THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEMMHMAY 19 4 3LETTERSAFTER THE WAR—?Dear Sir:It is unnecessary to remind youthat I am an aged alumnus of theUniversity — Class of 1908. In spite ofremarks to the contrary, I believe thatalumni (and alumnae, of whom mywife is one) possess the privilege andobligation of keeping their eyes ontheir Alma Maters, and of freely making suggestions thereon.Every intelligent driver of an automobile knows that he must lookahead. Wise men believe that whilethe present world war is in progress,plans must be worked out for post-warsociety. Is it out of order to suggestthat alumni of the University of Chicago may well be thinking at oddmoments of what they believe shouldbe done (and not done) with, to,and in the University after the war isconcluded?Here are a few matters that mightbe thought about:(1) Do we wish to continue toargue that Harvard, Princeton, Yale,et al will in a few days begin to conferthe B.A. at the end of the sophomoreyear of college?(2) Do we want a football teamwhich will fill the bleachers of StaggField and bring in needed funds topay professors' salaries?(3) Should professors have a majorvoice in selecting their colleagues?(4) Is it desirable to have thirteendepartments with "acting chairmen"appointed for one year only?(5) Should a vigorous and effet-tive effort be made to educate collegefreshmen and sophomores, bothwomen and men, as to the virtues ofregular and frequent participation inphysical exercise — games, dances, etc.?(6) Are "comprehensive examinations," except one at the conclusionof the senior year on the subject ofconcentration, necessary or desirablefor "undergraduates" ?(7) What about "comprehensiveexaminations" for "high schooljuniors" ?This list is only a beginning, but itsuggests that there is plenty for intelligent and interested alumni to thinkand talk about.Sincerely yours,Wellington D. Jones, PhD '14Geography DepartmentUniversity of Chicago U. OF C IN P.R.Dear Sir:The bibliography on rural elementary education came just at the righttime. At present we are working ona reading program for rural teachersto be given during the month of Julyand your list of books has come invery handy. A hundred rural teachers and myself want to express ourappreciation of this valuable service.I take this opportunity to informyou that the Chicago Alumni Club ofPuerto Rico met in March for its annual reunion. At present we havefifty-two graduates in the island andwe count among our graduates thechancellor, the secretary of the Boardof Higher Studies, and the dean ofthe College of Arts and Science of theUniversity of Puerto Rico.The University of Chicago is atpresent a real leader in Puerto Ricaneducation.Yours truly,J. M. Rolan, '26Assistant Superintendent of SchoolsCayey, P. R.CALLING ALUMNI CHILDRENDear Sir:I note that many colleges includein their alumni news informationabout the children of alumni. Sincethat is always an early question whenalumni meet, why don't we do it? Ouralumni columns seem to be largelylimited to teaching positions — veryinadequate, I think, to be perfectlyfrank. Why not ask alumni for fullfamily news and war work of all?Also, for the earlier graduates, namesand ages of grandchildren? We'repretty much pleased about news ofthis kind of our contemporaries.Women like to know more about thework of the men other women marry.Yours truly,Ethel Pardee Beardslee, '99.Minneapolis, Minn.DAICHES DECLINEDDear Sir:The University of Chicago Magazine has been a source of greatpleasure to me during time spent as asoldier both in the States and here inNorth Africa. Like President Hutchins, I have been substituting experience for education. Unlike him Iknow that continued contact with theUniversity (to say nothing of twentyyears) will help to change this unfortunate condition.As a specific means of contributingto its high standard I suggest that the Magazine include articles, as formerly, by David Daiches. A monthlybook review, by him would providemuch enjoyment for all readers, andparticularly for those overseas whowould otherwise remain ignorant ofmany of these books.Sincerely,Arnold Hasterlik, '41Africa[We urged Mr. Daiches to write forthe Magazine again this year, but hedeclined with regret, as he anticipatedbeing recalled to England for warservice. Mr. Daiches left the University a month ago. — Ed.]THANKS AND CONGRATULATIONSDear Sir:I have just finished reading theApril issue of the alumni Magazineand I am sure that the various ableauthors will be pleased to hear thatI not only thoroughly enjoyed theirarticles but also agreed with them onehundred per cent.I was also somewhat disappointed.Apparently you do not as yet have myname on your list as one of the"boys" in the service, as my namedoes not appear among those listedas medical members of the Navy. Imust admit, however, that I do get"Private Maroon" and in my opinionthat makes up for any such slightdiscrepancy in your service file. Justto give you a little news I will try togive you a thumbnail sketch of my recent movements.I entered the Navy in 1939 andspent my first year at the BrooklynNaval Hospital gathering naval loreand surgical basic training. Fromthere I immediately put to sea on a"tin can." I was to ride three different destroyers before coming to reston a Navy tanker.I rapidly learned that a medicalofficer at sea did almost everythingelse on board ship except practicemedicine. To those now in the service there need be no explanation ofwhat is meant by ship's service officer,mess treasurer, welfare officer, andafter the outbreak of war, communication watches. Aside from setting afew fractures and performing an appendectomy at sea — no medical officer in the Navy is complete withoutone — I spent my "leisure" time withthe extracurricular activities.This tanker carried me about foralmost twenty months during whichtime I think I saw every drop ofwater in the Atlantic. We had onevery peculiar habit. We always wentnorth for the winter and south for the(Continued on inside back cover)THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONCHARLTON T. BECKEditor HOWARD W. MORT and BEATRICE J. WULFAssociate EditorsDON MORRIS, CODY PFANSTIEHL Contributing Editors HARRY SHOLLAssistant EditorTHIS MONTHTHE COVER: A picture of CobbHall through the archway of BondChapel. The fire escape leads fromBlake Hall, at present housing Armyengineering students. (Photo by LouisC. Williams.)ONE of the student editors of theLaw Review, Sylvester Petro,was asked to speak at a farewell dinner of the Law School marking theentry of some fifteen members of theschool into the armed services. So impressive were his brief remarks thatit was suggested we pass them on toyou from his original script. (Seefacing page.)NEIL JACOBY in "When theUnited States Faces Peace"scans the probable assets and liabilities on the balance sheet of our industrial giant when it must beginproduction of a new order of goods —the goods of peace. Mr. Jacoby issecretary of the University and professor of finance in the School ofBusiness.IN HIS recent talk on "Educationfor Freedom," given before theCitizens Board of the University,President Hutchins recommends thateducators educate until their pupilsreach the age of eighteen. "Let thearmed forces after that age give such TABLE OF CONTENTSMAY, 1943PageWhen the United States FacesPeaceNeil H. Jacoby 3Education for FreedomRobert M. Hutchins 7Reflections in RetirementFrederick Stephen Breed 10The Dean's Easy ChairGordon J. Laing 12Reunion Program 16News of the QuadranglesDon Morris 18News of the Classes 22TIEDto your finger, wehope, is a stringANDit should remindyou that theTIMEis short for making your gift tothe Alumni FundbeforeJUNE 12 military and technological training asthey require. This simple programdemands no sensational changes."THERE is great danger that theretired professor, once he's castadrift, will float away from the campus and disappear in the flotsam andjetsam of civilization beyond the college walls. You can't blame him,therefore, if he occasionally gives outsounds indicative of continued, evenif somewhat suspended animation. Indeed, those on the staff still afflictedwith a measure of youth might profitby a message from the 'beyond' asfrom a foretaste of things to come,"mused Associate Professor EmeritusBreed of the education department.And so "Reflections in Retirement"came to pass.WE HOPE to see you duringreunion week. For the complete program, see pages 16-17.ALL is not as somber on the Midway as it may at first appear,so says Don Morris in his News ofthe Quadrangles. He offers one ortwo illustrations of what he considersthe lighter side of wartime life at theUniversity.WAS there ever such heartlesscynicism as evidenced in whathappened to Dean Laing in the oculist's office!Published by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue,Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 35 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago,Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of theUniversity of Chicago Magazine.4^cdo} & ^ty ^S&^ jrf&C ^ /**/£*(/ <U*LUs # M,j &* <o«*pc*. ^7-~of.'/Surf' flUtc it, jtw^fr 4, sxz-a&yr fcvtdlfce , Jf&ouu&at/~&ctu<a/l Jsnu. /?tc*o*6 jUe*£ 4*?#£> AfiffuuttSj #e/ ,4* 4&t>t£. j& <ue.-£*£> £*" £nu. ^ a& /ax&x; £ &, 6te**c* j&<uae&^£<dt4c*CJt~ c* €£* 4&U0HU4C O? tftct, #c *£>*Us.JawM/ci&j 2«&tt£. Jrfi*-*¦|—MBa^1m&wdr&eiJfc\^eifcVOLUME XXXV THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 8MAY, 1943WHEN THE UNITED STATESFACES PEACE• By NEIL H. JACOBY, Ph.D. '38The erstwhile Napoleons ofEurope and Asia will havebeen vanquished, but .NOWADAYS a good deal of talking and writing isbeing done about the state of the nation whenpeace comes. My reason for venturing to addto the wisdom now being so freely dispensed is to callattention to these points that deserve high emphasis in anydiscussion of this subject. Peace with victory will presentthe United States with an inspiring opportunity for worldleadership. Our position will in many respects resemblethat of Britain after the Napoleonic wars. We shall satisfactorily solve the immediate post-war problems of reconverting our economic system to peacetime production.But we stand in grave danger of failing to maintain a freesociety in the years that follow, simply because we lackan understanding of basic social problems. Mass education of bur people in the liberal tradition provides the onlyhope of ultimate success in reconstructing the post-warworld. In this enterprise the private universities mustaccept the responsibility of leadership.Whatever the length of this war, the United States willat its end confront a situation that can lead graduallyeither to fortune or disaster. At war's end the people ofthe United States will themselves elect which course theyshall take. Indeed, we are beginning to make that choicenow by selecting particular methods of organizing andfinancing the war and by making certain kinds of postwar plans.Strange to say, this view of the nation's destiny is notgenerally held today. Members of the public, to saynothing of the experts, are now divided into two schoolsof opinion on post-war American conditions. One schoolholds that the nation will be plunged into prolonged anddeep depression, accompanied by chronic unemploymentfrom which it will only be rescued by adoption of anAmerican brand of collectivism. The other school teachesthat unparalleled prosperity awaits us, lasting perhaps for a generation, and that the only serious danger to expect is a boom that will bring uncomfortable after-effectsto the next generation. Recently we have observed manydepartures from the post-war depression school and anequal number of new enrolments in the post-war prosperity school. This would be an occasion for rejoicing ifwe did not at the same time perceive that, while theydiffer in their conclusions, both schools proceed on thesame pessimistic assumption. This is the assumption ofeconomic determinism, the fatalistic view that whatevercomes to American society is inevitable. Members of bothschools talk as though at war's end the people will beblessed or cursed by forces beyond their control.The fact is that the political and economic situation ofthis country when hostilities cease can either give rise toa long-term growth of economic welfare and politicaldemocracy; or it can nurture economic disease and cumulative political disintegration. At war's end there willbe powerful tensions in American life. Our economicand political potential will be high. It will require apublic intelligence more penetrating, a public self-restraintmore rigorous than American society has yet displayed toguide these dynamic forces wisely. Yet the power todetermine our national destiny is ours. We are thearchitects of our fate. Piece by piece we are now buildingthe political and economic situation and the intellectualattitudes we shall possess at war's end. To a considerableextent to the public actions of every wartime day shapeconditions on armistice day. The post-war economic andpolitical constitution of the world will not spring full-grown, like Minerva out of the brain of Jupiter, from somefuture peace conference. That constitution is beingframed now, each time an important public issue isdecided.Let me illustrate. Each time Congress approves of warfinance measures that allow mounting billions of dollarsto remain in consumers' pockets, the danger rises that thereservoir of buying power upon which business enterpriserelies for motive power during the post-war transitionperiod will disappear in a puff of inflationary smoke.This threatens the ability of a free economy to survive.34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEach time a decision is made in Washington to conserveresources for war by denying them altogether to certainbusinesses, instead of first simplifying and eliminating nonessential uses of resources from all industries, the problemof post-war transition to a free economy is rendered moreintractable. Should Congress fail in June to renew thepower of the President to make reciprocal trade treaties, itwould be establishing a precedent — a most disastrous one— for dealing at the peace table with the enormous problems of international trade. Inevitably, the first steps inwinning the peace will be taken before the war is won.In many respects it is true that after this war theUnited States will stand in the same position as Britainin 1815. The erstwhile Napoleons of Europe and Asiawill presumably have been vanquished. Though materially and spiritually poorer, this country will probablyemerge from the war still the richest and most influentialnation of the world. Our past and potential enemies willhave been exhausted to the point where they cannotthreaten American security for years. Like Britain acentury ago, America will occupy a position rarelyachieved by a nation. It will be able to set internationalmoral and ethical standards and to erect world economicguide lines for a generation or more to come. It willstand at the threshhold of amazing advances in thetechnology of industry and transportation. It will holdsuch leadership in quantity of capital equipment andknowledge of technology as to be invulnerable to foreigncompetition in most lines, and notably in the making ofmetals and machinery.Yet, as was true in Britain a century ago, the directionthat our world leadership should take at war's end will notbe clear to our people. The opportunities and responsibilities it will present may not even be apparent. Forthere will be perplexing domestic problems to solve, justas the Napoleonic wars left Britain a legacy of difficultsocial issues. As then, an agricultural depression willcome to plague our people as the artificially high wartimedemands for food disappear. As then, wage rates will notdecline proportionately. American farmers will not beable to complain at this war's end, as did their Scottishbrothers in 1815, that the daily wages of a farm laborerhad ceased to equal the price of a peck of oatmeal, andhad reached the outrageous level of two pecks! But ourfarm "parity" relations are in danger of being just asseverely disturbed as those of post-Napoleonic Britain.The modern counterparts of Owenism and Chartism willdoubtless rise in America to offer collectivistic solutionsto these difficulties. A post-war analogue of the Toryparty of Napoleonic Britain will assuredly plead thevirtues of the corn laws, higher tariffs, and economicautarchy. The internal stresses and the internationalpower of post-war America will be cut to a grander scalethan that of post-Napoleonic Britain; but the opportunityfor statesmanship will be proportionately larger.As a convenient method of relating the factors in thesituation, let us for the moment compare the United States as it will probably appear on that new armistice daywith a huge and complicated business enterprise. It willbe an enterprise that has just completed the largest orderin its experience. It must now quickly convert itself tobegin production on a vast new order for goods of a different kind — the goods of peace. Let us scan the balancesheet of this industrial giant as it begins the process ofconversion. What are the principal assets and liabilitieswith which the new task will be undertaken?On the asset side of the national ledger would appearthese political and economic values :First, a working force of about sixty-two million persons, including over ten million demobilized soldiers, thelargest and best trained in the history of the business.Second, an industrial plant whose value (less depreciation) is of the order of $70 billions, an amount one-third greater than during the last pre-war year 1939.A quarter of this plant will be utterly modern and willutilize the latest technologies of production.Third, a large reservoir of cost-cutting productiontechniques, new materials, and new consumer products,developed in laboratory, pilot plant, and on drawingboard during the war, and never before commerciallyexploited for peacetime uses.Fourth, an enormous accumulation of demand fordurable and semi-durable consumer goods, backed up byat least $40 billions of liquid assets held by the public inthe form of government bonds and bank deposits.Fifth, demands for billions of dollars' worth of producer goods by foreign countries desiring either to replacecapital destroyed or worn out during war or to completetheir own industrialization. Unlike the domestic demandfor consumer goods, many of these orders will have to besold on credit.Sixth, less tangible but not less potent an asset will be apopular desire for economic and political freedom, stemming from the irksome nature of wartime restraints onoccupation and on consumption habits.The political and economic assets on the national war-end balance sheet form an impressive total. With a biggerand better plant and personnel and with larger cash andcredit orders on hand than ever before, it would appearthat the United States ought to move into a highly prosperous period. But as any accountant will tell you, allasset values have countervailing liabilities. A more soberview must be taken of the national condition at war's endwhen one contemplates these political and economic liabilities. The tangible liabilities on the balance sheet arelarge enough, but I fear that the spiritual and intellectualliabilities may be of more critical importance. They willinclude :First, the liability of demobilizing the nation, a staggering task of finding jobs promptly for twenty millionwar workers who will cease making arms, ten millionyoung men released from the armed forces and enoughother persons to equal nine million more individuals thanever worked before.THE UNIVERSITY O FNEIL H. JACOBYSecond, the liability to recondition for civilian life theunknown but large number of crippled, frustrated, anddisillusioned persons that war never fails to produce.Third, the critical danger that the people will clamorfor premature abandonment of wartime price, rationing,wage and job-freezing controls before reconversion to apeace economy has been completed, thus inducing a wilddislocation of prices with incalculable losses of socialstability.Fourth, the contingent liability that Americans still willnot know the conditions of maintaining an enduring freesociety, and that as a result of our ignorance we shall failto establish an environment in which free enterprise cancreate and maintain the high levels of employment andproductivity that will be required.Fifth, the contingent liability that war will not havetaught us that freedom in the movement of capital, goods,and people across the oceans and continents of the worldis an essential prerequisite to durable peace — if not of ourown material prosperity— and that as a result we shall goon building