Period.R. R.THE UNIVERSITY OECHICAGO MAG AZI NEJ U N 19 4 1IN TWO PARTShH ___ iÈ& __ _THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILREUBEN FRODIN, '33, JD '41Associate EditorCHARLTON T. BECK, '04Editor and Business ManagerDAVID DAICHES; BERNARD LUNDY, '37; DON MORRIS, '36; RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36Contributing EditorsTHIS MONTHTHE COVER: The flags of tributing to the Fiftieth Anniversary dose the academic festival of thethe United States of America Gift in the face of pressing and Fiftieth Anniversary. At this timeand of the University of Chi- worthy causes outside of the Univer- also alumni will return to the Mid-cago fly over the Quadrangles. This sity has been gratifying to the trus- way to participate in the symposiaphotograph, taken from the onice of tees, the administration and those and to attend the Alumni School.the editors on the fourth floor of alumni who have so generously de- •Cobb Hall by John Sanderson, also voted themselves to the work of the This final issue of the Magazineshows Ryerson Hall, the Botany Alumni Foundation. The citizens of for the Fiftieth Anniversary Year isBuilding, Kent Physical Laboratory, Chicago, in a sense duplicating the in two parts, the first containing thewith Mitchell Tower in the back- efforts of a previous generation of regular Magazine features and theground. Chicagoans, have been formed to- second a biography of the first presi-O gether in a Citizens' Board which has dent of the University of Chicago,The eventful year of 1940-41 comes given time and money to further the William Rainey Harper. A speciallyto a dose. For the University it was ideals of the University of Chicago bound copy of the biography was pre-important because it was the Fiftieth and the ideals of freedom. sented to Mrs. Harper on July 1, theAnniversary Year. For the trustees, In September great scholars and fiftieth anniversary of the day heradministration, faculty, students and scientists from ali parts of the United distinguished husband took office (seealumni — as for the rest of the citizens States, from Europe, Canada and News of the Quadrangles). The au-of the United States — it was also a South America will gather on the thor of the biography, whose con-year in which more and more of the Midway to participate in symposia tributions have frequently appearedworld became embroiled in a war of dedicated to the "new frontiers of in the Magazine, is Milton S. Mayer.devastation. This year the Maga- education and research." Thirty-four Mr. Mayer spent a good part of thezine attempted, as faithfully as it of these distinguished visitors, in- past year preparing this biographyknew how, to present to its alumni cluding1 alumni and former teachers and it is with genuine pleasure thatreaders pertinent discussions by of the University, will be awarded the editors of the Magazine are ablealumni, faculty and members of the honorary degrees by the University to present it to alumni readers.administration on what the war at a Convocation which brings to a •means to this country. We have car-m The Magazine' s thanks are here-ried in our columns reports from contents w't'1 exten(^e(^ to our regular con_alumni in the Near East, Spain and June |94| tributors, David Daiches (for hisMexico and from members of the fac- (|n jwo Parts) refreshing Notes for a Dilettante —ulty familiar with conditions in Eng- Page despite the trouble we had spellingland, Scotland and Ireland. Bo™. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. ! Y.Y.Y.V. ! '. '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 3 "dilettante") , Bernard Lundy, '37O A Liberal Èducatkw/^ (News of the Quadrangles) and DonIt is nothing to say that the war Hutchins 5 Morris, '36 (Athletics), and to. i i i ,i tt • •. > Curricula and Ideals, Ralph W . T yler 7 tj « ~ « -rj i tt j >?chas overshadowed the University s NoTES F0R A Dilettante, David Daiches 11 Hugh Loie, Howard Hudson, ób,Fiftieth Anniversary. In spite of. the Rush Medical College, Wilber E. and Ralph Nicholson, '36, as well aswar, however, the University has ^ ^-y ^ -&-^; ^n 13 to the occasionai 1 contributo andcarried forward its anniversary prò- Gardner 15 letter-wnter. Mr. Nicholson will joingram because of its belief in the last- News of the Quadrangles, Bernard Naval Intelligence this summer anding importance of the work the Uni- Fra7k Dinner' ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1 !" ! ! '.'."'. 1 '. ! 19 Reuben Frodin, '33, JD '41, will joinversity has done in the past fifty years Athletics, Don Morris.. 20 the staff of the General Counsel ofand will do in the next fifty years. News of the Classes 21 tiie Secùrities and Exchange Com-_, . , , , .. William Rainey Harper, Milton S. . . . ,,7 t .L °The cooperation of the alumni in con- Mayer 29 mission in Washington.Published bv the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. atEllis Aveniie. Chiesero. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered ps second class matter December 1, 1934, at the PostOffice at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the officiai advertising agency of the University of Chicago Magazine.In September, 194-1, the University of Chicago willcelebrate its Fiftieth AnniversaryThe Press has been a part of the University from the beginning. It is the voice ofthe University, without which the words and the works of scholars could not beheard and disseminated for the advancement of the knowledge of the world. Inits first fifty years the Press has published almost 3,000 titles, and is currentlypublishing eighteen scholarly journals. First to be established was the Journalof Politicai Economy in December, 1892; last to be acquired was the Journal of In-fectious Diseases, whose publication was taken over in January, 1941. The 18journals published by the University of Chicago Press are:In the humanities and the social sciencesThe Journal of Politicai, Economy. Founded1892. Edited by Jacob Viner and Frank H.Knight. Bi-monthly, $5.00The Library Quarterly. Founded in 1937. Editedby William M. Randall. Quarterly, $5.00 a yearThe Social Service Review. Founded in 1927.Edited by Edith Abbott, Sophonisba P. Breck-inridge, Wayne McMillen, Helen R.Wright. Quarterly, $4.00 a yearThe Journal of Modern History. Founded in7929. Edited by Bernadotte E. Schmitt andLouis Gottschalk. Quarterly, $4.50 a yearThe American Journal of Sociology. Founded in1895. Edited by Herbert Blumer. Bi-monthly,$5.00 a yearThe University of Chicago Law Review.Founded in 1933. Edited by The University ofChicago Law School. Quarterly, $2.00 a year Ethics. An International Journal of Social, Politicai, and Legai Philosophy. Founded in 1890.Published by the University of Chicago Press since1923. Edited by T. V. Smith and Charner M.Perry. Quarterly, $4.00 a yearModern Philology. Founded in 1903. Edited byRonald S. Crane. Quarterly, $5.00 a yearThe American Journal of Semitic Languagesand Literatures. Founded in 1895 {continuingHebraica, established 1884). Edited by George G.Cameron. Quarterly, $5.00 a yearThe Journal of Business of the University ofChicago. Founded in 1929. Edited by Edward A.Duddy and Martin J. Freeman. Quarterly,$4.00 a year.The Journal of Religion. Founded in 1928. Edited by John Knox. Quarterly, $4.00 a yearClassical Philology. Founded in 1906. Edited byJakob A. O. Larsen. Quarterly, $4.00 a year.In the physical and biologi cai sciencesThe Botanical Gazette. Founded in 7875. Published by the University of Chicago Press since 7896.Edited by E. J. Kraus. Quarterly, $8.00The Astrophysical Journal. Founded in 7895.Edited by Paul W. Merrill, Harlow Shap-ley, and Otto Struve. Bi-monthly, $70.00 a yearThe Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics.Founded in 7939. Edited by Nicolas Rashevsky.Quarterly, $2.50 a year The Journal of Geology. Founded in 1893. Editedby Rollin T. Chamberlin. Semi-quarterly, $6.00a yearPhysiological Zoòlogy. Founded in 1928. Editedby Warder C. Allee. Quarterly, $7.50 a yearThe Journal of Infectious Diseases. Founded in1904. Published by the University of Chicago Press,beginning 1941. Edited by William H. Talia-ferro. Bi-monthly, $5.00 a yearNote: Subscription prices are slightly higher to Canada and foreign countries.*9 \ - As its contribution toward the University s FiftiethAnniversary the Press will issue in September of thisyear a Dictionary Catalogue of every title — both inprint and out of print — published. Copies of thiscatalogue will be available to scholars.WismN^Tfre Quioetsitjj ojQhica&o Ehess2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELETTERSBLACKFRIAR PLANSTo the Editor :In an erTort to aid the University'salumni program, widen the interest ofalumni in the annual Blackfriars production, and, wisely, to increase theirticket sales, Blackfriars plans big thingsfor alumni at each performance of nextyear's show.At the annual initiation and reunionbanquet held at the Sherry Hotel onMay 14th, the suggestion of a programof alumni-interest stimulation by MiltOlin was accepted immediately by in-coming Abbot Dale Johnson. For thefirst time in years the banquet festivi-ties wound up in hours of enthusiasticplanning, and out of the alumni groupdiscussion, led by Frank P. Brecken-ridge, Chairman of the Board of Blackfriars Trustees, carne some tentativelypotent formulae.One of these plans. particularly in-tended for the younger alumni and theUniversity at large includes a cabaretparty at a South Side hotel after theopening night's performance, as well asparticipation in the. Blackfriars MusicalMemories portion of the evening's entertainment. This latter feature islargely the brainchild of alumnus song-writer Jerry Marlowe (now featured onmany NBC programs), who proposedthat each of the f our evening perform-ances have a musical preamble to thesecond act appropriate to and dedicatedto a specific Blackfriars era and agegroup. In this manner the alumni ofthe past dozen years, for example,would especially celebrate on the opening night; alumni of 1905-14, the secondevening performance;. 