The second reason why relatively few children benefitfrom classroom films is that the distribution of the existing films is shockingly inadequate to classroom needs.Few schools have their own film libraries and hence mustdepend upon rental repositories frequently located hundreds of miles away. Consequently, the film a fifth gradeteacher really wanted for Wednesday, March 17, mayarrive on the first of April.The final reason why classroom films are used relatively rarely is that teachers do not know how to make themost effective use of these new instructional materials.For one thing, the complexity of the projection apparatusbaffles them. They are afraid of it. And even more significant, few teachers realize the need for skill in theproper use of instructional motion pictures.These limitations to the intelligent and widespreaduse of classroom films are real but not necessary. It isthe conviction of the officers of Britannica Films andalso of University of Chicago faculty members and administrators who have given thought to the matter thatthe developmental possibilities of the next ten years aretremendous. The combined resources of the Universityand its new affiliate are being brought to bear on allthree of the problems I mentioned a moment ago. Theschool of the future will undoubtedly include an extensive film library and many small projection rooms housingapparatus of such mechanical ingenuity that the learnerwill need to do no more than drop a film in a slot, so tospeak. The film he then views, and re-views, may haveto do with anything from "Protecting the Body againstDisease" to a dramatization of an early New Englandtown meeting.The dreamers' feet do not need to leave the groundtoo far to see rented instructional films used in severalmillion American homes. There is already a fairly vigorous rental market for 16 mm. theatrical pictures mostof which are shown in homes. Expansion of this market,however, must wait upon the manufacture of simple, almost foolproof, projection apparatus.THE SETTLEMENT(Continued from page 15)as her associates proves to be a very normal little girl whohappens to be a little slower than her sister next of age.Miss Redwin is working with these two girls, building upa different attitude toward the child in the family.ResidenceThe house has been used by the regular groups duringthe month. The Kiwanis Club of the stockyards areahad an attendance of 108, which is high. They usedtheir redecorated club rooms for the first time and enjoyed them very much.The residence has been full constantly. One residentleft and an attractive Japanese- American girl came inthe next day. She was employed in clerical work in theLoop but her eyes could not stand the strain. At presentshe is helping with our Settlement program.Our maintenance and food work have been maintainedin spite of many difficulties. We have a minimum ofmaintenance help and with the new stoker will have toconsider more help during the winter months. A greatdeal of time has to go into repairing windows and locksinjured by restless boys.ONE MAN'S OPINION(Continued from page 9)It was only when the depression came to stay that thesuspicion arose here and there that educators as well asinvestors might have been deluding themselves. Give thecountry the prosperity it has reason to expect and noone on the outside is going to worry much about thestate of education. Any discussion of the aims and meansof education is boring to most people, particularly if ithas to get explicit in terms of curriculum content, organization, and achievement. So the educational Hardingswill have their day; but it requires no gift for croakingprophecy to say that they also will have their day ofreckoning, after the family refrigerator has been replacedand everyone has a F-M raclio with television attachment.The next time out, the boys will have to get a schemewith more potency than acceleration if they are going tokeep the doors of old Siwash open.With Our Alumni in DetroitThe Editor himself becomes a roving reporter in the cityas district manager of the Federal Electric Company. w1896Charles Sumner Pike, in his undergraduate days a catcher on the baseball team and a student playwright,has given up baseball, but continuesto write when he finds the time andthe inspiration is on. (See latest inspiration on next page.) His play, TheEscape, won first place in the Michigan Authors Asociation some yearsago and many others have been produced locally and abroad. He hasbeen president of the Fine Arts Society of Detroit. Vocationally hehas served as editor, advertising manager, sales manager, and executivein publishing, manufacturing, andfinancial fields. He is at presentconnected with the Great Lakes SteelCorporation. His home is at 1500Seminole Avenue.1897Victor W. Sincere was one of thegay young blades of the early years(^\ ' I f^* A ( °^ t^le University,v-M-LLv £*uV« wnose singing madethe Glee Club such asuccess that it madeits first cross countrytrip, now famous insong and story. Youremember, of course— "They made itin a day. The second stop wasDowners Grove, the first was Au-ror-a." Well, Victor has been foryears general manager of the Frankand Seder department store, 1425-47Woodward Avenue. One of his twosons assists him in the managementof the store.1899William P. Lovett is one of Detroit's best known community leaders.After years of newspaper work inChicago, Grand Rapids, and Detroit,he joined the staff of the DetroitCitizens League where he has servedas executive secretary and editor ofthe Civic Searchlight for nearly aquarter of a century. He is the recipient of the Silver Star given bythe Detroit Community Fund fortwenty-five years of continuous service on its behalf. But his abilities arerecognized outside his own hometown. He has been president of theNational Association of City Clubsand vice-president of the NationalAssociation of Civic Secretaries. Hishobby is sailing and when it comesto handling a catboat in a near hurri cane he is Wayne County's GrandMeow.Arthur M. Smith, PhD '00, is afeature writer for the Detroit News.A year ago he madel==an extendeod trip byair through the LatinAmerican countriesand wrote a most interesting series ofarticles on our good ('jhsrtXV?Fneighbors to the south.1902Mrs. Edwin H. Eardley (BeatriceDavies) lives at 2810 WoodstockDrivce, out north, off WoodwardAvenue, in the Pleasant Ridge section. Mr. Eardley is an engineer andone of the Albert Kahn Associates,most widely known architectural firmin the middle west.1905Strong Vincent Norton and Mrs.Norton (Florence May Lyon, '98,PhD '01) live on Lone Pine Road inBloomfield Hills, a most attractiveestate section some twenty milesnorth of Detroit. Mr. Norton, afterlong service with the Goodrich Rubber Company in Akron and the General Motors Company in Pontiac,now has his office in the GeneralMotors Building in Detroit. His active business interest is the CurtisWeighing Company (scales). Avo-cationally he is most active in theDetroit and the Oakland CountyCitizens Leagues and in the DetroitSymphony Society.^ -x7-ic s' Norton will bet^> U \M * ^°n£ remembered as*""*i the first woman to be' given faculty status inthe University's Department of Botany,where she was recognized not onlyas a gifted research worker but as anenthusiastic and inspiring teacher.Mrs. Robert S. Drummond (EliseL. Meyer) lives at 1168 BostonBoulevard East. Her husband ispresident of the National Broach andMachine Company. Ill health hasnecessitated giving up many of herformer activities, but she still engagesin church and Red Cross work. Herhealth is improving and she drivesout to the Cranbrook School inBloomfield Hills to visit with her twoadopted sons, Robert John, 8, andChandler Winslow, 6.Mrs. Emerson Davis (Marion Bieg-here he spent pre-editor daysler) lives at 844 Whittier Avenue,Grosse Pointe. Her husband is anexecutive at the Detroit ChemicalWorks. There are two sons and twodaughters in the Davis family, all ofthem married. The oldest son, JohnEmerson, is a Chicago PhD in physiology and at present on the facultyof the University of Arkansas Medical School in Little Rock, where hehas done some notable research.Mrs. Davis has been active throughthe years in many Detroit organizations serving the community and ispast president of the Chicago AlumniClub.1907One of the busiest physicians inthe entire Detroit area is Robert B.Hasner, MD Rush '12, with officesin the Washington Square Building,Royal Oak. Dr. Hasner gave up athriving practice in Cedar Rapids,Iowa, some twenty-five years ago toenter into practice in the fast growing suburban section of Detroit. Hispractice has grown enormously withthe years.1908Robert M. Toms, who supplemented his undergraduate work atChicago with a law course at Michigan, has been located in Detroitsince admission to the bar. Successful in private practice, he servedas prosecuting attorney for WayneCounty from 1925 to 1929. On hisrecord as a public servant he waselected judge of the Wayne