:b;F-* VMM Vi>1 1 &» 4i **Sl 2S JVj'«. . i.> m if4*^ Z*'MM ^ si k ¦ jg -'* * E9l S5)THE UNIVERSITY OPCHICAGO MAGAZINEI R C H 19 4 3YDUH ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONWHAT DOES IT DO?Normally an alumni association has six general functions7. RecordsComplete records are kept of 50,000former students, including addressograph plates and various cross files.2. Maintenance of an AssociationOrganized since June 1893, the membership numbers up to 7,000.3. MagazineThis publication is in its 35th year, appearing monthly from October to June. 4. Information BureauScores of inquiries regarding individuals on file are answered every week.In recent months the F.B.I, has been aconsistent visitor.5. Sponsors Alumni GivingThis feature of alumni work is underthe supervision of the Alumni Foundation, one of the Committees of theAssociation.6. Alumni ClubsThere are seventy clubs from coast tocoast.At the University of Chicago the alumni office has other activitiesnot found in most alumni organizations7. Alumni BulletinIt is sent quarterly to inform alumniof recent developments at the University and in the alumni organization.2. Regional AdvisersEight hundred members who helptheir University by interviewing prospective students in an effort to persuadethe right type of student to attend theUniversity of Chicago.3 Alumni SchoolAn adventure in adult education.Classes are conducted, and a special session is held during reunion week. 4. Alumni DeanGordon Jennings Laing who is knownto thousands of alumni through hisreading lists and his visits.5. Alumni HonorsDistinguished alumni are recognizedby the Association for their achievements. This practice was started atthe Fiftieth Anniversary celebration in1 941.6. War RecordsThree thousand service men are now onfile and the number is growing daily.Frequent changes of address makekeeping records a problem.7. Private MaroonThis newsletter is sent free to service men andwomen all over the world to keep them intouch with the University and each other.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONCHARLTON T. BECKEditor HOWARD W. MORT and BEATRICE J. WULFAssociate EditorsDON MORRIS, CODY PFANSTIEHL Contributing Editors HARRY SHOLLAssistant EditorTHE COVER: International Nightis an annual festival held at International House, the proceeds going tothe scholarship fund for foreign students. It is through the courtesy ofLife, who attended, that we have withus some of the attractive young ladieswho modeled Chinese historical costumes during the evening.BEFORE the Board of Trusteesand six hundred faculty membersAvery O. Craven stood up to speak:"I have always thought that it wasan unfair thing to tempt a facultymember to the extent offered by thisoccasion. Recall, if you will, thenumerous times when each and everyone of you have set your jaws andthought of the things you would liketo tell the trustees, the president, thedeans, and certain of your colleagues."Mr. Craven, professor of Americanhistory, was this year honored withthe distinction of being the facultyspeaker at the annual Trustees-Faculty dinner. Because of the popularity of his article in our Octoberissue, we are convinced that readerswill welcome the opportunity of reading Mr. Craven's speech on democracy which was so enthusiasticallyreceived at the dinner.AT THE same dinner, John Nuveen, Jr., shared the honors withProfessor Craven, speaking as a member of the Board of Trustees. Yourguess is as good as ours as to how serious John is in putting faculty members in checkered and striped gownswhen he suggests, "Let's Make SomeMore Changes."COOPERATIVE planning by parents and schools must be undertaken if we are to protect our childrenin wartime, believes Ralph W. Tyler,chairman of the department of edu- THIS MONTHTABLE OF CONTENTSMARCH, I94*»PageDemocracy, Yesterday and TodayAvery O. Craven 3Let's Make Some More ChangesJohn Nuveen, Jr 7Wartime Cooperation betweenSchools and ParentsRalph W. Tyler 10The Alumni Foundation Is Organizing 13What About Manpower?William H. Spencer 14The Dean's Easy ChairGordon J. Laing 16Chicago's Next Mayor? 19News of the QuadranglesDon Morris 20News of the Classes 23cation and University examiner. "Individual parents can do much toprovide the kind of home environmentwhich facilitates the best developmentof their Children." But planning on anational, state, local, as well as individual level, is necessary. We are indebted to the Elementary SchoolJournal for permission to reprint Professor Tyler's article.AMONG the contributions whichare already being received forthe 1943 Alumni Gift to the University was a check for $25.00 with thisnote: "Two of my sons who graduated from the University of Chicagoare now lieutenants in the service.The U. of C. can be proud of the menit turned out who are now using theireducation and talents for our nationin time of war." Page 13 is made upof actual word quotes from scores ofother alumni who believe in Chicagoand are prepared to prove it. WHAT ABOUT MANPOWER?was the question raised at therecent luncheon meeting of the University's Citizens Board by William H.Spencer, dean of the School of Business. Mr. Spencer has been granteda leave of absence by the University,in order to serve as the regional director of the War Manpower Commission for Illinois, Indiana, and Wis-OUR graduates are taking a prominent part in the social and intellectual life of the community. Theyare living with vivid realization ofthe import of the words upon theUniversity shield: "Let knowledgegrow from more to more; And so behuman life enriched." And with that"comforting reflection" Dean Laingconcludes his account of one alumnidean's education.OUR alumni family will be pleasedto know that a fellow alumnus,George B. McKibbin, who has alwaysgiven generously of his services to hisAlma Mater as well as to his community and state, has been nominatedfor the highest office in the secondlargest city of the United States.IN ADDITION to the many services the University is renderingour government at war comes the announcement that Chicago has beenapproved for the training of Armyand Navy personnel in pre-medicine,languages, and personnel psychologyand for WAVE instruction, accordingto Don Morris in News of the Quadrangles.WITH so many references thesedays to the Atlantic Charterand with so few of us actually remembering the eight points, we askedUncle Sam for a copy of the charter,which we share with you on thefrontispiece.Published by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue,Chicago Annual subscription price S2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago,Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of theUniversity of Chicago Magazine.The Atlantic CharterThe President of the United States and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing HisMajesty's Government in the United Kingdom, have met at sea.The President and the Prime Minister have had several conferences. They have consideredthe dangers to world civilization arising from the policies of military domination by conquest uponwhich the Hitlerite government of Germany and other governments associated therewith haveembarked, and have made clear the steps which their countries are respectively taking for theirsafety in the face of these dangers.They have agreed on the following Declaration:The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill,representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it rightto make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries onwhich they base their hopes for a better future for the world.FIRST, Their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other;SECOND, They desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord withthe freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned;THIRD, They respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights andself-government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them;FOURTH, They will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished,of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the worldwhich are needed for their economic prosperity;FIFTH, They desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between allnations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved laborstandards, economic adjustment and social security;SIXTH, After the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to seeestablished a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling insafety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all themen in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want;SEVENTH, Such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seasand oceans without hindrance;EIGHTH, They believe that all of the nations of the world, for realisticas well as spiritual reasons, must come to the abandonment of the use of force.Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continueto be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outsideof their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations isessential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measureswhich will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments.Franklin D. RooseveltDated August 14, 1941. Winston S. ChurchillVOLUME XXXV THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 6MARCH, 1943DEMOCRACY, YESTERDAYAND TODAY• By AVERY O. CRAVEN, Ph.D. '24Fair weather theory orpractical socialsystem?TO THE historian the temptation on such an occasion as this is to provide colleagues and superiorswith perspective. Impatient with short-time viewsand certain that a sound understanding of backgroundsand trends is necessary if the University is to make itsway surely through the troubled days ahead, he is temptedto take a few historical kicks at academic hats even thoughhe suspects you came to eat and remain to listen onlythrough courtesy.He would call your attention to the fact that thisUniversity is the product of an age now largely departed.It was an age that began in 1860 with wood and stoneand steam; it ended, we do not know just when, with steeland concrete, electric power and light, and internal combustion engines. It was the age of "big business," "captains of industry and transportation," and "masters ofcapital." It saw the population balance shift from overwhelming rural-agricultural dominance to urban-industrial majorities. It turned a land of moderately well-fixed people into a land where millionaires were commonto almost every community and poverty and want wereequally plentiful. It saw the American public schoolsystem, from kindergarten to university, rounded out andsupplemented by great endowed institutions, where aneducation and much else was possible to nearly every boyand girl who earnestly desired it. It saw Europe ransacked for art treasures to satisfy the primitive collectinginstinct of our new-rich; exclusive hotels and resorts andclubs to cater to their desire to spend; the poor ofEurope crowding our shores by the millions annually togive a labor supply as abundant and nearly as docile asthe Negro slaves who had builded the now defunct CottonKingdom.It was a day of expansion and exploitation and extravagance. It was planless, socially indifferent, ruthless, and wasteful. But it was glorious. The Americanfarmer, under the new homestead act, broke veritablekingdoms to the plow and flung his farms to the lastdesirable corners of the continent. Up to 1870 there hadbeen incorporated into farms in the United States some407 million acres of land — the work of all the farmerssince Jamestown. In the next three decades after 1870more than 430 million acres were added. One generation of men settled more land and made it into farmsthan all of the predecessors combined. By 1920 anothergeneration had increased the figure to 956 million acres.And off of these farms, practically given to the farmersby a generous government, came a flood of food so cheapthat common men the western world over could dailyenjoy their white bread and roast beef, once the foodonly of princes. Farmers on a fat, black eighty in theMiddle West could retire at forty-five to the crossroadsvillage, to loaf and garden and talk and vote the Republican ticket the rest of their lives. Many could contemplate an old age in sunny California as lands rose in valuefrom $1.25 to $50, $100, and soon $250 per acre. TheAmerican farmer set new rural levels for mankind whilethe last independent farmers of Europe, unable to meetsuch competition in world markets, sank in poverty anddespair. From Norway to England to Germany peasantry held sway and governments stressed industry andcolonization.The urban-industrial story makes this one sound prosaic. With earth's richest continent being crossed andchanged from frontier simplicity to modern complexity;with its richest stores of iron and copper and oil beingopened and passed into private hands ; and with a highprotective tariff wall to monopolize the world's mostprofitable market, the industrialist could produce inquantity at prices which enabled him to expand hisefforts, make use of an advancing technology, and wagea fight to destruction against less efficient rivals. Soon,with just his surplus of goods and capital, he, too, wasplaying havoc with international markets and causingEuropean capitalists almost as much trouble as had theAmerican farmer caused his fellows.4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEUnder such conditions prosperity in the United Statesdid not even look for corners to round. Earnings in industry in a single year often equalled capital invested andfew concerns failed to adjust their capitalization to accordwith earnings. George Harvey, in his life of Henry ClayFrick, tells us that when Frick and Carnegie combinedin the steel business their capital was just five milliondollars. The monopoly advantages of combination enabled them to increase capitalization immediately, without the addition of a single cent of money, to twenty-five millions. The second year after this, earnings on thenew capitalization were 20 per cent. The Americanmarket for steel to build railroads and skyscrapers couldbe capitalized for the turning of figures on paper intoreal gold. A field for organization, for executive ability,for business imagination had opened to a people committed to rugged individualism and inclined to measureall progress in terms of accumulated weath. .No wonder the words "goodness" and "bigness" became synonyms. No wonder men and women confusedexcitement with pleasure and extravagance with comfort. No wonder we looked with condescending pity onthose in other lands who did not keep pace with ourbath tubs and automobiles. No wonder the Americanrich man, a bit confused by it all, turned philanthropistand reverted quickly to his early Calvinistic conceptionof wealth as a trust to be used for the glory of God.Poor indeed was the college, the church, or the hospitalthat did not carve deeply in fresh brick or stone the nameof some pious benefactor.The educational phase of this matchless expansion andextravagance is familiar to each and every one of you.Our own University is the product of its philanthropy.Our mushroom growth has long been the favorite quipof our rivals. Our hurry and willingness to try new thingshas constantly worried the academic world. When, in1 900, Chicago offered Frederick Jackson Turner a placeon its staff and he sought the advice of Woodrow Wilsonon acceptance or refusal, Wilson wrote:I wish I could give you a definite opinion aboutthe future of graduate work at the University ofChicago; but I do not feel that I have really seeninside the place. My impression . . . has been that itlacked academic steadiness, certainty of aim, dignity,the patience that does not pant for "results"; thatit was infected with the hurry, and I should suspectsuperficiality, of the "intensive" methods indicatedby their six weeks' concentration on group electives,etc., but I am very old fashioned and conservative;all "hustling" seems to me the very negation of progress in thoughtful study. I should, for myself, beafraid of the lack of reserve and the feverishprogressiveness which I suppose to characterize theplace. ... I should think Chicago a splendid placeto work in a hundred years from now, when Dr.Harper was dead and the place had cooled off, andfads had been exploded. We escaped most of the extremes of college life in thatera but the picture given by William Allen White inthe 1920's is accurate enough to be recognizable even byChicago men and women. He wrote:During the last twenty years, two things have happened in American education. First, the collegeshave become tremendously attractive to youth, quiteoutside the course of study. Second, the rise of theeconomic status of the average American family hasmade it possible for thousands of young people togo to these attractive colleges who have no culturalbackground whatever, who are not interested inbooks and reading, and who regard education asmerely an equipment for making a living.Hence, we have hordes of stupid, ineducable college students. The college spirit, outside of collegeathletics, society, and hootch never touches them.They are strangers to the academic life — as isolatedand remote as the wild savages of the forest fromall that went with the cloistered life in our oldAmerican collegiate tradition. Perhaps the collegesoftens them a little. Perhaps seeing the books inthe library and thumbing and memorizing the textsfor their classrooms does pull off some of theirfeathers and rub off some of their barbarous paint.Perhaps they will make homes in which the Cosmopolitan and the Motion Picture Magazine and'sets of uncut and unread books may decorate therooms. So perhaps their children, even feeding uponthis poisoned pabulum, will get some inkling of thelove of books and the desire for things of the spirit.Perhaps in another fifty years the college will be aninfluence in the higher life of the state and the nation. But just now the college is the haunt of alot of leather-necked, brass-lunged, money-spendingsnobs who rush around the campus snubbing thefew choice spirits who come to college to seek outreason and the will of God.That this era which produced the University of Chicago and set modern patterns has come to an end Iscarcely need to argue. Even before a second WorldWar imposed its necessities, a great world-wide depression had signaled a halt. Thoughtful men quickly understood that American farmlands would never againrise so steadily in value as to make their owners, generation after generation, comfortably wealthy; that farmers in a few places might go on exploiting their lands andtheir families but that neither the soils nor the familieswould much longer yield returns by old methods. Theysaw, too, that industrial markets were shrinking; thatconsolidation, even in the face of restraining legislation,was putting corporate wealth into the hands of the efficient few; and that unemployment was now a permanentthing for millions of workers. New conditions, newmethods, and even new values were in the making.America had come of age. The great days of extravagance had already sunk with startling rapidity into theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 5AVERY O. CRAVENdim past. When our great benefactor, John D. Rockefeller, died a few years ago, editorials spoke of him asa figure once familiar to the American scene but nolonger extant. One called him "a sort of national antique" and declared that all his benefactions "couldnot offset the lives blasted, the careers wrecked, theinjury done to our national life and public morale."Another stated that "the net