new tariffs, import quotas, exchange restrictions, export cartels, and the other weapons in the arsenalof economic warfare whose use led directly to the presentworld struggle.Collectively, our national liabilities at war's end givepause for thought. Considered even in the light of ourlarge economic assets, they give rise to serious doubtwhether the United States will be prepared to lead theworld to higher moral and material levels during thetwentieth century. So far we have displayed so littleunderstanding of our domestic problems that our fitness tocope successfully with an increased range of world problems is at least open to question. But we may take CHICAGO MAGAZINE 5comfort from the fact that our enemies have done muchworse. In any event, the reality of the post-war problemscannot be doubted, and our responsibility for facing themcan hardly be avoided. How, then, can we conduct thenational business between now and war's end in order tobe in as favorable a position as possible to discharge theheavy obligations that will begin to fall due on armisticeday?Primarily, the task is one of recognizing the errors irpre-war American economic and political goals andpolicies, and of formulating post-war goals and policiesfree from those errors. Underlying such formulationsthere must be a new conscience and a new intelligence inapproaching social problems.The coming of peace will present two kinds of problems to the United States, one of which will succeed theother in time. First, there will be the problems of reconversion of a totalitarian wartime economy to a democraticpeacetime economy in which individuals enjoy a largemeasure of freedom. Then there will come the problemsof maintaining this free society over the years after therepercussions of war have passed.I have considerable confidence that the painful periodof post-war reconversion of the American economy willsomehow be passed without disaster. My confidencesprings from a belief that people generally will recognize the public issues involved, and will understand andsanction use of appropriate measures to deal with them.Yet one cannot minimize the agonizing difficulties of thisperiod. Let me raise a few leading questions. Should allof the billions of dollars of war contracts be instantlycancelled on armistice day, or should some be continuedto keep people at work? Should all wartime controls ofbusiness inventories and production be abandoned immediately, or should they be continued in some instancesto prevent a raw material price inflation? How shouldthe government get rid of the mountainous supplies ofstocks of war materials it will possess? Should the government sell its many convertible war plants to privatebusiness? Should it let manufacturers trade-in old plantsfor new ones and wreck the obsolete productive capacity?Or should it hold an ever-normal arsenal of war plants asstand-by capacity to meet future emergencies? This is aparticularly intricate problem in the aircraft industry.There will be enough airplane engine plant capacity inChicago alone to supply the entire peacetime demands ofthe United States even on the most optimistic forecastof commercial air transportation. Who will decide andhow will they decide which of the large airplane engineplants in the regions of Chicago, Hartford, Los Angeles,Detroit, and elsewhere shall be closed or converted? Is itwiser deliberately to hold men in the armed forces and todemobilize them gradually than to turn them into thelabor market as quickly as possible? Should the connections between war industry workers previously frozento their jobs be "thawed out" promptly? Should wagecontrols be relaxed at war's end? What of commodityprice controls and consumer rationing? Will it be feasible6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto retain maximum prices for goods without retainingwage controls? How can the government positively stimulate reconversion to peacetime pursuits? Should it reduce business taxes to widen profit margins and stimulatenew investment? Ought it to pay generous unemployment allowances to those moving to new jobs? Shouldit give the individual taxpayers some relief? The averageAmerican will have to know the correct answers to all ofthese questions when the United States faces peace. Forhe is the person who will say what policies shall befollowed.Conceding safe passage of the nation through post-warreconversion, I find it hard to be hopeful that the nationwill work out wise solutions to the intricate problems ofmaintaining the free society over the long pull. Thereason is that there is little public understanding of theissues at stake. It is clear that individual enterprise —traditionally the prime mover of the American economyand the bulwark of a free society — will be permitted tocontinue only if that system maintains high levels ofemployment and production. For the public will neveragain tolerate prolonged and large-scale unemployment.It will embrace collectivism rather than cling to an ailingliberalism. Now there can be no doubt that Americansplace a high value upon economic liberty and opportunity.There is general agreement on our political and economicgoals. The public opinion polls attest this fact. But isthe average American prepared to accept the publicpolicies that alone make possible full employment underfree, private enterprise? Does he see the conflict betweenhigh levels of employment and production for the nationat large and the short-run advantages of special groups.Does he realize that wages may sometimes be too high forfull employment ; that bargaining to raise them maysometimes reduce the standard of living of the workers as a group by causing unemployment? Does he comprehend that taxes may fall so heavily upon the sourcesof venture capital and incomes derived from risk-taking,as to dry up new investment and the jobs it creates?Does he grasp the fact that tariffs designed to protectcertain manufacturers or farmers may limit the prosperity of the nation as a whole? Is he able to thinkthrough the effects of a given public policy, beyond itsimmediate repercussions in his own community, his owncraft, or his own trade association, and weigh its ultimateconsequences for the nation?Consider, for a moment, current public discussions ofpost-war international arrangements. In the grandioseplans now being offered for international political organizations, one seeks in vain for specific proposals to freeinternational trade from the heavy bonds it has bornesince the first world war. Are the international politicaltheorists so naive as to believe that post-war plans canavoid contact with the material problems of human relationships? Or are they in fact unready to discardnationalistic economic armament? They would do wellto recall that a nation unwilling to trade freely with itsneighbors is unlikely to live with them long on friendlyterms. The protectionist is the real isolationist. He maydiscourse piously on the brotherhood of man. He mayvoice concern for the lack of closer political union betweennations. He may erect imposing schemes for superstates, hemispheric states, or world federations. Butunderneath this protective coloration he is still an isolationist. His views should not be taken seriously if he isunwilling to see the United States shed its economicarmor after the war — both for fighting internal civil warsbetween states and pressure groups and for fighting external wars with other commercial powers. In the post-(Concluded on page 21)r>A\<i*f/3RECEIVED of%~**/ (flto\^o*ythe Sam <£rf\*t~T7^fo-^/>*o4Z,fy }Vfor the Uie and Service of<&e State of Maficbufills-Bty, andin Behalf of faid State, I do hereby promue and oblige myjclfin die-"<5&e of TreaTurer, to repay w UM'.'fiM." '.,. Bearer, Hy the^TSay of Mareb, A. D. tj8i, & afortfiSdwitn intcteir ymjmiij.i w *w(/./(ffM j Witncfs my Hand'.rtnt/mrei: ?y*v.7/Nftrf*y:«KP This old war bond, issued bythe "State of the MassachusettsBay" to help finance the Revolutionary War was recently acquiredby the University.The bond was issued by a committee which included John Adamsand Benjamin Franklin, and wasprinted from plates engraved byPaul Revere. It is dated 1 777 andis made in the sum of 24 pounds,7 shillings.At the University, 166 yearslater, students are purchasing current war bonds at the rate of$2500 a month, employees over$25,000 a month.EDUCATION FOR FREEDOM• By ROBERT M. HUTCHINSRes' unce to militarytraining program purelycoincidentalTHE effect of the war on higher education dependsupon its length. If the war were to end tonight,the order of the day would be, "As you were." Thecolleges and universities would have larger numbers ofstudents for a while; but in all other respects they wouldinstantly revert to the status quo ante bellum. Nothingin this remark is to be taken as implying that I would liketo prolong the war in order to secure improvements ineducation.The official policy of the government, however, assumes that the war will be long. In the field of universitywork this is reflected in the long-term programs of research now being elaborated from coast to coast and insuch provisions for specialized training as the defermentof pre-medical students for a period which cannot beshorter than five or six years. If the war is long, thefuture of education is another story.Every consideration of higher education in this countrymust start from the proposition that all the able-bodiedboys in the United States will be taken into the armedforces almost immediately after reaching the age ofeighteen. But the average age of the American freshmanhas been eighteen. There are 1,072 colleges awarding thebachelor's degree and more than 600 junior colleges offering the work of the freshman and sophomore years. TheArmy and Navy have now selected some 488 colleges anduniversities out of 1,700 to participate in their basic training programs. Other institutions have leased all or partof their establishments on a boarding-house basis. Theyhave gone out of education, in whole or in part, for theduration. The rest, which are not in a position to leasetheir facilities and are not qualified to take part in themilitary and naval basic training programs, must gradually disappear at least until after the war is over, unlessthey can eke out their existence through the fees paid bywomen and 4F's.The 488 institutions in which the armed forces will conduct training programs at the freshman level through theacademic staffs of the colleges will not look anything likecolleges. The men will be in uniform, under militarydiscipline, following a course of study laid down by theArmy or Navy, and submitting to examinations preparedand graded by them. They will be taught for ninemonths by the faculty of the college to which they are assigned. The curriculum will be severely restricted tophysics, mathematics, and chemistry, with about aquarter of the time devoted to history, geography, andEnglish. At the end of nine months the men will eitherreturn to troops, proceed to officers' candidate schools,or go on in some branch of technical study of interest tothe armed forces.When we reflect that less than a third of our institutions will be engaged in these programs, and that notmore tfian 15 per cent of our youth will pass throughthem, and when we examine the nature and aim of thecourse of study proposed, we are justified in saying thathigher education as we have known it is the first majorcasualty of the war.To estimate the importance of this casualty we mustconsider what we are gaining and what we are losing.We are gaining some important contributions to thetheory and practice of education. For the first time inour history education after high school will be limited tothose who have ability. For the first time the studentswill be selected on the basis of merit alone. They willbe paid to go to college. Heretofore the length of theeducation of the young American has been determined bythe prosperity of his parents. I am sorry to have to tellyou that it has never been established that there is anyrelation between a boy's intelligence and the income of hisparents.The men in the Army basic training program will beon a fifty-four-hour week, as compared with the sixteen-hour week which my classmates and I enjoyed at Yale.The Army has made it clear that the men sent to collegeare sent there to study and not to provide the public withgladiatorial spectacles on Saturdays. They are to prepare themselves to be soldiers and not men-about-town.The Army has the idea that soldiering is serious business.If, and this is a very big if indeed, the examinationsgiven nationally are examinations which test the intelligence of the student on the one hand and the teachingability of the instructor on the other, we shall have forthe first time some notion of what a good student is, whata good college is, and which students and colleges arebetter or worse than others. Under the prevailing system,according to which the student takes an examinationgiven by the teacher who has taught him, about all weknow about a successful student is that he has made acareful study of the teacher. Colleges are rated by thepublic according to the standing of their football teams,by the more sophisticated according to the size of theirendowments and buildings, and by esoteric educationalcircles according to the number of books in the library78 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand of Ph.D.'s on the staff. If the Army and Navy canbe induced to give examinations which reflect the trueaims of education, they can do more in a year to establishan educational system devoted to those aims than we havebeen able to accomplish in the last fifty. If, on the otherhand, the examinations are simply the lowest commondenominator of education as we have known it, the Armyand Navy will fasten mediocrity on the educational system by inhibiting initiative, independence, and experiment.These are the possible gains from the institution of thecollege training programs of the armed forces. The lossis the loss of education. I do not mean that we are losingcolleges. We are losing them, but they are not a greatloss. We are losing scientific education; we are losingeducation in economics, politics, history, and law; weare losing education in philosophy, literature, and the finearts; and we are losing the education that the liberal artscollege used to stand for, which in its vague, inadequate,and attenuated way it stands for still, and that is liberaleducation, education that fits men to be free.The only professions of interest to the Army are medicine, dentistry, and engineering. All other professionaldisciplines except divinity, which enjoys a special dispensation, will be swept away for the duration. A few officers and men will be trained in some fields of the humanities and the social sciences for military police duty inforeign parts. A few will be trained in psychology for thepersonnel service of the Army. Apart from these distinctly minor ventures, little provision is being made,above the basic training period of nine months, to haveanybody study anything but natural science, medicine,dentistry, and engineering. And above the basic training program of nine months the study of physics, chemistry, and mathematics themselves is remitted to the engineering schools. I have the highest respect for theseschools; they turn out men with great technical proficiency. But their warmest admirers have never claimedthat they were notable for their breadth of educationalvision or that the progress of science could safely be leftin their hands. They take the findings of the pure research worker in the physical sciences and apply them.For the long future of science it is imperative that youngscientific workers be trained not in engineering schools,but in departments of pure science. Otherwise the physicalsciences will dry up at the source. Since the pure scientistsare now busily engaged in war research; since they arebeing moved away from their students to research problems at other institutions; and since the Army proposesto limit advanced instruction in the physical sciences tothe engineering schools, we must hope, in the interest ofscience, that the war will be a short one. And since thenatural sciences are concerned only with the material conditions of existence, we may hope that some way will befound whereby some few people may study the humanities and the social sciences, through which we may expectto learn not how to live but how to live well. We could stand the loss of the humanities and the social sciences much better if we could save liberal education. Liberal education, education for freedom, shouldgive a man enough insight into natural science, socialscience, and the humanities to prevent him from becoming a technically trained robot. It should give himenough of such insight to equip him to be a free memberof a free society, even though it could not prepare him tobe a profesor of philosophy.The number of boys in the Army and Navy basic training programs is likely to be something like 150,000, or,on a comparable basis, about one-third of the numberwho were in college before the war; and they will be incollege for only nine months. But even the one-third whowill go to college for nine months will not go there for aliberal education. They will go there for military training. The Army and Navy would be the first to tell youthat their activities will have to be judged not as education but as military training. If the Army and Navyinclude college mathematics and physics in their scheme,it is because these subjects are necessary to the kind ofofficers and enlisted men required in technical branchesof the armed forces. If they insist on history, geography,and English, it is because every soldier has to know howto read a map in order to find his way about and how toread a paper in order to understand written commands.History is there because every soldier ought, for the sakeof his morale, to know something of the country andconstitution he is seeking to preserve. The Army makesno secret of the fact that it deplores the necessity of including history, geography, and English, and quite properly takes the view that if the high schools of the countryhad done their job the Army would not now have to instruct high-school graduates in reading and writing and inthe elementary facts about the past and the territory ofthe United States. In short, the collegiate training program of the armed forces is not designed to fit men to befree; it is designed to fit them to fight. Any resemblancebetween this training program and liberal education ispurely coincidental.We need have few fears that we shall not have enoughtechnicians to win the war. In addition to those turnedout by the schools in the past generation, the armedforces are producing them, in and out of the educationalsystem, by the hundreds of thousands. What we shouldfear is that we shall not have enough people who canthink. It is a vain hope that we can win the war withoutthinking or that a few thinkers can direct millions ofrobots to victory. A liberal education should be the possession of every American soldier, if only because he willbe a better soldier if he knows how to think.For liberal education is the best education for war aswell as for peace. The narrowly trained specialist whodoes not understand what he is doing or why and whocannot meet unexpected situations is a greater menace in this war than he has been in any other. Thereason is that in this war greater reliance is placed on theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9initiative and independence of the individual soldier thanever before. It is precisely the object of liberal educationto develop the power to think and to meet unexpectedsituations.Leland Stowe, writing from Moscow on September 16,says, "In America we have been concentrating on givingour boys plenty of weapons and also the world's finestuniforms and best chow that soldiers anywhere on theglobe get today. That's all very fine. But are we spending half as much time, thought, and energy putting thoseother, invisible weapons into the minds and hearts of ourfighting men?" It is the object of liberal education to putthose other, invisible weapons into the minds and heartsof our fighting men.Neither the British nor the Canadians have been sweptoff their feet by the hysterical notion that the only education appropriate to wartime is one designed to producelow-grade mechanics. I am unable to discover that thecontent of British education has changed at all as a resultof the war. Charles Dollard of the Carnegie Corporationhas lately made a study of the effects of the war on Canadian education. He states his conclusion as follows : "Canada is still operating on the assumption