THE UNIVERSITY OkCHICAGO MAGAZINEMAY 19 4 2ALHA HATER.The University of Chicago.Words byEdwin H. L,ewis. Music adapted and arranged for mixed voices byPaul Mandeville.m mm1. To-night we glad- ly sing the praise Of her who owns us as her sons;2. Her might - y learn - ing we would tell, Tho' life is something more than lore;3. The Cit - y White hath fled the earth, But where the az - ure wa-ters lie,I I K K Is K IS I J J** J** Jffi > *\ r *IdEaE1 **\Z *=*\3 _^_i u ws-z h — ¦ 1 —-#¦• -•¦ -*>. -0- -*-•let us raise, And blesssons so well, Loved shehath its birth, The Cit u*- >-W-OurSheASP loycouldno - al voic - esnot love herbier cit - y her with our ben - i -not truth and hon - or¦ y Gray that ne'er shallIN -. . sons.more.die.^=* PH*Tft* Pm 5=3=* *^— i i 1 — -i — ¦ — —iOf allWe prizeFor dec, IeS fair moth-ers, fairher breadth of charades and for cen -IS n rest she, Most wisei - ty, Her faithtu - ries, Its bat of all that wis - estthat truth shall make mentie - ment-ed tow'rs shallis rbe,free,rise,i X*=xx=fr X £ =fi=tI &--Si stV. V J- I)' wIMost true of all the true, say we, Is our dearThat right shall live e - ter - nal - ly, We praise ourBe - neath the hope-filled west- ern skies,'Tis our dear Al - maAl - maAl - ma MaMaMaiH -fr-rfr ter.ter.ter.It *=fc Im £=£ -ia-1/ 1/ L» 'b ? " ^ *Arrangement copyright, 1898, by Paul Mandeville, Chicago.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCHARLTON T. BECKEditor HOWARD W. MORTAssociate Editor WILLIAM P. SCHENKAssistant EditorDAVID DAICHES, DON MORRIS, CODY PFANSTIEHL Contributing EditorsTHIS MONTHTHE COVER: A little in advance ofthe 1942 Reunion, two alumni areabout to visit the new home of theAlumni Association on the first floorof the house at 5733 University Avenue — across the street from MandelHall.Thomas R. Mulroy, reunion chairman; John Nuveen, Jr., president ofthe Alumni Association; Gordon J.Laing, alumni dean; Herbert P. Zimmermann, chairman of the AlumniFoundation; and the editors of theMagazine invite all alumni to stopin.The cover photo is by Al Pfanstiehl.FEW REPORTS on the work ofthe University's mathematicalbiophysicists have appeared anywhereexcept in the technical journals. TheMagazine is pleased to present JohnO'Gonnell's article — based on research, interview, and enthusiasm forhis subject. Mr. O'Connell, a formerscholarship student at the University,is now a writer in the Chicago metropolitan area Office of Civilian Defence.When "Bill" McNeill was editor-in-chief of The Daily Maroon in1937-38, he never thought that hewould contribute to the alumni magazine from an island in the Pacific.Now, Pvt. William H. McNeill isstationed with the 16th Coast Artillery at Fort Ruger, Territory of Hawaii, and "his article on the Japanesecame to us in an envelope marked"Passed by Army Censor." William, TABLE OF CONTENTSMAY, 1942PageMathematicians' Dream,John O'Connell 3The Spirit of the Samurai,William H. McNeill 5Notes for a Dilettante,David Daiches 7An Alumnus Makes a Plea,Lewis M. Norton 9One Man's Army, Cody Pfanstiehl. . . 10Athletics, Don Morris 13I'll Never Forget 15Reunion Program 16News of the Quadrangles 19Kurt Riezler, Wayne Shuttee 21News of the Classes 25who is the son of John T. McNeill,professor in the Divinity School, isscheduled to return to the UnitedStates for officer's training.6if~\? COURSE it's not really pro-V>^ found, but it's so well written," is'a remark that may or may notbe paradoxical, according to one'sphilosophy of style. David Daiches,assistant professor of English, considers that difficult subject in his columnthis month. "Through a consideration of the problem of style," hepromises, "one can come to a complete literary theory.""An Alumnus Makes a Plea" waswritten as a letter to the editor datedMay 19. The author, Lewis M. Norton, a public accountant living inSouth Orange, New Jersey, tookplenty of time to reflect upon the au thorized statement about the new degree requirements featured in theMarch issue. After reflection, whatare your reactions?He is speaking for himself, but whatCody Pfanstiehl put into his lettersthis month lets us in on the psychology of more than one citizen-soldier.The author of "One Man's Army" isno longer in Texas. His address, atlast report: 30th School Squadron,Barracks 773; Scott Field, Illinois.YANCEY T. BLADE, "a greatman in disguise," though a poormathematician, explains on page 13why the Chicago-Minnesota gamebroke the University's losing streak.Don Morris, Blade's admirer andconfidant, helps out with a fewtheories of his own in his report onrecent Maroon athletics.Alexander J. Isaacs, a Chicago attorney, proves himself a raconteurwith a series of non-Proustian episodes as his contribution to "I'll NeverForget." A Chinese diplomat and anopen door are the chief elements ina reminiscence contributed by MaryDewhurst Miles.VISITING PROFESSOR KurtRiezler will soon return to hispost at the New School for Social Research in New York. Wayne Shuttee,author of the biographical sketch, hasa fellowship in the Divinity School,r.nd is now completing the second yearof his work for the Ph.D. His specialinterest is the philosophy of religion.Published by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 57S3 University Avenue,Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Office at Chicago,Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of theUniversity of Chicago Magazine.HE STORY CANNOT BE TOLD until after the war. Butyou will glimpse it at the 1942 Reunion. You will see alittle of it in barracks and mess halls that were once yourrendezvous — in the pace of armed sentries past iviedwalls you knew — in the tramp of bluejackets under archways that are your keepsakes. You will sense it in theabsence of faculty members gone to Washington, thearmed forces, and posts in war industry — or at workbehind locked doors on the Quadrangles.The fundamental purposes of the University must notbe altered by the war. Assure their preservation. Makeyour contribution to the 1942 Annual Alumni Gift now.When your gift, combined with those of your fellowalumni, is presented to the University on June 13, it willbe part of the story that can be told now — the story ofhow the alumni, mindful of the way in which war imperiled the University, helped defend it as their allythrough crisis and after victory.VOLUME XXXIV THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEMAY, 1942 NUMBER 8MATHEMATICIANS' DREAMIt may lead to unificationand a universal languagefor the natural sciencesIT was in 1935 that the University of Chicago hireda Russian scientist who called himself a ''mathematical biophysicist" to work in its physiology department. A few weeks after the new man started towork, Professor Anton J. Carlson, then head of the department, stopped in to look over the mathematical biophysics laboratory. When he found a workshop thatlooked much more like an office than a laboratory, witha paper-littered desk the only evidence of scientific research, the eminent physiologist was so shocked that hefired his new assistant professor. Thus runs the Quadrangle legend.But, nevertheless, the mathematical biophysicist isstill at the University. The legend, one of those thatdoesn't have to be true to be significant, does indicatethe attitude of some biologists toward the professor'smathematical biology when it was newly introduced intothe world of the biological sciences. Many biologistshave since changed their minds; from the offices on thesecond floor of the old greystone building on DrexelAvenue, the home of the only mathematical biophysicsorganization in the world, have come frequent and important contributions to the development of modernbiology.Nicolas Rashevsky, the founder of the Chicago groupof mathematical biophysicists, was born in Russia at theturn of the century. Trained as a mathematical physicistat the University of Kiev, he taught physics in Kiev,Constantinople, and Prague after the first World War,then came to the United States in 1924 as a researchphysicist in the Westinghouse laboratories in East Pittsburgh. Some eight years before he came to Chicago, hebecame interested in biology — and before he left EastPittsburgh, he had taken the first steps from mathematicalphysics to mathematical biology.Biologists had used mathematics in their research before, but Rashevsky' s purely theoretical approach, e By JOHN O'CONNELLan old story in physics, was unheard of in the way heused it to study the behavior of protoplasm. ProfessorRashevsky brought to Chicago the beginning of afull-fledged mathematical biology — a new scientific fieldthat he called mathematical biophysics.But just what is mathematical biophysics? Briefly, it isan attempt to create a well-integrated theoretical biologyby applying the methods of theoretical physics to thestudy of living things. A short and simplified description — omitting the complex mathematics involved inevery step — of how the mathematical biophysicists developed their theory of cell division may give a clearerpicture of what it is all about.The first step, as in any scientific problem, was to setup a tentative hypothesis to put the problem into a workable form — a "guess" as to where the answer would probably be found. Next came the mathematical creation ofa very abstract and generalized cell, related to real cellsin much the same way that the "billiard ball" conceptof the molecule in physics was related to real molecules.This hypothetical cell was little more than a mathematical description of a system of permeable membranes andions and molecules moving in a solvent. Then, usingknown principles of physics, all of the physical possibilities of this abstract cell were investigated mathematically. And perhaps what was found to be possible in theideal cell of mathematical biophysics might approximatewhat was actual in living cells.But before mathematical analysis was possible, a newmathematical tool was needed. Just when a cell underthe influence of diffusion forces will divide depends onits shape, and the slightest change in shape radicallychanges the mathematical description of the cell. Thewanted tool was found in an "approximation method,"which made the solution of the problem practical. Sincethe validity of the solution does not depend on the exactshape of any given cell, the abstract cell was defined byan approximate shape, and the mathematical conclusionsthus obtained were readily applied to actual cells whoseexact shape could not be described by easily handledmathematical expressions. The first analysis, of the diffusion of a single substance, was too simplified and agreedwith only one set of experimental data. The theoreticalinvestigation of more complex cases, however, was very34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAl Pfanstiehl Photosatisfactory. It made it possible to calculate the conditions at which any real cell will divide in terms of several variable factors and showed also a definite connection between the metabolism of glucose and the abnormally rapid division of cancer cells.Some biologists received mathematical biophysics withlack of understanding, and some with ridicule. Abstraction as rarified and analysis as theoretical as the mathematical biophysicists' seemed to them too far removedfrom the "real" world of experimental biology. However, the mathematical biophysicists have never, as itmay have seemed at the beginning, considered experimental confirmation of their work incidental. Theypoint out that their research is both a check on experiment and a means of indicating new problems for theexperimenter. As they developed their cell division theory with its many ramifications, they were delighted tofind that experimental data coincided more closely withtheir theoretical predictions.Much of the experimental verification of their workhas been done by Ralph Buchsbaum, associate professorof zoology at the University and author of the best-selling textbook, Animals without Backbones. Mr.Buchsbaum remarked recently, after an exhaustive andextremely accurate experimental check of the cell division theory, that the degree of correlation between thepredictions of the theory and the experimental data was"amazing."The mathematical biophysicists replied to critics, whoobjected that their mathematical cells could tell themnothing about real cells because they had no counterpartsin reality, that most of the concepts of physics haven'teither. There is no such thing as a perfectly rigid body,for example, yet physicists theorize about it. No oneaccuses the theoretical physicists of playing in a scientific, ivory tower; the advances in technology that resultfrom their work are too great to permit it. Rashevsky points out that the method used by the mathematicalbiophysicists is not new in the exact sciences; that "in An informal seminar. Standing, left to right: Ingram Bloch,Henry Stanton, and Walter Pitts at the blackboard. Seated]back row: Herbert D. Lahdahl, Robert Williamson, andGale Young. Front row: Alston S. Householder, Helen DeYoung (editorial secretary), Alvin Weinberg, and NicolasRashevsky, associate professor of mathematical biophysics.the hands of Maxwell" this method "resulted in ourlistening to music over the radio and this same methodin the hands of von Laue resulted in the wholesale prevention of failure of important structural units in machines by means of x-ray analysis."The mathematical biophysicists were not the first touse mathematics in biology, but it was not until theyshowed how the problems of cell division and nerve excitation and various problems of brain physiology couldbe stated and solved mathematically that mathematicalbiology became a science in its own right. A theoreticalbiology, potentially as fruitful as theoretical physics, isnow in existence.As mathematical biophysics grew up, it proved to beneither fad nor quackery, and it was slowly accepted asa legitimate field of scientific endeavor. Scattered contributions to its growth were made elsewhere, but theUniversity of Chicago was the only place where mathematical biophysics was developed into an integrated bodyof biological theory.Since 1935 the mathematical biophysics staff has grownfrom one worker tq seven. In addition to Rashevsky, it now consists of Alston S. Householder, Herbert D.Landahl, Henry Stanton, Robert Williamson, IngramBloch, and Walter Pitts. Important contributions weremade by Gale Young and Alvin Weinberg, former members of the staff who are now engaged in defense work.C. H. Coombs, another former staff member, is now inWashington with the War Department. While the firststeps were Rashevsky's, the highest developed mathematical biophysics of today is the result of the work ofthe entire staff, many of whom brought into the workspecial training in related fields.The members of the group carry on their researchindependently, although the senior members of the staffdirect the work of the younger ones in research on agiven problem. The chief outlet for their research is theBulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, now in its fourthyear of publication by the University of Chicago Press.Research in progress is co-ordinated at weekly seminars.The presentation of the research paper of the week isfollowed by a bull session, in which the work just presented receives thorough criticism after the group hasrefreshed itself with Russian tea and cookies. All theimplications of the research presented are explored, newproblems arising from it are formulated, and gaps thathave been disclosed in the structure of mathematicalbiophysics itself are sketched in. The bull sessions oftenproduce fantastic by-products of mathematical speculation. At a Friday-afternoon session during the invasionof Crete, a formula for the probability of the success of(Continued on page 22)THE SPIRIT OF THE SAMURAI• By WILLIAM H. McNEILL, A.M. '39A peculiar strength;it will not easilybe overcomeWE thought ourselves so powerful that Japan wouldnever dare attack us. But our complacency wasmistaken; and it was mistaken because it wasbased on disregard of the decisive changes which havetransformed Japan in the last decade.Since 1931, when the autonomous Kwangtung armyinvaded Manchuria, a great revolution has taken placein Japan. Army and navy leaders have seized firm holdon the government through a series of intrigues andassassinations. By means of government regulation, thearmy has carefully prepared Japanese economy for war.Armament factories have been built, large stocks of warsupplies have been accumulated, and the natural resources of Manchuria have been systematically developedin the hope that they would supplement Japan's owndeficiencies, especially in coal and iron.Changes such as these are not unfamiliar in the West.What is distinctive to Japan is not this. Rather it is thepeculiar national ethos, the spirit of the samurai reborn,which now in our day has come to govern Japan's industrial might.In the long centuries when Japan lived isolated fromthe outside world, her life at home was very nearly inecological balance, so that changes were very slow. Theslow rate of change allowed etiquette among the militaryland-owning class to elaborate and harden itself into arigid code of honor. Among the other classes of society,the samurai and his code came to be honored and respected, even though it required the subordination ofeveryone else to the warriors.When the treaties which Admiral Perry forced uponJapan brought the period of isolation to an abrupt end,one of the greatest impulses toward adoption of Westerntechnology came from the samurai. For Western gunshad proved themselves superior to ancestral swords, andmilitary pride therefore required that Japan too haveguns. The merchants of Japan found their interests tocoincide, for new machines could be turned to the usesof trade. Even the impoverished farmers benefitted mildlyfrom enlarged opportunities for employment in the new-built factories, and from some improvements in agricultural methods, such as the use of artificial fertilizers. Such a happy coincidence of interests accounts for much ofJapan's rapid progress in her imitation of the West.But this harmony did not last. In the early 30's thetwo leading classes of modernized Japan, the merchantsand the militarists, came into grating collision. Whathappened was that the merchants became too successfulfor their own good, both at home and abroad.In the colonial markets of the world, Western firmsbegan to feel Japanese competition in the years afterWorld War I. They easily persuaded their governmentsto discriminate against Japanese