impression left by hiscareer is the futility of an era dominated by such figures as his."Now such comment may not do entire justice to aman who achieved the greatest of success according tothe accepted methods of his day, but it does makeperfectly clear the fact that the age of that great industrial capitalist had bluntly ended before he himself couldget off the stage.The real significance of this era and its passing forthe American people and for us as a university groupis not in material and personal change. It has ratherto do with our ideologies. Because we made the greatest use of an advancing technology and the riches of amatchless continent and thereby achieved a comfortand a wealth unequalled elsewhere, we assumed thatthe whole thing was the product of our peculiar American virtues and institutions. We saw it as a practicaldemonstration of the superiority of "free enterprise,""rugged individualism," and "splendid isolation," allof which added up to constitute the American way oflife under the democratic dogma. We were certain thatfreedom from government interference with individual enterprise meant freedom from both fear and want. Wewere just as sure that Europe's failure to enjoy our happiness was the fault of their own systems and ways. Wepresumed that all wise peoples would soon be adoptingall our methods.Then came the shock of depression, the collapse ofconfidence. For the first time in two generations wewere uncertain of ourselves. We even began to doubtthe soundness of our procedures. As de Sales has said:The psychological shock produced by the depression, both in Europe and in America, cannot be overestimated. It has not destroyed capitalism as a system, but it has certainly shaken the faith, to say theleast, of millions of men, all over the world, whoup to then showed an implicit confidence in an economic order founded on the principle of equal opportunity for all.Since 1929 the most difficult lesson Americans have hadto learn is that democracy, as we have understood andpracticed it, has somehow lost its standing both at homeand in the Western world at large. Only gradually hasit dawned upon us that the depression and our effortsto do something about it were not just our own uniqueaffair born of peculiar conditions here but were, in fact,a part of changes and reactions that were going on inthe world as a whole. Only with difficulty have we comprehended the fact that communism in Russia, fascismin Germany, and the new deal in America were strangelyrelated both in origins and purposes. That is why the, new deal ran from recovery to reform and why thestakes in this war are not just territory and indemnitiesbut are social-economic systems. And that is why wedare not fight it just to defeat Hitler but must link itwith the security and well-being of common men andminority groups all over the globe. To draw back or torepudiate would be to admit the complete lack of anyvirtues in the great age of Rockefeller, Carnegie, Morgan, and their kind. And we Americans somehow knowthat there was virtue there in spite of faults and thatto lose the war would be to lose the true democracywhich is our heritage but of which the excesses of thatage were little more than a caricature. Abuses havenot entirely invalidated freedom in things either economicor political.What I am saying is that we have had our facesshoved squarely up against the democratic doctrines, notjust as economic laissez faire but as a social system, andare asked to accept them and the responsibilities theyimply or to give up all our pretense of fond devotionto them. For the first time since 1860 we are forcedto ask: What is democracy and do we, the childrenof the great age, believe in it as a practical social doctrine? Whether we like it or not we must admit the haphazard character of our growth, the waste of it all, andthe nearly hopeless inequality of distribution of resourcesand wealth. We must confess that our boasted freedomhas just about put an end to our assumed equality, the6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEother ingredient in our democracy. Disagreeable as itmay be we must accept the fact that true democracyis based on a firm belief in the "inherent worth anddignity and creative capacity of the human personality";that it must assume with some confidence that men arerational creatures, well disposed toward their fellows,tolerant of differences, and willing to curb their ownselfish interests for the larger social good; that rationaldiscussion and persuasion by reasoning are supposed tomake the use of force by government unnecessary.And while we are doing it we may as well admit thatfew Americans have believed in or admitted anythingof the kind. They have primarily wanted our plenty andthe chance for extravagance. The devil has been aswelcome to the hindmost here as elsewhere. If selfishinterests have been curbed it has been mostly by lawand not by inner forces. Government has too oftenbeen government of the interests, by the politicians, forthe pressure groups. Government by discussion, as CarlBecker has said, has worked best "when there [was] nothing of profound importance to discuss and when there[was] plenty of time to discuss it." We have been tolerant largely of things which we have thought were oflittle or no importance.Yet here we are the champions of democracy in a worldat war over values. The frontier with all its untouchedresources has closed; the Atlantic and Pacific ocean barriers have been reduced to avenues of hostile approach.The world wants to know whether democracy is justa fair-weather theory or whether it is a practical systemfor the tough going. Does it work only under simplerural conditions when you have a fresh continent toexploit? Is it just an ideal to be appealed to whenwe are in trouble? Is efficiency the only thing thatcounts in the complex modern world?It seems to me that there is but one traditional American answer. Democracy can work efficiently and wecan make it do so because we have been forced to weighrelative costs. The price is high but the alternativesare not inviting. We must begin to balance every degree of freedom permitted with an acceptance of responsibility for the security and opportunity for equalityto everyone. If we are to be free from government actionin the interests of national and individual welfare, wemust, as individuals, spontaneously and unselfishly supply the efficiency to government and the security to individuals. If we are to be ruled by reason and discussion we must be both tolerant and intelligent todegrees we have never achieved before. And that means,if I am not mistaken, that the great majority of American citizens must always "be sufficiently easy in theirpresent circumstances and sufficiently secure in their future prospects" to permit the peaceful settlement of issueswhich may even involve the very framework of our traditional social-economic order. We must, in other words,become true democrats in our everyday lives and in ourlocal institutions. For the University, in the new day, the requirementstake character from this premise. As we were the productof an age now passed, we must adjust ourselves to thepresent and its needs. Inefficiency, extravagance, anddistortion must go. But we must not yield the greattraditions of freedom, "feverish progressiveness," and impudent individualism which have been ours.* We mustcontinue to take our patterns from our own environmentand contribute to its advancement along native lines.No medieval patterns of education will serve. We mustbecome institutions where democracy as a reality existsand centers from which it takes strength. Those inadministration must learn that in a democracy authority is leadership, not command. They must rule byreason and persuasion, not by powers either arrogated ordelegated. They must know that democratic efficiencyis born of responsibility thrust onto men by making themfree. You cannot make a great university with plansand programs and courses handed down from above.You have, however, had great universities where professors, set free, have felt the obligation to highest efficiency and devoted service. The inner drive of responsibility has ever proven to be a far greater force thanthe outer push of authority. Men, free to express theirfinest thoughts, in courses of their own choosing, groupsas free to work out their own inspirations unchecked byformal requirements, have made the names of once obscure institutions known through the land. The toleration of peculiar temperaments and irritating eccentricities has paid astonishing dividends in institutional loyaltyand devotion to the quest for truth. A university is onecorporation where efficiency is sometimes greatest whenagreement and conformity are weakest.And faculties, in free democratic institutions, mustrealize that a certain vital efficiency is necessary in acomplex world that was not necessary in earlier andmore simple days. They must find new meanings forthe word "cooperation." They must learn, with theold Negro preacher, that "the world do move." Theyshould remember that the possession of academic freedom does not automatically impose the necessity for making a fool out of one's self. Above all, they must understand that the only excuse for a university is to promoteand maintain "the humane and rational values whichare essential to the preservation of democracy and civilization as we understand it." They must, if they areto supply the inner drive to institutional efficiency and(Concluded on page 22)*l am thinking of the day in 1930 when Professor Michelsoncame down the steps of Haskell Hall greatly disturbed because he could not locate the President's Office, — it hadbeen moved from that building in 1912; of another near-great, for the present un-named, who walked by PresidentJudson's home each evening so that he could spit on thatgentleman's sidewalk; of the debts William Rainey Harperpiled up with supreme confidence that either the Lord orJohn D. Rockefeller "would provide"!LET'S MAKE SOME MORE CHANGES• By JOHN NUVEEN, JR., '18Solemn music, slow processionrobes of mourning -- convocationor funeral?AS I HAVE studied the history of the University,I have been impressed by the apparent traditionthat when anyone of tender years reaches anelevated position he promptly introduces some revolutionary change, breaking up some old tradition or adopting some new plan. While my elevation is only abouttwelve inches and but for a few minutes of one short evening, nevertheless I want to hew to custom. In doing so, Iwish to assure you that it is in the interest of progress andnot in the spirit of whatever it is that motivates my twosmall boys at home to derive pleasure from breaking upwhatever they can find around the house that still remainsin one piece. Whatever may motivate them, the resultis to keep our furniture modern ; nothing lasts long enoughto get antique.To a faculty that has survived the abolition of the oldplan, of the numerical grading system, of over four hundred courses, and of football, it is probably not necessaryto sound any warning before attacking two other sacredinstitutions, but in case any of you have survived onlyat the cost of a weakened heart, I approach my subjectthus circumspectly. I would like to say at this pointthat any remarks which I may make are addressed at thecollege level which comes within my own experience. Istill stand in awe of masters and doctors and hesitate totrespass on their sacred domains.Abolish ConvocationsMy first proposal is that we abolish the present University convocations. I am aware that a good many of thefaculty would be embarrassed to disagree with this proposal in view of their lack of support of this ceremonyas evidenced by their attendance, but I do not intend totake advantage of this fact.I am not concerned particularly about some of the superficial aspects of the convocations, although they mightbear comment. It is interesting how traditions developover a period of time and by gradual evolution frequentlybecome completely turned around from their originalcharacter. Our present ceremony is anything but buoyantwith its solemn music, slow procession, and robes ofmourning. It has been only in the last two convocationsthat certain changes have been made that now make itpossible to differentiate the occasion from a first-classfuneral in which the mourners in the front pews passaround the bier. Perhaps some of you do not know that any changes have recently been made in the convocationexercise. When you come again you will see a new andimproved ceremony — something has been added.Ordinarily, the successful consummation of any arduous task, such as a harvest, an election, or a war, is anoccasion for joyous celebration. While I have not doneany very complete research on the subject, I have discovered some evidence that so-called commencement exercises, which mark the consummation of about four yearsof supposedly arduous work, might have originally beenconceived in this spirit for, writing in the early part ofthe last century, a Harvard professor picturing a commencement scene recorded with a certain air of irritationthat: "I have never heard such a horrible din, tumult,and jargon of oath, shout, scream, fiddle, quarreling, anddrunkenness."While this sounds quite interesting by contrast to ourpresent tradition, those who know me will realize that Iwould be the last one of the trustees to recommend thecomplete adoption of this ancient precedent, particularlyin the last respect. I have already gone on record asagreeing with Abraham Lincoln's statement made in apublic address a hundred years ago that total abstinenceis one of the goals for which our country should strive,and I feel further that it is the responsibility of ourteachers and leaders to set an example for the rest ofthe country to follow.I realize that under present conditions this is rather anextreme view and I am not so simple as to think thatwe could secure the immediate complete acceptance ofthis position by our faculty, but perhaps we could getthem to subscribe to the pledge of one of the earliesttemperance societies formed in the State of Massachusettsin 1820, which was:We, the undersigned, recognizing the evils ofdrunkenness and resolved to check its alarming increase, with consequent poverty, misery and crimeamong our people, hereby solemnly pledge ourselvesthat we will not get drunk more than four times ayear, viz., Fourth of July, Muster Day, ChristmasDay and Sheep-Sheering.Of course, in place of these now rather meaningless occasions the substitution of the four convocations wouldhave an effect that would be enlivening to say the least.No Black GownsIt would seem also that something could be done inregard to the costuming. Are there any here whosehearts have not lept up when they beheld a crimson robein the long procession of uninteresting blackness and whocould not picture what a colorful procession we mighthave if each member of the faculty were to wear a striped7s THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgown revealing the school colors of his Alma Mater with,say, vertical stripes for graduates of privately endowedinstitutions, horizontal stripes for the former inmates ofstate institutions, and an interesting checkerboard patternfor anyone who might have attended both? The mortarboards are most annoying to me, but in the absence ofhaving a specific recommendation I hesitate to suggestany change when I contemplate what the experts, whengiven a free hand, have done with women's headgear.However, as I suggested, these details are superficial andtheir improvement would not solve the principal problem.The thing that most condemns convocations at thecollege level as they are presently conducted is the air offinality which they give to the educational process. Oneof the most serious faults with our democracy, it seemsto me, is that most of our citizens stop learning when theyleave school. In the course of twenty or twenty-five yearstheir mental batteries run down and their mental platesbecome so corroded or warped through lack of use thatthey are not capable of being recharged. In view of therapidity with which we are extending our field of knowledge these days, it is quite possible for a person who stopslearning to revert to a state of ignorance in a couple ofdecades. To lose the ability to learn is much more serious.During the past six months I have had the job of interviewing a couple of hundred men over the age offorty-five and it has been distressing to find the largepercentage who give the impression that they do nothave the ability to learn any new skill or operate effectively outside of their limited field of specialization. Whenwe realize that most men do not reach a position of influence or leadership until they are twenty-five years or moreout of college, we can appreciate the full implication ofthis shortcoming in the operation of our present educational tradition.Fortunately there appears to be a growing realizationof this lack, and we find in the tens of thousands thatattend adult educational courses throughout the country,the thousands that attend our own alumni school at reunion, and the hundreds that attend our alumni coursesduring the academic year, a trend toward a wholesomecorrection.Abandon Bachelor's DegreeThe convocations are not solely to blame, however.While I would rather not mention it, the bachelor's degree is in part responsible. You may think it is presumptuous of me even to attempt to discuss this controversyin the presence of so many who are better qualified to discuss its educational implications, but on the other handI have had some experience in raising a family, and Ihave discovered that when there is contention about theuse or possession of any particular object, its removalquickly restores domestic tranquility. When I advocate,therefore, that we abandon the bachelor's degree it isnot primarily because peace and harmony would therebybe restored in our University family, although that is animportant collateral benefit, but because the bachelor's degree only serves to further emphasize the finality of acollege education and it tends to become an end in itselfrather than serving as a means to the encouragement ofcontinuous educational activity. (I am assuming at thispoint that anyone who attains a master's or doctor's degree will have acquired the habit of learning.)There was a time when college graduates were few,when a bachelor's degree no doubt held an importantsignificance, where the letters indicating the degree wouldbe used after a person's name; but now they are seldomseen except in company with the initials of higher degreeswhere they are, of course, redundant. There is aboutthe same distinction today in having a bachelor's degreeas there is in being a member of the National Geographic Society; in fact, there is a question if the latteris not a greater distinction, for in the case of membersof the society there is at least the implication that theyare being exposed to a continuing education of a sort.Now that we have discarded two more ancient andhonorable traditions, let's see if we can offer somethingconstructive to take their places. This is a lot easier thanyou would suppose. By simple rearrangement of someof our present functions and a few minor additions, wecannot only largely eliminate the present terminal tendencies of our present system but can increase its educational effectiveness.Our present convocation ceremony is not without merit.Properly conducted it can, perhaps better than anythingelse, convey an impression of the erudition, dignity, andscope of the University. It is highly desirable that thisbe conveyed to the students early in their scholasticcareers in order to spur and inspire them to greater andJOHN NUVEEN, JR.