that trainedminds are a natural resource and is still conscious of thefact that war presents problems which cannot be solvedwith a slide rule."We are rapidly sinking below problems dignifiedenough for a slide rule and are substituting fake militaryexperiences and imitation war work for education. Consider the advice now freely offered by the United StatesOffice of Education that the primary obligation of thehigh schools is to teach aviation, radio, and kindred subjects. And this at a time when the Air Force is complaining that the high-school graduates applying as cadetscannot read and write and do simple arithmetic, and theNavy is deploring the fact that the educational systemis failing to produce men who have developed such habits of clear and incisive thinking as the Navy demands inofficers. What all the branches of the service are entitledto expect from the educational system is exactly thesehabits of clear and incisive thinking plus a grasp of theintellectual techniques and the fundamental principlesnecessary to any further training and to the mastery ofunexpected situations. It is doubtful whether schoolswhich have not succeeded in teaching arithmetic shouldtry to teach aerodynamics.If, then, as many American boys as possible shouldhave a liberal education; if the Army cannot give it tothem; and if they are going into the Army at the age ofeighteen, it is obvious that they must get a liberal education before the age of eighteen. But we have been accustomed to think that this job could not be done before the age of twenty-two. We have felt that true education required no less than sixteen years of an individual's life,and that an organization consisting of an eight-year elementary school, a four-year high school, and a four-yearcollege was the only one through which we could give itto him. Now we have twelve years instead of sixteen.Can the job be done in twelve years? We know itcan because we are doing it at Chicago. For many yearswe have had a six-year elementary school, a four-yearhigh school, and a four-year college. It is a simple matter for us, by operating the college the year round, to givethe student a liberal education before he is called to thecolors. To the suggestion that we must be leaving outvery important studies indispensable to liberal educationwe reply, "Look at the curriculum." What we have leftout is the junk, the waste, water, and frivolity, that havedisfigured and distorted liberal education in this country.We have found that we have time in twelve years for liberal education if we remorselessly drive out of the courseof study everything which is not liberal education. Inthis twelve years we have no time for poultry-raising andsalesmanship. We have no time for vocational training.The vocation our graduates will follow is soldiering, andthe Army can train them for that better than we can.We can educate them better than the Army can.The vested interests of educators in certain types ofcourses and certain types of organization, the mistakendemands of industry that the schools should train itshands, the silly claims of silly parents that their childrenshould pass pleasantly from grade to grade whether theyhave learned anything or not — these long-standing afflictions of American education must fall before the overwhelming necessity that the war places upon us ofproducing an intelligent and informed citizenry and anintelligent and informed soldiery.It can be done. All that is needed is a fair division ofresponsibility between education and the armed forces.Let educators educate until their pupils have reached theage of eighteen. Let the armed forces, after that age,give such military and technological training as they require. This simple program demands no sensationalchanges. The Navy would have to abandon the pernicious practice of encouraging seventeen-year-old boys tovolunteer. The Army would have to give up any plans totamper with youths below the draft age. Educators wouldhave to devote themselves to education instead of tryingto sell the old patent medicine of vocational training, social prestige, and college life. These sacrifices seem slightin terms of the goal we are trying to reach. If we are towin the war, if we are to have a just and durable peace,if we are to be free, we must educate our people forfreedom.REFLECTIONS IN RETIREMENTBy FREDERICK STEPHEN BREEDHow young the world, ifGod s noblest workis manLONG ago, as historians reckon time, but only yesterday as geologists figure it, great glaciers from theArctic North projected their icy arms across theupper boundary of the United States and left the telltaletraces of their handiwork which the distinguished naturalist, Louis Agassiz, was later to decipher and explain. Outof the bed of Lake Michigan these moving masses of iceplowed and pushed and shoveled sand on a prodigiousscale, depositing on its southern shore ridge on ridge ofgiant hills known as the Indiana dunes. Today this dune-land, overgrown with trees and flowers, is a botanist'sglory, a geologist's delight, a vacationist's paradise. Andhundreds of Chicago's citizens, worn by the dust and dinof the great metropolis, have built them a cabin or acastle on a dune top, and so commune with nature whilethey commute to the famous "Loop." They have deserted the great open places for the great open spaces,out where the west begins.The heart of Mayor Kelly's city is fifty miles to thenorthwest by the road around the sweeping lake-shorecurve, but naturally much less as flies the crow. Of anevening clear, from a coign of vantage in the hills ofsand, one can watch the blinking of distant harbor lightsand traffic signals. And early in summer, if he is fortunate, he may observe the impressive skyline of the big badcity etched upon the surface of the sun as it slowly settlesbelow the horizon.How young the world must be, if the noblest work ofGod is man. In the face of man's aggressive culture all theother creatures of the earth are relentlessly pursued totheir last lines of defense. For them no alternative butcapitulate or die. And this is only the prologue to thehuman drama. As if to enact the play in all its completeness, carry it out to its logical end, there dawns the concept of the master race and the Prussian superman. Thedecadent English, the clumsy Russians, the pleasure-softAmericans, in natural course, must also be subordinatedor annihilated. Such, we are told, is "the wave of thefuture," the evolutionary trend, the new order. The lifeof reason is the life of the jungle, says the Fuehrer of theHerrenvolk. Myopic Darwinism, answer the democracies,and laugh with Mr. Disney in the rich raspberry strains ofDer Fuehrer's Face.In a world where homo sapiens has become the most FREDERICK S. BREEDdestructive animal, it is significant that there are stillregions where life goes on for other creatures quite unmolested; where tolerance takes the place of slaughter asan instrument of social advance; where homo sapiens ismore than a title of courtesy self-bestowed. Come withme in the dead of night on a drive from the nearest publicroad into the darkness of the dunes. As we roll acrossthe lowland, approaching the lakeside ridges at gas-rationspeed, the headlights suddenly frame a picture and thecar is silently eased to a stop. Two little folk of the forestappear in all their natural loveliness on the screen beforeus. The ringed tails and the dark masks they wear makeidentification unmistakable. They are raccoons. They arenot particularly disturbed as they glance into the spotlight,then at each other, there in the middle of the road ahead.They are so little concerned, because, like the proverbialabsent-minded professor, they are so much concerned- —about something else. That something-else is a lusciousmorsel which one of them holds in his jaws while theother looks on with a cautious and perhaps covetousglance. Tiring of the limelight like nothing altogetherhuman, they shortly withdraw with no unseemly hasteinto the underbrush at the side of the road, flauntingtheir little coonskin coats like prosperous undergraduatesin the Ivy League.Come along again. This time we wind through thewoodland bound for an evening with neighbors andfriends. Another flash on the screen as the car roundsa curve near the community mail box. A small creatureat the side of the road is so absorbed in his evening mealthat he hardly deigns to notice th.e lights that give himan audience. It is a weasel feeding in his natural habitat.10T HE UNIVERSI T Y O FHis lithe slender body is clad in fur now turned to matchthe snow, a seasonal change of style to which my scientistfriend some distance westward in the woods applies theacademic phrase, "protective coloration." Though M.rixosa's reputation is somewhat tarnished, he lives at thelevel of his understanding without becoming a socialmenace.The cottontails share one's premises and nest thereon,holding to the principle of the cooperative farm. Theybuild their homes in burrows deftly concealed underclumps of deep overhanging grass, but come to grief whentheir collectivistic ideology clashes with the rugged individualism of the cocker spaniel, for Smoky subscribes to adifferent conception of land economy. He mounts an eminence under a picturesque pine, posts himself on hisposterior, and quietly surveys the contemporary scenewith keen eyes, a keener nose, and an avid instinct ofownership, scanning the landscape and sniffing the windfor evidence of intrusion on his domain, for obviously hisownership knows no bounds within the range of his vision.He himself comes to grief only when he meets a confidentlittle gent clad in furs of black and white, strolling in thenight. It is annoying to find a neighbor so poised and self-possessed, so calm, so firm, so fully packed. The secret ofthis rival's power, like many of life's mysteries, was disclosed by a sad experience. One swish of a beauteouscaudal appendage was enough to put the pootch and hisphilosophy in bad odor for days. Though he pawed hisnose to banish it, the aroma strangely lingered as apungent reminder of the moral depravity of skunks.Nevertheless, his respect for the incensed catamount hasperceptibly deepened, and his tolerance grown apace.Here in the birdland of these forest preserves masculinity comes proudly into its own and shines in strikingcontrast to the male in human society. The cardinal cockin flaming red stands beside his unimpressive spouse, offering a brilliant example of raiment in all its glory. Inthe economy of the birds and beasts the female of thespecies is neither more deadly nor more decorative thanthe male. But Paris first, and later Hollywood, have reversed the natural order, and by fashion's decree havecabined and confined the human male in garments asobscurely dull as they are absurdly adapted to his needs.Yet it is the ladies who cry for emancipation. Ourgentlemen prefer bonds.The process of civilization is all so confusing. When isa restraint natural, when artificial? When rational, whenirrational?Emancipation is another name for liberty, and liberty isfreedom from external restraint: freedom of women fromirrational legal restraint, freedom of man from irrationalsartorial restraint. We all reach out for liberty as naturally as a living thing gropes for a chance to find and beitself. It can only come through tolerance. Yet perfectfreedom cannot be the cure for all our social ills. Norperfect equality. Doesn't liberty bring with it certaininequalities? And equality some loss of liberties? How CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11•then shall we be guided? By what else but liberty andequality tempered with justice? But if so, the fundamental problems of society are neither economic norpolitical. They are moral.Unremittingly, into this woodsy retreat as elsewherethe newscasters at their microphones, the correspondentsat the front, pour their messages on the varying fortunesof the war. One by one sons and grandsons, cousins andnephews, say their adieus or return for a day on leavebefore departing for unknown destinations. Fine and fitafter a season of training, they wear their uniforms withpride and move toward the battle fronts with manly-resolve and cheerful courage. Some will see the end ofthe trail in the jungles of the Pacific or go down with theirflag and their fighting ships, never to return. One followstheir every move with bated breath. One thrills at theirtriumphs on land, at their skill and stamina on and overand under the sea. Pride wells up within us as they outdoeach other in wounded gallantry, and when they fall, alump gathers in our throat, a mist collects before oureyes. . . . We turn away, toward the window and thegreat out-of-doors.The woods are blanketed in snow. It is the winter ofour discontent. The waves break upon the icy beachbelow, where only yesterday our youthful soldiers frolicked in the summer sun. But summertime will comeagain and bring again a leafy carpet to the woods, alldappled in the sun. There'll be songbirds over the whitecliffs of Dover and the green hills of America, pouringout their "profuse strains of unpremeditated art." Thisgreat nation, gathering strength to match its power- andspirit, will move on like an inevitable tide toward victoryfor the United Nations and the freedom of the world.The boys will come home again, most but not all, modestin their great accomplishment, hoping that those whoseresting place is marked by wooden crosses row on rowshall not have died in vain.But after the dogs of war are chained, the vultures ofthe peace appear. Before the last smoke of battle has gone(Concluded on page 21)In the dunes . . . the icy beach below D. P. BarnardTHE DEANXS EASY CHAIRAlumnus S. Edward Scott, AM '24, asks: Is it a generalrule that vines grow counter-clockwise around a supportsuch as a pole? If so, why do they grow in that manner?If this is the general rule, are there exceptions? If thereare exceptions, please explain and mention examples.Charles A. Shull, professor of plant physiology, replies:"The direction of twining is hereditary. Some speciestwine clockwise, others twine counter-clockwise. Thetwining response has been associated with geotropism, aresponse to gravity of the earth. Rotation on a climostatso as to nullify gravity, stops the twining. The tip of theplant, growing horizontally, is the sensitive region. As toexceptions, it has been pointed out above that each specieshas its own behavior. Any of the older plant physiologies,such as Sachs's textbook or Pfeffer's three-volume PlantPhysiology, gives names of plants running clockwise andothers running counter-clockwise."Professor Shull also adds: "Just from memory, I am ofthe impression that the hop vine and morning glory haveopposite habits. No amount of 'training' ever suffices tomake them turn in any other way than that impressedupon their germ plasm through centuries of evolution.There was a time when the geotropic responses of twinerswere associated with movable starch grains in the sensitiveregion. That was what I was taught in 1903 when Istudied with Dr. Barnes. Today, geotropic responses havebeen traced to the one-sided distribution of hormones(auxins) in the stems where response occurs. The auxinsare growth substances, which cause unequal growth uponopposite sides of the stems. This unequal growth causesthe turning, and the vines twist once upon their stemaxis for every turn they make, i. e., for a complete revolution around the support."w w *?r w wAlumnus I. B., '21, asks: "What are the best Russia?ihistories in English or in Russian?"Professor George V. Bobrinskoy of our faculty repliesas follows: "The best general history of Russia up to1905 is Kurs Russkoi Istorii by V. O. Kliuchevskii. Thisis in Russian and the last edition was published in Moscow in 1937. Several earlier editions are also available.This book is a classic. It is in five volumes. There isan English translation by Hogarth, published by Dutton& Co., New York, 1931. Five volumes."Next I would recommend Political and DiplomaticHistory of Russia by G. V. Vernadskii, Little Brown &Company, 1936. This work brings Russia's history toabout 1934. I understand several works are under wayat the present time which would bring us to the lastmoment, but we have to wait for them. A very goodlittle volume is Sir Bernar Pares' Russia (Penguin Series)worth much more than the 25 cents it sells for." ARE DOCTORS HUMAN?[7 resume my investigation of this question at the pointat which it was so suddenly broken off at the end of theinstalment in the last number of the Magazine; and tothe example of primitive therapy there given I now addanother.]BACK to the Stone Age also goes the use of shockto cure mental cases, and like the trepanning ofskulls this, too, lasted a long time. I came acrossone interesting case, a survival reported from Peru. Hereis the description that I found:This is a pre-Columbian female skull from Perushowing scarification, as if heat had been applied tothe scalp. The pathological area is in the form of aLatin cross. By the use of our imagination we see inpre-Columbian times, in a secluded spot in the highlands of Peru, a primitive blanket-or-skin-cladshaman holding the head of this demented womanon his knee, while he roughly cut her scalp with aflint-knife, first making a long anteroposterior incision, then cutting transversely across the obelion.Near by on a slow wood fire is an earthen pot containing the fat of a llama. Close to the operator'shand lies a twisted rope of vegetable fibre. As soonas the incisions are made the surgeon tenses the scalpso as to make the wound gape, then with the wisp ofvegetable fibre he applies some of the boiling oil tothe wound. The application would result in aninstant response and the patient would have animmediate relief from her insanity. The shaman,still holding the patient's head, urging her to control her wild cries of pain, applies to the cauterizedwound a quid of coca that he has been quietly chewing during the operation and binds it in place withcooling leaves by means of dirty strips of blanket orother cloth. The riotous infection which followedgave rise to the pathology which is present in theskull, but the woman recovered and lived for manyyears after the healing of her surgical wound. Thereis no evidence that she ever afterwards had anotherattack of melancholia. The memory of the boilingoil was too vivid.Such is an anthropologist's account of this skull. Itwas only the other day that I read of contemporary examples of shock treatment in cases of insanity.I think that anyone who reads the description of thhcase must agree with me that after the operation thepatient might have been somewhat annoyed, perhaps evenseriously provoked, by the discomfort to which the surgeonhad subjected her, and that in talking over the operation12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13ALUMNIDEANGORDON J. LAINGImmediate obfuscationresultedwith her friends on some subsequent occasion she might,in a passing mood of irritation, have ended the accountof her experience (of which you may be sure she gavefull details) by asking with some petulance this very question: "Are doctors human?"I could give innumerable other examples. The booksof the anthropologists are full of them. But it would bequite hopeless for me to ask the Editor for more space. Icould, you think, point out to him that, as this is ascientific inquiry, I really need more space. That wouldnot help me in the least, because only an hour or so ago,when I realized how serious an investigation this reallywas, I went to him and said I didn't see how I couldcarry it through in a way that was consistent with thehigh standards of the Magazine unless I were allowedfootnotes for bibliographical references. I made no impression on him. Speaking with the utmost politenessbut with adamantine firmness, he replied that footnoteswere expensive and he added that, if the material in minewere of any value, it could be inserted in the text.But I must pass from the Stone Age to historic or at leastnear-historic times, and report my scrunity of a mostimportant document in the history of medicine, namely,the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, the original of which(for what we have is only a copy) goes back in all probability to the fourth millennium B.C. Only my desireto show you that I am omitting nothing that might possibly contribute to the solution of our problem has inducedme to mention this document, for I found nothing in itsuitable for the purpose of my inquiry. The character ofits contents, consisting as they do of cases marked by astolidity of objectivity that bears a striking resemblanceto the case histories of our own time, prevents its beingserviceable either in a positive or negative way.When we come