goods, hoping thereby tokeep profitable markets to themselves. The depressionaccelerated this movement, and presented the merchantsand manufacturers of Japan with a hard choice. On theone hand, they might have relied upon a raised standardof living at home gradually to absorb the bulk of homeproduction, while foreign trade dwindled to comparativeunimportance. On the other hand, the Japanese industrial plant might be used to support a forcible openingof markets abroad; it might be devoted, that is, to building up a strong army and navy.At home, the merchants of Japan ran into even greaterdifficulties. Army officers, as descendants of the samurai,believed themselves by right superior to all other classesin society, and as the great merchant and manufacturinghouses became rich and powerful, the militarists beganto see in their greed and chaffering a threat to the purityof ancestral ways. The great commercial firms seemedmore interested in profit than in honor; most heinousof all, they preferred financial solvency to militarystrength, and therefore opposed enlarged grants to thearmy and navy. ,The resultant friction continued bitter through theearly 30's. It took a series of political assassinations,planned and executed by junior army officers, to giveunquestioned victory to the militarists. In retrospect, itis clear that the merchants had never had much chanceof success. They were not supported by any firm conviction of the righteousness of their ways, comparable tothe patriotic fervor of their opponents. They were notfollowing in a path hallowed by ancestral example. Instead they copied the economic methods and adopted thepecuniary values of the alien West. This made them easytargets for attack. Worst of all, the merchants weredivided among themselves. Some, like the Mitsui, ownersof heavy industrial plants, approved the militarists' drivefor armament, seeing a chance for profit to themselvesat the expense of the economy at large, and sharing, perhaps genuinely, in the militaristic patriotism of (thesamurai.The one chance for the merchants would have been56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto consolidate an effective alliance with the farmers andlaborers of Japan. This submerged class in some degreeheld the balance between the competing groups in thecritical time from 1923 to 1936. Had the merchants heldout a lively hope of a raised standard of living, perhapsthey might have won firm popular support among thedesperately impoverished population and even weanedthe conscript farmer's son from unquestioning loyalty tohis officers. But in fact, Big Business was not able toforego immediate profit from low wages; and the armyofficers have instead been able to channel lower classrestiveness into a fanatic patriotism, a hatred of foreigners,and burning faith in the military destiny of Japan.Social tradition made the alliance between militaryleaders and the lower classes relatively easy. Obedienceand loyalty to army leadership was nothing new. Ratherit was a translation into modern life of the old subordination of tradesmen and farmers to the samurai. But themodern representatives of the samurai are not contentto leave their power over the rest of the population tochance and the vague survival of old ways. They havemade a deliberate and amazingly thorough campaign toreinforce old loyalties among the people.At the base of Japanese society is the family, and itslife is still largely immune from government control. Butthe virtues developed by family training are concordantif not positively helpful to the aims of the militarists.Filial obedience, frugality, arduous industry, and thesupremacy of the male are taught from infancy by precept and example.Loyalty to the family is merged into loyalty to thenation, and the conflicts which exist between the two areglossed over by the state religion, Shinto. Shinto teachesthat the whole Japanese people is one great family, descended from a common ancestor, and headed by theDivine Emperor, to whom the people therefore owe ason's obedience. During the past thirty years Japanesestatesmen have deliberately resuscitated Shinto and developed it to such an extent that some observers say anew religion has been created by the state. Old or new,the teachings are a powerful force making the Japanesepliant subjects for the militarists.At the core of the religion is an elaborate politicalmythology. The Emperor is held to be a direct descendant of the Sun Goddess, who created the world, andguards the Japanese people with special care, since theyare her progeny and the eldest race of men. Events fromJapanese history are interpreted as evidence of herdivine guidance, especially the destruction of KublaiKhan's invading fleet in 1281 by a typhoon. Under theEmperor, Heaven's representative on earth, Japan movestoward a sure and glorious destiny as ruler of Asia andeventually of all the world. This is the new Shinto.Beside it older practices persist, for the people reverenceguardian spirits of sacred places, and set up shrines fortheir worship. But except for the national shrine ofMount Fujiyama, this aspect of Shinto is little emphasized by official acts. It is only the nation-wide symbols thatinterest Japan's present-day rulers.Schools and the army have been made into seminariesfor the cultivation of patriotic attitudes. Next to the difficult Japanese script, morals is the subject that gets mostattention in the schools. Morals of course means themorals of the ancestors, the virtues of the samurai. Talesfrom Japanese history, eminent examples of devotion toone's leader, and stories of heroic self-sacrifice are steadilyheld before the young Japanese boy as patterns for himto follow. It is through the schools that the revivedShinto has most successfully been propagated, for theteachers impart the traditional mythology to their pupilswith all seriousness. Even the institutions of higher education, where Western science is studied, give lip serviceto the myths of Shinto.From school, Japanese boys who are physically fitgraduate into the army, where, before the war, theyspent two years as conscripts. The soldiers are fed on thebest that Japan can afford, clothed better than theirparents were ever able to clothe them, and held in highsocial esteem. In the newly consolidated scheme of values,the army and navy are at the apex of society, and soldiersand sailors are expected to exemplify all the most prizedvirtues.In addition to training in the skills of war and severetoughening exercises, the Japanese army pays careful attention to a continued patriotic education. The soldiersare led to believe in Japan's future as ruler of Asia andthe world; they are taught to hate everything thatstands in the way of that destiny — the Western nationsand the financiers at home who dared prefer profit toglory. Death in battle assures the soldier a glorious immortality, for among the most important annual ceremonies of Shinto is the festival at which the Emperorformally enshrines among the guardians of the land thespirits of those soldiers who have died during the year.From such education, reckless daring may result, andlead to its own undoing; but, led by cool heads, it makesthe Japanese army stronger for war than a mere catalogue of men and equipment would show. From aWestern point of view it seems an incongruous mixtureof old and new — superstition and science, stubborn tradition and facile innovation; the spirit of the samuraiunited with modern machinery. Yet Japan's peculiarstrength lies in that mixture, and in the spirit of thesamurai which now dominates it all. That spirit,strengthened as it has been by deliberate propaganda,and sharpened by the straitness of economic circumstance,has made possible the harnessing of Japan's industrialplant to the purposes of war. That same spirit makesJapanese soldiers daring and stubborn in combat. Itmakes the Japanese people united and confident, proudof their success and willing to sacrifice themselves to theuttermost to assure its continuance.America will have great difficulty in subduing thatspirit; more difficulty than perhaps we even yet believe.NOTES FOR A DILETTANTE• By DAVID DAICHESIt helps minimumbecome maximumcommunicationSuggestions Towardsa Philosophy of StyleA GENERATION ago, the problem of style wasconstantly agitating the literary critics. Today,we are concerned with other matters, withpsychological or sociological accounts of the "causes" ofworks of art, or with geometrical analyses of the relationbetween the parts and the whole. Style is considered anacademic subject, unreal and unimportant; or it isrelegated to courses in freshmen English. Yet it isimportant — it is important that we should have somewell-considered answer to give to the common andfatuous kind of criticism which observes of a work that"of course, it's not really profound, but it's so wellwritten," or "I disliked the novel, but I admire theauthor's style." For what, we may well ask, is style?• One might say at the outset that style is simply theproper exploitation of a medium of communication. Butwhat do we mean by "proper"? Well, we might expandthis and say that by "proper" we mean "maximum":that is, style is the maximum utilization of the resourcesof a given medium, so that the required effect is producedsimultaneously with the least apparent effort but in thegreatest number of different ways. The great stylist isthen one who is best able to dominate his medium.But all this doesn't get us very far. If style — as distinct from "styles," i.e., fashions in writing — is simplyskill in the employment of the medium, how is this skillto be assessed? By its effect? Its effect on whom? Andwhat about the relation of means to ends? Is a simpleswear-word good style simply because it conveys in themost adequate manner what the speaker wished to convey? Or is a complex swear-word, rich in suggestionsof obscenity and profanity, better style?If these are silly questions, we must know why. Oneconsideration that arises at once is that the problem ofstyle is obviously concerned with communication thattakes place in time. Individual words, like single notesin music, can be judged aesthetically only within a givencontext. A conception is outside time; communicationon the other hand is within it, and the success of a communication depends to a large extent on the degree towhich the time element is used to achieve a cumulativerather than a scattering and distracting effect. Litera ture, like music, is an art in which the order of theunits of communication determines its effect even morethan the nature of those units.Even if the relation between words and what theystand for was a one-for-one correspondence (which, ofcourse, it isn't), there would still be a problem of style,though it would be much simpler. For a medium ofcommunication which utilizes time as one of its elementsraises questions of order, emphasis, pattern, arrangement,speed, and so on, which are of the greatest importance.The basic problem of style is thus to utilize the time takento communicate a thought, image, or whatever it is, tothe best possible advantage. And then comes the properchoice of vocabulary to give maximum effects to thispattern. These are two separate, though closely relatedquestions and the first comes before the second.Consider these two lines:If yet I have not all thy love, Dear I shall never have it all.And these two:Sweetest love, I do not goFor weariness of thee.It will be noticed that the term of endearment (whichI have italicized) is in a different position in each couplet,and that the entire quality of the meaning in eachexample is affected by that position. It is a questionnot of place (this is where the printed page may deceiveus) but of time: the whole conception takes a certainperiod of time for its communication, and the particularpoints of time at which certain key terms are presentedto the reader or listener determines the effect of thewhole. (Incidentally, it might be a good thing if poets,like musicians, used marks to indicate the tempo of agiven piece.)Or consider conjunctions as basing their very existenceon the time it takes to effect a communication. "And"or "or" in themselves have no real meaning; but eachin its proper temporal context can do wonders. In, for example, "and" is the sign of a good mealand "or" is a sinister sign. "Roast chicken and bacon"is good news; "roast chicken or bacon" not so good. Awise guy might say, "Beware of a restaurant where theword 'or' appears on the menu."Take a more literary example:And do you now put on your best attire?And do you now cull out a holiday?And do you now strew flowers in his wayThat comes in triumph over Pompey's blood?Here the cumulative effect of accusation depends on theperiodic falling of the conjunction. There is a properuse of time.Let us take one more example before pausing to deriveconclusions. Consider "now" as a conjunction. In a78 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpiece of philosophical prose it can be an indication oftolerance and reasonableness, or it can be the reverse,depending on its position and the nature of the sentencesit connects. It is used very adroitly in Sir ThomasBrowne's Religio Medici to indicate a willingness toconsider the other side. "Now, besides this literal andpositive kind of death, there are others whereof Divinesmake mention. . . ." "Now, the necessary Mansions ofour restored selves are those two contrary and incomparable places we call Heaven and Hell." A study ofthe contexts here reveals the importance of this conjunction falling where it does: it indicates a mood ofundogmatic rationality. But if I say, "You will havebeen told that these eggs are fresh. Now this is not true,"the significance, .of the "now" is very different. Style, tobe discussed at all, must have a context and a temporalduration.It is also clear that style, like communication in general,depends on memory. Unlike the plastic arts, but likemusic, literature constantly depends on retrospect andanticipation. Style, one might then say, refers to anauthor's ability to make maximum use of such retrospectand anticipation, to use time as an ally rather thanregard it as an enemy. The great writer is one whoalways has time on his side.But literature is more than propositional statement.In all art, the artist's attitude is part of his meaning.We might therefore say that style is the means of conveying that attitude into the communication in such away as to both circumscribe and enrich the author'smeaning. Circumscribe — i.e., make explicit; it is thisand not that; ambiguity may be present (if deliberate),but never confusion. Enrich — relate it to other relevantparts of the pattern. The two processes are complementary. (It is something of this sort that Bacon wasreferring to by the names "prenotion" and "emblem" inhis discussion of memory in Book Two of The Advancement of Learning.) In literature, proper definition isalso proper enrichment, and in excluding what you don'tmean you simultaneously include (or ought to) a hostof complementary undertones and overtones that ekeout what you do mean.Let us take some more examples:I have heard the mermaids singing each to each.I do not think that they will sing to me.Here we can see clearly the complementary processesof definition and enrichment proceeding at the sametime. The attitude of the speaker (important as settingthe basis of the pattern) is given by the specific terms:have heard — note the past tense; mermaid — conventionalromantic figure; singing — specification of a romantic activity; each to each — note the contact with other aspectsof the pattern (the phrase is from Euclid, suggestingnormal activities of youth, linking with the previous suggestions of nostalgia for youth) .Then follows the second linej a deliberate piece ofdead prose. The unromantic present set over against the DAVID DAICHES"The true artist," he says, "keepsbuilding up new and exciting combinations of meaning concerningwhat is in the bag, but he neverlets the cat out of the bag untilthe end, when the reader realizesthat it was visible all the time."past with its youthful romantic illusions. Here the ordergives enrichment; the present comes after the past, andthe result is poignancy.Take a simpler example :Give me some bread and cheese.What happens to the effect of this sentence when putin another context?I like a simple rustic fare.Give me some bread and cheese.The phrase "bread and cheese" now develops enrichmentfrom its position; the statement ceases to be neutral;bread and cheese is now (however tritely) a symbol ofhonest rusticity, and its symbolic quality derives from itsposition, not its nature. Again, time is the dimensionthat matters. If we could read all the words simultaneously this effect would not be greater, but less.Contrast with the lines above a line such as this:Pass me tenacious paste of solid milk.Here a simple concept is split up in time, the separateelements in the total conception reaching us one by one;and when we have all the data, we realize they add upto a conception so simple that the contrast between itssimplicity and the complex means of expressing itproduces a comic effect. Here, then, is one source ofthe comic, a source which depends directly on time. AHsorts of rhetorical devices depend on taking longer toexpress something than would normally be supposednecessary. Other effects depend on taking a shorter timethan the "normal." (Of course, the question of what is"normal" is not an easy one. But let that go for themoment. The normal is, as a rule, what one is led toexpect either by the previous context or by the attitudeassumed or induced by the writer, etc.)Order and pattern, as well as proper choice of words,can make minimum into maximum communication, canmake the individual into the symbolic, can make a neutralsituation into a significant one. Art is unneutral communication, where the belligerency of the artist isunnoticed until it has had its effect.What, then, is the relation of style to plot? In anovel or a poem we arrange a pattern of events, images,or what have you, so as to bring out certain meanings,implications, attitudes, etc. This is a temporal activity.