1915-23, the sec ond Friday evening; and the classes of1924-30 on the closing night. AbbotJohnson and the alumni committee maymake an erTort to bring back old heroes.and heroines to join in the presentationof the Musical Memories, which willbeapart from the regular undergraduateproduction.For the older alumni group, who per-haps would not be interested in the cabaret party, other tentative plans areoffered, including a get-together socialhour in the Reynolds Club or Quad-rangle Club, which would borrow a sec-tion of the Blackfriars orchestra andcarry over the "Blackfriars through theyears" musical motif, but which wouldbe primarily an informai affair to re-new old University acquaintances.Olin's general pian of a program forstimulation of alumni interest and Mario we's idea of dedicating each performance to alumni of specific past eras metthe approvai of Dean William Randall,who spoke at the banquet. Ex-AbbotsFrank Calvin, Chet Laing, and DickSalzmann promised cooperation, as didBlackfriar alumni Nels Fuqua, ChetWard, Orin Tovrov, Milton Kreines andNate Krevitsky, who variously havemanaged, written, and acted in Blackfriars shows in years gone by.Further suggestions toward a solidi-fication of these tentative plans will bewelcomed by Abbot Johnson, as well asshow-scores from the dim years. Progress will be reported in these pages fromtime to time.Charles Greenleaf, '35.Chicago.[Philip C. White, '35, PhD '38, writesthat at the annual dinner of the Brama-tic Association on May 14 a programwas outlined for next year, including atleast one special alumni performanceand tea to follow in the Tower Room.He states that there was also discussionof the possibility of the alumni actuallyp utting on a Workshop Play in thespring quarter.~]ON THE WARTo the Editor :I have just finished reading Mr. Ros-tow's vain erTort to attack the viewswhich President Hutchins has so bril-liantly expressed in respect to our posi-tion in the present war, and I hasten totake my stand solidly behind Dr.Hutchins.It seems evident that Mr. Rostow isperfectly willing to send our boys intobattle. Thank God we have a Dr.Huchins so eloquently defending thecause of human justice. Stated simply,Mr. Rostow is in favor of war, and Dr.Hutchins is against it. Can any saneman disagree with Dr. Hutchins in hispenetrating observation that peace is preferable to war? Mr. Rostow seemsto think that we may not have anychoice in the matter, and supports hiscontention by making the wholly ridicu-lous charge that the Nazis are bent onconquest. I just don't believe this, andI am sure that Dr. Hutchins feels quitethe sanie way. I wonder if Mr. Rostowhas ever known any Germans. Cer-tainly Hans, the bartender right nearour house, is one of the kindest men Ihave ever known. He is perfectly amaz-ing in his ability to handle children.Moreover, suppose the Nazis and theirallies did want to attack us. What goodwould it do them? The gallant ColonelLindbergh has assured us that this isimpossible. Further, we have the pro-tection of the Monroe Doctrine, whichMr. Rostow completely overlooks.Certainly Dr. Hutchins is on finnground when he reminds us that it isstupid to concern ourselves with worldaffairs until we have worked out a moreperfect democracy here at home. I thinkit is high time that we in this countrypay more attention to our acknowledgedleaders of thought.Rowland H. George, '16.New York City. ; 170 Million Times a Daythe public tests BellSystem service. Themeasure of this serviceis not only its reliabilityand low cost, but thefriendly manner inwhich it is delivered.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3BOOKSJonathan Edwards, 1703-1758: ABiography. By Ola Elizabeth Winslow, PhD'22. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1940. $3.50.Among ali the many bòoks that havebeen written on: Jonathan Edwards,from the first Life of Samuel Hopkinsin 1765. to the present revival of interestin his life and thought,, Miss Winslow's4biography ranks with the most distinguished. Those who have written onJonathan Edwards in recent years, havebeen niore interesteds in him as a phi-losopher and theològiari, in the unfold-ing of his? thought rathfr than in theunfolding of his life. Miss Winslow,. .however, has deliberately omitted anyfull discussion of the "sweep and com-plexity of his ideas" andhas centerèciher attention upqn Edwards the man.The real Jonathan Edwards is hard toget at, because religion was "his start-ing point and his goal'' and he lived inpeople. His contemporaries found himdifficult to. fathom, and liis biographershave experienced the sanie difficulty.Miss Winslow, however^ has been moresuccess fui than any other in penetratingbeneath the surface and! in revealingthat mysterious life "wli&s e thought hashad a shaping part in times beyond hisown."To the lay mind Edwards was pri-marily a revivalist, the instigator of thegreat religious awakening in New Eng-land, and a hell-fire and brimstonepreacher. Miss Winslow* has shownthat not one of these traditional notionshas a basis in fact. He was not arevivalist in the ordinary sense, for hisappeal, was not ordinar ily to the emo-tions but to the mind, and yet he heldto the' centrai place of emotion in alireligious experience. The thing whichmore than any cther made Edward atheologian and a pioneer in religiouspsychology was the fact that it was notenough for him to see and to feel, buthe had an inner compulsion to explain.In fact ali of Edwards' great books, hisFreedom of the Will and his ReligiousAffections and ali the other s grew outof this urge to explain what he saw tak-ing place in other s about him and whathe felt within himself. ;Men like Edwards need to be reinter-preted to every succeeding generation,for his contribution to religion and toreligious thought has a timeless qualitythat gives it permanent value. Notoften has one man initiated and directeda popular movement of such far reach-ing influence as the New England Awakening, and at the sanie tiniè laidthe; foundation fora sfstem of religiousthought of such far reàching conse-quence. As a shaping force in Americanculture Miss Winslow thinks that Jonathan Edwards the man was more im-portant than anything he did or said orwrote,. and this judgment, I think iswell supported in her competent andfascinating study.William W. Sweex:The University ; of Chicago.The Incurable Romantic: By Rod-erick Peattie, '15. New #ork : TheMacmillan Company,, 1941. $3.00.The Incurable Romantic is the auto-biography of a scientist and universityprofessor whose fifty years have beenlived in variety, independence and a§eiise of thè dramatic in responso andèxploràtion alike ; an individuai wfiowas brought up in a highly individual-istic household, and who began to regardhis own, ehildren as individuals fromthe tiilie they first showed human con-sciousness. And in his wdl-fiavorednarrative the reader's rewards includeboth humor and earnestness. Dr. ÌPeat-tie thought first of càlìing his: book,fTke Éduejàtion of an UmmportanfMan.He insists that it is stili that, and hewarns prospective readers not to lookfor great, heroic deeds and names. Buthe changed the title, he explains, "because as I proceeded I saw that whatI was trying to set down was the storyof how an unimportant man strives tx>make the unimportant details of Tifeimportant, and as he does so his lifebecomes dramatic and significant tohim." ;We can guess at once that thisgeography teacher is not much con-cerned with his pupils' rememberingthat "the erosive power of a streàmvaries as the sixtlì power of its ve-locity." Did you know, he asks instead,that "in the desert of the Gobi the greatwinds urge the sands to sing a songas elusive as that of thè sirens," ahdwhy ?The lives of his parents and grand-parents furnish stout-hearted anecdotesfor the book's early chapters (Elia W.Peattie was called "the first Bryanman," and her husband, whose physiquewas deceptively fragile, faced shootingat least once in his crusading activi-ties) ; and Roderick says that to himstili "democracy typifies cornbelt societymore than any other stratum in ourcountry." His references to his youngerbrother, Donald Culross Peattie, arewhimsically affectionate. And the fam-ily's broad variety of interest is seenin the fact that he was sent to a "play-ing-fields-of-Eaton" type of school in Massachusetts at the age of twelve. Hewas! a rebellioua little fish-out-of-watertheré, but his memories rernain genial,and, he confesses, he learned a lot. HelearnèS to Study, among other things.Erom the University of Chicago [fromwhich he receiYed the Bachelor's degreein 1915J he went East again for graduate wòrk at Harvard. Here^as in thescènes óf his teaching làter^ he drawsaniusing sketches of background, experience^ and academic tutélage.Meanwhile, the tide of young romancehad run full when he was about seven-teen^ It wasn't girls. Girls, for thetime being, anyhow, were out. No, it\vas the search for a meaning to exist-ence. "Omar Khayyam and Buddhaand- people like that had the answer,"he felt; but his own quest .began with"Songs From Yagabonds," thóse liltingverses by which Ricnard Hovey andBliss Carman beckoned young, spirlts towitching impersonal beauty thirty yearsor so ago. Yqung Roderick would roanithe wild nioorlands and he would read,ahd get a job as a foreitér. But-whenhe murmured "Nine bean rowfe will Ihave there," in lovely literary 'Mstasyby a mountain cabin in North Carolina,the mountaineer woke him rudely ,fromdreams of Innisfree: "Them:è ain'tbeans.- Thèm's cotton."It was inevitable that Roderick Peattie should go in 1917 from Harvard tothe war; and he writes of his warexperience with candor and personalmodesty— barbarity of sheer inefficiencyis here, and also gallantry and corhrade-ship. He had married Margaret Rhodes['14] - three weeks before sailing forFrance. When he got home (on hisson's first birthday) his "first real. job"took him for a year's substitute ¦ workin geology to Williams College. Andthere, with a wife as dàuntlessly inde-pendent-spirited as his mother had been,they were amiably referred to as the"crazy Peatties".In his book's happy and often whim-sical meanderings- — now among hisehildren and the neighbors at thè Peatties' Vermont fami, now in his wide-ranging tasks on the faculty of -OhioState University — we follow the romantic in his ronianticism and find first theindividuai and, precisely thus, the edu-cator anòl the democrat. If romanticismis merely a, sort of "delayed adol-escence," then let us dismiss it, he says,with a tolerant smile. But to his mindit is something quite differ.ent : some-thing we need especially now. Courage,imagination, sensibility — "these areromantic qualities."Katherine Woods.