CountyCircuit Court where he now presides.Judge Toms is the father of twodaughters, Elinor and Margaret.Milo M. Quaife, PhD '24, was persuaded to leave his position as editori cjifH wi i sr of publicati°ns f°rIJflclJlllil the Wisconsin StateHistorical Society tobecome editor andsecretary of the far-famed Burton Historical Collection ofthe Detroit Public Library, where hecan be found in the main library inthe Art Center. Mr. Ouaife is theauthor of half a dozen books on thehistory of the northwest, two ofwhich, Checagou and Chicago andthe Old Northwest, were publishedby the U. of C. Press. He is theeditor of the series of historical volumes, The Lakeside Classics.20THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 211910Carl L. V. Exselsen, JD '12, notonly grounded himself in law whileat Chicago, but by singing in Blackfriars and the Glee Club developeda voice that puts opposing counsel inthe shade. In his senior year hemanaged the Glee Club which prepared him to speak authoritativelywhen telling clients how to run theirown organizations. After practicingin Chicago, New York, and Miami,he is now located at 2766 PenobscotBuilding.1912Mrs. Thomas W. Weber (ElizabethWilliams) has been director of socialservice work in St. John's EpiscopalChurch for the past two decades.Avocationally she is a leader in manyhumanitarian community enterprises.Archie R. Gilpin, SM, who wasAlumni Foundation chairman for Detroit in 1943, and hasaccepted re-appoint- »«1 <Clment for 1944, is headof the science department in Northwesternhigh school. Duringhis off hours, mirabiledictu, he operates a life insuranceagency with offices in the NationalBank Building. Despite his two vocational activities he finds time formuch community work and serves onthe Committee of Management of theNorthwestern "Y. M. C. A.1913Allen C. Germann is one of thebusy executives of Detroit. Nominally sales manager of the HudsonMotor Car Company, his duties havebeen more diversified but none theless arduous since his company wentinto war production. He lives at1208 Whittier Avenue, Grosse Pointe.1914Sidney M. Cadwell, PhD '17, andMrs. Cadwell (Elizabeth Nicol, '16)live at 436 Washington Road, GrossePointe, but still convenient to theDetroit plant of the United StatesRubber Company where he serves asdirector of development. Mr. Cadwell is the author of more than fiftypatents and is a former nationalpresident of Gamma Alpha fraternity. The Cadwells have two daughters, Elizabeth, 25, and Loraine, 23.Carl C. Birkelo, MD Rush, isin charge of roentgenology at Herman Kiefer Hospital, on the facultyof the Medical School of Wayne University, and a busy consultant.Marquis E. Shattuck, former president of the local alumni club, isdirector of language education in theDetroit public schools and professor of the teaching of language arts atWayne University. He and Mrs.Shattuck (Doris Graves, '21) have adelightful home at 18115 Oak Drive,where they have invited the entiregroup of Chicago alumni- on numerous occasions. Mrs. Shattuck isactive in the Women's City Club andthe League of Women Voters, andserved as captain of a team in therecent War and Community Chestdrive.Layton L. Northrup is Detroitmanager for the McCall Corporationwith an office in the Fisher Building.He and Mrs. Northrup (Mildred G.Gordon, '19) live at 1040 GordonCourt in near-by Birmingham. Theirson, Gordon, who graduated from theUniversity in June, 1943, is a corporal in the Signal Corps, attendingthe school for officer candidates atFort Monmouth, New Jersey.Oliver E. Seaton, AM '18, andMrs. Seaton (Emma Newell, '15) liveat 17303 Woodingham Avenue.Oliver is assistant principal of theDurfee Intermediate School and Mrs.Seaton has held important teachingand supervisory positions in the public school system. Both have beenofficers of the Detroit alumni club,and Mrs. Seaton has served as president of both Pi Lambda Theta andPi Kappa Sigma, the national educational fraternity. 1915Alfred L. Nelson, PhD, is professorand head of the Department ofMathematics at Wayne Universityand lives at 16765 Sunderland Road.He is active in the MathematicalAssociation of America and has beenchairman of its Michigan section.After serving for some yea^s asdirector of religious education icx theDetroit diocese of the EpiscopalChurch, Ernest Everett Piper, AM,became rector of St. MatthiasChurch, where he has not only increased the membership and broadened the program, but has led hiscongregation in a financial campaignthat wiped out the indebtedness ontheir beautiful edifice.1916Mrs. B. Raymond Hoobler (IcieG. Macy), after serving as a biochemist in Western PennsylvaniaHospital and as an instructor in theUniversitv of California, moved toDetroit in 1923 to become head ofthe nutrition research laboratories ofthe Merrill-Palmer School. Sevenyears later she was appointed directorof the research laboratory of theChildren's Fund of Michigan,founded by the late Senator JamesCouzens and endowed with $12,000,-000 to promote the health, welfare,and happiness of the children of thestate of Michigan. In 1941 she mar-THE GREAT LAKES FREIGHTERSFrom the mines of the Mesabi to the mills of BuffaloThe ships plough through the waters on even keel and slow;They are loaded to the scuppers with tons of iron oreThat is needed by the nation for the implements of war;In their cargoes are torpedoes; there are guns anc} jeeps and shells;Bombs there are for dire destruction and creating human hells;There are submarines more deadly than are stealthy water-snakes —Aye, Death rides with the cargoes in the Freighters of the Lakes.Through fog and stormy weather, the ore-boats make their way,Tossed about by angry lake-winds, coated o'er with icy spray;Day and night, as into battle, the big brave freighters go,In their holds the mortal missiles for our haughty, hated foe;Steaming onward down the lake-lanes they bear the iron oreFrom the wilds of icy Northlands to our busy sandy shore,Where at Ecorse on the river, sturdy men of fervid zealToil unceasingly for freedom rolling out the hardened steel.From the mines of Minnesota to the furnaces and millsOf Ohio and of Pittsburgh, mid its smoky, rocky hills,The ore for war goes forward in huge ever-mounting tonsFor planes and tanks and rifles and anti-aircraft guns;And as the steel rolls on and on, to our foes we would recall —"The mills of God grind slowly and the mills of God grind small";So to the valiant vessels and brave crews that freight the oreWe give a cheer as on they steer with stuff to win this war!Charles Sumner Pike, '9622 THE UNI VERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE fried Dr. Hoobler, one of Detroit'sbest known physicians, but has continued her life work in the laboratories. She was a delegate to theWhite House Conference on ChildCare and Protection.1917Harry A. McDonald has been awell-known figure in the business,social, and political life of Detroit.He is a partner in an investmenthouse and president of the H. A. McDonald Creamery Company, whosewagons can be seen inalmost any Detroitalley with their touch- s~ing legend, "I want to J ,be your milkman." [_Harry is in great demand as a singer. Heleads community choruses or goes italone. He sang "God Bless America"before the 1940 National RepublicanConvention but almost lost faith inthe deity when Willkie was defeatedat election time. Harry recoveredsufficientlv to become the Republicancandidate for Congress in 1942 butthe electorate, perhaps influenced bythe legend on his milkwagons, decided he should remain in Detroit — •which is all for the good of Detroit.Mrs. Fowler Smith (Mary A.Johnson), whose husband is directorof music in the public schools, livesat 16850 Rosemont Avenue. In addition to her household duties she isintake interviewer for the Red Crosshome service division of Detroit andactive in the Woman's City Club andthe Faculty Wives Club of WayneUniversity.Floyd H. Fuller, LLB, formerEXTRA CAREMAKES THEEXTRA GOODNESSA Product ojSWIFT & CO.7409 S. State StreetPhone Radcliffe 7400 president of the Detroit alumni cluband former local Foundation chairman, after years of service as legalofficer for the Manufacturers National Bank, became secretary andlegal adviser to Emory W. Clark,retired banker and industrialist. Mr.Fuller's office is in the National BankBuilding.1918After serving as director of publicrelations for the National Associationof Ice Industries, Robert B. Mc-Knight joined the General MotorsCorporation nearly ten years ago andis now one of their executives. Hisprime interest still is public relations.His office is in the company's monumental building on Grand Boulevardand he lives at the Lee Plaza.1919Vinton A. Bacon, MD Rush '22, isone of the busiest doctors in Detroit.His office is at 4819 West Fort Streetand his home at 18984 Fairfield Avenue. Dr. Bacon is a former president of the Detroit alumni club. Heis the father of two sons — Charles,a student at the University of Michigan, and William, in a local highschool.1920After serving