(Time is of the essence of musical or literary pattern,which is one reason why analogies from painting toliterature or music are so fatuous as a rule.) But style,depending, like plot, on time, becomes a function of plot(Continued on page 32)AN ALUMNUS MAKES A PLEAA letter to the editor:in it the new A. weighedNOT even the glamorous outside cover of theMarch number of The University of ChicagoMagazine can disguise the sad news containedinside. I am referring to the newest Chicago Plan.It is my personal opinion that the last two years in theUniversity are many times more beneficial even to anaverage student than the first two years. It is during thelast two years that the average student learns to run hisown affairs and to some extent to manage those of others.Regardless of any "book learning" which he may absorb, I think the importance of these last years shouldnot be underestimated. However, I am not an educatorand frankly I know so little about the theory of education that I would have supposed that 6-4-4 was thedesignation of a certain type of American railway locomotive, not a system of education. It is obvious therefore that I cannot talk glibly about such matters and if Itried to discuss them I would have to confine myself tocommon sense and personal experience. I shall therefore limit myself to the discussion of other phases of theChicago Plan.I quote from the so-called "authorized statement"regarding the plan:The Bachelor's degree has meant that a student hashad eight years of elementary school, four years ofhigh school, four years of college, and is about theage of 21 or 22.I also quote from President Hutchins' statement to thestudents as printed on page 12 of your March numberas follows:We like to say that degrees are not important. Ifthey are not, one reason may be that none of the degrees we offer means much of anything today. TheB.A. means four years in college. The M.A. meansone year more. . . . We cannot make degrees lessimportant simply by saying that they do not signify.They do signify.I should now like to quote from Regulation S-X of theSecurities and Exchange Commission covering the registration of corporations under the Securities Act of 1933and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:Financial statements may be filed in such form andorder and may use such generally accepted terminology as will best indicate their significance and character in the light of the provisions applicable thereto.It had never occurred to me that perhaps the Securities and Exchange Commission or some other governmental body would be required to police the giving ofdegrees, but perhaps this will become necessary. I can • By LEWIS M.NORTON '14assure you that if the SEC had to pass on the giving of adegree recognized as meaning four years' work by Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Michigan, Wisconsin, California,and in fact by every college in the country for two years'work, the result would be a "stop order." It seems tome that the standards of honesty of a great universitycannot be less than those of corporations supervised bythe Securities and Exchange Commission.Equal in dishonesty to the giving of the degree itselfis the authorized statement regarding the new degreerequirements which is published on page 3 of your magazine. I should like to make a few quotations and comments from this amazing bit of eyewash. For example,I quote:It has not always had that meaning. In themedieval universities, it signified a stage of apprenticeship in teaching, rather than completion of a timeperiod in education. As the period of preparation forteaching shifted, so did the minimum age of the student to whom it could be granted — from 20 years in1252, to 14 in 1350.Very interesting indeed, I am sure, but I only knowof one man now alive who uses the events of the MiddleAges to explain his current actions and as that man isvery busy with his armies on the Russian front, it reallyis inconceivable that he could - have written this officialunsigned statement.Again I quote:The Bachelor's degree which the University of Chicago awards for liberal education has mistakenly beendescribed as a "two-year" degree. As administered bythe University it is a four-year course of study. Students can be admitted at the beginning — in the firstyear of the Four Year College, or what is commonlythe equivalent of the junior year in high school. Orthey may be admitted in the middle of the course ifthey are graduates of the regular four-year high schoolcourse; that is, what is generally called the freshmanyear of college.Any high-school graduates who satisfy the University's admission standards are qualified to begin theprogram there. The first half of this four-year college program is devoted to a broad and basic training, the equivalent of which the better high schoolssubstantially provide.Perhaps under the new plan the students will betaught that two equals four, but as your magazine ispublished by the Alumni Council, I think perhaps theauthor of this statement somewhat underestimates hisreaders. It does not take an accountant to know thattwo does not equal four or that the last two of an accredited high school are not equal to two years of college.The method and caliber of instruction and the responsibilities placed on the individual are totally different. Ifthe University of Chicago faculty really voted in favor ofthis plan, perhaps they should take more time off to visitnear-by high schools. If the last two years of highschool are in fact the equivalent of two years at the{Continued on page 32)9ONE MAN'S ARMY• By CODY PFANSTIEHLThey have little ideaof the future, butthey trust itApril 17, 1942An Army Air Forces Field in TexasLAST night, Harvey Yorke, George Habib, and Iappeared for passes promptly at five o'clock inthe Orderly Room. Per regulations, our shoeswere shined, our hair combed, our hands washed, andwe had on our O. D. uniforms, complete with blouse.Five minutes later we boarded one of the constant streamof small middle-aged busses which stop at the cornernear the barracks. We dropped our dimes in the boxand took our places. One more stop and the bus wasfilled with cheerful soldiers. We took off for town, stopping only at the gate for the M. P. to enter, inspect ourorange passes, pause to ask for identification here andthere, and retire to his little cupola.The feeling of freedom was apparent as soon as webegan to gather speed on the highway. On either side —wherever we looked — were fields, a few trees and shantyfarm houses, and no white barracks. We were surprisedto see that spring had blown on the landscape. Therewas no landscape except brown, packed earth within thenewly hewn Post.The three of us were quiet. The day was warm. Thetires hummed along the concrete. It was strange to seecivilian landscape passing us. The warm spring airblew through the window, and we felt an echo of thejoy of driving one's own car along a country highwaywith, say, the top down, the wheel under one's fingers,and a girl with her hair blowing beside you. For a moment we gave ourselves up to the joy of driving anywhereone wanted to, for any length of time, in any clothes,with anybody. But an olive drab coat, and another,and another, on the seats in front and to the side of us,broke the spell. We were, after all, soldiers on leave —going to town.The slick smell of oil tanks pervaded the bus. Wepassed a refinery, its rotund, flat tanks scattered aboutlike pill-boxes or full-throated bull frogs, crouching closeto the sagebrush."Here's South Chicago," I said to our end of the bus."We'll be hitting the Dunes any minute now." A soldierbehind me said, "I wisht we was barrelin' along ol' 12-20now. On'y going the other way-^-toward Michigan Avenue. . ..." Another soldier, across the aisle, grinned andsaid, "Chicago men, huh? How long you been here?" "Eight weeks," I said. "We're veterans. How's abouta dip in the lake when we get to Dunes Park?""You can say that again," he said. We talked for aminute about our progress toward Army school or assignment, and then fell quiet, watching the town thickenabout us as we approached it.We had a list of cleaning materials to buy: the resultof a barracks collection that afternoon. • G. I. soap isno good to clean a washbowl. Neither does it do a goodjob on windows. Nothing is issued to do these jobs;therefore, if we wish a good inspection we must buyBon Ami and Kitchen Kleanser. These we purchased,and, our duty done, headed for a book store. Georgebought two: one philosophy, and one current affairs.Harvey said he had a complete Plato in his barracksbag, if we'd care to dig in sometime. I stayed at arm'slength from the shelves, lest I yield to Temptation. ButI was lured by a stationery store where I bought three-by-five file cards for our permanent mail roster, a tabletof wide accounting and tabulating forms for a daily dutyroster, a typewriter ribbon, and various envelopes. Asusual when I get into a stationery store, it all happenedvery quickly, and only the thought of breaking my lastfive-dollar bill rescued me at all.Thus laden with merchandise, we held consultation ona street corner across from The Hub (familiar sight).It was unanimously agreed that we must have a whitetable-cloth. Narrow silver- ware, with small spoons. Thinglasses with ice tinkling in the water. Real coffee. Anda good steak. Make it three good steaks. The placeseemed to be Burch's, recommended merely by repetitionof reports from past pass-holders.Burch's was decorated in modern, buff and yellow,leather-seated booths, chrome piping style. There weretables and a counter. We chose a table, because on it,gleaming and in utterly no need of G.I. -ing was a whitetable-cloth. We happily ordered the $1.25 dinners featuring the steak — medium rare, please.The waitress brought little hot rolls in a basket. Therewas a neat salad on a little dish. The forks were lightas feathers in our grateful fingers. And the steaks, whenthey came, were delicious."I've been looking straight ahead, and a little up,"George said, as he started into his strawberry shortcake."When I do that I can't see Yorke's uniform, and Iimagine we're in civvies, just having dinner together.""We might drop down to Riccardo's after a bit for agame of bocce and a scotch," I said to George. Hisdeep, dark brown eyes lit up. Here in Texas he hadfound a man who enjoyed the same places he did, thoughthe places were 1300 miles away. This, in fact, addedpleasure to the discovery. "And to Sieben's afterward10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11for a liver sausage on rye and a stein?" he asked, hiseyes squinting with smiles. It was my turn to recognizea fellow connoisseur. "Of course," I said. For a minute we smiled at each other, then turned to our steaks.As he had said, if we could erase the uniforms, we wereist a couple of Chicagoans having dinner together. Soonhe might go back to the studio where he had a radioshow to act in, and I might take the I. C. to Fifty-seventhStreet and the apartment.Over the coffee (real coffee), we tried to figure outhow a friend of Harvey Yorke's had run a four-color,four-edge bleed ad in a newspaper by rotating the stereoon the press. Harvey, a production advertising man fromSan Francisco, used a Texas steak-sauce bottle and apiece of my note paper, from Chicago, to demonstrate.It was exactly the sort of thing we might have done inthe city at lunch . . . and for a while that's where wewere. Then someone said to the waitress, "Tell thecook that the steaks were wonderful; and give our bestregards to the K. P.'s in the kitchen." And we wereback in the Army.That was how it was all through the meal. Underneath we were three men having dinner together.Wrapped around us, like the olive drab blouses we wore,was Soldier. In a way, it was a debut. For eight weeks,except for a very few moments like this, we had beenimmersed completely in the Army. We had begun toget ourselves ready for it when that first notice fromthe draft board stuck its white head out at us from themail box, long ago. Then the wall of white barracksand olive drab uniforms had closed in on us, and ourcapacity for seeing and feeling civilian life had beenpartially lost, because we had not exercised it. Of asudden now we find ourselves approaching the stagewhere we may live with one foot in the Army and onein Civilian Life, as far as our daily routine goes. Whenwe are assigned to Army technical schools, or to jobs inthe armed forces — the two possible next steps — we willhave permanent passes for use after duty hours. Ourlives will be split. We will have to re-learn civilianthinking. We will have two worlds to live in, and itwon't be easy. It will be strange. All our lives we havebelieved that war was foreign, bad, and another way oflife. Now we are thrust into a war machine, willing,but not wanting it. We are in this foreign land. Wehave learned enough of its ways to see an outline of itslife. We have been with it every waking and sleepingminute. Our digestive systems, our carburetors, and ourvery skins, once tender to wool shirts, have made theadjustment. Now, soon, we will be able to walk for abit in the old life each day. It will be strange indeed tobe Army during working hours, and Guys in the evening. We will be like Christopher Morley' s warriorswho fought the Trojans during working hours and cameback to the locker-room to change clothes for the evening's social affairs when the bell rang.The division is not as distinct as I have drawn it, ofcourse. We can't fight a war by working at it eight hours CODYPFANSTIEHLThe soil ofIllinois is againunder his feet.a day — or sixteen. We must live it. But at this stagewe do not live it. The Army lives it for us. We drilland do barracks duties and we volunteer for details outof boredom while we wait for our places to be assigned.Only those who work actively for a cause can believein it with productive energy. What we are doing whilewaiting, is, in a way, working. But it is not apparentenough. It is, however, Army, and any escape we mayhave into dreams is past before we can clutch at it.Thus, we talked. And we lingered deliciously afterour second cup of coffee. If we were through and readyto leave, we didn't show it. We smoked a leisurely cigarette, talked a little, tilted our glasses so the ice clinkedand by easy stages decided that we might leave thetable now. ...Harvey's father is an executive in Hollywood. Harveyhad a pass to a local theatre chain. By some coincidencewe chose one of those theatres for our evening's entertainment, and drew a picture called To the Shores ofTripoli. It involved a Marine, a buck private Marine,who made love to a lieutenant, a Hollywood Marinenurse, without saluting her. This impressed us until welearned, in a bull session with the sergeant today, thatsoldiers do not salute nurses — in the customary manner.At any rate, the Marine lost the Gal, decided to take aSoft Washington Office Job, but Dramatically RejoinedHis Outfit on December Seventh — and sailed to Battlewith the Nurse in his Arms. As we passed through thelobby on our way out, Harvey said, "Well, guys, whatdo you say we join the Army?" We thought it over fora minute. "O. K.," we said. "Step over and I'll signyou up," grinned a passing corporal. We reached forour ties to see that the knot was straight, automatically checked our blouse and pocket buttons, and steppedonto the sidewalk.The evening called for a beer. We had three quartersof an hour before we had to start back. We walked intothe U. S. Cafe and sat at a table between the counter andthe line of booths. Soldiers and girls sat in the booths,and soldiers were balancing on the stools along thecounter. The table was bare. The place had the airof a bad boy who has just been punished and has combed12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhis hair and washed his hands, but still has a gleam inhis eye. As a matter of fact, this was true. The cafewas declared "off limits" two months ago — the result oftoo many fights among soldiers — and was returned toactive duty just recently.We ordered three bottles of beer. Hard liquor wasnot sold. We looked about us, at the other soldiers.Some were crouched over their glasses and leaning towardtheir girls. Others flopped back in the booths, laughingand talking. A few, like us, were just looking. Therewas something about the picture of a soldier with a beerglass which made us look at each other. Again, as ithas so many times in the last two months, the thoughtcame, "Can this be I?" We lifted our glasses and dranka silent toast. To what, I don't know. To everything,I guess. To the three of us, there in a beer joint inTexas. To the future. We had no idea what it wouldbe like, but we trusted it.¦3f X -5fBack at the Post, we signed in at the Orderly Room.Atkins and the sergeant came in shortly after we returned to Our Little Room. They carried a roll ofnewspapers under their arms. In the roll were threedozen tamales, still warm. We set the apple crate whichserves as Yorke's desk chair in the middle of the room,and unrolled the fragrant tamales. Yorke went upstairsto wake two of the drill instructors who appeared shortly,sleepy, hair mussed, but interested.For an hour we ate tamales. Mostly the sergeant toldabout army maneuvers, and how to fire a gun, and how, ifyou know the rule book and you are right, you can goright on up the line to the Post C. O. with your troubles.As we talked I glanced at Habib and Yorke. We grinnedat each other. Here we were, among nine soldiers in asmall room in a barracks, peeling warm, damp, browncornhusk wrappers from tamales.Minus the uniforms, the scene, if played on a silentprojector, would be a scene on any week-end night in theupstairs back room of any fraternity house. But with uniforms and sound it was a different matter. Somehow wefelt that this was of the world. The fraternity bull session was a puerile thing: a street-corner, summer evening'sboasting fest of small children in a sheltered town. Buthere, in the barracks-room, was something with meaning,if only because it was part of the greatest military effortin history. There is room for argument if you questionthat this was part of the military movement, and I'llgrant it. We did not speak of the war. Soldiers seldomdo. We did not line the tamales up on the floor to plantactical maneuvers for the boys on Bataan. What wedid do, I think, was soak in our first real communion ofthe brotherhood of men in the Army.We stayed awake as long as we could, then, one by one,the sleepy men slipped through the door and into thedarkness of the barracks bay, their white undershirts vanishing into the night. April 19, 1942An Army Air Forces Field in TexasNow I am to return to school, and it took the wholeUnited States Army and a world war to do it! ForYorke's name, and my name, were on a shipping list offive men which the runner brought in this afternoon.The runner, who does not know officially, opines thatwe will end in Illinois at radio school. This ties up withan interview with the classification office the other day:"Clerical's full. You've qualified for radio. Why notmake that first choice? It's a wonderful school, one ofthe best the Army's got. And there'll always be radiosafter the war, won't there?"So Harvey and I went to the supply room and gotodds and ends of clothes from our delayed second issue.I received a black winter tie and a khaki tie for summer, and summer underwear. ("We only got thirty-sixwaist — that's a little big for you — but you'd better take itwhile you can and trade it in when you get to whereyou're going.") We returned here to sit happily at ourtypewriters, shouting glad things at intervals, and barging across the hall to pound the two sergeants and tellthem we're sorry as hell to leave them.