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9more serious application. Under our present system theydo not get this inspiration as a rule until the day theyleave. A few years ago we instituted a freshman weekto properly prepare the freshman, but we have failed toinclude the one thing that would be most helpful — aconvocation, a veritable commencement, a formal induction at which there would be an address by one of thelearned members of the faculty dispensing advice andwisdom.At graduation, I am not opposed to a farewell exerciseas such, but I am glad that our University doesn't committhe error of calling their present effort a commencement.A farewell party should be a memorable occasion, perhapsnot as memorable as that described by the Harvard professor, but might include a social gathering at which thefaculty would come off of their high dignity and fraternize with the graduating students who are about to beplaced on equal footing in assuming the responsibilities ofcitizenship.Apprentice CertificateIn place of the bachelor's degree let's issue an "apprentice certificate" which will challenge the recipient to demonstrate that he may use his newly acquired skills in exercising his leadership as a citizen so as to be worthy ofsome later and better deserved recognition. We alreadyhave the details of that recognition set up in our alumnicitations, which are awarded to alumni who, acceptingthe privileges of a university education, have demonstrated leadership in "those civic, social, and religiousactivities that are essential to a democracy."I can see in the awarding of an apprentice certificatea slight competitive disadvantage which would be playedup by rival institutions who would be able to offer afancier piece of paper with a lot of Latin words, but Ibelieve that this could be more than offset by accompanying each certificate with one or two complimentarytickets to courses in the alumni college, the presumptionbeing that this would be a profitable promotion for thecollege.Citizen-Sponsored CommencementsI have suggested that we have a commencement exercise for the students when they commence work at theUniversity, and I think we might well arrange to holdanother commencement for these same students immediately after graduation as they commence assuming theirresponsibilities of citizenship, but such an exercise cannotbe properly conducted by the faculty to whom they havejust said farewell. It should be conducted by the citizensof Chicago. I believe you are all aware that we haveorganized a Citizens Board. The ultimate purpose ofthis board is to secure funds for the University, but wehave to be subtle or we would have difficulty in recruitingmembers. It has been difficult to find adequate responsibilities to explain the organization of this group, but hereis a real task for them to undertake and one which Ibelieve they would take up with zeal. Let the CitizensBoard conduct the commencement exercise for the com- mencing citizens, and let them parade impressively before each apprentice class and sit in full dignity whileone of their oldest and wisest members speaks words ofwisdom to those who have their future before them.While we want to impress these apprentice citizens, wealso want to impress the Citizens Board, and we can wellask ourselves, therefore, whether or not we are turningout well equipped apprentices. When we contemplatethe low state of public administration in our city andstate, omitting consideration of our Federal Government,we must admit in the past that we have not done toogood a job. I feel that we should consider seriously givinga more prominent part in our educational curriculum tothe preparation of students for the practical responsibilities of citizenship and I refer particularly to the politicalprocesses which are the backbone of our democracy. Until we can raise up a generation who understands thepractical workings of precinct and ward party politics andencourage it to take an active part in them, we are notlikely to have any change from the spoils system withwhich we are living and have lived altogether too longa time. And I think we should not overlook that knowingthe political game will not be enough; it will also takecompetent players, and competency in playing politics atleast at the election level is largely a matter of public-speaking ability. There are too many wise men who donot have it and there are too many demagogues andcharlatans who employ it to their own selfish ends. Wecannot do much about the latter but we can correct theformer and should see that those of our students whodemonstrate exceptional ability for future leadership aregiven the oratorical tools to implement it. I propose,therefore, that we have an outstanding honor coursewhere such students by invitation may be introduced tothe secrets and mysteries of Louisiana loquacity orfriendly fireside chatting. In a few years I predict thatwe will not only appreciate the fun but be happy in theresults which our wisdom has produced.On the infrequent occasions when I am called upon todo something of this sort, I am always torn between thethree rules that my public speaking teacher gave me as anundergraduate; namely, to have something to say, to sayit, and to sit down, and the three rules of the old coloredpreacher who explained his success to an inquiring aspirant to the ministry by saying, "First, I tells 'em whatI'se gwine to tell 'em; second, I tells 'em; and third, Itells 'em what I done tole em."What I have "done tole" you is that we should playdown those things at graduation which tend to emphasizethe termination of learning; we should play up thosethings which will encourage a continuation of learningafter graduation and establish proper awards as an incentive to the successful application and use of the knowledge and skills which we offer to our students. Further,we should try to give them a better background andpreparation for their responsibilities as citizens, particularly in the field of practical politics.WARTIME COOPERATIONBETWEEN SCHOOLS AND PARENTS% By RALPH W. TYLER, Ph.D. '27Educational opportunitiesfor our children mustnot be destroyedBEFORE consideration is given to the significancein wartime of cooperation between schools andparents, some of the important factors which influence the effectiveness of education should be brieflyoutlined. Education is not limited to schooling but includes the entire process by which young people areinducted into responsible adulthood. Hence it involvesseveral aspects. The acquisition of information, the inculcation of social rather than selfish attitudes, the development of good habits, the acquisition of intelligent methods of thinking, the cultivation of skills such as readingand computation — all are phases of education. As ourcivilization has become industrialized and increasinglycomplex, the importance of education has correspondingly increased.The survival of our civilization and the happiness ofthe individual are both dependent on the effectivenessof education. Children who grow up without systematicinstruction are generally incapable of participating as responsible adults in our society and are usually maladjusted and unhappy individuals.Factors Influencing Effectiveness of EducationVarious factors influence the effectiveness of education.Hereditary factors determine, to a considerable degree,such potentialities of the child as his rate of learning andhis possession of, or his lack of, the kinds of aptitudeswhich are likely to respond most markedly to education.Although no individual has ever been educated to themaximum of his potentialities, yet we know that heredity influences the limits of educational possibility and helpsto determine the kinds of development of which eachindividual is capable. The old adage, "You cannotmake a silk purse from a sow's ear," has some applicability to education.The home environment also strongly influences theeffectiveness of education. The home is chiefly responsible for meeting those biological and physiologicalneeds essential to the child's effective functioning. Thenutritive value of his food, the amounts of rest and ofexercise that he takes are largely controlled by the homein the early years of childhood. Furthermore, the homeis responsible for the development of the child's physical regimen, including his food habits, rest habits, toilethabits, and the like. The development of a good physicalregimen is of great importance in determining the biological functioning of children. Only healthy children withgood habits can benefit most from educational opportunities.Extensive research has shown that the home also hasa major role to play in the development of the child'stemperament, attitudes, and ideals. From the standpointof child development, the ideal home has a serene emotional climate, an atmosphere which is warm and affectionate without being sentimental — certainly not a coldor an antagonistic atmosphere. The home also influencesthe child's education by setting certain expectations forhim. In the ideal home the child will be expected tomeet a socially approved level of conduct; he will be heldto high achievement — achievement which requires realeffort from him but which is not so high as to be impossible and frustrating for him. Furthermore, theseexpectations are consistent, that is, both the father andthe mother expect similar conduct and achievement fromthe child, and there is no marked fluctuation in these expectations. This consistent expectation of high achievement leads both to socially desirable ideals and habitson the part of the child and to increasing ability to takeresponsibility.Finally, a good home provides a wide range of opportunities for the child to have educative experiences. Insuch a home he has the chance to work and to play, tosing, to read, to express himself, to take some initiativefor the common welfare of the family, and to assumeincreasing responsibilities for the family work. Fromthe point of view of education, all these are importantaspects of a good home. They are qualities partly butnot entirely dependent on the economic status of thehome. In some respects a very wealthy home is, educationally, less desirable than is the average home becausethe former places fewer demands on the children forassuming responsibility in carrying on the work of thehome and because it provides fewer opportunities forparents and children to work and play together. Onthe other hand, very poor homes are less likely to provide a desirable educational environment because thereis physical privation; because both parents may need tobe away most of the day in trying to provide for thenecessities of life ; because fear and emotional tension mayresult from the physical wants; and because some essential educational facilities, like books and musical instruments, are lacking.10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11The community environment is another important factor which determines the effectiveness of education. Asthe child grows older, his contact with children fromother homes, his relations with adults, and his experienceswith motion pictures, newspapers and radio, stores andfactories, and other social and political institutions haveconsiderable influence on his educational development.From the educational point of view, the ideal communityenvironment emphasizes consistently, through example aswell as through precept, such ideals as unselfishness, kindness, courage, industry, and devotion to the commongood. On the other hand, a community in which thegangs, or the press, or the movies, or the political orbusiness institutions approve and reward dishonesty, selfishness, graft, and exploitation will break down the educational influence of the home and of the school.The ideal community also provides opportunities forthe child as he grows up to participate broadly and constructively in the life of the community. A communitywhich denies children opportunity for exercise, play,reading, expression, and work markedly reduces its educative possibilities.The school is the most obvious factor which influencesthe educational development of children. It is the agencywhich society supports primarily to educate its children.Yet schools differ markedly among themselves as to theireffectiveness in educating. Differences in quality ofteachers bring corresponding differences in educationalresults. Teachers who possess broad understanding, whoshow by example the qualities we seek to develop in ourchildren, who provide a stimulating yet serene atmospherein which children may work and play, produce muchmore marked results than do teachers with narrow vision,warped personalities, meager intelligence, and limited understanding of the world of children. The nature of theschool facilities — books, laboratories, playing fields, music,and the like — also greatly influences the effectiveness ofeducation.One of the noteworthy facts about schools is that thequality of the teacher and the facilities of the schoolvary markedly from one geographical region of this country to another, from one social class in our populationto another, and from urban to rural areas. ProfessorEdwards, of the University of Chicago, has shown that,in those regions where the burden of child care is greatest, the economic resources are least and the expenditure per child for education is least. Thus, in 1930 thenumber of children 5-17 years of age per 1,000 adultswas 603 in the Southeast and only 420 in the Northeast. The Southeast carried the responsibility of educating 24 per cent of the nation's children, but its shareof the national income was only 10 per cent. The Northeast had 30 per cent of the nation's children but received43 per cent of the national income. The Southeast spentabout $25 per year per child on education, while theNortheast spent two and a half times as much.These differences in educational opportunity are to be (Photo — Courtesy of the Committe on Rural Education)found not only between regions but also between urbanand rural areas in the same region. For example, inthe Northeast the income per child in the urban areaswas $4,478 per child, while in the rural areas it was$1,326 per child. In the Southeast, income per childin the urban areas was $2,055, while it was only $474per child in the rural areas. Educational expendituresper child were similarly greater in urban than in ruralareas.These differences also vary from one social class toanother in the same city. The upper social classes, the"better" residential districts, are usually given the bestteachers, the best buildings, and the best facilities. Unless definite steps are taken to remedy the situation, theschool opportunities are likely to be least where the needis greatest.Effect of War on Educational InfluencesAfter a consideration of these four types of factorswhich affect educational development, it is easy to seethe ways in which education is affected during wartimeand to realize the increased importance of cooperationbetween parents and schools during this time of crisis.The war hysteria may cause us to echo the totalitarianplea for more children without considering the importance of rearing children who have the best hereditarypotentialities. Because of the greater strain to whichyoung children are subjected during wartime, it is especially important that they be born physically strong andmentally capable. Children deficient in desirable hereditary factors who are born in this period are more likelyto suffer throughout their lives and to fail as citizensbecause of wartime strain experienced in early childhood.Both wise parenthood and wise educational procedurerequire thoughtful consideration of hereditary factors.The war also makes it harder to provide desirablehome environments for young children. There are morehomes without husbands, not only because many married men have been called to military service, but also12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbecause war industries have taken many men from home.More married women are working. Both of these conditions make a difference in the home environment. Furthermore, the tensions and the excitements, the fears andthe suspense of the war are reflected in a tense emotional climate in the home. The child's physical regimen is more likely to be neglected, and, with greater burdens and greater tension, the warmth and love essentialto the home will suffer. Only the conscious recognitionof these dangers and careful planning on the part ofparents can prevent a tremendous breakdown in the educational influence of the home.For similar reasons the educative influence of the community is likely to break down during wartime. Provisions for recreation, for churches, and other youth-serving agencies are likely to be neglected, and the values,ideals, and habits which the community should hold highand emphasize strongly become confused and forgotten.Confusion and neglect are most marked in communitieswhich have grown rapidly as a result of war expansion.For example, the new Ford bomber factory which hasbeen built in the outskirts of the small city of Ypsilanti,Michigan, having a population of about 12,000, will employ 100,000 men and require a community of aboutAlleys or playgrounds? 210,000. The uprooting of families which will take placeto provide the manpower for this mammoth factory andthe sudden burden which the civil authorities must meetto provide for sanitation, education, recreation, and welfare, place an intolerable strain on the community. Theeffect on children will be very great and mostly bad.Martha M. Eliot, of the U. S. Children's Bureau, in thereport of her recent visit to England shows clearly theincrease in delinquency and the breakdown of educativeenvironment in war-torn communities. To safeguard thenext generation requires a kind of community planningand action far more comprehensive than any we havehad before. Schools and parents may well consider theadvisability of undertaking the task of providing leadership in this community planning.Finally, war increases the inequality of educationalopportunities provided by the school. In the economically unfavored communities, especially those in ruralareas and in the South, teachers are deserting in largenumbers to take employment in war industries which paymuch higher wages. Some rural areas have already lost50 per cent of their teaching staff. The quality of theteachers in these poor communities was already muchlower, on the average, than that in the rest of the country,and the war conditions make this discrepancy evengreater. Some communities will not be able to attractany persons to teach in their schools and the schools willbe closed. In other communities those who can be attracted to teaching when salaries are much lower thanwages in the war industries will be of even poorer qualitythan were their predecessors. Furthermore, the shortagesof materials, the discontinuance of the manufacture ofmany school facilities, and increased prices will also reduce the educative potentialities of the poorer schools.These educational inequalities must now be foreseen andstrenuous efforts taken to overcome them. Because theburden of child care is greatest in those sections of thecountry where the wealth is least, it is necessary to provide a broader base for the support of schools than thelocal community, broader even than the state. Only thefederal government provides a broad enough base togive adequate equalization of educational opportunity toour children. Schools and parents should work togetherin bringing equalization of educational opportunitythrough adoption of a federal-aid plan.Look Who's LaughingTN SOCIAL SCIENCE SEMINAR ROOM 106 the Senate Policy Committee was in solemn session¦*• with President Hutchins presiding. Quietly the door opened and a bewildered student edged intothe room. Looking from strange face to strange face, he finally said, "Pardon me, what class is this?"An obvious chuckle passed around the circle. Then following an awkward silence, the Presidentreplied, "This is a class in educational administration."The student excused himself, stepped out, and quickly closed the door. There was a spontaneousburst of laughter, immediately followed by the sudden reappearance of the young man. "This maybe extremely funny to you gentlemen," he blurted out, "but with the slipshod way this University isrun, it's a wonder anyone can find anything around here!"The Alumni Foundation Is OrganizingFROM nearly 300 cities have come chairmanship accepta nces for the annual spring campaign for the Alumni Gift.From some have come "regrets" but with contributions, e.g., "I shall be unable to accept the chairmanship but enclosecheck for $100." An alumnus in Ohio took a condensed Gallup poll and then wrote: "Have spoken to several who saidthey'd give, therefore shall accept chairmanship." All signs point to an early spring and an impressive Alumni Gift.Never have the alumni indicated a more intelligent and sympatheticappreciation of University problems. It gives promise of a breakin the war clouds that hang over the Midway. TheGift will be presented to the University onAlumni Day, June 13. ^^^^ ^>\\J^ -,o.o.