PI ll limpilliii gg>$THE UNIVERSITYOF(H KAGO MAGAZI N EAPRIL 19 4 3The Probable 1943 Alumni Reunion^[ Plans are being made for the traditional June Reunion. J. MiltonCoulter, '18, has been appointed general chairman, and Arthur A.Baer, '18. is to direct the sessions of the Alumni School. With suchleadership success is assured, despite the war and the resultantquadrangular limitations and despite the rationing of travel and offood.^[At the present moment plans are admittedly tentative, but it ishoped to schedule three sessions of the Alumni School, probably onthe evenings of June 9, 10, and 11, probably at three different centersin metropolitan Chicago.^[ The Order of the C will probably hold some sort of home-comingon June 10, probably opening their program with the customaryVarsity- Alumni ball game.^| Saturday, June 12, is Reunion Day.There will probably be an Alumnae Breakfast, probablyheld in Ida Noyes Hall.A general Alumni Assembly is scheduled for mid-afternoon,probably in Mandel Hall.Just after sundown, we probably will celebrate the thirty-third annual University Sing, probably in Hutchinson Court.^[And, at odd times during Reunion week, there will probably besundry professional school and class reunions, with or without food.Definite plans are in the making. You will get farmore complete details in the May issues of theAlumni Bulletin and the MagazineTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONCHARLTON T. BECKEditor HOWARD W. MORT and BEATRICE J. WULFAssociate EditorsDON MORRIS, CODY PFANSTIEHL Contributing Editors HARRY SHOLLAssistant EditorTHIS MONTHTHE COVER: In calm retreat aswar workmen move southward in theReynolds Club lounge students reviewthe war-front news before retiring tothe Alpha Delta Phi house, where theClub now has temporary quarters forthe duration.FRIDAY, March 26, marked Chicago's 212th Convocation. Simeon E. Leland, chairman of the Department of Economics and of theBoard of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, delivered theConvocation address on inflation,which we are printing. Mbonu Ojike,Nigerian prince, Mir Amanudin An-sary, of Afghanistan, and twenty-year-old, straight-A-average DanielZelinsky were among those receivingmaster's degrees.«T ENJOYED this recent sketch ofA the late Dean Vincent in SocialScience so much that I am sending itin the hope that you will print extracts from it in the Magazine/'wrote S. S. Visher, '09, S.M.'IO,Ph.D.' 14. Surely most of our readersremember Dean Vincent — one of thegreat personalities on the Midway.Who doesn't recall such Vincentianaas, "I think perhaps, Mr. Smith, thatyou have produced the wrong recitation. Your remarks are admirablyworded; but this is the class in sociology, not in public speaking." Vincenttook his Ph.D. from Chicago in 1896 TABLE OF CONTENTSAPRIL, 1943PageThe Struggle for the Control ofInflationSimeon E. Leland 3George Edgar VincentL. L. Bernard 6Radio News and CommentatorsSherman H. Dryer 10Chicago — Today and Tomorrow... 13The Dean's Easy ChairGordon J. Laing. 14News of the QuadranglesDon Morris 17News of the Classes 23SENDYOURGIFTTHISWEEKTO THEALUMNIFUNDand was associated with the University for nineteen years. He was deanof the faculties of arts, literature, andscience when he left. Mr. Bernard, author of this engaging sketch, isprofessor of sociology at WashingtonUniversity and has written extensivelyin his field.AUTHOR of the article on radionews and commentators, Sherman H. Dryer is the producer of oneof radio's most popular and oldest educational programs, the University ofChicago Round Table. Originatingfrom the University's Mitchell Towerstudio, the Round Table has earnedconsistently the highest Crossley rating for programs of its type. Dryer isauthor of the recent book, Radio inWartime,, published by Greenberg.IF SOME alumni, especially "pre-olrl-New Plan alumni." still have aquestion or two about the reorganization of the College, we refer them toDon Morris's News of the Quadrangles. Don gives us a look at thenew curriculum, including a courseominously titled, Observation, Interpretation, and Integration.HAVING concluded the story ofhis alumni deanship education,Dean Laing begins a highly interesting investigation entitled, "Are Doctors Human?" Perhaps this is a problem which has troubled you at onetime or another. We hope you willenjoy following the Dean's investigation as he pursues it through the nextfew issues.Jmversity hicago Magazine. University Avenue,Office at Chicago,ising agency of theThorndike Hilton Memorial Chapel has served the Quadrangles for fifteenyears as a student retreat for meditation and an intimate setting for weddings.Today the University pigeons and sparrows are thriving on a triple ration of rice.VOLUME XXXV THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 7APRIL, 1943THE STRUGGLE FOR THE CONTROLOF INFLATION« By SIMEON E. LELAND, Ph.D. '26Will political statesmanshipor pressure groupsprevail?TODAY, in the midst of war, some groups are placing their economic advantage ahead of the generalwelfare. It is in the interest of all that prices bestabilized at present, or even lower, levels; that wages befixed at the going rates for all except, perhaps, the sub-marginal groups; that spendable funds above necessaryliving costs be transferred to government use. If thesethings are done inflation may be avoided, human suffering and privation now and after the war minimized.The likelihood of a post-war collapse will be lessened;the present cost of the war, as well as future difficultiesconnected with the repayment of a colossal national debt,will be reduced. It is to the real advantage of everygroup of citizens that further increases in prices andwages be prevented.Yet the leaders of certain farm organizations wanthigher prices for farm products. Increased productionhas been made more difficult since the supply of farmlabor has been depleted by volunteers to military service, by the draft, and by the exodus of young people toindustry. In spite of this, the military requirements forfood will probably be double those for the past year, andat least one-fourth of the 1943 production will be required by our armed forces and by our allies. Last yearagricultural production was the greatest in our history.The 1943 production goals have been fixed in excess ofthis record and, given favorable weather conditions, willprobably be realized. Cash income from farm marketing and prices received by farmers are now higher thanin any year since 1920. The rank and file of dirt farmersare believed to be satisfied with present agriculturalprices ; many, in fact, are reluctant to witness furtheradvances. They recall the conditions following the lastwar when the depression in agriculture ruined farmersthe country over; they see in present events the remakingof such conditions. Nevertheless, a few organization leaders demand increased prices, allegedly so that agriculture can compete with industry for labor. The publicis being told that the farmer has gained little as a resultof the war effort, while the position of labor has beenunreasonably improved. Quite to the contrary, even inthe midst of the last depression, the plight of the farmerwas never as severe as that of the factory worker. Moreover, since the beginning of the war program in June,1940, the cash income of farmers has advanced almostas much as factory wages and more rapidly than salariesand wages in general. Last year income in agricultureincreased a third more than in manufacturing, and wasdouble that for construction and transportation. BetweenAugust, 1939, and October, 1942, prices of farm productsrose more than four times as much as industrial prices;food prices increased three times as much. There is nopresent economic plight for the farmer, despite the implications of leaders playing power politics.Efforts to control prices date from 1941 when the Office of Price Administration was created by executiveorder. Congress made this policy a matter of law inJanuary, 1942, but the authority 3of the Price Administrator in regulating the price of farm products and certain derivatives was limited by the farm bloc. Last Aprila comprehensive program to prevent inflation was promulgated by the President. That program included ceilings on prices and rents, the stabilization of wage ratesand farm prices, the rationing of scarce commodities, theregulation of instalment buying, stiffer taxes, more debtrepayment and increased investment in war bonds. Unfortunately, this program was not fully implemented.Wage controls were not made effective until October; anadequate fiscal program has not yet been adopted. Theprice of all foods or farm products could not be fixed bythe general price freezing order issued last May, since thefarm group had previously secured legislation to preventthe fixing of agricultural prices at market values unlesssuch prices were higher, in general by 10 per cent, thanso-called parity. Nor yet could the government sell itssurplus agricultural commodities at prices below the legalminimum. One result of this legislation was that only34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEabout 60 per cent of the total food budget could be subjected to price controls last spring. Although subsequentlegislation and administrative orders have placed over90 per cent of the food bill under regulation, difficultiesin the control of farm prices still persist.Parity, as the original goal of the organized farmerswas called, was simply an artificial price designed bylegislation to give farmers more than the market valueof their products. So long as market prices were belowthat standard the organized farmers wanted parity; whenprices rose above parity that already-high standard wasnot enough — they legislated more for themselves. Eventhe computation of parity has been modified by them, asbills now pending in Congress abundantly indicate.The success of the farm bloc program and its cost tosociety as a whole are indicated by the steady advanceof farm prices and the rise in the cost of food. Sincethe beginning of the war program, agricultural priceshave steadily increased. Neither the April, 1942, stabilization program nor events since have stopped that upward trend. Since June, 1940, food prices have advancedover thirty-four points, three-fourths of which have comesince the middle of 1941. Last year food prices, on theaverage, advanced 16.5 per cent. Certain commodityprices increased far more. This steady rise in the costof living is inciting labor to demand higher wages.The anti-inflation program of last April proclaimedthe policy of stabilizing wages, but did not provide thenecessary legislation or directives to make wage controleffective. Subsequently, in the "Little Steel" case theWar Labor Board announced it would reject all wagedemands involving more than the 15 per cent cost-of-living increase between January 1, 1941, and May 1,1942, and thus geared the national wage policy to thecost of living. It was not until October that a similarpolicy was made effective for voluntary wage agreements.At that time salary limitations were also imposed. During the nine months after the general price freeze wentinto effect, the cost of living advanced 5 per cent, orabout one-half per cent per month. Food prices, however, which are the major charge in the budgets of working families, advanced over eleven points in the sameperiod. Rent and clothing prices, fortunately, declined.With living costs increasing steadily, with food pricesadvancing most rapidly of all, and with farm organization leaders exploiting Congress for added economicadvantages through political action, labor has alreadyasserted that the limitation of wages by the "Little Steel"formula is no longer satisfactory. Every increase inprices makes it less so. Already strikes are being calledto secure higher wages. Indirectly the forty-eight-hour-week order, involving overtime pay, may provide someincreases in payrolls in industries now working less thanforty-eight hours per week, but it is doubtful if it willapply to many classes of labor. Such advances as areinvolved will not long satisfy workers if living costs continue to rise. Labor, too, may turn to Congress for po litical action, whereas during the war it has relied mainlyon collective bargaining and the present abnormal demand for labor to achieve increases in wages. Althoughthe federal administration has strongly supported laborand encouraged collective bargaining, it has, during thepast year, endeavored also to curtail increases in wages.When the demands of certain farm and labor groupsare put into juxtaposition the failure of the price stabilization program seems inevitable. Farmers demandhigher agricultural prices to keep up with labor and toattract workers from factories to farms; labor demandshigher wages to compensate for increased food and living costs. Caught in such a cycle prices can only rise.If they do not rise sufficiently to satisfy the one groupor the other, each seems to possess the political powerrequired to secure Congressional action. Should laborand agriculture join ranks, the outcome is hardly indoubt.Unfortunately, economic forces are playing into thehands of those who want inflation. Government expenditures for war (since June, 1940) have risen from $153,-000,000 to an excess of $6,000,000,000 per month. Duringthe fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, the Federal Government spent almost $13 billion; the following year itsexpenditures exceeded $32 billion; during the last sixmonths of calendar 1942 they were over $35 billion. The$80,214,000,000 spent in the thirty months following theinauguration of the war program were more than thenational government spent in the thirteen years from 1927to 1940. During the next fiscal year the aggregate expenditures of the national government are expected to be inexcess of $100 billion. The injection of this stream ofpurchasing power into the national economy has liftedthe volume of industrial production, employment, income, and other criteria of prosperity to record levels.The index of industrial production rose seventy-fourpoints between June, 1940, and December, 1942, to anall-time peak. Income payments increased from $6,468,-000,000 in June, 1940, to $11,404,000,000 in December,1942. The national income has increased by $40 billionin two years. It is now running at the rate of about $137billion annually, mainly as a result of increased payments for salaries and wages. Cash income of farmershas risen from $9,106,000,000 in 1940 to an all-time highof $16,138,000,000 in 1942. Civilian employment sincethe beginning of the war program (June, 1940) has increased by over 3,000,000 workers, but over five and ahalf million workers have gone into manufacturing industries. So effectively has industry been converted tothe production of war materiel that 60 per cent of totaloutput now goes for war. The production of consumers'durable goods in October was about half as great as inJune, 1940, and over a third below the production levelof June, 1941. Only previously accumulated inventorieshave made possible the sustained volume of retail sales.The result of these conditions is that fewer consumers'goods are available in the market for the greatly increasedTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 5spendable funds now flowing into the pockets of thepeople.This excess of spendable funds above the supply ofavailable goods is the main economic pressure for inflation. The amount of this excess has been estimated atabout $16 billion for the current fiscal year, and at from$25 billion to $40 billion for the fiscal year ending June30, 1944. To control inflation by fiscal means requiresthe transfer of the greater part of these funds to government use, either by taxation or by non-inflationary loansfrom current income. The decrease in available consumers' goods and the extension of rationing will facilitate these transfers. In the budget for 1944, the President has asked for the transfer of $16 billion to government account. This sum was the amount of additionaltaxation or saving required to close the inflationary gaplast year. Stiff as it is, it is not enough to absorb theexcess of spendable income to be generated in fiscal 1944.Present federal taxes will yield less than $23 billion inrevenue during the current fiscal year, and about $33 billion in fiscal 1944. The additional taxes and compulsorysaving requested by the President will, if enacted, raisetotal revenues for fiscal 1944 to $51 billion. To achievethis goal will require increased income taxes, compulsorysaving, and probably a sales tax as well as other measures.If taxes are to be used to reduce the surplus of spendable funds, the taxation devices employed should reachincome where it has been increasing most rapidly. Thetax program must be directed, therefore, toward wageearners and farmers. It must be aimed at income classesbelow $5,000 where, according to 1942 estimates, 93 percent of consumer units and two-thirds of consumer incomes are found. If the income tax is employed for thispurpose it will require the reduction of the exemptionfor married couples, say from $1,200 to $1,000, and thereduction of the present $350 deduction for dependents,so that married couples are taxed more nearly on a basiscomparable with single persons. It will also require theclosing of loopholes in the present law, as well as sometax rate increases. But the income tax alone cannot produce all of the desired effects, nor can it reach all whoshould be taxed. Increased social security taxes andcompulsory saving (designed to reach incomes above theincome-tax-exemption limits) would also help reducespending power in the low-income classes. A retail salestax will also reduce the spending power of this and othergroups since it is one of the few taxes to reach farmersand those living off capital. The harshness of thesesuggestions is to be deplored, but the effects of su'ch taxation will be less damaging than an equal dose of inflation.Such taxation, of course, does not satisfy many socialreformers, business men, labor leaders, farmers, or othergroups. Indeed, almost every citizen has his own ideasas to what types of taxation are most desirable, and eachfeels qualified in our form of government to make de- SIMEON E. LELANDcisions between them, usually on the basis of his owngains. The divergent economic interests and beliefs ofvarious groups naturally come into conflict over nationalfiscal policies. These conflicts antedate the founding ofour government, and though from time to time the influences have changed, vigorous pressures for specialpreferences in legislation are still being applied. Thesuccess of manufacturers in enriching themselves throughtariff protection was in no small measure responsible forpolitical action by the organized farmers.One phase of almost every pressure program is to prevent taxation adverse to the supposed interests of thespecial groups. At present, for example, the heaviertaxation of low-income classes is to be desired, but laborhardly favors this policy. It desires the heavier taxationof the middle class and especially of those with incomesabove $25,000. Attention has been directed principallyto the latter group. On the basis of 1940 income taxreturns, the complete appropriation of all income in excess of $25,000 would produce only $1,400,000,000. Theadditional revenue above present taxation