to the Hippocratic writings, however,the case is different, for many of these are inspired by afine humanity that would seem to make the question"Are doctors human?" not only unjust but even ridiculous. And if all the disciples of Hippocrates and thelater generations of physicians in Greece who professed tobe his followers, had actually adhered to his injunctions, I could eliminate Greece from the list of countries in whichthis doubt about the humanity of doctors has arisen. Butdid the disciples and alleged followers of the greatphysician of Cos always follow the injunctions of theirmaster? I do not know. I can only answer that questionby asking another. Do the doctors of our own time, allof whom or at least most of whom take the Hippocraticoath, always keep it? I dare not say.Curiously enough, the Romans, although their contribution to medical science in general is negligible, do offersomething along the lines of our special problem. I donot mean to imply that I have found in Roman writersany actual reference to our question, but I have lightedupon more than one statement indicating a similar attitude toward doctors. To be sure, our question is morespecific than any of these, but they are all in the samearea. This raises the question whether after all an inquiry into the origin and history of the general attitudeof people toward the medical profession would not havebeen more fruitful than our present investigation of asingle point.In the Epigrams of the Roman Martial, who wroteabout the end of the first century after Christ, we have adescription of a medical professor (evidently not a full-time man) who carried on his instruction in a way thatindicated little consideration for his patients. His system, when he visited a patient, was to take his wholeclass with him. As soon as he had felt the patient's pulse,everyone of his mob of students did the same. In theparticular case to which Martial refers, the patient hadnot been really ill when the doctor and his class arrived,but by the time they had gone, he was a very sick man.Unquestionably this doctor laid himself open to thecharges of gross abuse of the privileges of a visiting physician and highly reprehensible indifference to his patient'swelfare. His was the sort of conduct that contributed tothe currency of the question we are trying to explain. Itis probable that his procedure was a common one. Wecannot, however, be sure of this. There may have beenmany doctors of the practitioner-professor type who wouldnot be guilty of such a breach of etiquette. It may bethat he was an exception, a man in whom practitionerand professor were to such an extent out of balance thatthe professor completely dominated the practitioner, andhis attitude was that the students must get their experience, even if the patient suffered a relapse.During the Middle Ages the science of medicine madelittle progress, and in all probability the old attitudestoward doctors persisted and the old jokes about themcame tottering down the ages to our own time.Interesting as some of these gleanings from the pastare, they are not, as my readers will be quick to see, sufficiently definite to constitute source material of the firstclass. They do little more than indicate conditions in thepast that might have started the question concerning thehumanity of doctors. Even after this careful investigationwe have nothing but a lot of "might-have-beens," and the14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtrained minds of alumni need something more definite,more positive, more conclusive.And now I come to the second part of my investigation,namely the evidence based on my own experience withmembers of the medical profession. Nor do I know anymore appropriate beginning than a few words aboutmedical students.It is sometimes said that no matter how human a manmay be in ordinary social intercourse, he is likely to develop a drift toward the hard-boiled soon after he takes upthe study of medicine. Some successfully resist it andnever succumb at all; others withstand it to some degree;while still others yield completely to it. This hardeningprocess begins in medical school and sometimes goes fareven in that early stage of experience. It was, I think,through Dickens' Pickwick Papers that it was first broughtto my attention. In that book a young medical student,Bob Sawyer, entertained the horrified Mr. Pickwick atbreakfast by illustrating the excision of a tumor from anold gentleman's head by the dexterous slicing of a chanceexcrescence from a loaf of bread. It was he also who,when asked by another medical student whether he coulduse a head in his laboratory, said no, he could take a leg,but heads came too high; and it was the same irrepressibleBob who, after describing to Mr. Pickwick the pleasurewith which he was looking forward to witnessing an operation by the famous Dr. Slasher a few days later, was completely dumbfounded when Mr. Pickwick asked whetherthe patient was likely to recover. "Recover," said Bob,as if that were an aspect of the matter that had neveroccurred to him, "I don't know anything about that, butit will be a magnificent operation if Slasher does it."I saw an example of this callous attitude myself on oneoccasion. A friend of mine, an out-of-town doctor, washaving luncheon with me at the Quadrangle Club andI asked him if there was anything around the Universitythat he would like to see. I hoped that he would say no,but he didn't. He replied that there was one thing hewould like very much to see and that was the dissectingroom; whereupon he launched into an enthusiastic account of the delights of dissecting. It quite took myappetite away, but it didn't take his away; on the contraryit seemed to whet it. However, he was my guest and Iwanted to do what he wished. Accordingly after luncheonI took him over to the building where I thought thedissecting room was. It was pure conjecture on my part,for though I had been at the University more than thirty-five years I had never visited, nor even thought of visiting, the dissecting-room. It was a form of hedonism thathad never occurred to me. But as soon as I opened thedoor I knew that I had found the right building. Weentered and after picking up one of our own doctors wentup stairs to the dissecting room. The moment the doorwas opened I was seized with a passionate desire to seekthe wide and open spaces. I looked at my guest to see ifhe too had had enough. Far from it; he was sniffing theair as if it were perfumed with attar of roses, and address ing the other doctor he said, "Tell me, Doctor, what disinfectant do you use to keep your dissecting room sofresh and fragrant?"That was the last thing I heard for some time. I musthave been in a state of coma during the first part of myvisit. When I came to I was leaning against a table, andright opposite to me was a little girl, calmly cutting up acadaver with as much nonchalance as if she were mending a glove, and possibly with more skill. When she sawthat I was interested, she showed me what she was doingthen and what she would do next. "It is absorbing," shesaid, "I can think of nothing else and there is so much tomaster even in preliminary medical courses that there isno time for anything else. I used to be interested inliterature, music, and such things, but I can't do anythingwith them now. And it isn't only we medical students whoare completely absorbed. The doctors are just as bad,and the higher they climb as specialists the more intenselyabsorbed they become. Don't you remember what Darwin said about the progressive atrophy of many of theintellectual interests he once had had, and how his scientific studies absolutely obsessed him? He knew, and it isprobably much worse now than in his time, for specialization is more common. There is of course a great gain onthe scientific side, but on the other hand that exclusiveabsorption does do things to ordinary human interests."Thus spoke this little philosopher, spoke so well indeedthat I could not help thinking that her scientific studieshad not hurt her and that she would be one of those whowould come through intact. So far as her general position was concerned, I believed that she was right. Onedoes meet doctors who in the intensity of their interest intheir profession seem to lose sight of other aspects of life.I recall my first appointment with an oculist. Forsome time I had noticed that my arms were not longenough to enable me to see with even a modicum of claritythe numbers in the telephone book, and I called up anoculist to make an engagement. I did not of course gethim on the wire, but I got a secretary in his outer office,who communicated with a secretary in his inside officewho, after checking his appointments, finally put medown for ten o'clock on the following Saturday morning.In my simplicity I thought that this meant ten o'clockand promptly at that hour I arrived at his office. I wasa good deal surprised to find several other persons there,and from their conversation I presently realized that allof them had ten o'clock appointments too. This seemedto indicate that I might be there for an hour or so, and Ilooked about for means of spending the time. First of allI went over to a table where I saw some magazines. Butthere was no hope there. I am a student of archaeologyand have spent a large part of my life in the study ofancient documents, but those magazines on the doctor'stable were too old for me. I gave them up and returnedto my chair. And then for the first time I noticed thatright opposite to me there was an amazingly prettywoman. Well, I thought, if I have to wait for this doctor,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15I shall be able to do so under very favorable circumstances.I wondered what in the world she was doing in an oculist's office. It was difficult, for a lay observer at any rate,to imagine anything wrong with such eyes as hers. I hadjust decided that they were grey, not blue, and I was proceeding to the consideration of the question whether herundoubted charm was due to them or to the beauty ofher hair, or the tone of her complexion or the lines of herfigure, or a devastating combination of all these things,when the doctor walked into the room, stalked up to me,and without a word prying my eyes open to a degree ofdistention to which they were entirely unaccustomed, shotsome drug into them, that resulted in immediate obfuscation, and in a moment the beautiful woman became adim and distant blur. I take it that no man will deny theinhumanity of this doctor.And yet I have a feeling that when men ask the question, "Are doctors human?" they are not thinking ofsingle acts of cruelty like this, but rather of a gradualtrend toward the hard-boiled, an impairment of the senseof proportion, an increasing indifference to normal interests.I know a good many doctors and some of them are kindenough to send me from time to time reprints of articlesthey have published in medical journals. That our friendship still continues in spite of this practice attests its permanent and abiding quality. There is of course alwaysthe possibility of immediate and deadly retaliation, andI can reply to a reprint on diseases of the oesophagus witha contribution of my own on "The Development of theForward-Moving Cum Clause in Cicero's Orations" orone on "The Origin of the Genitive of Value in Latin,"or some other trifle of that kind. These, I find, have adistinctly quieting effect.I recall especially one of these medical reprints that Ireceived some time ago. I was immensely interested init; in places it was even more exciting than the behaviorof the Latin subjunctive. It was sent to me by an oculist,a friend of mine, and it contained a full and detailedaccount of some affection of the eye of a woman patientof his. The pamphlet was a complete case-history : symptoms, diagnosis and treatment — all were there.At the first examination, the doctor wrote, the woman'seye did not seem to have very much wrong with it. Tobe sure, she did have an uncertainty of vision that wavered between hemiopia, ambiopia and diplopia, and therewere signs of acute keratitis, apparently caused by interstitial deposits of leucocytes between the layers of thecornea. Vascularization too had set in. There were alsotraces of scleritis, a touch of episcleritis, a suspicion ofiritis, some indications of photophobia, and a severe hyper-aemia of the conjunctiva, accompanied by blepharospasm,trachoma, astigmatism, glaucoma, traumata, and variousand manifold traces of amyloid deterioration. Except forthese things, however, the author wrote brightly, thepatient's eye was in very fair condition.The doctor then described the basis for his diagnosisand gave in full detail his method of treatment : told how he reduced the keratitis by delicate applications to thesclerotic; how he strengthened the ligamentum pecti-natum iridis and reinforced the levator palpebrae superi-oris; restored the corneo -scleral junction; checked destructive ulcerative processes; counteracted the effects of anold attack of ophthalmia neatorum; and then through acombination of masterly technique with a profoundknowledge of the whole range of the diseases to whichthe eye is subject, he successfully withstood all danger ofstaphyloma or catarrhal conjunctivitis.I read from paragraph to paragraph fascinated; I realized that here was a master oculist; from the swing ofhis style and his easy command of technical terms I knewthat he was an expert whom no disease of the eye couldbaffle. Moreover, the patient was getting along so wellin the middle of the report, was responding so favorablyto the various treatments given her — for my friend wasof an experimental trend and never lost an opportunity oftrying something new — that I could easily foresee a finaltriumphant cure. Imagine my disappointment when Icame to the last sentence of the reprint, which read as follows: "The patient is now very comfortable with a glasseye."The author of that article is a distinguished oculist. Heis at the top of his profession, but his absorption in hisspecialty is so intense that he has neither time nor inclination for any other activity. He is not interested inliterature or music or art; he does not care for athleticsports; he is so indifferent to politics that he won't evenregister or vote. He can think of nothing but diseases ofthe eye. His devotion to ophthalmology has certainly"done something to him," to quote from the remarks ofthe student in the dissecting-room. I said to him once,"Why don't you register and vote? The politics in thiscity are not so good." "Register and vote?" he replied,"I haven't time. I have work to do. Let the politicianshave their way; they will get it in any case."J~\ In this column the Magazine is offering a new serviceto you who are alumni or former students of the University. The service is two-fold. First of all, you are invitedto send in any questions about the University, its history,its curriculum, past and present, its educational policiesand ideals, its degrees and what they stand for; or questions on education or educational institutions in general.And secondly you are asked to submit questions that arisein your own business or professional life or in matters thatlie outside your business or professional routine in whichthe University might be able to help you.All communications should be addressed to the AlumniDean, the University of Chicago Magazine, and shouldbe signed with your own name. In some cases the replywill be sent directly to you; in others your letter will bepublished in the column, with your name or initials orsome pseudonym, as you wish. Please be definite on thispoint of the signature. The communications should be asbrief as is consistent with a clear statement of the case. \.rJ. MILTON COULTERReunion ChairmanJ. Milton Coulter is of the SilverAnniversary Class of 1918, over whichhe presided during his junior year.As an undergraduate he was prominent in extra-curricular activities; amember of Owl and Serpent; and aMarshal.. Since graduation he hasbeen an investment banker, with areal reputation as an analyst and adviser. At present he is connected withE. H. Rollins & Sons.Arthur A. Baer, '18, in his undergraduate days was associate editor ofCap and Gown and of the ChicagoLiterary Magazine; managing editorof the Daily Maroon ; member of Owland Serpent; and Head Marshal.Since graduation he has successfullycontinued the department store thatwas operated by his father.ARTHUR A. BAERAlumni School Dean 1 PEUNIONMOKOM jUM6:30 P. M. Annual Dinner of the Law ochoolPlace: Chicago Bar Association, 29 South La Salle StreetPrice $2.00. Reservations may be made by FridavJune 4, through the Alumni Office (Midway 0800Branch 236)Speakers: George Maurice Morris, J.D. '15President of the American Bar AssociationThe Honorable G. H. Aikins, ex '09President of the Canadian Bar AssociationWEDNESDAY, JUNE 98:30 P. M. The Alumni School— -19th Century Woman's Club, 178 ForestAvenue, Oak ParkPresiding: Arthur A. Baer, '18Alumni School DeanSpeaker: Paul R. Cannon, Ph.D. '21, M.D. '25Professor and Chairman of the Department ofPathologySubject: Food and the WarSpeaker: Neil H. Jacoby, Ph.D. '38Professor of Finance and Secretary of the UniversitySubject: Liberal Education and Enduring PeaceTHURSDAY, JUNE 103 : 00 P. M. Annual Varsity-Alumni Baseball Fiesta6:00 P. M. Annual Gathering, The Order of the C(Probably al fresco)6:00 P. M. Annual Dinner, Women's Athletic AssociationPlace: Ida Noyes Hall, 1212 East 59th Street. Reservationsmay be made through the W.A.A., Ida Noyes Hall.Tables may be reserved for specific groups8:30 P.M. The Alumni School — Winnetka Community House, 620 Lincoln AvenuePresiding: Arthur A. BaerAlumni School DeanSpeaker: Max RheinsteinMax Pam Professor of Comparative LawSubject: Military JusticeSpeaker: Robert S. Platt, Ph.D. '20Professor of GeographySubject: Beyond Pan AmericanismFRIDAY, JUNE 1 16:30 P. M. 1918 Class Dinner — Twenty-fifth AnniversaryPlace: The Quadrangle Club, 1155 East 57th Street8:30 P. M. The Alumni School— Mandel Hall, 57th Street and UniversityAvenuePresiding: Arthur A. BaerAlumni School Dean16PROGRAM12:30 P.M.3:00 P.M.4:00 P.M.6:00 P.M.8:45 P.M.10:00 A.M.11:00 A.M. Speaker: Carey CroneisProfessor of GeologySubject: The Ancient Background for Modern WarSpeaker: Floyd W. Reeves, A.M. '21, Ph.D. '25Professor of AdministrationSubject: Manpower During the War and AfterSATURDAY, JUNE 12The Alumnae BreakfastPlace: Ida Noyes Hall, 1212 East 59th Street, third floor.Price $1.25. Reservations must be made by Monday, June 7, through the Alumni Office (Midway0800, Branch 236)Speakers: Lieutenant Commander Dorothy C. Stratton, A.M. '24, United States Coast Guard, director of the SPARSGertrude E. Smith, '16, A.M. '17, Ph.D. '21Professor and Chairman of the Department ofGreekAnnual Meeting of the College SenatePlace: Breasted Hall of the Oriental Institute, 1155 East58th StreetAlumni Assembly, Mandel HallPresiding: J. Milton Coulter, '18, Reunion ChairmanAwarding of Alumni CitationsVallee O. Appel, '11, President of the Alumni AssociationAwarding of Alumni MedalsGordon J. Laing, Alumni DeanPresentation of the 1943 Alumni GiftHarold J. Gordon, '17, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Alumni FoundationAcceptance AddressRobert Maynard Hutchins, President of the University of Chicago1903 Class DinnerThirty-third Annual University SingInduction of Aides and MarshalsAward of C BlanketsAlma MaterSUNDAY, JUNE 13Convocation Prayer Service — Rockefeller Memorial ChapelUniversity Religious Service — Rockefeller Memorial ChapelPreacher: Charles W. Gilkey, Dean of the ChapelTHURSDAY, JUNE 174:00 P.M. Phi Beta Kappa Initiation Tea — Ida Noyes LibraryFRIDAY, JUNE 1811 :00 A. M. Conferring of Higher Degrees — Rockefeller Memorial Chapel3:00 P.M. Conferring of Bachelors' Degrees — Rockefeller Chapel VALLEE O. APPELPresident, Alumni AssociationOn these two pages is the war-conserved program of reunion week.In addition to those who can arrangeto have war business in Chicago forthe weekend, there will be 17,000alumni in the Chicago area who canjoin in the modest festivities withoutjeopardizing the country's transportation system. The Alumni School willscatter in three directions in as manynights for the convenience of Chicagoans North, West, and South.President Hutchins will make his annual appearance at the Mandel Hallassembly and the Sing, in patrioticminiature, will be held as usual inHutchinson Court. A cordial invitation is extended to all. The programmay be rationed, but not the heartywelcome !HAROLD J. GORDONChairman, Alumni Foundation17NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By DON MORRIS, '36DESPITE the impression conveyed each month bythis Magazine, and specifically