^oK>,cw-°>- Al®'*ec^>° C*M^ .o^i. .,<\Qa jjo^'v dcfi,\o°°>*s-^<\&>'»*AeOe eVe**£*"A* o°Vrt^VV^ ^3>f*<*'tee* ,8^o*":&a\5 *T" Va*,cc^\N;Ae a^c^SO^'* *<> ,,eo aM<^O**&**> K\*c&a^aVFlint :O. K.Akron:Will domy bestOakland:Certainly!Winne tka:Be glad toDavenport:Glad to helpPrinceton: Doanything I canEl Paso: Withpleasure, thanksPleased to act asDenver chairmanWill make Omaha'srecord a good oneColorado Springs: Iwill see you throughNew Orleans: Happyto do what I can hereValparaiso: Be glad toaccept the chairmanshipRockford: Send materialMadison: With pleasureSan Francisco: Count mein. I'll sleep standing upSyracuse: Anything I cando will be gladly done hereKansas City: Yes — of courseGreenville: Yours for ChicagoIthaca: Appreciate opportunityWilmington: Glad to assist. Thealumni must not let Universitydown during these critical years *<•• T*» *&¦* *>?*W >H^r\*e Eau Claire: Glad to serve theUniversity in any way I canGreeley: One of my war jobsHammond: Glad to assistSan Antonio: A pleasure. Iam happy to cooperateChevy Chase: I'll do itWill be happy to act aschairman for RochesterTacoma: Be glad to. Enclosed is my own giftTroy: Glad to helpEvansville : ThanksElkhart: Will dobetter job this yearJersey City: Youcan count on usNorman: Will beglad to do thisPortland: Will\0<*sjOV* \*l^o* ^Ic ^ar0 ^0^^eve&0' x<,*ae?so^ " \V ^,\ea^.^e^^^>V^ ?M\o*\* ~ w otr '^ ;>eA °^or,.^0,r•A SC^eo\a&eV^°eV;we -»*s^AVe^f\ea^ do my utmostGrand Rapids:Glad to helpMa nitowoc:Glad to domy bit inthe causeWellesley:Gladly.DetroitK.,ax<;>^r.;°t^>^e.J>v.5»*»5(0 'S^Vo^ « o^ . So'^t>e•\VeS A ^ %! s*t^^* V^.^:f o*'»¦ecf ^dHo<^ aW°^i^>\o<^)ec',e^Laramie- O. K.MilwaukeeBirmingham — Indianapolis — Tucson — NewHaven — Pocatello — ChattanoogaHelena — Charlotte — Akron — Pittsburgh- Dallas — Houston — Pullman — Battle CreekPeoria — Kankakee — Los Angeles — AlbuquerqueAlbany — Memphis — Miami — Ann Arbor — ¦ Oklahoma City13WHAT ABOUT MANPOWER?A problem in recruiting andutilizing the nation'sworking forcesIT IS estimated that by the end of 1943, 65 millionpersons — two out of every three persons between theages of eighteen and sixty-five — will be in the armedforces or gainfully employed.At the beginning of the year there were approximately6,400,000 in the armed forces. By the end of the yearthis figure will climb to at least 10,700,000. This meansthat 4,300,000 men between the ages of eighteen andthirty-eight will leave industry, agriculture, and civilianlife generally. That we may meet the increased production schedules contemplated for the year beginningJuly 1, 1943, the Manpower Commission must bring intothe essential activities and war industries not only enoughworkers to replace those who enter the armed forces,but at least two million more. To insure an adequatesupply of food, agriculture must be maintained at itspresent level of 8,900,000 year-round workers. In brief,the armed forces, the war industries, the essential civilianactivities, and agriculture will require a net total of6,400,000 more men and women in December, 1943,than they had in December, 1942.This is the demand. How does the Manpower Commission propose to meet it? At present, about a millionand a half persons are still unemployed. But from thisnumber we probably cannot muster more than a halfmillion workers. A part of these are merely unemployedbetween jobs. A large part of them live in labor-surplusareas and cannot or will not be moved to labor-deficitareas under present arrangements.Six million workers must be recruited from othersources. An important source consists of persons nowengaged in non-deferrable and unclassified activities.Three to three and a half million persons must shiftfrom those activities into the essential activities and thewar industries. The second important source of supplyconsists of persons who are not normally members of theworking force; and, with the exception of a relativelysmall number of older workers, handicapped persons,unemployed members of minority groups, and aliens,this means women. By the end of this year more thantwo and one-half million women not now in the laborforce will have to take jobs.With a view of adding to the total working force ofthe nation, the President of the United States by Executive Order of February 9, 1943, established a forty-eight • By WILLIAM H. SPENCER, Ph,B." 1 3, J.D.,'13hour week. This order, however, does not increase theworking force of the nation as much as popularly supposed. For the present it applies only to the thirty- twoareas in the nation in which acute labor shortages nowexist. In these areas workers in the essential activitiesand in the war industries are already working forty-eightor more hours a week. In these areas the war industries,because of their high wages, have already drained offfrom unclassified activities and non-deferrable workersabout as many workers as are competent and willing towork in war industries. The extension of the longerwork week to areas in which labor shortages do not existwill, of course, add substantially to the working force.This, however, may create labor surpluses which cannotbe utilized locally and which cannot be transferred intodeficit areas.In this connection it must be remembered that, underthe exectuive order, work beyond forty hours a week byemployees covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act mustbe paid for at the time-and-a-half rate. For better orworse this will have a definite inflationary effect. Whilethe longer work week will presumably increase the productivity of a worker by 20 per cent, it will increase thetotal amount of wages paid by 30 per cent. To theextent that the wages paid is not matched by substantially the same per cent of production, to that extentthe extension of the longer work week will have aninflationary effect.In spite of its present limitations and its inflationaryeffect, the forty-eight hour work week is a step in theright direction in the national effort to balance the warmanpower budget. The manpower problem, however,is not an entirely mathematical problem. There are certain complicating factors which make its solution verydifficult.There are certain areas in the country in which thereare current acute labor shortages. There are some stringent areas in which labor shortages are anticipated within six months. There are other areas in which laborshortages may be anticipated after six months. Thegreater Chicago area is now in that category, but may bedesignated a critical area in the next few months.Finally, there are a large number of areas, like New YorkCity and Boston, in which the supply of labor is andwill continue to be adequate to meet all known laborrequirements. Now if labor were as mobile as raw materials, the mass transfer of workers from loose labor markets to tight labor markets would be possible, but wouldbe attended by serious problems of housing and transportation.At the beginning of the period of preparation for14THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15defense, when we knew we had a materials problem butdid not think we had a manpower problem, we builtplants, converted plants, and awarded war contractswithout sufficient regard to the matter of labor supply,housing, transportation, and community services. As Ihave just pointed out, it is not easy to direct mass transfersof available workers into these areas where there is largeconcentration of war work. It is even more difficult;almost impossible in fact, to move war plants into theareas where there is an adequate supply of labor. To someextent, the War Production Board and the various procurement agencies of the government can mitigate thissituation by cancelling contracts and by refusing to awardnew contracts in tight labor markets if alternative facilities for meeting the terms of the contract are availableelsewhere. While some dispersion of war contracts isthus being achieved, the possibilities here are limited andcertainly this type of dispersion is by no means a complete solution to the grave problems we face in areas inwhich acute labor shortages exist.On the basis of our forecasts as to the manpower needsof the essential activities and the war industries in Chicago and the analysis of the labor supply locally available, Chicago is now classified as an area in which ageneral labor shortage may be anticipated after sixmonths. In other words, it is our conviction that we canmeet the substantial withdrawals which Selective Servicewill make during the next six months and meet the laborrequirements of the essential activities and the war industries of Chicago. Our conviction, however, is basedon three important conditions. The first of these is thatindustry will hire a substantial number of persons notnormally a part of the working force — handicapped persons, older persons, members of minority groups, andwomen. The second is that we shall be able to recruita substantial number of women for the essential activities and war industries. The third condition is that weshall be able to induce a substantial number of personsnow in the non-deferrable occupations and less essentialactivities to transfer into essential activities and warindustries.But greater Chicago, although set out as a single labormarket area, comprises a very large amount of territory.While we believe, on the basis of the conditions mentioned above, that there is in the whole area an adequate supply of labor to meet the manpower and woman-power needs of the essential industries and the warindustries, we fully recognize that much of the availablelocal labor supply is not readily and easily accessibleto the war plants, particularly some of the large plants onthe western periphery of the Chicago area. Whether thisproblem is met by additional transportation, movingworkers from the points where they reside to the warplants, or by new housing near the plants to whichworkers from other parts of the area would migrate, arequestions which are now being studied by the Office ofDefense Transportation and the National Housing Agency, respectively. A decision by either of theseagencies proposing action would have to go to the WarProduction Board for a determination as to the availability of required materials.Assume, however, that we are unable to recruit fromthe women and from the less essential activities in Chicago a sufficient number of workers to meet the manpower needs of the essential activities and the war industries of this area, what then? This contingency wouldcertainly be followed by extensive recruitment campaignsby war plants for necessary workers and by demandsfor the importation of workers. In this event, the WarManpower Commission would undoubtedly classify Chicago as a class I area — an area of acute labor shortage.You understand, of course, that we in the region do notdeclare an area critical — should Chicago be designateda critical area, this will be ordered by the commission'sWashington office.On the basis of this classification, certain other thingswould inevitably follow. In the first place, the WarProduction Board and the various procurement agenciesof the government would be advised not to renew warcontracts and not to allocate new contracts in this areaif alternative facilities for meeting the terms of the contracts are available in areas where there is an adequatesupply of labor. In the second place, in the event thatChicago were declared an area of acute labor shortage,the forty-eight hour work week would automatically beapplied to Chicago with a view of adding additionalworkers to its working force. And bear in mind thatthe longer work week would apply to all full-time employment, and not merely to employment in the essential activities and war industries. And also bear this inmind that under the executive order establishing the(Concluded on page 19)WILLIAM H. SPENCERTHE DEAN'S EASY CHAIRAlumnus J. B., '04, writes:"I just finished reading This Was Cicero by Henry J.Haskell, editor and co-publisher of the Kansas City Star.It is a brilliant biography of the great Roman politicianfrom the viewpoint of an extraordinarily keen modernobserver of politics. I wonder if you would care to giveyour estimate of Haskell's book in your Easy Chair."I agree with the opinion which our alumnus has expressed above. Mr. Haskell's book, of major interest tostudents of political science as well as to classicists, is astimulating contribution. Written from a new angle, itgives a picture of Cicero vastly different from that of thestandard biographies. To be sure there are in it expressions at which* professional Latinists may gasp, as forexample the phrase "hysterical invective of the SecondPhillipic" (p. 330), but I have found none for whichthe author is not ready to produce his evidence. It doesseem at first thought a far cry from Kansas City toancient Rome, but after reading this book one is inclinedto believe in the sincerity of Mr. Haskell's statement inthe Preface (p. V), where he says that in the course ofhis study the leading Romans of the last century of theRepublic became as vivid to him as the politicians hehas known in Kansas City and Washington.This is not Mr. Haskell's first venture in Roman history. A few years ago he wrote The New Deal in AncientRome.* * * * *In the last number of the MAGAZINE, I appealed tothe alumni to let me know for the benefit of an inquirerwhat writer had referred to decapitation as a sure cure forsquinting. So far no information on this important subject has been forthcoming. . The inquirer, it will be remembered, suggested Dickens, but his suggestion has beenneither confirmed nor denied.Does this mean that our alumni no longer readDickens? Are we to assume that the innumerable persons who used to read and reread Dickens' novels havedisappeared? Perhaps the situation is even more desperate and few persons read any novel more than once.Certainly that is true of contemporary novels. How manyof them have any of you who read this column everread twice? But there is always a lower depth, and it isunquestionably true that many who talk about the newbooks with a certain glib assurance, never read them evenonce. They read digests of them. The digest has gonevery far in recent years. I noticed the other day, to myhorror, that a digest of Dickens is now available. Surelyone need not be a litterateur to know that a digest of anyof Dickens' novels is not only an impossibility, but is evenan enormity, a literary atrocity. It would no longer beDickens. Alumnus anonymus writes:"I am interested in astronomy and would like to studyk in some detail. I find, however, that I did not takeenough courses in mathematics to enable me to go intoastronomy with any probability of success. What booksin mathematics would you recommend to me as furnishing the preliminary training that I need?"You should use first Logsdon's Elementary Mathematical Analysis, volumes 1 and 2 (McGraw Hill, 1932), andthen follow with a calculus text. The book by Granville,Smith, and Longley (Ginn and Co.) is recommended.You will find a good treatment of sjtfierical trigonometryin Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, W. L. Hart (D. C.Heath and Co.). These will equip you to carry on yourstudies in astronomy.