[From the New York Times.]THIS "COCKROFT-W ALTON CIRCUIT"-a new type of precision atomdisintegrator — may lead to the understanding and control of atomic disintegrationnecessary to a new efa based on the use of atomic energy.VOLUME XXXIII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEJUNE, 1941 NUMBER 9PART IA LIBERAL EDUCATION ?ON THESE occasions the University feels satisf action at the accomplishment of the graduatingclass and regret at its departure. Today the sat-isfaction is no less keen than in previous years; theregret is far deeper. We are turning you out on theworld at one of the darkest hours in history. The dan-gers that threaten you seem more menacing than anythat ever overhung a graduating class. The equipmentwith which you confront them looks pitif ully inadequateto the task.What can I say except to offer you the good wishes,hopes, and prayers of your Alma Mater ? What can Iteli you except that you have done well and that wetrust you may fare well in your journey from this place?What can I do but ask you to lift up your hearts andface the future with the fortitude becoming to educatedmen and women?Yet there is, perhaps, one thing more that can be said.Your equipment may be better than you know. We maygo to war. The politicai, social, and economie institu-tions under which you have been brought up may dis-appear. Ali the plans you have made may fail. Ali thehopes you have cherished may be disappointed. You willstili have reason for new plans and new hopes, you willstili have reason for courage and faith, if you have pre-served your integrity.Ali other goods are goods of fortune. They are importane they are not indispensable. What shall it profita man if he gain the whole earth and lose his own soul ?A man may lose the whole earth and keep his own soul.No catastrophe can touch that. Personal freedom, thef reedom to think the truth and will the good, is inde-structible. It can siìrvive ali the vicissitudes of fortune.The teachings of the Stoics gained their ascendency injust such times as these. Though in some respeets ab-surd, they hold a kernel of essential truth to which menhave returned in like periods in history. Marcus Aure-lius, the emperor who, much against his will, spent hislife flghting the Germans, said, "The mind remains un-touched by fire and sword, by tyranny and mal.ediction."Though we may not deny, with the Stoics, that exter-nal goods are goods ; though we must reject the passiveindifference and defeatism with wjiich they thought weshould accept evil, we can believe^ with them that thehighest good is untouched by fire <àrìd sword, by tyrannyand malediction. Personal freedom can be the possessionof every man, in war and peace, in prosperity and dis-aster. In the language of Scripture, "The Kingdom ofHeaven is within you."*Convocation Address, June 10, 1941. • By ROBERT M. HUTCHINSFreedom is the great word nowadays. Academic freedom is a prerequisite to higher education. A free pressand a free radio are the last bulwark of a free country.The system of free enterprise must be maintained, forour free institutions would die with it. We are urged togo to war, if necessary, for freedom from want, freedomtroni fear, freedom of worship, freedom of speech, andfreedom of the seas. We are urged io stay out of war toobtain or preserve these same freedoms.When we talk about freedom, we usually mean freedom from something. Academic freedom is freedom frompresidents, trustees, and the public. Freedom of thepress is freedom from censorship. Free enterprise is freefrom interference by the state. Freedom of thought isfreedom from thinking. Freedom of worship is freedomfrom religion. A free world is simply a world free fromHitler.But freedom must be something more than a vacantstare. It must be something better than the absence ofrestraint or the absence of things we do not like. If freedom is nothing more or better than this it is no wonderthat Mussolini announced in 1923 that men were tiredof liberty.The President of St. John's College has lately said,"Under our Bill of Rights Congress may not prohibityou and me from worshiping God — but suppose we knowno God to worship? It may not forbid us to speak ourminds — but suppose we have no minds to speak ? It maynot prevent our daily paper from telling us the truth —but suppose our paper does not know how to teli us thetruth, or which truths are worth telling? Congress maynot prevent you and me from peaceably assembling — butwhy assemble if we have nothing worth saying to eachother?"What this comes down to is that politicai freedom,negative freedom, freedom from, is merely a necessarycondition of human freedom. When we get politicaifreedom, the important question remains : What shall wedo with it? What shall we do with ourselves?So it is that men can be nominally free and actuallyslaves. The drunkard, the gambler, the ignoramus, theman suffering from any vice or obsession is not free,no matter how much politicai freedom he may enjoy. Sothe man whose education has consisted of obsolescent in-formation or outworn skills may be locked within them.The information that was to ad just him to his environ-ment cannot help him when that environment haschanged. The tools with which he was to carve his wayare not efTective upon new material. So too the man6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEwhose education was intended to develop his "person-ality," or his own interests and preferences may hhdhimself tied up in the whims and prejudices whicn suchan education fosters.Por freedom is not doing what you like. That wouldleave unanswered the great question: What should youlike? As Montesquieu put it, "In societies directed bylaws, liberty can consist only in the power of doing whatwe ought to will, and in not being constrained to dowhat we ought not to will." A man who does not knowwhat he ought to will remains a slave. He has no personal freedom. He does not deserve politicai freedom.The object of the will is the good. The object of theintellect is the truth. A man has personal freedom if heWills the good and knows the truth. "Ye shall knowthe truth, and the truth shall make you free."The human mind is not free to reject the truth. Itmust accept those principles which are self-evident andthose conclusions which follow by a correct course ofreasoning from them. The man who says he must befree to say two plus two equals rive is not a liberal ; heis a fool.The human will is not free to seek what seems evil.It must seek what appears to be good. The man whosays he must be free to pursue ends that seem to himbad is not a liberal ; he does not know what he is talkingabout. The human will is free in matters of opinion. Itis free as to contingent, singular things; for such thingsmay appear in one aspect good and in another bad. De-cisions upon them may be affected by passion. The discipline of the intellect to distinguish truth from falsehood,the discipline of the will and the passions to seek thereal and not the apparent good, this is the path to personal freedom. As Matthew Arnold said, "There isnothing so very blessed about doing what one likes. Thereally blessed thing is to do what right reason ordainsand to follow her authority."A free man, then, is one who is equipped for the positive task of doing what right reason ordains and fol-lowing her authority. He is, of course, free from something as well. He is free from ignorance, cowardice,intemperance, stupidity, and selfishness. He is free fromthe bonds of archaic information, obsolete techniques,and whimsical eccentricities. He is prepared to face anyworld that comes.And a nation will be free in proportion as its peoplehave a chance to gain and succeed in gaining this personal freedom. This is the reason for education in a freecountry. We cannot suppose that the state or privateindividuate are interested in supporting institutions thatwill teaoh people how to get rich, or how to get powerover their fellow-men, or how to clamber up the socialladder. These benefactors must be trying to help the ris-ing generation learn to be free, to help them acquirethose moral and intellectual habits which will give thempersonal freedom.In this light we see, too, the course which Americaneducation must take. It was John Dewey who said, "Thediscipline that is identical with trained power is alsoidentical with freedom." .The human powers are the willand the intellect. The discipline of these powers is nothing but the formation of good moral and intellectualhabits. American education, if it is to aim at personal freedom, must eliminate those studies which have nothing to do with the formation of such habits. It muststrengthen those directed to their development.The liberal arts — what a mediaeval ring the phrasehas- — were the arts intended to train the human powersand thus to make men free. They have now almost dis-appeared, except in name, from American education.Their place has been taken by unrelated, undigested, andeven untrue information ; by courses thought (mis-takenly) to lead on to wealth, prestige, and power; bytriviality, mediocrity, and futility.We want freedom for our country. We say we need atwo-ocean navy to protect our politicai freedom. Butour politicai freedom is empty unless we know what todo with it when we get it. We shall not know what todo with politicai freedom unless we have personal freedom. Personal freedom is the product of liberal education. v—True liberal education, therefore, is just as importantto this country as national defense. Personal freedom isjust as important as politicai freedom. The importanceof politicai freedom, indeed, is merely that it provides theconditions for personal freedom.. Fortunately the education you have had has beendirected toward personal freedom. As we look back overthe fifty years of its history, we see that this Universityhas withstood the disintegrating forces that have sweptthe country. It has tried to insist that a sound characterand a trained intelligence were the goal of education.A sound character and a trained intelligence — thesepossessions have value in any time, place, or politicaiorder. They will remain to you through any economieor social change. They will keep you free. They are possessions through which you can help your country andthe world to that freedom which is the destiny of alimankind.MITCHELL TOWER AND BARTLETT GYMCURRICULA AND IDEALSA Walgreen Foundation AddressTHE previous lectures in this series* have iden-tified some of the major American democraticideals, and have indicated that the development ofour civilization calls for a continuous reinterpretationof these ideals to make them vital and appropriate foreach generation. Furthermore, these lectures have erh-phasized the responsibility of theschool for inculcating common values,for helping each new generation toacquire techniques essential to theeffective operation of democracy, andfor providing the kind of socialmotivation and personal-social experi-ences that develop individuals whoare secure in their social relationshipsand who are able to co-operateeffectively and unselfishly for thecommon good. These responsibilitiessuggested in