for some years as aphysician in the Department ofHealth, Bruce H. Douelas, MD Rush,was appointed commissioner of public health for the City of Detroit,where he is credited with operatinghis deoartment in "a remarkablythorough, quiet, and efficient manner." Dr. Douglas is a former president of the Tuberculosis Associationof Michigan.Daniel H. Cronin, JD, is practicinglaw. His address is 8580 JosephCampeau Avenue,1922Virginia M. Benson, MD Rush '25,who formerly practiced medicine inChicago, has been located in Detroitfor the past year and is living at16521 Parkside Avenue.1923Robert C. Stanger, AM, is pastorof Bethel Reformed Church onGrand Boulevard. This is the samechurch that Reinhold Niebuhr madefamous, or vice versa, some twentyyears ago. The Stanger family livesat 2262 Virginia Park.Jackson F. Moore, who is one ofthe score of Chicago alumni livingin Birmingham (1180 Willow Lane),has his offices at 10750 Grand RiverAvenue, Detroit, where he acts asgeneral manager for the Detroit areastores of Sears Roebuck and Company. Albert A. Graham is one of Detroit's best known school principals,For many years directing the PriestSchool, he was later transferred tothe Duffield School, where the racialproblem loomed so large that it required exceptional qualifications ina principal. Mr. Graham is a leaderin many community activities.1924Florence M. Guenther heads theart department of Northwestern highschool. She lives at 3280 ColumbusAvenue during the school year andspends her summers in the beautifulvillage of Dexter, Michigan.1925Chester M. Culver is one of thosewho came back to Chicago for abachelor's degree many years afterhe had completed most of his undergraduate work. Early in that periodhe had won a law degree at Harvard,but never felt satisfied without thatChicago four-year bachelor's. Since1916 he has been general manager ofthe Employers Association of Detroitand avocationally serves on theexecutive committee of the IndustrialSafety Council and as a director ofthe Urban League of Detroit.Hugh E. Dean, formerly executivein the forge division of the ChevroletMotor Car Company, is now working long hours on war contracts thatcannot be discussed. He has acountry home in that beautiful sectionnorth of Farmington on the 12-MileRoad.Leonard F. G. Donaldson is a practicing attorney with offices in thePenobscot Building and a home at14459 Glastonbury Road.PETERSONFIREPROOFWAREHOUSE•STORAGEMOVING•Foreign — DomesticShipments55th & ELLIS AVENUEPHONEMIDway 9700THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE .231926Harry Whang has been obliged toget in extra help to operate his floristshop, for he has been drafted as alanguage instructor, teaching Japanese at Selfridge Field, Michigan.1928Ralph Frank Stitt and Mrs. Stitt(Ella Marks, '24) live ¦ at 13030Chandler Park. Ralph is advertisingmanager for the United DetroitTheaters Corporation with offices inthe Tuller Hotel on Grand CircusPark. Before her marriage Mrs. Stittwas one of the University family ofemployees, serving as secretary to Dr.Dudley Reed, director of the University's Health Service.1929Mrs. H. A. Cransfield (EleanorGoltz, AM '30), is living at 10214West Outer Drive. Before her marriage the name of Eleanor Goltz wasknown to hundreds of our alumni insocial work. She did notable workwith the Cook County Bureau ofPublic Welfare, the University'sSchool of Social Service Administration, and the Department of SocialService of the University of Michigan. '<Albert B. Keenan and Mrs. Keenan(Hazel Grover) live at 2001 Edison¦— » ^ <=z Avenue, where threeIFjfv \ "rfT//* *| children give Mrs.= Sai /<—£=? Keenan full days of= p joyous activity, with?) only an occasionalworry. Albert is president of the Detroitalumni club, but vocationally —- andfor long hours each day — he serveson the faculty of Northwestern highschool. His long hours are partiallyexplained by his being adviser onstudent publications.Mrs. William M. Tuttle (GenevaW. Duvall) is living with her children at 14500 Warwick Avenue andwriting daily letters to her husband,Major Tuttle, MD '32, who is in theArmy Medical Corps at Camp Carson, Colorado. Before her marriageGeneva contributed more than hershare to the charm and pulchritudeof the President's office at the University.Ernest G. Brock, AM, is a memberof the faculty of Mackenzie highschool and lives at 2789 WoodstockDrive.1930LeRoy W. Dahlberg, JD, is one ofDetroit's leading younger attorneyswith offices in the Penobscot Building and a home in either the WhittierApartments or in beautiful Roches - S\ Jt** ms brot/iW^ChopKf<zk^~-'yS ating itter, Michigan, all depending uponthe season of the year.1933Samuel Gruber, JD '34, gives as hisaddress the London Chop House, 155West Congress Street. The rovingreporter * visited the Chop House inthe hope of finding Sam. He wasunsuccessful in making contact withhis man but he did discover a fineeating place. Mr. Gruber, who withhis brother owns theHouse, is oper-it from a distance for he is nowaddressed as S/Sgt.Samuel Gruber, 385thFerrying Base, GoreField, Great Falls, Montana. Oh,yes— Sam became a father in lateOctober and at last report was tryingto get a furlough so that he mightsee his new son.Frank B. Hutchinson, III, (whosefather, incidentally, shared with Walter Gregory the onus of the script forthe, first Blackfriar show, The Passingof Pahli Kahn) is local manager forthe Harris Trust and Savings Bankof Chicago. His . office is in thePenobscot Building.1935Gifford M. Mast, formerly president of the Tri- Cities alumni club,with an office in Dav-anport as a consulting £Tengineer, has beenDetroit for nearly twoyears as engineer forithe Jam Handy Or-SLganization, up to his =^d!#Sr=ears in war production of the "hush,hush" variety. He and Mrs. Mastlive at 7718 East Jefferson Avenue.1936Miss Rae E. Rips, AM '38, formerly reference assistant in theMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . Sta+e 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU, of C. ALUMNILEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVER Joseph Schaffner Library of Commerce at Northwestern University,has been in Detroit since the springof 1942 and can be found in thereference department of the publiclibrary.Stanley W. Drigot, research chemist, is living at 17537 Wildemere Avenue. He recently returned to theAutomobile City after serving for ayear and a half as inspector of powder and explosives at the El woodOrdnance Works, Elwood, Illinois.1937Mary T. Pazdera, AM, is engagedin psychiatric social work with theChildrens Center of Detroit, 3743Brush Street.1939S. Elizabeth Romine is an instructor in nursing in the School of Nursing at Harper Hospital and lives at246 East Alexandrine Avenue.1940Jerome E. Moberg, with Mrs. Mo-berg, lives at 120 Seward Avenue.He is employed by the Evans Products Company. Originally hired asa cost accountant, he admits that hisduties have outgrown original specifications and he has now become anestimator, a designer, and a technicalengineer.1941Mrs. Robert H. Harlan (LoisWhiting, AM '42) is teaching in Detroit and lives at 32 Mount VernonAvenue. Her husband, ('40, JD '42)is not practicing law at the presenttime but is in the personnel divisionof the U. S. Infantry.1942Emily Ruth Norton, AM, is teaching mathematics in the high schoolat Royal Oak, Michigan, just twelvemiles north of the Detroit City Hall.1943Margaret Mary Ponder no soonerwon her bachelor's degree than sheenlisted in war industry by going fortraining to the- Dodge Motor Company in Detroit (or shall we sayHamtramck, to. be meticulous) whereshe is now a junior executive.K. Jerry Morray, '42, and Mrs.Morray (she who was Betsy Kuh, '43,until August 25) are living at 77Waverly Avenue, Highland Park.Jerry is employed as a chemist bythe Detroit branch of the UnitedStates Rubber Company. Betsy willbe remembered by the younger generation as a University Aide and oneof the most versatile of the undergraduate leaders. To the older generation we would introduce her asthe youngest daughter of Bill Kuhof the class of Ee-o-leven.