•Jf -5fr *If I were an artist I'd try to catch the feeling behindthe sight of a man — a boy — sitting on his bunk with hisknees drawn in because the next bunk is so close, surrounded by white letters and envelopes scattered abouthim on his brown blanket. He is usually bent over hiswriting pad. There was little Danny Freeman, who lefta wife of one year and a farm which had just begun topay in central Illinois. Each evening he put a largecolored photograph of his black-haired wife on his bunk,and sitting beside it, wrote to her. Letter writing afterchow makes the barracks bay look like a hospital wardwith men lying full length on their bunks, heads bentover their white writing sheets.April 25, 1942An Army Air Forces Field in IllinoisOur train rolled over the brown Mississippi, and intoIllinois. Every once in a while the engine gave a joyouswail. Two or three of us in the car were from Illinois,and we felt like shouting for joy as the engine was doing.The countryside was green with truck farmers' fields.Late in the afternoon we pulled into the siding. Wehad been standing in the aisles ready for fifteen minutes,our blouses buttoned, our gas masks slung and buckledat our left sides, holding our rolled-up fatigue outfitswith the shaving equipment wrapped inside.As the first man stepped down, a small band soundedoff. I hit the steps and jumped to the railroad bed asthe greeting band barreled into "The St. Louis Blues."A cornet stung a high note as I straightened up, feelingIllinois soil under my feet. I grinned thanks at thecornet man for the high stinging note that expressed myfeelings better than any shout from me could have done.We fell into line and marched through the gate of ournew world.ATHLETICSMorale can vanquish evil fortune/competition, it is hoped,can be arrangedWITHOUT any question the big athletic news ofthe month in these parts was the baseball team's9 to 5 victory over Minnesota. There are fourgames remaining on the schedule as this is written, andit is conceivable that Chicago could lose them all. Butthe baseball losing streak has been terminated. There isjoy in Mudville.Mudville, it happens, was an appropriate term forGreenwood Field on May 9, the day of the game. Thebatsmen were scraping mud out of their cleats, base runners kicked divots ten feet in the air, and the ball gotpretty slimy. Rodney Briggs, a tall junior, pitched thegame and also turned in some fancy fielding. The wholeteam was good. The margin of victory was accumulatedin the four runs the boys made out of a pair of hits andthree walks in the third inning.The victory was the first since Art Lopatka's homerclinched a 2 to 1 decision over Purdue two years ago.Meanwhile the number of losses had climbed to twenty-five. This was not as long as the basketball streak, butit was high enough to cause some of the coyotes to starthowling.The game broke not only the losing streak but alsocracked a somewhat shorter string of shutouts which hadmounted to four, in which opponents had scored thirtyruns to none for the Maroons. And the most recent ofthe shutouts had been the worst — 16 to 0, at the hands ofthe same Minnesota team which lost the next day.Now, why is all this? Wherefore? How come? Quadrangle wags were attributing it to the wet day — Chicago,they said in the argot of the track, was a mudder. Grantedit was a horrible day. Besides being wet, it was cold.But that is not a good enough answer. Neither is ittrue that it was luck — a fluke. The boys outplayed, out-hit, and on most occasions outsmarted the Gophers. No,the team somehow just got clicking. The hits were wellplaced, the bunts were fair, the evil fortune which hasso often made Chicago rooters weep, vanished.The reason this is being discussed at length is thatsomewhere in it all may be the answer to a lot of Chicago's athletic worries. Here is a case in which defeatismfailed to operate, though the grounds for it were promising. Baseball is a major sport, and although the Gophersare not ,red hot this year, they certainly are not regardedas the Conference underdogs. No advance newspaper • By DON MORRIS '36THE MAROON SCOREBOARDBASEBALLChicago 1 — 3 WheatonChicago 2 — 4 Illinois TechChicago 8 — 5 North CentralChicago 9 — 21 NorthwesternChicago 6 — 10 NorthwesternChicago 4 — 2 Joliet PenitentiaryChicago 2 — 14 IllinoisChicago 0 — 6 IllinoisChicago 0 — 1 IowaChicago 0 — 8 IowaChicago 0 — 16 MinnesotaChicago 9 — 5 MinnesotaGOLFChicago 1 —23 NorthwesternChicago 7/2— 19x/2 IowaChicago 4 — 23 WisconsinTENNISChicago 9 — 0 IowaChicago 7 — 2 WisconsinChicago 6—3 NorthwesternChicago 2 — 7 MichiganChicago 2 — 7 NorthwesternChicago 3 — 6 Notre DameChicago 6 — 2 IllinoisTRACKChicago 25 — 97 Western MichiganChicago 36 — 86 Iowapublicity boomed the game and zoomed the team'smorale; quite the contrary. The notice came as a sentencein the story of the 16 to 0 defeat. Yet Chicago won.Yancey T. Blade, a great man in disguise, who has beena devotee of sports at the Midway since he himself won athird place in the hop skip and jump in 1899, has figuredit all out using mathematics. The law of averages, hesays, explains it all on the basis of frequency of wins perstudent. Since Yancey doesn't know enough mathematics to get into the Elks Club, however, a certain amountof suspicion attaches to his theory.Blade also points out another factor, applicable notonly to baseball but to all the other spring sports as well.Of a dozen contests played away from the Midway thisspring, the Maroon teams have failed to win a single one.On the other hand, of eleven played on the homegrounds, six have been won by the Maroons — a percentage of better than .500. Blade, the sage, points out that14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe thing which makes this an important point from thephilosophical standpoint is that although twelve roadcontests all resulted in losses, the thirteenth was a victory— in a baseball game with the state penitentiary teamat Joliet.As far as this department can see, the team won, andin many cases our losing teams could have and can in thefuture win, by morale. Teams do not win by moralealone, the Koran tells us, but as far as competent observers can tell, the other qualifications sometimes havebeen met and passed — but without victory. In a paragraph above it was implied that morale and publicityare somewhat connected. This implication was cited witha jeer, however. It is possible to whip up morale — somesort of morale — by the use of ad hoc verbal symbols. Butthat is not the kind of morale that won against Minnesota. Hepped-up morale is a fragile thing. It is tooeasily unhepped. Anything a newspaper column canmake, the lack of the column can break.The kind of morale that pasted Minnesota against thewall (it didn't even hurt when Dick Warner hit a homerfor them almost to Sixty-first Street in the ninth inning)is a different thing. It goes deeper, and it is based onmoral virtues, not elementary legal literacy. Kyle Anderson, who completes his tenth season as coach this year,knows all this a great deal more poignantly than thisdepartment, better even than Blade.The course of tennis has not been running smoothly,but this department is far from discouraged. A Big Tentitle is still an excellent possibility. After starting outwith a shutout against a tepid Iowa team, and an easyvictory over Wisconsin, coach Walter Hebert's boys pulledout a win over Northwestern. This was not what itseemed, however, apparently due to a policy of playingat half strength adopted in Evanston in the early weeksof the season. When Northwestern fell to Wisconsin, itwas a result of the absence of captain Seymour Greenberg, twice singles champion of the Big Ten, who was outwith a stomach ache. Greenberg had recovered (almost;he came closer than usual to losing to Cal Sawyier) bythe time of the Chicago meet. But Harrie Hall, the Wildcats' third-flight representative was unable to play. Itwas a midweek match and his teachers in the Northwestern dentistry school thought he'd best not play. Incidentally, Northwestern' s highly touted handicap, thebasketball injury to Bobbie Jake, the No. 2 man, alsoturned out to be a dud. Jake has played every meet sofar and has been doing O.K.At any rate, Northwestern' s record is not to be relied on as an indicator of the possibilities in the Big Ten meet,which, of course, will be all over when this is in print.But then, neither are those of the other two principals,Chicago and Michigan. Michigan won the dual meet,but the makeup of the team, with Jim Tobin gone, issuch that it is a sextet which will inevitably look betterin a dual meet than in tournament play.As far as Chicago is concerned, it is difficult to tellexactly who is on the team, and if so, what flight eachman belongs to. Hebert has been shifting his men aroundso fast that, for example, Sawyier has had three differentdoubles partners in the last three meets, and the secondhalf of the singles list is as unaccountable as the miniaturetornado which blew up in the middle of the Illinois meet.All in all, the Conference meet is still a gathering atwhich anything can happen. It suffices simply to pointout Sawyier's fluke defeat last year. Certainly the Chicago team should be at its best, shuffled and reshuffledfor the most formidable combination, and with the motiveof trying to save a last Big Ten championship for thisyear, in which the fencers at last tumbled and water polowas abandonedThe sector of the University utilized most heavily bythe Navy, which has become one of the Midway landmarks by this time and the end is not yet, is the athleticplant. True, the Board of Examinations had to evacuate,the Library School felt the pinch slightly, and MandelHall is part-time study hall for bluejackets, but theathletic department has given up two gymnasiums anddaytime use of the Field HouseThis brings up the question: why do the sailors playintramural ball at the corner of Fifty-ninth Street andDorchester, and the students play intramural ball at theconer of Fifty-ninth and Maryland? That is, why is notcompetition arranged between the two groups? Chancesare it would be more spirited than in either of the presentleagues, and according to the book, the more spirited thecompetition the better the effect on the player, particularly if he is a prospective fighting man. Blade predictsthat competition will be arranged, if for no other reasonthan that the Maroon is planning to publish through thesummer and will have to have something to print in itssports sections.Blade, incidentally, thought that the Navy might wellpick up some pointers from the local baseball personnel.He stroked his whiskers and recalled that Chicago'sbaseball forces battled the Japanese off and on for fortyyears, at home and abroad.I'LL NEVER FORGETOther Alumni Will Enjoy Your Recollections of Moments and Moods,, Teachers andClasses on the Quadrangles. Send YourMidway Memories — Meditated or Extemporaneous—To Fll Never Forget. . . .The University of Chicago Magazine5733 University Ave. Chicago, IllinoisNon-Proustian EpisodesThe PlaceIn and about the University of Chicago, where automobiles speeding along the Midway careen to avoid hitting the rotund figure of Freddie Starr as he crosses,engrossed in a book; where George Mead's bicycle andAlonzo Stagg's electric are daily sights.The Time: 1922-1926The unholy days before theology ousted dalliance fromthe Hollow; the ignorant days before Mortimer Adlertaught the sons and daughters of the Phoenix how toread a book; the leisurely days when the Bachelor's degree took four years' time, or the equivalent, and theUniversity of Chicago Law School recognized the University of Chicago's A.B. as qualfiication for the J.D. ;the violent days when football heroes, trying their mentalbest to remain eligible to fight for the Glory of theMaroon studied evolution, genetics, and eugenics underHoratio Hackett Newman, and general literature underthe benign and beloved George Howland.The EpisodesPhilip Schuyler Allen, as usual, was talkative. Hewalked over to the book-lined shelves of his office inCobb Hall. Carefully scanning the varied titles, he tookout volume three of Brandes' Main Currents of Nineteenth Century Literature. Behind it was a bottle. Iwatched hopefully as he poured himself a drink. Buthe shook his head, "I don't drink with undergraduates."He smiled as he lowered his Lincolnesque body into hischair and stretched his legs, resting his feet on the desk.We talked.I told him of James Westfall Thompson's lecture ofthe hour before. Mr. Thompson had brilliantly impersonated the leading characters of the French Revolution,and the class had been spell-bound. Allen was disgusted."You're a fool, Al," he said. "Why tell me about it?What you should have done was to have gone up toJimmy and said: 'Mr. Thompson, we enjoyed your lecture. You made the period live for us. Now, if youdon't mind, we'd appreciate it if you would give us yourimpression of Marie Antoinette milking a cow whose ? ? ?udders had been gilded.' That would have been something to see!"We spoke of John Matthews Manly. He was the famedhead of the English department before Aristotle wascanonized and the department dedicated to his glorification. Allen recalled that the young son of David Harrison Stevens had inquired of his father whether "UncleJohn" had written all the poems in Manly's Anthology ofEnglish Poetry. "No," answered Stevens, "but he wouldhave if they had not already been written."Allen told of the day he had submitted an article toManly — an article intended for Modern Philology."Manly, small in stature and usually calm and affablewas grim as he stalked into my office. He walked up tomy desk, took my manuscript from his pocket, deliberatelytore it into shreds and tossed the pieces on my desk. Ashe turned to leave, he spoke. His voice was cold, hissyllables distinct: 'Phil, if I could write as well as youwrite some of the time, I'd write as well as you do all ofthe time, or I'd keep my mouth shut!'"-£ # -3frOn the opening day of the summer quarter, a perspiring group of students including the customary summerquota of schoolmarms, climbed to the fourth floor ofCobb for the first meeting of a class described in thecatalogue as "Playwriting and Play Production." Suddenly a young man, his wavy black hair prematurelystreaked with white, bounded into the room. The school-marms' eyes brightened. They gazed wistfully at theyoung man as he walked behind the desk andlooked about him. "I'm Frank Hurburt O'Hara H-C/-R-B-U-R-T— and I don't like this room. The classwill meet hereafter in the Reynolds Club Theatre."Among his students that year were George Dillon, BerthaTen Eyck James, Daniel Catton Rich, and GeorgeDowning.¦55- •& *The ostensible purpose of the dinner slips my mind.Actually, it was given as an excuse to place Gordon J.Laing in a position in which he could not gracefullyrefuse to speak. At that time he was dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Literature. He arose andlamented the hardships of being a dean. "Think of itgentlemen," his voice was touched with sadness, "mycolleague at Indiana University sent out the followingnotice: 'In the future all married graduate women students must live with their husbands, or make arrangements with the dean.' "He began to reminisce. "I remember the days ofMark Twain. In a small town along the Mississippi,the local barber was also the harness-maker, the undertaker, and the general storekeeper. I needed a shave.As I waited my turn, I watched with growing interest the{Continued on page 18)1942 REUNIONThomas R. Mulroy, '27, J.D. '28,Is Chairman of the 1 942 Reunionand Presides over Alumni SchoolAlumni who know their way arounddowntown Chicago know Tom Mulroy as a member of the law firm ofJones, Mulroy and Staub. Alumniwho were on the Quadrangles fifteenor so years ago knew Tom as a member of Owl and Serpent, Iron Mask,the Undergraduate Council — or as astudent marshal, business manager ofthe Maroon, and president of the '27Law Class. Those are only a few ofthe activities in which he was prominent; they only hint at his qualifications to preside over the sessions ofthe Alumni School and the AlumniAssembly.***Rush Medical CollegeAlumni Dinner Meetingon Saturday, June 1 3The annual business meeting anddinner of the Rush Medical CollegeAlumni Association will be held inthe Red Lacquer Room of the PalmerHouse in Chicago. Dr. Morris Fishbein, it is announced, will be one ofthe speakers. The dinner will beginat 6:30 P. M.