the previous lectures arelargely tasks involving the curriculum. Hence, the subject of this paperhas been treated, at least by implica-tion in the preceding discussions.The purpose of this lecture is toanalyze in .somewhat greater detailsome of the curriculum implicationssuggested in the earlier lectures.In proposing that the school takeresponsibility for inculcating democratic values, we are assuming thatAmerican democratic ideals involvebasic beliefs which should be shared and deeply cherishedby ali citizens, and that the school is the social agencyproperly responsible for developing these beliefs in eachnew generation. The previous lectures have amply illustrateci the kinds of beliefs which are basic to the Americandemocratic ideals.For example, one such basic ideal, that persons asindividuals are the ends of human activity and are notto be conceived as means, exalts the dignity and worthof the individuai regardless of his social, nationality, orracial status.A second democratic ideal, that opportunity should beprovided for wide participation on thevpart of ali ourcitizens, in the formulation of our common purposes,in the planning of our civic activities, in the execution ofthese plans, and in the appraisal and replanning, hasgiven primary significance to education for the commonman so that he may participate more intelligently in theseactivities.A third characteristic American democratic ideal is theencouragement of variability, that is, of individuality oruniqueness. In many respects, this ideal has been given*"The Functions and Responsibilities of Education in a Democracy,"on the Walgreen Foundation. See page 10 of the May issue of theMagazine. PROFESSOR TYLER • By RALPH W. TYLER, PhD'27more lip service than practice. There is no doubt thatwe obtain a certain kind of satisfaction in living in ahomogeneous group, in which everyone has the samestandards of value, the same ideas, the same interests,and holds the same prejudices. Such an environment isconducive to complacency, to getting in a rut, to con-tinuing life exactly as it now is. Whencarried too far, this is the antithesis ofdemocracy. In some respects it maybe more uncomfortable to live withpeople who hold various views, tolisten to persons who are always con-ceiving novel ideas, and to be contin-ually subjected to influences whichrequire a reconsideration of one'sown patterns of values and methodsof work, but the potentialities for im-provement of any group lie in thedegree of freshness, of originality,and of the uniqueness of its members.That is not to say that groups do notagree upon fundamental purposes andthat some degree of uniformity andstandardization of action is necessaryto survive, but it does mean thatwithin wide 1 i m i t s individualityshould be encouraged and conflictingideas presented for examination, forreconsideration, and for tentativetrial. This is, perhaps, the most dif-ficult aspect of democracy to safe-guard. The Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments toour federai Constitution, represents one important effortto safeguard some of the fundamental ways in whichindividuality may be expressed, that is, through freedomof speech, of the press, and of assembly.Society's ultimate safeguard against disintegrationwhen variability and uniqueness are encouraged lies ina fourth American democratic ideal, hamely, faith inhuman intelligence. An undemocratic society seeks tocontrol human activities through the formulation of rigidstandards and through a hierarchy of authorities. In ademocracy we believe that the truth of ideas, the desir-ability of human conduct, and the worth of procedurescan be determined by intelligent examination of theirimplications and of their consequences ; that by theencouragement of criticai thinking on the part of itsmembers, by increasing the understanding of relevantfactors, and by continued reflection and re-examinationof basic ideas and values, men can solve their problems.Ideals, such as these examples must be understood, infact their meaning for practice must be reinterpreted,by each generation. Furthermore, each generation needsto cherish some such set of ideals as a core of commonvalues binding our society together and giving greater78 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsignificance to our common efforts. As has been pointedout in a previous lecture, responsibility for the inculca-tion of common values has largely been borne in thepast by the family, by the church, and by social institu-tions other than the school. In the relatively homo-geneous environment of. the earlier American community,values were inculcated through the common experiencesin the home, through the conversation on the streets andat work, through the sermons in the church, and throughreading such books as the Bible and the few availablepapers and periodicals. The low density of populationand the relatively independent nature of economie activities made it no special problem to encourage individuaiinitiative and variability. The small size of communitygroups and the limitation in variety of social activitiesmade common participation in various communityactivities an easy matter and one requiring few specialtechniques. The civic problems facing a frontier societyseemed simple enough so that the importance of a highlyintelligent and broadly educated citizenship was not veryobvious. As a result, the school curriculum gave littleemphasis to these aspeets of democratic education.Although the content of the McGuffey readers and someof the other reading material in the common schoolserved to reinforce the values already sharply emphasizedin life outside the school, the school did not assume anymajor responsibility for inculcating these values, norfor developing methods for achieving these values moreeflectively in the community life.NEED FOR VALUESConditions today make imperative a much more sys-tematic effort to inculcate values. The locai communityno longer provides a background of unified values whichcan be easily acquired by young people and built intoa coherent set of values for their own personal and sociallife. The rapid change from a purely rural to anindustriai culture, the immigration of various culturalgroups from Europe, and the tremendous increase in themeans of communication bring to every community awelter of conflicting values. The basic ideals expressedin one. chikTs home is frequently at variance with theideals expressed and the practices followed in . otherhomes. The ideals of the market place are frequentlyin confliet with those of family life, the goals of lifeimplied by the movies and the current magazines are inmany respects contradictory to those emphasized in thechurch. At many points newspapers plead for opposingpositions. Only the exceptional youth can achieve aunified and coherent set of values from the incidentalexperiences in such a complex community. Only bydirecting definite emphasis to the task of helping youngpeople to develop a unified set of values in harmonywith American democratic ideals can we expect such agoal to be achieved. The incidental life of the community is not adequate nor is the incidental experiencein the extracurricular activities of the school sufficient.Careful planning in terms of clearly formulated goalsseems to me the only hope of meeting this educationalresponsibility.It is important at this point to distinguish betweenthe careful planning of educational experiences likelytohelp young people achieve consistent democratic valuesfrom the mere verbal presentation of precepts. We must recognize that values are not eflectively acquired througha program consisting solely of lectures or readings whichpresent verbal statements of ideals. Values are gener-alizations from experience, and their eflective treatmentin the curriculum requires that students have oppor-tunities for direct exploration of some conflicting values,for vicarous exploration of these values in literature, indrama, and in other forms of art, and for sharingexperiences with others with the concomitant heightenedemotionality. Continuously students would be encouraged to examine these experiences and to abstract fromthem values that seem fundamentally important. Thisimplies not only planning consciously for value develop-ment in the curriculum but it also emphasizes a varietyof concrete and vicarious experiences on the part of thestudents which will bring value confliets into the open.This also suggests the importance of integrating experiences of the various classes. The fundamental valueswhich guide the actions of young people are not likelyto be aflected by a piecemeal attack, in which a bit isdone by one teacher, and another unrelated bit is doneby another teacher. Co-operative action on the partof various teachers is needed to produce more significantresults. Most of the subjects present opportunities forsuch co-operative eflorts. Literature and the arts providea means for exploring some of these values vicariously;the social studies should give òpportunity for examination of social values reflected in the activities of socialgroups; even science and mathematics carry with themimplications regarding the important social values.I recali an incident related by a friend who is principalof a school in Indianapolis. One of the fifth-gradeteachers in the school was ili so my friend met theclass in arithmetic. In an effort to find where the classwas in its work, he proposed this problem to them."Frank and Bill were taking a hike one Saturday after-noon and about four o'clock they passed a bakery whichhad some doughnuts in the window hearing the sign'thirty cents a dozen.' Frank had ten cents and Billhad a nickel so that they were able to buy a half dozendoughnuts. Now, how many doughnuts should Frankget and how many should Bill receive?" At this pointone pupil raised his hand and asked who was host andwho was guest. A second pupil asked who was hungrier.So it went until the seventh pupil suggested that thedoughnuts might be divided on the basis of the amountof money each boy had spent. This brought the ideaclearly home to my friend that many problems in arithmetic can be solved only on the basis of certain assump-tions regarding social life. If we assume that peopleshould receive on the basis of the money they put in,we have one solution to this problem, but there areobviously many other solutions depending upon thesocial assumptions accepted. An analysis of mathematicsmaterials would reveal many situations in which socialvalues are implied. The failure to identify these socialvalues and the tendency to accept some particular valuewithout question tends to reduce the unity of the set ofvalues guiding one's behavior and to increase confusionof action. The acceptance of the responsibility for helping* young people to achieve more unified and moredemocratic sets of values carries with it the responsibilityfor examining ali areas of the curriculum and achievinga more coherent attack.