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENEWS OF THE CLASSES* IN THE SERVICE *Franklin C. McLean, '08, SM '13,MD '10, PhD '15, professor of pathological physiology, is on leave fromthe University, having been commissioned and ordered to active duty aslieutenant colonel in the Army Medical Corps. He has been assigned toChemical Warfare Service, withheadquarters 'at Edgewood Arsenal,Maryland.Lieut. Col. Perry D. Strausbaugh,PhD '20, writes that this is "a highlyspecialized war in which even botanists are called away from their poststo render service in establishing andmaintaining vegetational covers onair fields as the most economical andsatisfactory means of controlling dustand soil erosion."With the rank of major, TroyLewis, '20, is serving in the JudgeAdvocate General's Department.With a general hospital unit MajorLibby Pulsifer, MD Rush '25, is serving overseas.Capt. Morton J. Barnard, '26, JD'27, has been acting as trial judgeadvocate (Mr. District Attorney, toyou) of the general court for his division at Camp Gruber, Oklahoma.The work, he says, has become sovoluminous that it is a full-time job.He spent over a. year in the Caribbean before this present assignment.Col. John K. Gerhart, '28, writeshe is "running the Jerries aroundand making life miserable in generalfor the founders of the Third Reich."He is with the Air Forces.Lieut. Richard Kern, '29, has "flownto another large, North African city,where the streets are horizontal orpractically vertical." His transfer isattributable, he adds, to his knowledge of Spanish, Italian and Portuguese. He spent over six months reading Italian prisoner-of-war mail.Major Robert A. Allen, '29, is witha medical detachment serving in theHawaiian Islands.Major Robert L. Stern, '29, MDRush '34, has been in the Pacific areaat several stations for over a year anda half and admits that they are beginning to be a little lonesome forhome. He writes that there is a greatbunch of Americans out there.Capt. Pat Kelly, '30, has beentransferred from Dow Field, Maine,to Langley Field in Virginia, wherehe is special service officer in theArmy Air Corps. Capt. Maurice Schneider, '31, MDRush '35, has been in England afterseeing front line medical duty in mostof the Tunisian campaign and all ofthe Sicilian campaign.With the rank of major in theChemical Warfare Service of theArmy, Conrad E. Ronneberg, PhD'35, is instructing at the ChemicalWarfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland.Capt. Alfred J. Benesh, '34, is chiefof the medical and laboratory services of the station hospital at FortBenjamin Harrison, after taking athree months' Army clinical laboratory course at U. of O, which is "certainly appreciated," he says.Winton F. Swengel, MD '35, isoverseas with a Navy unit.Charles P. Polivka, '36, AM '40, isin the Infantry replacement trainingcenter at Fort McClellan, Alabama.Robert Kracke, '36, has two chevrons on his sleeve, and is stationed atCamp Sibert, Alabama. The corporal is in the Chemical WarfareService.Capt. Roswell P. Snead, MBA '36,has seen duty in North Africa, Sicily,and Italy, first as a Bofors platooncommander and later as regimentalpersonnel officer."Was awarded the DistinguishedService Cross in last action, but willbe happy to get out of the next scrimmage with a whole hide," is the newsLieut. Gerhard Lessman, '36, sendsus. He is temporarily stationed inthe Hawaiian Islands, after helpingto take Attu and cleaning up theAleutians.. Lieut. Theodore A. Fox, '37, MD'37, has had two years at sea with theNavy Medical Corps. His ship wasattached to the Amphibious Forceand he received his first baptism offire when they invaded Africa, andagain saw action when Sicily was invaded. He has been transferred toshore duty and is stationed at theU. S. Naval Hospital in New Orleans.John B. Biesanz, '37, joined theArmy at the end of December."I find England pretty cold andwet," writes Kenneth M. Smith, MD'37, who has been promoted to major.He is teaching in a medical field service school.Lieut. Edwin W. Berg, '38, hasbeen in North Africa for about ninemonths. He says: "Don't let anybody ever tell you that this is £sunny'Africa. It rains day and night and it's cold. It is our job to keep 'emflying by bringing up essential supplies. And, brother, it's no picnicwhen you have to wrestle with a two-ton wing section in six feet of mud."With the Seabees Carl J. Fromm-herz, '38, is stationed at Camp Endi-cott, Rhode Island. He holds thegrade of seaman, second class.Jason Kaplan, '38, AM '40, writesthat he has been attired in a sailorsuit for some time now and is locatedat San Bruno naval base, California.The base was the former Tanforanrace track, then served as a Jap concentration camp, was taken over bythe Army, and is now the property ofthe Navy. Jason is a yeoman andworks in the base . personnel office.He writes: "Frequent liberties andthe beauty of the surrounding country and Frisco make this place anenjoyable spot to be stationed. Haveapplied for a commission and am trying to persuade the Navy to forgetthe fact that I am three fourths ofan inch below minimum height requirements."WOJG Ellis B. Kohs, AM '38,sends this news: "I am now stationedin the heart of Georgia at the homeof the Infantry school and the Parachute school, and am bandleader ofthe Reception Center Band. This isa colored outfit, except for the officers, which in addition to the initialprocessing of men, also gives them, ifnecessary, instruction in reading andwriting in the affiliated Special Training Regiment. This phase of Armywork, i. e., the rehabilitation of menpreviously unfit for even simple typesof work involving literacy and in general unable to assume the responsibilities of a citizen, is among the mostconstructive efforts of the Armytoward a better post-war society. Thefact that this particular unit is allcolored is especially significant. Theband is a good one, and the danceorchestra would be difficult to match.Jiidwinij&L 0pp4fdun^FOR CAREER-MINDED WOMEN• That bright future you've dreamedabout — College education plus Gibbstraining insures it!SPECIAL MIDYEAR COURSESBEGIN FEBRUARY 14Right now, smart girls from 147 seniorcolleges who want more than a temporary stop-gap job are training tobecome Gibbs secretaries. Hundredsof permanent, well-paid, patrioticpositions are open to Gibbs -trainedcollege women who need never fearcompetition. For catalog, addressCollege Course Dean.NEW YORK 17 230 Park Ave.BOSTON 16 90 Marlborough St.CHICAGO II 720 N. Michigan Ave. ITHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25It really is hot! Our principal tasksare to provide music at reveille, retreat, parades and reviews, and shipments of men, and there are occasional broadcasts. I am inspired bythe example of 'Private Maroon' andhave started a bi-monthly periodicalwhich is of, by, and for my class ofArmy bandleaders. All U. of C. gradsin bands, especially if overseas, areinvited to submit material."Capt. Edward T. Baumgart, MD'39, after ten months in Africa hasmoved forward into Sardinia. Hewarns us not to stop there on ournext Mediterranean cruise.Lieut. W. S. Kurnick, '41, has seenconvoy duty for over a year.THE CLASSES1894Having resigned as president ofSioux Falls, South Dakota, College inAugust, 1941, Warren P. Behan, DB'97, PhD '99, has been engaged in"interim ministry" in pastorless Baptist churches since then. He servedthe First Baptist Church of Granville,Ohio; Bethany Baptist Church atPontiac, Michigan; First BaptistChurch of Flint, Michigan; and now,for the duration, the Trinity BaptistChurch at Marion, Ohio.1896As president of the James MillikinUniversity, John C. Hessler, PhD '99,makes his home in Decatur, Illinois.He divides his year into two parts —the time when he can be in the NorthWoods, and the time when he wisheshe were there, for he likes the outdoor life of woods, water, and theland.Putting in eight hour days at Kaiser's war shipbuilding plant on theeast side of San Francisco Bay,Jonathan Webb, AM '00, tells a littleabout his work." "The plant is saidto be launching and proving out astandard, tested and tried and approved ship for war purposes in lessthan once every three days. Theseships are built according to government designs and specifications andare given thorough examinations andtests in each case before being accepted. The company keeps exactrecord of costs of each ship down tothe last bolt and nut and governmentaccountants go over every item rightthere, down to the last cent untilthey know every item has been installed at price given; also that everyworking part works and that the shipfunctions as it should before it is accepted. Then it is ready for useand is promptly loaded for its purpose at docks on the same side of thebay and sent where the War Department directs."1901Felix E. Ashcroft, MD Rush, hasmoved to Glendale from Chula Vista,California, having retired from activepractice at the age of 72 ^>, due toinfirmities incident to disabilities sustained in World War I. The doctorhas our best wishes for pleasantretirement in sunny Glendale.1904Having retired in 1930 from TuftsCollege as professor of English,Charles Henry Gray, PhD, now ofPhiladelphia, can find time for reading (chiefly informational), attending lectures at the University ofPennsylvania, symphony concerts,doing genealogy research, and contract bridge. A few of the items inhis career cover book -reviewing forthe Viking Press, being scholarshipdirector as well as secretary for thePhiladelphia graduate association ofTheta Delta Chi, a five-months' triparound the world made ten years ago,and the Harrison research fellowshipin English at the University of Pennsylvania.1905Specializing in industrial uses ofwater and conservation of powerplant equipment, Dudley K. Frenchis a consulting chemist and engineer"on his own." Music is his hobbyand his collection boasts approximately 4000 records. Wednesdaynights are open house at his home