* # * # *The Education of an Alumni Dean(My last instalment was broken off in the very middleof my description of the Chicago Alumni Club of myCollege.)The Club remained dead for ten years, when one ofthose gifts of God, to whom I have referred before, turnedup as Secretary, and he revived it. He was a brilliantyoung lawyer with a gift for promotion and with infiniteenthusiasm for his Alma Mater. No one dared to skipmeetings. He went on the telephone and got a pledgeof attendance from everyone. He even induced us tosubscribe for 'a scholarship to be awarded each year tothat department of the College which in our opinion haddone the most significant work. Nor will any alumniofficer be surprised to hear that the giving of that scholarship, painful as it was to us from one point of view, contributed more to the success of our organization than anyother device that we used. It bound us together as nothing had done before or has done since. The years ofthe scholarship were our golden age. But then bad luckcame : our Secretary left Chicago, the scholarship was discontinued, and the Club sank into an inertia that is onlybroken at long intervals.The record of the Chicago Alumni Club of my University is similar to that of my College. Shortly after I cameto Chicago I got a notice of a meeting it was to hold,and I attended it. It was at the old Union Hotel onRandolph Street, and was what might be called a cosymeeting. There were only five persons present, including the speaker who was, the recently appointed Presidentof the University. I remember that he looked ratherpuzzled and uncertain whether it would really be worthwhile to stand up and deliver his address to so small agroup. The Club then died and remained quite dead forfifteen years, when it was resurrected. Its resurrection,curiously enough, coincided with a campaign for funds for16THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17ALUMNIDEANGORDON J. LAINGAlumni are onthe way upthe University— funds that were said to be absolutelyessential if the University was to continue on the samescale. The Club then went on for a few years, but therewas a steady decrease of strength, which finally resulted ina second death. It remained dead for many years, andthen about three years ago there was another revival, andat any time now I may hear of another meeting.I must add that while this alumni club has had thesomewhat spotty history I have outlined, the University'smedical alumni association is an unusually active organization. I was a guest at one of its recent meetings, andit was a really delightful occasion. It did not belong tothat class of alumni gatherings at which the guests lapseinto a deep melancholy and seem to be wondering whythey are there and who all these other people are. Onthe contrary they all seemed to know one another and tohave a thoroughly good time. Why shouldn't they?They had a common interest in medicine, a good paperon some piece of research that one of them had done,an excellent luncheon, and if anyone there was sufferingfrom thirst, I didn't see him. I thought then, as I hadoften thought before, that the alumni club of a professional school, having the bond of one dominating interest,presents very few problems in comparison with the manydifficulties with which any general alumni organizationis confronted.The general alumni club is a problem which we havenot yet worked out. Indeed, the difficulties involved inmany cases are so great as to be challenging. That everyinstitution has some good clubs in this class I know, butmy research in the subject seems to indicate that manyclubs are like those I mentioned in an earlier part of thisarticle, which might be variously designated as "intermittent clubs" or "spasmodic societies," or "death andresurrection associations." And yet experience shows thatwhenever an alumni dean or alumni secretary can find inany community one of those gifts from Heaven I previously described^ — a person who makes the club a hobby;the sort of person who is a combination of organizer andmissionary and who believes so firmly in the greatnessof his College or University, in its ideals, in its contribu tion to high standards of life, in its potentialities of inspiration, that the urge to spread the glad tidings of its.achievements becomes an overwhelming obsession withhim — the problem is solved. Such a person will not onlyinduce alumni to attend meetings and send their childrento the College, but will also persuade non-alumni to sendtheir sons and daughters there, pointing out to them thatunless they do so there will be imminent danger that thenext generation, by straying off to other colleges andthus being subjected to the sloppy apologies for educationdoled out there, will be utterly cast away and the futureof the country itself imperiled.But I have spent too much time in describing mypreliminary education for my present office. In beginning with such a wide diffusion of theme — to use thephrase of the ancient rhetoricians — I had the idea thatperhaps in my own experiences as an alumnus, before Ibecame an officer in the service, it might be possible toget a glimpse of what I believe to be a fairly commonattitude of alumni. I do not mean their attitude towardtheir Alma Mater or their Almae Matres as the case maybe, but toward that with which we who are officials areimmediately concerned, namely the organization ofalumni as the "fourth estate" of the institution. Andwhen I apply that term "fourth estate" to the alumnibody, I am quoting, but I do not know from whom. Itseems to me, however, to be a perfect description of thealumni body of any institution today. In other words, before there was real recognition of alumni, a college oruniversity was thought to consist of three parts: (1)board of trustees (or regents or governors or whateverthey might be called), (2) faculty, and (3) students.With graduation, in the minds of most persons, the tiebetween student and college was severed. The term"commencement" connoted separation from the old asdefinitely as it indicated the beginning of the new. Butthis was only a general conception, and like many general conceptions was not entirely true. It overlooked thatspontaneous loyalty towards an institution where onehad spent four happy years— that loyalty which sprangup in the hearts of all students except the abnormallyhard-boiled — and this feeling soon began to manifestitself and grew and grew and grew till it attained thevigor which it shows at the present time, when well-organized alumni offices are found in all institutions ofimportance from coast to coast.This recognition of the value of alumni work has comevery slowly. For a long time the appropriations made foractivities among the alumni were so small that alumniofficials could do little more than make gestures whenthey should have been doing big things. It is not somany years ago when the alumni office in large numbersof institutions was regarded as a mere adjunct on which,after all the schools and departments of the Universityhad been given what they needed, a little money mightbe spent. That the alumni group formed an essentialpart of the institution was an idea that had not yet18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO M AG AZI NEcome within the purview of college or university administrators.Moreover, alumni work, properly conceived, does notstart with graduation. It starts with matriculation, andit must go on during the first year, the second year andthe third and fourth years. We must in some way orother inspire the students with faith in and enthusiasmfor the institution while they are in residence. If wedon't do it then we shall never do it. Unless a studentgraduates with a real enthusiasm for his college, hisalumnus attitude for the rest of his life is one of indifference. His responses to appeals are mechanical andlack that expansiveness and range that alumni officerswould like to see.The difficulty of creating this loyalty varies with everyinstitution. If it is a small college, the task is not sotroublesome. General college interests can be broughtto a sharp focus without much effort. In large institutions, however, the problem is a harder one. In aninstitution like the University of Chicago where noregular general assemblies except the convocations areheld, it is necessary to work through smaller units, andmy own opinion is that at present the department isthe most promising one. A good deal of my timeduring the last eighteen months has been devoted toan effort to get each department to appoint one ofits faculty members to the post of student-alumni officer,whose duties are ( 1 ) to see that the students' departmentalclubs are running smoothly and that all the studentshave an opportunity of becoming acquainted with oneanother; (2) to see that every student has a chance toknow personally the members of the faculty; and (3)to keep a file of the undergraduates taking major workin the department, as well as of the candidates for thehigher degrees of A.M. and Ph.D. And the card fileshould not end with the students' graduation; it shouldcontain the record of his first job, his second and allthe others. What success I shall have in this I do notknow. Some of the chairmen say that they can't doit unless they are provided with more clerical assistancethan they now have. The question of expense comesup constantly. And it will continue to come up untilthe administrative officers of colleges and universities areconvinced that the treatment of resident students asprospective alumni is of the utmost importance to theinstitution as a whole.What I am emphasizing in all this is the necessity, ifwe are to make good alumni, of bringing home to eachand every student a vivid realization that he is a member of an institution and not merely an isolated individualtaking courses with a few professors.There is another thing that should be done and thatis, we should make the students familiar with the historyand aims of the college or university: the origin of theinstitution and what it stands for. Certainly no one canbe enthusiastic about a college, unless he does visualize itas standing for something. What is that something? Is it worth supporting both during college life and aftergraduation? What is it contributing to the community?To the state?From time to time changes are made in the organization of our academic institutions, but in none of thesechanges has the alumni fourth estate been recognized asessential and built into the body of the institution asan integral part. Reorganizations are almost alwaysconcerned with curriculum or administrative control. Itis the business of alumni officials to establish the thesisthat the alumni office is something more than an organization that may be useful on the occasion of campaignsfor funds; that it really is a fourth estate; that it mustbe supported through such departmental or divisionalor general devices as are available; and that it is onlyby such means that there can be any hope of developing a loyal, devoted alumni body, that will be an increasing source of strength to the University as the years go by.Perhaps the most encouraging result of my long education as Alumni Dean is my belief — and it is a verysincere one — that alumni attitudes are showing amazingadvancement. If any one doubts this let him readthe book that came out about a year ago, entitled,The Gang's All Here, and then visit the alumni schoolof any of the larger universities. The book mentionedgives a highly colored account of one of the old-fashionedreunions, and is not indeed without interest as a pictureof primitive alumni practices. That there is a solidelement of truth in the portrayal seems to be beyondquestion, for inquiries that I have made substantiate thedetails of the narrative: the funny costumes, the antiqueantics, the whimsical conceits, the wild extravagances,the Bacchanalian setting, and all the other carefully elaborated fooleries. How long ago this reunion is supposedto have taken place, or whether there are any contemporary celebrations of the same type, I don't know.There are of course in every field of sociology some curious survivals, and perhaps there are still a few in thealumni area. But, apart from a certain archeologicalinterest, such survivals have little significance, and thefunny-costume college reunion is either on the way outor already gone. This in itself is a fairly good indicationof the upward trend of alumni standards.My education has given me perfectly definite ideas ofwhat alumni are interested in. I think my first enlightenment came from our alumni school, and the interest thatthousands of alumni showed in it. The program waskept on a high level, the lectures being given by specialists in the various fields, and in normal years fromseven to eight thousand alumni registered. It was obvious from the beginning that this was something thatthey wanted. They showed that they really believedthat education was a continuing thing.The same attitude has been shown in the last twoyears by the classes for alumni given on Tuesday evenings on the Quadrangles. The courses are abridged(Concluded on page 22)CHICAGO'S NEXT MAYOR?THE career of George B. McKibbin, the Republicancandidate for mayor of Chicago, has a backgroundclosely related to the University of Chicago. In1913 he received his Doctor of Lawdegree at the University LawSchool. Mrs. Helen Tytler SunnyMcKibbin was a member of theclass of 1908, and the five McKibbin children, to round out the family picture, have all attended theUniversity elementary school. Thewhole family has always continuedin contact with University affairs.George McKibbin is a member ofthe Quadrangle Club, former vice-president of the University of Chicago Law School Alumni Association, and has been a member ofthe Citizens Board of the University of Chicago for many years.Among the features of his life atthe University of Chicago is included his service as secretary toProfessor J. Lawrence Laughlin.Mr. Laughlin, then professor of political economy butat the time on leave of absence, dictated to George McKibbin the first draft of the Federal Reserve Act.George McKibbin was secretary of the China MedicalCommission of the Rockefeller Foundation, the groupbeing headed by the late Henry Pratt Judson, formerpresident of the University. On that committee was thenoted Dr. Francis Peabody. The three of them visitedChina to survey hospital needs there, and out of theirreport grew the great medical center in China establishedby the Rockefeller Foundation. Dr. Peabody is reportedto have said to McKibbin, "George McKibbin, you haveGEORGE B. McKIBBINdependability, reliability, and affability. You should gofar. You should become one of the leaders of thiscountry."At the Fiftieth Anniversary celebration, McKibbin was given theUniversity distinguished servicemedal in recognition of his "serviceto society." At the time it wasnoted that his career "has combined the practice of law, keenparticipation in movements forsocial and religious advancement,and interest in politics."His community activities are legion, ranging over a thirty yearperiod in more than twenty-fivedifferent groups. For twenty yearshe has served with the ChicagoCivic Federation, and he is co-chairman of the Chicago RoundTable of Christians and Jews. Heis a member of the board of trustees of the downtown college of theY.M.C.A., and of Iowa WesleyanCollege at Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. Other activities includetwo years as member of the budget committee of the Chicago Community Fund, first chairman of the ChicagoArea Project, member of the board of directors of theUnion League Club, and for several years member of theboard of directors of the Council of Social Agencies.In 1926 McKibbin formed a partnership with formerState Senator Thurlow G. Essington, who also receivedhis law degree at the University of Chicago in 1908. Laterhe became director of finance of the State of Illinois forGovernor Dwight Green, from which position he resigned to make the race for mayor of Chicago.WHAT ABOUT MANPOWER?(Continued from page 15)forty-eight hour work week, all time over forty hours ofemployees covered by the wage and hour law or bycollective agreements would have to be compensated forat the time-and-a-half rate. In the third place, againon the assumption that Chicago is classed as a criticallabor market area, the regional office of the War Manpower Commission will be required to impose hiringcontrols over all employers engaged in essential activities and war production. While the directive permitsthe regional office to utilize fully normal and customaryhiring channels, it means that all hiring must be clearedthrough the United States Employment Service of theWar Manpower Commission.If Chicago wishes to avoid being classified as an areaof acute labor shortages, with the inevitable consequenceswhich I have mentioned, we shall need the full coopera tion of the Regional Labor-Management Committee, theLabor-Management Committee of the Chicago area,employers of this area, the cooperating governmentagencies, and the public generally in recruiting a largenumber of women and in bringing about the transferto essential activities and war industries of large numbersof workers from those activities that are not now classifiedas essential in the effective prosecution of the war. Inaddition to this we shall certainly need the full cooperation of all groups in bringing about on a voluntary basisstabilization of the Chicago labor market with a viewto eliminating disruptive practices which are seriouslyretarding war production.Whether or not Chicago is declared a critical laborarea is wholly dependent upon the extent to which thecitizens of Chicago cooperate with the War ManpowerCommission in a voluntary program for the full mobilization and utilization of our local labor supply.19NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By DON MORRIS, '36STUDENTS should work their way through highschool, their working days geared to their schoolprograms, in order to find out how to work. Thisis the only thing approaching vocational training in whichthe schools should indulge, and since the war manpowerneeds have brought strong demands for work by highschool students, the time now is opportune to establishthe paper route. or its equivalent as a permanent featureof secondary education. This was the thesis presentedat a conference of educators meeting at the Universityat the end of last month by Paul B. Jacobson, assistantprofessor of education, principal of the University highschool, and director of instruction of the Navy's radiotraining school on the Midway. 'High schools cannot teach a student how to 'do anygiven work, he said, but they can help him to acquire aworking turn of mind, good habits of work, sortie of thebasic essentials of every job. For the professions a largeshare of a student's school time is required preliminarytraining, but the high schools long ago ceased to be exclusively even primarily pre-professional academies,and there are virtually no educational prerequisites formost of the jobs most of the students will enter. In consequence, the education given by the high schools shouldbe general education — directed toward making high schoolgraduates intelligent citizens, cultured members of thecommunity.In support of his thesis Mr. Jacobson presented theresults of an American Council on Education study covering 2,216 occupations in eighteen industries which showedthat there are no educational minima whatever for 47.1per cent of jobs, the requirements rising gradually to 6.5per cent, the proportion requiring college graduation.Some elementary school education is needed in 7.8 percent of the jobs, elementary school graduation in 12.1 percent, some high school education is required for 3.8 percent and high school graduation for 20.2 per cent, withsome college training prerequisite to 2.5 per cent.Conversely, the study shows that today's working conditions are such . that in more than nine out of ten jobsa worker can be trained on the job in less than six months— more than half in a week or less, and three-fourths inless than a month. Since it is into these jobs that highschool graduates by and large will go, any attempts attraining for them in the high schools is superfluous, Mr.Jacobson said. It would be better to abandon the oldnotions of white collar superiority and instead of tryingto train, a punch press operator in high school, create apotential punch press operator who can read a newspaperwith understanding and a .work of literature with enjoyment. DON MORRISWartime Pressure on the SchoolsFrom the pleasant picture of what Mr. Jacobson rathercornily referred to as a "golden opportunity," the educators turned to consider a wartime problem of less pleasingaspect presented by Ralph W. Tyler, Ph.D. '27, chairmanof the University's Department of Education. Mr.Tyler's complaint dealt with the increasing torrent ofdemands upon the schools made by what he termed"pressure groups" — among which government agenciesrank as some of the more serious offenders."One of the greatest problems which confronts theschools today," he said, "is dealing with pressure groupslike the Office of Price Administration, the Victory Corps,the U. S. Office of Education, the Civil Aeronautics Administration, and the Office of the Co-ordinator of Inter-American Affairs, and others whose aims are unquestionably high but those enthusiasm for getting things donemay result in an educational hodge-podge unless steps aretaken to prevent it."If the schools accepted only three or four of thecourses advocated by pressure groups, they would soon beunable to give any regular training at all. What shouldbe the core curriculum of the schools would be completely lost sight of, and students would be inadequatelyprepared in subjects that are essential to an understanding of the basic principles of American life."The first thing the schools must do is clarify theirposition in a nation at war. At a time of major conflictthere are three jobs to be done: the training of militarypersonnel, the training of the civilian population, and theprovision of a general education designed to equip anintelligent citizen for the war and the post-war period."Educators must determine what kind of training agood citizen needs. Then, in the light of this objective,they should go back and see how the various war activities20THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21in