thus providedwould be less than $500,000,000. This will be of slighthelp in solving inflation dilemmas unless it makes easierthe taxation of incomes below $5,000. On the otherhand, many labor leaders, reformers, and spokesmen forthe farmers object to the sales tax because it is regressive. Yet, unless low-income groups can be more effectively taxed, the control of inflation by fiscal means isillusory. Increased social security taxes, objected to byconservatives, ideally meet present requirements inasmuchas they reach rapidly growing wage incomes and are collected at the source as wages are earned. Objectionsrun rather to the benefits promised than to the taxes imposed. Corporate taxation, already heavy, may have tobe increased still more. There is danger, however, thatit may become too heavy, interfering with incentives for(Concluded on page 21)GEORGE EDGAR VINCENT• By L L BERNARD, Ph.D. '10Those were interestingtimes, weren'tthey?"I HAD heard something of the brilliance of GeorgeEdgar Vincent before I went up to the Universityof Chicago in 1907 to do graduate work in sociology.Most of the scattering information I had about him cameto me through Professor Charles A. Ell wood, my teacherof sociology at the University of Missouri, who had beena student of Vincent's nearly ten years before. I recallthat he gave me the impression that Vincent was abrilliant lecturer, perhaps somewhat less fundamental inhis ideas than the other men in the department atChicago, and altogether a bit of a heretic. The factthat Vincent taught social psychology of the French orcollective type intrigued me and I was determined tohave as many courses with him as possible. He also hadthe less advanced courses in the history of social theory,and therefore I was advised to take the more heavyweightcourses in this subject with Professor Albion W. Small,who was described to me as a father to his students. Mywork with Vincent delighted me.Perhaps there was also in Vincent something of thatfeeling for the poor and awkward student which causedhim to be kind to me. He himself had never been poor,I take it, although his family could scarcely have beenaffluent in his boyhood days. His father was a liberaland eloquent Methodist minister who conceived the ideaof carrying the lay sermon and the lyceum coursetogether with sufficient entertainment to appeal to everyone, in a concentrated "short course" of a week to thesmall cities and larger towns and thus give the semi-urban people an intellectual summer outing. The Chautauqua, as this institution was called, was something morethan a highbrow camp meeting, for its early purposeunder John H. Vincent's management was primarily intellectual improvement, with a mild religious flavor. Butit was certainly modelled to a large extent upon theCctmp meeting idea, especially on its organizational side.The lecturers took the place of the traveling evangelistsand the musical programs were somewhat analogous tothe singing that was then an essential feature of thecurrent revivalism.It was said that the elder Vincent had done wellfinancially with Chautauqua. He had been able to sendGeorge to Yale for his undergraduate work, where hewas associated with W. H. Taft and other men laterpolitically famous. George had himself served Chau tauqua for some time after graduating from Yale, bothas platform manager and as lecturer, and had therelearned to be something of an orator on his own account.When the University of Chicago was established he wentwith other Yale men, including President Harper andFrederick Starr, to the new institution. His initial rankwas only that of fellow in sociology, but after a year'swork as a student he was raised to the rank of instructorand fairly rapidly to the positions of professor and dean.When I entered the University in 1907 he had alreadybeen on the teaching staff more than ten years and wasnow dean of the colleges, a position practically equivalentto that of vice-president of the University, it was said.He was an executive of unusual dispatch. I had occasiononce or twice unobtrusively to observe him at work inhis little "cubby hole" in the west end of Cobb Hall,where most of the deans were located in those crowdeddays. These "cubby holes" were fenced off with thinboard partitions, and were uncovered at the top, so thatthey reminded me of nothing else so much as of the"cells" in a fifteen cent "flop house" I had patronizedone night after my arrival in Chicago, seeking to knowhow the homeless lived. They were considerably cleaner,but they were scarcely more spacious or private. Onecould hear the interviews with all the other deans if hecared to listen. Once or twice I was called in to seeVincent in his own particular "cubby hole" and had towait a few minutes until he cleared up some papers thatwere waiting for him. His assurance and speed calledforth my strongest admiration. I am not able to sayhow much thought he really gave to such details. Now Iknow more about how the work of most administrators isdone for them by faithful secretaries instead of by them.But I cannot recall who his secretary was, while I remember almost every lineament and attitude of ProfessorSmall's, the decisive but not unkindly Miss Carter.Vincent was said to be one of the most popular lecturers in America and to command top prices for hisoratorical and educational performances in this connection. He was reputed to be the most finished ofafter-dinner speakers. I think perhaps this reputationdetracted somewhat from his standing as an educator onthe campus. I had heard him in a formal lecture onlyonce, and that was the last year of my undergraduatework at the University of Missouri. The Y.M.C.A.lecture course had engaged him to lecture on "Crowds."The performance was brilliant in a high degree, butrather cold. Yet the sheer perfection of his diction wasoverpowering and everyone was filled with enthusiasmby his skill in manipulating words. He spoke with greatrapidity and energy and clarity. Never a word was out6T II E U N I V E R S I T Y OF CHICA G () M A G A Z I N ETo a student whoboldly bluffed hisrecitation Dean Vincent once said: "Thevariety of your misinformation is almost an excuse forits being."GEORGE E. VINCENTof place. He never stumbled in his grammar and hevvas never ill at ease.During this lecture he performed an experiment on hisaudience, telling them about it later. He wished toillustrate the fact that the skilled orator could perverthis argument by means of suggestion and convince hisauditors of a non sequitur conclusion to the facts heoffered them by merely confusing them with speed and bystrong emotional insistence upon the point he wished tohave them accept. He did this very thing to his audience with regard to some proposition which I no longerremember, but I felt very much pleased with myselfthat I had detected his poor logic before I knew hisintention, and I learned afterwards that a few othershad done the same, although most of his hearers hadsuccumbed to the spell of his presentation.He himself was said to be responsible for the statement that all his lectures were pretty much of the samepattern. The story was about as follows. He was supposed to have written to some committee entrusted withchoosing one from several of the lectures which he listedthat they might choose any title they preferred, but itwould really make little difference what they chose, sincethey would get the same lecture in any case. While Iheard only one of his formal lectures, I am much inclinedto doubt the verity of this story, for he possessed a richand varied store of knowledge, which he was able topresent with remarkable ease and clarity.The course I liked best by Vincent was his one onpublic opinion. It was not a very large class, with fewerthan forty students, most of them undergraduates as Iremember them now. He was partial to brightness, evento the point of undervaluing the more inhibited plodders.I won his favor, I think, by a paper I wrote describingthe political activities of some of the men in my hall.I refused to take these hall politicians as seriously as theyregarded themselves and I poked fun at them in mypaper and drew a somewhat comical pen picture of oneof them in particular. A week or so later he called measide and asked me if I needed a job in the summer. Ofcourse I did, nothing else as much as a job. He askedme to come to his house beside the campus at a certainhour the following Sunday, promising to tell me about itthen! I was very curious, but I managed to exist until the following Sunday arrived and I went promptly, forI had a premonition that promptness was one of hisfavorite virtues.He sat alone in his study. In a very friendly mannerhe bade me be seated. He was then about 47 yearsold and in his prime. His face had a few lines, due moreto firmness of character I think than to fatigue or worry.He suppressed some of his nervous alertness in orderto put me at my ease. And then I could see that hetook a real delight in offering to do something for me.He asked me if I would like to go on Chautauqua as aneducational lecturer in the following summer (1909). Itwas too large an order for me. I said promptly, "Ishould like to, but I couldn't do it; I've had almost noexperience talking to crowds." "Nonsense!" was hisanswer. 'Anyone who can write the sort of paper youdid about your hall politicians can talk to a Chautauquaaudience." I still had my misgivings, but I thanked himearnestly and said I'd do my best if he thought I coulddo it.The summer came on and I did go on Chautauquathrough the long hot summer in Kansas and Nebraska,where the temperature was rarely down to 100 degreesin the shade through the whole summer. I think Iscarcely distinguished myself, but neither do I believethat I disgraced my patron and sponsor.In my second autumn at Chicago I saw Vincent firstamong my instructors, purely by accident I suppose. Iwas now senior fellow in the department, which meantthat I drew the highest fellowship stipend and wasexpected to direct the work of the other fellows on theJournal and assist the professors in various ways. Hegreeted me cordially and asked me how I should like tobe his assistant that year. Now that was exactly whatI did wish to be. Bedford had gone to a position atMiami University and had left his post open. Everybody knew that Vincent never forgot you or failed todo his best for you if you worked with or for him. Iaccepted the offer immediately and went away quitehappy in my heart.Shortly afterwards I dropped into Dean Small's "cubbyhole" to report my presence to the head of the department and he destroyed all my happiness, for he askedme if I would be his assistant. My job would be to takecare of his seminar materials and do various odd jobs forhim, such as make contracts with the students, help withregistration, etc. It was impossible to refuse the headof the department, but \ hopefully stated that Vincenthad asked me to be his assistant. Small calmly saidthat he would speak to Vincent and get me released.Vincent was away in France the quarter I came upfor my degree and had to secure a position. As a consequence he did nothing for me then. I secured my firstteaching position in the following manner. A fellowstudent, who had obtained an instructorship in economicsat Western Reserve University, brought back news thatthey desired also to add an instructor in sociology. Iapplied, had an interview, and was appointed. But yearslater, when Vincent was about to retire from the presi-8 THE UNIVERSITY OFdency of the University of Minnesota, he appointed meto an associate professorship there, at a considerableadvance in salary over what I had had before.This was seven years after I had taken my degree atChicago and I had climbed to an assistant professorshipin one of the middle-class state universities. I had seenhim only twice in the meantime ; once in the street indowntown Chicago after he had gone to the Universityof Minnesota as president. I did not recognize him untilI had passed too far to speak. He perhaps did notrecognize me at all. The second time I saw him wasat the meetings of the American Sociological Society inColumbus the year he was president. We renewed acquaintance there and I was pleased to note that his oldcordiality remained. In the spring he gave me myappointment at Minnesota. But when I arrived inMinneapolis he had already departed to the presidencyof the Rockefeller Foundation. But the memory of agreat presidency still persisted at Minnesota among themore enlightened members of the faculty.I have mentioned the fact that Vincent was in Francein the spring and summer of 1910. He went for a definitepurpose, which was not achieved. The appearance ofRoss' Social Psychology in 1908 was something of a shockto him. He had apparently regarded the American interpretation of French collective psychology as his ownspecial field and he had ably expounded it in his classesat the University of Chicago, without placing an undueemphasis upon its French origins. He was as much impressed by French contributions to sociology as Smallwas by the German contributions. But Vincent's mindworked as concretely and lucidly as Small's plowedponderously through the jungle of German metaphysicalentanglements. Vincent's doctoral dissertation had already tapped the contributions of the French educational sociologists and educational psychologists and hewas preparing to write a text on collective psychology.But his preoccupation with lecturing and deaning, witha full schedule of teaching besides, had prevented thebook from issuing.He did not hide the fact — he rarely hid any ordinaryconviction or impression — that he regretted that Rosshad beaten him to his self-imposed task of presenting theFrench collective psychology in this country, with hisown critical reactions to it. He said to his classes, "Thatis the field I meant to write in." Knowing how Vincent's mind worked, I have always regretted that he didnot carry out his plan. His book would undoubtedlyhave carried a rich criticism and reworking as well as anaccurate and intensive analysis of the French materials.The appearance of Ross' book evidently stimulated himto break away for a time from his many activities andmake the financial sacrifice of writing the book. Accordingly, after finally getting his affairs into shape, he sailedfor France early in 1910. It was his intention to spendhis time on the coast of France, where his wife anddaughter could find occupations in seaside amusementswhile he worked. But he was back in October and only CIIICAGO MAGAZINEone chapter of the book was ever published. It ran inthe American journal of Sociology as a keen and incisivediscussion of rivalry.His students often speculated in those days on whythe book did not appear. I think no one knows. Hemay have found that even in France he could not sufficiently command his time so as to enable him to getdown to writing systematically. Also, he may have foundwriting much more difficult than talking. Comparativelyfew men develop equal facility in both forms of communication and expression. Yet he was a clear andskilful writer. His doctoral dissertation, which waspublished in book form, proves that. So did his part ofthe Small and Vincent text, An Introduction to theStudy of Society (1894).Dean Small told me the story of how that book waswritten. Vincent was then a student in his graduateseminar and the subject for analysis that year wasthe German sociologist Schaeffle. There was noelementary text in sociology on the market and Vincentproposed to Small that he write one. Small expressedthe opinion that Vincent could write a more acceptableintroductory text than he himself could, an opinion withwhich anyone who knows Small's ponderous Germanstyle will doubtless agree. Vincent then proposed thathe and Small collaborate in the production of a text, andVincent's plan was agreed upon and carried out. Smallwrote Part I, on the history of sociology, which turnedout to be a better interpretation than he later gave in hisOrigins of Sociology (1923). Vincent contributed PartII, on an ecological analysis of the growth of a frontiercommunity (Topeka, Kansas). The other three partswere simply Vincent's rewriting of Small's abstract ofSchaeffle's organismic theory of society. At that timeSmall and his students were still much under the influence of the organismic analogies. Anyone who rereads Part II of the 1894 text cannot doubt that Vincentcould write as well as he spoke, as far as diction wasconcerned. But of course not all of his charming personality could be transferred to the printed page.I am inclined to think that a peculiar trait of Vincent's personality was responsible as much as anythingelse for the failure of the book on social psychology toappear. He was a peculiarly sensitive man, as one withsuch a finely organized intellect as his was must inevitably be. He had the reputation among those who knewhim less intimately of being Voltairian in his wit, sarcasm, and irony. He was that to be sure, but it wasonly a mask of his real self which he wore when in thepresence of little souls who sought to bait him or to traphim into some statement to his own disadvantage. Hewas accustomed to produce such havoc among these persons of little minds that the scene of carnage was harrowing. But that occurred only when he was greatly provoked, or when he desired to be particularly brilliantbefore a none too friendly audience.His real character was sweet, gentle, yielding, and evendeferential, almost to a fault. When I went to Minne-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9sota in 1917 I found the faculty strongly divided overVincent, who had finally resigned in the face of continued opposition from the partisans of the precedingpresident. This president was reputed to have madeevery effort to control Vincent's policy and hold it downto the horse-and-buggy pattern of administration andplanning which prevailed before Vincent arrived. It wasfrom his friends that I first heard Vincent described asVoltairian. His more conservative, opponents hatedhim. When, several years later, the new gymnasiumwas dedicated, all of the former presidents — all werestill living — were invited to be present at the commencement exercises and to make speeches at the dedication.The conduct of Vincent's immediate predecessor was sorude as to be insulting, But Vincent only pressed thosethin decisive lips of his more closely together and spokeof the future of the university and of the need for loyalservice to it. He made no criticism of the past.I believe I have now suggested one reason why Vincent did not complete his work on collective psychology.He was far from being an opinionated, self-satisfied,aggressive man. I never saw another man with suchtranscendent abilities as easily cowed and so unsureof himself. Sometimes a laugh at his expense in classwould for a moment completely disorganize his procedure. I have already suggested that one of the reasonswhy he took an early interest in me and often befriended me was that I recognized his fine qualities andbeing then as now frank in my own expressions he sawmy strong approval of his powers and personality.Occasionally he asked my opinion on the wisdom of thisor that procedure in handling questions in class. Ofcourse I had little or nothing to give him except approval, which appeared to be necessary to his nature. Itis my belief that he was not able to work out some