inWinnetka, when service men andwomen come in from Fort Sheridan,Great Lakes, and the neighborhoodto listen to his music.Among the fourteen "civilianheroes" of Westchester County, NewYork, honored recently at a luncheonwhen each received an award for hiswar work was Ernie Quantrell, trustee of the University. Mr. Quantrellwas chosen for his generous work inthe National War Fund-CommunityChest Drive.1906G. Ray Schaeffer, PhD, for manyyears advertising and sales promotionmanager of Marshall Field and Company, has been appointed director ofmerchants' services of the company.He will devote all his time to thepromotion of the entire Chicago market and will supply merchants withinformation concerning Chicago mer chandise sources. He will travel extensively. Since 1941 he has beena "dollar-a-year" man on the WarFinance Committee of the U. S.Treasury, as chairman of the retailoutlets division for Chicago and CookCounty. In 1942 he was nationalchairman of the "Retailers-for-Vic-tory" campaign.Wellington D. Jones, PhD '14, professor of geography on the Quadrangles, writes that his hobbies aretwo at present: "teaching Far Eastgeography to Army classes at theUniversity, and cogitating on thequalities of University of Chicagoadministrators — janitor, via deans,etc., to the President."1908Ethel Preston, PhD '20, formerpresident of the Chicago AlumnaeClub and one of the Chicago area'sbest known teachers in the field ofthe romance languages, has temporarily given up school work to acceptan important government position forthe period of the war. She is locatedat the Chicago Post Office buildingand is living at 5627 KenwoodAvenue.1909At the mid -winter commencementprogram at the University of Oklahoma, the announcement was madeof the election of Charles E. Decker,AM, PhD '17, to the chair of researchprofessor of paleontology. The honoris awarded to those who have made"distinguished contri but ions toknowledge and have demonstratedEXCLUSIVE BUT NOT EXPENSIVEjf ? &? jUanartfejWerc&ant bailorBomestic anti SmportebWoolen*bailor to JUatn;WLnibttsiity of Cfncago.glurnni & JfacultpSuite 1005-6-719 So. La Salle StreetPnone Central 619826 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, *2IEpstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6EASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits it.-work to the university and college field.It is affliated with the Fisk readier*Agency of Chicago, whose *work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.Ashjian Bros., w.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000JOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900- -0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882BOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage ©rove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492 vigorous leadership in his field,55 itwas stated. . '.Feeding Babies and Their Familiesis the title of a new textbook byHelen Monsch, written in collaboration with Marguerite K. Harper.Miss Monsch has been head of thedepartment of foods and nutrition ofthe College of Home Economics atCornell Universitv for twenty-fiveyears where her collaborator is aninstructor. Published by Wiley, thebook is devoted to the essentials infeeding individuals of all ages, as wellas a simple review of general nutrition.1910Richard W. Gentry, DB, in chargeof the identification office of the California Aero Flight Academy, lives inOntario, California.M. Lyle Spencer, PhD, is dean ofthe School of Journalism at SyracuseUniversity, and has been presidentof the American Association ofSchools of Journalism. He has helda visiting professorship at the American University, in Cairo, Egypt. Hisson, Capt. Lyle M. Spencer, '38,former fellow in sociology at the University, was married to Dorothy SayreJacobs, Wellesley '41, on October 28in Washington.1911Adrian A. Holtz, DB '12, PhD '14,is professor of economics and sociology at Kansas State College, Manhattan, as well as men's adviser andsecretary of the Y. M. C. A. at thatschool. He contributes his time andtalents generously to the communityas chairman of the local defenserecreation council, chairman of theUSO Council, and member of theboard of directors of the International Coop Club.Arthur L. Adams, JD '14, practiceslaw in Jonesboro, Arkansas. In 1942he made the race for associate justice of the state supreme court, andalthough not elected, it put him farbehind in his work and he is just nowgetting on an even keel. AttorneyAdams visited Chicago last summerfor the meeting of the American BarAssociation.1913Educating his family as well ashigh school students is Lloyd A.Rider's forte. As first assistant inbiology, he has been assigned chairman of the department of biology,hygiene, and nutrition of AbrahamLincoln high school in Brooklyn. Hiseldest daughter, Nancy, is a senior inmedicine at the University of Michigan; his second daughter, Patricia, Alice Banner Englewood 3181COLORED HELPFACTORY HELPSTORESSHOPSMILLS FOUNDRIESEnglewood Emp. Agcy., 5534 S. State St.MEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegtBEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICE'LICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAYmarket 79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoCornell '43, is teaching; and his thirddaughter, Joan, is a sophomore atCornell.1914It is with deep regret we learnthat Lieut. Howell Sherer Murray,son of Howell Murray and Mrs.Murray (Elizabeth Sherer, AM '15)has been reported missing. He servedon the U. S. S. Turner, the destroyersunk by an explosion off Sandy Hookearly in January, from the time itwas commissioned in March of 1943.Previously Lieut. Murray was citedfor gallantry while serving with thearmed guard on the hazardous convoy route to Russia. He was a graduate of Amherst, '41, and was amember of one of the earliest classesat Abbott Hall, receiving his commission in January, 1942.1916After his duties as president of theSummit Trust Company are attendedto, Lawrence MacGregor of Chatham, New Jersey, turns his attentionto the Morris County Children'sHome, in which he is keenly interested and of which he is presidentof the board. His oldest son, Samuel,is now in the second year of the College, making three generations atChicago, since Mr. MacGregor'smother went to the old University.1917J. Freeman Pyle, AM 518, PhD '25,dean of the College of Business andPublic Administration of the University of Maryland, has been appointedin addition acting dean of the CollegeTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27of Arts and Sciences at the sameuniversity. Dean Pyle was recentlyappointed by the Governor of Maryland a consultant to the state Commission on Post- War Reconstructionand Development.Ruth E. DeGroot lives in Washington, D. O, with her father. She doesRed Cross and church work, and herhobby is collecting finger, rings fromdifferent parts of the globe.1918Formerly a teacher and principalof schools in Oklahoma, John T.Foster is now fiscal officer with theWar Manpower Commission, withheadquarters in Oklahoma City.Alta L. Smith teaches home economics in the Colfax, Indiana,schools.1919Tommie Payne Duffy recentlyreached a milestone in her career,having celebrated her fiftieth year ofteaching. She lives at 611 PalmettoStreet, Chattanooga, Tennessee.1921Mrs. Owen H. Whitney (FalbaFoote, SM), is a chemist with theTexas Company, living at LongBeach, California.1922Julian F. Smith, PhD, has left theInstitute of Gas Technology (affiliated with Illinois Tech) as technicallibrarian and editor of publications.His new job is senior chemical specialist in the Chicago office of theAlien Property Custodian. He writesthat of the 40,000 U. S. patentsvested by the APC, about a fifth ofthem cover chemical inventions andmust be put to work in the war effortand in post-war economic development.1923In September Edward Wagen-E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182fo CONCRETEFLOORSSIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSEMERGENCY WORKALL PHONESest. i9» Wentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Ave.