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9The acceptance of American democratic ideals impliesa second responsibility for the school curriculum. Theapplication of democratic ideals requires an increasingsensitivity to human needs. One may deeply cherishdemocratic values and yet be so unaware of the difficultiesof other human beings that he fails to direct his effortat criticai points which will promote the common welfare.American famiìy life is reasonably eflective in sensitizingyoung people to the feelings and the needs of othermembers of the family. The informai life of the school,including the extracurricular activities, are reasonablyeflective in helping youth to become aware of and sensitive to the problems of schoolmates in his social group.But our complex modern life includes social groups whoare geographically, racially, economically, or sociallyremote. Family life provides little basis for helpingehildren to perceive the problems of groups remote inone or more of these respects. Even a cosmopolitanhigh school tends to form compact social cliques, themembers of which seem unaware of the needs, of thedifficulties, and of the aspirations of other groups. Theinformai educational agencies such as the press, and themovies, tend to increase this callousness. Members ofother social groups are usually depicted in terms ofstereo types by newspapers, magazines, or movies. Anupper middle-class child with adequate food, clothing, andshelter, has little concrete basis for sensing the feelingsand needs of ehildren from homes with inadequate income, or of ehildren from minority racial groups.Commonly, in conversation, the upper middle-classyouth refers to such ehildren as dirty, or tough, or dumb,using the stereotypes common in the environment aroundhim. . A very necessary educational task is to developin young people a greater sensitivity to an ever-wideningsocial environment. Schools have not generally under-stood or accepted this responsibility. They have boastedof their democratic school life in cases where this democracy has extended only to the groups within that schoolwhile at the same time these ehildren have been quiteinsensitive to the needs of groups in other schools andin other localities less privileged. In fact, this insen-sitivity in so-called "Democratic Schools" is frequentlycarried to the extreme of intolerance or contempt. Wemust recognize that a democracy which extends sym-pathy, understanding, and co-operation only to personswith whom we come in contact face to face, is not anadequate democracy for a complex civilization like ours.On the other hand, the experience in sharing and in thegive-and-take of group life within the school can be usedas a%beginning for the development of this wider democratic sensitivity. To extend this sensitivity requiresthe building upon the experiences in the immediate groupthrough consciously planned direct experiences with othersocial groups, through carefully chosen materials in literature and the drama, and through a continuous effort toanalyze and interpret these wider social experiences asthey are provided so that ehildren will learn to entersympathetically into the lives of others who are verydiflerent from them.DIFFERENT SOCIAL GROUPSI visited a high-school class not long ago in whichthere was a discussion of the social life of less privileged groups. One student expressed a point of view whichwas widely shared by the group. She was indignantbecause their Negro maid spent a major portion of hersalary in buying a radio when there seemed to be someevidence that she did not have enough food. Anotherstudent commented with considerable contempt upon thepractice, which he believed to be common, of W.P.A.workers spending money for "fìashy clothes." In thiscase the teacher seemed to agree with the general beliefsof the group and the discussion turned to something else.This is an excellent illustration of an insensitivi ty, of afailure to recognize what values are held high in our general American society, are re-emphasized by advertise-ments or dramatized in the movies and in the pulp magazines. If these ehildren could have been led to under-stand how eagerly ali social groups seek to achieve thosevalues which are accepted as most important, they wouldhave understood why radios seemed more important tomany people than food, and they would have been moreintelligent about perceiving the kind of a problem whichdemocracy faces when superficial values are exalted.This extension of sensitivity is so fundamental and solarge a task that it requires systematic effort and mustinvolve the co-operation of the various teachers in theschool. It cannot be confined to one class alone.TECHNIQUES OF GROUP ACTIONA third educational responsibility is the developmentof those methods of thinking which are essential to anintelligent attack upon social problems. A characteristicAmerican democratic ideal is the belief in progress, inthe improvement and perfectability of human beings bothas individuals and collectively as our human society.Progress is more than change. It implies change whichresults in a more satisfactory life. As Mr. Buswell haspointed out, no blueprints are available to teli us in de-tail what these changes should be. New problems ariseand new solutions need to be devised. For these Solutions to be eflective they must be guided by intelligentthinking. To learn to think intelligently about socialquestions becomes a major objective of American education. However, thinking on social questions involvesparticular difficulties which are not commonly involvedwhen thinking on questions of other sorts. In the firstplace, a social problem is likely to be complex and to re-quire a good deal of analysis before it can be clearlydefined. For example, the problem of unemployment inmodern society involves a complex of factors relating toproduction, to distribution, to consumption, to standardsof living, to human motivation, and even to the desirablebalance among the goods and services which any societyought to produce so that it becomes difficult to define theunemployment problem with sufficient clarity to make itsnature obvious. Furthermore, social problems involvevalues, frequently values which are in confliet, and it isdifficult to teach young people to distinguish betweenvalue judgments and sdentine generalizations. Deci-sions regarding the solution of social problems must involve some common agreements about the values to beachieved so that we can appraise each hypothetical solution in terms of these commonly accepted values ; other-wise no objective appraisal is possible and we cannot teliwhether or not the problem has been solved.10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAnother difficulty in thinking about a social problemis the degree to which the analysis of the problem involves re-examination of fixed customs and habits whichare likely to be accepted as good because they are famil-iar. Many times, too, an objective consideration ofpossible solutions will run counter to accepted prejudiceswhich involve deep emotional attachments. Skill inthinking about complex social problems, involving as itdoes, weighing values, disentangling fact from prejudice,considering objectively solutions that may upset stronglycherished opinions, is so essential, yet so difficult, thatit needs to be given much more attention in the schoolcurriculum than it has in the past. It is not enough totreat noncontroversial problems, since they lack thecomplicating factors of opposed values and prejudiceswhich are the very essence of the training program inteaching students to deal objectively with social problems. This emphasis, however, should not be takenwithout an additional caveat. Many of the present ef-fcrts to deal with complex social problems in the schoolinvolve a superficial consideration of a number of problems but without providing for adequate analysis andcareful training in criticai thinking. It is better to dealwith one or two rather basic social problems, to learnhow to make a thoroughgoing criticai analysis, and howte apply the various aspeets of scientific thinking thanit is to attempt a superficial treatment of many issues,which when treated superficially are likely to be disposedof in terms of prejudice, hasty opinion, or ready-madesolution.A fourth educational responsibility implied by ourdemocratic ideals is training in the techniques of groupaction. The increasing interdependence of our Americanlife demands an increasing emphasis upon group thinking, group decisions, and group action. These involvedefinite skills which are rarely acquired incidentally. Ifgroup discussion is to lead to a clarification of issues,to an exploration of possible courses of action, and toa decision as to next steps, these functions of group discussion need to be understood and the methods by whichthe successive stages of group discussion are carried oneffectively need to be developed. In the past, much ofthe curriculum has been individuai, involving relationsonly between teacher and pupil. This experience has notprovided adequate training in the skills of group discussion. Provision in the curriculum is necessary for moresystematically planned ópportunities for group discussion in which these skills can be developed. In this connection perhaps the most difficult aspect to be taught isthat of compromise. In previous periods of our American life, compromise has been treated with disdain. Thisis naturai in a highly individualistic system in which itis possible for the individuai to achieve his goals alone.Under such conditions it is possible for the individuaito leave the social group rather than to "give in" to theideas of other s. The increasing need for social actionputs compromise in a diflerent light. Eflective socialaction demands agreement upon common purposes andalso agreement upon common courses of action.' In thenature of things these agreements will not be fully ap-proved by any individuai but will represent a compromiseamong somewhat diverse purposes and somewhat- diverseproposals for action. The recognition of the significance of compromise, an understanding of what is a desirablecompromise, and skill in eflecting compromise, are alinecessary aspeets of the training of young people in