of themore important questions in collective psychology tohis own satisfaction and he was too sensitive to publisha book about which he had doubts. Perhaps somewhereamong his manuscripts this book may yet be found inpartial or completed form. I sincerely hope he did notdestroy it.Another evidence of this underlying distrust of himselfcame out when I was collecting sociological life historiesof the earlier leaders of sociology. I could never get himto write one, even after he had retired from the presidency of the Rockefeller Foundation and had much moreleisure at his disposal. His replies were to the effect thathe never was much of a sociologist and that those daysof teaching at the University of Chicago were now so faraway that he could not accurately reconstruct them.I wrote my own interpretation of his sociological development and always meant to submit it to him for criticism,but I allowed time to outwit me.It may strike some of my readers with surprise thatso able an administrator and student of public opinionas Vincent should not have made a brilliant success atMinnesota. In one sense — the best sense— he was a brilliant success. But he had great obstacles to overcome. It is no secret that the chief of these was the continuedopposition of the retiring president who, it seems, hadbeen Vincent's teacher of English at Yale. He was largely responsible for bringing Vincent to Minnesota to succeed himself, but he expected Vincent to remain hispupil and administer the university under his direction.He had come to the university in the eighteen-eighties,when it was still relatively a small institution. It hadalways remained for him a small college with increasingnumbers of students. His administration was a perfectexample of the survival of primary group organizationand attitudes into a complex modern derivative world.He was said to have continued to know every studentpersonally and by name until the time of his retirement, although they now numbered thousands. He dealtwith his faculty individually and autocratically, somewhat as the father of a family in which there were favorites. He would not even tolerate a telephone in hisoffice and preferred to write his letters long hand in sofar as possible.Vincent went to the university when it was burstingsuch narrow bonds of administration. Vincent wasessentially an idealist with very advanced notions ofeducation from administrative and sociological standpoints. He was at his prime of energy, success, andenthusiasm. We expected him to build the greatest ofAmerican universities and the most powerful departmentof sociology. It was some years before I learned whyhe failed to do so. The old autocratic president, hispredecessor, turned against him when he failed to dohis bidding, and the close personal contacts of this president with the alumni (who are always more loyal to an(Concluded on page 20)L L BERNARDRADIO NEWS AND COMMENTATORS• By SHERMAN H. DRYER. . . Our secondgreat national//air powerTHE word "news" as it is used in broadcasting requires definition. In 1938 the F. C. C. reportedthat about one-tenth of all broadcast time was devoted to news bulletins and reports. If special eventssuch as meetings and sports are included in the definitionof news, the figure becomes about 17 per cent. If talksby the President, various government officials, and newsworthy persons is included, the figure probably wouldrise another 6 to 10 per cent. In wartime, special eventsand talks are likely to be of more news significance thanin peacetime. Should they therefore be considered asnews broadcasts? In addition, there are dramatized programs ostensibly based upon the news, like The 22ndLetter, which dramatize "documented" stories of antifascist activity in conquered countries, or The March ofTime, or An American in London, Norman Corwin'sdramatized "report" from England's capital during thesummer of '42. News, it seems, may be found in manytypes of programs. For our purpose, however, we shallconsider news broadcasts to be those primarily concernedwith the airing of bulletins and reports. Commentators —who not only report news events but interpret them- —will be discussed later.THE JOB OF NEWSCASTINGRadio has partly displaced the newspaper as a primarymedium for the disseminating of news. The reasons areseveral. Radio can report news more quickly and moreoften than the press; and it reports to you in your home.Radio news costs nothing. A flick of a dial and it isyours. Further, one can do other things while listeningto radio news. A minimum of concentration is required.Radio news is more trusted than news published in anewspaper. For one thing, there are no headlines toangle or color reports. The factor of the human voiceelicits the respect and confidence of the listener. On-the-spot radio news pick-ups make for a sense of participationin the events themselves. Moreover, radio, because it islicensed by the government, does not indulge as muchin editorializing stories as do newspapers. It is more neutral, more reportorial. Time cannot be expanded; newspaper pages can be. Limitations of time compel radioto brief its news and to concentrate on the heart, andrelevant facts of a story. The Office of Factsand Figures' Bureau of Intelligence,in a 1942 memorandum titled American Attitudes towardWar News, reported that "in the present war, radio haschallenged both the prestige and the power of the press.In the reporting of news, it has rivaled, in a number ofrespects surpassed, the newspapers. More than half theAmerican people now regard radio as their prime newssource. In the months of January, February, March, andMay, the Bureau of Intelligence asked a national cross-section of the public: 'Where do you get most of yournews about the war — from talking to people, from newspapers, or from the radio?' Radio was chosen over newspapers consistently by nearly two to one." In responseto the question, "Do you have more confidence in the warnews on the radio or the war news in the newspapers?" 46per cent chose radio as against 18 per cent for newspapers.How well does radio report the news? Let us examinethe operations of news periods — five-, ten-, and fifteen-minute programs which almost every station broadcastsregularly as a part of its daily schedule. The first factwhich impresses us is that the news coverage is scattered.Programs seek breadth rather than comprehension — variety rather than lucidity. In effect, they attempt to doin the equivalent of two columns of newspaper type whatthe newspaper does in several pages. And they operatewithout the mechanical advantages of newspaper typography and display. The newspaper, for example, cangather heterogeneous items into space relationships whichare both pleasing and intelligible to the eye. It can concentrate foreign news on a page or group of pages, national news on another, and local on a third. Even headlinetypes, by their size and juxtaposition, can be employed toilluminate the news and develop relationships betweendifferent stories. Radio often fails completely to juxtapose related items. In many cases, such juxtaposition canonly be accomplished by a thorough understanding ofthe points of similarity and difference, of the related factors which underlie events having their origin in widelydisparate circumstances. To the radio listener, who hearsa story only once, and then perhaps imperfectly, it is animpossible task to relate these transient auditory impressions without intelligent assistance from the newscaster.The reasons for radio's failure to live up to its possibilities in news broadcasting are varied. One has alreadybeen mentioned — the fact that time is not elastic. Thefirst rule of a radio news editor is condensation, the skilfulselection and compression of the voluminous reports flowing in over press association teletypes. Condensation,contrary to the usual practice, cannot be said to consistmerely of throwing certain stories in the waste basket.10T IT E U N I V E R S I T Y O F C II I C A G O M A G A Z I N E 11This is simply suppression. Necesssarily, the radio newseditor must concern himself with selection, but it requiresa high degree of judgment to know what news is inconsequential and what news should be reduced to the existinglimitations of time to take its place in a rounded presentation of the day's events. How well is this judgmentexercised?Before we can begin to answer this question, we mustrecognize that the typical news listener does not read thenewspaper — or, indeed, listen regularly to the radio — withthe interest and appetite of the professional editor whosejob it is to know all the news. The typical news listenertakes his news on the run, with the result that he gets agrab-bag selection. He is informed but confused. Itwould seem, therefore, that radio news programs, if theyare to be effective, particularly in wartime when an interpretation of events is of crucial importance, must improvethe organization of the news they broadcast. This involves a responsibility which is too seldom observed inradio news rooms, the job of assembling in lucid form aseries of events which in themselves may be directly relatedbut which in their presentation can, if badly handled, bemade to appear wholly separate and apart from eachother.Aside from crime and similar stories of a "one-time"nature, most news events have a background of events orpersonalities or geography or whatever it may be whichcontributes to their significance. Unless the element whichmakes it worth broadcasting is described, why clutter upthe air with it? Thus, there should follow after the statement of the event itself, a variable pattern of supplementary information which may include any or all of thefollowing: (1) antecedent events; (2) supplementaryfacts, figures, quotations, references to similar events fromwhich lessons might be drawn, etc.; (3) implications ofthe event; (4) such prognostication as may be pertinent,handled with extreme caution and preferably in terms ofparallel events.Virtually no news programs utilize the recommendedpattern. The normal distribution of news in a fifteen-minute program, for example, may be something like this :Foreign 4 minutesWashington 3/2 minutesDomestic 3 minutesLocal '. . . 2 minutesFeature (or sports) 1 minuteOften such a pattern is insisted upon by the sponsor.In any event the listener gets capsules of informationwithout regard for the value and significance of the news.And this brings us to another common deficiency of newsprograms, failure to select and weight events on a "valuebasis." To illustrate: On a certain day a speech by thePresident to Congress may well deserve the program's fulltime if it is to be reported adequately or properly interpreted. But because of the program's traditional grab-bag pattern the speech is given only half of the "Washington"time. The listener gets in addition a number of miscellaneous items, none of which are related to the most importantnews event of the day. In wartime this kind of newshandling may be regarded as truly serious and a matterfor public concern. That the concern does not manifestitself is probably due to the fact that the listener believeshe is an informed person because he has heard a greatmany items of news.Why does radio permit this kind of news reporting? Isit a result of laziness? To render the full wartime serviceof which they are capable, radio news departments wouldhave to work much harder, much longer, and think moreto develop higher standards of news reporting. Instead,the old way of doing things continues. It is defended onfour counts. For one thing, it permits the establishmentof routines. The news department adjusts itself to theseroutines and presumably maximizes its efficiency. Further,it permits a division of work. The various categories ofnews enumerated above can each be assigned to a differentstaff member who concerns himself only with that field.This is said to develop specialized talent. Moreover, itpermits the fullest use of news skills, that is, writing andcondensation. However, in this process the substantiveand interpretive content of the news is usually lost, forit requires no research activity, nor does it require themen with the news skills to have an informational background fitting them for interpretative functions. Finally,most radio news departments are understaffed. They haveno time for the additional effort of digging up backgroundand research data.This last is the most important point of all. Little improvement in the handling of wartime news can be expected from understaffed departments. A great many,probably most, stations have insufficient personnel trainedin news operations. Frequently, staff announcers or othertechnicians pinch-hit as newsmen. Thus it is a commonstudio practice to "gather" news by the simple expedientof scissoring the teletype news to fit the news period andbroadcasting it verbatim.Considering the system and the circumstances surrounding the news operations of radio, the industry has doneClifton M. Utley,'26, for more than adecade director of theChicago Council onForeign Relations, justnaturally became oneof the country's mostpopular broadcasterson foreign affairs. Heis now editor of the"Chicago Sun's" A i rEdition.CLIFTON M. UTLEY12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa good job of not broadcasting the "wrong" things. Butit has done a poor job of realizing its full capacity fordoing the right things. Radio newsmen are specialists inexclusion. What war demands are specialists in inclusion.Only such men can render the needed service of clarification and interpretation of the events and issues of theTHE COMMENTATORS' RESPONSIBILITYThe commentator is a phenomenon of the era of rapidcommunication. Radio, the telegraph, and the telephonehave removed the barriers of isolation from the world.But the growth of communication has been so rapid thatthe education of the people has not really kept pace withit. We read and hear about other nations and becomefamiliar with the names of some of their leading personalities and cities and develop an international vocabularybut we still have little understanding of the background ofinternational events.Many of us turn, therefore, to professional wise men —commentators and journalists who learn for us, think forus, and, when they presume to recommend public policies,often act for us. The radio commentator is the mostimportant and influential of the lot, for he can personallyspeak to thousands and sometimes millions of us, reachingin five or fifteen minutes more people than the readers ofall the Sunday newspaper editorials put together.One of the most interesting things about commentatorsis the fact that the people who listen to them know littleabout their competence. Radio has established no universal qualifications which commentators must meet before the microphone is opened to them. In the last analysis, the employment by a network of a commentator restsupon the personal judgment of the chief of the newsdivision. The network chiefs are well-qualified men.Most local stations, however, have no standard qualifications for news commentators.Fifty people, selected at random were asked by theauthor: "Why do you think the radio commentator towhom you most frequently listen is really qualified?"Thirty-one persons replied to this effect, "The stationwouldn't permit him to broadcast unless he were." Elevenreplied, "He sounds as if he knew what he was talkingabout." Of course this sampling has no scientific validity,but it is significant nonetheless. The prestige of mostcommentators probably does spring from these two things :the people's general trust in radio's integrity and the factorof the human voice.A frequent criticism of commentators is that they tendto take themselves too seriously. As one respondent putit, "They seem to carry the weight of the world on theirshoulders. They seem to think the world hangs on theirwords." Commentators often assume a pompous air because they believe it makes them sound authoritative. Itis interesting to note that Raymond Gram Swing andElmer Davis (prior to his appointment as director of theO.W.I.) were specifically commended by several respond- When you turn tothe Blue Network(formerly a child ofN. B. C.) for your midday news refresher,you hear in impressivetones, "This is Bauk'haj talking. But don'tbe misled. It is our oldfriend Buck Baukha'ge,famous member of thefamous Class of 1911.HILMAR R. BAUKHAGEents as superior commentators because they "speak so unemotionally and aren't impressed with their own importance."The question of whether or not commentators shouldbe sponsored has troubled some friends of radio for a longwhile. The coming of war makes it more relevant thanever before. Sponsors are not interested in commentatorsif they are unable to attract large audiences. This facthas challenging implications. For one thing, the commercial bug bites many sustaining commentators who, hopingto secure a sponsor, become more concerned with attaininga high Crossley than with maintaining a high level of competence. The commentator who is already sponsored isunder constant pressure to retain or expand his audience.Because the products of a sponsor may be boycotted ifthe commentator "goes too far," there is a disposition to"take care." A competent commentator thus may haveto sacrifice his integrity, or his better judgment to expediency. The concern of the sponsored commentator isoften, how best can I please? This places him more inthe position of a performer than of a clarifier, and maydictate irresponsibility in the treatment of certain events.The selection and the emphasis given news by commentators is another matter for concern. The angling ofnews is equally as important as the selection of news. Yetmany commentators out-talk their information and knowledge, with the result that the interpretation of events iswarped. Raymond Gram Swing has expressed concern onthis point. "If we are not constantly reminding ourselvesthat we really know very little, we will fall into the habitof reaching firm conclusions just as though we knew agreat deal."It was not uncommon during the first six months ofwar to hear people say that the public was complacent orthat they did not realize the seriousness of the war. Ifthis analysis of public opinion was correct, one of thecauses may have been the disposition of commentators to(Concluded on page 22)CHICAGO-TODAY AND TOMORROWNOTHING but the basement barber shop remainsto remind old grads since 1903 that the ReynoldsClub was the men's social center at Chicago. Oncemore the University has moved over and doubled up tomake room for additional war activities that are militarysecrets. This time the boys of Alpha Delta Phi cooperated by moving — not over, but up — to the second andthird floors of their house, so that a condensed ReynoldsClub could use the lounge rooms on the first floor andthe basement for a billiard room.Across the Quadrangles can be heard the sound ofmarching feet — thousands of them — as grim-faced boysin uniform go from classroom to laboratory to mess hallto bunks.Tucked away in constricted quarters in gray stonebuildings bordering the Midway are those departmentswhich combine to make a strong, balanced, internationallyfamous University but which can play little immediatepart in contributing directly to the war effort. Thesedepartments must be preserved for the days when those marching feet return the boys