which the schools are asked to engage fit into the general lines of the program."Call of ReservistsAlmost a hundred of the University's students enrolledin the Army Air Forces reserve were called from campusinto active service last month. This was the first groupcalled of the aggregate of more than five hundred studentsin the enlisted reserve program; the other reserves includethe regular Army, the Signal Corps, the Marine Corps,and the Navy's V programs. Probably the next group togo will be the regular Army ERC, a group of 279 scheduled to leave in the first week of the spring quarter.The University has provided and will provide for thesestudents arrangements so flexible as to be virtually tailor-made in handling the problems of their interrupted education. The ninety-four in the Air Forces reserve, forinstance, were permitted to adjust their academic standingto fit their individual desires and qualifications.Students who were sufficiently advanced in their studiesto complete their winter quarter courses six weeks earlywere given .full credit for these courses. Those who hadmade satisfactory progress but were unable to finish thework in advance were given half credit, and half of theirtuition for the quarter was returned. Students whoseprogress had been unsatisfactory received no academiccredit for the quarter, but their tuition was remitted infull.In addition, students whose regular courses are alsogiven by the home-study department of the Universitywill be given the opportunity of continuing their University education by correspondence. This group includes four students who normally would have been graduated in March and twenty who were candidates forgraduation in June.Arrangements also have been made for setting in orderthe work of the students in the Army Enlisted ReserveCorps. Since this group will not be called until after theend of the winter quarter, no difficulty will be involved inthe case of one-quarter courses, but special examinationscovering two-thirds of the work in three-quarter survey orsequence courses which began last fall will be offered atthe end of the winter quarter. Ordinarily examinationscovering the full three quarters' work would be taken inJune.Of the Air Force reservists mentioned above, seven wereoutstanding Maroon athletes. As the basketball teamwent through a season without victory, the other teamsfought to offset the record, but the three team captainscalled into active service along with ten other team members crippled many of these hopes. Hardest hit was thetrack team, which lost its two good distance runners,Captain Ray Randall and Bill Mayer-Oakes, its reallypromising quarter miler, Harrison Beardsley, and itsvaulter, Bob Kincheloe. Also called were Bill Baugher,captain and star of the swimming team; Captain WalterKemetick of the tennis team; and Bob Meyer, regularbaseball pitcher. Army, Navy TraineesThe third list of colleges and universities approved bythe War and Navy Departments for use in the training oftheir personnel included six categories, of which the University was listed in five. Only two other institutions,the State University of Iowa and the University of Minnesota, apparently were regarded as so versatile. Threeof the five categories in which Chicago may have Armymen are new: pre-medical, languages, and personnelpsychology. The Navy Department approved Chicagofor the training of WAVES. The fifth category, meteorology, was scarcely a surprise on the Quadrangles, since asall readers of this Magazine know, several classes of Armymeteorologists already have been graduated by the University, and the contingents now on campus include boththe cadets studying advanced meteorology and those inbasic, pre-meteorology preparing to take the advancedprogram. The meteorologists live and eat in InternationalHouse, have instructional headquarters at the Institute ofMeteorology in Ryerson and classes in Rosenwald andhalf a dozen other buildings. The basic pre-meteorolog-ists live in Gates and Blake Halls, eat in the Coffee Shop,and likewise have classes in many buildings. In addition the meteorologists have taken over the music buildingfor their procurement office. In the case of this group, atleast, the War Department's cautious proviso that "approval does not guarantee that the Army will utilize theschool but merely makes the institution eligible to conclude contracts for the type of training specified" seemssuperfluous.Astronomers HonoredTo two University astronomers, Otto Struve andSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, last month came honors.Mr. Struve, professor of astrophysics, son and grandson ofobservatory directors and himself director both of theUniversity's Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin and theUniversity-staffed McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas located in the Rio Grande's Big Bend,was elected vice-president of the American Associationfor the Advancement of Science and chairman of thexAssociation's astronomy section.Professor Chandrasekhar, brilliant Indian theoreticalastronomer, was awarded a Cressy Morrison prize by theNew York Academy of Sciences for his proposal of a newphenomenon in the workings of galaxies known as"dynamical friction." Famed for his theory of the "relaxation" of stellar systems, according to which tightlybound star groups slowly unwind, reach an equilibriumstate, and begin to disintegrate, Mr. Chandrasekhar hascalculated that the Milky Way, the great dime-shapedgroup which includes the solar system, has lived out onlya small fraction of its relaxation time and still has 9,997billion years to go.In his paper on dynamical friction, Mr. Chandrasekharsplits the pull of stars on each other into two parts* onerandom and tending toward systematic slowing of thegroup, the other proportional to a given star's velocity22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEand acting against the direction of its motion. To checkthe existence of this type of remote-control friction, hemade calculations on the rate of escape of stars fromclusters with and without taking friction into consideration. Without this force, he found, the lives of galaxieswould be only about a hundred million years. With it, agalaxy's life span would approximate five billion years.The very continued existence of galactic clusters thus provides the strongest evidence for the new theory, he believes.Maroon ScoreboardBasketballChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicago 37—3944—5240—5330—5220—6722—5926—4827—5529—4740—56 GlenviewNavy PierMarquetteLoyolaDePaulPurdueCamp GrantIndianaOhio StateWestern Mich. Chicago 35-Chicago 25-Chicago 30-Chicago 33-Chicago 33-Chicago 29-Chicago 34-Chicago 33-Chicago 25- -64 Great Lakes-47 Minnesota-74 Wisconsin-45 Navy Pier-70 Camp Grant-63 Northwestern-63 Iowa-67 Michigan-92 IllinoisFencingChicago 17- — 10 Notre DameChicago 21 — 6 PurdueChicago 17—10 NorthwesternChicago 13— 5 111. Medical Chicago 16 — 11 NorthwesternChicago 14 — 13 WisconsinChicago 14 — 13 Mich. StateChicago 16/2— lO1/* CaseSwimmingChicago 31 — 35 LawrenceChicago 33—51 PurdueChicago 34 — 50 NorthwesternChicago 41 — 25 111. Wesleyan Chicago 47 — 37 WisconsinChicago 31 — 53 MinnesotaChicago 37 — 57 IllinoisTrackChicago 54Chicago 53Chicago 59Chicago 18^ — 50 Navy Pier^45 N?Cen. GhicaS° 20 /2,\— 20/2 Minn. nu. A-2 f-88 Illinois ^.caS° tnJ Chicago 39Wrestling ^1—12 Minn.1—22 Purdue|-23/2 Northwest.J -54 Wisconsin—59 W. Mich.— 65 Northw'nChicago 18-Chicago 26-Chicago 31- -10 Wheaton Chicago 23-— 8 Northwestern Chicago 18—- 5 87th St. Navy Chicago 23- -1 1 Wisconsin-16 Wheaton-13 Northwest.DEMOCRACY(Continued from page 6)social betterment, honestly believe in the worth and thesustaining power of truth for truth's own sake. Theymust believe that good will and humane dealings aresounder ingredients of a social order than greed andselfishness. Then they can justify both their freedom andthe investment which society has made in the university.Thus accepted as a practical program in the greattraining centers of national life, democracy will havesome chance of proving its worth and of pervading thewhole of the nation. It may prove that free men aremore efficient than those whose lives are ruled fromabove; that good will is a practical rule in internationalaffairs; that peace is desirable because only in peace candemocratic ways have their chance. THE DEAN'S EASY CHAIR(Continued from page 18)versions of the general introductory courses now givenin the College. Those offered in the winter and springquarters of 1942 were entitled "An Introduction to Biology" and "An Introduction to Social Science," andfour hundred and sixty alumni registered for them. Thisyear (1942-1943) courses are being given in the humanities and in social science, and even under the unfavorable conditions of rationed gas and precarious tires, thereare three hundred and eighty registrations. Surely thesuccess of these courses confirms the impression madeby the alumni school.Further evidence of the interest of alumni in continuing education is found in the use of the reading listsissued by my office. Of these there are now approximately four hundred compiled by members of the facultyat the special request of individual alumni. Four thousand alumni are using these lists as guides in their reading.A striking example of the scholarly interests of thealumni was furnished by the character of the programof the celebration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of thefounding of the University. The halls available were notlarge enough to hold those who came to hear the lecturesand discussions.The programs of the alumni clubs throughout the country show the same quality. The members are keen to hearthe best-known specialists in the different fields. Moreover, I find in my visits to the various places where ouralumni clubs are that large numbers of our graduatesare taking a prominent part in the social and intellectuallife of the community. They are living with vivid realization of the import of the words upon the Universityshield: Crescat Scientia, Vita Excolatur.And with this comforting reflection I here conclude"The Education of an Alumni Dean."J \.In this column the Magazine is offering a new serviceto you who are alumni or former students of the University. The service is two-fold. First of all, you are invitedto send in any questions about the University, its history,its curriculum, past and present, its educational policiesand ideals, its degrees and what they stand for; or questions on education or educational institutions in general.And secondly you are asked to submit questions that arisein your own business or professional life or in matters thatlie outside your business or professional routine in whichthe University might be able to help you.All communications should be addressed to the AlumniDean, the University of Chicago Magazine, and shouldbe signed with your own name. In some cases the replywill be sent directly to you; in others your letter will bepublished in the column, with your name or initials orsome pseudonym, as you wish. Please be definite on thispoint of the signature. The communications should be asbrief as is consistent with a clear statement of the case.^ rTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23NEWS OF THE CLASSES? IN THE SERVICE *Among alumnae in the WAVESwith rank of ensign are Anna H.Kennedy, PhD '41, at the Midshipmen School, Northampton, Massachusetts; Marjorie K. Bremner, '35,Bureau of Naval Personnel, Arlington,Virginia; and Mary H. S. Kleutgen,Bureau of Aeronautics, Washington,D. C. Midshipman Mary ElizabethGrenander, '40, AM '41, is trainingat Mount Holyoke College.Lieut. Philip R. Clarke, Jr., '37,of the Navy Air Corps, reports thathis present assignment consists of various administrative duties, the objectof which is to relieve flying officersof responsibility for necessary squadron ground administration and routine.Capt. Laurence L. Palitz, PhD'38, MD '40, is with the 349th Evacuation Group at Bowman Field, Kentucky. He writes: "At present hard(?) at work as flight surgeon, instructor in aero-physiology and oxygen administration to one hundred and fiftybeautiful nurses at air evacuationheadquarters."Lieut. William O. Mally, '41, hasbeen awarded the Army's Distinguished Service Cross as well as amedal for serving over one hundredhours in active aerial combat.Lieut. Gilbert E. Erb, '39, in theArmy Air Corps, has recently returnedfrom a year in Java, Australia, andNew Guinea. He is currently stationed at Pyote, Texas, where he isinstructing but says that he doesn'texpect to be there very long.Lieut. Harold L. Richards, '30,AM '33, is in the transportation section of the Army at Craig Field, Louisiana. He comments: "What Iwouldn't give to be privileged to beback once again on the campus!"Ensign Erwin Shafer, '34, JD '36,is on the staff, Commander Battleshipsof the Pacific Fleet.Corpl. Edwin J. Crockin, '37, hasbeen transferred to Camp Hood,Texas, where, he reports, he is witha "rough-and-ready tank destroyeroutfit (emblem, a black panthercrushing a tank in his jaws) ."Pvt. Granville K. Thompson,MBA '42, is classified as a junior repairman trainee (radio) in the Army'sSignal Corps and is training in Chicago.John G. Henry, JD '41, is training at Camp McCoy, Wisconsin.Robert C. Harman, '30, sends in the following news about himself:"Now, finally, I am definitely placedand quite satisfied with my assignment, working in the intelligence office of Group Headquarters at AvonPark Bombing Range, Florida. Thisis a most interesting place and to meseems very close to the war itself.Further comment would be indiscreetexcept that we have good places toswim and fish without going off thepost and all the fresh tree-ripenedgrapefruit, oranges, and tangerines wewant can be had for the picking."After my basic training at Jefferson Barracks, I spent eight weeks inclerical school at Fort Logan, nearDenver, becoming acquainted withthe mysticisms of Air Corps administration. The school was rough andrugged, a very concentrated course,and I do believe we learned a lotabout administration. That, no doubt,is the reason I wound up in intelligence. I haven't as yet discoveredwhat is done with men with intelligence training."Sgt. Michael W. Kossoy, '39, isat General MacArthur's headquarters,as secretary to one of his staff officers,Brig. Gen. L. J. Whitlock.Lieut. James S. Desilva, Jr., '40,reports that he has had two and a halfyears in the Navy, mostly with thePacific fleet. He is now commencingpilot training and hopes soon to be"operating off a flat top in the southwest Pacific."Lieut. Lawrence R. Stickler, '37,SM '38, is a bombardier of a combatcrew in a B-24 with the Army AirCorps. He was married on December13 at Tucson, Arizona.Major Louis D. Smith, '09, MD'11, is chief of the urology departmentat the Station Hospital, SheppardField, Texas. His son, Paul C.Smith, '34, ensign on the U.S.S. Calvert, has recently returned from asecond campaign, the first havingbeen in the big convoy to French Morocco. "He is sporting two campaignbadges and a bronze star, indicatingaction under fire," his father writes.Lieut. Charles W. McGuire, Jr.,'22, with the Army Air Forces, is located with the Boston Air DefenseWing.Lieut. Hugh H. Wilson, '27, is atthe U. S. Naval training station atSampson, New York.John W. Busby, '40, is a laboratory assistant in the Signal Corps,electronics school, U. of C. M*10I mr , I vrAFrederic E. Bager, Jr., '28, is assigned to the public relations office ofthe Ninth Naval District at GreatLakes while his application for a commission is pending.Peter L. Wentz, JD '25, is a private in the Infantry officers trainingin Chicago.The promotion of George T. Vander Hoef, '32, to lieutenant colonel^^^^ has been announced^M by the MarineM Corps. Prior toj o i n i n g the Marines, Van der Hocfwas chief of theradio and motionpicture section ofthe Federal Housing Administration, and has had yearsof experience in initiating, developing, and administering the activitiesof the FHA. He has also held theposition of radio consultant to theUnited States-New York World's FairCommission and public relations consultant to both the Littaur School ofPublic Administration of Harvard andto American University. While at theUniversity Van der Hoef was a varsityletterman and captain of the fencingteam.Capt. Robert C. Adair, '38, hasbeen in Iceland for almost a year withthe Field Artillery.Harold M. Barnes, Jr., '35, andEdward Lewison, '32, have beengraduated from the officer candidateschool at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. They have been commissionedsecond lieutenants in the Army, andassigned for duty with the SignalCorps.Ensign Raymond W. Stanley, '41,is an instructor in instrument flyingwith the Naval Air Corps at CorpusChristi, Texas. He was married onAugust 4, 1942, to Jean Robb of Detroit, Michigan.