^ '__ _ •_ : knecht, AM '24, joined the faculty ofthe Illinois Institute of Technology inChicago, where he is associate professor of English.Mary Gertrude Mason holds a postas instructor at Michigan State College at East Lansing.Beulah Mae Woods, AM, continuesto teach at Newton Falls high school,Newton Falls, Ohio. She spent lastsummer doing war work at. GoodyearAircraft in Akron.George Walter Willett, PhD, formerly superintendent and principalof Lyon Township high school, Illinois, is now at Marquette University,with the rank of assistant professor.Marjorie Van Arsdale Niemeyer isworking in the accounting depart-Tuek PointingMalntenantoCleaning PHONEGRAceland 0800CENTRAL BUILDING CLEANING CO.CalkingStainingMasonryAeid WashingSand BlastingSteam CleaningWater Proofing 3347 N. Halsted StreetThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideVie faCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE20 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERTG ra duate N u rseMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused. Permanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600 HairRoots per hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology, andPhysical Therapy, Also Electrologists Associationof Illinois$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in Beauty ment of the Red Cross in Washington, D. O, while her husband is stationed in the capital. She is on leaveof absence from the Chicago publicschools.Mabel Lowell Bishop, PhD, writesthat she is "in the swirl of an extrawartime teaching load and otherobligations." She is professor of biol-op-y and permanent chairman of thedepartment at Hood College, Maryland.1924J. Duncan Brite, AM, PhD '37, isassociate professor of history at UtahState Agricultural College, Logan.Rev. William A. Askew is ministerof the First Christian Church inSullivan, Illinois.1925William Garvey was assigned earlyin December as an assistant fielddirector for the American Red Crossat the Naval Air Station at Pasco,Washington. Recently dischargedfrom the United States Army AirForces, he was with Marshall Fieldand Company for thirteen years previous to entering the service.Ruth Edith Thomas, AM, PhD '35,is a full professor at the WesleyanConservatory at Macon, Georgia.Joseph Wayland Morgan, PhD,associate professor of chemistry, continues on the faculty of WittenbergCollege, Springfield, Ohio, where hehas been since 1927.Elsie Margaret Troeger directs thecafeteria at the La Grange highschool, LaGrange, Illinois.Katharine Curtis, Chicago AAUswim coach and originator of balletswimming at the Chicago Fair in1933, has drawn a unique assignmentin the American Red Cross. She isdirector of a beach club at picturesque Mondalo Bay near Palermo. APhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies tor All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueTELEPHONE HAYMARKET 4566OCALLAGHAN BROS., Inc.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEshambles of debris when the American Army first entered Palermo, thebeach club is now spick and span andsoldiers spend off-duty hours swimming and sailing around the pavilion.Formerly a physical education director in Chicago schools, she was director of a flyers' rest camp in Africaafter she made her original landinga year ap/o. Later she directed aservice club at Casablanca and wasthen transferred to her oresent post.Swimming is popular in sunny Sicilyand Mrs. Curtis finds her beach clubmobbed by nearly 2,000 soldiers everyday."Triplex" alumnus Simon Benson,SM '29, PhD '31, is working for theLee Foundation for Nutritional Research in Brookfield, Wisconsin. Ayear ago last August he had an autoaccident which laid him up for fivemonths, but he has completely recovered now, he writes.1926James E. Davis, AM '28, PhD '32,is head of the department of physiology at Oglethorpe Medical School, inOglethorpe, Georgia.Edmund H. Bremer, AM '35, continues as superintendent of schools inFennville, Michigan.1927Marion Wolcott, AM, is a seniorcataloger at the public library in thenation's capital.1928Glenn Kelly, AM, divides his timebetween the Chicago Jewish Academy, where he is principal, and teaching at Lake Forest College.Helen C. Williamson, AM '32,teaches the first grade at CornwellHeights School in Philadelphia.Hanna Elsa Krueger, AM '43, is atWestern Illinois State Teachers College, Macomb, as assistant librarianand instructor in library science.BOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.CADILLAC EQUIPMENT EXCLUSIVELYCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions9' 1929Eula Porter Robins, AM, is a nutritionist working for the Goodyear Tireand Rubber Company in Akron,Ohio.With the status of associate professor, Rena Mazyck Andrews, AM'29, PhD '33, has joined the facultyof Winthrop College, Rock Hill,South Carolina.Temple High School and JuniorCollege in Temple, Texas, has AuvalHester Brown, SM, on its teachingstaff.Ruth E. Montgomery has been ajunior visitor, working for the MasonCounty Department of Public Welfare in Havana, Illinois, for over twoyears.Isaac H. Miller not only teaches atLivingstone College, Salisbury, NorthCarolina, in the capacity of professorof education and chairman of thedivision of education and psychology,but directs and participates in theextension service of the College. Inaddition calls to civic responsibilitiesin the community have never yetelicited a "No" — and the calls havebeen many these days. ACMESHEET METAL WORKSGeneral Sheet Metal WorkSkylights - Gutters - SmokestacksFurnace and Ventilating Systems1 1 1 1 East 55th StreetPhone Hyde Park 9500Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or—Wasson Does1930Martha Johnson, PhD '33, has beenappointed head of the division ofanalytical chemistry of General FoodsCorporation's central laboratories atHoboken, N. J., it was announced recently. She joined General Foods asa chemist in 1934 following a periodof service as chemist in the bloodchemistry laboratory and basal metabolism unit of the PresbyterianHospital in Chicago.SOCIOLOGISTS AT THE BREAKFAST TABLETwenty-five persons attended the University of Chicago breakfastat the McAlpin Hotel in New York City on December 5 during themeeting of the American Sociological Society. Talks were made byLouis Wirth on "Changes in the Department at the University ofChicago"; by Scudder Mekeel on "Studies in Race Prejudice"; byFrederic M. Thrasher on "Curbing Youth Delinquency in a HighGrade Neighborhood"; by Philip M. Hauser on "Special Reports ofSociological Interest from the 1940 Census"; and by Ralph Lewison "Experiences of a Private in the Army."From the University were Hubert Bonner^ J. J. Williams, LouisWirth, '19, AM '25, PhD '26, and Ernest W. Burgess, PhD '13.Others at the breakfast with their present connections included:Manuel C. Elmer, PhD '14, Uni- Simon Marcson, '36, AM '41,versity of PittsburghRobert Faris, '28, AM '30, PhD'31, Syracuse UniversityClarence Glick, AM '29, PhD'38,, O.W.I.Oswald Hall, '39, Brown UniversityPhilip M. Hauser, '29, AM '33,PhD '38, U. S. Bureau of theCensusLloyd G. Allen, '38, Army AirForcesGisella L. Cahnman, Fisk UniversityWerner J. Cahnman, Fisk UniversityLyford P. Edwards, '05, AM '17,PhD '19, Columbia UniversityRalph Lewis, '32, War Department Pennsylvania State CollegeWyatt Marrs, AM '18, Universityof OklahomaScudder Mekeel, AM '29, JuliusRosenwald Fund, University ofWisconsinVera Miller, '38, AM '40, Amalgamated Clothing Workers'UnionJohn H. Mueller, PhD '38, Indiana UniversityArnold Rose, '38, AM '40, WarDepartmentCaroline Rose, War Labor BoardSvend Riemer, Cornell UniversityShirley Star, '39, War DepartmentFrederic M. Thrasher, AM '18,PhD '26, New York UniversityC. C. Van Vechten, PhD '35,O.P.A.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29IF YOU are a fast reader perhaps we can overtake HelenHiett, '34, since she left the Midway. If you tire easily and aretempted to drop out along theparagraphs, we'll tell you now thatin April Helen's first book, NoMatter Where, will be off the E. P.Dutton presses — adding anothervolume to our alumni-author library at Alumni House.Armed with a scholarship, HelenHiett left Pekin, Illinois, in the fallof thirty-one and moved in on ourbrand New Plan at Chicago. Supporting herself through free lancefeature writing for the ChicagoDaily News during the school yearand for her home town PekinDaily Times during summer vacations, Helen earned her degreefrom the Department of PoliticalScience in three short years. Shethen boarded a boat for Geneva,again with a scholarship in herbag.At Geneva she became researchassistant and helped edit theGeneva, monthly review of international affairs. In the summer of'37, using a German grandmotherto legitimatize her application,Helen Hiett was admitted to agirls' German labor camp, whichgave her plenty to talk about whenshe returned to the United Statesin the fall to make a six-months'lecture tour. NINE BREATHLESS YEARSWith the inevitable scholarshipshe entered the London School ofEconomics in 1938, but when warbroke over Poland she was inParis; and in January, 1940, sheslipped back into Germany for aquick look around. In April shereturned to the U. S. A.The day Germany attacked thelow countries, Helen Hiettdropped in at Radio City to visit afriend at N. B. C. The war wasspreading so fast that radio andnews services were losing theirminds trying to keep staff members on all fronts. When officialsat N. B. C. discovered in their offices a news-talented young ladywho knew her way around France,they had her on the next Clipper and Miss Hiett was soon broadcasting from" Paris. Making thelast radio report from France asthe Germans moved in, Helenjammed her way over highwayspacked with German armored columns and finally arrived in Spain,where she continued her broadcasts for the next nine months. Itwas while she was visiting Gibraltar on an assignment that shescooped the world on the bombardment of the Rock which wonher the National Headliner'sAward for the year 1940.In September of 1941, N. B. C.decided to bring her home wherethey assigned her to daily news-casting for the next eighteenmonths. There were more lecturetours, a period as guest lecturer ininternational relations at StephensCollege, a trip to Mexico, and hernew book, the galley proofs ofwhich she was correcting whilevisiting the Quadrangles early inJanuary. No Matter Where is thestory of young people from Greeceto California and their faith inthe kind of world for which weare fighting, told by a youngalumna who met them personallypractically no matter where. Helenwas rushing to pack her bag whenwe interviewed her. She left forNew York on January 14 with thatoverseas gleam in her eyes. It washer plan to be in Europe for thePhone: Saginaw 3202FRANK CURRANRoofing & InsulationLeaks RepairedFree EstimatesFRANK CURRAN ROOFING CO.8019 Bennett St.USHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS MSINCE I 9 O 6 * WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES' ++ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ++ ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE +iRAYNERiv' DALHEIM &CO. •_£OS4 w. LAKE ST., CHICAGO. 