THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEFEBRUARY 19 4 3msYes, it's Jack's first — a boy. And after Jack had gotover the shock of being a father, he began to plan,as all of them do."What d'you think, Doc," he said, "suppose he'llmake a doctor?""Could be," I said. "Though I'd wait till he got somehair and teeth before I decided for sure."But shucks! Jack wasn't listening. By the time I lefthe'd had the kid governor — he's probably presidentby now !President? Maybe. No telling what little Johnnie'll bewhen he grows up. But whatever it is, we're sure goingto be needing men like him! There'll be jobs to do, designing and building things for the future. Things like television, and air conditioning, and plastics, and what'llcome after them.This war is changing lots of things. We're just beginning to realize how big a job we've got ahead. But if thewar's already showed us anything, it's that we couldn'tbegin to win if there hadn't been men with courage and vision to build factories and organizations big enough tomake the weapons and equipment our boys in the Armyand Navy need.And it's showed us that if the factories can pour outwar stuff the way they're doing today, afterwards theycan turn out just as much to make peacetime living better.So it's up to us to see that Johnnie has his chance, too.The chance to use all his initiative and gumption to produce something worth while. To give to the world asmuch as he gets. There's some satisfaction in a job likethat! And that's the kind of a future I wish for littleJohnnie Higgins! General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y.The volume oj General Electric war production is so high andthe degree oj secrecy required is so great that we can tell youlittle about it now. When it can be told completely, we believethat the story oj industry' 's developments during the war yearswill make one of the most fascinating chapters in the historyoj industrial progress.GENERAL f§ ELECTRICTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONCHARLTON T. BECKEditor HOWARD W. MORT and BEATRICE J. WULFAssociate EditorsDON MORRIS, CODY PFANSTIEHL Contributing Editor: HARRY SHOLLAssistant EditorTHE COVER: The statue of redquartzite bears the features of KingTutenkhamon, whose tomb is one ofthe wonders of Egypt. The statue,weighing seven tons, was found by theOriental Institute Egyptian expedition in the mortuary temple of Eyeand Harmhab at Medinet Habu. Ithas been restored by the staff of theOriental Institute Museum and standsin the Egyptian Hall.For those who are interested in thestory of Egyptian culture ProfessorHarold H. Nelson, acting director ofthe Oriental Institute, has written forthis issue an account of the ritual andsignificance of Egyptian religious worship.THE original "Bixby letter" is notknown to be in existence, and thecopy reproduced as our frontispieceis one of the facsimilies that appearedtoward the end of the last century.That such a letter was written by Lincoln is known, as a printed copy ofit appeared in a Boston paper withina few days of the date of the letter.The facsimile is from the collection inthe Lincoln Room of Harper Library.ONCE more in his address at thetrustees-faculty dinner on January 12, President Robert MaynardHutchins has reviewed his conceptionof the University in war times andhas outlined forcibly its function oncepeace returns. We must be wary, hethinks, that we do not lose sight ofthe fact that the first function of auniversity is the training of the mind.Learning must survive the war if weare to harvest our fruits of a victory.FOR a long time now we've beenhearing about the grand timesservice men were having in the Midway USO. Deciding that we wanted THIS MONTHTABLE OF CONTENTSFEBRUARY, 1943PageThe University in War and PeaceRobert M. Hutchins "3Let's Go to the USO 5Worship of the Egyptian GodsHarold H. Nelson. . . .. 8News of the QuadranglesDon Morris 12Samuel N. HarperCharles E. Merriam. . 14Chicago's Roll of Honor 16The Dean's Easy ChairGordon J. Laing 18Physical Fitness for MilitaryServiceT. Nelson Metcalf 20News of the Classes 25to know who was responsible and howit was done, we looked up AgnesAhern, who doubles her work inPress Relations with publicity for theUSO. The result of the inquiries isthe article which Miss Ahern haswritten.IN THE News of the QuadranglesDon Morris casts a hasty glanceover the athletic situation. Incidentally, though the cage team has gonealong its losing ways, in other sportsthe University has not fared so badly.To date the track team has takenNavy Pier and Loyola over the hurdles, the fencing team has won threestraight, and the wrestling team hasbeaten Wheaton and routed Northwestern.THIS month we are including thefirst list of those who have thusfar given their lives in World War II. CONFESSING to an apathy foralumni reunions prior to assuming the alumni deanship, Dean Laingtells of a fiftieth anniversary celebration he once did attend.MOST of us are soft, thinks Lieutenant Commander T. NelsonMetcalf, director of physical education now on leave to serve with theNavy. And this lack of conditionmakes harder the task of training menfor the rigors of fighting a war. Hecan't understand why the Universitydoesn't take more seriously the problem of physical conditioning for itsstudents. He believes such a programshould be put on a compulsory basis.NEWS of the death of Samuel N.Harper, '02, son of PresidentHarper, on January 18 elicited widespread expressions of sympathy andsorrow. It was generally recognizedthat the United States and the worldhad suffered a great loss. From Russia, the country whose study ProfessorHarper made his life work, came atelegram addressed to the ChicagoForum on Russian Affairs. "Togetherwith you we mourn loss of eminentscientist Professor Harper who considerably contributed developmentsAmerican Soviet cultural relations.Please accept our condolences andsympathy." It was signed by Vladimir Kemenov, president of the Societyof Cultural Relations.A memorial service for Mr. Harperwas held in Bond Chapel on January21, and we reprint the tribute whichCharles E. Merriam, professor emeritus of political science, expressed atthat time.Published by the Alumni Association of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 5733 University Avenue,Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago,Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of theUniversity of Chicago Magazine.& <7Kaa $&*JL> fa&ttw. <7ha*4t^j^^ry *f-t&» A™*^ G"^ £^t> °^oL *& X^*-^ j™**'/Lou** /b-t*j AwOrt^ QsvvoL ^U^kjx^p*J^y.VOLUME XXXV THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 5FEBRUARY, 1943THE UNIVERSITY IN WAR AND PEACE• By ROBERT M. HUTCHINSThe duration willlast longer thanthe war"ON DECEMBER 31 I completed twenty years inuniversity administration. This reflection causesme some pangs. Lord Northington said in 1765,when the gout caught up with him, "If I had knownthat these legs of mine were to carry a lord chancellor, Iwould have taken better care of them when I was a lad."If I had known that this head of mine was to be used by auniversity president, I would have tried to get some education when I was at Yale. One of my predecessorsoften talked about education as a substitute for experience.I have substituted experience for education. Still, twentyyears is twenty years. The range of data I have examinedover so long a period, illuminated by the earnest tutoringyou have given me, entitles me to certain conclusionsabout universities in general and this one in particular.The greatest of Greek sages used to say that the opinionsof the aged deserved respectful attention. They mightnot know very much ; but, after all, they had been througha lot.The University in the WarFrom this gray eminence on which I have placed myself I wish first of all to set at rest any fears you may haveabout the future of this University. On the basis of theaccomplishment of the group assembled here I have nodifficulty in predicting that the University will last aslong as the Avar. No organization of any kind anywherehas done a more rapid, complete, and effective job ofconverting itself into a war industry than the Universityof Chicago. The adaptability the faculty has shown,the sacrifices they have made, the inconveniences, evenhardships, to which they have willingly submitted havemade the University an essential part of the Americanmilitary machine. No plans can now be made for warresearch or the special training of military personnelwhich do not include the University of Chicago.The University's role for the remainder of the war is also fairly clear. It will have to do all the war researchit can handle. It will have to take on all the soldiers andsailors it can accommodate. Insofar as it is allowedfreedom of choice it should not do anything it does notknow how to do or anything it does not believe in simplyto fill its buildings and occupy its time. It ought to haveenough on its hands if it limits itself to things it believesin and knows how to do. In education, as distinguishedfrom research on the one hand and training on the other,it must concentrate on the College. The College is theUniversity's real educational chance, and perhaps theonly one it will have.These activities will absorb the attention of most of themembers of the faculty. Yet many others will not beengaged in war research or training and will not be teaching in the College. What is the function of such professors, appointed to divisions and schools from which thestudents have vanished? Here we have the real test ofwhether we have meant what we have said all these years.We have said that this was a research institution. Ourgreat complaint has been that we have had so manystudents, or at least so many courses, that we could notget on with our research. Cynical presidents on othercampuses have suspected that this complaint in their institutions masked an unwillingness or even an incapacityto do the research which the professor hinted the administration was keeping him from doing by loading him upwith teaching. I wish to say now, in the most unequivocalterms, that the present administration of this Universitywill support research worthy of the University of Chicagowhether the member of the faculty who is doing it hasany students or not. The only question that will beasked is the one that has been asked in peace time;whether the research, to say nothing of the professor, isgood.Education and Research in the WarIt is impossible to sit down for lunch at the QuadrangleClub without being conscious of reverberations to theeffect that it is very hard to work at education and research in war time. It certainly is. But I believe that.anybody who is good enough to be a member of thisfaculty is too good to be expended in Washington or theArmy. I do not deny that there are many special cases —34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe cases of men with peculiar qualifications for specificpositions which only they can fill. Such men we mustsurrender for the duration. But that restlessness whichoccasionally afflicts us all, that feeling that we are notdoing anything very important and that we ought to beable seamen, corporals, or clerks in the capital must, Iam afraid, be traced to the low esteem in which ourcivilization has held the life of the mind, an esteem solow that even those who have committed themselves tothat life must sometimes wonder whether they have notmade a mistake. A university is a place where peoplethink. Thinking is difficult at any time, and especiallyamid the distractions of war. But can we actually believe that thinking is not important to winning a war?If a member of this faculty is offered a post in the publicservice in which he can think to better purpose than hecan here, he should accept it. If, as is far more likely,he has some chance to think here and none in the publicservice, he should stay here and try to think harder thanever. It is his patriotic duty to resist as long as he can thesuperficial attractiveness of what is called "doing something about the war" and to throw himself with grim determination into the essential task he was appointed toperform.So much for the University during the war. We knowthe worst, and we know the University will be here whenthe war is over. It is unlikely that the draft age will beput below eighten. It is impossible that war research andtraining can stop until the war does. But as a coloredgentleman remarked on the Cottage Grove streetcar theother day, "It looks to me as if the duration would lastlonger than the war." The really serious new problemsof the University will be those it will face the minute thearmistice is signed. They will make the difficulties of thewar period seem like the passing clouds of a summer day.Post-War EducationI have some doubts about the theory of accumulateddemand now advanced by many economists. I have noquestion that after the war a great many people willwant electric refrigerators, automobiles, radios, and typewriters. I am not equally sure that they will have themoney to buy them. But I am positive that there is oneaccumulated demand that will be gratified, because thepeople who have it will have the power to insist that itbe gratified, and that is the demand for the chance to getahead. Entirely aside from the plans of the governmentto use the colleges and universities for selective demobilization, hundreds of thousands of young men and womenare going to ask for and are going to get, either at theirexpense or that of the taxpayers, educational opportunities, or what they will confuse with such opportunities.The full impact of this returning flow will be felt herein those regions of the University from which the outgoing flow has most completely drained the students,which have been most disorganized by the war, and inwhich trained or even promising personnel will be mostdifficult to find. Apart from the College of the University of Chicagoeducation is being abandoned; the training of men forteaching positions outside the natural sciences is beingextinguished. Where will the University find the teacherswho will guide the returning hordes through the mazesof the disciplines which have lain neglected during thewar? Where will it discover the investigators who willcarry on the great tradition of research which began withits foundation? Merely to bring back the fifteen per centof the faculty now on leave will not suffice. I regard aprediction of an increase of fifty per cent in the studentbody as extremely conservative.What is much more serious, in the post-war era th^University will be plunged into what Edith Wharton callethe thick of thin things, and they will be very thin thingindeed. Since the government is establishing in the publie mind the doctrine that technical training is the onl"education for war, the public mind will eventually conelude that technical training is the only education fopeace. The University will be asked to do all kinds oclittle jobs getting people ready for little jobs or rehabilitating them for this or that method of earning a livingThe most terrifying aspect of these changes is the rapidity with which they are going to happen when the}happen. To meet them the University is going to neecall the intelligence and fortitude it can muster. It musttherefore strengthen its faculty now. It should do scespecially in those areas in which there are likely to befew students for the duration. It will have no time tclook around for a satisfactory staff when peace arrives.University OrganizationIt is fortunate that the faculty and trustees have begunto consider the clarification of the University's organization. As they consider the organization of the University they may be unable to think of a better one thanit has at present; but I cannot bring myself to so low anopinion of their imaginative powers. On the face of it,the organization of this University, like that of everyother, is a weird hybrid of business and political procedures, with some academic accidents thrown in for goodmeasure. The president can do great harm, but notmuch good. In defiance of the first principle of administration he is held accountable for measures with whichhe had nothing to do. The trustees can contribute toobtaining a worthy administration only when a newpresident is elected. The faculty nominally controls educational policy, but cannot prevent the president fromthwarting them through his power over money, over administration, and over relations with the public. Andwhat is most important of all, the faculty has no wayof making itself heard when a president ought to be removed. No matter what dreadful changes the passingyears have wrought in his figure, disposition, character,or intellect, he goes on and on, entangling the affairsof the university and misrepresenting it to the country.For twenty years I have been gravitating toward a(Continued on page 22)MIDWAYLETS GO TO THE USOTHE Midway USO grew out of the sense of hospitality of the University community. After PearlHarbor, when hundreds of blue uniforms beganto appear on the University Quadrangles, there was ageneral feeling among Hyde Park and Woodlawn residents that something should be done to make the newcomers feel at home.Accordingly, there was much sporadic activity on thepart of neighborhood groups to provide recreation forthe sailors and to welcome them to their new surroundings. Crisp cookies and freshly baked cakes soon beganto make their appearance at the Navy barracks, and invitations for Sunday dinner at neighborhood homespoured into the Navy training school on campus.It was in order to channel all the good will in theHyde Park and Woodlawn communities that an entertainment council, composed of residents of both neighborhoods, was formed early in April of 1942. Originallyknown as the Midway Service Organization, the councilwas the first of the neighborhood groups to become affiliated with the central USO. Today, with a compactand smoothly working organization, the Midway USOsponsors a comprehensive program of activities not onlyfor the sailors in training on the Quadrangles, but alsofor soldiers from the 124th Armory in Washington Park,aviation mechanics