to these Quadrangles tobalance their technical knowledge used in waging a scientific war with an education for peace and human understanding.To help keep the University intact for that day, morethan eight hundred alumni from California to Maine haveset apart the next sixty days to help gather the annualAlumni Gift. Two hundred and ninety-three cities havelocal chairmen as compared to two hundred and thirty-five last year, and more of these chairmen have largercommittees.Beardsley Ruml, Ph.D. '17, is chairman of the Ph.D.committee representing 3,800 holders of Chicago doctorates; D. Jerome Fisher, '17, S.M. '20, Ph.D. '22, of thegeology department, heads the faculty committee soliciting 700 alumni on the Quadrangles; and 200 formerstudents make up the City of Chicago committee.Already more than twice as many gifts have been received this year than were received in the same periodlast year; considerably more than twice as much moneyhas accompanied the gift cards.Three Alpha Delts wistfully watch the Reynolds Club move in, while at theold clubhouse students bank the eight ball in the side pocket and hunt forpennies in the ten-year-old trash under the candy counter, as workmen dismantle equipment and erect temporary partitions.13THE DEANVS EASY CHAIRTHE UNITED STATES AND THE LEAGUE OFNATIONS IN 1920I have received the following letter from Miss IdaHuglin, '12, A.M. '24:"I am very much interested in the new service for thealumni of the University, sponsored by 'The Dean's EasyChair.' I have been a life member since 1918 and Iread the Magazine with enthusiasm always."I hear much lately about the United States beingresponsible for the present struggle in Europe because itturned down the League of Nations in 1920. To mymind such assertions are politics, designed, ignorantly orwith intent, to 'smear' Woodrow Wilson's Congress, especially the Republican senators."I may be wrong, but I read in the records that therewere Republicans who favored our entry and Democratswho opposed."And, as I understand the text, our senators were notin the main at least opposed to a League of Nationsand a World Court, but they — those who were opposed —objected to certain requisitions in the covenant, especiallyArticle 10 and the fact that Great Britain was given sixvotes and the United States one."As I peruse these matters again, I wonder how we,the United States, could have put 'teeth in the League,'when we would only have one to Great Britain's six?"Perhaps the gossip about our 'failure' to join theLeague is of no consequence, but it can do no harm toput the facts before as many of our thinking people aspossible, and my suggestion here is that the Dean's EasyChair should do so."It hurts to hear even gossip that our country has beenselfish and wants to be selfish in its relations with foreignpeoples, when the facts are that no people, as a nation,as social and church groups, or as individuals, have beenmore philanthropic in both word and deed than thoseof our U. S. A. Am I not right?"Miss Huglin's letter raises points of immediate interestin all discussions of post-war problems. I sent it to Mr.Quincy Wright, professor of international law, asking himfor comment. He replied to me as follows:"The letter from your correspondent raises some questions of opinion and some of fact. I am glad to say whatI can about both."Would the present war have been avoided if theUnited States had joined the League of Nations in 1920?This is one of those historical 'might-have-beens' uponwhich opinions will always differ. My own opinion isthat our failure to join the League started courses ofaction which led to the present war. France felt betrayedafter the guarantees she had expected were not forth coming and pursued a policy which led to the Ruhroccupation, inflation in Germany, deterioration of theposition of the middle classes, and their departure fromliberalism in support of the Nazi party. England felt-unable to support the League of Nations' sanctionsbecause it might get her into trouble with the UnitedStates. Genuine faith in the League was shattered, andall countries reverted to power politics. The intentionof the League to promote freer trade was not realized,and the United States itself pursued a strongly protectionist policy. The economic compartmentalization ofthe world proceeded through efforts of all countries tomake themselves self-sufficient. There was, it is true, abrief period after the Locarno treaties when the countriesattempted genuine cooperation through the League, andthe United States, though it did not become a member,participated in the non-political work of the League.These efforts were, however, unsuccessful and policiesof economic and political nationalism persisted leadingto the economic collapse of 1930 and the political collapse, which started with Japanese aggressions in 1931soon followed by Italian and German aggressions."Whether I am right or wrong in attributing subsequent disasters so largely to our rejection of the Leaguein 1920, it is certainly true that this rejection was nota deliberate act either by the American people or bythe Senate. In the Senate there were only fifteen senators— one Democrat and fourteen Republicans — against theLeague. The remaining eighty-one senators were dividedinto three groups: forty Democrats and one Republicanwere in favor of the League without reservations; fiveDemocrats and sixteen Republicans were in favor of itwith mild reservations; one Democrat and .eighteenRepublicans were in favor of it with severe reservations.The final vote on the treaty on March 19, 1920, wasforty-nine for the treaty, which included the LeagueCovenant, and thirty-five against. The majority wasseven less than the necessary two-thirds to ratify thetreaty. However, of the thirty-five who voted against it,twenty were for the treaty but against the reservations.They hoped that the election in the autumn of 1920would constitute a 'solemn referendum' as suggested byPresident Wilson which would make it possible to ratifythe treaty without reservations. Actually the election wasnot a referendum on anything. As was said by CalvinCoolidge, elected Vice-President on the Republican ticket,T doubt if any particular mandate was given at tl|e lastelection on the question of the League of Nations. . .Many men voted for the Republican party who were infavor of the League. . . So you can't say there was apreponderance of votes against the League of Nations.'Thirty-one eminent Republicans including Root, Hughes,Hoover, Stimson, Wickersham, and Lowell, issued a state-14THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO M A G A Z I N E 15ALUMNIDEANGORDON J. LAINGTrepanationswere fashionablement on October 14, 1920, and urged people to vote forHarding as the surest way of joining the League. I thinkit can be said that American failure to join the Leaguewas the result of parliamentary and public confusion andnot a deliberate act either of the Senate or of the public."The opposition to the League in the Senate did centeraround Article 10 to a large extent. One of the proposedreservations sought to modify obligations under thatarticle. It is also true that one of the reservations dealtwith the so-called 'six to one' question by proposing todeprive the British Dominions of votes in the League ofNations. This issue was one which undoubtedly confusedthe public. It was not a question of giving Great Britainitself more than one vote but of admitting Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and India as independent members of the League. We have subsequentlyrecognized all of these Dominions. We deal with themindependently in diplomatic negotiations and the conclusion of treaties. The question was actually unimportantbecause the Council had to act by unanimity and if theUnited States had joined, it would have had a veto onany action by the Council concerning the application ofsanctions."There is no doubt that if the United States had beena member of the Council and had, in a given instance,pledged itself to support sanctions, such sanctions wouldhave been far more effective than they were. With theUnited States not a member of the League and professingthe right to trade with a state which the League mightconsider an aggressor, the League states hesitated toimpose sanctions."I entirely agree that it is important that people shouldunderstand the facts concerning American failure to enterthe League in 1920. It is unfortunately true that thebackground causes of international catastrophies are aslikely to be misunderstandings, inadvertencies, and mistakes as deliberately malevolent acts."The aggressions of the Japanese, Fascist, and Nazigovernments were the immediate cause of the presentwar but behind these acts were numerous mistakes by the democracies of which those by the United States ia1919 and 1920 were among the most serious. There seemto be signs that American public opinion has learnedsomething through the experiences of the last twentyyears."¦:«¦ •>:• * ->t *ARE DOCTORS HUMAN?IT WAS a doctor who suggested this subject to me.Otherwise I should not have dared to discuss it inthe pages of a magazine that is read by large numbers of medical alumni, any one of whom would detectthe slightest deviation from sound medical practice, wouldpounce on any amateurish handling of technical terminology, and finally with inextinguishable laughter, thevolume and sardonic quality of which even Democrituswould have envied, would ridicule the idea of a laymanundertaking the treatment of a professional subject. Butwhen this doctor proposed the topic, it occurred to methat perhaps I was wrong in my previous conception ofprofessional attitude, and that there might be a greatmany other doctors who after giving the question graveconsideration had failed to reach a decision in regardto it, and so would welcome the opinion of a layman,whose freedom from professional bias might more thancounteract his lack of medical science. It was with thispossibility in mind that I decided to undertake it.I must confess, however, that I was not entirely easyin my mind about the doctor who had made the suggestion to me. Did he, though a doctor, believe in theinhumanity of his craft, and hope for an overwhelmingand irrefutable exposure? Or was he so convinced thatthe decision would be favorable to the profession thathe looked forward to a triumphant demonstration of thebenign humanity of the physician — a demonstration sowell documented, so powerfully presented, so coercive, socompelling that the question would never again raise itsugly head? Or was he touched by my account of theexcellent quality of the medical alumni club of my oldUniversity in the last instalment of my veracious andcarefully compiled history of the education of an alumnidean? I know that he did read it for he spoke to meabout it. "What you said about that medical alumniclub," he remarked, "was all right.. But there wasn't verymuch of it. Couldn't you have given more space to it?"More space! Little did he dream how I had to fight forthe space I had. "The fact is," he went on, "we medicalpeople have become publicity-shy. It is, I suppose, areaction from the practice of premature announcementin the old days. We are now all trained to make noclaims for this or that discovery, till all the data are inand the final tests (including that of time) have established definite facts. We are ultra-conservative in ourprognostications about the value of a new drug or a newtechnique. We say little about our organizations, including alumni clubs. But there are plenty of the latter asgood or even better than the one you mentioned. That16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEis why I thought you might have said a little more. Afterall, we are one of the important parts of the University.We devote ourselves to the healing of men's bodies andthe saving of men's lives, even if it never occurs to usto talk about what we do. To us, it is all in the day'swork. But let some little doctor of philosophy in someother department of the University so recent, so raw thathe is not yet dry behind the ears, discover or think thathe has discovered something of importance, and he getsheadlines in the daily press and his name is noised aboutthe campus as that of an epoch-making scholar. Thatis all I had in mind when I said that you should nothave cut your description of the medical alumni club soshort." Or did he pose the question in an idle mood,caring little or nothing what the result of the investigation might be?All these possibilities occurred to me when he madehis proposal, but I could come to no conclusion aboutthem. I simply didn't know. I don't know even now.I was, however, convinced that he must have in mindsomething much more subtle than the simple form of thequestion seemed to imply. If the answer had been aseasy as one might at first think, he would never haveasked me to submit it to the consideration of so august,so expert a body of readers as the members of the AlumniAssociation. I felt that there was something underneaththe apparent simplicity, and I endeavored to find outwhat it was. I pondered over it; I subjected it to thatintensive research which is the fashion of the times ; Ineglected my students and my Latin books; I interviewedas many doctors as I could find and put the questionfairly and frankly to them but never got a satisfactoryanswer from any of them; I read articles in encyclopaedias first under "Doctors" and then under"Humanity," as a result of which I became more andmore confused; I conferred with persons recently discharged from hospitals, some of whom had very strongopinions on the subject; I conversed with nurses, who Ifound were hopelessly divided on the question, for someof them loudly exclaimed, "Human? I'd say they are,"and went into peals of laughter (but these were theyounger and prettier ones, who in all probability had notyet attained that maturity of mind, that nicely balancedjudgment that the proper consideraion of so serious asubject demanded), while others, soberly and gravely,with a dourness that could carry small comfort to harasseddoctor or worried patient, voted a decided "No." Afterall these efforts, after all these inquiries, after all theseinvestigations I found myself so completely baffled andbewildered that I almost abandoned hope of ever reaching any conclusion. I was in aere suspensus, as Cicerosays in one of his lighter moods.Of only one thing had I become convinced, and thatwas of the inherent, deep-seated inhumanity of the doctorwho proposed the subject. There is no doubt about theanswer so far as he is concerned. See how subtly, withwhat artful camouflage of simplicity, with what cunning nudity of form he couched the question, "Are doctorshuman?" What did he mean by "doctors," and whatdid he mean by "human"? By "doctors" did he meanmen who happened to be doctors, or did he mean doctors who happened to be men? And by "human" didhe mean the so-called human or the quasi-human orthe idealistically human? Did he mean behaving asmen do, or as they ought to do? Here we have in theeyes of a grammarian at least three subjects and four orfive predicates, and the truth may be in the combinationof any of these subjects with any of these predicates, andso we see spawning before us a whole series of questionswhere there was but one before.But I must stop this futile listing of difficulties andattack the subject in a strictly scientific manner. Accordingly, I shall begin with a brief study of the historicalaspect of the question with a view to the possibility ofdiscovering when this idea of the inhumanity of doctorsfirst arose, what its source was, what justification therewas for it, and whether it persists now merely as a survival of an earlier and less sophisticated age, or whetherit is a live question at this very moment of writing. Thesecond part of my sketch will consist largely of my ownexperience with doctors.In the first part of my discussion — the historical treatment — I shall be at a certain disadvantage. I shall beobliged — except in the Greek and Latin fields — to dependon the evidence reported by the authors of histories ofmedicine. I shall of course scrutinize the statementsthat these men make. I shall do my best to detect andrepudiate error wherever it appears, but I must at thispoint admit that this will often be a difficult thing to do.Too often it occurs that the data available are not adequate for a decision such as all reasonable men will accept. This is the kind of decision that appeals to me,and unless I am egregiously mistaken, it is the kind thatwill appeal to those scientists who are following me inmy inquiry into this question.But in the second part of my discussion I shall be atno such disadvantage, because that part will be based onmy own first-hand knowledge of doctors and especiallymy own experience as a patient. I need not enlarge onthe vast superiority of this sort of evidence to that whichis based on historical (or pseudo-historical) reports. Itssuperiority is obvious to every thinking man, and it is onlythinking men (and women) who are likely to be reading such a closely reasoned analysis as this.And now let me proceed to the historical aspect of thequestion. Let me scrutinize carefully and fairly the his-^tory of the development of medicine in order to ascertainwhether there is anything in theory or practice that byreason of its cruelity, its ruthlessness, its total lack ofconsideration for fhe sufferings of the patient, or its pronounced sadistic manifestations on the part of the doctor, could have given rise to this curious question in regard to the humanity or inhumanity of doctors. And{Concluded on page 21)NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESSINCE — as President Hutchins remarked before agroup of Chicago alumni leaders recently — theCollege of the University of Chicago soon will bethe only college in the country carrying on a program ofhigher education, some importance will have to be attached to the organization simply because it will beunique. Assuming, however, that this is not the onlyreason for thinking the College important, the writer hasdone some investigating into the new educational plan tofind out what it has that the College of ten years agodid not have.Admittedly it is easier for one who groped fromplatyhelminthes to Gresham's law in the old (1933) College to understand what the new one is up to than forpre-old-New Plan alumni, but there still is enough thatis new to require scouring about for information. Thistask was infinitely simplified by a new booklet designedfor high school teachers and principals, which presents athorough view of what the education purports to do, howit goes about doing it, and how the University handles,for example, the problem of a younger student-body thanit has previously had to take care of.The aims of the variety of education given by the College are sufficiently important to have been explainedoften and with considerable clarity, so that it is scarcelynecessary to dwell on them here. The objective is toprovide young men and women with the kind of knowledge which will enable them, whether they becomebotanists or bricklayers, to make wise decisions in bothpersonal affairs and municipal elections; to understandthe world around them and continue to increase their understanding, even outside their own fields; and to be ableto assume responsibility and, at need, leadership.To