1931With the title of assistant dietitian,Bessie Alford, SM, is on the staff ofDePauw University.1932The appointment is announced ofRaymond Morgan, DB, as the deanof students and professor of religionat Lynchburg College, Lynchburg,Virginia.Donald Lowrie, PhD '42, is at DePauw University instructing in theNaval Flight Preparatory School.Charles Borst, who was a LaSalleStreet insurance broker even beforehe left the Quadrangles, has shortened his insurance hours in order tobecome a production control man forthe Goodman Manufacturing Company for the duration. Mrs. Borstwas Elizabeth Anne Jones, '33. Theylive at 6027 Kimbark Avenue withtheir two girls: Juliet Anne, 5/2, andMarcia Louise, 3i/2- As medical social worker for theAmerican Red Cross, Genevieve Len-sing, AM, is stationed at the U. S.Naval Hospital in Newport, RhodeIsland.Mary Catherine Welborn, PhD,holds the status of assistant professorat Wells College, Aurora, New York.Franklin C. MacKnight, PhD '38,is teacher of geology at Fenn College,in Cleveland. At present he is instructing soldiers for the most part.Jack L. Hough, SM '34, PhD '40,and Mrs. Hough (Alice E. Carlson,'32) have moved from Mt. Rainier,Maryland, to Woods Hole, Massachusetts, where Jack is with theWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution.Larry Schmidt works for the BengeAssociates of Chicago, managementengineers specializing in personnelproblems. He has done communityrate surveys for several large corporations — which takes him afield a30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P 2130STANDARDBOILER and TANK CO.524 WEST 42nd STREETTelephone BOUIevard 5886BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner. DirectorHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7798Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally reeognlzed as one «f the leading TeachersAgencies »f the United State*.QUICK TRAININGIntensive Courses to meet the needs ofindustry and government— Stenographic,Bookkeeping, Typing, Comptometry, etc.Day and Evening — Catalogue FreeBryant^ StrattonCOLLEGE18 S. Michigan Ava Tel. Randolph IS75HARRY EENIGENBURG, Jr.STANDARDREADY ROOFING CO.Complete Service10436 TelephoneS. Wabash Ave. Pullman 8500 good deal, getting him home buttwice a month to the family in Knoxville, Illinois. The family consists ofhis wife, Felice Barrett '29, son Peterwho is five, and daughter Norma,three.Lowell S. Hebbard is back on thecivilian front, resuming his work withthe Inland Lime and Stone Companyin Manistique, Michigan. An oldsinus condition sent him back fromthe Army recently. In addition tohis regular job he is busy with bondsales and other wartime activities.1933Vivan Roberts, SM, PhD, '42, isprofessor and director of home economics at Ohio University in Athens.With an honorable discharge on acertificate of disability from theArmy after seventeen months of service, Bruce C. Scott has another position with Uncle Sam, this time working in the Department of Labor, withoffices in New York City. He writesthat he has returned to more usefulactivity than anything he did in themilitary service.. *On the faculty of De Paul University as professor of English, Cecil B.Williams, PhD, recently publishedIn Time of War. In sonnet form Mr.Williams has commemorated significant aspects of the war on the homefront or the wide-flung battle fronts —the events of Pearl Harbor, Bataan,the Java Sea, Midway, the Americantour of Mme. Chiang Kai-Shek, thedefense of Malta, etc.— totaling aseries of 76 wartime poems. Manyof his sonnets have appeared in theChicago Tribune's "Line O' Type"column. In addition to his poeticworks, Mr. Williams published in1939 an American novel entitledNick of the Woods, and in 1940 afreshman English text, in collaboration with A. H. Stevenson.1934Edwin S. Fletcher, Jr., PhD, is atechnical consultant and makes hishome in Dayton, Ohio.1935Beth Hopp teaches at Kankakeehigh school in Kankakee, Illinois.Robert Diefendorf makes his homein Pittsburgh, where he is assistantcomptroller for the H. C. Frick CokeCompany.1936Benjamin Libet, PhD '39, is instructing in physiology at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.John Tanner, SM, left the researchstaff at Solar Aircraft in San Diegoa year ago to become metallurgist forCentral Metals in Los Angeles, oper ating the fifth largest aluminumextrusion mill in the country. Mr.Tanner's wife was Anne Rosenfield ofLos Angeles, and they have a daughter, Nina Winifred, born in SanDiego in March of 1942.Having taken a PhD in zoology atPennsylvania, Floyd Wiercinski, SM'38, is instructing in general physiology and biology at the CatholicUniversity of America, Washington,D. C. The Wiercinskis now have afourteen months' old daughter, CarolElizabeth, who expects to see herdaddy in uniform soon.Joseph W. Harney, who was on thechemistry and science faculty of thehigh school in Harvey, Illinois, aswell as assistant class principal, andwho since 1941 has been a psychologist with the Chicago Police Scientific Laboratories, volunteered forArmy service in December and reported to Fort Sheridan on January13. Mr. Harney has been one of ourregional advisors since the start ofthat organization. His wife is a probation officer with the Juvenile Courtof Chicago.Since receiving his master's degreein 1941, life has been rather hectic forHarry Osterhart. Upon leaving thecampus he was in Chicago for over ayear as supervisor of map compilation for the Army Map Service of theWar Department. Last March hereceived an apDointment as instructoron the staff of our own geographydepartment, only to be draftedshortly afterwards. Rejected for service, he is settled — at least temporarily• — at the University of Missouri,where he takes hundreds of aviationstudent cadets of the Army AirCorps through introductory coursesin geography.1937Alice Ginsburg Thorner received amaster's degree from Columbia University in 1941 and is now living inWashington, where she works for theFederal Communications Commissionas communications analyst of the foreign broadcast intelligence service.Returning to his home town inWarrensburg, Frank Martin is teaching physics at Central Missouri StateTeachers College. Frank was thefamous first chair trumpeter of theU. of C. Band.Emma Louise Freyermuth is agrade teacher in the Buckingham,Illinois, public schools.Frances Oralind Triggs, AM, hasjoined the Social Security Board aspersonnel-methods consultant in thestate technical advisory service. Heroffices are in Washington, D. C.