by this department, that as a result of the war life on thecampus these days is pretty grim, it must ever be remembered that the campus still teems with human beings and,inevitably the ludicrous still pops up, the trouser seam orits equivalent splits, the banana peel gets in its deadlywork. The writer acquired a predisposition to observingsuch things when as a student he was connected with apublishing venture called the "Phoenix," although thedean — then a stodgy old curmudgeon by the name ofWilliam Scott — often failed to share the diagnosis of whatconstituted humor. (He may have been right; "Phoenix"folded a year later.) But that was a long time ago. OldProfessor Lasswell was here then, and old ProfessorShuman, and even old Professor Gideonse.Many if not all aspects of life on campus have changedwith war; on the other hand the same war has restoredthe name of Phil Allen to the Quadrangles. The latebeloved Philip Schuyler Allen, exponent of the cause ofculture in ways both many and diverse, often a contributor to these pages, has been replaced on the University's staff by a Lieutenant Philip Allen, instructor inmeteorology. Phil Allen probably would have beenamused to know that when war came his transmogrification would take the form of a weather expert. Unfortunately the spirit of the old Phil Allen has been lost inthe exchange; its retention might have broughtabout some startling changes in weather forecasts. He,no doubt, would have displaced the banalities of theroutine statements with predictions of tiresome windless-ness, stultifying haze, or possibly pale green rain.Among the odd events of last month on the Midwaywas the digging of a rather deep ditch from 60th Streetto 61st Street along the west side of University Avenue,or in other words just inside the left field fence of Greenwood field. Why the height of the baseball season shouldhave been chosen for this operation is not clear, but asfollowers of Maroon sports will recall, left field is shortanyway, and always draws a goodly number of fly balls.Having to clamber over the loose dirt and large pipes andjump across the ditch while trying to keep the descentof the ball also in view has been a more difficult problemthan most left fielders could solve, and while it is notthe chief reason for Chicago's baseball losses this season,it has helped.Another anomaly in the field of sports, incidentally, hasbeen the introduction of a few of the meteorology cadetsinto Coach Ned Merriam's track team. It has so happened that one of these is Charles Hlad, the tow-headedholder of one world's record in the high hurdles, and avery efficient all-around athlete. Aided by Hlad, Chicagoran up three decisive victories in a row to start the season. These were against minor league opposition, but theopponents, who suddenly began to visualize the entiretrack team as made up of cadets in disguise, did somequiet beefing about Chicago's unfair practices in athletics.This would have been easy to deny, but the Chicagopartisans standing about on Stagg Field, who for yearshave had to cringe under hoots about the purity of theirathletics, mostly chose to wink, pretending to acknowledge the charges.Under the aegis of the new director of libraries, RalphBeals, mighty changes have been and still are afoot — themerging of the business, social service, and social sciencelibraries, for example. Most remarkable, however, is thecase of one library — which includes 30,000 volumes —located in a building taken over by the government. Sincenot even library personnel could be admitted into thebuilding and hence into the library, the solution was toremove the librarian from the University payroll andlend-lease her to the government. Every day she bringswhatever books have been requested from her precinctsdown to the boundary of the government's territory,where a representative of the libraries meets her andtakes over.Apparently doomed for the duration is the traditionregarding stepping on the great seal of the University,set in the floor under Mitchell Tower. Observed by most ofthe students most of the time for years, the tradition became increasingly difficult to enforce among the militaryorganizations marching through Mandel corridor, partlybecause they were marching and partly because they donot remain on the campus long enough to acquire all thefine points of traditional conduct. The taking over bythe Navy of three of the University's eating places andby the Army of two of the others puts such a heavy demand upon the services of Hutchinson Commons, however, that waiting lines form each noon, and even thestudents are practically forced to tread on the seal. Theseal thus far shows no ill effects from this treatment.Service Unit 3653The comings and goings of the uniformed segmentsof the University community last month continued theapparent trend toward the extinction of the civilians.The trend is only apparent, of course; because of the College the University will still be educating civilians thoughevery other institution become a Fort Sheridan or a GreatLakes. Still, the departure of another two hundred andfifty students in the Army Enlisted Reserve last month wasfollowed almost immediately by the arrival of approximately five hundred soldiers in the Army's new specializedtraining program, the Midway group being designated asService Unit 3653. This was the fourth unit in this program to be set up at a Sixth Service Command university,18THE UNIVERSITY OFDON MORRISand- as this department predicted in March, the trainingat Chicago is being carried along under three headings:most in basic engineering, and smaller groups in area andlanguages (for future administrators of occupied territory) and in personnel psychology. The latter two arethe first programs of their kind in the Service Command.The boys are quartered in Hitchcock, Gates, and BlakeHalls, and are under the command of Colonel E. V.Smith.At the same time the University's program of trainingin advanced electronics for the Signal Corps was extendedto include women as prospective experts. The fourthunit to graduate in the University's advanced meteorologyprogram for the Air Forces received its commissions fromthe Army and certificates from the Institute of Meteorology this month, as the fifth unit continued its studiesand the Institute prepared for the arrival of the overlapping sixth unit. Meanwhile a second overlapping unitin the basic pre-meteorology program also went intotraining.College Influence SpreadsThe new College plan will be instituted in a modifiedform this fall by the University of Puerto Rico, according to Carlos Garcia, head of the biology department atPuerto Rico. Dr. Garcia spent two weeks on the Midwaylast month making a preliminary survey of the College.His visit followed one last fall by Chancellor JaimeBenitez, a former graduate student at Chicago. Severalother faculty members will come to Chicago from SanJuan this summer to complete the plans. Full adoptionof the Chicago plan was not considered wise, Dr. Garciapointed out, because of differences in the educationalorganization of Puerto Rico, where children begin theirschooling at four instead of six years of age. The number taking the program at Puerto Rico, however, will beslightly larger than that at Chicago; the average freshman class at Puerto Rico, where basketball is an outdoorsport, is nine hundred.Taking cognizance of the problem of giving an adequate general education before the age of eighteen —the problem which has given the new College plan an CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19impetus since the start of the war — the Chicago DailyNews last month suggested that this education be undertaken by the high schools. By eliminating fads andfrivolities, the editorial pointed out, the grammar andhigh schools might well cram fourteen years of educationinto twelve, and it suggested that the Chicago schoolboard call in President Hutchins to describe how thismight be done."Chicago," the News writer said, "is fortunate in having as a citizen an educator who has probably given moretime and thought to this question than anyone else inthe country. President Hutchins thinks it can and shouldbe done. He knows why he thinks so. He has a considerable body of evidence to support his view. We suggestthat the Board of Education could make no better use ofits time and talent just now than by inviting PresidentHutchins to appear before it and present his case."Offhand, the News' suggestion might appear to be thatPresident Hutchins show the school board how to keepstudents out of the University's College by giving themequivalent education in high school. Obviously, however,the College never would be able to handle the vastnumber of Chicago high school students; it is set up toeducate a few of the best and by so doing, to encouragethe adoption of this kind and calibre of education generally. The remarkable thing about the suggestion is thatit comes so soon. Essentially the aim of the College isto drive itself out of business — to pioneer in the definition of education and the establishment of standards, andwhen they appear on the road toward fulfilment to seeka new field for experiment. Usually, however, thesethings take a long time. If, and only the war makes thisanything but a fanciful suggestion, anything comes ofthe News' proposal, it might establish a speed record foran educational reform.Academy WindfallIn an unprecedentedly bountiful single election, theNational Academy of Sciences elected three members ofthe faculty to membership last month. The men honoredwere Adrian Albert, professor of mathematics; OswaldH. Robertson, professor of medicine; and Carl G. Rossby,professor of meteorology, director of the Institute ofMeterology, and chairman of the University Meteorological Committee, which has in its charge the training of allArmy, Navy, and civilian meteorologists in the country.Professor Rossby's award, in the unusual field of geophysics, came as a result of his work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in developing the theory of air massesand fronts, and his work since coming to Chicago inadapting this theory for the use of forecasters, such asthose in the Army and Navy, who must work on single-station data without benefit of the information networksupon which Weather Bureau men depend. A native ofSweden, Rossby studied meteorology under Vilhelm F. K.Bjerknes, originator of air mass theory, in Norway beforecoming to the United States in 1926 to work for theWeather Bureau.Professor Robertson, a member of the University's20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmedical staff since 1927, is one of the nation's leadingauthorities in the field of pneumonia and has recentlycompleted research which developed a bactericidal misteffective in sterilizing air and is regarded as a potentiallyuseful weapon against the spread of disease in crowdedrooms. Born in England, he was educated at the University of California, and at Harvard, and taught foreight years in China *at the Peking Union Medical college before coming to the Quadrangles.Professor Albert has earned an outstanding reputationamong mathematicians for his construction of an extensive theory of the structure of linear associative algebrasand his solution of the principal problem in the theoryof division algebras. A Chicagoan, he was educated atChicago and taught for two years at Columbia before returning to the faculty on the Midway in 1931.Ricketts Prize SplitOne graduate student -instructor and one formerstudent in the Division of the Biological Sciences dividedthe Howard Taylor Ricketts prize of $184 this year asthe University marked the thirty-third anniversary of thegreat bacteriologist's death May 3. Howard Hopps, instructor in pathology, was honored for his research indicating that although some allergy-causing substance mayhinder the healing of wounds if used in the treatment ofsensitive patients, catgut, used in wound repairs and oftensuspected of having this effect, actually is not responsible.Since the catgut used in surgery is relatively insoluble, itcannot bring on the allergic inflammation which sometimes impairs healing, he found. On the other hand, hisresearch indicated that other substances, including somekinds of "tubing fluid" in which catgut is preserved, mayhave this deleterious effect on sensitive persons.Leo Melcher won his share of the prize for showingthat it is the acid-soluble protein fraction of the wormtrichina which enables persons who have had trichinosis,caused by eating poorly cooked pork infected with theworm, to develop immunity. In addition to contributing to fundamental understanding of immune reactions,Melcher's work may provide the basis for a method ofstandardizing the test substances used in diagnosis of thedisease.H. G. WellsH. Gideon Wells, professor emeritus of pathology, member of the University staff for more than forty years, andone of the nation's outstanding authorities on chemicalpathology, cancer, and tuberculosis, died in Billings Hospital on April 26. Professor Wells, in addition to servingas chairman of the University's Otho S. A. SpragueMemorial Institute, had been chairman of the sectionon pathology and physiology of the American MedicalAssociation, president of the American Association forCancer Research, and president of the Association ofPathologists and Bacteriologists. In the first World Warhe was commissioned with the rank of lieutenant colonelof the American Red Cross food mission in Rumania.Born in 1875 in New Haven, Connecticut, Professor Wellswas graduated at Yale, received the master's degree atLake Forest University before coming to Chicago. Hewas awarded the M. D. degree at Rush Medical collegein 1898 and the Ph.D. degree at the University in 1903.Appointed to the faculty in 1901, he was a full professorin 1913 and became emeritus in 1940.Britannica FellowshipsFellowships numbering approximately twenty and carrying grants of $1,000 to $2,000 annually will be established at the University by the Encyclopaedia Britannica,the Britannica's directors decided last month. Appointments will be made by the University from graduatestudents in the various academic fields, and fellowshipholders will give part of their time to assisting the facultycommittees which are to be appointed to give editorialadvice in the continuous revision of the encyclopaedia.The fellows will, however, have most of their time fortheir own special research and study.ADRIAN ALBERT CARL G. ROSSBY OSWALD H. ROBERTSONTFIE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21REFLECTIONS{Continued from page 11)with the wind, diplomats will clamor to divide the spoils.Woodrow Wilson's dream of a federation of the worldfaded away before the intolerant nationalism of Georgeand Lodge and Clemenceau, and the exalted hopes of thecommon man soon vanished in catastrophe. How often,one wonders, must reasoning beings be brought to thebrink of ruin before trying a new idea? Patterns for aunited front beyond the duration are already spread outbefore our eyes in the British Commonwealth, the SovietUnion, the United States. The Atlantic Charter pointsthe way. A Pacific charter is in the making. A charterof common goals for the United Nations is taking shape inmany thoughtful minds, a charter of implemented securityand cooperative social advance. What other experimentseems so promising? It might well be "the last best hopeof earth."Would that we could achieve in peace as we achieve inwar, said General Wavell with a touch of disillusionment.If we ever do, it will be by a "moral equivalent of war,"a united drive toward common ends — toward greaterpolitical freedom, greater economic freedom, greater religious freedom, greater freedom of education and communication for all the nations, and for each accordingto its light.The hour is late. The cocker spaniel lies by the firesidedreaming. He stirs uneasily. Now he barks with effort,but produces only a squeak. Legs that should take himplaces merely twitch. You know the terrible feeling: thepalsied frustration of a dream.WHEN THE U. S. FACES PEACE(Continued from page 6)war years, maintenance of high levels of employment andproduction at home may require a very large volume ofinternational trade. As the richest, best equipped, andtechnologically most advanced nation of the world theUnited States can afford to take a long view of economicpolicy. Indeed, it cannot afford to do otherwise. Are theintellectual horizons of the American citizen broad andclear enough to encompass world-wide political and economic relationships?Let there be no mistake about it. The preservation ofa free society depends wholly upon the ability of the ordinary citizen to reach correct conclusions on these questions. It depends upon liberal education of all of thepeople, because they decide public policy in a democracy.Here then we see the incredibly heavy burden that theeducational system must shoulder, during the war as wellas after. Here is proof of the imperative need for equipping every young person— b efore he begins specializedtraining or enters employment — with enough political andeconomic wisdom so that he can grapple successfully withsocial problems.It is becoming clearer that a liberal education is aprerequisite for enduring peace just as it is a prerequisite for democracy. It will be up to the independent universities to define a liberal education in such terms thatit will be feasible for every young person to get it. Theyalone are in a position to venture and experiment. Wemay be proud of the pathbreaking work of the Universityof Chicago in formulating a College curriculum leadingto the bachelor's degree that is within reach of the massof young Americans. Looking backward a generationhence, this accomplishment of our Alma Mater may wellbe seen to tower over all of her other amazing wartimeactivities in the extent and permanence of their contribution to the national welfare.BOOK REVIEWAgainst a Darkening Sky, by Janet Lewis (Doubleday,Doran) is a prophetic title for a book of sound and mature qualities. The Perrault family, glowing like a hearth-fire, feels the encroaching darkness of a new era in whichthe individual will be shorn of his dignity, the parentsof their rights in their children.Mary Perrault, a Scotch mother, married to a Frenchfather, has four very different children, of whom Melanie,the oldest and only daughter, and Duncan, the middleson, are the most clearly drawn. They live by raising-rabbits; they are always poor, but it is not that sort ofpoverty which whines for government subsidies or railsagainst a capitalistic system."My God!" says Aristide Perrault to his wife, "Whatpeople won't do in this world for money. I have nomoney. I don't want it. I don't need it. Shoes, food,coal — yes. But some people can't seem to tell the difference between real things and money. Me — I can swapmy rabbits. I guess I can live well enough." And hiswife says dryly, "You better give me $2. The bakercomes today."Against the background of Mary Perrault's crisp, practical selfless love, the blossomlike Melanie flourishes, innocent, thoughtless and bold. She is always threatened, butalways safe — because her mother and father exist as a bulwark. Never, throughout the book, do the Perraultparents lay down rules for their children's conduct. Onlyonce does Mary raise her voice in authority, when Duncan, the splendid and sensitive adolescent is in dangerof going to a lynching.When this century and the authors were in their earlytwenties, Janet Lewis ['20] belonged to a sort of writer'sguild at the University of Chicago. As I recall our beliefs they included the doctrine that we should be amateurs in the best sense of the word, writing for love andnot primarily for publication. Most of the membershave remained true to their early training and have produced few books because their standards required themto write slowly. It is ten years since The Invasion waspublished and in that time Miss Lewis has become arealist. Glamorous as the first book was, I believe thatAgainst a Darkening Sky is the better novel.