quartered at the Mira-Mar Hotel in Woodlawn, and members of the Jackson Park CoastGuard.Headquarters of the Midway USO were originallylocated in the old St. Paul's Church on Dorchester Avenue. In July, 1942, however, the University donatedthe building at 975 East 60th Street to be used as a clubhouse by the Midway group. Thus the old Frost mansion, which was built in the 'Nineties to be one of theshowplaces of Woodlawn and which later came into possession of the University to be used as a fraternity houseand as an art center, has now become the focus of a newtype of activity. Today it has the atmosphere of a comfortable clubhouse. Brightly jacketed books line the wallsof two of the rooms. The newest magazines are alwayson hand, and there are deep lounging chairs and adroitlyplaced lamps for those who want to relax for a comfortable hour with a book. A sailor who wants a snack between meals can always find "the makings" in the well-stocked kitchen. Members of the canteen committee seethat there is always a fresh stock of cookies, fruits, andother edibles available; and there is a handy electric grillfor those who want to make a fresh pot of coffee at oddhours.One of the features of the clubhouse of which the servicemen approve most heartily is a well-equipped ironingroom, whose furnishings were supplied by the Mothers'56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIcebox commandos. Combined Army and Navy -forayon the kitchen reveals a well-stocked larder.Aid of the Chicago Lying-in Hospital. Sailors who wantto press their jumpers or their ties can now perform theirown valet service with a minimum of time and not toomuch effort.The information desk in the main office of the buildingserves as a clearing-house for all activities of the MidwayUSO. It is manned by a volunteer staff whose specialTravelers' Aid training enables them to deal helpfullywith the many unusual requests that come their way.For example, when Seaman Harry L. Church ofBrewer, Maine, asked the Midway USO to help himmake arrangements for his wedding, the club took overwith its usual thoroughness. On December 19, Churchwas married in Hilton Chapel to Thelma Adele Emeryof Orrington, Maine. Dean Charles W. Gilkey performed the ceremony; and after the wedding Dean andMrs. Gilkey held a reception in their home for the brideand groom. The Gilkeys, who had received a barrel ofpine and spruce from friends in Maine only a few dayspreviously, were able to give an authentic Maine touchto the room in which the reception was held.In the more serious crises of life, too, the club giveswilling assistance to the boys. A short time ago one ofthe sailors received a telegram stating that his father wascritically ill. Finding that he had only forty minutes toget the next train home, he turned to the Midway USOfor help. The club swung into action at once. Theysecured the necessary train reservations, packed lunchfor him, and arranged for a car to take him to the station.Thirty-five minutes later the lad boarded the train, witha brief margin of time to spare and the knowledge thatthe USO could be counted on in an emergency.Workers at the information desk were pleasantly surprised one Saturday afternoon not long ago when the leader of a neighborhood Boy Scout troop came in tooffer the services of his troop to the club. Needless tosay the offer was gratefully accepted. A large portion ofthe boys' daily good deeds are now directed toward running necessary errands for the club, arranging for thetransportation of cakes and other refreshments, and helping the club generally.Word came to the information office recently thatreading lamps for sailors in the sick bay would help themduring the wearying hours of convalescence. A dozenlamps of the "spot-light" variety have already been installed in the hospital quarters, and boys who might otherwise find the wakeful hours of the night unbearably longcan now turn on their spot lamps and read without disturbing other patients in the ward.The Midway USO also sponsors a series of Sundayafternoon parties which are held weekly in Ida NoyesHall from three to nine. Every Sunday the entire thirdfloor is turned over to the Midway USO for what hasbecome the largest single event in its week. The program includes dancing to the music of some well-knownorchestra; table tennis, ping-pong, or billiards in the gameroom; and dancing instruction for those who want tolearn the newest steps. Punch, cake, cookies, and candyare served continuously throughout the party, with abuffet supper at six in the evening. The popularity ofthe Sunday parties is attested by a regular Sunday attendance of between five and six hundred guests, whichduring the Christmas holidays soared to a record high ofa thousand servicemen and girls.In addition to the activities in the clubhouse and inIda Noyes Hall, the Midway USO has been of serviceto the Army and Navy trainees through its many specialNo soldier or sailor who visits the Midway USO who ishandy with an iron need go with unpressed trousers.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7committees. One of these, the Men's Athletic Committee, has inaugurated a program for the trainees whichincludes instruction in boxing, and the provision of tennisequipment and courts. During the baseball season, thecommittee provided uniforms for the entire team, andarranged for transportation whenever the team played offcampus or out of town. At the opening of the footballseason, it presented the sailors on campus with ten newfootballs, and since the beginning of the winter quarterit has provided the boys with hundreds of ice-skates. Inall of its activities, the athletic committee works withservicemen's recreational directors in planning athleticevents and in securing whatever equipment is needed.The sewing committee of the Midway USO believesthat a stitch in time may save a sailor a lot of worries.Members of the committee have done so much mendingfor the bluejackets that they have worn out two secondhand machines, and have recently had to purchase a newone. The sewing committee, which meets every week inthe girls' clubroom of the University high school, doesevery kind of sewing for the sailors from darning socksto altering winter overcoats. The new machine, whichwas bought with funds donated by the Midway USO,is of the extra-heavy type used on sea-going ships. Recent reports indicate that because of the popularity ofthe mending service another machine of the same typewill soon be needed.Acting in cooperation with the Midway USO, theMothers' Aid of the Chicago Lying-in Hospital furnishesthe servicemen with a "bottomless cookie jar" — every body's dream-furnishing for the pantry. Every Wednesday members of the committee bring to the sailors' barracks supplies of freshly baked cookies, which have beendonated by residents of the area surrounding the University. To keep the cookie jars filled to overflowingtakes some 8,000 cookies a week, but the South Sidehousewives have been more than equal to the task.Other working units of the Midway USO include acommittee which secures gifts of books, magazines, andgames for the servicemen; a "Sunday dinner" committeewhich accepts dinner invitations for the men, and seesthat the homes offering these invitations meet certainstandards set for them; a musical instrument committeewhich has provided trumpets, trombones, clarinets, andother instruments for the Navy band; and a house committee which supervises the care of the club rooms andhas charge of all furnishings and equipment.Paul B. Jacobson, principal of the University highschool, is chairman of the management committee andliaison officer between the Navy and the Midway USO.Others serving on the central committee include Mrs.William H. Spencer, executive chairman; Mrs. Lyman R.Flook and Mrs. William J. Mather, executive vice-chairmen; Mrs. Ronald S. Crane and Miss Ethelyn Ahern,co-chairmen of the social committee; Albert Chapman.chairman of the athletic committee; and John Hayes,representative of the Woodlawn advisory group. TheNavy is represented at all central committee meetings byEnsign Robert Weisert, in charge of recreation for sailorson the Midway.Hostesses from the University and the neighborhood act as dancing instructors atSunday afternoon parties in Ida Noyes Hall.WORSHIP OF THE EGYPTIAN GODS• By HAROLD H. NELSON, '01, Ph.D. '13IN THE beginning . there was no earth, no sky, noatmosphere, no vegetation, no animals, no men, nogods. There was only Nun, the primeval waters.Out of this flood a mound of mud arose. This was theprimal hill and on it appeared the first living thing, thesun-god. Life in Egypt today still begins on such moundsas they here and there protrude above the subsidingwaters of the inundation each autumn, the first greenspots after the retreat of the annual flood. Other Egyptians said it was the pyramidal stone, the bnbn, whichfirst emerged above Nun and that on this stone alightedthe sun-god in the form of a phoenix. From the sun-godsprang the other cosmic deities, the earth and sky andatmosphere, and eventually man.Each day the sun-god appeared in the eastern horizon,sailed across the sky in his boat, and returned throughthe underworld to the eastern horizon during the night.Just before daybreak he bathed once more in the waters of Nun and was, as a consequence, reborn andready for a new day. At these ablutions he was assisted by two other deities, Horus and Thoth, or Horusand Seth. The god also cleansed his mouth with natron,was clothed in fresh garments, and assumed the regaliaof a king. In his great temple at Heliopolis, where hewas known as Re-Atum, his daily morning lustration andpreparation for his appearance in the sky was also dailyre-enacted with the image of the god as the subject ofthe rites.Although such ideas connected with the great cosmicdeities spread throughout Egypt, it was the local godswho, in each locality, received the chief veneration ofthe people. Originally these had been largely animals .or birds, probably some particular individual of thespecies distinguished in some way from its fellows. Thecruder forms of animal worship, with certain exceptions, largely disappeared in historic times, to berevived, however, in the declining years of the nation.During the great days of the country's history the localdeities were anthropomorphized and the Egyptian cameto think of his gods in terms of human experience, making his divinities over in the image of man. Their animal origin still clung to them in the animal heads whichthey generally wore on their human bodies. All thegods had need of food and drink, were motivated by thesame desires, passions, necessities, and influences as men.Moreover, they were subject to control by magic as weremen. If the proper formulae were recited, accompaniedby the proper gestures and actions, it was possible tocoerce even the gods and thus to avoid danger in thisworld and the next. Even the formal temple servicewas largely sympathetic magic, as we shall see.While the sun-god under various names was appar- The sky, as a cow, lifted ^Aabove the earth by yShu and other gods, with Wthe boat of the sun-god 1^sailing along its belly.The sky as the goddess,Nut, lifted above theearth, Geb, by Shu, theatmosphere.ently the first deity to rise to supremacy in Egypt, another divinity, Osiris, gained popular favor and in theend became the people's god and even shared in the temple solar worship. According to the story Osiris hadbeen an earthly king, whose wife was Isis, whose sonwas Horus, and whose brother was Seth. The lattermurdered his brother Osiris, dismembered his body, andscattered the parts about the land. Isis set out to recoverthe fragments of her husband's body, which task shefinally accomplished. Assisted by her sister Nephthisand by the god Anubis, she put the fragments together,embalmed the body, and by various magical practicessucceeded in revivifying the dead god. Osiris passed tothe underworld where he became king of the dead.Meanwhile Horus set out to avenge his father's murderand finally defeated his uncle Seth in combat, but indoing so he lost an eye. The eye of Horus, which wasthus sacrificed as an act of filial piety, became to theEgyptian the symbol of all sacrifice. Any offering to agod was designated the "Eye of Horus." It played alarge part in the temple liturgy where most anythingconnected with the service might be the Eye of Horus.Before recorded history begins in Egypt, the clans ofthe Delta were united into one kingdom under a chieftainwho ruled at Behedet where was the shrine of thesun-god Horus. With the rise to power and influenceof this king, his god also rose to corresponding importance and Horus became the great god of LowerEgypt. The king was the high-priest of the god, as wasthe chieftain in each of the various local clan shrines.He had a peculiar relation to the god and in fact mayhave become the embodiment of the god. He was denominated "The Horus,", which designation the Pharaohretained throughout all Egyptian history and it becamehis most distinctive title. Subsequent to the rise topower of these Horus-worshiping kings, after Upper andLower Egypt were united, the royal power passed to8THE UNIVERSITY OFother rulers whose chief deity was the sun-god Re ofHeliopolis. From then on as the power of these kingsspread over all Egypt, Re assumed the leading place inthe religious life of the state. The king at the same timecame to be regarded as the son of Re in which capacityhe acquired an additional name. The concept of theking as the god's son became a fixed idea and the basisof the later monarchy. The relation of sonship thusestablished was the heart of the state worship and shapedits form and usage. Though the king was now the "Sonof Re," he still remained at the same time "The Horus."As the monarchy extended its control over the wholecountry, the king absorbed the powers of the local clanchieftains including their priestly functions. The kingthus became the high-priest of each of the local deitiesand was therefore expected to officiate in each of themultitude of temples throughout the country. It wasobviously impossible for him to carry out in person theservice of all the temples; it was therefore necessary todelegate these functions to a representative from eachof the local priesthoods. Though the reliefs on thetemple walls depict the king as the chief, or generallythe sole officiant, it was probably only on special occasions that he actually performed these duties. Moreover,the Pharaoh's peculiar relation to Re of Heliopolis affected his relation to all the other gods whose high-priest he had become, and he appears not only as theson of the Heliopolitan deity but also as the son toeach and all of the divinities. The temple reliefs showhim offering to a multitude of gods, every one of whomis said to be his father or his mother, though most ofthem had originally no connection with the sun-cultout of which the divine sonship of the king arose.The relation of the king to the god and the factthat he was theoretically the sole officiant is probablyresponsible for the fact that the whole temple service .was celebrated only and solely for the benefit of the king.Each act of the cult was performed that "he (the king)may achieve eternal life." In return for what he didfor the gods, they conferred upon him life, good fortune, the kingship of Re, the years of Atum, and manyother blessings. The king was of the company of thegods, the son of the sun-god, and represented Egypt before the deities. He erected the temples and endowedthem and then conveyed them to the divinity by legalgrant. It was a family arrangement involving a sonand his father and the conduct of the service in thetemple was the performance of a duty owed by a sonto his father. The monarch was a sort of channelthrough which the favor of the gods might reach men.Even the offering on behalf of the dead, which was necessary to life in the other world, was called an "offeringwhich the king gives." This does not mean that themass of the people had no religion. Yet, aside from theirparticipation in the rejoicings of the great festal celebrations and the presentation of a few humble offerings inthe forecourt of the temple, the only part of the build- CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9ing to which the public had access, the common peopleseem to have had no part in the official temple service.When the kind died his body had to be prepared forhis existence in the kingdom of Osiris. The rites wherebythis was achieved were connected with the story ofOsiris, the ruler of the other world. They were basedon the belief that the god's body had been dismembered,reassembled, and revivified and was thereby capable ofonce more housing the soul of the dead. Thus thepreservation of the body was regarded as necessary forthe existence of the royal personality. This act differedfrom the regeneration of the sun-god at his morningablutions in the primal waters. The latter was a rebirth;the former was a reanimation. The king could thus liveagain like Osiris. In fact, he might become an Osiris,or even Osiris. Eventually this ability to become anOsiris was extended to all men and the humblest of thedead was spoken of as "Osiris So-and-So."The Egyptian early learned by experience that themummy was a frail object to rely upon as insuranceagainst future annihilation. He therefore devised asubstitute body, a statue, which could do duty for themummy should the latter be destroyed, or even act as analternative body while the mummy still survived. Butbefore either the mummy or the statue could serve itspurpose, it had to undergo rites which endowed it withthe faculties of the living. Such rites for the mummyseem to have been performed at the tomb, or possibly inthe embalmer's establishment; those for the statue apparently took place in the sculptor's studio attached tothe temple workshops.The statue was first placed on a heap of sand withits face towards the south. It was then fumigated withincense, an act which was repeated now and then asthe ceremonies progressed. It was subjected to a lustralsprinkling, the accompanying formula pronounced by theofficiants