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31Paul J. Brand, SM, instructs in theArmy Air Forces program at FennCollege in Cleveland.1938When he returns to the UnitedStates next summer, Preston VanKolken, MD, will have spent threeyears as a medical missionary underthe Presbyterian Board in FrenchCameroun, West Africa. A firstchild, Robert Gayle, was born inWest Africa on July 16, 1943, to Dr.and Mrs. Van Kolken.1939Bernice Amspoker works for theNebraska Department of Assistanceand Child Welfare as a member ofthe field staff. Her headquarters arein Scottsbluff, Nebraska.Cora Frances Miller, MS '40, is agraduate assistant at Iowa State College at Ames.Kansas State College at Manhattan announces that A. M. Guhl, SM,PhD '43, has become instructor ofgeneral zoology.Jean Fortier, AM, answers to the"Please, Teacher" at WaukeganSenior High School, Waukegan.Miriam Fine, AM '43, divides hertime between teaching eighth gradepupils in Chicago and doing nightclerical work for the American RedCross.Lydia Katherine Mussman, MS, isteaching at Thornton Township highschool at Harvey, Illinois.1940Medical social worker Olive KrassKestin, AM, is a field director for theAmerican Red Cross, stationed at theOliver General Hospital in Augusta,Georgia.Joining the staff of the Universityof Minnesota, Edward J. Cronin,AM, is instructor of English.It has been announced by Englewood Evening Junior College thatBeatrice Cohen, AM, has joined theirteaching staff.Vera Vaudella Kohlhoff, AM, hasbeen appointed superintendent ofschools at Stiekney, South Dakota.America Holbrook is employed aschild welfare consultant with thechild welfare division of the Kentucky State Welfare Department.Her territory covers the mountainregion of Eastern Kentucky. In thesame department is Geneva Hamby,former S.S.A. student, who works inAshland, Kentucky, under Mrs. Hol-wook's supervision.North of the border, at the De LaSalle College in Toronto, Thomas S.Powell, AM, teaches English. . Samuel M. Strong, PhD, recentlyjoined the faculty of Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, where hewill be professor of sociology as wellas chairman of that department.Dolores F. Moore, SM, has a newappointment as assistant dietitian andassistant professor of nutrition at Me-harry Medical College in Nashville.She finds her work as consultant inthe metabolic and pediatric clinicsmost interesting.1941"Please extend an invitation to allChicago alumni to call, stop by, orwhat have you when passing throughLos Angeles," writes Charles Sainsbury. He is with the Hughes Aircraft Company in Culver City, California, and we hope some of hisfriends will accept his invitation.With the new year, Bernice Glick-son, AM '42, began teaching Englishin the Chicago high schools.Margaret Wiesender, AM, is withChicago's Institute for Juvenile Research as a psychologist.Freshman and sophomore at Pennsylvania State College learn theirmathematics from John Kinney, SM.Isabel McNeill Carley, AM,teaches at Stephens College, Missouri.Bina Deneen House, AM, has beenappointed a substitute teacher atFarragut high school in Chicago.Maria Elizabeth Keen teaches atMount Clemens high school, MountClemens, Michigan.Joseph B. Gittler, PhD, has a newtitle and a new address, for he is nowhead of the sociology department atDrake University in Des Moines.1942As an economist with the WPB,Katharine Meyer now resides inWashington, D. C.James Montooth has joined thestaff of Vermont high school, Vermont, Illinois.Having survived a session of Oklahoma summer weather William T.Nelson and Lewis Drehman both continue as chemists, working on aviation gasoline out in Bartlesville,Oklahoma. Nelson writes: "Sincewe are job frozen, we can't enlist, butmust wait until appeal fails."John E. Tilton, AM, is a scienceteacher in the high school at Mat-toon, Illinois.Gerhard Kalisch, PhD, instructs atthe University of Kansas, Lawrence.With headquarters in Chicago,Beth Muller, AM, is field consultantin child welfare of the U. S. Children's Bureau, Department of Labor. RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 3192Ajax Waste Paper Co.2600-2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Any QuantityWaste PaperScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, Van Buren 0230La Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston — New York— Philadelphia— SyracuseECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKSeGalvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofinge1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Spode and Other FamousMakes. Also Crystal and GiftsGolden Dirilyte{Formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID— NOT PLATEDService for Eight, $41.75GOLDEN HUED BABY SPOONS fflWhile they last V* ta.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDiriqo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, III.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEdith J. LaPorte is in Washington,working as a junior economist in theresearch and analysis branch of therent department of the OP A.1943Ruth Schuetz is a statistical clerkon thejradio code research project ofthe psychological Corporation inChicago.Duluth State College has appointed John McConaughy, PhD,professor of social science.Eloise Witt is a junior clerk at theFirst National Bank in Chicago.Robert Zuck, PhD, is instructor ofbiology at Evansville College, Evansville; Indiana.Dion^sia Theodore, MBA, is teaching accounting at Thornton Fractional Township high school, Calumet Cify, Illinois.BIRTHSTo Sgt. Louis E. Shaeffer, '38, andMrs. Shaeffer, a daughter, PamelaOtt, on December 23, 1943. Proudfather reports: "Blue eyes, brownhair, chubby cheeks, 5 pounds 11ounces, 17 inches long, eats, sleeps,and increases Ivory soap flakes sales."The sergeant is stationed at CampFannin, Texas.To Harry Getty, '41, and JustineGetty, a son, David James, born onDecember 31, 1943, in Tucson, Arizona. Justine was secretary to Mr.Morgenstern and office manager during the University's Fiftieth Anniversary celebration. Her husband is now,in the anthropology department of theUniversity of Arizona.ENGAGEMENTSThe engagement is announced ofMarion June Salisbury, '39, to Donald G. Williamson. She is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Harry T. Salisbury of Chicago. Her fiance is agraduate of Dartmouth.On Thanksgiving day the engage ment was announced of LindleyParker, '43, to Ensign Horace White-house, both of Evanston. Lindley,who attended Connecticut Collegefor three years and took her fourthat the University, is the daughter ofLeslie Monroe Parker, '17, JD '18,and Mrs. Parker (Frances Richardson, '16). The prospective bridegroomwas graduated from NorthwesternUniversity's School of Commerce andAdministration last June and at thesame time received his commission inthe Naval Reserve. He is currentlyserving on a destroyer.MARRIAGESEmily J. Peterson, '37 to Donald J.Hughes, '36, PhD '40, on August 14,1943. They are both working for theMetallurgical Laboratory on campus,she as director of housing and recreation. They are at home at 6104Woodlawn Avenue and "would beglad to see old friends and hear fromthem."On July 30 in Chicago, BarbaraLewis, '40, to Paul W. Siever, MD'43. After interning at Michael ReeseHospital, Dr. Siever has returned tothe campus, as a member of the resident staff of Bobs Roberts Hospital.ENGLEWOODELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers ofELECTRICAL MATERIALS ANDFIXTURE SUPPLIES5801S. Halsted Street Englewood7500POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressoiraph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 Chicago GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3186ESTABLISHED 1908GROVEROOFINGFAirfax52066 ILL! LAND6644 COTTAGE GROVE Av^ROOFING and INSULATINGAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good- salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today. The Sievers are living at 5123 SouthKimbark.Dorothea A. Deffenbaugh, '40, toWilliam K. Anderson on September24, 1943. The Andersons are athome at 6912-C Rita Avenue, Huntington Park, California.Marion Jean Sallo, '41, AM '43, toLieut. Harold S. Levin, '39, MBA '40,on August 21, 1943. The Levins arenow at Pueblo, Colorado, where heis stationed as budget and fiscal officer at the Army Air Base.JoAnn Stewart Mitchell, '42, onNovember 27, 1942, to George H.Warfel. He is in the Navy with therank of lieutenant (j. g.). Their address is 30 Fifth Avenue, New YorkCity.Elizabeth Tyndal to Edward A.Evans, MD '42, on September 19,1943. Mrs. Evans is a registerednurse and he is assistant surgeon atthe Intermountain Clinic at Salt LakeCity, Utah, though he expects toenter the Army soon.Marie B. Keller to Gordon L.SchHck, MD '42, on June 26, 1943.At home: 5204 West Schubert Avenue, Chicago.DEATHSOn December 19, 1943, Lucy WaiteRobinson, '80, in Denver, at the ageof 83. Dr. Robinson, who was aphysician and surgeon, was the widowof Dr. Byron Robinson, a Chicagosurgeon, and daughter of the lateJudge Charles Burlingame Waite ofChicago. She left Chicago for Denversome fifteen years ago because of herhealth. She had studied in Germanyas well as at the University.Oscar Lee Hansen, MD Rush '97,on September 19, 1943, in Chicago.He was a retired physician and hadbeen ill for some years with a heartailment.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency61st YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579AlumniandReconversionAre you ready as Employers or Employeesto face the period of Reconversion which is inevitableat the close of the war?The Board of Vocational Guidance andPlacement at the University is equipped to serveall of you in your preparation for this period, butwe must have your cooperation. Industry, business,colleges, and school systems call upon us for welltrained University of Chicago Alumni.JVe suggest that you bring us up to dateregarding your further training, experience, andvocational aspirations so that we may assist you.This free service will be even more important to youduring the reconversion period. W e urge you to reregister with us now.The Board of Vocational Guidance and PlacementThe University of ChicagoRoom 215 Telephone Midway 0800Cobb Hall Extension 391,g