***Fourteen Fraternities Participate in the Thirty-SecondAnnual University SingThe Thirty-Second Annual University Sing will begin at 8:45 P. M. inHutchinson Court on Saturday, June13. The fraternities taking part willsing in the following order: (1)Kappa Alpha Psi; (2) Pi LambdaPhi; (3) Delta Upsilon; (4) DeltaKappa Epsilon; (5) Zeta Beta Tau;(6) Kappa Sigma; (7) Phi KappaPsi; (8) Phi Sigma Delta; (9) AlphaDelta Phi; (10) Sigma Chi (Forty-fifth Anniversary) ; (11) Phi GammaDelta (Fortieth Anniversary) ; (12)Psi Upsilon; (13) Phi Delta Theta(Forty-fifth Anniversary); (14) BetaTheta Pi (Fiftieth Anniversary). TUESDAY, JUNE 96:30 p.m. School of Business Twenty-eighth Annual Dinner — Reynolds ClubSpeaker: Leverett S. Lyon, Chief Extension Officer of theChicago Association of CommerceSubject: "Are the First Two Years the Hardest?"Recep-WEDNESDAY, JUNE 106:30 p.m. Owl and Serpent — Quadrangle Club8:00 p.m. Social Service Administration Alumni-Faculty-Studentstion — Ida Noyes Theatre and LoungeSpeaker: Edith Abbott, Dean of the School of Social ServiceAdministration8:30 p.m. Alumni School — Auditorium, New Trier Township High School,385 Winnetka Avenue, Winnetka, IllinoisPresiding: Thomas R. Mulroy, '27, J.D. '28, Reunion ChairmanSpeaker: Carey Croneis, Professor of GeologySubject: "Oil for the Axis" (Illustrated with slides)Speaker: Avery O. Craven, Professor of American HistorySubject: "American Traditions and the Present Crisis"THURSDAY, JUNE 1 13:00 p.m. Alumni- Varsity Baseball Game — Greenwood Field6:30p.m. Order of the C Annual Meeting and Informal Buffet Supper —Stagg Field8:30 p.m. Alumni School — Mandel Hall, 57th Street and University AvenuePresiding: Thomas R. Mulroy, Reunion ChairmanSpeaker: Neil H. Jacoby, Professor of Finance and Secretaryof the UniversitySubject: "War's Effect on the American Economy: The ShortView and the Long View"Speaker: Jerome G. Kerwin, Associate Professor of PoliticalScienceSubject: "A New Domestic and Foreign Policy for the UnitedStates after the War"FRIDAY, JUNE 124:00 p.m. 1917 Garden Party — Twenty-fifth Anniversary — Home of LyndonH. Lesch, 1307 East 60th Street6:00 p.m. University Aides Dinner — Room A, International House6:30 p.m. 1932 Class Dinner — Private Dining-room, Hutchinson CommonsSpeaker: Gordon J. Laing, Alumni Dean6:30 p.m. 1909 Class Dinner — Room CDE, International House7:30 p.m. 1912 Class Dinner — Quadrangle Club (Followed by entertainment,including a skit, "High-lights of the Past")7:30 p.m. Band Concert — The University Band — Hutchinson Court8:30 p.m. Alumni School — Mandel HallPresiding: Thomas R. Mulroy, Reunion ChairmanSpeaker: T. V. Smith, Professor of PhilosophySubject: "Tom Paine: Voice of Democratic Revolution; JusticeHolmes: Voice of Democratic Evolution"Speaker: Mortimer J. Adler, Associate Professor of the Philosophy of Lawy:K Subject: "The Future of War and Peace"16ROGRAM 19429:30 a.m.12:30p.m.12:30 p.m.12:30 p.m.1:00 p.m.1:00 p.m.3:00 p.m.4:00 p.m. SATURDAY, JUNE !3Regional Advisers Breakfast and Annual Conference — QuadrangleClubAlumnae Breakfast — Assembly Hall, International HouseSpeaker: Albert Lepawsky, Director of the Institute of PublicServiceSubject: "Protecting the Home Front"($1.00 per plate. Reservations should be made by June 11through the Alumni Office, University of Chicago; telephone:Midway 0800)1907 Class Luncheon — Quadrangle Club1918 Class Luncheon — Room B, International House1916-17 Class Luncheon — Coffee ShopSpeaker: Leon P. .Smith, Dean of Students in the College1902 Class Luncheon — Private Dining-room, Hutchinson CommonsAnnual Meeting, College Division Senate- — Breasted HallAlumni Assembly — Mandel HallPresiding: Thomas R. Mulroy, Reunion ChairmanPresentation of Alumni Citations and MedalsJohn Nuveen, Jr., President of the Alumni AssociationAddress: "The University and the Universe"Gordon J. Laing, Alumni DeanPresentation of the 1942 Alumni GiftHerbert P. Zimmermann, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Alumni FoundationAcceptance AddressRobert Maynard Hutchins, President of the UniversityInformal Sunset Supper — Hutchinson CommonsFraternity and Club Suppers1917 Class Dinner — The Court, International HouseBand Concert — The University Band — Hutchinson CourtThirty-second Annual University Sing — Hutchinson CourtInduction of Aides and MarshalsAward of Cups and C BlanketsAlma MaterDancing — The Reynolds ClubSUNDAY, JUNE 1410:00 a.m. Convocation Prayer Service— Rockefeller Memorial Chapel11:00 a.m. University Religious Service — Rockefeller Memorial ChapelPreacher: Charles W. Gilkey, Dean of the ChapelTHURSDAY, JUNE 186:30 p.m. Phi Beta Kappa Dinner and Formal Initiation of Members ElectedDuring the Past Four Quarters — Coffee ShopSpeaker: Clarence H. Faust, Associate Professor of English($1.25 per plate. For reservations telephone Midway 0800, Extension 244)FRIDAY, JUNE 19¦11:00 a.m. Conferring of Higher Degrees — Rockefeller Memorial Chapel3:00 p.m. Conferring of Bachelors' Degrees — Rockefeller Memorial Chapel176:00 P.M.6:00 P.M.7:30 P.M.8:45 P.M.10:00 P.M. Alumni School Is KeyedTo the Times: Establishes Precedent, TooUniversity experts will discuss oil,American traditions and thinkers, thewar's effect on national economy, ourdomestic and foreign policy, and thefuture of peace and war, for thosewho attend the Alumni School.Taking the Alumni School to thealumni is a new departure. Butalumni who attend the meeting inWinnetka, Illinois, are reminded thatthey are just as cordially invited to theMandel Hall sessions, and vice versa.***Class Reunions FeatureRoll-Calls, Rathskellers,Friendship RenewalsA round-the-table roll-call of themembers of the Class of 1902 willfeature its fortieth anniversary celebration. Each member will be askedto tell in one sentence, his or herplace of residence, occupation, hobby,and work toward winning the war."So significant a milestone in ourlives," announces the Class of 1907,celebrating its thirty-fifth anniversary,"deserves an appropriate reunion. Wewill never be this young again!"The garden party with which theClass of 1917 will celebrate its twenty-fifth anniversary at the residence ofLyndon H. Lesch, 1307 E. 60thStreet, will be featured by a punchbowl, tennis matches, an outdoorsupper, and a rathskeller for menonly.The Class of 1932 has somethingnew and different up its sleeve, buthas kept it a secret from all but classmembers who will receive it in red,white and blue envelopes. Class president Stillman M. Frankland wantsit emphasized that there will be onlyone speaker at the class's tenth annualreunion, and that the meeting will belargely given over to the Americanpastime of eating and renewing offriendships.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEI'LL NEVER FORGET—{Continued from page 15)procedure of the barber. He would strop his razor, spiton the soap, work up a lather, and apply it to his client'sface. I inquired if that was his customary method. 'Ohno,' he replied, 'that's only with strangers. If I knowthem, I spit on their faces.' "«£ *- «5frManly had one characteristic rare in academic circles.When he had nothing to say, he said nothing. In 1925the Modern Language Association of America held itsannual meeting at the University. During one generalmeeting, Manly was called upon to speak. He welcomedthe delegates and then said simply he had nothing ofimportance to impart to the distinguished assembly andsat down. On the faces of the audience appeared expressions of shocked amazement. Mr. Manly's refusalto say nothing was unorthodox. How easy, and deceptively impressive, it would have been to present a ponderous analysis of Chaucer's Miller's Tale.* # #Tom Peete Cross, then as now the urbane, soft-spokenCeltic gentleman, had one aversion: students who without love of scholarship studied with him for the purposeof increasing their earning capacity. Such students werenot uncommon in the summer quarter. Unfortunatelyfor both Mr. Cross and the students, bibliography was arequired graduate course. And higher degrees meanthigher salaries. The first day of the summer quarter Mr.Cross, smiling, suggested that a few of us watch histechnique. We did. He entered a large lecture hall onthe first floor of Cobb and greeted his class pleasantlyenough. He then casually mentioned the minimum requirements for his course. "You will of course be expectedto have a thorough knowledge of French, German, Spanish, Hebrew, Latin, Greek, and Old English. It would behelpful if you could read Gothic and Medieval Latin,although these are not absolutely necessary." His classwas materially smaller after a day or two. Mr. Crosssmiled contentedly.* x *Napier Wilt was beginning his work on the history ofthe theatre in Chicago — also his distinguished series ofrevivals of early American plays. On two occasions hedisplayed righteous wrath quite as effectively as the characters in his revivals. Once, when a too-boisterous undergraduate, engaged in an extra-curricular caravanserie,registered in a loop hotel with his companion under thenom de plume, "James Napier Wilt"; and again when atoo-trusting freshman copied a paper word for word fromThe Cambridge History of American Literature. In thelatter case, Wilt's objection was not predicated on thegrounds that the freshman was dishonest, but because ofthe implied insult to Wilt's intelligence.# * *An elementary course in Chaucer was given by a nowdistinguished member of the English department. Heused an unexpurgated text, but, bowing to the imagined propriety of his students he painstakingly listed all linesand pages to be omitted. A darling grandmother in theclass obediently inquired if he would kindly repeat thelist of forbidden passages as she did not wish to miss any.As the session progressed, a fellow student turned to meand, referring to the learned gentleman conducting thecourse, said, "Isn't it amusing — the way she lifts herskirts as she steps over the mud puddles of Chaucer."# # -jfThus it was on the west side of the Quadrangles inthe days when, if you happened to have a class within afloor or two of Walter Dorn's history exhibitions, youwould be disturbed by his thunderous, enthusiastic outbursts; in the days when Robert Morss Lovett administered to the virgin minds at Chicago, before he began toadminister the Virgin Islands; in the days when theChapel was still a dream, and Ida Noyes Cafeteria didnot anticipate its role of mess hall for the Navy.— Alexander J. Isaacs, '25, A.M., '26.Wu Ting FangWhen the great Chinese scholar and diplomat,Wu Ting Fang, visited the University in the spring of1901 to give the Convocation address, he made a tour ofthe University buildings. Beecher Hall, of which MissElizabeth Wallace was head, was chosen for his inspection from among the women's residences. Several student rooms had been carefully prepared for the greatman's eyes.My cousin and I occupied No. 14, the large doubleroom on the second floor just opposite the stairway. Wehad dashed home from classes and dressed hastily for thereception of his excellency. We had thrown our clothesand appurtenances wildly about the room, but we closedthe door, I swear to that, before we went downstairs tothe parlors.The inspection party soon proceeded upstairs to see thestudents' rooms. Miss Wallace was dismayed and not alittle angered to see — staring the visitors in the faces — ourplace of disorder, and, as she said later, with some garments in plain view which should never have been seenin public. (This was in 1901, you know.) My cousinand I were sure that some girl had run into our room toborrow something and had left the door open.Among the many questions Wu Ting Fang asked MissWallace were what were her duties at Beecher and whatsubject she taught in the University. "French," she answered. "And do you speak it well?" he asked. Wewere very much pleased when without hesitation shereplied, "Shall I speak a little for. you?" He grinnedrather sheepishly, for although he was scholarly, Frenchwas not one of his attainments. At the Convocationservice at Orchestra Hall (or was it the Studebaker orthe Fine Arts?), after he was introduced, Wu Ting Fangrose in his gorgeous Chinese robes, reached down insideone of his high soft boots and brought forth the manuscript from which he read his address.— Mary Dewhurst Miles, S.B., '01.NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESThe Summer Quarter^ ^ z^NUR work," President Hutchins has said, "mustI 1 meet one of two tests: either it must help win^-¦^ the war, or it must contribute to the intellectual development of our people and to the solution,by intellectual means, of the problems that confronthumanity." The summer quarter, dedicated to thatwork, is expected to be the busiest part of the University's year. In addition to the teachers who traditionally make up the bulk of summer registrants, it isindicated that there will be a large attendance of undergraduates, hurrying, because of war conditions, tocomplete their work for degrees.More than 400 members of the regular Universityfaculty, augmented by fifty-five visiting educators, willoffer instruction in more than 750 courses during thesummer. The quarter will be divided into two terms ofsix weeks each: June 23 to August 1 and August 3 toSeptember 12. Special arrangements will enable teacherswho must return to their schools before Labor Day tocomplete their work in time.To meet the government's urgent demand for college-trained personnel, the University has arranged a two-quarter program of courses designed to prepare men andwomen — particularly women — as rapidly as possible forwork in junior administrative posts in the federal service.The concentrated program to prepare students for civilservice appointment on January 1, 1943, will be directedby Leonard D. White, professor of public administrationand former.United States civil service commissioner. Thesummer-quarter half of the program, commencing onJune 23 and continuing through September 12, willinclude work in public administration, American government, economics, accounting, and special lectures on civilservice procedures. The curriculum has been organizedafter consultation with federal departments and agenciesand is designed to meet specific anticipated needs. Theprogram should be of particular interest to recent womengraduates of the University; men with deferred militarystatus are encouraged to enroll. Registration is on June22, in Mandel Hall.Sixteen special institutes and conferences have alreadybeen announced for the summer quarter. The departments of astronomy, chemistry, and physics will sponsora conference on spectroscopy and related subjects duringthe first week, from June 22 to 25. Members of theUniversity faculty and various visiting scientists willparticipate.The Department of Education will hold five institutesana conferences. The first of these, June 23, will be onNew Demands for Personnel Services, with special emphasis upon the needs of personnel workers in schools andcolleges. The fifth annual conference on reading will beheld June 24-27. The central theme of the four-day program will be Co-operative Effort in Schools to Improve Reading.Also sponsored by the Department of Education willbe an institute for administrative officers of higher institutions, July 8-10, dealing with terminal education incolleges and junior colleges; a conference for administrative officers of public and private schools, July 20-24,centering discussion on the school in the urban community; and a conference on human development forsupervisors and directors of instruction, July 27 throughAugust 7.Three institutes will be held in the Division of- theSocial Sciences: the twenty-first annual institute of theSociety for Social Research, meeting August 14-15, willconsider The Impact of the War on American Society;the institute for the study of the history of culture, meeting July 1 — August 19, will deal with the culture of theeighteenth century; and the Harris Foundation institute,from June 25-30, will be focused on The Near East:Problems and Prospects. A conference for teachers ofthe social sciences will be held June 30 — July 2. Thetheme of the conference is Education, Democracy andWar: the Social Sciences and the Problem of Freedomand Restraint in War and Peace.On June 26 and 27, the School of Business will sponsorthe ninth annual conference on business education, whichwill be concerned with standards of business education.Other conferences and institutes to be held duringthe quarter are the annual Pastors' Institute, July 27 —August 8; the Graduate Library School's institute onreference work, June 29 — July 10; a conference forteachers of the humanities, July 6-7; a study-conferencefor city supervisors of home economics, July 13-31; and aconference on community organization for family lifeeducation, July 9-18.The Institute of Military Studies offers pre-inductionbasic military training, and plans to conduct an intensivetwo-week training camp in the vicinity of Chicago, June22 — July 5. This course will be repeated August 3: 16primarily for educators interested in introducing basicmilitary training in their own institutions. The Institutewill offer a lecture course on The Military History ofthe Second World War during the first term of the summer quarter, and a lecture course on The Armed Forcesof Our Enemies and Allies in the second term. In thefirst term, the Institute also offers a lecture-conferencecourse on Problems of Military Training and Education.The University participates in the Civilian Pilot Training Program sponsored by the Civil Aeronautics Administration, and it is expected that a program — for menonly — will be available during the summer quarter. Thefacilities of the Institute of Meteorology will be fullyutilized during the summer quarter for a training program for the Army, Navy, and Weather Bureau. A1920 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEspecial program will be offered in the field of communications and public opinion; the course of study will preparemen and women for professional activities in the field,and especially for service with federal and other agenciesnow undertaking to unite public opinion in full supportof the war, and to develop an intelligent national morale,and to prepare the nation for a rational approach topost-war problems.A wide variety of recreational opportunities is available for men and women students without fee duringthe summer quarter; there will be frequent divisionalteas, and The Daily Maroon will be published throughthe summer.Two New TrusteesThe election of Howard Goodman and Herman Dunlap Smith to the Board of Trustees was announced onMay 14 by Harold H. Swift, president of the Board.Mr. Goodman, vice-president of the Goodman Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of mining machinery,Chicago, graduated from Williams College and theHarvard School of Business. He is president of theBoard of Trustees of the Baptist Theological Union andis a trustee of the Chicago Y.W.C.A. His grandfather,Edward Goodman, was a charter trustee of the Universityand served on the Board from 1890 to 1909.Mr. Smith is a vice-president of Marsh and McLennan,insurance brokers, Chicago. A Phi Beta Kappa graduateof Harvard, he is president of the Illinois Children'sHome, the Board of Education of Lake Forest, and is adirector or member of numerous other educational andphilanthropic institutions.Research for BusinessResearch facilities in all fields will be made availableto business enterprises through the newly established Business Problems Bureau, Professor Neil H. Jacoby, secretaryof the University, announced on May 15. The service,under the direction of Professor George H. Brown of theSchool of Business, has been set up to provide a channelthrough which all inquiries may be directed. TheUniversity will