being the same used by the gods who performedthe purification of the sun-god each morning before heThe king purified, before entering the temple,by two priests impersonating Horus and Thoth.The purifying water is in the form of the hieroglyphs for "life" and "good fortune."10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEappeared over the eastern horizon. The statue was thenpresented balls of natron and incense to chew with whichits mouth was purified. Its bones were then assertedto be reassembled, its head fixed to its body, and it waspronounced to be complete. Certain other rites openedits mouth, eyes, and ears to endow it with the facultiesof the living. The statue was then clothed, anointed,given the insignia of a king, and finally a meal was placedbefore it. At the end of the performance the floor wasswept and the statue was carried away to its restingplace in the tomb. This "Opening of the Mouth," asthe rite was called, was essentially Osirian, especially thoseparts of it following the initial purification. The statuewas a substitute for the dead and the dead was an Osiris.Just as the sun-god went through his daily morningbath that renewed his vitality, so the Heliopolitan kingand his successors after him were similarly reborn by aceremonial lustration in what was known as the "Houseof the Morning," an adjunct to the temple-palace complex which presumably originally existed at Heliopolis.In this performance the Pharaoh was assisted by twoofficiants who impersonated the gods Horus and Thoth,or Horus and Seth, the same deities who assisted at thesun-god's ablutions. Thus the god and his earthlyrepresentative went through the same ceremony withthe same results, the rebirth of the vital forces in eachand their purification for the duties before them. Theking was given natron to chew, his mouth being purifiedSeti I offers an image of Maat to the god. to fit him for the recitation of the holy words of thetemple service. He was then fumigated with incense,arrayed in fresh garments, decked with collar and pectoral, crowned with the proper diadem, and given theinsignia of royalty. Finally he was presented with ameal and was ready to enter the god's presence wherehe was to do for the deity just what had been done forhimself in the House of the Morning. In later timessuch ceremonies may have been used only when thePharaoh took part in the temple service and thereforehad to come in personal contact with the god.The temple liturgy is preserved to us in two mainsources, both incomplete. One is illustrated, preservedon the walls of seven chapels in the temple erected bySeti I at Abydos. The scenes that cover the walls ofthese chapels show the king performing a succession ofthe acts of the cult, most scenes accompanied by at leasta portion of the formula appropriate to the act. Theother version is on a papyrus roll, a late copy of a servicebook issued in the reign of Ramses IX. There are alsomany reliefs on the walls of various temples showingepisodes in the daily temple service. The Karnak ritual,as preserved on the papyrus roll, is headed: "Beginningof the formulae of the divine rites performed in thehouse of Amon-Re, king of gods, daily by the great priestwho is on duty." Elsewhere in the liturgy a formulabegins: "It is the king who has sent me to behold thegod," both these statements undoubtedly assuming thespeaker to be the king's deputy, the usual officiant excepton rare occasions. That the king did at times conductthe service is indicated by another passage in the liturgywhich begins: "The Pharaoh has come to thee, OAmon."After the king had completed the observances of theHouse of the Morning, he entered the temple. Therehe first lighted a fire of charcoal, took the parts of thecenser, put them together, and filled the pan with burning charcoal on which he placed incense. The fire, thecenser, and the incense were addressed with prescribedformulae, each being regarded as having a personalityof its own. Thus, while kindling the fire, the king said :"Come, come in peace, O glorious Eye of Horus," making use of the oft-repeated phrase referring to the sac-rific of Horus for his father Osiris.The king next proceeded to the holy of holies, the"Great Place" as the Egyptians termed it. This lay inthe rear of the temple, being a relatively small roomlighted only by narrow openings near the ceiling. Init rested the great portable shrine of the god in the formof a boat, in the cabin of which was the image of thegod. The shrine itself was inclosed in a chapel whichstood within the room. This was made of wood overlaid with gold and decorated with faience figures andwith colored, semi-precious stones. Its doors, which fastened with a bolt, were kept closed while the god waswithin the chapel, except during the regular templeservice. Vases of flowers, statues of the king in goldTHE UNIVERSITY OFand silver, figures or standards of the gods, and othergorgeous temple furniture stood in their appointed placesabout the chapel. The image of the deity was a relativelysmall figure, possibly only two or three feet high, madeof wood, painted in the proper colors characteristic ofthe particular divinity, and adorned with variegated colored stones and with gold and silver. It was clothed ingreen, blue, red, and dark red garments, crowned with thecrown belonging to the deity, and decked with ornamentssuch as the king himself wore. The "Great Place" ofsuch a temple as that of Amon at Karnak must have beenan impressive, if a somewhat garish, sight.But to return to the king whom we left on the way tothe "Great Place." While he is moving towards theshrine he recites the proper formulae, calling upon allthe gods and goddesses of Egypt who arc in the temple.Arrived at the door of the chapel in the holy of holies,behind which rests the awful majesty of the deity, theking then breaks the clay seal with which the doorsare closed, unfastens the strip of papyrus or linen whichis wound back and forth through a staple in eitherdoor, and draws the bolt. These are three separateritual acts and each must be accompanied by the properwords. As he unties the strip of papyrus or linen fromthe staples, the king compares it to the viscera of Osiriswhich figure in the myth of the god. He also calls outto the god, while yet the doors are closed : "The tie isunfastened, the seal is loosed. All evil which I had isremoved. I come and bring to thee the Eye of Horus."He also says : "I come, not to remove thee from thythrone; I come so as to place thee on thy throne. Iam he who establishes the gods and thou remainest uponthy great seat." When he withdraws the bolt whichsecures the two doors, he recites: "Withdrawn is thefinger of Seth from the Eye of Horus, and it is sound,"referring to the myth in which Seth gouged out the eyeof Horus. Following this, he opens the two doors andstates: "Open are the two doors of the sky; open arethe two doors of the earth." As he sees the figure ofthe god within the shrine, he, or rather his priestly representative, explains his presence by saying: "I am apriest but it is the king who has commanded me tobehold the god," and adds: "I am the great phoenixwho is in Heliopolis," an element derived from the .solarcult in which the sun-god appeared on the bnbn-stoncin the form of a phoenix. As the king beholds the imagewithin the shrine he falls prostrate before it and kissesthe ground. The formula in the liturgy accompanyingthese acts is headed: "Formula for placing oneself uponthe belly, for extending oneself out flat," and "for kissingthe ground while prone." These acts are followed by therecitation of a number of hymns or addresses of adorationto the god, though whether they were chanted or merelyrecited we do not know.The Pharaoh's next act is to present to the god afigure of the goddess Maat. She, who was said to bethe daughter of Re, was a personification of one of those CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11The king "places his hands upon the god." (Left)The king dusts off the throne of the god. (Right)ideas of broad scope which it is difficult to define completely. Originally the word seems to have meant "right-ness," "correctness," and then by giving it an ethicalcontent, "truth," "justice," "righteousness." Re, the sun-god, was said to eat maat and be sustained by it. Thepresentation of the little figure to the god is one of theacts of the cult most frequently depicted on the templewalls and apparently held a place of great importance inthe service. As he offers the image, the king says:"Maat has come that she may be with thee. Maat isin every place where thou art. ... As for thy daughterMaat, thou art rejuvenated on seeing her. Thy righteye is Maat, thy left eye is Maat, thy flesh and thymembers are Maat," and so on through a long list of suchidentifications and attributions. The formula accompanying this presentation is one of the longest in the liturgyand obviously one of the most important.Having thus concluded the preliminary steps of theservice, the king advances to the image and as theliturgy has it: "Places his hands upon the god." Heremoves the dab of scented ointment which had been puton the head of the deity the day before. He then stripsit of its ornaments, its crown, and its clothing. Next hepours out of a vessel a heap of sand on which he placesthe image.. He now takes four nmst-jars of water andproceeds to the lustration of the statue. This water wassaid to come either from the pool where the sun-goddaily washed or from the sources of the Nile which were,according to the myth, at the first cataract where theleg of Osiris had been buried. In the latter case thewater was regarded as the exudations from the body ofthe dead god, that is, his vital force, and thereforepossessed of vitalizing power. In certain cases at leastthis water was brought into the temple by the king himself, proceeding at a swift run. As the king sprinklesthe image with the holy water, he walks around it fourtimes. He similarly sprinkles it with water from fourred jars. The liturgy prescribes for these acts the following words: "Pure, pure is Amon-Re, lord of Karnak.Take to thee the water which is in the Eye of Horus.Join to thee thine eye, join to thee thine head, join to(Concluded on page 24)NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By DON MORRIS, '36BY LAST month many an alumnus, reading in hisnewspaper of the newest developments at theUniversity of Chicago, must have begun towonder if the old place had not closed up shop in orderto operate on a 100 per cent war footing. To this impression even this Magazine may well have contributed.And this wonderment was not confined to alumni butexisted generally on the Quadrangles. Since the days ofthe formation of the University's Defense Council in1940, hard upon the fall of France, the war activities ofthe campus have been news, and it is fairly easy to assume that unless a thing is news it does not exist. Andalthough the war activities of the University have beenthe newsworthy ones in the last two — almost three — years,they have not been the only ones. On the Midway isstill a university.This outward appearance of total war in an institution concerned with man at peace as well as at war istherefore largely the product of the press. The heightened effect in recent months has been caused by the holiday round of news stories marking something. Beginningapproximately at the end of last November the anniversary-marking proclivities of the press began to accelerate, not solely in behalf of the University but on anation-wide scale. It was the first Thanksgiving sincewar was declared, the first anniversary of Pearl Harbor,the second war-time Christmas, the start of a new yearin which the United Nations would move toward victory.Thus the press, always assiduous in the observance ofanniversaries even to a scrupulous attendance on Groundhog Day. And, in like wise, the press in its attention tothe University. The Signal Corps graduates. The meteorologists graduate. The new meteorology group beginswork. The new Signal Corps group begins work.The old place had not, however, closed up shop.President Hutchins, speaking at the annual trustees' dinner, told the faculty that the University would continueto operate and that it would continue to be a university.(The address is reprinted elsewhere in this issue.) Educational activity on the Midway, he said, must be concentrated on the College; soon there might be no students above College age to think about, let alone to concentrate on. And the University's research will not begiven over simply because not all phases of it contributedirectly to the winning of the war. The government hasbeen engaged in contracting for the war research it believes the University can do, but not all knowledge is ofdirect utility in warfare."I wish to say now, in the most unequivocal terms,"President Hutchins said, "that the present administration of this University will support research worthy ofthe University of Chicago whether the member of the faculty who is doing it has any students or not. The onlyquestion that will be asked is the one that has been askedin peace time: whether the research, to say nothing ofthe professor, is good."The President reiterated the same statement before themeeting of the faculty held a week later to announce thegift to the University of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.The University, he said, will not let the humanities andthe social sciences down. The fact that PresidentHutchins felt such an assurance was needed, and the factthat he later was asked to repeat the assurance, constitute a good indication that the tendency toward war-to-the-exclusion-of-all-else seemed to be in full swing on theMidway. A year ago he told the faculty that "the University is an instrument of total war," an assertion whosetruth has been becoming steadily more apparent. Butit does not mean that the University should abandon,for example, history, Greek, ethnology, or the law. TheUniversity is not abandoning them.Offered in evidence: At the New York meeting of theAmerican Physical Society, Marcel Schein and JuliusTabin of the physics department reported results of high-altitude cosmic-ray balloon flights disturbing to currenttheories about the forces within the nucleus of the atom.At the same meeting Professor Emeritus William D.Harkins and George Jura of the chemistry departmentreported the first exact measurements ever recorded ofthe gravitation-like force exerted by a solid, extendinginto the molecular layers of a surrounding liquid. Abook of Babylonian chronology by Richard A. Parkerand Waldo H. Dubberstein of the Oriental Institutemakes possible fast and accurate dating of events in Babylon from 626 B.C. to 45 A.D.Encyclopaedia BritannicaThere were thirty-five million words in the mouth ofthe gift horse which came to Chicago last month fromSears Roebuck and Company. The EncyclopaediaBritannica, oldest and most famous continuing publication in the world, was first issued in Edinburgh in 1768.It was taken over by Sears in 1920 at the behest of JuliusRosenwald, then president of Sears, when post-war bankruptcy of the publishers threatened destruction of theplates. Sears had long felt that the Encyclopaedia, acorporate entity, was an anomalous item on its books,and arrangements by which it was given to the University were completed in January. Vice-President William Benton, instrumental in the arrangements, took overthe chairmanship of the board of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., and President Hutchins also became a memberof the still-not-completed organization.12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13WILLIAM B. BENTONThe Encyclopaedia is also anomalous as a Universitypossession, although to a smaller extent than as the possession of a mail order house. Only rarely have universities owned going businesses, their managements usuallypreferring the smaller but surer income from securityholdings. The Britannica set-up, however, is so arrangedthat the University will profit as the corporation profitsbut will not lose if the corporation loses.The University's share in the actual production of theEncyclopaedia will be of a scope as yet undetermined.Faculty committees will serve in an advisory capacityregarding the need for new articles, for revisions, for new-writers, but the present editor and staff and the presentbusiness organization of the corporation are to be retained intact. The Encyclopaedia will bear the imprimaturof the university, as did the famous Cambridge Editionof 1911.Physical Education Under PressureInto two breaches simultaneously last fall stepped KyleAnderson, Chicago's baseball coach for the last fifteenyears: he took over the basketball team when CaptainNelson Norgren rejoined the Army Air Forces, in whichhe was a flyer in the last war; he took over the management of the athletic department when T. Nelson Metcalfwas sworn in as a lieutenant commander, in charge ofphysical education in the Ninth Naval district. The athletic department's tasks have multiplied with the requirement of physical conditioning for students in some of theenlisted reserves and with the needs for physical education by the meteorologists, Navy combat pilots, and otherservice detachments on campus. The department hadto carry on all this, plus its regular intercollegiate andan expanded intramurals program, in smaller quarters,with the field house in use by the Navy during daytimehours, Bartlett and Sunny gymnasiums in use by theNavy full time. As it must to all baseball coaches, on top of his other duties, last month to Kyle Andersoncame the start of spring baseball practice.Missing from the athletic scene last month, and for anundetermined period certainly including the balance ofthe winter season, was Spyros K. Vorres, coach of Chicago's wrestling teams since 1922, because of illness. Theteam, temporarily handled by Captain Bob Mustain,showed Vorres they were still with him by drubbingNorthwestern 26 to 8 in their last meet.In March Chicago will be host to two Big Ten meets:track and fencing; Northwestern will have swimming andwrestling, and it has not yet been