this end, education in the College is general ratherDON MORRIS # By DON MORRIS, '36than specialized. It is what the armed services call"basic," though in the much broader sense of the wordimplied in the distinction between basic education andbasic training. In 1933 this meant that the two-year College involved five full-year courses devoted to the biological, physical, and social sciences, the humanities, andEnglish, plus a couple of elective sequences.Simplicity in OrganizationIn 1943 the rounding out of this program into a four-year curriculum of general education has meant addingjust two courses, making the College plan the simplesteducational program I, for one, have ever heard of. Inthe twelve quarters normally required for completion ofcollege education, a student in the old days might havetaken thirty-six or more one-quarter courses. The numberin the College now stands at eight.This revision has been accomplished by expanding thework of each of the five old (1933) general courses intothree years, adding one elective sequence, and devisingone new (actually still in the process of formulation)course. Humanities, social sciences, and English now arethree-year programs. Teaching of the natural sciences isso arranged that students take either two years of biological sciences and one of physical sciences or the reverse.A year-by-year list of courses in a typical student program follows:First Academic Year Second Academic Year1. Biological Sciences I or 1. Biological Sciences 2 orPhysical Sciences 1 Physical Sciences 22. Social Sciences 1 2. Social Sciences 23. Humanities 1 3. Humanities 24. English 1 (Reading, 4. English 2 (Reading,Writing, and Criticism) Writing, and Criticism)Third Academic Year Fourth Academic Year1. Physical Sciences 3 or 1. Observation, Interpre-Biological Sciences 3 tation, and Integration2. Social Sciences 3 2-3-4. Open for special-3. Humanities 3 interest courses, or for4. English 3 (Composition) advanced work.How the one-year courses are expanded may be illustrated by the change, for example, in the social sciences.In 1933 this course consisted of a quarter of economics, aquarter of sociology, and one of political science. Underthe new set-up, the first year is devoted to the study ofAmerican political institutions — constitutional government, representative democracy, political parties. Thesecond year embodies a systematic examination of important problems of modern society, using economics, sociology, and political science as tools.In the third year the students undertake an analysis of1718 THE U NIVERSITY O Fthe problems of freedom and control, following the balance between these two in the last three centuries and inthe competing political philosophies of today, includingthose of England, Russia, Germany, and the UnitedStates. In similar ways the other general fields are surveyed.The new course — work in progress for the Collegefaculty — is called Observation, Interpretation, and Integration. Courses of this kind are not really new underthe sun, but where integration courses usually have beengiven at the beginning of a program of study, this one isgiven at the end, with the obvious differences in purposeimplied by the relocation. And no integration course everhas possessed the ambitious breadth of this one, which isplanned to relate methods and principles across the longpanorama of human knowledge — to make the precedingyears of education at once an effective whole and a solidbasis for variety of learning to be acquired later in life.Many of the other phases of study in the College areno different from what they have been. The work rangesin formality from lectures to discussion sections, lab instruction, and personal guidance by advisers. The comprehensive examination remains the criterion of successful completion of the courses.But a new residence hall for the College men has beencreated in a house a block off campus. Thomas S. Hall,a midwesterner who went to Yale, has been importedfrom the faculty of Lawrenceville School to serve as resident adviser to the new prep-age variety of Collegestudents. Hall's field is the biological sciences. And probably, inevitably, some students have suggested that thedormitory, instead of being called 5810 Woodlawn, itsonly name so far, be christened Hall Hall, in his honor.A section of Beecher Hall, similarly, has been set asidefor the College girls, who also have their resident adviser,Miss Martha Graves, who has had considerable experience in counseling girls of this age bracket. More advisers will be provided as the College grows.The reorganized College, approaching the anniversaryof its first group of matriculants working toward thebachelor's degree for general education, showed at thestart of the spring quarter an increase in enrolment of23.2 per cent over the corresponding group last year, inwhat at that time was known as the Four Year College —now simply the College.Soviet MeteorologistsThe Institute of Meteorology was host last month tothree Russian weather experts, who visited the trainingplant on campus — now consisting of both advancedmeteorology and basic pre-meteorology sections — in thecompany of Air Forces Weather Directorate officers fromWashington. The three were Captain Constantin Speran-ski of the Russian navy, assistant director of the SovietHydrometeorological Service; Lieutenant Colonel Sera-pion Pagava, chief of the long-range forecasting divisionof the Moscow Central Meteorological Institute; and CHICAGO MAGAZINEMajor Mark I. Lvovitch, hydrologist associated with theSoviet Hydrological Institute at Sverdlovsk.Improvement by ExaminationToday's average soldier has completed two years ofhigh school; in the first World War he had finished onlythe sixth grade. There are more high school graduates inthe armed services in this war than there were gradeschool graduates in service in the last one.But, Ralph W. Tyler, chairman of the Department ofEducation, told educators attending the meeting of theNorth Central Association of Colleges and SecondarySchools meeting in Chicago last month, the improvementdoes not stop with the status of men entering the Army.He described the work of the Armed Forces Institute, andin particular of its examinations staff, which he heads.The examinations staff is now carrying out practices, hesaid, which will do much to avoid the problems createdin and after the last war by the policy current at thattime of granting blanket credit for military service.Professor Tyler described three types of education being accumulated by men in service, and four types ofexaminations which will fairly test this education, givingeducators a basis on which to rate veterans wishing toenter or re-enter schools and business men a more adequate notion of the achievements of former soldiers presenting educational qualifications for jobs.The three types of education were listed as traininggiven by the services in the line of preparation for duty,correspondence courses taken from the curriculum of theArmed Forces Institute, and informal education such asthe anthropological data acquired by soldiers in the islandsof the Pacific or elsewhere.The examinations are: those specifically testing resultsof the Institute courses, certifying tests, tests of generalOnce known to Chicago students as French House,later as the home of Dean Works, this building at 5810Woodlawn Avenue has been refitted and refurbishedas a residence for men students (bless their little hearts)in the first and second years of the College.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19educational development, and examinations checking thedevelopment in service in certain highly skilled fields suchas surgery or electronics.Rehabilitation in the CollegesSpeaking at the same meeting, John D. Russell, professor of education, presented a paper prepared in collaboration with Mr. Floyd W. Reeves, professor ofadministration in the Department of Education, on thevast program for the rehabilitation of injured menprojected for the war and post-war years.Pending legislation on rehabilitation, Mr. Russell said,provides for a maximum of four calendar years of trainingto be taken within a period of six calendar years followingthe end of the war. This would mean that a high schoolgraduate might complete his college education or a college graduate earn the doctor's degree, under subsidy fromthe rehabilitation service conditional upon the qualifications of the individual and the objective set up for hisreturn to productive life.The burden of rehabilitating tens and possibly hundredsof thousands will provide as full a task for the collegesand high schools, as well as other social agencies, as theycan handle, Mr. Russell said."The problem is not one that can be postponed. It isupon us already. Responsible officials of educational institutions should take immediate steps to meet this problemand to render the service required by our country in thishour of need."The number of persons now equipped to direct therehabilitation of disabled persons is extremely small, andno university in the country now has an adequate curriculum organized to prepare such specialists."He explained that among the divisions of a universitywhich should take part in giving this diversified trainingare included medical, nursing, social welfare, placement,education, and sociology schools and departments.The number of disabled veterans needing rehabilitationis expected to be actually higher in connection with thepresent war than after World War I, as a result ofimprovements in medical techniques which, while reducing the number of deaths, in part substitute injuries fordeaths. Injuries in war industries also have grown to thestatus of a serious problem. An increase of 30 per centin the number of industrial workers has been, accompaniedby an increase of 70 per cent in the number of workersdisabled, in the main the result of the influx of untrainedworkers and the increased size and pace of war industry.Professor Russell asserted, however, that although educational institutions must play a large role in the rehabilitation program, control of that program should be takenDeadVIA the eight o'clock mail. "GentlemenEnglish Department and we would greatmay care to make...." We could answer t out of the hands of educators and placed in a legally constituted rehabilitation service under the Federal Government.In the past administration of rehabilitation by educatorshas brought over-emphasis of the educational part of theprogram and the relative neglect of other parts, includingmedical treatment, occupational therapy, and vocationalguidance and placement, he said.New Service RouteTwo hundred of the University's students not alreadyenrolled in any of the enlisted reserve organizations tookthe qualifying examination last month for the new ArmyA- 12 and Navy V-12 programs for specialized training inthe nation's colleges. This department previously hasnoted that the University was declared eligible to carry aheavy load in this training program, though no actualarrangements for the undertaking have yet been announced. Objective of the new test was to sort and gradeall the country's young men between seventeen andtwenty-two regarding their aptitudes in the half dozenfields in which they will receive the college training ifqualified. When these men are inducted, the services willhave immediately a basis for sending or not sending themback to college in uniform.Full Summer Quarter PlannedFull programs for teachers and a doubled offering ofcourses in the College will be offered in the summerquarter, Dean Carl F. Huth, director of the session, announced as plans neared completion. The plans includecourses to re-train high school teachers to fill shortages ofinstructors in mathematics and sciences, workshop activities, and the largest number of conferences and institutesin recent years. Because of the heavy demands imposedupon teachers as a result of the war, the summer schedulehas been made more flexible. Certifiable units of instruction will be offered in as brief a period as three weeks,each of the two six-week terrns of the quarter being divided into two of these periods.Latin ArchaeologistTo the Quadrangles for the spring quarter came Alfonso Caso y Andrade, foremost archaeologist of Mexico,outstanding authority on the ancient culture of the Za-potecan people near the present city of Oaxaca. Dr.Caso, head of the archaeology department of the MexicanNational Museum, is the founder of what is regardedas the first real program for the education and development of Latin American anthropologists. At Chicago hewill teach courses in Maya, Aztec, and other culturesremote in the continent's past.EndThere is a vacancy in the head of thef appreciate any recommendations youlis, but it would only lead to bloodshed.20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZ IN EGEORGE E. VINCENT(Continued from page 9)institution than intelligent about it) gave him an immense political advantage over Vincent the newcomer.Vincent was also a liberal — intellectually a liberal— ^although personally pretty much of a Puritan; but a verytolerant Puritan. Minnesota was surprisingly conservative. It was gross enough in the satisfaction of the viscera,but it was terribly narrow in its theological and magicaltraditions and prejudices. Vincent was a citizen of theFrench enlightenment and of the modern world ofscience, while he was surrounded by German and Scandinavian peasants who still lived but little removed fromthe Middle Ages in their religious thinking. Here wasa static public opinion with which he had to cope indealing educationally with the youth of the state.The regents liked Vincent's plans to expand the services of the university in the direction of extension activities, which he was eager to do somewhat after the Chautauqua model. Minnesota became under his administration of the university one of the leading extensionstates, perhaps the leading one. But Vincent's idealismcaused him to try to subject athletics to education.Needless to say, he alienated the alumni on this score andfailed. He also wished to liberalize the curriculum andintroduce new emphases and departments, especially inthe direction of better citizenship and social enlightenment training. Here the regents lined up with the oldpresident and the professorial incumbents were solidlyagainst him. The only part of the university he wasreally able to modernize was the medical school. It didnot threaten the political control of the plutocratic gangand therefore he could get money for the bringing ofnew professors and equipment into it.One of the chief obstacles to his reforms came whollyfrom within the university. The old president had filledthe growing institution with his favorites, many of whomwere as incompetent to meet the educational requirements of a society in transition as he was. Some ofthese were survivals from the old small college days. Asurprisingly large number of them were British subjects,coming to the university through Canada. The Britishprofessors were of course classical minded and conservative and were far from friendly to Vincent's advancednotions of education for civic usefulness.My contacts with Vincent after he went to the Rockefeller Foundation became fewer. Once he made me theenvy of many of my colleagues at a president's receptionat the University of Minnesota on one of his return visits.This was in the short administration of President Burton.I was always shy and would not have thought of monopolizing his time at such a function, a fact which he wellknew. It was my first or second year at the institutionand he evidently wished to do me a kindness. He gave so much time and attention to me that I was embarrassed, but after that many of the ranking faculty peoplemade it a point to include me in their activities on thecampus and elsewhere.As president of the Rockefeller Foundation Vincentgave more and more of his attention to medical andsanitary reform throughout the world. I once asked himwhy his interests ran so largely in that direction. He saidthat Mr. Rockefeller was especially interested in this workand he himself had come to the conclusion that not muchcould be done for mankind from the top down. So theywere beginning at the bottom and working up. As Ihave already said, his mind worked concretely ratherthan abstractly for the most part. Perhaps also, he wasthinking about his own largely thwarted attempts tomake a great university and a great state out of Minnesota by working from the top down when the people werenot prepared for these aims.Doubtless he had also learned much about how towork with people. Once an Argentine institution askedme to bring to Dr. Vincent's attention a scheme forenlargement which they had in mind and for which theydesired funds. I sent forward their prospectus and theirrequest. On other occasions I performed similar functions for other groups, international and North American.I always received the same reply, that he would bringthe matter to Mr. Rockefeller's attention, but that henever made recommendations to Mr. Rockefeller unlesshe was requested to do so. I do not know how literallytrue this statement was, but it may be worth recording onmore counts than one.The last time I saw Dr. Vincent was about two yearsago. We sat at the speakers' table at the annual dinnerof the American Sociological Society at Philadelphia inDecember, 1939. With the passage of the years I, too,had become a past president of this association. I observed with concern how thin and bent and frail he was,for he was now nearer eighty than seventy years of age.I thought of the last time I had seen his father at theUniversity of Florida nearly thirty years before and atabout the same age. His father, to whom he was devoted, had borne his years somewhat better than he wasbearing them.But when Vincent's turn came to speak— he was thelast on the program — he snapped forward with an effortat the same old verve. Now and then his voice cracked,but he still had wit and humor and power. As I graspedhis hand and congratulated him and remarked that thiswas like old times thirty years ago, he smiled in a friendlyway and, said, "Those were interesting times, weren'tthey? But it was a long time ago." I felt pretty surethat I was saying good-bye to him for the last time andI wished that I might find something appropriate to say;but I am sure there was no need to say it to so sensitivea soul.