thetechniques of social action.Another aspect of social action which needs particularattention in the school curriculum because of the conflicting forces in life outside the school is the development of responsibility, both individuai and group. Onecharacteristic trend in modern society has been the development of the corporate forni of organization whicheliminates individuai responsibility for group action.In many cases this has led to actions by corporategroups which would be considered immoral if taken byan individuai. Assets of a corporate group have beentreated in very diflerent fashion from assets of individuate. To an alarming degree the individuai has attainedanonymity through corporate organization, and withthis anonymity has lacked a sense of responsibility forhis actions. The significance of responsibility in sober-ing action, in guaranteeing greater care in the planningand execution of social action, must be made clear toyoung people, and they must also have ópportunitiesfor group action in which they will be held collectivelyand individually responsible for the steps which theytake. This will require great educational emphasis ifit is to counteract the conflicting tendencies of industriai life.Up to this point we have considered the task of theschool in developing values, in increasing social sensitivity, in acquiring methods for thinking objectively onsocial issues, and in developing skills for social discussion and social action. These tasks do not imply a curriculum devoid of content. The nature of the faets andideas treated in the curriculum has great significance forthe eflective application of democratic ideals. Furthermore, students need information about the importantchanges in American society in order that they mayreinterpret our democratic ideals to make them signifi-cant and vital for this generation. Students need faetsand generalizations about the structure and behavior ofour society in order that their understanding of and sensitivity to other social groups shall be intelligent ratherthan sentimental. Training in methods of thinking objectively about social problems requires students to ob-tain a great deal of factual information relating to thesesocial problems. Exercise in social discussion and socialaction should require students to utilize appropriate' faetsso that these discussions will not degenerate into con-fliets of prejudice.SKILL IN FINDING OUTThese considerations indicate another educational responsibility, namely, the development of skill in findinginformation pertinent to social issues, skill in judgingthe dependability of various sources of information, skillin analyzing material so as to distinguish fact from opinion, and fact from propaganda. These essential skillsin obtaining and interpreting information are not likelyto be acquired incidentally. The tremendous mass ofinformation, the energetic activities of. pressure groups,the wide variations in the degree of competence of writersand speakers make the task of selecting and interpretingTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11information difficult. Only systematic attention in thecurriculum is likely to provide adequately for this kindof training.Finally, may I comment on the importance of unifyingvalues, discussion, thinking, and action. Increasingly,the school is criticized for the compartmentalization of thebehavior of its pupils. Ideals frequently seem unrelatedto practices. Thought is ofttimes divorced from feeling ;action seems unaffected by information. The attainmentof American democratic ideals involves the developmentof citizens whose skillful practices are guided by democratic values, following courses of action chosen aftermature thought which has utilized pertinent information.In an effort to attain these different objectives efficiently,the school may emphasize their separate developmentunless conscious attention is given to their unification.One recent innovation which promotes the unification ofvalues, thought, practices, and skills is the provision inthe curriculum for a period of work experience. If thiswork experience is carefully chosen, it can give ópportunities for the utilization of these various ideals, faets,ways of thinking, and skills, and at the same time helpin unifying them in terms of a common program ofaction. The world of the pupils in the Holtville, Alabama, high school is an excellent case in point. Thesepupils made a survey of their own community and identi-fied several major problems of the community. One of these was the problem of rapid erosion which resulted ingreat loss of productivity of the soil; another was theproblem of nutrition, for a considerable portion of thepopulation did not have well-balanced menus through-out the year. A third problem was one of recreation,for there were few recreational ópportunities in the community which could be shared by young and old, richand poor. Each of these problems was attacked by thehigh-school students, who devoted approximately half aday of their school program to constructive work. Thestudents made check dams to decrease erosion and taughtfarmers how to make them. The students helped to de-vise a scheme for getting a community refrigeration plantso that fresh vegetables and meats could be availablethroughout the year, and they helped to build the plantand to get it financed. The students worked out a recreational pian and helped to make possible the developmentof it. With the decreasing ópportunities for intelligent,constructive social action available to young people out-side the school, there is greater need for attention tothis through the school curriculum. The school curriculum must be conceived by each generation not as a fixedbody of content and of experiences, but rather as a seriesof experiences carefully planned in terms of the educational functions to be achieved and giving the kind ofemphasis necessary to promote an increasingly betterdemocratic society.NOTES FOR A DILETTANTEIX. TWELFTH NIGHT, OR WHAT YOU WILLArchin' here and arrachin' there,Allevolie or alleraand,Whiles appliable, whiles areird,The polysemous poem's planned.¦ — Hugh MacDiarmid.IN CHICAGO I miss the creaking of gates. I re-member on summer evenings in Edinburgh — whichis the city where I have spent most of my life andthe finest city in the world— when I was sitting upstairsin my little attic room reading for tomorrow's exam or,more likely, drinking McEwan's Export with a coupleof fellow students and dismissing the universe withepigrams, somewhere below there was always a gatecreaking. Mr. Dunbar, who manufactured mineraiwaters and lived two doors away, may have beenemerging in order to make a brief visit to the pub inDalkeith Road, and the gate was swinging back cheer-fully after him. Or old Mrs. Mackintosh across the wayhad come down the garden path to see a visitor safelyoff the premises. But somebody's gate always creaked.This was never a winter noise ; it occurred always insummer, when the laburnum trees drooped heavily overthe pavements, and it is associated in my mind with thefaint whirr of a lawn-mower and men in shirt-sleevesleaning over garden walls. That's another thing I missin Chicago; garden walls to lean on.One couldn't spend a whole summer leaning on gardenwalls, unfortunately, for the exams were in June, and • By DAVID DAICHESthese meant life or death to a young man. Yet lookingback now on those days I wonder just when I got anywork done at ali. For who could work in Edinburghon a summer night? About eight-thirty one would getrestless, and jump on to a tram to go down and see if anyof the boys were at the R. B. or the Café Royal. I don'tthink I was ever disappointed. At the tiny bar of theCafé Royal, where red-headed Margaret dispensed thedrinks with such efficiency, there was always at least myIrish friend Jim Doyle, with a group of nondescriptmedicai students trying to talk profoundly. Now Jim'stalk really was profound : he could see eternity by closingone eye, and by the time we got to F. and F.'s for mush-rooms on toast and a final round of McEwan's (you hadto eat something to get served liquor after ten o'clock,and mushrooms on toast were about the easiest) he couldroll up Plato and Aristotle to-gether into a crystal ball and tossit into the aether.I think, too, of those fish sup-pers at the Peacock Inn, withsherry before and God knowshow much b e e r afterwards,drunk outside by the faintlysplashing shore. Or those nightswhen we walked to and fro acrossthe Meadows solving every problem the human intellect has ever DAICHESTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbeen faced with, until the sun carne up over Arthur'sSeat and we straggled home to bed in full daylight. Thatis how I acquired such education as I possess, but Ihave no diploma on which these things are endorsed.There are no recitations in sonorous Latin announcingto ali whom it may concern that I solved the riddle of theuniverse with Jim Doyle on the top of a Liberton Car.Wnter was quite diflerent. The rain beating on theWindows of the lecture hall, the steady drone of thespeaker's voice. Tea in the English library. Trying tokeep warm there on winter evenings, huddled againstthe radiator with Vaughan's poems or Bishop Hall'sCharacters. The little back Street s where you boughtthe milk and the buns : it was dark by four o'clock andthe lights were on in the Windows of flats and thesmall untidy shops. Dropping into the Darien Press onthe way home, where they were making up the magazineand the strangest assortment of students that everassembled in the city were to be found. And afterwardslate coffee — they called it coffee — at Bonzo's, and a halfpint (or two) at Rutherford's, where you were liable torun into anybody at ali, from great poets to rhapsodisingmountebanks.Yes, that was education. The more formai aspeets ofthe university — lectures and exams and things of thatsort — were minor if necessary adjuncts ; the real thingwas elsewhere. I remember that magnificent speech ontragedy I made at the Diagnostic Society— the same nightthat Freddie Robertson was fined ten shillings by thechair for an offense against decorum so complex andrarified and fantastic that it would take a volume toexplain it. And that eloquent night at George Seth'sfiat in Morningside when we discussed Leibnitz (goodGod, Leibnitz ! ) for something like six hours, and thenwent home at four in the morning to prepare for an examin middle English dialects at nine. My principle inlinguistic exams was a simple one : put off ali work thatinvolves metnorizing until the very last minute, and thenyou'll have less time to forget