decided whether ornot to hold a meet in gymnastics. The calling of theArmy Enlisted Reserve, which because of the quarter system will not affect Chicago until mid-April, whereassemester-operated institutions will have begun to feel thepinch before this is printed, may produce some oddchanges in winter sports results.Charles J. ChamberlainCharles J. Chamberlain, professor emeritus of botanyand one of the world's authorities on cycads, which hehad traveled over the world to study and collect, diedof a heart disease at his home near the Quadrangles onJanuary 5. He had been a member of the faculty formore than forty-five years. Born at Sullivan, Ohio, hewas educated at Oberlin, where last month he wasburied, and at the University of Chicago, where he received his Ph.D. in 1897. He joined the staff immediately as an assistant, was appointed full professor in 1915,and became professor emeritus in 1929. In addition tohis work with cycads, he had done outstanding work inplant histology and morphology.CHARLES J. CHAMBERLAINSAMUEL N. HARPER• By CHARLES E. MERRIAMI HAVE the honor to speak of Mr. Harper as a friendand fellow-traveler. We traveled together far andwide. I have recollections of him in New York,Washington, Paris, Berlin, Riga, Warsaw, and Moscow.He was the best traveler I ever knew. If it was cold, heturned up his coat collar. If it was hot, he perspired insilence. If he was hungry, he nibbled a piece of chocolate, but did not complain. If he was thirsty, he thoughtof the last time he had a drink. If the train was late, hewas hopeful the time would be made up. If he ever murmured — and of course he was only human — his complaints were of a superior type, sophisticated in style, anddenatured by their very urbanity.As preparation for some of our traveling, I became astudent of Russian under the guidance of Professor Harper. I have given many courses, but I have never takenbut one in the University of Chicago. I escaped failurein that only by my presence of mind in taking what wenow call an "R," along with Professor Carlson, ProfessorFaris, and other fading figures who belong to the societycalled "The Ancient Order of the Emeriti." I was noworse than the rest, however, and we all took much comfort on the famous day when we persuaded our "prof"to switch from Tolstoy's stories to the New Testament.Opening the volume by chance he happened upon theSermon on the Mount, and rejoiced at the progress inRussian made by Faris, the ex-missionary, and Merriamwith his rigorous Presbyterian training.I traveled with him to Russia in 1926. We traveledto see the figure of the departed Lenin embalmed in state.The recent Chinese Ambassador, Dr. Hu-Shih, alwaysreminds me of the time when we three were in prison together — visiting. In Berlin we journeyed together to astadium in the outskirts, where in a drizzling rain welistened for a long time to the raucous barking of AdolfHitler and were onlookers at one of his famous Ziegfeldtheatrical performances. From the Tempel Hof flyingfield in Berlin we said farewell to Professor Lasswell onenight as he stepped into a huge plane en route for Moscow. Mr. Lasswell's face was very green, the sky wasvery blue, and as we watched the tail light of the monsterof the air fade away in the distance, we fellow-travelerssmiled knowingly at each other saying without words,"He will return — a wiser man."We were fellow-travelers in scholarship too. But whileI failed to respond to his intellectual stimulus in the studyof Russian roots, I think I helped him to produce thefirst great objective study of any technical part of Sovietinstitutions: his work on Civic Training in Soviet Russia, 1929. For some unknown reason Professor Harper for a long time resisted writing up his observations andconclusions. He credited me with breaking down thisresistance and starting him on the long way of printedanalyses and descriptions of the pattern which so obsessedhim. His Civic Training was followed by a long seriesof illuminating studies of one aspect and another of therapidly developing Russian institutions, including MakingBolsheviks and The Government of the Soviet Union.Professor Harper charged me from time to time withdragooning him into writing this first book; and of courseif gentle pressure may be characterized as "dragooning,"then his conclusion was accurate. Perhaps he shouldhave dragooned me more vigorously into mastering theRussian language. But in the Hotel Bristol he bludgeoned me into beginning my Political Power at eighto'clock every morning.Professor Harper was a fellow-traveler in more sensesthan are implied in the usage of transportation experts.He traveled with the University of Chicago communityof scholars over many a weary march uphill and down,in sunshine and in storm. Perhaps we do not reallymarch ; we saunter. He brought to us not only friendshipbut other qualities of a different order. One of thesewas intense intellectual enthusiasm for his subject, anenthusiasm so dynamic and unfaltering that it might havebecome embarrassing, except for his long social experience and moderation. Many who had much less to saywere more insistent in their conversation. Professor Harper would discuss his subject long and well, as we allknow, but the stage must be set and the audience mustbe a willing one. On each of his trips to Russia, eighteenin all, and particularly on the last six of these journeys,he returned almost like an explorer or anthropologistfrom an unknown land. Often when travelers returnedfrom Russia and were asked by eager inquirers, "Tell usall about Russia, in a word," they yielded to the temptation on the basis of very inadequate information to sayabsolutely no or positively yes. The long training andexperience of Mr. Harper and his loyalty to the truth,as he saw it, made it possible for him to give a relativelyobjective picture of what was going on behind the scenesin the great social experiment known as the U.S.S.R. Heunderstood what was new in Russia and what was old,what values were lost and what were gained in the Revolution, and he had more than usual skill in outlining apicture of that most difficult of social situations, thefading out of some of the older values, the persistence ofothers, and the emergence of new values. No one cansay that Professor Harper either was omniscient or infallible; neither can any one say that he was careless in14THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15SAMUEL N. HARPERhis use of facts, reckless in his interpretation of principles,or blind in his observations of basic trends. He strugglednot to prove this or that, but to know Russia, to understand Russia, to explain Russia to those who are less wellinformed. When I was writing my hereinbefore mentioned volume on Political Power in the Bristol Hotel,Professor Harper and I occupied adjoining rooms; andin the late afternoons and evenings we often talked withmen who knew much about Russia. Some were WhiteRussians, and some were Red Russians. I was alwaysimpressed by the patience and skill with which ProfessorHarper pursued his unending search for the truth aboutRussia, as seen often through the colored glasses of partisans of widely different colors.Professor Harper was a close friend of many. Whatis a friend? I have many friends and perhaps I oughtto know. But they are not objects of considered analysis.There is no department or distinguished service professorship of friendship in this or any other university. Shallwe look to sociology or to anthropology; to ethics, perhaps, or to philosophy? To psychology, maybe. To economics, the old time dismal science, well no. To theMachiavellian atmosphere of politics, perhaps; thoughafter all there arc more bands of friendship in politicsthan some may think. History, perhaps as an afterthought. Sometimes friendship is revealed in a gleamof the eye; a tone of the voice; the flash of a smile; theclasp of a hand; in some signal light of recognition andaffection flashed through the mists and fog that envelopour personalities; or in simple deeds that count. Whena friend is gone we weave together again the brokenpattern of life as best we may.But in our national and international situation theloss of Professor Harper is irreparable. Never was he as much needed as now and in the years that are upon us.We can construct with speed bombers and tanks andtankers and ships and guns, and even mobilize armies.But there is a peace to win as well as a war. And thequalities that win a lasting peace are not hastily improvised. When counter force has overthrown the apostlesof violence, what then? Then comes the shape of ignorance, of bad judgment, or of blinded special interest,upon which so many hopes of progress have been wreckedjust near the port of safety. Overthrown on the field ofbattle, the forces of hate, ill will, suspicion, mistrust, andviolence may slip back again under the cover of nightand once more upset the best designs of hesitant or baffledmen of good will.In needy moments we look for help from informed intelligence, from balanced judgment, from broad andtested social interest. Sound understanding and good willare needed in the council chamber where the peace ofthe world is prefigured. In this vast cataclysm of titanicforces it would not be difficult to miss the way, as wehave done before. We might lose it for a thousand years.Or add war to the departing category of afflictions withpestilence and famine.It is at this point that the special knowledge and thegeneral view of Professor Harper would have been a greatasset to mankind. His unrivalled intimate knowledge ofthe Russian problem in its relations to the Europeanproblem and to the American problem would have beenof incalculable value. His penetrating understandingwould have been of inestimable use to those who struggled to find the way out of the labyrinth of involvement.His wide range of studies and his broad circle of acquaintances, always at the service of our Department ofState, would have been a treasure house in the day ofneed.We can utilize the intellectual estate left by Harperbut someone else must cultivate the soil he tilled so longand so fruitfully. He left behind him memoirs he hadelaborated when his eyes were dimmed; and I hope theymay be made available in one form or another for use inthe halls of state and elsewhere.We shall miss his friendly voice booming through thecorridors. We shall miss him at the Quadrangle Club.We shall miss him at the Chaos Club where we sought forcosmos. We shall miss him in the salon of the House ofHarper, over which he so often presided, and where heloved to meet us. Chicago — North, South, and West —will miss him; and the savants of state will miss his illuminating messages and words.And so now I pay my tribute to Samuel Harper —friend and counsellor of many men of many faiths inmany lands; friend of man and of men; observer, annalist, and scholar of high renown; minister without portfolio; long-time unrecognized ambassador to a land ofrevolutionary struggle, friendly interpreter of its purposesand progress.Alan BachrachRichard E. Jacques Howard M. RichThird Officer Eleanor Campbell Nate,'27, was killed in the crash of a mediumbomber in December, 1942. The plane disappeared in a flight from Tampa, Florida,to San Antonio, Texas. Mrs. Nate was arecruiting officer for the WAACS andwith her husband, Major Joseph C. Nate,was en route to her post after spending aChristmas leave in Tampa.Lieutenant Howard M. Rich, '35, J.D.'37, was in charge of an outpost on Bataan.He has not been heard from since the fallof the Islands.Ensign Alan Bachrach, '40, was reportedmissing in action December, 1942. He hadbeen a medical student before he attendedAbbott Hall to receive his commission.Corporal Donald C. Plant, '25, was injured fatally in an automobile crash onNovember 24, 1942, while returning toCamp Livingston, Louisiana, from a warbond rally.Lieutenant Richard E. Jacques, '40, waskilled in the crash of an Army trainingplane near Victoria, Texas, in May, 1942.He had been in the Army for seven monthsand received his commission on the dayhe was killed. He had been participatingin maneuvers which required him to flyover 180 miles an hour, 25 feet off theground. CHICAGO'S R|Eleanor Campbell NateLieutenant Walter X. Young, '40, member of a Marine parachute battalion, waskilled in the Solomons on August 7, 1942,while leading a maneuver against a position which the enemy was holding. He hasbeen recommended for the Navy Cross.Sergeant George J. Dietz, '31, waskilled while on furlough in an automobileaccident in January, 1942. He was stationed at Camp Forrest, Tennessee, andhad been promoted to a sergeant withinseven months after his induction.Lieutenant Robert W. Finwall, '37, waskilled December 10, 1941, when his planecrashed in waters off Alaska. LieutenantFinwall, a member of the Army Air Corps,was captain of the wrestling team while atthe University.Lieutenant Edward H. Valorz, '39, waskilled September 9, 1941, in the crash ofan Army plane in the state of Washington.Lieutenant Valorz was a nationally recognized athlete, and while at the University heplayed on the football team and was captain of the wrestling team.Walter X. Young Robert W. Finwall Edward H. Valorz16I DF HONOHCharles H. O'DonnellEnsign Charles H. O'Donnell, '42, waskilled in the crash of a single motoredNavy plane near Mount Meridian, Indiana,on November 21, 1942. Ensign O'Donnellwas an instructor at the Glenview NavalAir Base.Lieutenant Allan L. Vanderhoof, '42, waslost in action in the Pacific, it was announced on December 10, 1942. He hadreceived his commission at Abbott Hallin October, 1941.Ensign Willard E. Harris, '41, died atsea near Norfolk, Virginia, on April 221942, when motor failure required him toattempt a forced landing with his plane.At the time of the accident he was towinga target sleeve several miles out, and hisplane sank immediately.Lieutenant Clarence A. Wright, '37, waskilled May 24, 1942, in the crash of anArmy transport, which he was piloting,near Houlton, Maine.Lieutenant Robert L. Jones, '38, waskilled on November 7, 1942, while on dutyas lieutenant instructor in flying at Foster Allan L. VanderhoofField, Texas. In his class Lieutenant Joneswas among the eight students to pass highest in the entrance examinations to theUniversity.Ensign Russell F. Chambers, '38, was engaged in an air attack on Jolo, PhilippineIslands, in late December, 1941, fromwhich he did not return. He has been reported lost in action.Captain Charles A. Stafford, M.D. '37,was killed on March 3, 1942, after beingevacuated from Java. He was flying fromBroome, Australia, to a city in the southof Australia, when an enemy plane, returning from a raid on Broome, attacked hisplane. Captain Stafford was posthumously awarded the Silver Star.Lieutenant Robert E. Cassels, '39, hasbeen listed by the War Department asmissing in action since July 29, 1942. Lieutenant Cassels had secured his wings atKelly Field in July, 1941. Following histraining period he was assigned to a divebombing squadron and was stationed inAustralia. Lieutenant Cassels while at theUniversity was captain of both baseballand track teams in 1939.Captain Ernest C. Day, '31, M.D. '36,was killed in an automobile accident atCamp Forrest, Tennessee, on July 20, 1941.At the time of his death Captain Day hadcharge of the third battalion of the 108thMedical Regiment. Willard E. HarrisClarence A. WrightRobert L. JonesErnest C. Day tRobert E. Cassels Charles A. Stafford Russell F. Chambers17THE DEANXS EASY CHAIRAn alumnus, P.M.O'D. '07 ', J.D. '09 writes:"I read with wholehearted agreement Professor AveryO. Craven's article 'American Traditions and the PresentCrisis' in the October number of the Magazine untilalmost the end. There he says: 'The good old JamesLouis Pettigru once defined politeness as the habitual consideration of those with whom we converse, making it arule never to give ourselves the preference.'"In the first place, won't the professor tell us whoPettigru was? I never heard his name before, ignorantas I am. And in the second place, does Mr. Pettigru's"definition merit the encomium which Professor Cravenbestows upon it? For he says (pages 22-23) : 'To myway of thinking, this is the richest heritage a great manhas ever left our country. It is the very essence ofdemocracy. It is the beginning of a new Americanculture. It is the first and most vital step toward a newinternationalism and permanent peace for all mankind.And manners are not the product of religion or philosophy. Neither Aristotle nor St. Aquinas can supply them.They are, and always have been,, the product of nativeand immediate culture. They are ever the reflection ofthat poise and self-contained serenity given to those whohave come to terms with the human and physical world.'"Certainly, if all this is true, the unknown (at leastto me) Pettigru did a big job. But is there anythingvery new in his definition? Does Professor Craven giveit a higher place than the sayings in the Sermon on theMount? And isn't that Sermon part of our heritage too?Perhaps the professor will clear up some of these points."A literary inquiry:Can any of our alumni tell me where I can find the statement that some treatment or procedure (I don't rememberthe setting) was "like curing a boy's squinting by cuttingoff his head." It sounds like Sam Weller in Dickens' Pickwick Papers, but I have not been able to find it there./. B. K. asks, "What are the chief developments ineducational and child psychology since G. Stanley HalVshooks appeared?Professor Mandel Sherman of our Department of Education replies:"G. Stanley Hall is historically important because hewas the first psychologist to attempt to interest scientistsand the public in child development. He pointed outthe peculiarities of the psychology of childhood as compared with the psychology of adulthood. He was alsothe first psychologist to attempt a systematic study of thepersonalities and the attitudes of children and adolescents. His methods, however, were far different fromthose which psychologists used later. He utilized mostlythe questionnaire method to discover the reactions andthe attitudes of young people. He believed that children