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21CONTROL OF INFLATION(Continued from page 5)economy, improvements, or even maintenance of production. Conflicting groups are in disagreement as to thedesired amount, the probable effects, and the rates ofcorporate taxation. Compulsory saving is urgentlyneeded, and fortunately it now seems to be generallyacceptable. While such saving has a place in the anti-inflation program, it cannot be the major tool. Moretaxes must be levied, and soon.Unless the amount of current taxation is greatly increased, the bulk of war expenses will continue to bemet from loans. In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941,40.5 per cent of the expenditures of the national government were covered by loans; in the fiscal year ending last June, 60.7 per cent of costs of the Federal Government were borrowed. In fiscal 1943, budget estimates indicate that 71.5 per cent of federal expenditureswill be financed from loans. These funds have beensecured mainly from banks, financial institutions and corporate investors. In 1943, over half of the borrowingsby the Federal Government were from commercial banks.Such financing must be minimized to combat inflation.Reliance on commercial banks for financing the warcan only be reduced by increased taxation and the increased sale of securities to other investors.Thus, both economic and political factors combine tomake difficult the control of inflation. The requiredmeasures are rigorous — their effects drastic, but the evilsof inflation are worse. It remains to be seen whetherpolitical statesmanship can rise above the pressures towhich Congress is subjected. Even the pressure groupshave some moral responsibility to society for their conduct and its results. Unless the upward movement ofprices and wages is promptly arrested, we shall pay twiceover for our failure. We shall pay now in the increasedcost of war and victory; we shall pay later thecosts of price adjustments. What the war as well asthe post-war economy is to be is now in processof determination.THE DEAN'S EASY CHAIR(Continued from page 16)one need not go very far into prehistoric medicine tofind many practices among the medicine-men and witchdoctors which suggest immediately the possibility of anextremely early origin for the question we are considering. Certainly some of their methods of therapy involvedsuch agony that we may rest assured that their patientsnot only raised the question of humanity but held verystrong opinions about it. Doubtless many of the patientsdidn't put it in the form of a question at all but in thatof violent, perhaps even profane, assertion. We ask ourselves at once: Did the question originate in those fardistant ages? Is its present currency nothing but a survival? Are we to conclude that with all their kindliness,their sympathy, their compassion, their benignant bed side manner, their "this-hurts-me-more-than-you" attitude the doctors of today are paying an unjust penaltyfor the abhorrent practices of their primitive predecessors? Is this the answer? Some of you may think it is,and that we should close the inquiry at this point. I amtempted to do so, but I cannot. I am impelled to go onand examine every other possibility.Let me give one or two examples of primitive therapy.Here is one : in a cemetery of the Stone Age located northof the site of Paris there were found long ago the remainsof a hundred and twenty persons of whom more thanforty showed signs of trepanning. This large proportionof cases seems to indicate that trepanation was as fashionable in the Stone Age as appendectomy used to be withus. Their heads had been opened to free the demonthat was supposed to be the cause of the headache orother malady with which they were afflicted. At any ratethat is a common explanation of the operation. To thelayman it does not seem very convincing. Stone Agemedical practice was so entangled with superstitions thatit is difficult to decide just what other ideas the witchdoctor's muddled head contained. One surprising feature of the excavation was the fact that some of the persons whose bones were found had undergone the operation more than once.. One skull showed five trepanations. Apparently, they were not discouraged when onetrepanning failed ; they came back for more. Perhapsthey did not like to change their doctor either and returned not only for the same treatment but also to thesame doctor. The pain of the operation must haveamounted to torture, especially as it was probably donewith a flint-knife, and their nearest approach to an anaesthetic was a quid of cocoa. Moreover, this form ofsurgery did not pass away with the Stone Age. It persisted for a long time in parts of the world and is said tobe still practiced in some pockets of primitive life. . . .But my space is exhausted. I must break off here at thevery beginning of my historical section.In this column the Magazine is offering a new serviceto you who are alumni or former students of the University. The service is two-fold. First of all, you are invitedto send in any questions about the University, its history,its curriculum, past and present, its educational policiesand ideals, its degrees and what they stand for; or questions on education or educational institutions in general.And secondly you are asked to submit questions that arisein your own business or professional life or in matters thatlie outside your business or professional routine in whichthe University might be able to help you.All communications should be addressed to the AlumniDean, the University of Chicago Magazine, and shouldbe signed with your own name. In some cases the replywill be sent directly to you; in others your letter will bepublished in the column, with your name or initials orsome pseudonym, as you wish. Please be definite on thispoint of the signature. The communications should be asbrief as is consistent with a clear statement of the case.^ r22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERADIO NEWS(Continued from page 12)present news in as optimistic a light as possible. H. V.Kaltenborn, the NBC commentator, says: "On the whole,I should say that the American people respond more effectively to an optimistic, wholehearted outlook than theydo to gloom and despair, and so for my part I am asoptimistic as an intelligent individual who makes somestudy of the problems can possibly be."CBS frowns upon the word "commentators" and prefersto have their staff commentators called newrs analysts.They insist that this is no play upon words. Robert S.Wood, CBS's assistant director of news, defines the difference in these terms: "Take any subject that you careto, and we will give you both sides of it, not from ourpersonal feeling in the matter, but strictly on the basisof the most advanced opinion that we can get fromauthorities in every field on which the subject touches.Commentators are inclined to get emotionally involvedin their subjects, whereas a news analyst is obliged to stickstrictly to his facts."If radio is to serve as an effective medium for the clarification of news in wartime, certain recommendations mightbe applied to commentators. First, they should not besponsored, in order that the temptations and dispositionswhich sponsorship nurtures will be eliminated. Second,there should be as rigid a measurement of ability andcompetency to interpret the news as there is for the abilityto teach in a good university. This will have the immediate good effect of reducing the number of commentatorson the air, of raising the status of those who remain, andwill immeasurably strengthen radio's right to the confidence in its integrity which the public manifests. Theforegoing, of couse, should apply to networks and localstations alike. The adoption of these rules would moveradio a long step nearer to serving fully the public interestin wartime.Although the burden of responsibility rests upon newscasters and commentators, the listener cannot be excusedfrom carrying part of the load. Some very sensible suggestions for listening to newscasts, and commentators in wartime have been prepared by A. L. Chapman, directorof the Bureau of Research in Education by Radio of theUniversity of Texas. Excerpts follow:1. Listen to every word. It is important to. hear everything that is said on a newscast. Whereas it is possible tore-read printed matter, the radio news program is heardbut once.2. Check the radio news with newspaper accounts ofthe same news item. The newscaster is forced to selectthe content of the newscast from many available newsitems. This causes him to discriminate and condense. Itmight be that the newscaster has omitted a part of the wire-service report which would make the item more meaningful to the listener. The printed word is also quite differentfrom the spoken word. When news items are presentedby radio, the newscaster puts the force of the humanvoice into it. Intonations, pauses, changes in tempo, andother speech techniques used by newscasters sometimesaffect the meaning of news stories to such an extent thata reading of the newspaper accounts gives a differentinterpretation to the same news item.3. Note the source of the news. A report of an officialUnited States Army communique, read verbatim, is quitedifferent from a report from the "usually reliable" sources.Some newscasters, in reporting items released in Axiscountries, emphasize their unreliability; still, there aresome newscasters who do not make it clear that Axisnews releases are apt to be untrue or misleading.4. Dont report radio war news as facts. When something heard on a newscast is reported to others, it shouldbe told as something heard on a newscast, not as a fact.Even though the original listeners heard the account perfectly, when it is reported to succeeding individuals itbecomes colored by the interpretations of the various re-counters of the report.5. Regard opinion and conjecture as such. The opinion of an individual when heard on the radio is just asmuch an opinion as when the individual expresses thesame opinion to you face to face. This caution is especiallyapplicable to news commentators who frequently expresstheir opinions relative to the future progress of the war.Chicago F 'acuity Members in War ServiceA list" of faculty members in government and military service wasprinted in the December, 1942, Magazine. The following names are nowadded to bring up to date that list, of those serving their country:Donald McCown, Or. Inst.John P. McDonald, Ofi Inst.William N. Mitchell, Sch. Bus.Daniel M. Popper, AstronomyKatherine M. Rahl, Lab. Sch.Arthur L. H. Rubin, Mil. Studs.Keith C, Seele, Or. Inst.Lewis C. Sorrell, Transport.Elizabeth Stefan ski, Or. Inst.Douglas Waples, Grad. Lib. Sch.Mark Ashin, EnglishRichard Bruere, LatinFred Eggan, Anthrop ol.Ric h ard T. H alloc k, Or. Inst .Robert Hardy, 0 r, Inst.:Howard P. Hudson, MiL Studs.George R. Hughes, Or. Intt.Wilber G. Katz, LawSlEGMUND LeVARIE,, MuSIC , ]..,.,Frank A. M a~n cin a,, Statis.^..THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGONEWS OF THE CLASSES?' IN THE SERVICE ?Emmett L. Costello^ '39, droppedin at Alumni House a few weeks agowhile on furlough to tell us that hehad been transferred to the AdjutantGeneral's officer candidate school atFort Washington, Maryland.Arthur K. Peterson, '32, is acaptain in the Army Medical Corpsat the headquarters of the 6th ServiceCommand.Ensign Raymond G. Colvert,Jr., '40, is with a utility squadron ofthe Naval Air Corps in the Pacific.Ensign Edward J. Ryan, '38, isa deck officer on the U. S. S. Ostrich.Col. Clifford L. Burnham, '11,is stationed at the School of MilitaryGovernment, Charlottesville, Virginia.Lieut. Abraham S. Hyman, JD'31, was commissioned in Februaryand is currently at the Field ArtilleryReplacement Center, Fort Bragg,N. C.Raffaello Sagerdoti, AM '41,writes from Camp McCoy, Wisconsin: "Trying to convince Armypeople that so-called a-dozen-a-dimestudents of Greek and Latin can teachthe technicalities of field artillery, inasmuch as I used to be a field artillery lieutenant in the Italian army."Corpl. Kenneth F. MacLellan,'42, says he is "too darn busy trying toget through officer candidate schoolat Fort Sill" to write any commentson Army life.Lieut. Harold E. Woods, '23, isin the South Pacific aboard an aircraft carrier.Upon receiving his commission,Lieut. Alfred B. Teton, '35, JD '36,was assigned to Maxwell Field/ Ala.Lieut. Max Chill, '33, JD '35, iscurrently at Camp Shelby, Miss.Corpl. Nathan Wolfberg, '32,JD '34, has left Harding Field, Louisiana, and is overseas with a fightergroup.Capt. Thomas A. Hart, PhD '41,is working with a malaria surveyunit. He says: "As yet I haven'tboxed with a kangaroo, but I do intend to get better acquainted withthe Koala bears."William M. Brandt, '39, JD '41,has been transferred from Phila^delphia to the Army Air Base atReno, Nevada.Charles E. Herzog, '30, JD '32,is a private at Fort Custer, Michigan.Lieut Glenn N. Lawritson, AM'30, reports that he is able to put his college background to good use in hisnew assignment in the Army. He isconducting a course in the psychologyand technique of instruction in thenewly - created Central InstructorsSchool, Randolph Field, Texas. Thefunction of the school is to train flying instructors.Ensign Kenneth L. Skillin, '39,is with the Coast Guard's anti-submarine warfare flotilla, based atMiami, Florida.Lieut. Charles W. Brown, '41,is finance officer of the air depotgroup, Stinson Field, Texas. Hewrites: "Have encountered by chancea number of old Chicago friends. Westarve between issues of 'Private Mo-roon' and the alumni Magazine.It's common knowledge that eachcopy is worth two dead Japs."Lieut Charles G. Polan, is stationed with the Army Medical Corpsin Africa. He writes that he got athrill recently when he ate his firstorange in four months!Studying Japanese at the NavalLanguage School for Officers atBoulder Colorado, are Martin Bron-fenbrenner, PhD '39, and, NortonS. Ginsburg, '41. Bronfenbrenriersays that the work is extremely difficult. The teachers are mostly native-born Japanese, and he adds, if thepupils don't do well, "the teachers goback to concentration camps."Lieut. John P. Long, '24, is a material officer attached to a scoutbomber Marine aviation squadron atEl Centro, California. He writes:"I thought when I came in the Marine Corps, and I think now, that itis the world's finest military organ-iaztion."Marshall E. Neuberg, '32, JD'34, is sergeant of a guard relief atthe Detention and RehabilitationCenter, Fort Custer, Michigan. Attimes, he says, it seems as though theguards are the ones being confinedrather than the soldiers who are imprisoned there for infractions of Armyregulations.Capt. Eugene A. Changnon, '28,MD '35, is in charge of orthopedicsurgery at the station hospital, CampMackall, N. C.Joseph Molkup, '41, reports thathe is "undergoing rigorous, vigoroustraining in the midshipmen's school atNotre Dame."David Levatin, '38, JD '40, is anaviation cadet, training at Santa Ana,California,William Russell, '42, is taking MAGAZINE 23Army pre -meteorological training atHaverford College, Pennsylvania.Arthur B. Rabe, '38, is an instructor at Rantoul, Illinois, with the AirForces.Ensign Dale P. Johnson, '42,sends us this news: "I am now at theadvanced training base for the amphibious force invasion barges, otherwiseknown as the Naval commando service. The physical work is rather strenuous and a great deal of responsibilityis entrusted to us, amateurs that weare."Harry Q. Petersmeyer, '39, graduated as a bombardier from the Vic-torville Army flying school in March.Lieut. Albert A. Loverde, '28, isin the Army Medical Corps stationedat Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.The promotion has been announcedat Camp Chaffee, Arkansas, of RoyK. Berkenfield, '30, from major tolieutenant colonel.Lieut. James B. Charlton, '40,has been training at Avon Park, Florida. He is pilot of a B-26 bomber.Leon P. Smith, '28, PhD '30, onleave from the faculty at U. of C. todo war work in Washington, writesus that the things he likes best aboutthe Magazine are "the reports ofChicago men who are doing their bitfor the country and the Chicago menwho are doing their best to jeer at thateffort, to whine about business (education) as usual. Paralleled!"Ensign George C. Halgrow, '38,JD '40, is stationed at the Navalsection base, Mayport, Florida.Chaplain Elbert Cole, DB '42,has been assigned to the U.S.S. Tennessee.Lieut. Robert S. Gruhn, '41, reports that he is the commanding officer of his signal company at WillRogers Field, Oklahoma City. Hewrites that he is still single "but looking for a companionable exemption"to his income tax.Lieut. John E. Hacker, AM '41,in the Transportation Corps, writes:"We don't appreciate our UnitedStates until we are away from themfor a long period of time."Glen Eyrie FarmFOR CHILDRENDELAVAN LAKE, WISCONSINBOYS and GIRLS 7— 12Farm experience besides camp activities including swimming and boating.June 25 to September 3Send for story oi tne Farm.VIRGINIA HINKINS BUZZELL, '13Glen Eyrie Farm, Delavan Lake, Wis.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEl wood B. Davis, AM '41, is inthe Field Artillery at Fort Bragg,N. C.Capt. Martin Levit, '40, who isoverseas, says that his two "most fervent 'we-group' complexes are those ofbeing a Marine and being a U. of C.alumnus."Lieut. Lycurgus J. Connor, Jr.,'30, JD '32, is studying pretty hard, hesays, in the Judge Advocate General'sDepartment, because "in the optimistic early thirties the Midway regardedmilitary law as nonessential."Sgt. Thomas S. Checkley, '39, JD'41, has sent us this comment: "Ihave been having a wonderful timetempering my theory and idealismwith practical attempts at bureaucracyin a wartime economy. The peacetime economy of the Hawaiian Islandswas an excellent example of benevolent paternalism, so naturally the wartime economy was somewhat similar.The captain I am under is an intelligent New England Republican (theonly place the two go together) withan excellent sense of humor, nine yearsof college, and a hatred for administrators who use their jobs for psychicincome purposes. Now that the civilian authorities are taking over pricecontrol, I am transferring to the in-! GREGG II COLLEGE || A School jof Business {1 I5 Preferred by College Men |i and Women JI Student body represents 30 states, :^ 80 colleges. () Stenographic, Secretarial, (I and Accounting Courses (3 Send for free booklet: "The Doorway )\ to Opportunity." iCourt Reporting Course \: Write for special free booklet about *I school of Court Reporting: "Short- r\ hand Reporting as a Profession." \• Methods courses for business teachers, jj Only high school graduates accepted. 