— Jessica Nelson North, '21From the Chicago Daily News22 T II E IJ N 1 V E R S 1 T Y O F C H I C A G O M A G A Z I N ENEWS OF THE CLASSES? IN THE SERVICE *Lieut. Elmer W. Haertig, MD'39, after six weeks in a war collegeand three months in a school of aviation medicine, is now rated as anaviation medical examiner, and hisparticular job is flight surgeon andneuropsychiatrist at Rosecrans Field,Missouri. He says that he is "happythat the Army, as one sees it functioning, makes more sense than one wouldgather from newspaper and radio outpourings and from the pronouncements of many chaise longue quarterbacks."Pvt. William I. Abraham, MBA'42, is being trained in cryptographicand other intelligence work with theSignal Corps at Warrenton, Virginia.Corpl. Eugene D. Napier, '35, isstationed in "beautiful Colorado" andstill going to school in the Army.Lieut. Harold Kruley, '31, JD'33, is in command of a Navy guncrew aboard a merchant ship, the firstship, he says, ever to sail under theU.S. flag with a Negro skipper andNegro officers.Lieut. Irving E. Sheffel, '39,writes: "I entered the service as aprivate in January, 1942, went toO.C.S. in the Finance Department inMay, and was commissioned in July.I'm now an assistant finance officerwith the Air Forces in North Africa.Contrary to expectations, we've hadvery cold weather and even a few daysof snow. All the Arabs around hereknow how to say 'O.K.' and ask forcigarettes, chocolate, and chewinggum. We have found them veryfriendly."Lieut. Rob Roy MacGregor, '28is with the gunnery school, Naval AirStation, Barbers Point, Oahu, T. H.He is to be executive officer of a newtraining unit there.Lieut. Edward H. Rakow, '24, islocated at the Naval Air Station,Puunene, Maui, T. H.Lieut. Alexander Pendleton, '26,JD '27, is at the Navy's West CoastSound Base, San Diego.Lieut. Lloyd J. Davidson, '32,AM '34, on leave from the Englishdepartment, U. of C, has been teaching for the past five months a coursein air strategy and tactics to cadetsand student officers at the GroundSchool at Blackland Field, Texas. Hereports that he enjoys his work tremendously and the most exciting andvaluable experience so far has been two weeks of flying as a tactical observer with the 19th BombardmentGroup from the Pyote air base. Hesaw the 19th decorated for its work inthe Philippines, Java, and NewGuinea. He added that his flying hasafforded little excitement as comparedwith that experienced by many Chicago graduates in theaters of war, but"it was quite a change for one whoeight months ago was teaching English at the University." His wife,Ellen Chubb Davidson, is in Texaswith him and has been "trying hardto keep in the proper mood for completing her U. of C. PhD dissertationon Emerson."R. D. Rudolph, '23, is stationed atMiami Beach, Florida.Morris Allen, MBA '42, is working for the War Department as chiefof special services of the employee relations unit, Army Service Forces, inWashington.Robert W. Stokley, '40, has leftWashington for Denver, where he willbe trained by the Navy to speak theJapanese language. He hopes to bean ensign in a few months.John G. Nardin, '34, is a major inthe Field Artillery, now stationed atFort Sill, Oklahoma.Robert H. Klawans, '39, was inducted in the Army in February andis at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.,attending non-commissioned officers'school.Joe Bailey, '32, JD '34, is now atsea in charge of an armed guard crewafter a few months of shore duty.Lieut. Curry J. Martin, LLB '29,is on sea duty with the Atlantic fleet.Lieut. Edwin W. Berg, '38, writesthat he has "found that even in theArmy making a life rather than a living is important (except where wetake a life) . See you all on the dayof victory." He is with the Air DepotGroup at Patterson Field, Fairfield,Ohio.Lieut. Fred C. Hubbard, '38, issalvage officer at the Sharonville Engineer Depot, Ohio, having charge ofa labor pool of 200 to 500 men andthe duplicating section, in addition toother duties. He was stationed at FortBelvoir, Virginia, before going toSharonville, where, he says, he had theopportunity to see several Chicagoclassmates.Lieut. John A. Wass, Jr., '40, hasbeen overseas with the Army for overseven months.Pvt. Wilbur Hallwachs, AM '43,is training at Chanute Field, Illinois. Lieut. Lynn W. Ross, AM '43, isat the Naval Training Station atPrinceton, N. J.Robert Felsenthal, '33, after undergoing training in the Navy at GreatLakes and at San Diego, wrote inMarch that he was at Alameda, California, waiting further orders.Jerome Knoll, '42, is at KeeslerField, Miss., with the Air Corps technical school. He says that he met Pvt.Walter Good, '42, for the first timerecently "in the measles ward" atKeesler.Sgt. Jacob B. Swanson, '42, is inEngland.Ensign Baxter K. Richardson,'42, writes that he has been travelingfrom one training school to another inthe east and not having a bad time ofit at all. When we last heard fromhim he was at the Naval torpedo station at Newport, R. I.Capt. Thomas A. Hart, PhD '41,has left for overseas with a malariasurvey unit after some time spent asassistant post medical inspector atCamp Gordon, Georgia.The promotion of Robert C.Hunter, MD '39, from captain tomajor in the Army Medical Corps hasbeen announced at Carlisle Barracks,where Major Hunter is an instructorin the military art department.Milton I. Pochter, '40, has received his commission as second lieutenant in the Army at the tank destroyer officer candidate school atCamp Hood, Texas. He has been as-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23signed for further training and dutywith tank destroyer units.Philip L. Metzger, '38, AM '39,won his commission as second lieutenant in the Army at the adjutantgeneral's officer candidate school atFort Washington, Maryland, inMarch.Maurice Schneider, '31, MD '35,is reported to be one of the front-linedoctors in Tunisia.Lieut. Warren H. James, '40, isnow overseas.Lieut. Charles A. Johnson, '40,AM '41, writes from the Chico, California, Army Flying School as follows : "Life as an enlisted man hasoffered a wealth of historical material.I have met men from all walks of lifeand traveled across the nation fromFlorida to California — at the government's expense. Recruit training hasthe peculiar advantage of bringing theeducational esthete down to earth andface to face with Mr. Average Man.Truly with all its shortcomings, oursis a democratic Army."Does the Army represent a cross-section of our nation's manhood?Drawing from my own limited observation I answer emphatically yes!For example, at Jefferson Barracks,Missouri, a vast Air Forces replacement center, I shared my tent with aWyoming farmer (high-school graduate) ; a Des Moines businessman(college graduate) ; a hod-carrier andan ex-CCC man from Missouri (bothgrammar-school graduates) ; and anIowa farmer (grammer-school gradu-LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVER ty ate) . Later at Chanute Field, and atMiami Beach I found the same9, varied levels of educational achieve-i- ment. But that's only one soldier'sit unscientific "The Army Times in August, 1942,in published the findings of a joint studyby the War Department and the Bu-5, reau of Census. The committee an-le nounced that in 1942, 41 per cent ofall white selectees were either high-is school graduates or had some collegetraining; that 11 per cent of the white0, trainees had enjoyed a college educa-i- tion. In this study they found that 63I- per cent of the northern Negro selects tees and 33 per cent of the southernJL Negro trainees had completed fourfe years of high-school training.m "Granted that the other servicei- arms have drawn off much of theas cream of this nation's manhood, Iie maintain that ours is a democraticLd Army — representing a true cross -ri. section of America's manpower."rs Charlotte D. Gower, AM '26,PhD '28, formerly assistant professors- of anthropology at the University ofI? Wisconsin, is now Captain Gower,d- and has been appointed by the Navys! Department as director of training for;s, the women's reserve of the Marinee- Corps. As professor of anthropologya and dean of women at Lingnan Uni-I- versity, Capt. Gower was caught therein when the Japanese assault started, andLd carried out rescue work during the:h days of the siege. She was put in am Japanese concentration camp, but wasi- later freed in an exchange of prisoners-j and returned to this country last fallaboard the Gripsholm.Chicago alumni with M.D. degreesnow in service. The list is continuedfrom the April issue. — Ed.ARMY1934Lt. Vincent Accardi, CampMaxey, Texas.Lt. Edward G. Bourns, Fort Jackson, S. C.Capt. Thomas P. Butcher, Drew« Field, Tampa, Florida.Capt. Hyman B. Copleman, overseas.Capt. Salvatore Dina, Fort Jackson, S. C.Lt. Louis Feinberg, ChicagoCapt. Stanton A. Friedberg,Camp Robinson, ArkansasLt. Charles S. Fulton, Air Transport CommandLt. Henry C. Goss, overseasLt. Kurt E. Hohman, Army Induction Station, Peoria, 111. Capt. Earl S. Leimbacher, FortGeorge Wrright, WashingtonMaj. Robert B. Lewy, overseasLt. Rudolph P. Leyers, overseasCapt. Joseph M. Rampona, LasVegas, N. M.Capt. Chester B. Thrift, CampSan Luis Obispo, Calif.Capt. James W. Tobin, StationHospital, Fort Jackson, S. C.Lt. Gideon R. Wells, Barnes General Hospital, Vancouver, Wash.Lt. Wendell M. Willett, StationHospital, Fort Bragg, N. C.Capt. Charles R. Wylie, StationHospital, SCU 1949, Los Angeles1935Capt. Herbert C. . Breuhaus,Camp Robinson, ArkansasCapt. Gorden T. Burns, 96thEvacuation Hospital, Camp Shelby,Miss.Lt. John F. Cant, Fort LeonardWood, MissouriCapt. Joseph A. Carbone, 16thEvacuation Hospital, Camp Blanding,Fla.Capt. Eugene A. ChAngnon,Camp Mackall, Hoffman, N. C.Capt. Henry S. Dickerman, Jr.,Aviation Medical Examiner, Corsi-cana, Texas.Maj. James W. Hall, Jr., ChicagoLt. Hinman A. Harris, StationHospital Camp Howze, Gainesville,TexasMaj. George V. LeRoy, overseasLt. Marvin B. Meengs, StationHospital, Selman Field, La.Maj. John H. Olwin, GeneralDispensary, ChicagoLt. Harold Ovenu, Camp Grant,111.Maj. George Plain, Jr., StationHospital, Camp Beale, Calif.Lt. Arthur H. Rosenblum, Station Hospital, Fort Bliss, Texas.Lt. Fred M. Sandifer, Jr., StationHospital, Smyrna, Tenn.Lt. Maurice Schneider, overseasLt. Max Schneider, Scott Field,111.Lt. William E. Taylor, Army andNavy Hospital, Hot Springs, Ark.Capt. Kent H. Thayer, Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver1936Capt. Hugo C. Baum, 13th GeneralHospital, Camp Robinson, Ark.Lt. Benjamin B. Cohen, FortLeonard Wood, MissouriLt. Thomas O. Dorrance, Yuma,ArizonaLt. William L. Ewald, O'ReillyGeneral Hospital, Springfield, Mo.Capt. Kempton L. German, Station Hospital, Camp Adair, OregonAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3186HUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7798Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized as one of the leading TeachersAgencies of the United States.WM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER CONSTRUCTION600W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 2208BOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492Tailored Uniforms Made to MeasureWomen Doctors and Nurses, Stock sizeInterne SuitsANEDA McSWEENY1910 So. Ogden AvenueSEEley 3734 Evenings by AppointmentTuck PointingMaintenanceCleaning PHONEGRAceland 0800CENTRAL BUILDING CLEANING CO.CalkingStainingMasonryAcid WashingSand BlastingSteam CleaningWater Proofing 3347 N. Halsted StreetHARRY EENISENBURG, Jr.STANDARDREADY ROOFING CO.Complete Service10436S. Wabash Ave. TelephonePullman 8500 Maj. Samuel I. Greenberg, Station Hospital, Camp Croft, South CarolinaCapt. Granville W. Larimore,Maxwell Field, Ala.Lt. Barney Malbin, Balboa Island,Calif.Capt. William L. McEwenCapt. Stanley E. Monroe, 2ndWAAC Training Center, DaytonaBeach, Fla.Capt. Bertram G. Nelson, ArmyMedical Center, Washington, D. C.Lt. Martle F. Parker, StationHospital, Camp Shelby, Miss.Lt. Robert C. Ranquist, StationHospital, Amarillo, TexasMaj. John L. Reiger, overseasCapt. Frank E. Rubovits, CampPolk, La.Lt. Monroe K. Ruch, Upper-Darby, Pa.Capt. Walter A. Schimmel,Cochran Field, Macon, Ga.Maj. Joseph M. Shachtman,overseasLt. Laddie L. Stolfa^ Station Hospital, Camp Roberts, Calif.Maj. Edwin T. Tellman, 19thGeneral Hospital, Camp Livingston,La.Capt. John E. Tysell, 13th General Hospital, Camp Robinson, Ark.Lt. Philip Vogel, overseasLt. William D. Warrick, CochranField, Macon, Ga.Maj. I. A. Wiles, 49th GeneralHospital, Camp Carson, ColoradoLt. Gordon W. Wormley, Randolph Field, San Antonio, Texas1937Capt. Samuel Adler, overseasLt. Bernard H. Ailts, StationHospital, Barksdale Field, La.Maj. Kermit H. Anderson, SantaAna Army Air Base, Calif.Capt. Leonard M. Asher, WestLos Angeles Area Station Hospital,Calif.Lt. A. Lincoln Ashworth, CampBeale, Calif.Capt. C. Armand Barnes, 15thGeneral Hospital, Fort Dix, N. J.Lt. Thomas D. Beatty, CampMaxey3 TexasLt. Eli N. Bernstein, HammondGeneral Hospital, Modesto, Calif.Capt. Eli L. Borkon, Camp Grant,111.Maj. Adrian Brodey, FitzsimonsGeneral Hospital, DenverCapt. Marcus D. Burnstine,Rock Island Arsenal, 111.Lt. Leon B. Comroe, Camp McCain, Miss.Lt. Loli R. Cortesi, Camp SkokieValley, Glenview, 111.Maj. Paul C. Doehring, Jr. Capt. Richard V. Ebert, overseasLt. William N. Freeman, FortLewis, WashingtonMaj. Melvin O. Goodman, NewStation Hospital, Fort Devens, Mass.Capt. Russell G. Hightower,Station Hospital, Camp Davis, N. C.Capt. Robert A. Hollands, Nichols General Hospital, Louisville, Ky.Lt. George W. Holmes, StationHospital, Amarillo, TexasLt. William R. Jacobs, Base Hospital, Chico, Calif.Capt. J. G. Kepecs, overseasLt. Philip Lefkin, Station Hospital, Camp White, OregonCapt. Aaron S. Leven, RossfordOrdnance Depot, Toledo, OhioCapt. Emil D. Levitin, RandolphField, San Antonio, TexasLt. Irving I. Lomhoff, Army Induction Station, New York CityCapt. Saul A. Mackler, 16thEvacuation Hospital, Camp Blanding,Fla.Capt. James M. Marshall, overseasCapt. Maurice J. McElligott,Fort Logan, UtahLt. Robert G. Mindrup, CampCampbell, Ky.Capt. Franklin J. Moore, 13thGeneral Hospital, Camp Robinson,Ark.Lt. Jewett P. Motley, Basic Flying School, Coffeyville, KansasMaj. Francis J. Phillips, overseasLt. William J. Pitlick, StationHospital, Fort Lewis, Wash.Capt. Samuel Pollack, Army Induction Station, ChicagoMaj. John Post, Coast ArtilleryMedical Detachment, Seattle, Wash.Charles H. Rammelkamp, Jr.,Consultant to Secretary of War, Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases,Fort Bragg, N. C.Lt. William Rotters manLt. George A. Sather, StationHospital, Des Moines, IowaCapt. Kenneth M. Smith, overseas.Capt. Thomas M. Torgerson,William Beaumont General Hospital,.El Paso, TexasLt. Marvin P. Vanden Bosch, AirBase Hospital, Salt Lake City, UtahCapt. Herbert Wald, Camp Pickett, Va.Lt. Carl A. Walvoord1938Capt. Frank J. Ankner, overseasLt. Louis S. Baer, Naval Hospital,Seattle, Wash.Lt. Eugene J. Boros, Camp Shelby, Miss.Capt. Thomas A. BroderickLt. Francis Brown, overseasTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25Capt. Richard H. Callahan, La-Garde General Hospital, New OrleansCapt. Norman R. Cooperman,16th Evacuation Hospital, CampBlanding, Fla.Lt. Gerald B. Demarest, EslerField, Alexandria, La.Lt. Ralph L. High, 13th GeneralHospital, Camp Robinson, Ark.Capt. John P. Klein, 27th Evacuation Hospital, Camp Breckinridge,Ky.Lt. O. Wilhart Koivun, CampClaiborne, La.Lt. Charles E. Magner, overseasLt. Nels O. Monserud, Army AirForces, Altus, Okla.Capt. Harold R. Morris, overseasLt. Gordon C. PrattLt. William F. Reynolds, 37thStation Hospital, Camp Barkeley, Tex.Capt. Milton Schindler, overseasLt. Herman M. Serota, DarnallGeneral Hospital, Danville, Ky.Lt. Robert B. Smith, Deshon General Hospital, Butler, Pa.Lt. Carl D. Strouse, overseasLt. Raymond VanderMeer, Station Hospital, Camp McCoy, WisconsinCapt. Frank W. VanKirk^ Jr.,overseasCapt. Willard B. Weary, 33rdGeneral Hospital, Fort Jackson, S. C.Capt. Adolph Wein stock, Veterans Administration, Fort Custer,Mich.1939Lt. Norris L. Brookens, HoffGeneral Hospital, Santa Barbara,Calif.Lt. Edward E. Cannon, Classification Center, Nashville, Tenn.Lt. James W. Chambers, StationHospital Fort Riley, KansasLt. Joseph Conway, Station Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Mo.Lt. Arthur H. Downing, MedicalInduction Station, Fort Snelling,Minn.Lt. Preston B. Ellsworth, Jr.,364th Infantry, Phoenix, Ariz.Lt. E. W. Haertig, Station Hospital, Rosecrans Field, St. Joseph, Mo.Lt. John M. Hammer, StationHospital, Fort Wayne, Detroit, Mich.Lt. Irving D. Harris, Army-NavyInduction Board, Cleveland, OhioLt. Hiram D. Hilton, FitzsimonsGeneral Hospital, DenverMaj. Robert C. Hunter, CarlisleBarracks, Pa.Lt. Edward L. Jackson, overseasCapt. Chester T. Johns, StationHospital, Camp San Luis Obispo,Calif.Lt. Aaron Kellner, Station Hospital, Westover Field, Mass. Lt. Sidney R. Lash, overseasLt. Frank McCarry, Desert Maneuvers, CaliforniaLt. Robert J. NeufeldRobert F. Rushner, School ofAviation Medicine, Randolph Field,TexasCapt. Louis A. Sass, overseasLt. Charles A. SchiffLt. Thomas W. Sherman, PeoriaInduction Center, Peoria, 111.Capt. Carroll F. Shukers, FortSam Houston, Texas1940Lt. John O. AustinLt. ,Ellis G. Behrents, CarlisleBarracks, Pa.Capt. Abraham I. Braude, overseasLt. Frederic A. dePeyster, 13thGeneral Hospital, Camp Robinson,ArkansasLt. Jackson C. Dillon, overseasLt. Benjamin M. HairLt. Walter W. Hamburger^ Jr.,111th Station Hospital, Camp Wheeler, Ga.Lt. Walter D. Hawk, overseasCapt. Ryland M. Jacobus, ArmyAir Forces, Visalia, CaliforniaLt. William N. Jones, overseasCapt. Jack L. Kahn, overseasCapt. Donald E. O'Brien, overseasLt. Albert R. Ryan, overseasCapt. Harold F. Schuknecht,Randolph Field, San Antonio, TexasLt. George W. Smith, Jr.Lt. William B. Smith, San Antonio, TexasLt. Richard W. Trotter, overseasCapt. Edward J. Whiteley, Headquarters VIII Corps, Brownwood,Texas1941Lt. Ralph W. Barris, Fort Benjamin Harrison, IndianaCapt. Mil ward W. Bayliss, overseasLt. John M. Bowen, Camp Barkeley, TexasLt. Irving E. Brown, Jr., 329thInfantry, Camp Atterbury, IndianaLt. Donald L. Buchanan, overseasLt. Daniel H. Cahoon, School ofAviation Medicine, Randolph Field,San Antonio, TexasLt. Richard S. CookLt. George C. F. Dohrmann,O'Reilly General Hospital, Springfield, Mo.Lt. Elmer M. Franz, Station Hospital, Camp Phillips, KansasLt. Joseph K. Freilich, overseasLt. William O. Good, Camp Hale,ColoradoLt. Frank S. Gray, Camp Beale,Calif. The Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is a filiated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.STENOTYPYLearn new, speedy machine shorthand. Lesseffort, no cramped fingers or nervous fatigue.Also other courses: Typing, Bookkeeping,Comptometry, etc. Day or evening. Visit,write or phone for data.Bryant^O StrattonC O LL)E G E18 S. Michigan Ave. Tel. Randolph 1575JOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900- —0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882Albert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency61st YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkSTANDARDBOILER and TANK CO.524 WEST 42nd STREETTelephone BOUIevard 588626 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWilliam C. Lewis, U. S. PublicHealth Service, BostonLt. Barron F. McIntire, StationHospital, Camp Langdon, N. H.Capt. Earl J. Olson, Fort Custer,Mich.Lt. Morten S. Olson, overseasCapt. Kenneth D. Orr, CampWhite, OregonCapt. Eugene C. Pelton, 216thCoast Artillery, San Francisco, Calif.Lt. Donald J. Reichert, School ofAviation Medicine, Randolph Field,TexasLt. Sidney C. Stenerodden, overseasLt. Norman Taub, Carlisle Barracks, Pa.Lt. Charles E. Test, overseasLt. William H. Todd, U. S. Maritime Service, New YorkLt. John D. Whitmore, CampWhite, OregonLt. Everett J. Witt, BarksdaleField, La.Lt. Milton H. Yudell, School ofAviation Medicine, Randolph Field,San Antonio, TexasTHE CLASSES1878Elverton E. Major, MD, writingfrom Los Angeles tells us that he isalmost eighty-nine years old, still advising many friends, but is not in active practice. He adds, "If any ofthe other members of my class areactively engaged, I do not know wherethey are located."1885G. A. Yaeger, MD, writes thathe is "about the oldest graduate ofRush Medical College in active (notvery) practice in Chicago, Class of'85 — way back in the horse-and-buggydays."1 894After retiring from the presidencyof Sioux Falls College, South Dakota,in August 1941, Warren Behan, DB'97, PhD '99, has been engaged in"interim" pastoral work at Granville.Ohio, and Pontiac and Flint, Michigan.1895Lewis O. Atherton, secretary ofthe Jackson Association of CreditMen, Jackson, Michigan, writes thathis "relations with the University datefrom the time of President Harper andProfessor Whitman in zoology. Therewere giants in those days, amongothers Alonzo Stagg."1896Charles S. Pike writes: c Afterspending several hot, hectic months inWashington as the representative of anationally known steel company, I have returned to the comparativecalm of Detroit. While in Washington I met many of the old (grayhaired) University crowd, includingSecretary Ickes ['97, JD '07], ArthurHenning ['95], and many others.1897Edgar J. Goodspeed, DB, PhD '98,received the honorary degree of doctorof law at the Charter Week celebration of the University of California atLos Angeles. Archibald MacLeishwas the principal speaker at the exercises and Dr. Goodspeed wrote thatit was interesting to him that his PhDdiploma from Chicago was signed byArchibald