engage only in problems having generalscientific interest and content. Practical problems ofoperation which can be solved only with the experienceand knowledge of the executive working on the job;those for which well-standardized procedures of investigation already exist, such as traditional marketing research methods or standardized chemical tests, will notbe attempted. If special research projects must be instituted, the sponsoring firms will be expected to makegrants to defray the cost. When the University is ableto answer a specific request for information without incurring substantial expense, the service will be performedwithout charge. Ordinarily the University will reservethe right to make use of all data and to publish the results of investigation without divulging identities. Thisright is reserved so that the University may fulfill itsresponsibility to the public to discover and disseminateknowledge of general interest. New Course for LibrariansChicago's only training course for librarians will beestablished by the Graduate Library School of the University through a grant of $75,000 from the CarnegieCorporation of New York. Despite the fact that the fivemajor university and public libraries of the city employover a thousand people, there has been no training program for librarianship in Chicago, Dean Louis R. Wilsonof the Graduate Library school said in discussing thecourse. The University of Chicago work will cover athree-year period. Graduates will receive the professional Bachelor of Library Science degree. Only students who have completed their general education willbe accepted, so that the training will require five years."Technical detail and routine practice will be minimizedand emphasis will be placed upon broad education ratherthan specialization," Dean Wilson said. "The programtherefore represents a departure from traditional librarytraining, which is centered on the library itself. The finalyear of our program will be used for study of the principles and methods of library operation."Prize, Victory, and "Hello11Research which may provide a key to the preventionof trichinosis brought the Howard Taylor Ricketts prizeto Dr. Jose Oliver-Gonzales, Puerto Rican-born researchassociate at the University, it was announced on May 7.Two hundred and fifty schools, in states ranging fromMassachusetts to Texas, now have their own defensenewspaper, the Victory Club Bulletin, published by thestaff of the Laboratory Schools at the University. Publication of the newspaper is part of a movement initiatedby the staff of the University Laboratory Schools toestablish Victory Clubs in elementary schools throughoutthe country.Nine University women are participating in a BeecherHall experiment to find out whether no sugar at all isbetter than half a pound a week.A "Hello Day" was inaugurated by students on May21. The idea behind the day was to establish a traditionthat students, whether they know each other or not,should say "Hello" to each other when passing underEckhart archway.The Study of CivilizationOrganization of an interdepartmental program onthe study of civilization, which will approach the problems of society in a broader and more philosophical context than is the general practice of the social sciences, wasannounced early in May. Frank H. Knight, who hasheld the title of professor of economics, has been appointed professor of the social sciences and will serve as amember of the executive committee directing the newfield of study. Other members are President Hutchins,Robert Redfield, dean of the Division of the SocialSciences, and John U. Nef, professor of economic historyand executive secretary of the committee.KURT RIEZLERIn Germany there wasa riot in hisclassroomPLATO insisted, quite some time ago, that thestatesman and the philosopher should be one andthe same man. The University this year has beenthe home of one who in many ways fits Plato's idea ofthe philosopher-statesman. He is Kurt Riezler, professorof philosophy at the New School for Social Research inNew York, and visiting professor of philosophy on theQuadrangles, who was for many years an active memberof the German diplomatic service.Professor Riezler cannot deny that his career has beena bit more colorful than that of the average college professor. As he expresses it, with some relish and no regret, "I was always in the middle of the mess!"Riezler was born in 1882, the son of a family of oldpeasant stock living in the Bavarian mountains. Afterreceiving his doctorate at Munich in 1904, where he alsowon a prize for his dissertation on Aristotle, the twenty-two-year-old youth went to Russia to lecture on the his-ory of culture. He soon returned to Germany, however, and worked for a while as a journalist. In 1906he was called to the German diplomatic service for workin the political department of the foreign office and atvarious embassies, first in China and then in Paris.It was with the outbreak of the last war that Riezler'scareer took its more adventurous turn. He became a"kind of secretary" to the German chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg, and was in touch with many of the importantmoves of the Central Powers during the early years ofthe war. Following the resignation of the chancellor,Riezler worked in the German embassy in Sweden.After the Peace of Brest-Li to vsk, Riezler was sent toRussia as charge d'affaires of the German embassy there.This was during the turbulent first year of the Bolshevikregime. Feeling against Germany was running very highand resulted in the assassination of the German ambassador and the narrow escape of Riezler himself, who wasshot at four times.At the outbreak of the revolution in Germany, Riezlerwas called home to act as secretary to the foreign minister, Solf, and to serve as a member of the committee thatprepared the Weimar Constitution. With the electionof the Socialist leader, Friedrich Ebert, as the first president of the German Republic, Riezler became his secretary of state.During all these hectic years of political and diplo- • By WAYNE SHUTTEEmatic activity, Riezler had never abandoned his firstlove, philosophy. In addition to continuing his readingin the field, he had also published philosophical worksat occasional intervals. He decided, tnerfefee, in 1920,to resign from political life in order to devote himselfmore fully to philosophical study. He was appointedprofessor of philosophy at Goethe University in Frankfort and made chairman of its board of administration.It was in connection with his administrative work atGoethe that Riezler first came into conflict with the National Socialist Party in Germany. Shortly after the Naziscame into power in 1933, they arrested Riezler and imprisoned him. He was charged with being responsiblefor too many liberal and democratic appointments at theuniversity, and was kept in prison until he agreed to resign his administrative post.Following his release, a few weeks later, Riezler returned to the university in his capacity as a lecturer onphilosophy, but his troubles at the hands of the Nazi-were not yet over. In 1934, he was again attacked. Thesecret police disguised certain of their members as students, and sent them to Riezler's lectures, with the purpose of starting a riot in the philosopher's classroom.This plan was carried out; the secret police created adisturbance in the middle of a lecture. The students,loyal to their master, attempted to fight back, but sincethey were unarmed Riezler restrained them and prevented possible disaster. The Nazis were then in a position to ban all lectures or other public activities onRiezler's part; according to them he incited the peopleto riot and so was a menace to "public security."No longer able to participate in intellectual or political activities in his native land, Riezler emigrated toAmerica. In 1938 he was appointed to the graduatefaculty of the New School for Social Research, where hetaught until he came to Chicago in the fall of 1941.In the more serene field of philosophy, Riezler's interests are wide; he teaches courses directly related to socialpsychology, the sciences and the fine arts, as well as themore traditional subjects in philosophy. In addition tohis many works in German, he has published variousarticles in American scientific and philosophical journals,and the book, Physics and Reality.Riezler's classroom lectures are concise, coherent, andshot through with a sly, delightful, and often unexpectedhumor. He speaks in a soft voice and controlled manner,but he has a way of putting his ideas so that they stickin the learner's mind. Because of these qualities, Riezlerhas endeared himself to his students. They will feel itas a personal loss when he leaves in. June, after one all-too-short year on the Quadrangles.22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEO'CONNELL—(Continued from page 4)the invasion in terms of the strength and availability ofthe firing power of both sides was derived and foundto be identical in form with the mathematical expression of the two-factor theory of nerve excitation!Every second seminar presents a visiting specialist fromother departments in the University and from institutions in other parts of the country — clinicians, neuro-physiologists, anatomists, ecologists, sociologists, and evenmusical theorists. These "visitor's" seminars are arrangedand conducted by Mr. Householder, who presents interesting and important speakers, whose discussions arefrequently the source of new ideas or new problems forthe mathematical biophysicists.There is much more to mathematical biophysics thanthe cell division theory, but the thumbnail history ofthat theory can be taken as typical of the mathematicalbiophysicist' s approach to all his problems. Abstractsimplification, theoretical deduction from daring hypotheses, use of complex mathematics, approach to agreementwith the results of experiment as research advances characterize all of the biophysicists' work. The theory ofcell division and the theory of nerve excitation and conduction are the basic research of mathematical biophysicsin the sense that most of the later developments haveresulted from the exploration of the ramifications andimplications of these two subjects.The main contributions to the theory of cell divisionwere made by Professor Rashevsky, Mr. Landahl, andGale Young. Their work led into mathematical analyses of such phenomena as mitosis and cytoplasmic streaming, the role of the cell nucleus in the division process,the influence of neighboring cells on one another, andthe elongation that precedes division.Mr. Landahl, who has the only degree of Doctor ofPhilosophy in Mathematical Biophysics in the world (theUniversity is the only institution that grants such a degree), also has made important contributions to thetheory of cell respiration. He recently studied the process by which an artificially deformed cell returns to itsnormal shape and obtained remarkably close agreementbetween the relationships he calculated and those observed experimentally.Mr. Landahl has also contributed to the theory ofthe functions of the brain. His equations for reactiontimes, psychophysical discrimination, and learning notonly agree remarkably well with experimental data butmake it possible to predict rather complex behavior situations. The ramifications of the nerve excitation theory,many of which have already been explored, are probablymore interesting to the layman than the developmentsof the cell division theory. There are mathematical theories of conditioned reflexes, psychogalvanic response,the discrimination of space, depth, and weight, gestaltphenomena, rational learning and thinking, personalitytypes, and the esthetic perception of tones and geomet rical forms. Fascinating in their promise for the futureare the more speculative mathematical analyses of socialrelationships.Other important work on the mathematical biophysicaltheory of the brain has been done by Mr. Householder,whose equations for discrimination agree very well withexperiment. Mr. Householder has recently been workingout a general mathematical theory of the complex nerveconnections in the brain. He has been aided in thiswork by nineteen-year-old Walter Pitts, the youngestmember of the staff, who, despite his youth, has alreadymade several original contributions. Mr. Williamson, whohas contributed to the theory of electrical phenomena incells and recently to the theory of organic form, andMr. Stanton, whose past work has been on the theoryof visual perception and who is now studying cellularmovements, are also working under Mr. Householder'sdirection.The work of Mr. Weinberg on the mathematical theory of nerve excitation has established interesting relationships between excitation and certain well-known phenomena of physics. Mr. Bloch, who is now working withMr. Landahl, is studying the flow of the blood in thecapillaries. This problem, suggested at a visitor's seminar, has already resulted in important contributions.Professor Rashevsky does not always directly guidethe work of his staff, but he is nevertheless intimately involved in all of the research in mathematical biophysics.But a red beard is a surer way to notoriety than creatinga mathematical biology is to fame. Professor Rashevsky, as a Quadrangle "character," is the subjectof legends running into several versions. Many whohave never heard of him or of mathematical biophysicsare familiar with the red-bearded figure who is frequently seen on the Quadrangles or the Midway, walking slowly with his hands behind his back, deep inconcentration. His red beard is the source of many anecdotes. One story tells that he once had his beard shortened by several inches when he heard that it had causedhim to be mistaken for a rabbi. There is another abouthis being stopped by the FBI as he was driving fromPittsburgh to take up his work at Chicago. One versionsays that he was suspected of being a fugitive Bolshevik;another has him mistaken for a criminal impersonatinga physician. Rashevsky explains that the G-menthought he was a Polish member of the Dillinger gang,and that he had difficulty in convincing them, despite(or because of) their scientific training, that there reallywas such a thing as mathematical biophysics.Rashevsky' s usual approach to a problem is intuitive—an immediate grasp of just what is essential indefining it. He has often spoken of the value of intuition in scientific work and remarked on the similarityof scientific intuition to artistic reaction. One of themost important of his mental creations, the approximation method, without which the cell division theory andprobably mathematical biophysics itself would have beenimpossible, first occurred to him, like Archimedes' suddenTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23solution of the problem of buoyancy, while he was taking a bath.His dislike of smoking is proverbial among his associates, and so extreme that it has been rumored that heintends to insert a notice in the Bulletin of MathematicalBiophysics prohibiting smoking while reading it. He insists that his associates, especially Mr. Landahl and Mr.Householder, share the mathematical biophysicists' propensity for being the subject of anecdotes as well as thecredit for the development of mathematical biophysics.Mr. Landahl' s peculiar way of working is the subjectof many humorous tales told by his colleagues. Hisamazing exuberance of ideas and the rapidity of his workare frequently offset by some reluctance in recordingthem. Inadvertently started on a new line of thought,Mr. Landahl writes rapidly on scraps of paper, on thenearest blackboard, or on the dusty window of his room,completing a new and original solution to a problem oreven the outline of a new paper in an hour or two, butsome of his brilliant ideas are lost or forgotten beforethey can be published. Professor Rashevsky often findsit necessary to remind him that filling a dirty windowwith finger-written integral equations not only makes itseem dirtier but that such records are extremely perishable.Mr. Householder, a marked contrast in temperamentto Mr. Landahl, not only finds time for all of his ownimportant work, but insists on a pedantically detailed supervision of the work of his younger assistants. Originally a pure mathematician, Mr. Householder politelychecks his colleagues whenever they stray from mathematical purity, and puts their work in a form less shocking to his refined mathematical taste.Mr. Householder is also something of a philologist,and he is the author of a paper on the etymology ofthe lower numerals. Invaluable as literary counsel to hisassociates, he is aided in this, as well as in his researchon nerve networks, by young Mr. Pitts. Mr. Pitts findsan outlet for his interest in language by pasting Greekand Latin quotations, which the curious staff membershave ascertained that he actually reads, on his wall.Another member of the staff with linguistic talent is Mr.Stanton, who speaks both Spanish and Portuguesefluently. He is called in as a specialist whenever research papers from South America, which no one elsein the office can understand, are received.¦Jfr «5f «&And what of the future of this mathematical biology?It will certainly continue to point the way to new fieldsof experimentation and define problems for the experimenter with a detailed exactitude hitherto impossible.It will, of course, continue to supply the solutions tomany problems. But above all, the mathematical biophysicists hope that it will lead to a unification of thenatural sciences, in which all of them are translatedinto the universal scientific language of mathematics.Balloon BlackoutTHE COSMIC RAY and weather apparatus carried by balloons sent aloft by Uni-¦ versity physicists on May 9 landed at Milford, Indiana, after a precarious journey.After a ninety-mile flight in which the balloons rose to more than fourteen miles,the descending apparatus snapped a 30,000-volt high-tension wire and temporarilyblocked out a large area in north central Indiana, then landed in a tree in the centerof town. After the balloons had been collapsed by buckshot, two boys climbed thetree and brought down the apparatus. *In addition to apparatus recording cosmic rays, the most penetrating form ofradiation known, the balloons carried radiosonde apparatus which broadcast weatherinformation to specially calibrated receivers at the University's Institute of Meteorology, where more than a hundred Army and Navy air cadets are studying.