1(THE GREGG COLLEGEf President. JOHN ROBERT GREGG. S.C.D. It Director. PAUL M. PAIR. M.A. Jt Dept. C. A., 6 N. Michigan Ave. [\ Chicago, III. it vestigation division of the ProvostMarshal's office. I am finding thatthe many hours spent at the bridgetable at Int House are paying veryhigh dividends, especially since lawyerswithout pull are a dime-a-dozen in theArmy."Richard S. Ferguson, '38, has recently been promoted from second tofirst lieutenant. He is in command ofa training regiment at Fort F. E. Warren, Wyoming, and says that it looksas if he's "going to fight this war inWyoming."We have had further word fromCorpl. Ellis B. Kohs, AM '38,whose concerto was played by the SanFrancisco Symphony Orchestra inFebruary, with Kohs conducting. Hewrites: "I was privileged to haveMarian Anderson on the same program and a capacity audience estimated at 9,500 in the Civic Auditorium. The orchestra playedmagnificently, and the response of theaudience and the press was mostencouraging. Among the latter I mustmention Alfred V. Frankenstein['32], a former member of the Chicagomusic department faculty, who madethe rather remarkable comparison ofmy concerto with the logic of anAristotelian syllogism. At the otherend of the critical gamut, anothercritic found passages described as 'luscious.' But I was pleasantly unprepared for the universal commendation."Pvt. Lewis H. Johnson,, '42, training at Fort Lewis, Washington, writesthat he wishes he could see HarperLibrary once again and all his oldfriends who once studied with himthere.Sgt. Edgar R. Peters, '40, is in anaviation squadron at Mobile, Alabama. He says that it is an all-Negrooutfit and when they first arrived theyhad all southern white officers. "Wewere surprised that they proved to beas swell as was possible for men to be.We are progressing and willing to fightand die if necessary."Ensign Robert W. Schafer, '39,LLB '42, attached to the U.S.S. Dunlap, tells us that after extensive travelin foreign parts, he has "yet to see anything that even slightly resembles Dotty Lamour."Lieut. Maurice Kadin, '33, MD'37, is now in Chicago. "It's good tocome back to the home front and findthat some people don't know there's awar on! My appetite for tropical climates is sated."Lieut. Davidson B. McKibbin,MA '42, has had an interesting Armylife, he reports. He drove a truck andstaff car for three months; was air plane mechanic for six months; andis now attending the Occupational Police School at Fort Custer, Michigan.He says he expects to be in "this man'sArmy for many, many years."Pvt. Joseph Rivkin, '42, is studying in Alaska to be a laboratory technician. He wishes that he could hearfrom some of his buddies who used towork in the Billings Hospital cafeteriawith him.Lieut. Stella M. Salveson, '35, isat the WAAC training center at Daytona Beach, Florida.Capt. Ned P. Veatch, '32, JD '34,writes us as follows: "For the last fourmonths I have been in North Africaleading a rather rugged life. Myshelter has been a pup tent when timeand circumstances permitted pitchingit. Probably our most substantialhardship has been the lack of washing and bathing facilities. We havehacT plenty of food and have been ableto keep warm and dry most of thetime. Despite our long absence fromthe States and constantly being in thefield, our morale and spirits are high.This is the great adventure in thelives of most of us. Our experiencesare best generalized by saying that wehave long periods of relaxation, careof equipment, and training interspersed with short periods of sustainedeffort and excitement."Pvt. Morris Singer, '42, is servingas an M.P. on the railways. He comments: "Since tact and good judgment, rather than mere force, are thechief requirements, my college background fits in handily."Capt. Carl B. Nusbaum, '19, JD'24, has reported for duty with theArmy Air Forces college training pro-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25FINE BONE CHINAAynsley, Spode and Other FamousMakes. Also Crystal and GiftsGolden Dirilyte{Formerly Dirigold)The Lifetime TablewareSOLID— NOT PLATEDService for Eight, $41.75GOLDEN HUED BABY SPOONS ffilWhile they last «PA ca.COMPLETE TABLE APPOINTMENTSDirigo, Inc.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chi,icago,gram at Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania.He is engaged in preparing for a contingent of several hundred men whowill be given pre-pre-flight training forfive months — in physics, mathematics,English, history, physical training, andmilitary subjects.From Lieut. Richard W. Evans,'39, line officer on the U.S.S. McFar-land, comes the following: "Like allgood draft dodgers, I entered theNavy's officer training program inSeptember of 1940. Except for theRICHARD W. EVANSninety-day wonder school I was awayfrom the States continually till January of this year. Since the war startedmy tin can has had a number of hairraisers. Most of 1942 we were in theSouth Pacific. We did just abouteverything a ship could be expectedto do and an awful lot one couldn'texpect us to perform."We had a ringside seat in the Sol omon Islands for a long time, onlysomebody was always knocking abomb or torpedo through the ropes.We finally got nailed by a flight ofdive bombers at Guadalcanal, so wereceived a little personal experiencewith jungles. As you may recall, theship lost her stern to a bomber andwe finally brought her home with ajury rudder and an abbreviated stem.That's a long trip from Guadalcanalto Hawaii when you feel as naked aswe did."That is the only escapade we'vehad published, but I know we've beenquite an expense to the Japanese inmoney, ships, men, equipment, andairplanes. The brightest spot in thewar so far was my marriage last January to Dorothy Hill, ['40]. Now Ireally want to get this scrap over fast."Ensign Elizabeth A. Ewing, '42,expects to finish her WAVE trainingat Radcliffe this month. She says shewishes there were more people whounderstood that the women who havejoined and are joining the differentbranches of the services do so becausethey feel it is the best way by whichthey can help win the war. She adds :"If it were possible, we'd like to shootthe guns, too!"Lieut. Herman M. Serota, '34,MD '38, PhD '39, reports that he isgetting an excellent opportunity to usethe training and experience he previously sought at Chicago. He is carrying on psychiatric work at the Dar-nall General Hospital in Danville,Kentucky.Chaplain Albert L. Jamison, PhD'41, is stationed at the Amarillo, Texas,air field hospital, which, he writes, islargely staffed by medical officers andnurses from Chicago. Their reminiscences invariably turn toward theMidway and they "only hope that theduration will not last as long as President Hutchins predicts." Anothermember of the Chaplains' Corps,Martin W. Baumgaertner, '40, afternine months in a South American jungle outpost, is now stationed on atropical isle, in charge of the firstArmy radio station designed primarilyfor the entertainment of troops to beconstructed outside the continentallimits of the United States.Ensign Richard C. Hodnett, '42,is on the U.S.S. Barry.Lieut. George H. Barnard, '30,JD '31, is at Great Lakes as assistantdiscipline officer. He writes: "Wehandle disciplinary problems of about40 per cent of the Navy and attemptto weed out the unfit. We also try togive advice to the love-lorn, settle domestic problems, and try to take theplace of 'Mr. Anthony.' " The number of Chicago alumniwith M. D. degrees who are now inthe services has grown to impressiveproportion. We are giving below, byclasses, the names of those who arelisted on the Alumni Association's warservice file with latest known ranksand addresses. — Ed.NAVY1916Comdr. Albert G. Bower, PearlHarbor1918Capt. Charles E. Watts, PearlHarborLt. Comdr. Pierce MacKenzie,somewhere in the PacificLt. Comdr. Russell J. Callander, Naval Training Station, CorpusChristi, Texas .1919Comdr. E. Eric Larson, PearlHarborLt. Comdr. Proctor C. Waldo,Great Lakes1921Lt. Comdr. Francis L. Lederer,Naval Hospital, PhiladelphiaComdr. Arthur H. Weiland, Naval Hospital, Jacksonville, Florida1922Lt. Comdr. Clarence W. Rainey,Naval Hospital, Great Lakes1923Lt. Comdr. Frank V. Theis, Naval Hospital, Saint Albans, L. I.Lt. Comdr Virgil Wippern, Naval Hospital, Great Lakes1924Lt. Comdr. Abe Matheson, Station Hospital, Farragut, IdahoLt. Comdr. Waldo N. Graves,with a Naval Hospital in the PacificPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESDALHEIM &CO.2054 W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. MAGAZINEEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488ACMESHEET METAL WORKSGeneral Sheet Metal WorkSkylights - Gutters - SmokestacksFurnace and Ventilating Systems1 1 1 1 East 55th StreetPhone Hyde Park 9500POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579ENGLEWOODELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers ofELECTRICAL MATERIALS ANDFIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 EnglewoodS. Halsted Street 7500T. A. REHNQUIST CO.V; 7 CONCRETE\\— // FLOORSXrW SIDEWALKS\\V MACHINE FOUNDATIONSw EMERGENCY WORKv ALL PHONESEST. 1929 Wentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Ave.SECRETARIALCourse leads quickly to executive rank andhigh pay — in business or government service.Choice of Gregg, or "Stenotypy" — machineshorthand.Visit, write or phone for details.Btyant>& StrattonCOLLEGE18 S. Michigan Ave. Tel. Randolph 1575 1 925Lt. Comdr. Walter F. Hoeppner,Naval Hospital, Sampson, N. Y.Lt. Comdr. Paul M. Ellwood,transport dutyLt. Comdr. Jacob J. Baratz, SanDiego1926Lt. Comdr. Donald K. Hibbs,Marine Barracks, Parris Island, S. C.Lt. Comdr. Edward H. Dunn,Camp Lejeune, N. C.Lt. Comdr. Julius M. Amberson,Naval Medical School, Bethesda, Md.1927Lt. Comdr. Percival A. Gray, Jr.,Naval Hospital, Long Beach, Calif.Lt. Comdr. John P. Davis, NavalHospital, San DiegoLt. Comdr. John M. Forney, Naval Air Station, Vero Beach, FloridaLt. Comdr. Eustace L. Benjamin,Navy Pier, ChicagoLt. Comdr. J. C. Thomas Rogers,Base Hospital No. 4, overseas1928Lt. Comdr. Joseph Taymor, Naval Training Station, Bainbridge, Md.1929Lt. Comdr. Paul H. Van VerstLt. Comdr. Roy M. Langdon,Naval Air Base, Hutchinson, KansasLt. Comdr. Paul E. MacMaster,Marine Corps Base, San DiegoLt. Comdr. Edward M. Dorr,Navy Pier, ChicagoLt. Jack L. KinseyLt. Comdr. Harold J. Chapman,US S. RaleighLt. Comdr. Spencer Johnson,port director, New York City1930Lt. Comdr. Ralph E. Diffender-fer, Naval Hospital, Great LakesLt. Comdr. Edwin J. DeCostaLt. Comdr. Hildahl I. Burtness,Naval Hospital, San DiegoLt. Comdr. Mortimer Diamond,Naval Hospital, Sampson, N. Y.Lt. Comdr. Merlyn G. Henry,Naval Hospital, Long Beach, Calif.Lt. Comdr. John C. Smiley, somewhere in the Pacific1931Lt. Comdr. Asa D. YoungLt. Comdr. George F. Harsh,Naval Hospital, San DiegoLt. Raymond L. Morris, NavalAmmunition Depot, San FranciscoLt. Fred A. Hansen, TrainingStation, San DiegoLt. Thomas H. Lipscomb, NavalHospital, Jacksonville, Fla.Lt. Comdr. Philip L. Peterson,Naval Hospital, San Diego1932Lt: Armin F. Schick, Naval AirForces, Miami Beach Lt. Comdr. Arthur J. Vorwald,Naval Hospital, Annapolis, Md.Lt. Comdr Moses A. Jacobson,Station Hospital, Farragut, IdahoLt. Comdr. George M. McClureLt. Alexander H. Davis, NavalHospital, San DiegoLt. Charles F. Leich, Naval Dispensary, PensacolaLt. Comdr. Clarence Minnema,Navy Yard Dispensary, Washington,D.C.1933Lt. Comdr. Stephen A. Zieman,assistant editor U. S. Naval Bulletin,Washington, D C.Lt. Clare C. Jones, South Pacificbase hospitalLt. Comdr. Louis B. Newman,Naval Hospital, Oakland, Calif.Lt. John L. Probasco, CharlestonNavy Yard Dispensary, S. C.Lt. Townsend B. Friedman, District Security Office, Great LakesLt. Clarence Olson, in the Pacific1934Lt. George R. Mueller, Post Dispensary, Parris Island, S. C.Lt. Comdr. Mayo M. Andelson,Naval Hospital, Mare Island, Calif.Lt. Ray F. Crawford, U.S.S.EscalanteLt. Louis N. Schwartz1935Lt. Dick J. Freriks, Navy Yard,Brooklyn, N. Y.Lt. Edward S. Burge, Naval Hospital, Norman, Okla.Lt. Robert R. Crawford, somewhere in the PacificLt. Chester N. Tancredi, NavalAir Station, San Diego1936Lt. John W. Olds, advanced naval base in the PacificLt. Anton S. YuskisLt. Luther C. Thompson, Station Hospital, Farragut, Idaho1937Lt. Lloyd E. HarrisLt. James W. Marron, NavalHospital, San DiegoLt. Paul Ashley, Naval TrainingStation, Bainbridge, Md.Lt. Robert B. Greenman, prisonerof war in the PhilippinesLt. Paul L. Bergstrom, PensacolaLt. Emilio D. Lastreto, M.T.B.,San FranciscoLt. Sol B. GoldmanLt. Jack S. Abrams, TreasureIsland, Calif.Lt. Leonard L. Braun, U.S.S.KiltyLt. William A. Withers, Anacos-tia Air Station, Washington, D. C.Lt. Arie C. Rempe, Naval Training School, Urbana, 111.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 271938Lt. William J. Ferguson, YardDispensary, Mare Island, Calif.Lt. Bernard A. Halperin, NavyYard Dispensary, Portsmouth, N. H.Lt. Robert W. BoggsLt. Jacob F. Lutz, in the Pacific1939Lt. John H. Gifford, Naval Hospital, Bethesda, Md.Lt. John B. Rowe, Marine CorpsAir Station, El Toro, Calif.Lt. James J. DeRoos, U.S.S.GansevoortLt. Robert Z. Collings, Jr., Cud-dihy Field, Corpus Christi, Texas1940Lt. James L. Waters, Naval AirStation, PensacolaLt. Richard W. Gibbs, SeattleLt. F. Bruce Monroe, somewherein the PacificLt. Thomas R. CollinsLt. Karl V. Kaess, Pearl Harbor1941Lt. Leibert J. SandarsLt. Charles M. Grace, San Cle-mente Island, San DiegoLt. John O. Baugher, U. S. S.HobbyLt. Roger C. Hendricks, MarineRecruiting Station, SeattleLt. Byron E. Bassham, Pearl HarborLt. Prescott Jordan, CampElliott, Calif.Lt. John J. Sherman, RecruitingStation, Louisville, Ky.Lt. Robert C. Painter, with aMarine unit in the PacificLt. Roger C. Hendricks, U. S. S.ChincoteagueARMY1906Col. Horace M. Francis, CampStoneman, Calif.1910Johnson F. Hammond, on activeduty.1911Maj. Louis D. Smith, chief ofurological surgery, Sheppard Field,Texas1916Lt. Col. William J. Eklund,overseas1917Lt. Col. Arthur M. Washburn,somewhere in AfricaMaj. Raymond E. Davies, CampPhillips, Kan.1919Capt. Halford E. Patton, FortMcArthur, Calif.1920Maj. Charles E. Galloway, inthe Pacific Maj. John D. Koveky., chief ofsurgical service, Bruno General Hospital, Santa Fe, N. M.192!Capt. Joseph F. ShimpaMaj. Joseph M. Harris, MercedArmy Flying School, Calif.1923Capt. Harold L. KlawansCapt. Meyer R. Lichten stein,overseasCapt. Harry J. Mayer, CampCallan, Calif.Lt. Col. Chester C. Guy, director and chief of surgical service, 297thGeneral Hospital, Temple, Texas1924Capt. Morton G. Marks, Veterans Hospital, Lincoln, Neb.Maj. Owen H. Homme, HammerField, Fresno, Calif.Maj. William J. Baker, Vista delArroyo Hospital, Pasadena, Calif.Capt. Anthony N. TrappLt. Col. Randolph F. Olmsted,ChicagoMaj. Michael L. Leventhal,16th Evacuation Hospital, CampBlanding, FloridaCapt. Philip J. Rosenbloom, chiefof urologic service, Camp Campbell,KentuckyMaj. Frederick T. May, Fitzsimons Hospital, DenverCapt. Herbert F. Binswanger,Nichols General Hospital, Louisville,KentuckyMaj. Benjamin Goldberg, CampAdair, OregonMaj. George C. Turner, 13thGeneral HospitalMaj. Robert S. Bolin, Camp At-terbury, Indiana1925Lt. Col. Marion H. Barker, 12thGeneral Hospital, overseasCol. Daniel B. MacCallum,Headquarters 12th CorpsCapt. Milton Steinberg, battalionsurgeon, Camp Beale, Calif.Capt. Jasper N. Wakeman, FortBliss, Texas '1926Maj. Ralph G. Whitmer, 25thEvacuation Hospital Unit, overseasNevin Huene, Fort Slocum, N. Y.Maj. Julian M. Bruner, FortBliss, TexasMaj. Stanley E. Lawton, CampRobinson, Arkansas1927Capt. Walter R. Pendleton, FortLewis, Wash. >^:Capt. Lewis W. WoodruffCapt. Jaroslav Tetrev1928Capt. I. Vandermyde, 69th A. R.Medical Detachment, Calif. CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Deacriptions"E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182TELEPHONE HAYMARKET 4566O'GALLAGHAN BROS., Inc.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED ~ BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDEfiSHAYmarket 79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893¦ "MOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. oi C. ALUMNI28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECapt. George G. Hallenbeck,Camp Robinson, Ark.Maj. John E. Freeland, ArmyMedical Center, Washington, D. C.Capt. Bellfield Atcheson, ErieProving Ground, Lacarne, OhioCapt. Clarence L. Lyon, overseasMaj. Maurice A. Walker, chiefof surgical service, Baxter Hospital,Spokane, Wash.Maj. Hampar E. Kelikian, FortRiley, KansasCapt. Ian H. Bond, Shenango Replacement Depot, PennsylvaniaMaj. Claude N. LambertCapt. Arthur Stenn, CampWhite, OregonCapt. Bert Van Alk, CampGruber, OklahomaCapt. Robert M. Eaton, St. LouisMedical DepotCapt. Palmer W. Good, HunterField, Savannah, Ga.Capt. Ernest S. Watson, San Bernardino, Calif.Capt. Reuben E. Almqutst, overseas1929Lt. Col. Holland Williamson,chief of surgical service of an evacuation hospital, New GuineaCapt. William J. Quick, Carlsbad,N. M.Capt. Robert C. Lev^ , CarlisleBarracks, PennsylvaniaMaj. H. Dick Countryman, Chanute Field, 111.Capt. Henry B. LeRoy, CampWolters, TexasMaj. Otto E. Gray, Army Medical School, Washington, D. C.Capt. Gordon W. Abbott, CampPolk, LouisianaCapt. Alexander Wolf, in AustraliaLt. Col. Robert M. Jones, CampBreckinridge, Kentucky1930Capt. F. F. Schwartz, LawsonHospital, Atlanta, Ga.Capt. Maurice E. Cooper, induction service at Shreveport, La.Maj. Isee L. Connell, CampMiles Standish, Mass.Capt. Lambertus E. Beeuwkes,Camp McCoy, WisconsinMaj. H. Ivan Sippy, 13th GeneralHospitalCapt. Stanley G. Law, Fort St.John, British ColumbiaCapt. Carl L. Gast, Camp Claiborne, LouisianaCapt. Ben L. Hurwitz, CampBarkeley, TexasCapt. Stanley S. Bruechert,Camp Beale, CaliforniaCapt. Russell E. Pleune, HunterField, Savannah, Ga. 1931Lt. Julian L. PlautCapt. Leonard B. Shpiner, CampLivingston, LouisianaMaj. Robert F. Shaver,, at anevacuation hospital overseasCapt. Charles A. Angell, CampMaxey, TexasCapt. William R. Hewitt, TruaxField, WisconsinCapt. A. Louis Rosi, HammerField, Fresno, Calif.Lt. Roy M. Hohman, taking a"refresher" course in laboratory proceduresCapt. Frank Holecek, Charleston, S. C.Capt. Sidney B. Goff, CampBarkeley, TexasCapt. Stirling P. Stackhouse,Fort Riley, KansasMaj. Zaven M. Seron, CampHarahan, LouisianaBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeHAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE AFTER20 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERTGraduate NurseMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused. Permanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600 HairRoots per hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy. Also Eledrologtsls Associationof Illinois$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in Beauty Capt. Kenneth M. Sears, CampGrant, IllinoisCapt. Boyd A. Burkhardt, CampBowie, TexasCapt. LeRoy W. Yolton, CampCarrabelle, FloridaMaj. John S. Moffatt, Rantoul,IllinoisCapt. William B. Steen, GulfportField, Miss.Capt. Maurice J. Hoilien, FortGeorge Wright, WashingtonCapt. Albert J. Entringer, overseasCapt. Donald J. Sabath, CampRobinson, Arkansas1932Capt. Bruce A. Hollister, overseasMaj. Robert S. Baldwin, in NewGuineaLt. Zenon G. Czaja, outside ofcontinental United StatesLt. Henry Hoeksema, Camp Shelby, MississippiCapt. Livingston E. Josselyn,overseasCapt. W. Stanley Kitt, FortGeorge Meade, MarylandCapt. Ralph W. Snodgrass, FortRosecrans, CaliforniaMaj. Joseph H. Shaffer, officerstraining school, Miami BeachCapt. Frank C. Green, 54th Evacuation Hospital, Yuma, ArizonaCapt. Tom Dickey Paul, MarchField, CaliforniaMaj. Matthew Peelen, ReillyGeneral Hospital, Springfield, Mo.Maj. George W. Stuppy, 13thGeneral HospitalCapt. Alfred J. Platt, CampBlanding, FloridaCapt. Clifford M. HughesCapt. John W. Welsh, Edge-wood Arsenal, MarylandCapt. Jeremiah Quin, overseasCapt. Samuel S. Bernstein, outside of continental United StatesCapt. Joseph N. Rappaport,Camp Barkeley, TexasMaj. Egbert H. Fell, 13th General HospitalCapt. Daniel M. Kingsley, Borden General Hospital, Chickasha,OklahomaLt. Col. Fred H. MowreyCapt. George M. De Young, Mc-Closkey General Hospital, Temple,Texas1933Lt. Lincoln Stulik, officer training school, Miami BeachCapt. Leon J. Tragerman, 73rdEvacuation Hospital, overseasCapt. R. B. Gaines, Deshon General Hospital, Butler, PennsylvaniaLt. Jack Levitt, Barnes GeneralHospital, Vancouver, WashingtonTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOCapt. Arnold Wilson, Fort Knox,KentuckyLt. Fred F. Stenn, Camp Grant,IllinoisCapt. Donald H. Root, HunterField, Savannah, Ga.Maj. Clarence W. Monroe, 10thEvacuation Hospital, overseasMaj. Marvin M. Dickey, FortSill, Okla.