pass through definite stages of development and that aknowledge of these stages may be used to determine thekind of training and education they should receive."The improvements since Hall's time have been mainlyin two areas: an improvement in the methods of studying children, and a more scientific theory regarding childdevelopment. It is now generally assumed that childrendo not pass through specific stages, and that a child's environment, training, experiences, and personal problemsdetermine his personality and behavior. To a large degree the work of John B. Watson was instrumental inthe change from the theories of Hall to the moderntheories. Watson, for example, showed in a systematicway that the conditioning and training of a young childdetermined his later behavior. He therefore showed thatthere were no specific stages of development. Watsonintroduced specific experimental methods of observingand working with infants and children. His publicationswith Miss Rayner and John J. B. Morgan are thereforehistorically important as the first systematic step awayfrom the theories of Hall. The book by Watson, published in 1919, entitled Psychology from the Standpointof a Behaviorist, brings out clearly the important difference between the period of Hall and the modern periodof child psychology."The Education of an Alumni DeanI COME now to another phase of this widely ramifiedalumni subject, namely, alumni reunions and alumniclubs. The former are the earlier, and apparently itwas from them that the clubs developed. Of reunions,however, I can say but little from personal experience. Myown college had the plan of quinquennial reunions, butI regret to say that I have never attended any of them.This is simply another example of that lack of appreciation of the importance of alumni spirit that characterizedmy pre-alumni-dean days. Not only did I never go, butI never seriously thought of going. I was reminded ofthem often enough. My college class had the same secretary for more than forty years, and he never failed tonotify me. I recall especially the appeal he sent me onour forty-fifth anniversary nearly seven years ago.It was a strong letter in which he said that while heremembered my consistent non-attendance, he felt thatI must come to so important an anniversary as this andhe was relying on me. He even hinted that anyonewho had survived graduation for forty-five years oughtto be so grateful for his longevity that he should nothesitate to come. But so blind was I in those days on thewhole question of alumni relations that my immediatereaction was a sort of wonder that he whom, I remembered as a particularly level-headed member of the classshould get so excited over an event that had taken place18THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19so long ago as our graduation. And when I wrote sayingthat I was sorry I couldn't come, I told him that in myopinion forty-five years, while respectable enough, was noreal test of durability, but that fifty years did seem tome to be really creditable and that when our fiftieth anniversary came I would be there to match eyes, ears,teeth, and hair or perhaps wheel chair and cane withany other surviving brothers or sisters. And yet whenthat fiftieth anniversary did come a year and a half ago,I wasn't able to go. I wanted to attend because by thattime I had come to see the whole alumni question inits proper light, but I had one of those ineluctable engagements that held me in Chicago.I often marvel now at my egregious lack of judgmentin not recognizing the sterling quality of that class secretary. From my experience as alumni dean I know thathe is the kind of man that an alumni dean or an alumnisecretary needs more than anything else in this world.We could' use ten like him to take care of quinquennialreunions on the Chicago campus. Such a man is a giftof God, so loyal, so devoted, so tireless. And the onlypersons who appreciate him are alumni deans (after theyhave been converted) and alumni secretaries.Of the University where I did my graduate work Idid attend one reunion. It was on the occasion of itsfiftieth anniversary. It was a tremendous success. Therewas no component for a good time that was omitted. Theone slight incident of an embarrassing character that occurred was entirely apart from the good fellowship of themeeting. During the smoker, while I was standing with agroup in that dense haze of tobacco smoke that invariablycharacterizes such gatherings, I got a tremendous clap onthe back and turned to see the grinning face of a compatriot of mine who had been a student there in my time. Igreeted him, telling him what a pleasure it was to see himagain, and then I gently edged up against the nearestwall in case he should feel an urge to clap me on the backagain. We talked for a while in the reminiscential modeof reunited alumni, and then fixing a scrutinizing eyeupon me, he said, "Laing, do you realize that all themen who came down here from Canada in our time,except you and me, are dead?" It was a grisly thought;I shuddered ; I felt as if the undertaker were alreadyadjusting my hair. Moreover, in the intensity of hisscrutiny I could not help feeling that he was ponderingthe question which one of us would go first and I fearedthat he had decided that it would be I, for he was a manof unusually powerful physique. But I fought back,weakly perhaps; still I fought."No," I said, "you are mistaken. They are not alldead. There is Macintosh. He was here with us, andhe is still alive. He is a dean in some college in NovaScotia.""Oh, well," he answered, "so far as scholarship is con cerned, to be a dean and to be dead are practically thesame thing." Then I told him that I was a dean.But even if I have never attended a reunion of mycollege class, I have been present at several meetings ofits Chicago Alumni Club. This was organized twenty-five or thirty years ago, flourished for a few years, andthen died. I recall the night it died.At first our plan had been to import speakers from ourAlma Mater. We began with the president, for our second meeting declined to a professor, for our third lapsedto a trustee. A sharp fall in attendance warned the executive committee that a change of policy was necessary,and it was decided to draft the speaking talent from ourown membership. Accordingly, when the notices for thefourth meeting were sent out, it was annouced that thespeaker of the evening would be the President of theClub. This gentleman had been elected unanimously atthe previous meeting per absentiam, if I may use thepreposition per with that subtle ambiguity in whichCicero delighted. Our choice was not a felicitous one,for while the President adhered strictly to the principlewhich the committee had laid down, namely that theman chosen to make the address should be allowed tospeak on any subject in which he was especially interested or of which he had special knowledge, this manhaving been engaged in the iron and steel industry allhis life chose that as his theme, and hammered us foran hour and a half. Whether his treatment was unconsciously affected by the weight of his subject matter, orwhether he was deliberately adopting the Aristoteliancanon of making style conform to matter, I do not know.What I do know is that his combination of style andmatter was so massive, was of such overwhelming weight,that it crushed the life out of the organization.J ^In this column the Magazine is offering a new serviceto you who are alumni or former students of the University. The service is two-fold. First of all, you are invitedto send in any questions about the University: its history,its curriculum, past and present, its educational policiesand ideals, its degrees and what they stand for; or questions on education or educational institutions in general.And secondly you are asked to submit questions that arisein your own business or professional life or in matters thatlie outside your business or professional routine in whichthe University might be able to help you.All communications should be addressed to the AlumniDean, the University of Chicago Magazine, and shouldbe signed with your own name. In some cases the replywill be sent directly to you; in others your letter will bepublished in the column, with your name or initials orsome pseudonym, as you wish. Please be definite on thispoint of the signature. The communications should be asbrief as is consistent with a clear statement of the case.-\ rPHYSICAL FITNESS FOR MILITARYSERVICE• By Lieutenant Commander T. NELSON METCALF, U.S.N. R.*Strength, stamina, and combativespirit are goals oftraining programTHERE has been a lot of talk but not much actionover physical fitness for military service, for civilianemergencies, and for the stepped-up tempo of warwork. Physical fitness is a matter of degree. It is onething to be physically fit for an office job and quite another to be fit for war emergencies or active duty at thefighting front.This war has revealed the fact that the United Statesis one of the softest nations in the world and that thephysical strength and stamina of the average male American has declined considerably in the last twenty-fiveyears. This decline has been in spite of tremendousadvances in medical knowledge and services and in spiteof great expansion of the physical education, athleticand outing programs sponsored by public and privateagencies.We have declined physically because we have had sosoft a way of life. We've had the highest standard ofliving in the world. We've had gadgets to do our workfor us. We've had mechanical means of transportationwhich have made it unnecessary for us to walk. Especially in the cities many of us have been getting alongwith almost no physical activity.Unfortunately our physical education and athleticprograms have not offset these softening influences. Theyhave neglected the objective of building strong bodies andgood endurance. In time of peace, the social outcomesand recreational values have seemed more important. Wehave even developed a scornful attitude toward strengthand stamina and for this we now have a penalty to pay.About the only men in our colleges who have come closeto being physically fit for military duty are the few whohave been in continuous training for those varsity athleticteams which require rugged development and great endurance.When one limits his physical activity to that requiredin his daily routine of work, he soon has only enoughstrength to do that work and has no reserve for emergencies. The only way muscular strength can be increasedis by exercising one's muscles to the limit of their power.The only way general endurance can be increased is bycarrying prolonged exertion far beyond one's usual limit.*The opinions contained in this article are the private ones of thewriter and are not to he construed as official or reflecting the views of theNavy Department or the Naval service at large. Therefore, to be prepared for the emergency demandsof war, a man must, by vigorous activity, build up areserve of strength and endurance.Physical fitness for military service means more thanmerely having the muscular strength and endurance forroutine duty. It means also having a sufficient surplusof strength and stamina so that the work of even theemergency day can be performed without the fatiguewhich reduces both emotional stability and the ability toarrive at rapid and reliable judgments under conditionsof stress.Many people had assumed that if there were ever another war it would be a war of machines and chemicalsand that human physical condition would count for little. How wrong they were! There has been no war inmodern times in which physical strength and staminawere more essential. This is because the strains of modern combat are so severe and because the war has becomea very mobile war with the scenes of combat constantlyshifting.It didn't take long for the Army and the Navy to findout that their recruits were far from in shape to standup under the rigors of military training and combat.The men could not walk the long distances or carry theheavy loads. They could not handle their weight bytheir hands. They lacked abdominal and upper bodystrength, and worst of all, they lacked the necessary general endurance for any prolonged exertion.Sailors go over the wall in the intensive physical conditioning program at Great Lakes.20THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21The plans that had been laid for basic training had tobe revised because of the unexpected necessity of devoting so much time to physical hardening. For example,the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics found it necessaryto establish "pre-flight schools" to precede primary training. The first mission of the pre-flight schools is to develop physical strength, endurance, and combative spirit.These schools add just three months to the time requiredto get flyers to the fighting fleet.All branches of the service have recruited trained personnel to organize and supervise a program for the mostrapid possible physical hardening. These specialists arerevising and intensifying the traditional Army and Navyprograms of physical drill. Every activity and every exercise is being studied to make sure that no valuableminute is lost and that every exercise used is the best oneavailable. Our best experts in tests and measurementsare conducting scientific experiments to determine theeffectiveness of different activity programs.Since it is quite impossible to predict what sort ofphysical performance the combat emergency will require,the Army and Navy have set up the objective of havingall personnel approach as nearly as possible what theycall total physical fitness. Total physical fitness means:First, freedom from diseaseSecond, the greatest possible reserve of muscularstrength — to be ready for the heaviest task that maybe encountered in an emergencyThird, the greatest possible general or cardio-respiratoryendurance — to be ready for the most long continuedexertion one may faceFourth, all the speed, ability, and flexibility one can develop for effective handling of one's body in tacticaloperations and emergenciesFifth, the self-confidence, alertness, poise, and self-control which will permit maximum use of one's physicaland mental powers under conditions of emotionalstrainThe task of the physical training specialists is to planand operate a program which will result in maximumphysical fitness as rapidly as possible and with the leastpossible interference with other phases of the trainingprogram.Although much can be accomplished by an intensivephysical training program, muscle development takestime, and right now time is lacking. The time taken forthe physical hardening of military personnel will continueto delay our war effort until the men come into servicein better condition than at present. A year ago the Armyand Navy realized this fact and suggested to the schoolsand colleges that they increase and intensify their physicaltraining programs so that much of the hardening processwill be completed before induction. The U. S. Officeof Education organized committees to study the problemand suggest programs. These committees included rep- Climbing and swinging along ropes is a traditional wayfor gobs to get into trim.(Official U. S. Navy photographs)rescntatives of the Army, the Navy, the U. S. PublicHealth Service, the Office of Education, the schools, andthe colleges. These committees have recommended thatevery school and college should place physical educationon a required basis for all students, with a minimum requirement of one hour daily for five days per week plusan opportunity for eight to ten additional hours eachweek in athletic and outing activities. The recommendedprogram consists of (1) sports and games, (2) gymnastics,(3) combatives, and (4) aquatics; and advocates theuse of more intensive and vigorous activities than has beencustomary.