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECorpl. Wilbur Jerger, '39, LLB'42, has written that he expects to bestationed permanently near Seattle ina headquarters of the Northwest defense command. Because of hay feverhe is not allowed to be an officer andmust content himself with personneland classification work. He adds:"When I'm not re-classifying some recruit, I do act generally as a soldier,going into the woods, lying in a mud-hole and shooting a rifle, hoping thatmy compatriots don't confuse me witha Jap or a quarry of game. Of courseI expect to be back at the Universityin the fall where I shall launch intothe occupation of trying to get aPhD."Lieut. W. L. Brand, '29, USNR, isin Washington, D. C.Morris S. Grinbarg, '39, AM '40and '41, writes that he has "livedmilitarily for thirteen months mainlyalong the West Coast." He has nowreceived his second lieutenancy andis with a special training unit for officers at Fort Washington, Maryland.He adds : "Yep, in spite of my newly-acquired military sheepskin, I'mmighty well prepared to step back intocivilian individualness as soon as thatfinal whistle is blown."Lieut. Comm. J. C. Thomas Rogers, MD '27, is in special surgery asEXTRA CAREMAKES THEEXTRA GOODNESSA Product ofSWIFT & CO.7409 S. State StreetPhone Radcliffe 7400JOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882 head of the hospital in a mobile unitof construction engineers. He hasbeen at Camp Peary in Williamsburg,Virginia, training for duty outside ofcontinental United States, and expected to leave the country early inFebruary.Samuel C. Hair, '35, after completing aviation instruction at Jacksonville, Florida,has been commissioned an ensign inthe Naval Reserve|^ -g _ H and was recentlypresented his NavyA "wings." SinceHW Navy pilots fly overV. ^Jf uncharted water-' «¦ ways, Hair's studiesin celestial navigation and communications were exacting. Combat flying demandsprofessional skill in all branches oftraining. Proficiency at the gunneryrange, in the classrooms, and in actualflight was necessary to give him athorough background in aeronautics.Hair is the son of Thomas J. Hair,'03, who was awarded the CollegeDivision citation for "useful citizen"last June.Henry L. Kraybill, '38, weatherofficer of the 12th BombardmentWing, MacDill Field, Florida, hasbeen promoted to a captain in theArmy Air Forces.Robert J. Clark, '41, has beencommissioned a second lieutenantupon completion of the officer candidate course at the Army Infantryschool at Fort Benning, Georgia.Promotion of Capt. Richard B.Smith, '38, to major has been announced by the Army. He is assigned to the adjutant general's department at the Gulf Coast TrainingCenter, Randolph Field, Texas.Lieut. J. Periam Danton, PhD '35,is training in the USNR at QuonsetPoint, R. I.Ensign Dugald S. McDougall,'35, JD '37, is at the Naval tr^ningschool at Harvard University.Major John L. Atkins, '36, is anordnance officer at Camp Van Dorn,Mississippi.Capt. Robert A. Lundy, '25, is achaplain at Fort Riley, Kansas.Lieut. Richard P. Beck, '37, is inthe Field Artillery stationed at CampShelby, Mississippi.Capt. Robert R. Spence, '29, is onthe general staff of the War Department in Washington.Ensign James Loeb, '39, is in Navalaviation and writes that his scoutingsquadron with the Pacific fleet has agreat reputation and he himself hopes to maintain that reputation. He addsthat he can't wait "to get a whack atthe Japs."Capt. Aaron S. Levin, AM '30,tells us that he has been assigned tofive different posts of the Army sincelast June. At present he is surgeonin charge of the medical setup of theRossford Ordnance Depot at Toledo,Ohio. He adds: "I enjoy my workimmensely and am putting forth everyeffort to end this war as quickly aspossible." He sends his best regardsto the alumni.Richard Elmhirst, '36, is a technical sergeant with the Army AirForces at Patterson Field, Ohio.Private Sheldon D. Klein, LLB'38, is training with the Field Artilleryat Camp McCoy, Wisconsin.Lieut. B. E. Bassham, MD '41, ofthe Pearl Harbor Naval Air StationDispensary, writes that he was therefor some time before it was bombedand has had a complete postgraduatecourse in medicine and surgery sincethat day. "Living in a blackout forover a year sometimes becomes veryboring, but attending native feasts,drinking 'oke,' and surf -boarding atWaikiki helps that."CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency61st YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkAlice Banner Englewood 3181COLORED HELPFACTORY HELPSTORESSHOPSMILLS FOUNDRIESEnglewood Emp. Agcy ., 5534 S. State St.Kenwood 1352WE DELIVER ANYWHEREKIDWELLALL PURPOSE FLORISTJAMES E. KIDWELL826 E. 47th St., Chicago, 111.HARRY EENIGCNBURG, Jr.STANDARDREADY ROOFING CO.Complete Service10436 TelephoneS. Wabash Ave. Pullman 8500THE UN IVV-MAILI am stationed on an island somewhere in the southwest Pacific with aCoast Artillery anti-aircraft outfit.Until recently I was doing direct lineduty, but I'm now in the personnelsection engaged in clerical work and"righting the war in quadruplicate."Personnel section takes care of making out payrolls, seeing to allotments,writing military letters, and doing thethousand and one other bits of paperwork incidental to running the Army.This is one place where the "Junein January" theme holds true. We'rein the middle of summer now and it'svery warm. One lucky break is that,as we learned in Geography 201, thenight is the tropics' winter. It's coolenough to make sleeping under blankets comfortable — comfortable, thatis, if you've made certain that youhave your mosquito bar tucked insecurely around your cot.Morris H. Cohen, '39Coast Ar tilleyFrom the Midway of Chicago tothe mud of New Jersey doesn't seemlike such a long distance when thealumni magazine comes to me eachmonth. Somehow it seems to bridgethe gap very quickly and things forgotten for thirty days seem to cometo life again. For that reason I amwriting to you so that you will be ableto let my Chicago friends, whereverthey are, know that rememberingthem and reading about them makesthe end of the month a time to lookforward to.I completed my first three monthsin the Army in February. I have hada succession of jobs, each a little moreinteresting than the last, and temporarily at least I am stationed in thepublic relations office at Fort Dix. Ispend most of my time in and out ofoffice indoctrinating all and sundrywith the Chicago plan. I still havea great deal of work to do before theconversion of Headquarters companyalone is accomplished.Edgar L. Rachlin, '42Fort Dix, New JerseyThe Armored Division I am inpromises the Germans something interesting. The Navy brought us oversafely and now it's up to us.I wish every American could geta look at North Africa for just oneweek. Then we would not hear theperpetual complaints about gas rationing and food rationing. May RSITY OF CHICAGOAmerica learn to conserve and appreciate the wonderful food they havebefore they reach the state of thiscountry.Lieut. Roland C. O. Olsson,'37, MD '40North AfricaOften cuss out the U. of C. for nothaving had an air corps reserve unitor an engineer unit instead of thatdead field artillery unit that I attended for two quarters (and subsequently deserted). Upon due commiseration with myself I generallyreach the conclusion that the life of adogface sergeant in the engineers isinfinitely superior to that of a shavetail artillery man.Should like to refute the rumor thatlife on the fringe of the "greater EastAsia co-prosperity sphere" is the bedof roses some of our correspondents,impressed by the service units ih Australia, have reported. Reading matter is at a premium. Wish you couldsend us some WAACS; we haven'tseen a white woman for months, soyou can appreciate that request.Sgt. John W. Turner, Jr., '37Somewhere in the PacificI do enjoy the U. of C. Magazine— have received two copies to date.Was interested to read of one otheralumnus who entered the Army as aprivate. I thought all except me hadstarted as officers. There is so muchI would like to write about and solittle that I may because of militarysecrecy — but if you will refer to theDecember 1 issue of Life you will getan idea of what we: did and approximately where. Our outfit was one ofthe first waves to go in.Sgt. Stuart Kenney, '27Somewhere in AfricaAfter completing basic training at-Camp Robinson, Arkansas, I was sentto the adjutant general's school atFort Washington, Maryland, for training in classification work. There Ilearned to do personnel work theArmy way. From there I was sent tothis camp, which is still in the handsof the contractors, to do personnelconsultant work. At present I am theacting P.C. which is the Army termfor "military psychologist." The Armyhas a gigantic personnel job to perform and some mistakes have beenmade; but it was no mistake to findat Fort Washington that the U. of C.was well represented among theclassification trainees.Ralph E. Walton, AM '41Shenango Replacement DepotGreenville, Penna. MAGAZINE 25LEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEI'm down here in Baton Rouge,Louisiana, with another U. of C. graduate, Mary M. Hammel ['41], also aWAVE, and we are enjoying both thesouthern hospitality and the climate.Our work — well, — we're in the Navy.Fortunately we were received verycordially and the male officers withwhom we are associated have beenmost helpful. We like them so wellthat we'd like to be able to keep themhere, instead of replacing them. Bestpart of being in Baton Rouge: Thereare only three WAVES here, and wecertainly get our share of publicity,although we do live like goldfish (butwithout even a bowl) .Ensign Esther J. Nierman, '39(Port Director's Office)Naval Transportation ServiceHave been on duty in the HawaiianDepartment since December 24, 1940.Was at Wheeler Field on December 7,1941, sleeping soundly till blasted outof bed by the Nips. Still in Hawaiibut hope to get to a more active theater one of these days.Capt. George J. Schwaegerman,'36, JD '37A Fighter GroupI am stationed in India, workingin the Air Corps Supply of the AirService Center here, to keep them flying in this theater (China, Burma,and India).Sgt. Damon C. Fuller, '35Air Service CommandI am now struggling with dots anddashes in an enlisted radio operatorscourse — and the dots and dashes are,I am afraid, having much the best ofit. Still, Fort Benning is a center formuch excellent training of a militarynature, and one struggles as well asone can, and that is not saying much.John Paul Jones, MA '41Fort Benning, GeorgiaTELEPHONE HAYMARKET 4566O'CALLAGHAN BROS., Inc.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.W. B. CONKEY COMPANYHAMMOND, INDIANAiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinitiiiiimmiiiiiiiPRINTERS and BINDERSOF*.BOOKS and CATALOGSSALES OFFICES: CHICAGO AND NEW YORK For the first time in my life I'vebeen able to spend the winter in awarm climate and "for free," too.Exery time I read in the "Trib" aboutthe snow and blizzards up there, Ichuckle. While a career in the Armyis not my choice, I must admit in mycase that it does have some goodpoints. We have a mess sergeant whowould make many joints that professto be restaurants look sick. Evenshrimp salad is not unusual. While Idon't expect it to last, it would beungrateful of me not to mention someof the things I am enjoying.S/Sgt. Robert B. Kramer, '39Davis-Monthan FieldTucson, ArizonaI have been brought to Camp McCoy on detached service for specialduty connected with setting up theassignment section of the newlyformed Limited Service School. Although I am not limited service myself, I have been here doing this typeof work since November.Our work still falls into the threemain categories of testing, interviewing, and assigning. We give intelligence tests to twelve or fifteen hundred men without blinking an eye(which is a new experience for ateacher accustomed to testing a hundred or two) , and we also have a testing program in connection with themen of lower intelligence, non-English,and illiterates. We have a programof reclassification whereby men maygo from limited service into full general service, and finally, when a manhas completed his basic training, he isassigned to* his permanent station inthe Army.There is no doubt that this countryis beautiful, from an artistic viewpoint, but that is a viewpoint whichis hard to maintain when the temperature drops down to 25° or 30°below zero and the snow drifts higherBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, Director and higher. In every direction onecan see the hills and everygreens covered with snow.Pvt. Davd L. Harris, '40,AM '41Camp McCoy, WisconsinIt pleases me to tell you that theMagazine has been reaching me regularly here at Camp Lejeune, newestand largest base of its kind in theworld. Covering two hundred squaremiles of swamps, sand, and pine, it isproving the ideal spot to train thoseblood-thirsty gentlemen called Marines for the Guadacanals, Bataans,and Tokios which lie in their paths.The first four copies came into mypossession through another formerChicago student who made the inexcusable error of leaving them unprotected and exposed on the top ofhis sack (bunk, but not implying anyignorance on your part of MarineCorps terminology) . Believing thoroughly in the philosophy of "SemperFidelis," which means "If you haven'tgot it, get it," I immediately confiscated them and proceeded to readthem cover to cover. Amazinglyenough since that time I have received a copy every month.I hope that you will continue tosend me the Magazine. Although Itend to grind my teeth after readingsome of the opinions which find theirway in and between the lines, I doenjoy hearing from the University.Incidentally, if you know any prospective draftees who might enjoymarching twenty miles a day, fightingfor chow, crawling for miles throughsand, slime, and brush on their bellies with full pack, learning the gentleart of breaking arms and removingintestines with the point of a bayonet,but ending up knowing that you canbeat your weight in wildcats, then tell(Concluded on page 31)E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Ponograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182CLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions"THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27Tuck PointingMaintenanceCleaning , PHONEGRAceland 0800CENTRAL BUILDING CLEANING CO.CalkingStainingMasonryAcid WashingSand BlastingSteam CleaningWater Proofing 3347 N. Halsted StreetBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324THE CLASSES1903Hermann I. Schlesinger, PhD'05, professor and executive secretaryof the chemistry department at theUniversity, recently addressed a meeting of the Pittsburgh section of theAmerican Chemical Society on "TheChemistry of Boron."1913George E. Bodin, MA, has beenmade professor of aviation at OhioWesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio.As a staff member of the home andfarm safety division, Sandford Sellers, Jr., AM '34, is with the NationalSafety Council in Chicago.Emery W. Balduf, AM, PhD '26,is head of the school and college services of the Office of War Information, Washington.1914Rev. A. W. Cooke, AM, PhD '15,has been called from retirement toactive duty for the duration as vicarof Trinity Church, Troy, Ohio, supplying for the rector who is serving asa chaplain in the Army.1915Brent D. Allinson is assistant director and head of the engineering department at the School of OrganicEducation, Fairhope, Alabama.Ewald C. Pietsch, MS '34, hasbeen appointed instructor in geography in the extension division of theUniversity of Wisconsin, Madison. 1921Margaret C. Moore is assistantdirector of public health educationfor Louisiana and consultant in nutrition for the state.1924Lacey L. Leftwich, AM, BD '25,PhD '42, has accepted a position atGary College, Gary, Indiana, as aninstructor of psychology.Whitman College, Walla Walla,Washington, announces the appointment of Lawrence W. Hartel, MS,as assistant professor of physics andmathematics. Hartel was formerly atKansas State Agricultural College.Charles S. Morris, Jr., is a production clerk at the North AmericanAviation Company, Inglewood, California.1926Luella Overn, SM, is teachingbiology, history, and business subjectsin the high school at Thompson,North Dakota.J. Leroy Miller, MA, is teachingin the junior high school at ArlingtonHeights, 111.1927Francis R. Preveden, PhD, is aninstructor at George Washington University as well as a monitor for theFederal Communications Commission, Washington, D. C.Alfred Ingles, MS, is an instructor in chemistry at Wright Junior College, Chicago.1928Marion L. William s, MA, is clinical psychologist at Milwaukee CountyGuidance Clinic.Hymen E. Cohen, Ph.D '33, is inadministrative planning with the FHAin Washington.1929Rena M. Andrews, AM, PhD '33,has become head of the history department of Arkansas A. and M. College, Monticello, Arkansas.Katherine Stoll is teaching in theWashington school at St. Joseph,Michigan.Olga E. Solberg, who has beenteaching in the school of nursing atMt. Sinai Hospital in Cleveland, hasbecome director of nurses at MercyHospital at Benton Harbor, Michigan.1930Rita M. Sam mon is teaching English at Moser Business College in Chicago.1931Clarence E. Swingley, MA, isprincipal of the Edison School inWest Gary, Indiana.Marie C. D'Amour, PhD, is resi- Albert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '2.1Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to tlie university and college field.It is affliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating— Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86dent physician at Las Encinas Sanitarium, Pasadena, California.1932Oscar T. Mattox is a minister ofthe United Society at Bloomington,Illinois.Jack L. Hough, SM '34, PhD '40,is a civilian scientific adviser for theNavy's Bureau of Ordnance, Washington.Louise H. Johnson, AM, has beenappointed dean of women and headof the English department at GreenMountain Junior College, Poultney,Vermont.Ralph H. Masure is import-export statistician in the office of theAmerican Consul General at SaoPaulo, Brazil.Ruth E. Jahnke is teaching history and geography for grades 6, 7,and 8, at Whittier School, Chicago.1933Catherine E. Steven s,, of Richmond, Indiana, has been elected second vice-president of the Indiana statebranch of the Association for Childhood Education.Mrs. Moiree Scott Compere,MA, is an instructor of speech atMichigan State College, Lansing.Julius Feldman, PhD '37, is atthe Carnegie Institute of Technologyin Pittsburgh.1934Cary C. Byerly, MA, is assistantsuperintendent of public instructionfor the State Department of Education, Springfield, Illinois.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEArmin A. Manske, AM '35, PhD'42, is classification analyst in thepersonnel division of the Civil Administrative Services, Chicago.1935Alin Blatchley, AM, is an editor for J. C. Winston, Philadelphia.Charlotte M. Burtis, SM '38, iswith the Office of Strategic Servicesin Washington, as a geographer.Brownless W. Haydon, formerlyof the University's press relations department, has joined the staff ofBusiness Week.Union Theological Seminary announces the appointment of JohnKnox, PhD, as Baldwin professor ofsacred literature, effective July 1.Knox has been professor of NewTestament and homiletics at U. of C.1936Stanley W. Drigot is an inspectorof powder and explosives for the El-wood Ordnance Plant at Elwood,Illinois.Simon Marcson, AM '41, is an instructor in sociology at PennsylvaniaState College.Dorothy Ulrich Troubetzkoyhas had poems published recently inthe Poetry Chap-Book, New York Herald-Tribune, Christian ScienceMonitor, and New York Times. Sheis living in Wilmington, North Carolina, while her husband, Prince SergeTroubetzkoy, now a lieutenant, isstationed at Camp Davis.1937Daniel D. Howard, MA '39, ispsychologist and principal of theGlenwood Manual Training SchoolGlenwood, Illinois.Centenary College of Shreveport,Louisiana, announces the appointment of Cornelius D. Keen, PhD, ashead of the physics department.1938As assistant chief of the reports analysis and statistics division, HaroldL. Elsten is with the Office of Civilian Defense in Washington.Elmer W. Rowley, AM, is teaching vocational agriculture at the JolietTownship High School and JuniorCollege, Joliet, Illinois.Oscar Seltzer, AM '41, is withthe National Resources PlanningBoard in Washington as an associateeconomist.Robert B. Anderson, Jr., is reservations manager for American Airlines, Chicago. 1939Russell T. Nichols, statisticianwith the W. A. Harriman mission, isat the U. S. Embassy in London.Frieda Panimon Simon, PhD, isworking in the physiology departmentat U. of C.Helen H. Wright, AM, is doingmedical social work at Walter ReedHospital in Washington, D. C.Robert W. Herbert, AM, is teaching social science at the TownshipHigh School, Hinsdale, Illinois.Frank D. Curtin, PhD, has become assistant professor of English atSt. Lawrence University, Canton, NewYork.Virginia Mook, MA, has beenappointed an instructor of principlesof teaching and teaching methods inthe Army Air Forces instructor schoolat St. Louis.S. Elizabeth Romine is a professional nurse at Detroit, Michigan.Robert L. Jack, AM, is an instructor in history and education atMorgan State College, Baltimore,Maryland.Appointment of Walter L. Kindel-sperger, AM '40, group work andrecreation secretary of the New Orleans Council of Social Agencies, asJlou get FOUR meat servings fromjust 12 oz. of IPrem...PREM helps you make your share of the meat go further,gives you more servings per pound, more meals with meatper week — because Prem is all meat and it's delicious hot orcold.Here's needed wartime nutrition! Prem provides foodenergy, muscle-building proteins, valuable vitamins of the Bcomplex.Equally important, Prem providesthe extra flavor, extra goodness so important to meals prepared in a hurry.It is Swift's Premium quality meat,sugar-cured the exclusive Swift'sPremium way. No spices, no heavyseasonings alter the flavor.To vary your menu, serve Premwhen it's available. And wheneveryou find your dealer out of it, remember that Prem is in the war on manyfronts these days.SWIFT & COMPANY:PURVEYORS OF FINE FOODS Noodles in cheese sauce, peas . . . and Prem that'sfried in four minutes!BY THE MAKERS OFSwift's Premium Ham !THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29lecturer in social group work in theTulane University school of socialwork was announced in January.M. John Wagner, AM '40, is acivilian navigation instructor at theArmy Air Forces training school atMiami, Oklahoma, teaching R.A.F.cadets.1940Carl F. Carlson, PhD, is associate geographer in the Office of Strategic Services, Washington.Shurtleff College, Alton, Illinois,has made Eugene Dutton, MA, associate professor of education andpsychology.Gene H. Harris is supervising avital statistics project for the State ofIllinois at Springfield.Violet K. Brasch, AM, is on theteaching staff in English at McGillUniversity, Montreal.Violet Gunn Posthoff writesthat she has transferred from Portsmouth, where she has been for thepast year and a half as assistant fielddirector of the American NationalRed Crossj to the new U. S. NavalHospital at Norfolk, as field directorof the Red Cross. She adds: "It isindeed interesting to begin from thebeginning with a new hospital andestablish a social service and recreation program. The Navy is a splendid organization. The hospital wasquietly and in a dignified ceremonycommissioned for service on November 1, 1942. Bed capacity and theemphasis of our function would notLovelyTable AppointmentsFINE CHINA, CRYSTAL; GOLDEN DIRILYTEi SILVERGifts — Imported and Domestic.For Quality and Distinction seeDIRIGO, INC.