it. It always workedsplendidly : I could recognize ali the criteria of the EastMidland dialect, or any other, without a second's pause,for it was only twenty minutes before that I had got thestuff up. If you'd asked me to answer the same questions an hour after the exam was over I would have beenstumped. But that was Language. Literature was dif-ferent, and even tricky points like variations in the twoquartos and the folio texts of Hamlet could be expandedinto essay questions with a little ingenuity.Not that examinations didn't sometimes bother me.The thought of my Finals (a week of continuous ex-amining on which your "class" — first, second or third —depended, and so, it seemed, your whole future) oftencaught me in the pit of the stomach in the weeks beforethat dread event. I would sit over my half -pint and arguewith myself. "Of course it's ali right. Just let me lookat those questions and get started talking on paper. Ifthey were only here, now, right beside me, why, I couldplunge into them, dismiss them with a torrent ofepigrams. What will you have? Chaucer's TroilusfPerfect. Characterization, philosophy, humor, unity,language. Shakespeare^ bad folios? Get up that stuffin an afternoon. Donne's sermons? Matthew Arnoldoview of culture? Eighteenth century conceptions of trag edy ? Don't make me laugh. If only I could get at it, doit now, get it over. Suppose I'm ili, suppose I'm tired,suppose my mind goes bìank. Now don't be morbid.What pages can be filled with clever remarks aboutItalian neo-classic criticismi Just watch me analyzeMacbeth ! Remember, spread an air of casual sophistica-tion over the thing : don't hurry, don't worry. 'Scholarswho worry unduly over the possibility of the multipleauthorship of Piers Plowman will be apt to miss thatcurious unity of texture without an appreciation of whichthis unique example of the disintegration of mediaevalculture can never be seen for what it is. Let us dismissthe erudition of Manly, the topographical enthusiasm ofBright, and endeavor to come to grips with the textsuch as it is.' That'll get 'em. The disintegration ofmediaeval culture.' The startling phrase. And the proofis easy. The carefully argued paradòx, judicious use ofquotation, properly handled analogies (don't forgetFrench and German literature, bring them in discreetly,crookedly), and the punching epigram. But oh, God,don't let me take the whole thing too seriously. It's agame, if a game of skill, even though the result doescount for the rest of your life. Don't get too het upabout the whole silly thing, and you'll walk away withyour first. Don't you know the smeli of the quad bynow ?"That round-faced medicai whose name I could neverremember looked up. "There's Daiches brooding overhis damned Finals. Here, Margaret, pass him out anip." And then my brother rushed in, distinguishedfrom the rest of us by the fact that he had a hat onand spoke in a precise legai diction, which the girlsjust loved. "Gentlemen," he said, tossing his hat on tothe rack, "this is indeed a pleasure." He turned to meand proposed some scheme which meant staying out mostof the night (and I had it ali arranged to do some workon sixteenth century criticism from ten till midnight)."It's ali fixed," he said "You need a rest. You'reover working. You know quite well you'll walk throughyour finals with your eyes shut. We've managed toscrape up a car. Alee M'Leod phoned down and toldthem. And I promised Kitty we'd look in."The next scene took place at the Hawes Inn at Queens-ferry, where somebody was celebrating something butnobody was very clear what. I kept reciting Donne mostof the time, and then we went out on the pier and themoon was up and one of the party committed a nuisancefrom the pier's end. But I was a thoughtful student,and had a copy of Johnson's Lives of the Poets in my hippocket (World's Classics Edition). I sat down on thestones and perused it by the light of the moon, while agroup went off to endeavor (vainly) to climb the ForthBridge and others conducted a sing-song on the pier. Iread Johnson on Donne and Milton with extreme care,noted ali the worthy doctor's principles, prejudices, andmethods, scribbled a few quotations and an epigram ortwo on the back of an old envelope, and believe it or notanswered a full question and half of another out of thatnight's work in my finals a couple of weeks later. Ibelieve that Professor Sisson, who was our externalexaminer, was particularly impressed by the acumen Ishowed in answering that question. Which ali goes toshow that adequate education is impossible in a countryTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13which has prohibition. The New Pian at Chicago, Iunderstand, dates from its repeal.And then they sent you away with two letters toyour name. Are ali your conquests, triumphs, spoils,shrunk to this little measure ? Well, something remains ;if it didn't, I wouldn't be sitting here pounding out thesesoggy reminiscences on the typewriter. The truth is, IAS AN alumnus of Rush, as a teacher of Rush students for forty years, from the standpoint of RushMedicai College with its 100 years of outstandingaccomplishment in Medicai Education and from thestandpoint of the great body of high standing alumni ofRush, I consider with deep regret that Rush MedicaiCollege is approaching the dose of its distinguishedcareer in undergraduate medicai education. From thestandpoint of the Presbyterian Hospital, the Universityof Illinois, the University of Chicago and in the light ofimportant trends in medicai education and in economics,I believe the proposed affiliation and agreements are wiseand will contribute a long forward step in medicai education in Chicago and the Middle West. Furthermore onesees in the proposed plans an opportunity for Rush tomake a significant contribution. ¦••'.Broad judgment of the step Rush is taking in thesepresent agreements should rest in large measure uponits history since affiliating with the University of Chicago in 1898. The basic sciences underlying medicaiknowledge had become so important and so extensive atthat time as to require dose association of medicai schoolswith universities. That requirement is far greater nowand almost no medicai schools are without that contact.The affiliation with the University of Chicago and theoffering of the first two years in sciences at the University campus kept Rush in an advanced position in medicai education at a time when it could not have builtadequate sdentine facilities for itself. Its standards andstanding were raised.In 1916 and 1917 a program of development in medicai education at the University of Chicago and Rush wasprojected. An agreement between the University andRush, dated December 15, 1917, provided for undergraduate education on the midway campus and for postgrad-uate education at Rush on the West Side. Money wasraised for that program including $1,000,000 or morefor the West Side. War delayed the execution of theplans until 1927 when the Midway plant was opened.In the meantime, undergraduate medicai education inthe two clinical years was continued on the West Side.Also in the mean time, and until 1.938, various proposalsto move Rush and the Presbyterian Hospital to the Midway were seriously considered. This effort was due tothe recognition by both the Rush faculty and the University of the importance of dose association of medicaiteaching and research with University departments.1. The Billings Hospital and ali equipment (worth$2,500,0000 could have become the Presbyterian have this quarter off, and here I am on a hill-top over-looking the Hudson trying not to listen to the news onthe radio and wondering where we're ali going to bethis time next year. Uncertainty about the future sendsa man's mind back to the past. There are lots of birdschirruping around me as I write, but I stili can't hear thecreaking of a gate.• By WILBER E. POST, '01, MD '03Hospital and the whole University Medicai Schoolcould have been named Rush.2. Presbyterian could have built separately on theMidway and the whole school named Rush.3. Presbyterian and Rush could have built as a uniton the Midway and retained their organization andnames.But these ópportunities were declined for what seemedvalid reasons, some financial, some because of difficulty inadjustment of policies, also because of reluctànce to dislocate a community service which the Presbyterian Hospital and the Central Free Dispensary had rendered formany years ; also because the advantages of the CookCounty Hospital would be largely forfeited.In 1929 in response to urgings of some of the Rushfaculty, the University agreed to continue undergraduatemedicai education on the West Side. But it becamenecessary to reduce the number of students at Rush (inagreement with other medicai colleges) so the incomefell and since then the Rush reserves have been almostexhausted. The University became commi tted to theextent of several millions of dollars and a well establishedorganization to undergraduate medicai education on theMidway and after some years felt unable and not justifiedin maintaining two undergraduate medicai schools. It sodeclared and announced that undergraduate work atRush would terminate in 1942.In 1939-1940 a serious effort was made to formulate apiogram of graduate medicai education at Rush. Theprogram was formulated and approved by a majority ofthe Rush faculty and by almost the entire staff of thePresbyterian Hospital. The University indicated itsreadiness to negotiate with the Presbyterian Board on thebasis of the program for graduate medicai education atRush and were informed that proposals for affiliation ofthe Presbyterian Hospital with the University of Illinoiswere expected soon. Later the offlcers of the Presbyterian Board indicated their preference for this affiliationwith the University of Illinois and the faculty of Rushand the staff of Presbyterian Hospital have unanimouslyapproved it.The terms of agreement between the University ofChicago, Rush Medicai College, Presbyterian Hospital,and the Central Free Dispensary and between the University of Illinois and the Presbyterian Hospital are ineff ect as follows :(1) The University of Chicago returns the assets ofRush to a reconstituted independent Board of Trus-tees. of Rush Medicai College.RUSH ¦¦ MEDICAI. COLLEGE14 THE UNIVERSITY OF(2) This Rush Board retains the Rush charter andname and ownership of the Rush buildings andequipment and library and certain funds and thepower to appoint a faculty as needed.(3) The Rush buildings and equipment and library willbe leased to the Presbyterian Hospital for a nominaisum.