(The writer considers it most regrettable that, in spiteof repeated suggestions and recommendations from Armband Navy authorities, and in spite of favorable action bythe College faculty, the University of Chicago has so farfailed to cooperate in this most important matter byputting the physical hardening program on a requiredbasis for all students.)This will probably be a long war. The boys and girlsnow in high school and college seem destined to playa large part in the winning or losing of it. It is not fairto them or to the war effort for educational authoritiesto neglect any opportunity to give the training whichwill best protect them from unnecessary injury and death.All branches of our armed forces have arrived at theminimum requirement of one hour daily of physical training activity for all personnel. This is considered theminimum essential for the development and maintenance(Concluded on page 24)22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHE UNIVERSITY(Continued from page 4)view which I stated in the presence of many of youat a regional meeting of the Association of UniversityProfessors some three years ago. There I set forth thesubstance of the proposals which were reported to theSenate just recently. My view is that a university mustmake up its mind either that it is sui generis, not subjectto the simple truths which experience teaches us aboutorganizations in general, or that it is an institution whichdoes conform to these truths as modified by its peculiarneeds and constitution. The first course would mean thatit would have no president and no administration. Thesecond would mean that it would recognize that responsibility and authority are correlative terms. It wouldalso recognize that a university is not a business or political organization, but a community of scholars. Thecollective voice of that community should be registeredat every step in its progress and should have a persuasive,and under certain circumstances, a decisive influence onthe choice or continuance of its leadership. Either conclusion is simple, clear, and defensible. The presentorganization is involved, bewildering, and indefensible.It is not a system through which the University canhope to deal with the tremendous issues which confrontit now and the still more awful decisions which await it.After twenty years I know as well as anybody thatpaper schemes of organization solve no problems. Aperfect organization would not make the University anybetter. It would simply give it a chance to be better.So the reorganization of 1930 could easily have come tonothing. Because the faculty wanted to make it work,it did work. It brought us through the depression, and itled to some significant developments in American education. If you do not want the University to get better,AT THE TRUSTEES-FACULTY DINNER in Januarythe guests were delighted, but somewhat dumbfounded, to be served with generous helpings ofdelicious roast beef. Whispers went around thetables and the opinion was expressed that facultymembers were peculiarly fortunate to be connectedwith an institution where the chairman of the boardheld high office in the largest of the packing houses.But when Chairman Swift rose to introduce the 'firstspeaker, he emphatically disclaimed any credit orany responsibility for the menu.. He complimentedthe dinner committee for serving beef in a well-nighbeefless age, and stated that it came as a specialtreat to him who had gone so long without. "Only lastweek-end," said Mr. Swift, "I opened my countryhome for a party of guests. In order to make theoccasion memorable I decided to serve steaks atSunday dinner. I called up the largest meat marketin the world and told them what 1 wanted. Back camethe reply in rather startled but decidedly firm terms,'You can't have steaks, Mr. Swift, but we will beglad to send you out some pork chops.' " it will certainly get worse, even with the best organization in the world. One of the things which has prevented it from becoming as great as you want it to be isits organization. If it could escape from the confines ofa narrow and antiquated administrative structure, it couldpress forward to the realization of its unlimited possibilities.It may be that more can be done here than merely togive a university a good organization. It may be thatthe faculty and trustees can make a contribution to thepractice of democracy. Certainly every university is avery low-tension democracy today. I should hope thatthis one might become a very high-tension democracy,in which the administration, if it had one, would beimmediately responsive and immediately responsible tothe community of scholars which, legal technicalitiesapart, is the University. If this University could discover how to operate a large and complex institution asa high-tension democracy, democratic and yet efficient,its example might be useful far beyond the boundariesof the academic world.Intellectual BankruptcyLet us look at the educational situation and see whatis actually going on in the world. When we say that thefuture of the University is secure, what do we mean?We mean that there will always be here something calledthe University of Chicago, engaged in some kind of investigation and some type of training. We mean, inshort, that the University is financially secure. But Ihave never worried about money. I have worried aboutwasting it, but not about having it; for it has seemed tome obvious that if any university would survive the financial vicissitudes of our times the University of Chicagowould do so. The natural preoccupation we have hadwith the financial consequences of the war has blindedus to consequences far more serious.We now see that the large universities will emergefrom the war at least as prosperous as they went in.They are working for the government at cost, but a nonprofit corporation that recovers its costs is doing very wellindeed. The real danger that these universities run isintellectual bankruptcy. If they are intellectually bankrupt, the country -will be so too ; for it can hope for littleaid from the smaller institutions. They may find themselves financially as well as intellectually extinct.The symbol of what is going on in high schools is theHigh School Victory Corps, the mere announcement ofwhich led the principal of the high school at SandySpring, Maryland, to tear up his curriculum and set hispupils to drilling, exercising, apple picking, rolling bandages, looking after working mothers' children, doing janitor work, and learning how to fly. I am prepared to believe that the curriculum at Sandy Spring was not verygood. But I ask you to think what this country will be likeTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23and what higher education will be like if all the highschool pupils in it devote the next four years to drilling, exercising, apple picking, rolling bandages, lookingafter working mothers' children, doing janitor work, andlearning how to fly.According to the plans of the Army and Navy, someten per cent of the male population of the ages of eighteen and nineteen are to be sent to college to learn enoughmathematics and physics to study technology and enoughreading and writing to understand commands. The restof them, unless they have attended the College of theUniversity of Chicago, will have only such education asthe Victory Corps leaves in the high schools. With deference to the educational wisdom of the Army and Navy,I do not believe that technically trained robots will beeffective fighting men in time of war. I am certain thatthey will be a full-grown menace to their fellow-citizensin time of peace.Education by ContractThe colleges and universities have entered a new phaseof their history, the phase of education by contract. Institutions are supported to solve problems selected by thegovernment and to train men and women chosen by thegovernment, in fields and by methods prescribed by thegovernment, using a staff assembled in terms of requirements laid down by the government. The institutionscannot look at the projects too closely or inquire intotheir fitness to carry them on. If they did, they might notget the contracts. All the questions with which collegesand universities have concerned themselves, who shouldteach what to whom and how, the questions of the methods of instruction, the qualifications of students and teachers, and the ends and ideals of education, these questionscan no longer be decided by communities of scholars.What, for example, do we want from the humanitiesnowadays? Not philosophy, history, literature, or the arts.We want intensive language instruction. We want high-school graduates taught Malay, Eskimo, or pidgin English in six weeks so that when they are sent into occupiedterritories as military police the execution of their orderswill not be delayed by the necessity of looking for a'ninterpreter. Do you want teachers of Malay, Eskimo, orpidgin English? A six- weeks intensive course will turn aprofessor of Greek or French literature into an instructoradequate to the purposes of the military police. If youcan't find convertible professors of this type you may getteachers from high schools or from business or you maydrain off the faculties of other institutions.So attractive are these possibilities to some universitiesthat we hear reports that after the war they will abolishtheir present organization into groups of departments,based on the traditional intellectual disciplines, and reorganize on a regional basis, with the geographic divisionsof space instead of the intellectual activities of man marking the various lines of emphasis within the university.I see no reason to suppose that education by contract will end with the war. On the contrary, a governmentwhich has once discovered that universities can be usedto solve immediate problems, or to pretend to solve them,is likely to intensify the practice as its problems growmore serious. The political and industrial necessities ofthe post-war period may result in such an expansion ofeducation by contract that we shall have two kinds ofstate universities in this country, those supported by theforty-eight jurisdictions through grants of public moneyfor general purposes and those supported by the nationalgovernment through grants for special research or training.Future OutlookViolent changes are going on in the composition offaculties, in the selection of students, in the content ofcourses of study, and in the structure of universities. Theyare not planned. They have no ulterior purpose. I speakin no critical or even hortatory spirit. I merely remindyou of things you know already so that our own problemsmay be seen in the perspective of the larger question ofeducation as a whole and the still larger issue of the outlook for civilization. It may be that these developmentsare transitory afflictions. It may be that they are necessary. Still one wonders why they have not taken placein England, where the constitution, activities, and staffof the universities have remained substantially unchangedby the war. One wonders how Charles Dollard of theCarnegie Corporation can report after a survey of theCanadian universities that Canada still assumes thattrained minds are a natural resource and is still consciousof the fact that war presents problems which cannot besolved with a slide rule.If we were to attempt to locate the blame for thesetendencies we should have to trace it to the educationalforces of this country, who now reap the whirlwind forsowing the wind of football, fraternities, and fun, and forpresenting their institutions to their fellow-citizens asdazzling supermarkets with every conceivable object ofhuman desire spread before the bargain conscious buyer.This vision is uninspiring in the best of times and terribleto behold when the fate of the world is hanging in thebalance.Whether the University of Chicago can change thevision I do not know. I think it ought to try. I do knowthat complacency, indifference, and the desire to maintainthe status quo can lead only to the destruction of thosebeacons which our forefathers erected to light the pathway to a better world.On Armistice Day the world will not be pleasant to lookupon, millions dead, crippled, and homeless in every partof the earth. Until there is an international conscience,there can be no international state. We cannot expect an international conscience to spring up in thenext three or four years. Mankind seems doomed forat least another generation to the perpetual fight forsafety, always skirting resort to violence as the means24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEof self-preservation, and sometimes not succeeding. Untilthere can be some semblance of agreement upon the aimsof human life and the ends of organized society, humanitymust fumble on from catastrophe to catastrophe, learninglittle as it goes.Where can our fellow-men look except to institutionslike this for light in a dark world? If civilization is thedeliberate pursuit of a common ideal, how can we becomecivilized unless men of learning show us the ideal andteach us how to pursue it? The University of Chicagocannot shirk its responsibilities by leaving unexamined theprogram, the policies, the procedures, or the persons thatseemed adequate to less critical times. It must free itselffrom any fetters that confine it and release the full forceof its moral and intellectual power. Your future is inyour hands. In your hands, too, is no small share of thehopes and aspirations of mankind.PHYSICAL FITNESS(Continued from page 21)of the necessary physical condition. Training schoolshave been instructed to make the physical training periodsan integral part of the school curriculum and to considerthem equally important with the technical training.The Navy program of physical education varies withthe nature of the technical training, the duty performed,and the facilities available. In general it includes conditioning exercises, athletic games, combatives, road-work, obstacle course running, and aquatics. It aimsat total physical fitness, but the time between enlistmentand active duty assignment is so short that the degree ofphysical fitness attained is far from that desired.The Navy places great emphasis on swimming as anessential skill. The ability to swim at least a mile andto keep afloat at least one hour has been set up as anobjective for every man in the United States Navy.The Navy program on shipboard is necessarily largelylimited to calisthenics, combatives, and climbing activities, but at shore stations a complete program is taughtwherever feasible. Competition in athletics is stressedbecause of its emphasis on aggressiveness, alertness, self-confidence, and combative spirit. It is felt that all civilianathletic programs should be intensified and broadened intime of war.THE EGYPTIAN GODS(Continued from page 11)thee thy bones, fasten for thee thy head upon thy bones.Thoth, join him together. All that pertains to thee iscomplete. Pure, pure is Amon-Re, lord of Karnak."This act of lustration, originally a part of the solar cult,has now become purely Osirian so that the god is regarded as Osiris whose dismembered body must be reunited and revivified. In the next act, however, the image is offered balls of natron of various origins and also incense, all for the purification of the mouth. Here wereturn in part to the solar elements of the liturgy forthe gods who are said to control this purification are thesame deities who officiated at the sun-god's purificationand also at that of the king in the House of the Morningand of the statue in the House of Gold.The image being thus revivified and purified, the kingnext proceeds to clothe it in fresh garments, green, blue,red, and dark red. The proper crown is placed on thehead of the figure, a broad collar of gold and semiprecious stones is hung about its neck, a pectoral andcounter-poise are added, and it is decked with armletsand anklets. Its eyes are painted with eye-paint anda fresh daub of unguent is put upon its forehead. Finallythe figure is invested with the proper scepter and it isready for the final rites, probably the heart of the original cult in the dim past before we have records.This crowning episode consisted of presentation to thegod of a meal, a bountiful repast, just as had been doneto the king and the statue of the dead at the end of theceremonies connected with them. These offerings of foodwere designed for the necessary sustenance of the god butthey were thoroughly Osirianized, each being designatedthe Eye of Horus or some other portion of the god whichplayed a part in the assembling and revivification ofthe deity. It is possible that each object, or class ofobjects, was first elevated before the god before it wasplaced on the table in front of the image. The offerings were ritually prescribed as to kind, quality, andquantity. After the god "was satisfied" with the offerings, as the Egyptian puts it, a portion might be distributed to the priests, and the remainder presented before some other deity or before a statue of the king orof a noble who had secured this favor by royal grant.When the repast was ready the king extended his rightarm towards the food and bent the hand and palmupwards. He then pronounced the formula beginningwith the words: "An offering which the king gives."He also "summons the god to his food," as the Egyptianhas it, enumerating some of the good things laid outon the offering table.It is interesting that we have nowhere any referenceto ceremonies connected with the return of the statue tothe shrine, or the closing and sealing of the doors. Itis hardly conceivable that such acts were not accompaniedby some liturgical utterances, but if such words werespoken we do not know what they were. The last act ofthe service that has been preserved to us is a curious onecalled "Drawing" or Bringing the Feet (or Footsteps)."It apparently consisted of sprinkling the floor of theshrine with water and sweeping it with a bundle of a certain kind of plant. As the king did this, he moved awayfrom the image but kept his face turned back and hiseyes fixed on the god till he left the shrine and the doorswere closed. The god had retired to his seclusion andthe daily temple service was at an end.