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, DI. be details to be released at this time."Margaret I. Stemple, MD, is apracticing physician in Morgantown,West Virginia.1941Virginia E. Fenske, AM, is regional supervisor of the Illinois Division of Child Welfare, at East St.Louis, Illinois.John W. Simpson is with the district Office of Price Administration atWheeling, West Virginia, as economist and price surveying officer.Appointment of Bliss Forbush,executive secretary of the Park Avenue Friends Meeting, Baltimore,Maryland, as headmaster of FriendsSchool in Baltimore has been announced. He will assume his newresponsibilities on July 1.Eugene Shenefield, AM, hasbeen appointed executive secretaryof the Toledo Council of Social Agencies.Syracuse University has appointedHarry F. Brubaker, MA, instructorin geography.Herman Meyer, PhD, is teachingat the University of Miami, CoralGables, Florida.Grace M. Wilson, MA, is teaching English and social science in thepublic schools for Japanese at Rivers,Arizona.Robert J. Mason, MBA, is employed by the Carnegie-Illinois SteelCorporation, Gary, Indiana, as a costanalyst.Jessie S. Bynum, AM, is locatedat Wesleyan College, Macon, Georgia,where she is teaching history.1942Helen F. Spaulding has beenmade associate director of the youngpeople's department of the International Council of Religious Education,Chicago.George A. Beebe is an instructorof English in the public schools ofDePue, Illinois.Eva M. Taylor, AM, has beenteaching Latin, English, and libraryCLASSIFIED CATALOGUE OFALUMNI READING LISTSNew Edition, 1943Distributed free to alumni andformer students of the Universityof ChicagoWrite for a copy toGordon J. LaingAlumni DeanUniversity of Chicago HUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized at one- of th* leading TeachersAgencies of the United States.Ashjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000Phones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove Avenuework at the Rock Falls, Illinois, highschool, since November.Jane A. Evans, MA, is an assistantin the education department at OhioState University, Columbus.Donald Day, PhD, has acceptedthe position of managing editor of theuniversity press of Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas.Sara Boddinghouse, AM, hasjoined the Child and Family Serviceat Honolulu, Hawaii.Elizabeth Herlinger Groot hasaccepted a position with the UnionOil Company of California at Oleum.Allen Morris, MBA, is an administrative counselor in Washington,D. C.Charles Boss, MA, is at RockFalls, Illinois. He writes: "I wantto thank you for your large carpet-size map of the University. I haverecently been employed as social sci-.ence teacher at the Rock Falls Township High School and whenever I getthat homesick feeling I peruse yourwonderful, big map and soon I amwell again. Thank you. Slowly, inthis pond of Rock Falls, I am swelling into a big, fat, green frog."SOCIAL SERVICEThe annual meeting of the Association of Schools of Social Work washeld in Detroit, January 28-30. MissWright, Miss Towle, Miss Browning, and Miss Branch of the facultyof the School were in attendance. MissTowle has been serving as chairmanof the curriculum committee during30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe past year. Miss Wright has beenelected vice-president of the Association for the coming year.Grace Browning, PhD '42, assistant professor of social service administration, has an article entitled "AnAdventure in Rural Staff Development" in the Survey Mid-Monthly forFebruary, 1943.Myrtle Brannon Farrell, AM'30, of Everett, Washington, recentlyvisited Chicago and attended thefaculty reception for students on February 14.Helen Younggren, AM '30, hasaccepted a position with the Councilof Social Agencies in San Francisco.D. Katharine Rogers, AM '38,who has been on the state staff of theDepartment of Public Welfare in Illinois, has accepted a position on thefaculty of the University of Illinois,giving pre-professional courses in social work.Mrs. Willye Coleman, AM '38,has accepted a position as case worksupervisor in the aid to dependentchildren's program of the CookCounty Bureau of Public Welfare inChicago.Doris Pinney Olds, AM '39, iswith the Family and Children's Society of Baltimore.Bernard Miran, AM '39, has beenappointed consultant in the child welfare division of the State Departmentof Illinois. He will be assigned towork in Chicago.Charles Moody, AM '39, has leftthe Social Security Board to return toIllinois where he will serve as fieldrepresentative in the State Department of Public Welfare.Lois Utterbagk, AM '39, has accepted a position with the USO andhas been sent by the Travelers AidAssociation to Muskogee, Oklahoma.Leah Brunk, AM '40, is a mem-ECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893EASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488 ber of the faculty of the Utah StateAgricultural College at Logan.Peretz Katz, AM '40, has accepted a position in the statisticaldivision of the Council of SocialAgencies of Chicago.Jane East, AM '40, is a homefinder in the foster home departmentof the Children's Aid Society in NewYork City.Amelia Baer, AM '41, is a supervisor with the Children's ProtectiveSociety of San Francisco. Miss Baerand Miss East have published an article in the February, 1943, issue ofThe Family, entitled "Some Problemsof Working Mothers." This was written while they were working with theCommunity Service Society in NewYork City.Hazle Corrigan, AM '41, has leftthe Children's Aid Society of St. Louisto become a psychiatric social workerin the Department of Public Healthin San Francisco.Gertrude Wright Saxton, AM'41, has accepted a position with theChicago Orphan Asylum.Alice Drell, AM '42, is workingwith the family service division of theAmerican Red Cross in Chicago.Edith Logkley, AM '42, has accepted a position with the service bu-GREGGCOLLEGEA Schoolof Busines sPreferred by College Menand WomenStudent body represents 30 states,80 colleges.Stenographic, Secretarial,and Accounting CoursesSend for free booklet: "The Doorwayto Opportunity."Court Reporting CourseWrite for special free booklet aboutschool of Court Reporting: "Shorthand Reporting as a Profession."Methods courses for business teachers.Only high school graduates accepted.THE GREGG COLLEGEPresident, JOHN ROBERT GREGG. S.C.D.Director. PAUL M. PAIR. M.A.Dept. C. A., 6 N. Michigan Ave.Chicago, III. reau for negro children in the Children's Aid Society in Philadelphia.Celia Ann Peairs, AM '42, is achild welfare worker in the IowaState Department of Public Welfareand has recently been "loaned" towork in the day-care program for children in Des Moines.Elsie Krueger, AM '42, is working in the family service division ofthe Red Cross in Chicago.BIRTHSTo Kermit T. Wiltse, AM '40,and Mrs. Wiltse, a son, Stephen Kermit, on December 19. Wiltse is acorporal in the Infantry stationed atCamp Adair, Oregon, and writes thatbecause his train was late he arrivedhome on a furlough two hours after,rather than two hours before, thebaby arrived.To Joel S. Lawton, '29, and Mrs.Lawton, a son, William Joel, on October 21.To William Chilman, AM '38,and Mrs. Chilman (CatherineStreet, AM '38), a daughter, JeanLivingston, on December 13, in Syracuse, New York.To Capt. Waldemar A. Solf, '35,JD '37, and Mrs. Solf, a daughter,Susan Mae, on January 15 at Springfield, Missouri.To Arthur Loewy, '40, MS '42,and Mrs. Loewy (Rayna L. De-costa, 39, MS '40), a son, ArthurDeCosta, on January 9 in Chicago.MARRIAGESBeth Dring to Ensign Fred T. Hel-mers, '42, on October 12 in Sandwich, Massachusetts. She was formerly employed in the office of thesecretary of the Board of Trustees,U. of C. He has been assigned tosea duty.(Concluded on page 32)MOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNI-J BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED ~ BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAYmarkot 79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31V-MAIL(Continued from page 26)them to request for service with theUnited States Marines.Corpl. E. F. Falks, '43New River, N. C.Getting situated here was a goodsized job, as for the present we areliving four to a tent until some additional quarters are built. It's a lot offun and we're quite comfortable now,but I imagine that it could becomepretty tiresome if we had to remainthis way. We have a native bearerwho does practically everything thereis to do including scrubbing our backs,since there is no running water herejust yet. The country is beautiful andwe are enjoying it to the fullest. Weare just outside of a small native village that is certainly primitive. It ison a tiny lake and has a large herd ofbaboons, and the natives and baboonslive in harmony. There are parrots,doves, jackals, hyenas, and all kindsof wild life, so you can see that we'rein the wide open spaces. The onlyplace near here at all is Calcutta andthat's quite a run, so we just stay onthe post. The food is fair and thegroup a congenial bunch — the colonelis really a good boy.* # *Today was Christmas and whilethere was a great deal missing, itcould have been worse. We hadturkey and duck for dinner and enjoyed it immensely. The chaplainfigured that the morale of the boyswho had been here for quite a whileneeded a boost, so he got the wivesof a couple of American engineers tohave Christmas dinner with us. I wasofficer of the day last night and thismorning, so I couldn't get to church.I was sorry, but I've been kept busy,which is better than having to sitaround. I brought a bottle of brandywith me from the last town we werein, so our crew all had a bit beforedinner.One of the boys bought a phonograph and we all chipped in andbought about $75 worth of records,and we are certainly glad we did. Itis a portable, as we have no electricity,but it certainly fills the bill. Rightnow we are listening to Beethoven'sFifth Symphony and it certainlysounds inspiring.Just discovered that our bearer(native orderly) is twenty- two, has awife aged twelve, and that they havetwo daughters, two and three. Howabout that? Ajax Waste Paper Co.2600-2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Any QuantityWaste PaperScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, Van Buren 0230BOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jacltion Blvd. T.l.phon.Monro. 3192Tailored' Uniforms Made to MeasureWomen Doctors and Nurses, Stock sizeInterne SuitsANEDA McSWEENY1910 So. Ogden AvenueSEElsy 3734 Evenings by AppointmentWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER CONSTRUCTION600W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 2208MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 21.30STANDARDBOILER and TANK CO.524 WEST 42nd STREETTelephone BOUIevard 5886 Our part in the war to date hasbeen practically negligible — just flyover Burma once or twice a week,drop the bombs, and come home. TheJaps are afraid to attack these bigjobs, as we have so many guns. Whenwe're in formation they are afraid tocome within a thousand yards of anyof the ships, so you see our job isrelatively simple.JOSEPH B. COAMBSThe nightly jackal serenade is beginning now so we are going out toshoot a few to scare them away inorder to get some sleep. Otherwisethey will howl till dawn.* * *Today I managed to get my firstdirect hit on a Jap ship — two of themin fact. It was pretty exciting andat long last we are beginning to accomplish something. Then to makematters better, we started back home,got about twenty miles from it, raninto a cold front, and had to turn backand go into Calcutta to land. Wewent to town, had dinner, went up toour hotel room, and an air raid alarmsounded. Unfortunately for us, theBritish knocked down three of thefour attacking Japs before they evenreached the town, and the other oneran away, so we didn't see a thing.When we arrived back in camp weran into a general who congratulatedus on our work, as the ship turnedout to be a troop transport.We went into town last Wednesdayto our first local dance. It was quitean affair and a big time was had byall — mostly "limeys" and Anglo-Indians in attendance. We are stillgetting plenty of food and sleep, andaside from the raids there isn't muchdoing. We now have sixty-two combat hours to our credit. When we gettwo or three hundred, we will gohome or to a rest camp for a longrest. Not bad at all.Lieut. Joseph B. Coambs, '38India32 THE UNIVERSITY OF.CHICAGO MAGAZINEMARRIAGES(Continued from page 30)Elma G. Stauffer to Ellsworth C.Power, Jr., '38, on November 6,1942. He is an aviation cadet atEllington Field; Houston, Texas.Leona Beckel of Chicago to Lieut.Roland C. O. Olsson, '37, MD '40,on November 2 in Bennetsville, SouthCarolina.Hannah Abramson of Nashville,Tennessee, to Jack Greenfield, '35,on January 3. Mrs. Greenfield isworking for an MA in Latin at Vanderbilt University and he is a warrant officer with a water supply battalion at Camp Breckenridge, Kentucky.Shirlee J. Zimmerman to Mitchell S. Seidler, '39. At home, 538East 47th Street, Chicago.Dorothy C. Peberg, '42, to JohnC. Doolittle, '41, on December 24at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Hehas reported for active duty with theArmy Air Corps at Yale University.Elizabeth W. Simpson, '30, toCharles H. Good, '30, AM '37,at Hilton Chapel on February 6. Athome, 7130 Clyde Avenue, Chicago.He is in the personnel department ofthe Burlington Railroad and she is ateacher of art at the Cregier branchof McKinley High School.Margaret A. Zimmer to Webb S.POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph ServiceHighest Quality ServiceAll PhonesHarrison 8118 MimeographingAddressingMailingMinimum Prices418 So. Market St.ChicagoT. A. REHNQUIST CO.Vi / CONCRETE\J/ FLOORS\r\¥ SIDEWALKS\\ V MACHINE FOUNDATIONSw EMERGENCY WORKv ALL PHONESEST. 1929 Wentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Ave.HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESy ENGRAVERS 'M SINCE 1906 + WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES 4+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED +? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE ?n '/a\i:l a usDALHEIM &CO.2054 W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO. Fiser, '42, of the Army Signal Corps,on February 6, in Baltimore, Maryland.Zoe C. Seaton, '20, to MatthewJ. Price on December 24 at HiltonChapel. At home, 1039 HollywoodAvenue, Chicago.Doris H. Wigger, '41, to Lieut.Robert Nystrom on December 24in Chicago. He is in the Marine AirCorps and they are living at Coronado, California.Georgia Ball, AM '31, to RobertR. F. Travis on November 24, in Seattle.Lois M. Chapin, AM '40, to H.Donald Crawford on December 16.At home, 4502 Woodhall, Detroit,Michigan.Harriet Lindsey to Frederick W.Linden, Jr., '40, on July 15, 1942.He is a pilot in the Naval Air Corps.Elizabeth O'Brien, '33, to William Springhorn on November 12,1942. At home, 8200 Evans Avenue,Chicago.Mary Elizabeth Taylor to Lieut.Eldon C. Robson, '32, on January17. He is with the Quartermasterwarehouse supply section at CampUpton, New York.DEATHSMary Chase Swett Newton, '98,of Newton Centre, Massachusetts, onDecember 22. She was an extensivetraveler abroad and in this countryand her travel letters were often published.Frank C. Ewart, '93, on September 28, 1942. For over forty yearshe was professor of romance languagesat Colgate University.Joseph Duane, MD '03, of Peoria, Illinois, on January 21.Evon Z. Vogt, '06, at Ramah, NewMexico, on January 23. He wasrancher, miner, newspaper editor,and an active worker during the Development Fund Campaign.ENGLEWOODELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers ofELECTRICAL MATERIALS ANDFIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 EnglewoodS. Halsted Street 7500INTENSIVE¦ STENOGRAPHIC COURSEfor College PeopleSuperior training for practical, personal use or profitable employment. Course gives you dictation speedof 100 words a minute. Classes begin January. April,July and October. Enroll Now. Write or phone forbulletin. -'BRYANT & STRATTON College18 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago Tel: RAN. 1575 Orville A. Petty, '10, of NewHaven, Connecticut, on August 12,1942.Isabelle B r o n k, PhD '00, ofSwarthmore, Pennsylvania on January 10. At one time she was an instructor at the University and headof Beecher Hall.Katharine Livingston Rice, '96,of Grand Rapids, Michigan, on January 9. Mrs. Rice was a contributorto garden magazines such as Houseand Gardens, Better Homes and Gardens, and Horticulture. She was acolorist, critic, garden consultant, anda discriminating student of landscapedesign. She lectured throughout thecountry and had created gardens inIndianapolis, Cedar Rapids, LakeForest, and other places and had doneextensive work to beautify her ownhome town. At the time of the University's Fiftieth Anniversary Mrs.Rice was awarded a citation for "useful citizen."William B. Stone, 16, AM '21,of Commerce, Texas, on January 7.Elizabeth Yeoman s, in charge ofthe Women's Commons in the earlydays of the University, on December11 at Graisley House, Hereford, England.James R. Pentuff, '96, formereducator and pastor, on November 30,1942, in Tampa, Florida, where hehad lived since 1936.Silas A. Harris, JD '13, a memberof the law faculty of Ohio State University since 1928, on October 16,1942.Ella Bisell, '35, on January 1.She was an art teacher for fifteen yearsin the Tulsa, Oklahoma, schools.Gleason A. Dudley, '98, editorand publisher of the Walthill, Nebraska, Times, on January 27.Alice M. Holden, '29, Aurora,Illinois school teacher, on July 20,1942.HOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 5. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579ACMESHEET METAL WORKSGeneral Sheet Metal WorkSkylights - Gutters - SmokestacksFurnace and Ventilating Systems1 1 1 1 East 55th StreetPhone Hyde Park 9500Every branch of the Armed Services uses the telephone. No. 1 of a series, Anti-Aircraft.lo his mother and dad it seems only yesterday that he was using the family telephone to call hishigh school sweetheart. But today the orders he sends and receives over his wartime telephonehelp speed the day when love and laughter, peace and progress shall again rule the world.Western ElectricN PEACE. ..SOURCE OF SUPPLY FOR THE BELL SYSTEM.IN WAR. ..ARSENAL OF COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT.The Greatest Motherin the WorldRED CROSS WAR FUNDMARCH -1943