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFor Alumni— New Books by University AuthorsLouis Gottschalk: Quincy Wright:LAFAYETTE AND THE CLOSE OFTHE AMERICAN REVOLUTION"With precise and full documentation. . . . Mr. Gottschalkfollows his hero almost day by day, with much of theabsorbing story told in Lafayette's own words or thewords of his friends and associates." — CARL VANDOREN, N. Y. Herald Tribune". . . . easily the most ambitious biographical projectunder way in Mid-America." — STERLING NORTH,Chicago Daily NewsThis third volume in what will be the most extensivelife of Lafayette ever written covers four years, February,1779 — March, 1783. As in the previous volumes, theauthor uncovers new sources and reinterprets events andrelationships in Lafayette's life. Not only authentic, hisbook is engrossing reading as well. $4.50Previous volumes: LAFAYETTE COMES TO AMERICA(1935) $2.00LAFAYETTE JOINS THE AMERICAN ARMY (1937)$3.00Walter Blair:HORSE SENSE IN AMERICANHUMORBeginning with the days of Benjamin Franklin, Mr. Blairtells the story of horse-sense humor to the present day.He shows how it has been adapted to the purposes andfashions of each generation, whether directly spoken, orconveyed by sayings of a "fool" character. He vividlyrecreates America's best loved humorists against thebackground of their times, pointing out how, in theirhands, horse-sense humor was often used to mock theTories of the East during Revolutionary days, to fightfor the North and for the South during Civil War days,to satirize affectation during the "Gilded Age" or modern times, illus. $2.75Leonard D. White, editor:THE FUTURE OF GOVERNMENTIN THE UNITED STATESEssays in honor of Charles E. Merriam, written by hisformer students. The volume is introduced by an essayby Mr. Merriam. Other contributors are Harold D.Lasswell, Hymen E. Cohen. Harold F. Gosnell, LeoRosten, Louise Overacker, V, O. Key, Joseph P. Harris,Leonard D. White, John A, Vieg, Albert Lepawsky, and,Frederick L. Schuman. $3.50George A. Works and SimonO. Lesser:RURAL AMERICA TODAY"Many children — few dollars." This is the crux of thenation's number one educational problem — rural education, discussed here against the background of community life. Deficiencies are described, but the emphasis is on the things being done to improve conditions. Ready June 30, $4.50The University A STUDY OF WAR, (2 volumes)What are the causes of war? Does human nature makewar inevitable? Can war be prevented? How didwar in antiquity and Middle Ages differ from war today?What has been the effect of war on invention and ofinvention on war? How do the losses from war compare with the losses from famine, epidemics and depression? What has been the function of war in primitiveand civilized societies? How many wars have there beensince the Renaissance? Is capitalism responsible forwar? How has international law dealt with war? Is itpossible to predict future wars?The answers to these questions are suggested in thesetwo volumes of more than 1500 pages, to be publishednext month. They summarize fifteen years of collectiveresearch on war carried on at the University of Chicago.The enormous literature of war as well as numerousspecial studies have been drawn on to present the entiresubject of war, in systematic form.Mr. Wright has directed the study from the beginningand presents the results as a unified whole. He discussesthe drives, functions, technologies, and theories of hostilities. He considers the point of view of the varioussocial sciences with respect to the causation of war. Inthe final section Mr. Wright deals with the practicalproblem of preventing war.The two volumes are a unit, the chapters in Volume IIbeing a continuation of the numbers in Volume I, anda single Index appearing in Volume II. The volumesare not sold separately. Set of two volumes, readyJuly. $15.00Vol. I, History, 678 pages, 41 figures, 63 tables,Appendixes I-XXIV.Vol. II, Analysis, 819 pages, index, 10 figures, 14 tables,Appendixes XXV-XLIV.Sir William A. Craigie,James R. Hulbert, et al.:A DICTIONARY OF AMERICANENGLISH ON HISTORICALPRINCIPLESThis monumental work, acclaimed the foremost projectof American scholarship now in process, is now three-fourths complete. The publication of Part XV, "Pole"to "Record," June 16, concludes Volume III. When finished, the set will total 20 parts, or 4 volumes. Publishedare Volume I (Parts I-V), "A" to "Corn Patch"; Volume II (Parts VI-X), "Corn Pit" to "Honk"; Volume III(Parts XI-XV), "Honk" to "Record."Four volume set, cloth bound (advance payment) $85.00.Total per set of 20 parts, paper bound (advance payment) $75.00.Chicago PressofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25NEWS OF THE CLASSES? IN THE SERVICE ?.Lieut. H. Todd Stradford, '36, MD'38, after completing a tour of seaduty, has been assigned to the National Naval Medical Center atBethesda, Maryland.Joseph G. Stolar, '35, is a privatein the Air Corps at Keesler Field, Mississippi.Jack Greenfield, '35, is staff corporal in the water filtration laboratory, Camp Forrest, Tennessee.Frank M. Schertz, PhD '18, is acaptain in the Chemical WarfareService, Washington, D. C.Sion W. Holley, PhD '34, MD'35, is a first lieutenant in the Medical Corps at Fort Sam Houston, SanAntonio, Texas.John P. McDonald, '27, is in theArmy. He is stationed at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana.Godfrey N. H. Lehman, '37, is aprivate at Camp Wallace, Texas.R. Foster Scott, AM '34, is captain in the Air Corps, stationed atShaw Field, Sumter, South Carolina.John Kahlert, '31, is in a medicalunit of the Army at Camp Robinson,Arkansas.Thomas Lehman, AM '41, is withthe Headquarters Company at FortMeade, Maryland.The promotion of Rollin F.Bunch, MD '37, from captain tomajor has been announced by theMedical Field Service School, CarlisleBarracks, Pennsylvania, where he ischief of surgical service at the stationhospital.Latest word of Lieut. Col. NicollF. Galbraith, '33, indicated that hewas with General MacArthur's staffin the Philippines.Capt. Morton J. Barnard, '26, JD'27, has been transferred from Borin-quen Field Puerto Rico, to the SignalMaintenance Company, New YorkCity.John N. Crawford, SM '25, ismathematics instructor at the navalbase, Corpus Christi, Texas.Joshua Jacobs, '40, is a memberof the U. S. Naval Reserve, and isstationed at Notre Dame University,Indiana.Allen I. Bernstein, MA '34 is atthe Quartermaster School at CampLee, Virginia.J. Edwin Hacker, AM '41, was inducted in April at Fort Snelling, Minneapolis, urider selective service. William M. Work, Jr., '39, is anofficer candidate at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.As aviation cadet, Joseph B.Coambs, Jr., '38, is training at the Advanced Flying School, Midland, Texas.Stanley G. Harris, '41, is in theArmy, temporarily stationed at FortSheridan, Illinois.Capt. H. Dale Tillery, '41, is atthe Naval Reserve Aviation Base, Dallas, Texas.Avron I. Douglis, '38, is in the Infantry at Fort Brady, Michigan.Marshall S. Smoler, '36, SM '39,is at the Air Corps Technical School,Champaign, Illinois.William E. Webbe III, '39, is stationed at Coco Solo, Canal Zone, asa member of the U. S. Naval Reserve.Frederick M. Fowkes, '36, PhD'38, a first lieutenant, has his sightsprecisely on the target in thinking thatwe would be interested in knowingthat he and two other University doctorate holders are officers in the FieldArtillery at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Theothers are Lieut. Martell M. Gladstone, '33, SM '35, PhD '36, andLieut. Claude E. Hawley, '35, PhD'39. At the same station Frank R.Breul, AM '41, is in the Officers Candidate School.Lieut. Col. Lewis W. Warner, '25,is an Army officer at Fort Benning,Georgia. Lieut. Col. E. R. Bowie, '10,is at the same post as assistant radiologist of the station hospital.Merwin S. Rosenberg, '32, JD'34, and William B. Bosworth, '37,have enlisted in the U. S. Naval Reserve and are undergoing training atGreat Lakes, Illinois.James H. Peterson, '40, is in training as an aviation cadet at Santa Ana,California. Also in California isAuren Kahn, AM '38, stationed atCamp Roberts. Ensign Frank C.Springer, Jr., '34, is at the U. S.Naval Training School at Los Angeles.Enid Army Flying School, Oklahoma, announces that Col. David W.Goodrich, '32, has become commanding officer of the Flying School. It isalso announced that Robert S.Hinds, '32, has been promoted fromthe rank of captain to that of major.Robert B. Kramer, '39, and Milton Silberg, '31, JD '32, are in theTechnical School Squadron at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. Among those who have left for overseas duty are Charles L. Deevers,SM '32, PhD '36; Chaplain W. Edgar Gregory, '36; Hugo A. Andersen, Jr., '37; Richard D. Englehart,'37.Four graduate students to leave Social Service Administration for theservice are: Daniel O. Quinlan,Delgrado Trades School, New Orleans; Gordon Blanchard, U.S.S.Camden; Donald Zaun, Flight C,Jefferson Barracks, Missouri; andJohn McClurg, U. S. Navy, NotreDame University, Indiana.Others reported in the armedforces are .Martin B. Mathews, '36,SM '41, as a second lieutenant in theChemical Warfare Service; John D.Louth, MBA '41, with the Naval Intelligence; Owen S. J. Albert, '25,major in the Field Artillery; WilliamL. Flacks, '33, JD '35, second lieutenant in the Infantry; George Gel-man, '36, second lieutenant with theSubsistence Research Laboratories ;Charles C. Andersen, Jr., '40, second lieutenant in the Air Corps; William A. Fauquier, '34, has joined theArmy. George Halcrow, '38, JD '40,is a midshipman with the U. S. NavalReserve.Walter G. Eckersall, '37, is asergeant with the 63rd Coast Artillery;Edward Stokes, '37, is a second lieutenant in the Army; Leo EllnerGatzek, '33, is an Army ordnance inspector; Charles Kaplan, '40, is inthe Navy; Walter E. Swarthout,'40, is captain in the Medical Adminis-tive Corps; Richard W. Evans, '39,is an ensign in the Navy; SamuelLewis Miller, MD '31, is captainand flight surgeon in the MedicalCorps; Solomon P. Perry, MD '25,is lieutenant commander in the Medical Corps, U. S. Naval Reserve.Irving B. Pflaum, '28, is with theForeign Information Service; Paul H.Whitney, '36, is a second lieutenantwith the Quartermaster Corps; Lawrence R. Stickler, '37, MS '38, isan aviation cadet; Clarence G. VanArm an, '39, is an officer candidate inthe Signal Corps; Harry Watkins,'36, is a first lieutenant in the Army;Lee R. Christensen, LLB '21, is inthe Army.Franklin P. Searle, '20, JD '22and Benjamin Morton, MD '33, arein the Navy; Julian A. Kiser, '37, isin the Army; Leonard W. Erickson,'28, is with the Army Air Corps;Thomas F. Green, Jr., JSD '31, isalso in the service.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHE CLASSES1891Don S. Harvey, MD, is examiningphysician for one of the Chicago selective service boards.1897Donald S. Trumbull writes thathe is civilian defense coordinator forHighland Park, Illinois.Rev. William Henry Matthewsis general secretary of the AmericanTract Society, New York City.1901Coe Hayne reports he is secretaryof literature of the American BaptistHome Mission Society, New YorkCity. He is author of a novel of theAmerican Indian entitled Cry Dance,published by Harpers in 1939, and ofRock and Lava, soon to be issued bythe Northern Baptist Convention. Thisis a narrative of the missionary daysof William Howard Bowler in Idahowhen the state was young.1902Garland Q. Whitfield has beenappointed county court judge ofHinds County, Mississippi.1905Appointment of Frank L. Sulzberger of Chicago as a member of theIllinois Public Aid Commission hasbeen announced by Gov. Green's office. Mr. Sulzberger is active in manyChicago welfare organizations.1906The E. L. Bruce Company, ofwhich C. Arthur Bruce, JD '08 isvice president, is manufacturing at therequest of the government pre-fabricated houses for the use of defenseworkers.1914Olive N. Barton reports that she issenior reference assistant at the University of Michigan Law Library, AnnArbor. 1917Mrs. J. F. Morrow (Lucille El-lingwood) conducts the "JustThoughts" column in the Collinsville^(Oklahoma) News, and contributes toother publications.1922Laura J. Lee is motion picture editor of The Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia.Fred Kramer is working for theNational Housing Agency.1925Bertine Collins, SM, is teachinghome economics at NorthwesternHigh School, Detroit, Michigan.1927Wendell C. Bennett, AM '29,PhD '30, is associate professor of anthropology at Yale University.Horace H. Baker, AM, is directorof teacher preparation at Sioux FallsCollege, South Dakota.1929Charles L. Swan is a missionaryin Sironcha, India.Edward J. Zeller, AM '32, hasbeen elected president of the Wisconsin Elementary School Principal'sAssociation for 1942-43. He is nowserving his tenth year as principal ofthe Richards School, Whitefish Bay,Wisconsin.Archie Blake, SM '31, PhD '37,has transferred from the U. S. Coastand Geodetic Survey to the NationalInventors Council, Washington, D. C.1930Horace A. Smith is a sales representative for Scarborough and Company, Chicago.Robert G. Reed, LLB, is directorof the Military Chemical Works, Inc.,Kansas City, Missouri. The plant isproducing war chemicals for the government.Chicago Speakers, Please Speak Up!CONSUMERS want to know what they can do in the all-out effortwhich President Roosevelt, in a recent speech, put squarely on theshoulders of every American citizen. The Consumers' Information Service of the Chicago Commission on Civilian Defense is being swampedwith requests for speakers to address community groups of all kinds:Parent-Teacher, social, religious, study, and professional groups; women'sand men's clubs.There is an urgent need for qualified speakers.Speaking experience is necessary. Background in home economics,political or social sciences would be very valuable, but is not essential.Information kits and instructions will be supplied. If you are interestedin becoming a member of the Speakers' Bureau, please 'phone, write, orcall to get your application blank at the office of the Chicago Commission on Civilian Defense, 228 N. LaSalle Street, FRAnklin 7560.When you apply, please mention that you are an alumnus of theUniversity of Chicago. 1931Wainright B. Erickson, is withthe government in Washington, D. C.The leading article in the Marchissue of Barron's Financial Weeklywas written by Julian D. Weiss, JD'33, who is with the American National Bank and Trust Co. of Chicago,1932Harold F. Haworth is meteorologist with the United Air Lines' at themunicipal airport, Denver.William G. McGinnies, PhD, isworking on the guayule rubber project at Salinas, California.Chief of the foreign agents registration section, James R. Sharp, JD '34,is in the Department of Justice, Washington, D. C.Caleb A. Bevans, AM, PhD, 38,is in the War Department, Washington, D. C.1933Robert W. Erickson is with theAmerican Air Lines at Indianapolis.A research sociologist, Edna V.Hines is with the Douglas SmithFund, Chicago.1934Edwin N. Cooper is carrying onresearch in physics at NorthwesternUniversity.1936Brian Heath is with the Pacificdivision of the American Red Crossin San Francisco.Luther C. Thompson, MD, ispediatric resident at Cook CountyHospital, Chicago.1937An aircraft worker, Howard C.Minder is employed at Anaheim, California.1938Wilbert H. Urry is curator ofchemistry at the Museum of Scienceand Industry, Chicago, but expectssoon to transfer to Distillation Products, Inc., Rochester, New York.At Lane Technical High School,Chicago, Walter G. Hjertstedt isan instructor as well as director of thePan-American Drawing Exchange.Glen Eyrie FarmFOR CHILDRENDELAVAN LAKE, WISCONSINBOYS and GIRLS 7—12Farm experience besides camp activities including swimming and boating.June 25 to September 3Send for story of tho Farm.VIRGINIA HINKINS BUZZELL, 13Glen Eyrie Farm, Delavan Lake, Wis.