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25NEWS OF THE CLASSES? IN THE SERVICE ?Capt. John J. McDonough, '28,of the Army is attached to the Officeof Strategic Services. He is living inNew York City.The Navy's Distinguished FlyingCross has been awarded to Lieut.George Formanek, Jr., '42, for hispart in the attack on an enemy shipin the battle of Midway. Formanekis convalescing at Coronado, California, from wounds received in thePacific war area.Muriel A. Mendelsohn, '36, hasreceived her commission as ensign inthe Naval Reserve.Margaret L. Perry, '41, is a second lieutenant in the Army NursingCorps, attached to the station hospital, Camp Campbell, Kentucky.Major Archbold R. Jones, '20, ischemical warfare officer with theArmy Air Forces Flying TrainingCommand at Pueblo, Colorado.Pvt. Murray B. Woolley, '41, isstationed at the Congress Hotel inChicago, "in the process," he says "ofbeing transformed from a law studentto a radio operator and gunner in theArmy Air Forces. It is interesting tonote that after spending five consecutive years attending Chicago andNorthwestern Universities, I am nowa student soldier. I should get somewhere some day, granted a healthyreturn."Lieut. Elier M. Segal, '41, afterfinishing three months' intensive training at Camp Lee, Virginia, has beenassigned to the Quartermaster Corpsof the Army Air Forces, TechnicalTraining Command, at Miami Beach.Lieut. Bernard Weinberg, '30,PhD '36, on leave as professor ofromance languages at WashingtonUniversity, is at the Army Air ForcesGlider School at Dalhart, Texas. Hewrites: "Once a professor, always aprofessor! They have me doing ithere, too, although if my formerteachers at Chicago knew what I wasteaching, they would be almost asflabbergasted as I was when I started.But I do learn as I go along, and Ishall probably return to civilian teaching as an expert in the linguisticaspects of glider guiding. Teaching inthe Army is of the dish-it-out-andcall-it-back type; the University ofChicago would disapprove!"Pvt. Allen R. Levin, '31, is in theArmy classified as a psychologicalassistant at the Milwaukee recruitingand induction station. Sgt. Everett M. Claspy, AM '30,is now somewhere in New Guinea.He writes: "We have only been herea few weeks. Food is quite good asis the mail service, but we feel thelack of cities and the prospect of being here for a long period is ratherdiscouraging. This part of the country is dry with few trees, and hardlywhat you would expect in thetropics."Joseph P. Walano, '34, has beenpromoted from private to corporal.He is in the headquarters company ofthe 800th Signal Service Regiment atCamp Crowder, Missouri.Sgt. Emmett L. Costello, '40, iswith the medical detachment at thestation hospital, Camp Chaffee, Arkansas.Ensign Vincent P. Quinn, '34,AM '36, is with the Navy's Bureauof Aeronautics, training film section,in Washington.Capt. George E. Johnson, MD'40, is on active duty with the MedicalCorps at Bowman Field, Louisville,Kentucky.Lieut. O. Donald Olson, '41, iswith the Army Air Forces in NewGuinea.Lieut. Col. Philip Lewin, '09, MD'11, is orthopaedic surgeon at the 16thEvacuation Hospital, Camp Blanding,Florida.Lieut. Lloyd A. Bimson, '41, iswith the Army Air Forces at DaleMabry Field, Tallahassee, Florida.Lieut. Marshall T. Newman, '33,SM '35, has left his position as assistant curator of physical anthropologyat the Smithsonian Institution and isnow on active service with the Navy.Lieut. Col. Irwin Clawson, JD'16, is attached to the headquartersof the Montana recruiting and induction district, Butte.Lieut. Thomas H. Alcock, JD '32,is at Goodfellow Field, San Angelo,Texas.William M. Brandt, '39, JD '41,is with the Army Signal Corps atPhiladelphia.Lycurgus J. Conner, '30, JD '32,is training at Camp Lee, Virginia.Nathan Goldberg, '40, is stationedat the 79th General Hospital at CampWhite, Medford, Oregon.Charles I. Longacre, JD '39, isa captain in the Army Air Forces,12th Ferry Group, with headquartersat Miami, Florida.Robert E. Peach, '41, is an ensign with a patrol squadron on thewest coast. Saul Levin, '42, with the 30thSignal Company, expected to leavethe country in December for an unknown destination. He writes: "TheUniversity and all its branches andactivities have my very best wishesfor a worthy part in the war effortand a glorious future."Corpl. Ellis B. Kohs, AM '38, expects to have his concerto for orchestra played by the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra on February 18, andhe has been invited by PierreMonteux, the conductor, to direct theperformance. Kohs has composed aset of six musical numbers, each descriptive of some characteristic sceneof Army life. He is stationed at SanLuis Obispo, California, and writesthat he has his application in forwarrant officer (band leader) .Lieut. Walter E. Nagler, '40, isat the Flexible Gunnery School of theArmy Air Forces at Fort Myers,Florida.Lieut. E. G. Stanley Baker, '33, isat the School of Aviation Medicine,Randolph Field, Texas.Lieut. Allan Marin, '34, after attending officers training school atMiami Beach, was sent to the SanBernardino Army Air Depot, wherehe has been made assistant adjutanton the headquarters staff. He writesthat there is plenty to do because thedepot is still under construction andit will be tremendous when completed,and adds, "You can take it as a factthat the U.S. Air Force is going toswing a terrific haymaker one of thesedays!"Pvt. Albert Somit, '42, is at Fort(Continued on page 28)EXTRA CAREMAKES THEEXTRA GOODNESSA Product ofSWIFT & CO.7409 S. State StreetPhone Radcliffe 740026 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Best Place to Eat on the South Sidecolonial restaurant6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Parle 6324T. A. REHNQUIST CO.Vt 7 CONCRETEFLOORSX-Jj\r\r SIDEWALKS\\V MACHINE FOUNDATIONSw EMERGENCY WORKv ALL PHONESEST. 1929 Wentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Ave.E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8132Phones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park AwningINC. Co.#Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueCLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency61st YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E- Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New York LETTERSApprovalDear Mr. Beck:The December Magazine I wish topraise. One issue, at least, free ofHutchins propaganda and spreadeagle-dom, or -ism, or what you maycall it. It was by and of run-of-the-mill University life, interesting, literary, newsy.Professor Kerwin's article seemedlike an introductory course to the Reports I, II, III on Post-War Relationsissued by the board of editors of Fortune., Had we had his "course" first,those papers would not have seemedsuch advanced courses in economics.How good it was of you to reproduce from the Chicago Daily NewsPaul H. Douglas' book review ofQuincy Wright's two-volume $15.00publication. The review hands outsome nice big kernels from this expensive nut.I must have met Agnes SlighTurnbull somehow, somewhere, for Iwas thinking she was a U. of C. girl.I was glad to be assured. Strange asit may seem, the field she has incorporated into a romance I have covered with intensive research in history and biography — WestmorelandCounty, Pennsylvania.And what a joy to learn that Dr.Goodspeed's Bible is popular, a bestseller.Very cordialy yours,Ella R. Metsker Milligan, '06Denver, ColoradoNostalgicDear Mr. Beck:The December Magazine just arrived here, its wrapper liberally covered with forwarding addresses, andthe pleasant glow I'm enjoying afterreading its contents prompts this letter.Although I confess that my feelingfor the University may be an inordinately strong one, I do feel that ifthe satisfaction other service men derive from receiving the Magazineeven approaches my own, you aredoing an inspired job.With well-nigh two years of Armyservice under my belt, I am still thriving, although frequently a prey tonostalgia for Cobb Hall, the CoffeeShop, and (might as well out with it)Hanley's Buffet— alas, no longer anymore Hanley's than it is Buffet.I'm currently an officer candidatein the Infantry and hope, if I'm notone of the alarmingly large number offatalities, to graduate at the end of February. Prior to my appointmenthere I was a sergeant at Fort Sheridan. I've seen both Rea Keast ['36]and Fred Ash ['38, JD'40] who arefirst lieutenants here; in fact spentChristmas with the Keasts and Fred.Again, my thanks for the Magazinewhich, I hope, will keep coming.Sincerely,Ned Rosenheim, '39Fort Benning, Ga.Well ThumbedDear Sir:I certainly appreciate getting theUniversity of Chicago Magazine andkeeping in touch with things backhome. It is well thumbed and thoroughly read by several others whohave been at the University, including some Navy boys who have finishedthe communications course here.Sincerely,William A. Thomas, '40Treasure Island, Calif.From the "Old Man"Dear Charlton:The picture of the campus broughtback to memory the many, manytimes we have seen the buildings onthe Quadrangles similarly sprayedwith snow. Once I recall the temperature was sixteen degrees belowzero. That was when I got my earsnipped for the first time. Along withthe snow there was a fierce north windblowing and I had no coveringover them. I was too young andtough then to admit the advisability.You will perhaps be interested in anincident which occurred when I wasin Chicago last August. "Pat" Page['10] and I were making a tour ofthe University and when we came tothe southwest corner of the athleticfield, we saw an open gate on 57 thStreet guarded by two Navy gobs withrifles on their shoulders. Both of usstepped up to look in and Pat edgedforward, and the gobs presented armsand said, "You cannot come in here."Pat said, "Why, this is Mr. Stagg.The field is named after him. Youcan let him in, can't you?" One ofthe gobs left immediately and spoketo an officer who was about fifty feetaway. Meantime, I backed away andsaid, "Come on, Pat." Pat stood hisground and in a minute the gob returned with word that we might goin. I called to Pat, "Come on, I'veseen all that I wanted to."Here are a couple of alumni newsitems. When Pacific played at theU, S. Naval Training Station at SanDiego where there were 35,000would-be sailors, I met Dr. FranklinTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27Gowdy ['26, MD'36], captain of Chicago's 1924 championship footballteam. He is a lieutenant in the Medical Corps. About six weeks ago Dr.Norman ("Red") Paine ['13, MD'18]came up from San Francisco to seeus. He was then located at TreasureIsland as a lieutenant commander inthe Medical Corps. Since then hehas been moved to the Naval Hospital at San Diego.Like all of the colleges, the Collegeof the Pacific is contributing most ofits young men to the armed services.I have written a large number of letters of recommendation personally.Recently, the captain of my 1935football team, Elliott Savage, droppedin. He was in civilian clothes. Hehad been on the Lexington and alsoon the Wasp and was waiting to bere-outfitted.Mrs. Stagg and I are writing a lotof letters to the boys. The Pacificfootball men are widely scattered.Some are in combat in the SolomonIslands and others are in Africa. Oneof them, a radio operator on abomber, recently wrote: "It is muchlike playing a game when going intoactual combat. We must have teamwork and coordination of all members in order to accomplish our purpose, although the stakes are muchhigher. However, I don't think it isreally so bad. I'm healthy, warm,and have plenty of sleep and exercise."Remembering what happened inthe other war when a lot of our fine"C" men did not return, you canimagine how we feel with so many ofour young friends already in combatzones.Cordially,Lon StaggStockton, California ...77.7BataanAmong those listed elsewhere in thisMagazine as killed or missing inaction is Howard M. Rich, '35, JD'37. We quote from two letters whichhe wrote to his family. In themhis calm appraisal of his positionand his restraint seem to us typical ofthe heroism that is reflected in lettersreceived from the various battlefronts. Howard's letters were writtenfrom Bataan in December, 1941, andthe following February. He has notbeen heard from since. — Ed.Dear Folks and the Censor:Well, it's been almost three weeksnow since the surprise air raid on FortStotsenburg scared the devil out of me, and the details of how I havespent my time in the interim wouldprobably make interesting reading forthe wrong people, so I'll save themuntil I see you. Right now I am manning an outpost of a sort and amsneaking this moment under a dimmedflashlight to catch up a little in mycorrespondence.Received your telegram eight daysafter you sent it, so mine probablycrossed yours in transit. I have madeup my mind not to keep wiring you,because each wire would only create anew point of departure for your worries, so I'll wait for a real lull.I am convinced that the presentsituation is a matter so big that youand I pale into obscurity beside it.I am not sorry I came over here. Nomatter what course of action I mighthave chosen, I could not have hopedto escape this conflict. So, if it getsme, you will realize that I have hada rather full life in my short years —been to seven countries, thirty states,Hawaii, and the District of Columbia, engaged in two professions, and,I believe, I have demonstrated that Ihad the prospect of not being a complete failure in life. What more couldyou want? My record in school, invarious activities, etc., should leaveyou with a feeling of satisfactionrather than of grief. Just think ofall the possible miseries that mighthave been in store for me had I livedon.And on the other hand, if I beatthis thing, you'll be the proudest people in the United States.I'll have lots of swell stories for youwhen I see you, so wait up for me.And with best wishes for a happierNew Year, I remain and shall remain,HowardDear Folks — and of course mygood friends the Censors:I had long since decided not towrite to you again until such time asan appreciable lull in the war mightdevelop, for the following reasons,inter alia(a) Time, facilities, and inclination for writing are at a minimum(b) The extreme uncertainty thatthese would reach you anyway(c) The futility of trying to compose a letter which will at the sametime pass the censor and convey anything of interest to you(d) The constant creation of newpoints of departure for your worries,i.e., "He was o.k. when he wrote it,but how about since then?"(e) The triteness of sentimentality(Continued on page 32) RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3192ECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893HARRY EENIG'ENBURG, Jr.STANDARDREADY ROOFING CO.Complete Service10436S. Wabash Ave. TelephonePullman 8500Alice Banner Englewood 3181COLORED HELPFACTORY HELPSTORESSHOPSMILLS FOUNDRIESEnglewood Emp. Agcy., 5534 S. State St.POND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market Si.Harrison 8118 ChicagoKenwood 1352WE DELIVER ANYWHEREKIDWELLALL PURPOSE FLORISTJAMES E. KIDWELL826 E. 47th St., Chicago, 111.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE(Continued from page 25)Lewis, Washington, with the 108thEngineers.Lieut. Harry J. Levi, '40, LL.B.'42, is with a service unit at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indianapolis. Corpl.Clyde W. Moonie, MBA '41, is inthe finance section of the Army atthe same fort.THE CLASSES1903Irving E. Miller, AM, PhD '04,has retired from teaching at WesternWashington College of Education,Bellingham. He was chairman of theeducation and psychology department.1908John D. Scott is pension administrator at the Sperry Gyroscope Company, Brooklyn, N. Y.1909L. Charles Raiford, PhD, of thechemistry department of the StateUniversity of Iowa, was recentlyhonored at a testimonial dinner givenby Alpha Chi Sigma chemical fraternity. Professor Raiford has beenon the university staff since 1918 andhas been professor of organic chemistry since 1927.HOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING. BRICKCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579INTENSIVE* STENOGRAPHIC COURSEfor College PeopleSuperior training for practical, personal use or profitable employment. Course gives you dictation speedof 100 words a minute. Classes begin January, April.July and October. Enroll Now. Write or phone forbulletin.BRYANT & STRATTON College18 S. Michigan Ave. Chieago Tel: RAN. 1S75 1917Horace L. Olson, SM '18, PhD'23, has been made assistant professorof mathematics at SouthwesternUniversity, Georgetown, Texas.1918John Nuveen, Jr., has been namednew chief deputy director of the WPBfor Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, andIowa. He had held the position ofWPB conservation director for thesefour states.Royal F. Munger, financial editorof the Chicago Daily News, has beensworn in as a captain in the MarineCorps, and is slated to see active dutyright away. Capt. Munger, writer ofthe popular column of homely philosophy, "Old Bill," left the University to serve overseas in the MarineCorps during the last war. He waswounded at Cantigny, and ended thewar as a first lieutenant.At forty-eight, he was barred fromactive service this time. But findinghimself fit, he presented himself forenlistment as a private in the MarineCorps, resigning his commission as alieutenant colonel in the Signal Corps,a non-combatant post. With no physical waivers he was recommended fora captaincy.Capt. Munger has gone to the Marine base at Quantico, and is waitinga call to one of the war theatres.1920Dorothy M. Watson, MS '30, isa substitute teacher at the ChicagoTeachers College.1922Frederika Blankner, AM '23, hasleft Cleveland to become professor ofmodern languages at MarymountCollege, Tarrytown, New York.1923Northwestern University has appointed Ernest Samuels, JD '26, ACMESHEET METAL WORKSGeneral Sheet Metal WorkSkylights - Gutters - SmokestacksFurnace and Ventilating Systems1 1 I I East 55th StreetPhone Hyde Park 9500Ajax Waste Paper Co.2600-2634 W. Taylor St.Buyers of Any QuantityWaste PaperScrap Metal and IronFor Prompt Service CallMr. B. Shedroff, Van Buren 0230MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130MOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIBEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAYmarket 79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERTELEPHONE HAYMARKET 4566O'GALLAGHAN BROS., Inc.PLUMBING CONTRACTORS21 SOUTH GREEN ST.Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29Howard E. Green, '25,(left) , and Bester P. Price,'24 (right), have been recently elected president andvice-president, respectively,of the Chicago MortgageBankers Association.Green has been connected with the Great LakesMortgage Corporation sinceleaving school, acting as correspondent for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. In 1933 he was made secretary of the Great Lakes Mortgage Corporation, when that company became correspondent for theMetropolitan, and was promoted to vice-president in 1935.Price, president of the Bester P. Price Company, has been continuouslyengaged in the real estate loan business since graduating from the University. In 1933 he formed his own company, which acts as mortgageloan correspondent for the Life Insurance Company of Virginia.AM '31, PhD '42, instructor in English.1925Edward B. Stevens, PhD '30, hasbeen appointed assistant professor ofclassical languages and literature atDcPauw University, Greencastle, Indiana.1928Jacob C. Pratt, Jr., has become amember of the Chicago office of thefirm of George Rossetter and Company.Hyman E. Cohen, PhD '33, isworking for the Federal Public Housing Authority as a procedures analystin administrative planning.Glenn Kuns Kelly, AM, is principal of the Jewish Academy in Chicago.1931Ethel Smith, AM, is supervisor ofstudent teaching at Wheelock College,Boston, Mass.Marie Pavia, MA '33, is doing substitute teaching in the Chicago publicschools.1932Zell S. Walter, AM, has beenmade principal of the Belle School,Belle, West Virginia.1933Frederick M. Noble is a juniorindustrial engineer at the ColumbiaSteel Company, Torrance, California.Mabel C. Waltz, AM '36, is secretary statistician at the Ohio BoxboardCompany, Rittman.Maurice R. Kraines, JD '34 iswith the enforcement division of theNational Labor Relations Board,Washington, D. C.1934Lyle K. Klitzke, AM, has beenmade superintendent of the publicschools at Somonauk, Illinois. He alsoteaches physics. Monica Kusch, SM, is teachinggeography at the Chicago Heightsjunior high school.Royal M. Vanderberg, SM '40,has been appointed assistant professorof physics at Pacific University, ForestGrove, Oregon.1935Dorothy Norton Smith writes asfollows : "I am happy to report thatmy husband, Captain Kenneth M.Smith, MD '37, is now situated neara large university city in England.He spent Christmas day with one ofthe members of the faculty and isplanning to visit other people andplaces in the near future." Mrs.Smith is living in San Antonio, Texas,with Duncan Bruce, the two-year-oldLovelyTable AppointmentsFINE CHINA, CRYSTALGOLDEN DIRILYTESILVERGifts — Imported and Domestic.For Quality and Distinction seeDIRIGO, INC.