(To be concluded in May)THE CLASSES1909Sophia C. Camenisch, who hasbeen secretary and president of theEnglish Club of Greater Chicago fortwenty years, was tendered an honorary luncheon by the club on her retirement last October. One tributereads : "A tireless, self-effacing worker,she encouraged the highest professional standards." She has also beeneditor of the Chicago Schools Journalfor many years.1913John T. Lister, AM '16, PhD '19,is head of the foreign languages department at Wood Junior College,Mathiston, Miss.1917Samuel H. Coulter, MA, is withthe U. S. Department of Agricultureat Wyndmoor, Penn.1919The Rev. Arthur T. Brown, afterserving ten years at St. AlbansChurch and Emmanuel Chapel inthe Bronx, New York City, has beenappointed vicar of St. Anne's Episcopal Church, Great Kills, and theChurch of the Holy Comforter, Elt-ingville, Staten Island.1921Ramona Hayes Healy, MA '32,formerly with the Hayes - HealyTravel Bureau and SteamshipAgency, has become manager of theMacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 21.30Alice Banner Englewood 3181COLORED HELPFACTORY HELPSTORESSHOPSMILLS FOUNDRIESEnglewood Emp. Agcy., 5534 S. State St. Vanderbilt Better Tours bureau inChicago.1922Lola Hazelwood is assistant editor of the Methodist PublishingHouse in Nashville, Tennessee.Richard W. Bardwell, AM, issuperintendent of public schools atLaCrosse, Wisconsin.1924Sue Hurst Thompson, MD '28,is acting commissioner of health, Columbia County Department ofHealth, Hudson, N. Y. She has takenthis position for the duration, releasing a doctor for the Army MedicalCorps.Minnie J. Crawford, SM, isteaching physics, chemistry, andmathematics at Caney Junior College,Pippapass, Kentucky.1925Edward J. Nichols has publishedhis first novel, Danger! Keep Out, astudy of industrialism in the 1920's.The book was favorably reviewed ina recent issue of Time, Nichols hasbeen teaching English composition atPennsylvania State College since1928.1928Charles W. Lenth, PhD '30, ischief of the soap and glycerin divisionof the Food Distribution Administration, Washington. He is president ofthe Chicago Chemists Club for 1942-43.Edna Gross Wright has movedfrom Yankton, South Dakota, to 1016BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, Director MAGAZINE 29i South College Avenue, Mount Pleasant, Michigan.Paul L. Delargy, PhD, is chief ofthe educational planning section,v WPB, at Washington.1929s Adolph Schock, AM '30, PhDt '31, has accepted the position as headof the social science department atOakland City College, Oakland City,? Indiana.: 1930f Lowell C. Thompson, AM, isa merit system supervisor at LittleRock, Arkansas.J[ Alexander Oppenheim, PhD,mathematics professor at Raffles Col-is lege, Singapore, cabled his family ini Gary, Indiana, the day of the sur-;3 render of Singapore, was seen twodays later well and fit, but has notbeen heard from since.i ,931George R. Bartlett, PhD '42, iswith the American Red Cross at'" Great Lakes, 111.J 1932t Jane E. Smith is a personnele placement analyst with the WesternElectric Company in Chicago.Beatrice M. Graham is a memberof the FBI in Washington.LS Stillman Frankland is with thea personnel division of the Douglas" Aircraft, Long Beach plant, Cali-* fornia. He writes: "Having been refused by the Army (for the present) Iam trying to do the next best thing."g 1933James F. Simon is with the easternaircraft division of General Motorsat Linden, N. J.Charles S. Wells is a civilian instructor in the Army Air Forces Technical School in Chicago.Garland C. Routt, AM '37, iswith the OCD in Washington.1934Mabel L. Gardner is assistant toSTANDARDBOILER and TANK CO.524 WEST 42nd STREETTelephone BOUIevard 5886CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency61st YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New York30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAjax Waste Paper Co.2600-2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Any QuantityWaste PaperScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, Van Buren 0230RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 3192WM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER CONSTRUCTION%a# ¦ i di • TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 2208the director of the nursing service ofthe midwestern area, American RedCross, at St. Louis.Lois Cooper Holzworth, AM'35, is doing editorial research forTime in New York.James S. Slotkin, AM '35, PhD'40, is an instructor in anthropologyat the University of Wisconsin, Madison.1935John W. Devereux, MD, was recently honored by the HonoluluJunior Chamber of Commerce as thewinner of the distinguished servicekey for outstanding community service in 1942. He has done notablework in connection with the Honolulu blood bank.Washington and Jefferson College,Washington, Pennsylvania, announcesthe appointment of Harry Hill,PhD, as assistant professor of physics.Bernadine Siebers, MD, is home(at Grand Rapids, Mich.) on leavefrom Vellore, South India, where sheis a medical missionary.John W. Bailey is district trafficmanager of TWA in Chicago.1936Marjorie B. Molyneaux is teaching science at the post school, MarineBarracks, Quantico, Virginia.Maurice M. Shapiro, SM '40,PhD '42, is a civilian research physicist working for the Navy in Washington.1937Melvin Fielding is a civilian instructor with the Army Air Forces. Rhea Z. Radin, AM, is a specialist in housing and welfare for theWar Manpower Commission inWashington.Paul A. Batties, MD, has beenappointed to the staff in surgery ofthe Indianapolis City Hospital, according to a recent announcement.He becomes the first Negro physicianin the city's history to receive suchan appointment.Ralph N. Johanson, SM, PhD'39, has become assistant professorof mathematics at Hamilton College,Clinton, N. Y.Herman L. Meyer, Jr., MS, is instructing in mathematics at U. of C.Helen Marie Curl, AM '38, hasjoined the personnel division of theFood Distribution Administration, anew branch of the Department ofAgriculture, and is located in theChicago regional office as classification analyst.Alden R. Loosli has recently beenappointed superintendent of production of a group of explosive intermediates at the American CyanamidCompany, Bound Brook, New Jersey.1938Otto H. Theiss, MA, is executivesecretary of the Lutheran WaltherLeague and associate editor of TheCresset. He is living in Chicago.Leroy T. Carlson is workingoverseas for General Motors underArmy supervision.1939Kathryn R. Suino, AM, is at theWest high school in Aurora, Illinois,as cafe manager.Vincent J. Flynn, PhD, chairman of the English department atthe College of St. Thomas, St. Paul,Minnesota, is on leave this year,working on a Guggenheim fellowship.Karl L. Adams, Jr. is engaged inbusiness audit work for the WalgreenDrug Company in Chicago.1940Samuel R. Mohler, PhD, hasbeen appointed acting associate professor of history at Central Washington College of Education, Ellensburg,Washington.Erwin W. Wendt is with the civilian personnel branch, ordnancebureau, War Department, in Washington.Edward J. Cronin, AM, is an instructor in English literature, U. of C.Home Study Department.Norman F. Maclean, PhD, deanof students in the College, U. of C,has been appointed acting director ofthe Institute of Military Studies toreplace Arthur L. H. Rubin, who hasleft for government service. 1941George G. Wright, Jr., PhD, is afellow of the National ResearchCouncil, working in the chemistrydepartment at California Instituteof Technology.Rosabel Velde, MA '42, has beenappointed a lecturer in physics atthe Museum of Science and Industry,Chicago.Leo J. Cieminski, MA, has beenappointed senior assistant psychologist at the Illinois State TrainingSchool for Boys, St. Charles.Horace V. Hilberry, PhD, hasleft New York University and is nowworking in the metallurgical laboratory at U. of C.Robert C. Boyer is teaching history, civics, and physical education inthe public schools of Sparland, Illinois.Ruth Lorraine Steel is a civilianstudent instructor for the Army AirForce Technical Training Command.She is teaching radio at the StevensHotel in Chicago. She hopes in thesummer to be transferred to Houstonto train the Women's Ferry Command. She adds, "This radio is fascinating, though."Gerald Simmons is with the Hercules Powder Company at Kalamazoo, Michigan.George B. Hildebrand, MD, is aphysician at the Hercules PowderCompany at Baraboo, Wisconsin.1942Morris Allen, MBA, is a counselor on employee relations for theHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized as one of the leading TeachersAgencies of the United States.BOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage ©rove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492Tailored Uniforms Made to MeasureWomen Doctors and Nurses, Stock sizeInterne SuitsANEDA McSWEENY1910 So. Ogden AvenueSEEley 3734 Evenings by AppointmentTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31War Department, office of chief offinance, Washington.Melvin D. Hurwitz, MS, is achemist working in Pittsburgh, Penn.John M. Norris, PhD, has becomehead of the department of NewTestament at the Union Seminary inBuenos Aires, Argentina. He expectsto take up his new duties this month.E. Duane Sayler, PhD, is instructor and director of student personnelat Virginia Junior College, Virginia,Minnesota.Erwin Haas, PhD, is instructor inthe chemistry department at U. of C.Theodore Feinberg is a researchassistant in the metallurgical laboratory, U. of C.Harry Schaffner is working forthe Foreign Broadcast IntelligenceService of the FCC.Ruth N. Honor is a teacher ofadvanced mathematics in the publicschools of Maumee, Ohio.SOCIAL SERVICEThe alumni of the School of SocialService Administration of the University and friends of Edith Abbott, deanof the School from 1920 to 1942, havecontributed to the University the sumof $3789.93 for the establishment ofthe Edith Abbott Scholarship Fund,the income of which shall be usedby the University, and the principalof which also may be used in its discretion, to make scholarship grants orgrants-in-aid to students of the Schoolof Social Service Administration ofthe University who are not able toJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.The Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324 finance the entire cost of their education.The Scholarship Fund was raisedunder the auspices of the School ofSocial Service Administration AlumniAssociation, of which Mrs. Linn Brandenburg, '24, AM '32, is president.The check was turned over to. theUniversity on January 21, 1943.Lois Wildy, assistant professor ofcase work, served as chairman of theconference committee for the midwestregional conference of the Child Welfare League of America which washeld in Chicago, March 4-6. Charlotte Towle, associate professor ofpsychiatric social work, gave a paperon March 6 on "The Effect of theWar Upon Children."Recent newspapers have carriedan interesting account concerningBarbara Brandon, AM '38, who isan assistant field worker with theAmerican Red Cross and attached to afront-line hospital serving the American forces in one sector of the Tunisian front. The Red Cross fielddirector who was attached to. theevacuation hospital asked Miss Brandon to go to the hospital and carry onwhile he was on other duties. Thishas given her a very active, exciting,and worth while service.Roger Cumming, AM '36, has lefthis position with the Office of PriceAdministration in Minneapolis andhas been granted a commission in theNavy.Naomi Fleishman, AM '39, isworking with the Family Society ofSeattle.Louis Lieblich, AM '39, has recently accepted a position as directorof the United States EmploymentService in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.Bee Rich Wolfe, AM '40, is withthe employee service section in theOffice of Emergency Management,Washington.Ethel Mae Speas, AM '41, is serving as case consultant for the divisionof child welfare, State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, Raleigh,North Carolina.James Lloyd Webb, AM '41, hasleft the Louisiana State Departmentof Public Welfare to become publicwelfare activities counselor with theWar Relocation Authority in Jerome,Arkansas.Thomas Fetzer, AM '41, has leftthe family service division of the Chicago American Red Cross, to join thestaff of the children's division of theState Department of Public Welfarein Ohio.Margaret Skillman, AM '42, isnow medical social worker at Memorial Hospital in Casper, Wyoming. Tuck PointingMaintenanceCleaning PHONEGRAceland 0800CENTRAL BUILDING CLEANING CO.CalkingStainingMasonryAcid WashingSand BlastingSteam CleaningWater Proofing 3347 N. Halsted StreetGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3186HARRY EENISENBURG, Jr.STANDARDREADY ROOFING CO.Complete Service10436 TelephoneS. Wabash Ave. Pullman 8500Ashjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000MARRIAGESCaryl Cody Pfanstiehl, '15, toGeorge W. Carr, on March 18 atHighland Park. Mr. Carr is an architect and immediately after the wedding ceremony the couple left forKingsport, Tennessee, where he isengaged in war work.Fay Horton to Ensign Calvin P.Sawyier, '42, AM '42, on April 3 inBond Chapel. The bridegroom'sfather officiated. She is the daughterof Horace B. Horton, '10 and Mrs.Horton (Phyllis Fay, T5) . Sawyierwas conference tennis champion in1942 and at present is stationed inWashington, D. C.Lieut. John B. Marks, '38, toAnne Barrett at Warrenton, Virginia,on January 30. He is with the SignalCorps and at present stationed atWarrenton.Elizabeth Nan Herlinger, '42,to Cornelius Groot, '40, SM '42,on July 4, 1942. They are living inBerkeley, California. He is a chemistwith the Shell Development Company, Emeryville.Eloise G. Proctor, '42, to ActonReavill on December 16. He is aprivate in the Air Forces training at32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWPB AWARDSDUNBAR & DUNBAR, INC.forOutstanding Production AchievementMANUFACTURED ITEM: BB-I— Timothy Carleton DunbarDATE OFF ASSEMBLY: February 26, 1943PLANT LOCATION: Evanston, IllinoisGENERAL DESCRIPTION: Designed by the greatest engineeringbrains of all times, the BB-I is unquestionably superior to anything in thefield. Weight 5 pounds 8 ounces overall made of the highest calibrematerials. Maximum efficiency and minimum weight is assured; powerloading a military secret.Subjected to every conceivable test under rigorous conditions, itsperformance assures a brilliant future.BARBARA COOK DUNBAR, '32andJ. H. DUNBAR, JR.Birmingham, Alabama, while she is anassistant at Harper Library.Muriel Libby, '41, to Ensign William H. Rendleman, '41, on February 27 in Chicago. At home, 1915Sidney Street, St. Louis.Rachel C. Egbert, AM '36, toCapt. Robert H. Robbins, on February 2. At home, 7425 South ShoreDrive, Chicago.Estelle Mills, '39, to Leroy W.Mintz, '35, on October 10, 1942. Heis in the Navy at Great Lakes.Norma Glass to Harold H.Lutzke, MBA, '42, on January 9.He is an accountant with the U. S.Maritime Commission at the GlobeShipbuilding Company, Superior,Wisconsin.Helen Van Eerden to G. ArthurMulder, '41, on September 17, 1942.He is continuing his studies in themedical school, U. of C.Gervaise Broaddus to Jack V.Chambers, '42. At home, 5482 SouthGreenwood Avenue, Chicago. He iswith the map division of the WarDepartment.Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today. Elsie Spira to Walter J. Rockler,'40, on June 14, 1942. At home, 601Cascade, Boulder, Colorado. He ispresently a Naval student.M. Lois Roff, '42, to Lieut. TomW. Waller, '40, on February il atBond Chapel. At home, 115 FrontStreet, New Bern, N. C. He is in theMarine Air Corps.Barbara J. Foote, '42, to EnsignJames C. Alexander, '42, on March6 at Hilton Chapel. He has receivedhis commission from the midshipmen'sschool at Northwestern University andhas been asigned to an advancedschool in Miami. At home, 1603 N.E.Second Avenue, Miami, Florida.BIRTHSTo Keith I. Parsons, '33, JD '37,and Mrs. Parsons (Lorraine Watson,'34, AM '38) a son, Robert Keith, onMarch 13.To Howard K. Beale, '21, andAlbert K. Epstein, ' 12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and En gineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVER Mrs. Beale (Georgia Robison, '26,AM '28), a son, Howard Kennedy, Jr.,on March 17 in New York City.To Burke Smith, Jr.,, '33 and Mrs.Smith (Pauline M. Sommer, '36),twin sons, Burke William and ClarkSommer, on October 31, 1942.To Major John Post, '32, MD '36,and Mrs. Post, a son, John Charles, onFebruary 17.To Homer Hoyt, JD '18, PhD '33,and Mrs. Hoyt a boy, Michael Robert,on February 28. Hoyt is director ofresearch of the Chicago Plan Commission.DEATHSJohn S. Abbott, '07, secretary anddirector of research of the NationalAssociation of Margarine Manufacturers, on January 23, in Washington,D. C. After graduation from theUniversity he was food and drug commissioner of Texas, later joined thebureau of chemistry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and in, 1920became associated with the margarineindustry.Jeannette Steele Mack, '17, ofChicago, in July, 1942.Harry W. Ricketts, AM '16, onJanuary 11. He had been associatedwith the Shady Side Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, since 1929 andat the time of his death was head ofthe history department.Luther W. Tatge, '22, on December 8 in Chicago. He was associatedwith his brother, Paul W. Tatge, inlaw practice and was a member ofthe Chicago Bar Association and theLaw Institute.Lilly C. Thye, '24, of Chicago, inSeptember, 1942. She had taught atManley High School.Vivien E. Witcraft, '22, AM '27,junior college teacher of Red Oak,Iowa, on September 18, 1942.Maude Staiger Steiner, '09, onJuly 20, 1942, at West Palm Beach,Florida.A new building of the Bell Telephone LaboratoriesReason for ConfidenceIVloRE than ninety per cent of Americanscientists are engaged in beating theGermans and Japanese.More than ninety per cent of Americanscientific laboratory facilities are devotedto the same task.American scientists are working at thisjob six or seven days a week, long hours,with few interruptions.They are getting somewhere, too.Every now and then the Germans andthe Japanesehave an unpleasant surprise.They find that American science hascaught up with them and passed them.It is reassuring to us and discouragingto our enemies, for American scientific facilities are the greatest in the world.And they are functioning.Little by little, some of the things thathave been developed become public, butmost of them you won't hear about untilafter the war.But now, without the details, you canhave faith that American research —industrial and academic combined —is rapidly giving our fighting forces anadvantage.Along with other American industry the Bell Telephone System has itsown Bell Laboratories — the largestin the world — working overtimefor victory.BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM 1Your continued help in making only vital calls to war-busy centers is a real contribution to the drive for victoryThe University of ChicagoCharles R. Walgreen FoundationPUBLIC LECTURESby Members of the Faculty of the Divisionof the Biological SciencesSpring Quarter, 1943MEDICINE AND THE WARApril 28 — Malaria, William H. Taliaferro, Eliakim HastingsMoore Distinguished Service Professor and Chairmanof the Department of Bacteriology and ParasitologyMay 5 — Insects, Disease, and Modern Transportation, ClayG. Huff, Professor of ParasitologyMay 12 — Aviation Medicine, Henry T. Ricketts, Assistant Professor of MedicineMay 1 9 — Neurological and Psychological Effects of CerebralInjuries, A. Earl Walker, Associate Professor ofSurgery, and Ward C. Halstead, Assistant Professorof Experimental PsychologyMay 26 — Psychiatry and the War, David Slight, Professor ofPsychiatryJune 2 — Shock; Blood Substitutes, Alexander Brunschwig,Professor of Surgery and RoentgenologyJune 9 — Chemical Injuries, Franklin C. McLean, Professor ofPathological PhysiologyWednesdays at 4:30 P. M. Room 122, Social Science Research BuildingAdmission Free 1126 East Fifty -ninth Street