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27LovelyTable AppointmentsFINE CHINA, CRYSTALGOLDEN DIRILYTESILVERGifts — Imported and Domestic.For Quality and Distinction seeDIRIGO, INC.70 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, 111.BUSINESS DIRECTORYAMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phonai OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Aw ning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAYmarket 79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. Chicago Arthur Aaron Dolnick, PhD'41, is with the research department ofthe Publicker Commercial AlcoholCompany in Philadelphia.Donald M. McEndoffer, MD, isa physician and surgeon in Denver,Colorado.William G. Negley is an attorneyfor the legal division, Arms Ordnance,Chicago district.1939The Hamilton Alumni Reviewstates that Karl Limper is an instructor in geology at Hamilton College,Clinton, New York.Elmer C. Woods is chief of theAdvisory Committee of National Defense in Washington, D. C.Galen W. Ewing, PhD, is withthe Winthrop Chemical Company atRensselaer, New York.1940John A. Neville is a chemist withthe Consolidated Paper Company atWisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin.Richard C. Vanderhoof, MD, isat the Procter and Gamble defenseplant in Milan, Tennessee.Edward S. Strugala is located inWashington, D. C, with the NavyOrdnance Bureau.Philip R. Lawrence has been admitted to the bar of Illinois and theDistrict of Columbia.1941Harold Salwin is with the Tennessee Valley Authority.SOCIAL SERVICEA new and revised and enlargededition of Dean Abbott's Social Welfare and Professional Education hasjust been published by the Universityof Chicago Press.Grace Browning, AM '34, assistant professor of social service administration, spoke at the recently heldKansas Conference of Social Welfareon rural public welfare.Charlotte Towle, associate professor of social service administration,gave an institute on psychiatry in casework treatment for the Syracuse, NewYork, chapter of the American Association of Social Workers late in April.Annie Laurie Baker, AM '31, formerly head of the Bureau of the Blindin Minnesota, has taken a positionwith the American Red Cross, Washington, D. C.Winifred Morin, AM '36, is general secretary of the Family WelfareAssociation, Decatur, Illinois.Helen McCarter Jambor, AM'39, is a senior case worker, with theFamily Service Agency, San Francisco,and her husband, Harold Jambor,AM '39, is assistant field director of BOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CEMENT CONTRACTORST. A. REHNQUIST CO. CONCRETEVV~~7/ FLOORSv ' SIDEWALKSMACHINE FOUNDATIONSEMERGENCY WORKALL Wentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Ave.CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, "ii.B. R. Harris. "21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists end Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Cool Makes Good — or—Wesson Does28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGRAPHIC ARTSTHE SCRIPTORIUMScribes • Illuminators • BindersC L JICKETTS JASPER S KINGIf it Ii said to last a lifetime or longer, sayit sincerely with well-chosen words m beautiful, imperishable designMESSAGES OF APPRECIATION. RESOLUTIONS. ILLUMINATED INSCRIPTIONS,MEMORIALS; BIRTHDAY, CHRISTMASAND GUEST BOOKS; CRESTS, COATSOF ARMS, TITLE PAGES•DIPLOMAS, CITATIONS,.HONORARY DEGREES, CHARTERSValued papers and letters restoredand bound38 SOUTH DEARBORN STREETDEARBORN 0001 CHICAGOCOFFEE-TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston — New York — Philadelphia — SyracuseELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER CONSTRUCTION600 TIL• i n. , TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Seeley 2788ELECTRICAL SUPPLIESENGLEWOODELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Distributors, Manufacturers and Jobbers ofELECTRICAL MATERIALS ANDFIXTURE SUPPLIES5801 EnglewoodS. Halsted Street 7500EMPLOYMENTCOLOREDDOMESTIC HELPFurnishedDay or NightReferences investigated.Englewood Employment Agency5530 S. State Phone-Englewood 3181-3182Street Night-Englewood 3181Established 20 yearsKenwood 1352WE DELIVER ANYWHEREKIDWELLALL PURPOSE FLORISTJAMES E. KIDWELL826 E. 47th St., Chicago, 111. military and naval welfare services,American Red Cross, San Francisco.Harriett Salinger Iglauer, AM'40, is a medical social worker, American Red Cross, Walter Reed Hospital,Washington, D. C.George Faris, AM '41, has resignedfrom the Illinois State Training Schoolfor Boys and accepted a position withthe Social Security Board in Chicago.Wanda Morgenthaler, AM '41,formerly case worker in the CookCounty Hospital in Chicago, has takena position as medical social workerwith the American Red Cross and hasvolunteered for foreign service.BORNTo Lieut. John Jay Berwanger('36) and Mrs. Berwanger ( Philomela Baker, '38) of Chicago, a son,John Jay, Jr., on May 8.To Julian D. Weiss, '31, JD '33,and Mrs. Weiss (Shirley Warsaw,'34) a son, Lawrence Edward, onApril 9 in Chicago. Lawrence is theirsecond child, brother of David Harry.To James C. Ellis, '23, MD '26,and Mrs. Ellis (Dorothy E. Sage,'24) a son, James Arthur on February3 at DeKalb, Illinois.To Robert Warner, MD '39, andMrs. Warner, a daughter. N^ncyGene, on March 21 in Buffalo, NewYork.To Daniel C. Smith, '38, JD '40,and Mrs. Smith (Louise Hoyt, '38),a daughter, Kathleen Hoyt, on April25. .To William MaCauley Hill andMrs. Hill (Ruth Lyman, '32), a second daughter, Margaret MaCauley,on April 18 in Dodge City, Kansas.ENGAGEDDorothy Teberg, an undergraduate,to John C. Doolittle, '41, who hasbeen elected to Tau Beta Pi, honorary engineering fraternity, at the IowaState College, where he is now amember of the junior class in mechanical engineering.Mary Evelyn Richey of Carteret,New Jersey, to Robert S. Miner, '40,who is employed by Merck and Company, Rahway, New Jersey, as achemist.MARRIEDLois M. Kelly to Edward H.Camp, '36, MD '39, an Army medicalofficer at the station hospital, Shep-pard Field, Texas. The marriagetook place on September 6, 1941, atJoliet, Illinois.Dorothy Elliot to Charles L. Hopkins, Jr., '33, on August 31, 1941.Mr. and Mrs. Hopkins are at homein Detroit, Michigan. GROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 81 18 Chicago LITHOGRAPHERE. J. Chaiitoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Ponograph — Offset— Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182THE UNIVERSITY Ob LHlCAGO MAGAZINE 29OFFICE FURNITURELEASEFILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co. Or»n< H«pld», MlchlgenOPTICIANSNELSON OPTICAL CO.1138 East63rd StreetHyde Pert5352Dr. Nels R. Nelson, OptometristPAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Paintinq — Decora tinq — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedz.e 3 1 86PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579 Rosemary B. Schwartz to Lieut.Robert L. Stern, '29, MD '34, atLa Jolla, California, where they areat home.Mary M. Ryerson, '41, to Donald A. K. Brown, '40, on March 25,in Chicago.Mary Elizabeth Parker, '40, ofDiablo Heights, Canal Zone, to PaulKaar on December 4, 1941.Helen V. Heinzelmann, SM '39,of Chicago to R. Keith Currier, onSeptember 13, 1941.Mary V. Bagshaw to John P. Barden, Jr., '35, JD '38, on February 21at Lowell, Massachusetts.Theodora Schmidt, '38, to JohnCogley on April 6, in Chicago. Athome, 1312 East 56th Street, Chicago.DIEDAfter a long illness, Dr. GeorgeNorlin, retired president of the University of Colorado, died on March30 at the age of seventy, in Boulder,Colorado. Dr. Norlin was a fellowin Greek at the University of ChicagoRICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIAL *PAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3l°2from 1896 to 1899, in which year thesenior fellowship was awarded to him.He received the PhD., magna cumlaude, from the University in 1900.Dr. Norlin was president of the University of Colorado from 1919 untilhis retirement in 1930, after which,in spite of ill "health, he devoted himself to research in the humanities andto lecturing and writing. He was amember of Phi Beta Kappa, PhiGamma Delta, and of many learnedand educational societies. Dr. Nor-lin's death followed that of his wife,Minnie, by twenty-seven hours. Heis survived by a daughter, Agnes Rebecca, of Seattle, Washington./ give and bequeath to the University of Chicago the sumof (signed) J. Lester Burgess, '25, of OakPark, Illinois, on September 8, 1941.Sister Jeanne d'Arg Hurley, SM'28, PhD '33, of Fontbonne College,on April 10.William Wiebe, AM '25, of OakPark, Illinois, on November 19, 1941.Mary L. Robinson, '20, of KansasCity, Missouri, on April 3.Ernest Bennet, AM '28, of Kansas State Teachers College, Pittsburg,on January 4.PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Goad Printing o/ All Descriptions"HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS SINCE 1900 + WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES' ?+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED *+ ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE -?rai7i\i:i a \mDALHEIM .SCO.2 0J4 W. LAKE ST., CHICAGORESIDENTIAL HOTELSBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748Blackstone Ave. TelephonePlaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorRESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideAN*MMMNMCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 632430 THE UNI V ERSITi OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEROOFERSESTABLISHED 1908FAirfax9206GROVEROOFINGGilliland«»44COTtA6t6IOytA.-ROOFING and INSULATINGRUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000SCHOOLS— COMMERCIALCO Ll*<*Offers young men and womenunexcelled preparation for business careers in the shortest timeconsistent with thoroughness.StenographicSecretarialCourt ReportingBookkeeping andAccountingDAY AND EVENING SESSIONSThe Year 'RoundCall for FREE vocational guidance booklet "The Doorway ToOpportunity." Visit the collegeany week day.(co-educational)The Gregg CollegePresident, John Robert Gregg, S.C.D.Director, Paul M. Pair, M.A.< N. Michigan Avenue at Madison StreetState 1881INTENSIVE¦ STENOGRAPHIC COURSEfor College PeopleSuperior training for practical, personal use or profitable employment Course gives you dictation speedof 100 words a minute. Classes begin January, April,July and October. Enroll Now. Write or phone forbulletin.BRYANT & STRATTON CollegeU S. Michigan Ave. Chicago Tell RAN. 157S Thomas R. Crowder, MD '97, onApril 15 at Winnetka, Illinois. Dr.Crowder was director of sanitationand surgery for the Pullman Company and has been associated with thecompany for 37 years.John A. McGeagh, PhD '26, headof the department of psychology,State University of Iowa, on March 3,in Iowa City.M. Ella Harrison, '10, of Baltimore, Maryland, in July, 1941.John A. Johnson, '18, principalof Sexton School, Chicago, onMarch 9. Francis W. Coltrin, MD '89, ofFullerton, California, on December 11941.Dewitt T. Petty, AM '20, head ofthe mathematics department, FrancisParker School, Chicago, on April 16.Thomas W. Gillespie, MD '96, ofVictoria, Illinois, on July 5, 1941.Jalmar M. Hofto, MD '23, ofGrand Forks, North Dakota, in August, 1941.Rodolfo Servin Mendoza, '20, ofLa Paz, Bolivia, in November, 1941.THIS great electrical crane hoists thegiant locomotive as if it were a toy.ENERGY, developed from the fuelutilized, makes this tremendous feateasily possible.Day after day your body is also calledupon to perform physical feats. Ineverything you do, the food you eatprovides the energy you require.Rich in DEXTROSE, the sugar yourbody uses directly for energy, BABYRUTH is not only a luscious, thrillingtaste-treat, but it helps your body replace used-up food-energy. You'll loveits fresh, appealing taste . . . you'll appreciate its food-energy!Once you've enjoyed this fine, bigcandy bar you'll know why it's a NICKELFAVORITE everywhere. Try one today.CURTISS CANDY CO., CHICAGO, ILL. Kick. i#tDEXTROSETHE SUGAR YOUR BODY USESDIRECTIY FORENERGYHBTAd No. MI329341-Yov«l-204 7THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31SCHOOLS— COMMERCIALMacCormac School ofCommerce'Business Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 21.30SHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893TEACHERS' AGENCIESAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState1 Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency60th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One Fee64 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoMinneapolis — Kansas City, Mo.Spokane — New YorkHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized as one of the leading TeachersAgencies cf the United States. Evelyn M. Albright, PhD '15,associate professor of English at theUniversity, was found dead in herapartment on April 16. Doctors attributed her death to natural causes.Miss Albright was on sabbatical leave.She had been a member of the faculty since 1915. Her field of specialinterest was the Renaissance period ofEnglish literature, particularly the lifeand times of Shakespeare. She alsodid considerable research on Miltonand Spenser. She was a member ofPhi Beta Kappa, the Modern Language Association, and the LondonBibliographical Society. Her published works include The Short Story:Its Principles and Structure andDramatic Publication in England,1580-1640.David A. Angus, MD '96, of Rosalia, Washington, on August 1, 1941.Florence E. Wool worth, AM'34, on February 17. Miss Woolworthwas a teacher in the public schools ofGibbon, Nebraska.Wallace F. Grosvenor, MD '00,of Chicago, on March 3.William J. Peacock, DB '07, ofWest DePere, Wisconsin, on September 19, 1941.Arthur W. Collat, '29, of NewYork City, on November 2, 1941.Ruth W. Pray, Phd '25, of Chickasha Oklahoma, on July 22, 1941.James Mace Andress, PhD '06,of Newtonville, Massachusetts, onFebruary 5.Cassie Belle Rose (Mrs. Frederick S. Thatcher) , MD '14, of Boulder,Colorado, on January 18.Leroy H. Stafford, DB '13, PhD'18, of Seattle, Washington, on January 24.Oliver B. Sarber, DB '90, of Red-lands, California, on December 14,1941.Eva May Holmes (Mrs. J. Wr),'28, of Raleigh, North Carolina, onFebruary 19.Lilian H. Carmichael, '20, AM'26, of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, inMarch.John G. Briggs, DB '99, of LongBeach, California, on April 24, 1941.pulseofficial student magazine published at the University ofChicagopresentsCampus News, Features, ShortStories, Poems, Humor, Prominent Authors.15c, I copy $1.25, 10 copiesFaculty Exchange, Box 97 UNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.AIL Phones OAKIand 0492UNIFORMSTailored Uniforms Made to MeasureWomen Doctors and Nurses, Stock sizeInterne SuitsANEDA McSWEENY1910 So. Ogden AvenueSEEley 3734 Evenings by AppointmentVENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767THE DAILY MAROONWILL BE ON SALEDURING THE REUNIONHAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE20 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERTGraduate NurseMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused. Permanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600 HairRoots per hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy, Also Elect rologists Associationof Illinois$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in Beauty32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERAICHES—{Continued jrom page 8)in that by order, emphasis, and vocabulary we bring outthe implications of (i. e. define and enrich) the parts asthey are being united, by sequence and structure, into aunity. The proper unity is thus attained in virtue of thestyle of the writing.The difference between literature and journalism issimply that in the former, style is a function of plot andin the latter it isn't. By style we are able to make thetime dimension our slave instead of our master, expanding each unit to its proper symbolic significance, buildingup, by proper retrospect and anticipation, the attitudeand the atmosphere in the light of which the work hasunity, and the proper unity. Through style an accountof a man walking along a busy street on a summer afternoon can be presented as a profound and symbolic interpretation of experience — not through conscious ratiocination or elaboration, not through sentimentality or vagueness, not through digressions and whimsies, but throughdiscipline merely — through proper organization, throughstyle. That is the missing link between critical analysisand critical evaluation: what is more susceptible to suchanalysis is ipso facto distinguished literature, for the particular has been symbolized into the universal by organization. The point to make sure of is that the analysisreveals something in the work and not in the mind of thecritic merely.Through a consideration of the problem of style onecan come to a complete literary theory. If style is theresult of patterning and arranging units of communication in such a way that they reflect back and forth oneach other and achieve maximum significance — communication as symbol as well as statement— then thereis no such thing as a bad book with good style. Anindifferent work which is "well written" can only meana work in which the whole splits itself up into innumerable minor portions within each of which a certaineffectiveness of communication is achieved; but that isobviously bad art. Inferior art involves the prematureescape of uncompleted meanings ; great art involves thesuspension of the complete meaning until all has beensaid. The true artist keeps building up new and excitingcombinations of meaning concerning what is in the bag,but he never lets the cat out of the bag until the end,when the reader realizes that it was visible all the time. NORTON—(Continued jrom page 9)University, then I am afraid the quality of instruction atthe University has become terribly diluted.I quote again:The confusion produces waste because it does notrecognize that, with proper organization, general education can be completed by the end of what is nowthe sophomore year in college.I had always supposed that general education continued throughout a man's life but apparently it shouldstop, except in a few cases, at the age of 20.Once more I quote :The elements of the Chicago reorganization adoptedto produce this clarification had long been acceptedby educators as those most likely to improve education.Many institutions had adopted various of these elements, but it was not until the synthesis of the Chicago Plan that they were all combined into a coherentsystem. The various parts of the Plan were not novel;but the combination of them into a unified whole wasnovel.I believe this is referring to the first Chicago Plan. Itseems ' to say that granted that all the ingredients arepresent for mixing a good soup, there is only one chefcapable of making the proper mixture and now it mightalso be added capable of making it in half the time.This type of statement is typical of the publicity whichthe University has been putting out for the last fewyears and it is so totally lacking in modesty as to makethis one alumnus completely sick.There are numerous other quotations that I should liketo make but I will refrain and simply submit the following: ..( 1 ) If the University faculty think it is better to givea degree at the end of two years and to give no otherdegree until the end of five years, that is an experimentwhich may or may not be for the best interests of theUniversity, but which is certainly legitimate. It isillegitimate to designate the two-year degree by letterswhich in ordinary usage mean something else.(2) The publicity put out by the University partlythrough the speeches of its president and as exemplifiedby the "authorized statement" referred to above leavean unfavorable impression on many alumni and mostcertainly on outsiders. Saying that a newspaper is the"world's greatest" obviously doesn't make it so. The mostsuccessful men usually are among the most modest. Wemay believe that over a long period of years the University has been one of the greatest in the world but isit necessary to shout it from the house tops?This is a plea for more modesty, dignity, and honestyin the material put out by the University.Best SellerIT TOOK A WAR to do it, but one technical textbook published by the Universityof Chicago Press has practically become a best seller. The book is "Chamberlain'sJapanese Grammar."Originally published more than half a century ago, the book was revised in 1924by Colonel J. G. Mcllroy, U. S. A., one of four Army officers sent to Japan to studythe language. Prophetically, Colonel Mcllroy in submitting the manuscript to theUniversity of Chicago Press wrote, "Interest will be small except in the event of war."BUYUNITEDSTATESDEFENSEBONDSANDSTAMPSIn Reunion There Is Strength—1942 ALUMNI SCHOOLAND REUNIONJune 10, 11, 12, and 13See the Program in This Issue"EXTRA" hours for youradded duties!• SPEND this afternoon away fromyour kitchen — at your war, charity,or other outside work! Then, in amatter of minutes you can whisktogether a tempting Spring supper— planned around a tasty assortment of Swift's Premium Table-Ready Meats! These cold-cut delicacies (14 different kinds) aremade of selected meats, seasonedjust right, and blended by expertSwift chefs. They have real homegoodness. 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