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago. 111. family offspring, and reports that sheis enjoying a southern winter and hasmet several Chicago friends.Dora Frazier Smith is teaching inthe public schools at Lansing, Illinois.Myron D. Frantz, LL.B., is withthe Board of Economic Warfare inWashington.1936Louis S. Hough, AM '42, is atMiami University, Oxford, Ohio,teaching economics.Grace Town send, PhD, is teaching zoology, botany, and physiology atCincinnati College of Pharmacy.Mount Holyoke College has announced the appointment of HarrietD. Hudson, MA, as instructor in economics and sociology.Furio Alberti is a mathematics instructor at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.The University of Oklahoma atNorman has appointed Cairns KingSmith, PhD, acting associate professor of history.Herbert C. Brook, JD, is a lawyerwith the Office of Price Administration in Washington. He was marriedon October 1 7 to Jane C. Lord.Sheldon E. Bernstein, JD '38, iswith the criminal division of the Department of Justice in Washington.GREGGCOLLEGEA Schoolof BusinessPreferred by College Menand WomenStudent body represents 30 states,80 colleges. IStenographic, Secretarial,and Accounting CoursesSend for free booklet: "The Dooi-wayto Opportunity."Court Reporting CourseWHte for special free booklet aboutschool of Court Reporting: "Shorthand Reporting as a Profession."Methods courses for business teachers.Only high school graduates accepted.THE GREGG COLLEGEPresident. JOHN ROBERT GREGG. S.C.D.Director. PAUL M. PAIR. M.A.Dept. C. A., 6 N. Michigan Ave.Chicago, III. I30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1937John G. Epp is chief chemist andlaboratory superintendent of the Lud-ington, Michigan, plant of the DowMagnesium Corporation.Howard B. Emerson, Jr., MD '38,is a physician with the Civil Serviceat Margarita Hospital, Canal Zone.Raymond E. Jans sen, SM, PhD'39, is assistant professor of geology atMarshall College, Huntington, WestVirginia.Massimila I. WlLCZYNSKI, AM,PhD '40, has accepted an instructor-ship in Spanish at Mundelein College,Chicago.Alice Arm field, AM, has beenmade instructor at the AppalachianState Teachers College, Boone, NorthCarolina.1938Ben B. Blivaiss, SM '40, is an instructor in physiology and laboratorytechnique at the Chicago College ofLaboratory Technique.Edna O. Johnson, MA '41, isteaching English and history in thehigh school at Park Ridge, Illinois.1939George P. Antonic is a metallurgist in Milwaukee.Mary S. Fairbanks writes that sheis working at a nursery school in LosAngeles this winter.Myrtle Behrens, MA, is atWaterman, Illinois, teaching in thehigh school.1940Jeannette Hills, AM, is instruc-WM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER CONSTRUCTION600 T I L\*t i « n> > TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 2208MEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersTlie Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeTailored Uniforms Made to MeasureWomen Doctors and Nurses, Stock sizeInterne SuitsANEDA McSWEENY1910 So. Ogden AvenueSEEley 3734 Evenings by Appointment tor of German and geometry at thehigh school of the University of Illinois at Urbana.Elmer B. Tolstead, Jr., MS '41, isstudying for his PhD in mathematicsat Brown University. He was recentlyelected to Sigma Xi, national scientifichonor society.Vera V. Kohxhoff, MA, has become principal of the Stickney highschool, Stickney, South Dakota.Rosemary F. Wiley, MA '41, isteaching in the high school at Stephenson, Michigan.The appointment of Joseph S.Giganti, MA, as instructor in historyat Wright Junior College, Chicago,has been announced.Homer L. Samuels, AM, is superintendent of the Consolidated schoolat Woodville, Mississippi.June N. Sark, MA '41, is teachingEnglish at the junior high school atIron Mountain, Michigan.1941Bernice J. Blum, SM '42, is a research assistant in physiology at theNorthwestern University MedicalSchool.Everett D. Shaffer, AM, isathletic coach and teacher of socialscience at the Serena high school, Serena, Illinois.Teaching Latin and Greek, CarlA. Roebuck, PhD, is associated withBishop's College School at Lennox-ville, Quebec.Ruth C. Petersen, AM, is teaching Spanish and English at the Ba-tavia high school, Illinois.Mrs. Edgel Skinner, MBA, is inWashington with the U. S. Government Board of Investigation and Research.Albert Milzer, PhD, writes thathe is employed in confidential medicalwar research for the Office of Scientific Research and Development of theNational Research Council. He isworking at the Deutsch serum centerof the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago.Maurice J. Underwood, LL.B. '42,is a member of the legal departmentof the Tennessee Valley Authority atKnoxville.1942Robert E. Smith reported in December that he was working for PanAmerican Airways and expected to besent soon to South America.Paul W. Meade, AM, has beenmade principal of the Holmes elementary school at Warrenville, Illinois.Sara W. Zwemer, AM, is teachingthird grade in the public schools atHolland, Michigan.Cornell University announces the appointment of James E. Savage,PhD, as instructor in composition.Estelle V. Palonis is teachingEnglish at the Wendell Phillips evening high school, Chicago.SOCIAL SERVICEMartha Branscombe, PhD '42,formerly on the facualty of the School,has taken a position with the U. S.Children's Bureau in Washington,D. C.Alice Shaffer, AM '35, who wasa member of the field work staff ofthe School for a good many years, hasjust returned from Asuncion, Paraguay, where she has been working as arepresentative of the U. S. Children'sBureau for the past year. After amonth's stay in the United States, sheis to be sent by the Children's Bureauto Costa Rica.Richard Eddy, AM '34, assistantmanaging officer at St. Charles Schoolfor Boys, is teaching a course at theSchool during the winter quarter intreatment of juvenile delinquency.Grace Browning, PhD '42, assistant professor of social service administration and Thomasine Hendricks,AM '36, of the Social Security Board,jointly conducted an institute, December 16-18 for the county directors ofpublic welfare in Oklahoma. This washeld in Oklahoma City and sponsoredby the State Department of PublicWelfare.Lydia Glover, AM '36, has left theUnited Charities to take a positionEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86BOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31BOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions"Ashjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000with the American Red Cross in FortWorth, Texas.Among the students who took themaster's degree at the December Convocation, a number have gone withthe Red Cross; Mabel Coffin is nowpsychiatric social worker with the national American Red Cross ; DorothyEm eric k is assistant supervisor in thefamily service division of the ChicagoRed Cross chapter; and MildredMench has taken a position with thenational Red Cross. Ruth Fergusonhas accepted a position in the Travelers Aid Association, USO in Temple,Texas, and Gladys Goettling hasbeen made executive secretary of theTravelers Aid Society in Indianapolis.Those who have gone into childwelfare work are Ethel Barger whohas been appointed superintendent ofPark Ridge School at Park Ridge, Illinois; Patricia Carey who has returned to the division of child welfarein Massachusetts; Sidney Hirsch hastaken a position with the Jewish Children's Bureau of Chicago; EmilyLogue has returned to the children'sdivision of the State Department ofPublic Welfare in Indiana; and HildaSirluck has accepted a position withthe Jewish Board of Guardians in NewYork City.Miriam Damick has accepted a position with the United Charities ofChicago; Maybelle Farr with theFamily and Children's Service Societyof Binghamton, New York; VirginiaHolton with the Dayton GuidanceClinic, Ohio; Helen Isenberg with the Cook County Bureau of PublicWelfare; Ethel Ma ye Jones withthe Salvation Army of Chicago; JeanMcHenry as a medical social workerin the Children's Hospital of SanFrancisco; and Dorothy Smith,medical social worker in the University of Chicago Clinics.Gilbert Brown and Virgil Hampton were immediately inducted intothe armed service.BIRTHSTo Paul M. Johnson, '34, andMrs. Johnson (Dorothea J. Smith,'34) a son, Michael, on December 20,in Chicago.To Raymond Ellickson, PhD '38,and Mrs. Ellickson a daughter, MaryLoene, on December 27. Mary hasa two-year-old brother, Bryan Carl.Ellickson is assistant professor ofphysics at the Polytechnic Institute ofBrooklyn.To Marshall B. Clinard, PhD'41, and Mrs. Clinard (Ruth Blackburn, MA '36 ) a second son, Laurence Marshall, on December 26. TheClinards have a girl, Marsha, 2^years old.To David F. Menard and Mrs.Menard (Montana X. Faber, '30)a son, Dwight Kermit, on December9 at Wheeling, West Virginia. Dwighthas a three-year-old brother, KeithLowell.To J. Victor Mansfield, PhD'42, and Mrs. Mansfield, of Chicago,a daughter, Barbara Joyce, on November 30.engagementsVirginia Hunholz of Milwaukee toRobert Stolhand, AM '42, onChristmas day.Virginia Ailing of Chicago toArthur R. Bethke, '42. He is attending the quartermaster officerstraining school at Harvard.marriagesMrs. Carleton Hubert Burlingame(Louise Macneal, '21) to LyndonH. Lesch, '17, assistant treasurer ofthe University and assistant secretaryof the Board of Trustees, on January12 at Los Angeles, California.Helen Polos, '42, to George Topping, at the St. Constantine GreekOrthodox Church in Chicago onJanuary 16. He is a graduate of theUniversity of Wisconsin and is doingwork toward a PhD at U. of C. Athome, 1521 East 67th Place, Chicago.Adele Rose, '39, to David M.Saxe, '36. At home, 1308 N. TaftStreet, Arlington, Virginia. She iswith the War Manpower Commis- Natalie A. Foster of New York toLieut. Charles C. Derrick, MD '39,on November 18 at Long Beach, California.Jane Huntington, '42, to DaltonPotter, '42, on October 17 at St.Louis. At home, 1607 Wilson Avenue, Columbia, Missouri. He is inthe aviation cadet detachment atScott Field, Belleville, Illinois.Vivian E. Abrahams, '40, to Lieut.Ernest A. Braun, JD '38, on September 6. He is with the ordnancedepartment at Fort Jackson, SouthCarolina.Norma Faricy of Evanston to Ensign Ralph W. Condee, AM '39, atIthaca, New York, on October 10.Eloise Goode to Warren K. Wil-ner, Jr., '42, in Chicago. He is continuing his studies in the MedicalSchool at the University.O. Helen Mizevich, '36, to Edward B. Beeks, '37. At home, 6336Kenwood Avenue, Chicago.Evelyn Levinson to Ensign JeromeK. Coopersmith, '42, on October 22at Chicago. He is with the Navy'sAmphibious Forces at Norfolk, Virginia. .DEATHSThomas M. Putnam, PhD '01, onSeptember 22 in Berkeley, California.He was formerly professor of mathe-Albert K. Epstein, *?1B. R. Harris, "21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6HUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized as one of the leading TeachersAgencies of the United States.HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS SINCE 1906 —WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES ?ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ?ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE +RAYNEIT• DALHEIM &CO.2 OS* W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmatics and dean of the undergraduatedivision at the University of California.Edward G. Woods, '04, of Chicagoon October 26.August Broholm, BD '87, on December 12 in Des Moines. He wasa successful pastor among the DanishBaptists of this country and at onetime returned to Denmark to labor inan evangelistic effort.Giles S. Hall, MD '97, of LosAngeles, on June 4, 1942.Ansel F. Hemenway, PhD '12, atTucson, Arizona, on December 25. Hewas head of the biology departmentat Translyvania College, Lexington.Kentucky, for ten years after graduation. From 1923 to 1935 he wasprofessor of botany at the Universityof Arizona, and since 1936 had beenemployed as plant specialist in theArizona State Land Department.Lille M. Howe, '26, of WesternCollege, Oxford, Ohio, and Carroll-ton, Kentucky, on October 30.Daniel A. Lehman, '23, on September 8 in Goshen, Indiana.Willis Hawley, '80, on August 9.Harry M. Capps, Jr., SM '32, formerly on the faculty of the Universityof Louisiana, on January 17, 1942, atBaton Rouge.Samuel G. Clawson, JD '24, ofChicago on December 16. He heldthe highest record ever made at theLaw School. Clawson was an expertin the Treasury Department, and because of his experience in pleadingwas called to Chicago in the incometax case against Al Capone.(Continued from page 27)which would be occasioned and which,as you know, isn't me.As for actual news, your radio andnewspaper keep you infinitely betterinformed than I am, so that's that.At the moment I am in a field hospital, just about completely recoveredfrom, happily, no worse than a caseof dysentery or fatigue. And, although I have witnessed plenty ofworse things, I have up to now endured two months of war otherwiseunscathed. Back to duty tomorrow.Probably my most exciting day —the day I definitely established myself as an excellent actuarial risk —was one day when I was ordered totake a party out to our battery Observation Post. Sudden appearanceof enemy dive bombers made it seemexpedient to scatter from our car ina hurry (while we were on the wayout there), and I fell flat on theground near a small bush — practically no cover or protection. There Iremained for one hour and five min utes, while we were attacked fivetimes by bombs and four times bystrafing. One bomb landed five yardsfrom me and others were close by.The bullets whistled inches from me,then the planes left and we resumedour trip to the O.P. That afternoonthe O.P. was shelled for three and ahalf hours without let-up, while shellfragments and small arms bullets evencame into the fox hole with me. Anyway, I was not even scratched, exceptby some bamboo thorns. Of coursethe lines have long since moved, so Ibelieve that this should go throughthe censor.It would be absurd for me to pretend that I do not miss you or longto be with you. However, I see nogood purpose to be served by dwelling at length on that, so infer whatyou will. I have not heard from yousince last October and I don't knowwhether you are getting my letters ornot.Keep a record of vital statistics:births, deaths, marriages, divorces,etc., as I'll have a lot to catch up on.As for me, I'm keeping a daily diaryand I only hope it will reach you ifJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882Tuck PointingMaintenanceCleaning PHONEGRAceland 0800CENTRAL BUILDING CLEANING CO.CalkingStainingMasonryAcid WashingSand BlastingSteam CleaningWater Proofing 3347 N. Halsted StreetBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, Director I don't, as you will enjoy it. Onlyremember, as you read it, that it necessarily contains only trivia which itwould be o.k. to have fall into enemyhands, and also that it is writtenwithout superlatives, which you canwell supply.No point in dragging this out anyfurther. All my love to everyone entitled thereto, and until I see you onthe pier I am Yours,HowardENGLEWOODELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers ofELECTRICAL MATERIALS ANDFIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 EnglewoodS. Halsted Street 7500STANDARDBOILER and TANK CO.524 WEST 42nd STREETTelephone BOUIevard 5886AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE AFTER20 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERTGraduate NurseMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused. Permanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600 HairRoots per hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy, Also Elecirologisis Associationoj Illinois$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705. Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in BeautyTelephone wirecoming «PHere's a h-*-*—" ^""'^. lot of «i»t c°roerIn peaee, a >ot °ne„ tele-phone Unes. »•Ihooting and wnnmg ** «** l^nild new lmesThat'swny-ean^^^rightnow. ^^Jce Long Dis-_«Please dont pw un_— rlu„ XS n--^less it's absolutelyhope you will keepBELL TELEPHONE SYSTEMCOME M-WST^§mX0?Do You Know Little Babe?1ITTLE BABE is a fixer. If Big Joe is in trouble,4 or Little Joe, or ribald Uncle Pete, LittleBabe somehow finds a way to the prairie sunrise.You'll find Little Babe in the pages of the Post.And during the weeks when this lovable youngster is busy elsewhere, there are other men andwomen, boys and girls, who bring you saltystories from the Seven Seas . . . earthy storiesfrom the Far West . . . cullud stories from theDeep South . . . legal yarns from Manhattan . . .adventure epics with the U. S. Fighting Forces . . .tall tales from Newspaper Row . . . in a word —Mr. Tutt, Miss Bronska, Tugboat Annie, MusterGlencannon, Alexander Botts, Big Joe, Little Joeand Babe, Florian Slappey, Des and Crunch andAttorney Doowinkle have entertained severalmillion people, some of them for many years.And they are still in the Post to entertain you. Also in the Post are half again as many articlesas appeared a year ago, shorter articles, morevaried, more intimate, and more folksy. Sorrywe haven't an envelope to hand you and an orderform with your name on it — but the address foryou to use in ordering is below — and here arepresent money-saving prices:2 years, $51 year, $3 ... 3 years, $7. . . 4 years, $9PTHE SATURDAY EVENING©STINDEPENDENCE SQUARE, PHILA., PA.