MacLeish' s father, who wasacting president of the board of trustees at that time. We understand thatDr. Goodspeed speaks regularly overradio station KFAC, Los Angeles.1900Mary B. Harris was appointed amember of the Pennsylvania Board ofParoles a year ago.1901Henrietta Chase Carter sends usthis news: "My stepson is a lieutenantcolonel in Africa.; one of his sons is inWest Point, the other in an officers'training aviation camp in Florida. Myson-in-law has just been sent to CampRoberts and his wife is driving atractor and is connected with the Cali-Glen Eyrie FarmFOR CHILDRENDELAVAN LAKE, WISCONSINBOYS and GIRLS 7—12Farm experience besides camp activities including swimming and boating.June 25 to September 3Sent] for story of tne Farm.VIRGINIA HINKINS BUZZELL, '13Glen Eyrie Farm, Delavan Lake, Wis. fornia Institute of Technology. Myhusband is in ill health, and I am atthe present teaching French in a private day school — the PolytechnicElementary School in Pasadena."1902Gustavus B. Jackson, MD, hasopened an office in Santa Barbara,California.1903The Richmond Times-Dispatch eachyear selects a Virginia Honor Roll. Itis a salute in print to a limited number of persons who have reflectedcredit upon the state. In this year'slist is included the name of JacobBillikopf, formerly of Virginia, nowof Philadelphia, for "his nationallyrecognized work in the field of socialwork, welfare, and the arbitration oflabor disputes, to say nothing of hisleadership in Jewish relief." Billikoffhas been made an honorary memberof Phi Beta Kappa at Richmond.Helen M. Benny of Valparaisowrites us this anecdote. "Not longago, using the technique of Freemanand Gray, I taught a nephew who hadbeen a C student for three years toread. In the fourth grade he becamean E pupil and still holds that record.To his mother he said one day, 'IsAunt Helen really smart? I had ahard time making her understand thestories in my reader. If I missed asingle word, she'd get all balled up.'This reinforces my contention thatprimary teachers make or mar manypupils. I never taught primary butcould trace a teacher's influence inhigh school for good or bad."1904George H. Shull, PhD, professorof botany and genetics at PrincetonUniversity for twenty-seven years, became professor emeritus in June, 1942.Likewise in June 1942 he was giventhe degree of ScD honoris causa, byIowa State College, in recognition ofscientific work which provided thebasic principles of hybrid corn, nowgenerally recognized as one of the mostimportant contributions to agriculturein recent years. Hybrid corn potentially adds a quarter of a billion dollarsannually to the income from American corn producing farms. Dr. ShulPsretirement brings to a close a veryextensive and comprehensive series ofgenetical experiments with the evening primrose, in which 20,000 tomore than 40,000 pedigreed specimenswere grown each year.1907Arno B. Luckhardt, SM '09, PhD'11, MD '12, sends in this note: "Inthe spring of 1942 I was elected president of the Chicago Literary Club, theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27oldest active club of the city, now inits 69th year. Because of this election, forty-eight Christmas-mindedBookfellows and guests sat down todinner in the Lantern Room of theDrake Hotel on Friday, December 18,1942, at which I, as Bookfellow No.7967, was the guest of honor. OnDecember 12, the council of the German Medical Society of Chicagoelected me unanimously as an honorary member." William E.suiting petroleum geologist ofDallas, Texas,pointed director§m\\W ological Survey.Secretary Ickesannounced thatthe name of Mr. Wrather had beenproposed by a number of outstandinggeologists and scientific organizations,including a committee of the NationalAcademy of Sciences especially appointed by President F. B. Jewett ofthe Academy at the request of Secretary Ickes. He had asked the Academy to propose the names of men whohad high administrative ability as wellas sound technical and scientific competence. Mr. Wrather was numberone on the list. His professional workhas been largely in the field of petroleum geology, but he is recognized asone having wide understanding andappreciation of the entire field of geology. He did graduate work at theUniversity for two years and taughtgeology at Chicago, the University ofTexas, Yale, Northwestern, and Southern Methodist. He has been servingas associate chief of the metals andminerals division of the Board of Economic Warfare.Mr. Wrather represented the National Academy of Sciences and theNational Research Council at the International Congress at Madrid in1926. He attended the NationalGeological Congress in South Africain 1929. He was a member of theorganizational committee of the 16thInternational Geological Congress inWashington in 1933 and was a delegate to the 1 7th International Geological Congress at Moscow, Russia, in1937. For notable work in geologyhe was awarded the alumni medal atChicago's Fiftieth Anniversary.Mr. Wrather is a fellow of theGeological Society of America, inwhich he has held several offices; amember of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ofwhich he is a member of the executivecommittee; a former president of theAmerican Association of PetroleumGeologists; a former president of theSociety of Economic Geologists; aformer president of the Texas Geological Society; and a member of theAmerican Institute of Mining andMetallurgical Engineers, of which hewas chairman of the petroleum division in 1933.1912Elsie Clark Krug, MA, readsChinese poetry and speaks on Chineseart before many women's clubs andchurches. She has helped to organizein Baltimore, where she is living, mission study classes on Latin America.She is secretary of the Baltimore Conference, Woman's Society of ChristianService of the Methodist Church.B. H. Lunde of Park Ridge, Illinois, says he has been making hardware for the Army Air Corps for theirlink instrument trainer and also fortheir navigating trainer.1913Chester S. Bell, JD '15, hasmoved to Neenah, Wisconsin, wherehe has become associated with Kim-berly Clark Corporation. He writes:"It is not quite accurate to say that Iam in the legal department, but ratherthat for the time being I am the legaldepartment, working with the assistance of two young chemical engineersto keep this huge corporation in com pliance with the multitudinous, confusing, and often unintelligible government regulations. So far, withgood intentions, lots of work, and acertain amount of good luck, we havemanaged to keep out of trouble."1915The New York Times reports thatFrancis T. Ward, his wife, and threesons, narrowly escaped injury early inApril when fire swept their framedwelling near Manhasset, Long Island.Aravilla M. Taylor, SM '16, PhD'19, continues as head of the biologydepartment at Lake Erie College.Clara Louise Small, writes fromDove Creek, Colorado: "I was, andstill am, the class's least known member and most insignificant. I amcounty director of public welfare inDolores County — one of the few remaining pioneer parts of our greatU. S. A. On the side I farm and dowhat I can for the war effort, as dowe all!"France Peck Mell reports thather two eldest sons are in service:David, a first lieutenant in the Marines is in the south Pacific, andJames is a cadet in the Army AirCorps.Katharine J. Densford, AM, isprofessor of nursing and director ofthe nursing school at the University ofMinnesota. She is vice-president ofthe American Nurses Association,president of the Minnesota Nurses Association, and chairman of the Minnesota Nursing Council for WarService.1917Donald P. Bean, manager of theU. of C. Press for twenty-five yearsand executive director of the FiftiethAnniversary, has resigned from theUniversity to become a member of theStaff of the Restoration in charge ofthe interpretative program of ColonialWilliamsburg. Bean had been onleave from the University for the pastyear.Reveley H. B. Smith has been appointed sales manager of the Lawrence Portland Cement Company,with headquarters in Boston. Mr.Smith started his cement career inChicago with the Atlas Company andhas been associated with this U. S.Steel subsidiary for thirty years, resigning in April to join the Lawrenceorganization. Mrs. Smith was RuthG. Mallory, '20. Their daughter,Lelia Jane, is a sophomore at OberlinCollege and their three sons Trevor,Mallory, and R. Herbert, are "what isgenerally known as a houseful. Nevera dull moment — say Ruth and Reve."Harry J. Isaacs, MD '19, reports28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEE. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAYmarket 79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIthat his oldest son is now a freshmanin the medical school, U. of C.Blanche Crosby Schmalhorst,AM, received her ThD degree fromIliff School of Theology at DenverUniversity in 1939. She is living inBerthoud, Colorado.1920Florence Edler deRoover, MA'23, PhD '30, writes as follows: "Nothing new to report. I am head of thehistory and government departmentin MacMurray College for Women.My husband, Raymond deRoover, ishead of the economics and businessdepartment at Illinois College, the coeducational college here in Jacksonville. This is the 'city of institutions'— three state ones and two liberal artscolleges. We have the largest schoolfor the deaf in the world (they say),the second largest school for the blindin the U. S., and a state hospital forthe insane, which is distinguished byquality rather than by size. (I do notmean that the other state institutions are not of high quality. They are famous abroad as well as over here fordistinguished work.)"Evening courses on the background and issues of the present war,open to the public free of charge, plusa more than full daytime program ofclasses, plus local and state activitiesin the AAUW, plus a large vegetablegarden, not to mention a husband anda dog, which attends classes regularlyat both colleges, keep me somewhatbusy."My husband asks whether I havementioned that I write a nasty bookreview now and then and articles inItalian economic history of the MiddleAges and Renaissance. He and Iphotographed so many thousands ofdocuments concerning economic history in Italian archives before 1939that we have enough material to lastus several life times."1922W. Hynes Pitner is vice-presidentof the Pharis Tire and Rubber Company, Newark, Ohio.Oscie A. Sanders, AM, is field secretary of the woman's division of theMethodist Church. Her home is inHouston, Texas.John R. Rowe, AM, is educationaldirector of Encyclopaedia Britannica.Katharine Howe Chapman, MD'27, has moved to Colorado Springswhere she is practicing as an eye specialist. She and her three children"enjoy the Colorado climate andpeople."Lora M. Adams says that there isnothing of interest to report aboutherself, but she is "proud of the University for maintaining its standardsduring the war."1923Helen Huff Shell is director ofcounseling for women at the WrightAeronautical Corporation in Paterson,N.J.Cilena G. Walker, AM '34, retired in January as principal of DeweySchool, Chicago, after thirty-five yearsin the Chicago public schools.Lois Fisher is doing illustrationsfor children's magazines and makingpersonalized cartoon stationery that issold at all big stores in the country.She is living in Chicago.C. M. Wise, AM, head of thespeech department at Louisiana StateUniversity, was president during thepast year of the National Associationof Teachers of Speech. He has contributed the first six chapters ofFoundations of Speech, edited by James M. O'Neill, published by Prentice-Hall in 1942.Irene Roberts Adams reports thatshe is secretary of the National RatingAssociation of South Bend, Indiana.She teaches private classes in Spanishalso. Her son, age twelve, is a cadetat Morgan Park Military Academyand hopes later to enter U. of C. tostudy medicine.1924A new textbook, The Bible in OurAmerican Life, by S. Vernon McCasland, AM, PhD '26, published bythe Virginia Council of ReligiousEducation, has been approved by theVirginia State Board of Education foruse as a credit course in the highschools of Virginia on an electivebasis.Richard Hartshorne, PhD, hasbeen granted leave as professor ofgeography from the University of Wisconsin and is now a member of theboard of analysts, Office of StrategicServices in Washington.1925Anna M. Jones is in charge ofguidance in two junior high schools inNew York City. "Right now," she reports, "we are stressing leisure timeeducation as a means of delinquencyprevention. Through a series of classdiscussions, hobby shows, speakers,and trips, we impart information anddevelop interest and skills in worthyactivities."William R. Boorman, AM, is Wisconsin manager of Prairie Farmer-W.L.S.Clyde E. Partridge, MD, is in general practice as well as chief medicalofficer serving in a civilian capacityfor five hundred Army aviation cadetsat Kansas State Teachers College,Emporia. He is a private pilot withover 200 solo hours to his credit, andsays that he is able to do some goodwork with his training in aviationmedical care.Martha Gose Wright writes fromDecatur, Georgia: "My U. of C. mathtraining (under the late excellent Mr.Slaught and others) has come in veryhandy in an engineering science andmanagement war training (we call ita junior engineering) course I'm taking. I've made a straight A gradein the five classes these first eightweeks. The course is being presentedat Georgia Tech. To manage thecourse and our home with four children keeps me busy indeed. We mustmove to Rockford, Illinois, as soon asa home big enough for six can befound for us. I hope to find thatCamp Rockford or some Rockfordwar industry needs a junior engineerTHE UNI V(mighty junior!). Eleven weeks justscratch the surface of mechanical andcivil engineering."Carol, our eldest, hopes the proximity of Chicago may mean that shecan attend the U. of C. year after next— the war allowing."1926Florence E. Carman, AM, is completing her twentieth year teachingBible in the Baptist Missionary Training School in Chicago.Ethel M. Evans, SM, writes thatthere is nothing to report about herself except that she has had the classin preflight at New Trier High School,Winnetka, and has enjoyed gettinginto the "applied" field.Alice L. Pearson of Stambaugh,Michigan, tells us that she receivedher AM from the University of Colorado in the summer of 1939.Harry Whang, a Korean, has beenlecturing on the Far East and teaching elementary Japanese to membersof the Army at Self ridge Field. Whanghas been a resident of the UnitedStates for twenty- three years.1927Mary Jones Espenshade, AM '40,sends us this impressive news abouther sons and daughters: Paul, '38, isat the 75th General Hospital, FortBragg; Robert, '37, is with the accounting department of Johnson andJohnson, Chicago; Edward B., Jr.,'30, SM '32, now on leave from thegeography department of U. of C, iseditor of maps at the War College inWashington; Ada, '36, AM '38, formerly instructor at Wellesley, is nowgeographic analyst with the Board ofEconomic Warfare, Washington; andEsther, '29, AM '31, is research headof the Illinois Bureau of Labor, Chicago.Florence G. Gundlagh has beenemployed by Mandel Brothers in Chicago since last November.1929Armand R. Bollaert is living atPalos Verdes Estates, California. Heis technical director of the DicaliteCompany, Walteria.Hazel E. Foster, 'AM, BD '32,PhD '33, has lived and traveled extensively in India, and is now lecturing in this country on India and thewar as well as on the renaissance ofarts and crafts in India. She hasspoken recently at Hiram College, theCleveland Art Museum, ^ and atchurches and several women's clubs.She makes her headquarters in Chicago.Alice W. Wolff, AM '38, is nowan assistant superviser in the home ERSITY OF CHICAGOservice department of the Chicagochapter of the Red Cross. Says shefinds "life hectic, what with maidproblems, etc."1930Harold B. Kenton, PhD '33, isworking as pathologist at the Deaconess Hospital, Boston.Carter Davidson, PhD, presidentof Knox College, has been appointeda member of the Committee on Relations between the Federal Government and Higher Education of theAmerican Council on Education.Etta J. Thomas of Big Rock, Illinois, has retired from teaching.Eleanor A. Davis, AM '38, is associated with Elmhurst College asteacher of methods of teaching English, in addition to teacher of Englishand journalism in York CommunityHigh School. She's also serving as secretary of the committee on public relations and morale of the OCD inElmhurst.John T. Sites, AM, is working asa chemist in the Denver ordnanceplant. He lives in Golden.1931Elizabeth McClintic, AM '38, isteaching English, Latin, and library atthe high school in Stonington, Illinois.Bessie L. Alford is still teachinghome economics at Taylor University,Upland, Indiana.Arthur W. Walz of Chicago hasbeen teaching mechanical drawing inthe public schools since 1923. Astreasurer of the Chicago TeachersUnion for four years he worked forimprovements in public education;and as treasurer of the EdgebrookGarden Club he has worked for community improvements and victory gardens. He is also active in civilian defense work. 'George D. Humphrey, AM, president of Mississippi State College, wasrecently selected as one of the eightmembers representing the public onthe Southeastern W^ar Labor Board,the only representative from Mississippi on the board. Humphrey ispresident of the Southern Associationof Colleges and Secondary Schools.1932John C. Pletz, Jr., AM '38, is aninstructor in English at Elgin Academyand Junior College, Elgin, Illinois.Dorothy R. Mohr, AM '33, formerly director of physical educationfor women at Tusculum College,Greeneville, Tennessee, is now on thefaculty of the physical education department for women at the State University of Iowa, and is nearing completion of the requirements for the PhDin physical education. MAGAZINE 29j GREGG \I COLLEGE jI A School II of Business Ii Preferred by College Men 5i and Women )t Student body represents 30 states, \I 80 colleges. (Stenographic, Secretarial,and Accounting CoursesSend for free booklet: "The Doorwayto Opportunity."Court Reporting CourseWrite for special free booklet aboutschool of Court Reporting: "Shorthand Reporting as a Profession."* Methods courses for business teachers.n Only high school graduates accepted,I THE GREGG COLLEGE( President. JOHN ROBERT GREGG. S.C.D.5 Director. PAUL M. PAIR. M.A.|! Dept. C. A., 6 N. Michigan Ave.( Chicago, III.I _ „_TELEPHONE HAYMARKET 4566O'CALLAGHAN BROS., Inc.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.William L. Grimes is employed byR. R. Donnelley & Sons Company atCrawsfordsville, Indiana, as job operator. He has two daughters, Nancyand Margaret.Ethel Bierman is employed in theArmy regional accounting office ofthe War Department. She is volunteering every Friday night at theTravelers' Aid desk of the Servicemen's Center in Chicago.Walter D. Yates is sales managerof the office brokers department ofJames S. Kemper and Company inNew York.1933Charles L. Hopkins, Jr. is withthe Social Security Board in California. He is living in Hollywood.Richard O. Niehoff, AM '34, iswith the OPA in Washington.Charlotte Klein Coleman, AM'35, writes: 'Thought you might be30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEinterested in the enlargement of ourfamily group to include two Belgianrefugee children. They have been withus eight months and are making asmuch of a contribution to our familyand the community life as they are receiving. We have one child of ourown, a son almost five years old."Adolph H. Pass is assistant manager of labor relations of the StandardOil Company in Chicago.1934Alina Kieradlo Drake is workingin the blind relief service of CookCounty, Illinois, as a medical socialconsultant.William E. Cunningham is aground school instructor at the RankinAeronautical Academy at Tulare,California.Linton J. Keith, '34, is editor-in-chief of the Follett Publishing Company of Chicago.Rosemary Sheehan is principal ofWoodrow Wilson Junior High School,Chicago.1935Frances Bonnem Wagner is teaching in the Chicago schools. Her husband, Lieut. Louis A. Wagner, '35, isin chemical warfare stationed at Edge-wood Arsenal.Meyer M. Resnikoff, SM '37, hasbeen appointed instructor in mathematics at Carleton College, Northfield,Minn.Gifford Mast has moved to Detroit and is working with the JamHandy organization. He is engaged inadministrative and development workin the field of aerial gunnery. "That'sall that would get by the censor," hesays.The Linguistic Society of Americahas announced two special publications by Robert A. Hall, Jr., AM, incollaboration with others — a Melane-sian Pidgin English grammar, text,and vocabulary, and a MelanesianPidgin phrase-book and vocabulary.The books should be of practical valueto those now engaged in the Melanesian area.1936Asa C. Isham is practicing medicine at the Cincinnati General Hospital.Robert R. Walterhouse is a member of the editorial staff of Barnesand Noble, New York City.M. L. Wardell, PhD, has been designated as director of the summerschool at the University of Oklahoma,,Norman.Robert B. Giffen writes that he ischaplain to Presbyterian students, inand out of uniform, at Princeton University, and knows "a little of theanguish Chicago is going through inconversion," as about half of thecivilian students have gone.Robert H. Sganlan, SM '39, hasrecently completed requirements forthe PhD in mathematics at M.I.T.and is at present employed at theFleetwings division of Kaiser Cargo,Inc., Bristol, Pennsylvania, as an engineer. He and his wife have a daughter,Kathleen, aged four months.1937Esther Jane Aberdeen, PhD, is ageologist with the U. S. GeologicalSurvey in Washington.Norman Davidson, PhD '41, is doing research in the metallurgical labat U. of C.Marvin M. Cohn has been electedsecretary and is a member of theboard of directors of L. A. Cohn &Brothers, Chicago, smelters and refiners of non-ferrous metals.James D. Baker has accepted aposition as English teacher in the Mc-Donogh Academy, Maryland.Ruth Wolkow, SM, is an assistantin the electronics department of theSignal Corps at U. of C.Brevard E. Crihfield is managingBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin thePhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove Avenue University of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, Director director of the Schenectady (N. Y.)Bureau of Municipal Research. Hereceived his MS in public administration from Syracuse University.John A. Vieg, PhD, is on leavefrom his position as professor of government at the Iowa State College,Ames, and has been serving as headprogram officer of the reoccupationdivision of the Lend-Lease Administration.Margaret E. Thompson is atSaint Francis House, University ofWisconsin, where she is assistant tothe chaplain.1938Arthur L. Smith, Jr., MD '40, ispracticing at the Mayo Clinic,Rochester.Mary Frances Hedges, AM, is asubstitute teacher in social science inthe public schools of San Francisco.Elizabeth B. Morris sey left NewYork City several months ago to joinher husband, a first lieutenant in theField Artillery, at Camp Maxey,Texas. She has been acting directorof the local USO-Travelers' Aid unit.Helen L. Myers of Tucson, Arizona, says she is engaged mostly involunteer work for the local soldierrecreation program and the YWCA.Philip Rootberg has won the silvermedal for the second highest grade inthe November, 1942, certified publicaccountants examination. The awardwas made by the Illinois Society ofCertified Public Accountants at aMarch dinner meetmg in Chicago.Mars M. Westington, PhD, headof the classic department of HanoverCollege, has been elected president ofthe classical section of the IndianaState Teachers' Association. He wasguest speaker at the classical conference of the Schoolmasters' Club ofMichigan held at Ann Arbor April 16.Anne Holtzman Goldsmith issecretary to the comptroller, NormalBoard of Education, Lincoln, Nebraska. She is active in the AAUW,Red Cross, YMHA Sisterhood, etc.Edwin E. Goehring, MA, is actinghead of the Department of Businessand Economics at Valparaiso University. He was married in June,1941, to Esther Weerts of Hinsdale,Illinois. They have a son, MichaelFrank, born on November 21, 1942.CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.614$ Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions*'THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO1939Deborah R. Hample, AM, is doingpsychiatric social work for the American Red Cross, Fort Monmouth, N. J.Clyde S. Pritchard, AM, is teaching in the Graduate School of SocialWork at the University of Washington, Seattle.Robert H. Lochner, AM '41,former fellow in the political sciencedepartment and research assistant toProfessor Merriam, has been with theinternational (short-wave) division ofNBC for almost two years since he leftthe University. He talks daily in German to such German listeners as areable to hear him. He is the son ofLouis P. Lochner, AP correspondent,and lived in Berlin for many years.He writes his own scripts, which consist partly of news, partly of propaganda appeals.Joe Wilson is a research chemistwith the Goodyear Aircraft Corporation at Cuyaboga Falls, Ohio. Hesays, "It takes chemists to build airplanes, too."Janet Wilder Dakin, PhD, hasbeen appointed to the department ofbiological science at Hunter College.She will teach general zoology.1940Lorenz A. Meyer, PhD, is actingsupervisor of an aptitude test groupin the occupational analysis section ofthe War Manpower Commission,Washington.Al Pfanstiehl is teaching in theelectronics course of the Signal Corpsat the University while awaiting induction into the Army.Lois E. Spooner is now employedin the personnel office of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York City.Marjorie H. Kuh has gone toWashington to become assistant to thedirector of recreation in one of thenew dormitories for working girls.Marian Rentsch Johnson is living at Chico, California where herhusband, Lieut. Charles A. Johnson, '40, AM '41, is currently stationed.1941Frederick W. Schantz, Jr., ismechanical inspector with the ArmaCorporation, Brooklyn, N. Y.Howard G. Woody, MD, is resident surgeon at the Shriner's Hospitalfor Crippled Children, Chicago.Warren S. Stutts, Jr., is with thex\merican Friends Service Committeein Xico, Mexico.Victor A. Notier, MD, holds afellowship at the Mayo Clinic,Rochester.Rollin H. Denniston, II, PhD,has been appointed instructor in extra careMAKES THEEXTRA GOODNESSA Product ofSWIFT & CO.7409 S. State StreetPhone Radcliffe 7400BOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical Collegephysiology and zoology at the University of Wyoming, Laramie.Mary Elizabeth Coleman, AM,is teaching grade 3 at the LaboratorvSchools, U. of C.Edna Winch Simmons, AM, isprincipal of the Christian EbingerSchool at Edison Park, Chicago.Ferne Sabin Focht, SM, left thephysical education department at theUniversity of Nebraska last year andis now attending the medical schoolat Northwestern University.Harry G. Monteith is doingchemical research for national defense at Northwestern Institute ofTechnology at Evanston.1942Edna B. Gearhart, AM, is doingsocial service work in Oklahoma City.Florence E. Bloom is a statisticianat Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio.Paul Heaton, PhD, is teachingEuropean history in the John Marshall Law School, Chicago. MAGAZINE 31William H. Shultz, AM, is teaching in the government day school conducted for the children of the Zunipueblo on the Zuhi Indian reservationin New Mexico.Muriel H. Lawson is teachingelementary English in the publicschools at Westmont, Illinois.Robert E. Smith has been rejectedby the Army and is working for PanAmerican Airways System, with headquarters in Brownsville, Texas. He isan administrative assistant and travelsin Central and South serviceMiss Abbott, Miss Breckinridgeand Miss Walker attended theregional meeting of the National Conference of Socia.1 Work held in St.Louis, April 12-16. One hundredalumni of the school had breakfasttogether on the morning of April 15.Miss Abbott presided at this meetingand everyone enjoyed the traditionalroll call.Miss Abbott delivered the addressat the annual meeting of the MissouriAssociation for Social Workers, whichwas held on one of the evenings of theconference. She spoke on the subject"Public Welfare in the Century of theCommon Man."Wayne McMillen, PhD '31, professor of social service administration,and James Brown, PhD '39, assistantprofessor of social service administration, are both out of residence at theUniversity during the spring quarter.Mr. Brown is in New York City working on a special study with the Community Service Society and Mr. McMillen will remain in Chicago to workwith the Community Fund and WarChest.Dorothy Williams Burke, PhD'29, is now working with the NationalAmerican Red Cross in their regionaloffice in St. Louis.Eva Iola Klass, AM '36, is casework supervisor in the Department ofPublic Welfare in Franklin County,Benton, Illinois.Dorothy Moyer, AM '37, has beenappointed consultant in social servicesin the division of public assistance ofthe Department of Public Welfare inIllinois.Lucille Hastings, AM '38, is assistant supervisor of social work in theIndian service in the Department ofthe Interior, working in the Denveroffice.Esther Ortleb, AM '39, has accepted a position with the division ofchild welfare in the State Department of Social Welfare in Kansas.Arthur W. Potts, AM '40, become the director of the division of32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpublic assistance in the Indiana StateDepartment of Public Welfare onApril 1. Mr. Potts has been a member of the staff of the departmentsince May, 1937.Hugh Folk, AM '41, has beenmade district supervisor in the SocialSecurity Commission in Missouri andRuth Ferguson, AM '42 has accepted a position as assistant case worksupervisor in the same organization.Marjorie Lozoff, AM '41, is caseworker with the Menninger Clinicand Southard School in Topeka, Kansas.Theo Taylor, AM '41, has accepted a position as case worker withthe Illinois Children's Home and AidSociety in Chicago.William K. Tuttle, AM '42, hastaken the position of director of thesocial service department at the GilaRiver Project of the War RelocationAuthority at Rivers, Arizona.Of the students who took the Master's degree at the Winter Convocation, 1943, the following have goneinto medical social work positions:Ruth Andelman, Presbyterian Hospital in New York City; SylviaBloom and Evelyn Kasdan, NewYork-Cornell Medical Center in NewYork City; Luisa Iglesias, Department of Health in Puerto Rico;Annie Bird Prichett, American RedCross Station Hospital at CampBlanding, Florida, and I. DorothyTaylor, Vanderbilt Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee.Those going into public welfareagencies are Harriett Gruger, SocialSecurity Board, Cleveland; CleonMorgan, field representative with theDepartment of Social Welfare in Kansas; Anna Parsons, consultant, ChildWelfare Services, Department ofPublic Welfare, Ohio; MildredStoves, director of public assistance,Department of Public Welfare inTennessee; Dorothy Swiss helm,consultant in child welfare services,Department of Public Welfare in Indiana; and Mercedes Velez-Her-rera, director of the child welfaresection of the Department of Healthin Puerto Rico. Others are LouisDeBoer, director of the boys courtservice of the Chicago Church Federation; Yvonne Girioux, TravelersAid, U. S. O. in San Jose, California;ECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893 Jacqueline McPherson, case workerwith the Child Welfare Association ofAtlanta, Georgia; Ruth Kraft, anemployee counselor in the office of thechief of finance, War Department inWashington, D. C; Vida Lehman,psychiatric social worker in the Milwaukee County Guidance Clinic;Beulah Anderson Rohret, caseworker with the United Charities ofChicago.ENGAGEMENTSMuriel Markman, '42, to Emil M.Cohen of Chicago. He is with theArmy Air Forces at San Bernardino,California.Alice J. Lowry, '43, to Lieut. JayT. Nichols, '42. He is stationed withthe Marines at Fort Benning, Georgia.MARRIAGESMary Elizabeth Bebb, '40, toDavid H. Shideler, '39, on March 27in Chicago. She is the daughter ofHerbert Bebb, JD'13, and Mrs. Bebb.Shideler is instructing in the Instituteof Meteorology, U. of C.Elizabeth L. Kingsbury, SM '42,to Pat A. Coso in October 1942. Sheis working as nutrition consultant forthe Maine State Department ofHealth and Welfare, Augusta.S. Ruth Chatfield, AM '41, toLorenzo E. Cornish, on March 30 inChicago.Clarabel Grossmann, '42, toArthur A. Goes, Jr., '38, in March.At home, 1622 Abingdon Drive, Alexandria, Virginia. He is training atFort Belvoir.Anne M. Cullen of New York toEnsign James T. McBroom, '36, AM'39, of Spokane, Washington, on July28, 1942, in Norfolk, Virginia. McBroom sailed in March for fleet dutyin the southwest Pacific. At home,139 Wall Street, Ventura, California.Lillian Lohmeyer, '27, to HenryF. Lunenburg on July 15, 1942. Athome, 1240 Quincy Street, N. W.,Washington, D. C.Elizabeth F. Sutherland, '41, toLieut. Wayne K. Hinkle, on December10, 1942. At home in Sherman,HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS SINCE 190 6+ WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES ?I + ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ?I + ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE +^RAYNEIT• DALHE1M &CO.20S4 W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO. Texas, where he is an instructor in theArmy Air Corps.Helen-Marie Shaw, '39, to JohnC. Stamm, '42, on May 16, 1942. Heis a research chemist with the Standard Oil Company of Whiting, Indiana.Sally Kahn to Melvin A. Garret-son, JD '37, on October 14, 1942. Heis with the OPA in Chicago.BIRTHSTo Reuben S. Frodin, Jr., '33, JD'41, and Mrs. Frodin (Rebecca D.Hayward, '33) a daughter, JoannaHayward, on April 22.To Lieut. Ralph Buchsbaum, '28,PhD '32, and Mrs. Buchsbaum adaughter, Vicki Mabel, on December17, 1942, at San Antonio. He is onleave from the College, U. of C, asassistant professor of zoology and isstationed at the Arctic, Desert, andTropic Information Center at EglinField, Florida.To Jack J. Carlson, '40, and Mrs.Carlson (Elise C. Young, '40) twingirls, Susan Elise and Sharon Lee, onApril 26. The Carlsons are living inChicago.To Rudolf T. Eric son, '27, andMrs. Ericson (Dorothy Bostrom.'29) a son, David Rolfe, on July 23^1942. They are living in WesternSprings, 111.To Ignace J. Gelb and Mrs. Gelb(Hester Mokstad '33) a second son,John Vincent, on March 15. TheGelbs are living on Drexel Avenue inChicago.To Paul C. Foster, MD '37, andMrs. Foster of Gallipolis, Ohio, adaughter, Stephany Ellen, on February 26.To Ensign William G. Stryker,AM '42, and Mrs. Stryker, a daughter,Janet, on January 29 in Los Angeles.Mrs. Stryker was during 1941-42 secretary to Dr. William S. Gray of theeducation department, U. of C.To Herman E. Ries, Jr., '33, PhD'36, and Mrs. Ries, a son, WalterElkan, on March 23. They are livingat 6719 Chappel Avenue, Chicago.To Louis S. Kassel, '24, SM '26,PhD '27, and Mrs. Kassel, a daughter,Anne Barlow, on March 29. The Kas-sels are living in Riverside, Illinois.To Frederick L. Redefer and Mrs.Ashjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELETTERS[Continued from inside front cover)summer. In this way we were ableto get the full benefits of the areas explored.After getting off of sea duty I wassent to the National Naval MedicalCenter in Bethesda, Maryland, for acourse in tropical medicine. I did sowell in this that they sent me to therecruiting station in New York City.During this time I took advantage ofmy stay there — on night duty — totake a three months' observation period at the hospital for special surgery — the same old "ruptured andcrippled." I must say here that thestaff there was one fine bunch andtreated me better than possibly I deserved.Last January I was pleased to receive a course in general surgery herein Philadelphia under the Navy. Itis one of the best courses in post-graduate surgery that I have ever seen.Thanks must be given not only to theNavy but also to the staffs of thePhiladelphia hospitals and medicalschools for cooperating in the undertaking. This course is sort of a refresher course and an advanced surgeon or a novice can get just as muchout of it from both ends of the scale.My best bit of news came throughlast week when I had finished thiscourse. I was ordered to the Columbia Presbyterian Hospital for a residency in orthopedic surgery. Thisbegins next week.Now that I have brought myself upto date, I will apologize for not having written you before this. Letterwriting is one of my abominations soI will not promise to write soon again,but I will try to keep you posted onmy changes of address. I have always enjoyed being a member of theAlumni Association and I considerthe Magazine one of the most up todate publications for analyzing current problems. Continue to count mein! Respectfully,H. Todd Stradford, '36, MD, '38Lieutenant Commander (MC), USNPhiladelphia Naval HospitalBIRTHS{Continued)Redefer (Helen E. Sisson, '25), ason, Frederick Douglas, on August 20,1942, in New Milford, Connecticut.Mrs. Redefer is back again with Montgomery Ward in New York and Mr.Redefer is soon to go to England fora six weeks' stay. He is a consultantto the OWI and will lecture in theUnited States in the summer relativeto post-war education. To George F. Dale, '33, and Mrs.Dale, a son, Richard Michael, onMarch 4. The Dales are living inMadison, Wisconsin.To Jesse A. Reed, Jr., '40, andMrs. Reed, a son, on March 4. Reedappends to the announcement: "Iplan for him to attend the U. of C.also."DEATHSGustav Fletwood, MD '90, ofMuskegon, Michigan, on September21, 1942.William L. Crow, JD '20, JSD '32,of Appleton, Wisconsin, on July 31,1942, at the Veterans Hospital, Wood,Wisconsin.Hans A. Rein hard, MD '03, onJune 8, 1942, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Alice Winston, '98, AM '03, onJanuary 30. She was formerly associate professor of English at the University of Kansas, Lawrence.Louise E. Lynch, '13, formerschool teacher of Gary, Indiana, onJune 8, 1942, in Chicago.Grace Barrington Green, AM'32, dean of girls at Reuben Post Hal-leck Hall, on October 10, 1942, atLouisville, Kentucky.Richard A. Granquist, '13, onFebruary 20 at Newark, N. J.Norman Root, '30, former U. of C.sprinter and recently track coach atIllinois Tech, on March 16 in Chicago. He had been ill since 1941.Helen Martin Rood, PhD '34, onJanuary 22. She was an authority onchildren's literature.Harry J. Schott, '09, MD '11, onNovember 24, 1942, in Los Angeles.He had practiced orthopedic surgeryin Los Angeles since 1921, havingserved for many years as chief orthopedic consultant to the Los Angelescity schools. While at U. of C. heplayed fullback on the varsity team in1907 and 1908.Eunice Schofield Kelley, '16, onFebruary 2, in Houston, Texas. Mrs.Kelley was an accomplished musicianand writer. Her book, Baby's HealthThrough Natural Laws, has been wellaccepted in the United States.Charles T. Rothermel, '13, Chicago real estate broker and formerbanker, on April 7.Joseph B. Coambs, '11, on April 1in Boston.Mabel E. Wager, '25, of Chicago,on January 19.Irma Cahn, '38, on April 1 in Chicago.Georgia E. Finley, AM '22, onFebruary 27. She was home eco nomics teacher at Indiana Universityfor twenty-five years and acting headof the home economics departmentfor two years before her retirementin 1939.Herbert W. Hill, PhM '04, PhD'11, since 1927 professor of Englishand literature and university editor atthe University of Southern California,on February 16.Marcus Hirschl, '09, JD TO, Chicago attorney, on April 2.James R. Grimshaw, '33, in NewOrleans.Charles M. Barber, '03, of Albuquerque, New Mexico, on January 6.Bertha Brainard McElroy, MD'32, on March 12 at Rochester, Minnesota, after an illness of eighteenweeks. She had practiced medicine atJamestown, N. D., for seven years,during which time she was city healthofficer and was in charge of healthservice at Jamestown College.William Connolly, MD '83, onMay 15, 1941, at the age of 80 years.Elnathan P. Hatheway, MD '95,of Ottawa, Illinois, on April 4.Orville M. Hanna, AM '29, onNovember 4, 1942, at River Falls,Wisconsin, where he had been in theEnglish department of the StateTeachers College for over twenty-fiveyears.Emmett E. McCoy, MD '93, onJune 6, 1940.Charles D. Donaldson, '11,member of the faculty of the StateTeachers College at Eau Claire, Wisconsin, since 1921, on November 25,1942.Oscar W. Tulisalo, MD '17, onMarch 14, 1942, at Atlanta, Georgia.Emma C. King, '12, AM '13, onNovember 18, 1942.Ida M. Anderson, '25, on October7, 1942.Elizabeth Whalen Davis, '23, ofChicago, on August 31, 1942.Marcus S. Farr, AM '94, formerPrinceton professor, on August 27,1942.Alphonse O. Brungardt, '18,treasurer and general manager of theEstey Organ Corporation, on December 24, 1942, at Brattleboro, Vermont.Frances E. Sabin, '12, on January10, at Jonesboro, Tennessee.Elizabeth Smith, '18, of SouthPasadena, California, in August 1942.Robert M. Lapsley, MD '91, eye,ear, and nose specialist of Keokuk,Iowa, on January 5.Nels Werner, MD '04, of EauClaire, Wisconsin, on February 26.Etoile B. Simons, PhD '05, onMarch 2, at Lawrence, Kansas.HOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Parle Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3192POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 Chicago EASTMAN COAL CO.Established I VO?YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. 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