(4) The hospital obligates itself to maintain the Rushfacilities for medicai education and to maintain certain fellowships and scholarships.(5) The Central Free Dispensary becomes the Out-Patient Department of the Presbyterian Hospitalunder the control of the Board of Managers of theHospital.(6) The niembers of the hospital staff, including thoseessential for the out-patient work, will became members of the University of Illinois Faculty of Medicine.(7) The University of Illinois will nominate the staff ofPresbyterian Hospital subject to review and recom-mendation of the executive committee of that staff.The University of Illinois also agrees to "formulatea comprehensive coordinated program of undergraduate and graduate medicai education and researchwhich shall be designed to use jointly the facilities ofthe Hospital, the Colleges of Medicine, Dentistryand Pharmacy of the University, and the Researchand Educational Hospitals and Institutes of the University."(8) A further provision is : "It is understood, subjectto court approvai, that the existing Rush MedicaiCollege facilities will be made available to the Hospital and that the Trustees of Rush Medicai College, with its facilities and trust funds, will cooperate with the University and the Hospital in theabove mentioned program of medicai education, andthat the University, in order to provide continuitybetween the old and new organizations, will designate those members of the Rush faculty who becomemembers of its College of Medicine as 'Rush Professor^.' "There are disadvantages to be weighed :(1) Rush Medicai College has a history of 100 years inmedicai education and research of high ranking order, maintained chieffy by the devotion of an out-standing faculty. That such an institution shouldpass out of existence as an undergraduate school isto be sincerely regretted.(2) The breaking off of associations with the Universityof Chicago after 43 years will be regreted by a largebody of the alumni.The advantages of such affiliation are as follows :(1) Undergraduate and graduate medicai education andreserch can be included in the activities of the staffof the Presbyterian Hospital.(2) The Presbyterian Hospital and Rush facilities arewithin two blocks of the University of Illinois professional schools including sdentine laboratories andhospitals, amounting in value to $16,000,000 in buildings and nearly 1,000 hospital beds.(3) The advantages of the Cook County Hospital willbe retained.(4) The University of Illinois faculty and its program CHICAGO MAGAZINEas well as the Presbyterian Hospital staff and itsprogram will be improved.(5) The long history of community service by Presbyterian Hospital and the Central Free Dispensary willbe continued. This is desirable in view of the significance of the Medicai Center development.(6) Under the proposed pian, Rush is at liberty to useits name with any postgraduate or graduate projector research for which funds may be provided. Suchpostgraduate or graduate project may be developedby the cooperation of the University of Illinois, RushMedicai College, the Presbyterian Hospital, the University of Chicago and other institutions which maywish to join.(7) The success of this pian from the standpoint of thePresbyterian Hospital and Rush will depend uponthe assurance of adequate financial support of educational activities and research at the Presbyterian andthe Rush facilities by the University of Illinois, thePresbyteran Hospital, the alumni of Rush, or byprivate donors. If adequate financial support forsuch educational and research activities can be as-sured, the sacrifice of Rush as an active institution inthe undergraduate educational field would be justì-fied by the contribution of its faculty and facilitiesto a more significant, effective and economicallysound program of development of a great medicaicenter in Chicago.A friendly suit has now been filed in the Circuit Courtof Cook County by the Trustees of Rush Medicai College for the purpose of obtaining approvai of the Courtof the above pian. It is hoped that such approvai may beobtained so that the pian will be effective on July lst,next.*I desire to acknowledge in behalf of the Rush facultyand alumni:(1) Significant financial support and academic standing afforded Rush by the University of Chicago overa period of 43 years, and the very generous attitudeof its ofHcers in the present negotiations. The University of Chicago is returning to the Rush Trusteesassets with a book value of approximately $1,090,-000, al though it received from Rush in 1924 only$382,000. In addition, it has contributed in cashto Rush's annual budget over that period more than$350,000.(2) The generosity and cooperation of the Board ofManagers of the Presbyterian Hospital under thedirection of Mr. John McKinley, President, and Mr.Alfred T. Carton, Chairman of the EducationalCommittee and legai advisor. They have obligatedthe hospital for the maintenance of the Rush buildings, the library, laboratories and museum for educational purposes, have underwritten the cost of theeducational program for two years, have pledged$12,000 toward the support of the Central Free Dispensary for the last six months of this year.(3) The careful thought and work and time given by thelay members of the Rush Board of Trustees through-out the recent negotiations.(4) The vision and wisdom and cooperation of the Executive Dean of the Professional Schools of the University of Illinois, Dr. Raymond B. Alien, and his Board of Trustees.*Court approvai has been given since this manuscript was prepared.WILL CUPPY: AN INTERVIEW• By MARTIN GARDNER, '38WILLIAM JACOB CUPPY, '07, enjoys thedistinction of having written the first book offiction about the University of Chicago —Maroon Tales, a collection of short stories about campuslife published in 1909.Since that time scores of authors have written novelsand short stories involving University of Chicago students and faculty. There are Robert Herrick's novel,Chimes, Teddy Linn's This Was Life and Winds overthe Campus, Zo Flannigan's Grey Towers, WalterBlair's Candidate for Murder, numerous short storiesand novels by James T. Farrell, and many other books.But Guppy wrote the first one.Born in 1884, at Auburn, Indiana, Cuppy now livesquietly in lower Manhattan, writes a weekly column onmurder mysteries for the New York Herald Tribunebook section, and occasionally turns out a magazine arti-cle or book of essays that rank with the best of Leacock,Benchley, and Thurber."Come clean," I insisted, "teli me about MaroonTales!3Cuppy settled back in his chair and grinned."Yes, I wrote the book," he said finally. "I wrote itbecause a man asked me to. He was a Mr. Forbes, Ithink, for the publishers were Forbes and Company. SoI just sat down and wrote one tale after another, andyou must admit they're pretty awful. I have a copy butI can't bring myself to look at it. I go ali cold andcreepy and embarrassed."Cuppy is a modest, unpretentious fellow."You see," he went on, "I had been writing University news for the locai papers ever since I was a fresh-man, so this man carne up to me and asked me to writea book of University of Chicago stories. I did. Butfirst I bought up ali the college stories I could find andread them and tried to write as much like ali of them aspossible. I remember one of the books was by JesseLynch Williams — Princeton stories. At that time Icouldn't even write and had only written some requiredthemes. I never thought of becoming an author."I hate to teli you the rest, but as God is my judgeit is true. When I got the proofs of the book I washighly dissatisfied with the whole thing. The proselooked so simple, so utterly simple — not in the least likea book. So I took the proofs and a dictionary over toJackson Park and sat on a a Japanese pagodaand changed most of the small words to big words, thusutterly ruining what small sense the stuff may have had."I told you you wouldn't believe it," Cuppy said. "Ican't believe it myself.""In the originai draft," he continued, "the wordagecarne nearer having a style of some kind, good or bad.I remember that Dave Robertson ('02), an English in-structor, read the manuscript and said he liked it, thoughI recali his saying that of course I would have to go overIt^ery thoroughly and correct the great number of fla-grant errors, such as typographical errors and such. Thisleft me rather sad because the manuscript was already as perfect as I could make it. Dave said there were somany of those things that he hadn't attempted to do ithimself. He just left it to me."I never profitted much from the book because thechanges I had made on the proofs necessitated resettingpractically the entire book and cost me nearly threehundred dollars. That was ali right with me because Ithought it was a small price to pay for perfection."Another horrible thought occurs to me. I rememberthat the publisher told me he had circularized the entireUniversity of Chicago faculty and student body in anattempt to sdì the book. He said he hadn't sold enoughto pay for the stamps."Well, Professor Starr liked the book, anyway, and Iremember getting nice fan letters from Dr. Goodspeedand Mrs. Judson."Cuppy shook his head mournfully."What about your later books," I asked, "those twoCuppy classics, How to be a Hermit, and How io Teliyour Friends from the Apesf Ever have any troublewith style when you wrote them ?""As a matter of fact," Cuppy answered, "after the experience with Maroon Tales I wrrote a Master's thesis onstyle. I took graduate courses for years because I wasliving in the Phi Gamma Delta house and writing forthe papers and I liked it ali. I was going to be a PhDand was working on my Master's thesis when a friendinvited me to New York. So I turned in my thesis fora Master's in 1914 and left Chicago. Maybe I wouldnever have been a PhD anyhow because I hadn't yettaken the required Old High Middle Lithuanian and Idon't believe I could ever have passed that."After some coaxing, I persuaded Cuppy to let inelook through a folder of clippings of newspaper reviewsof Maroon Tales.I picked up a clip from the Chicago Daily News ofFebruary 18, 1910. It read:"The cover design on Will J. Cuppy's Maroon Taleshas unexpected value as a symbol. It shows a gateway, apath leading to a second gateway beyond; and beyondthe second gateway, nothing whatever. Mr. Cuppy'sbook takes the reader into the University of Chicago inmuch the same manner. It lets him see some of thethings that can be seen from the outside quite as well;certain other things like the second gateway that are con-cerned with the mere outer aspeets of that seat of learn-ing — -and then nothing beyond. . . It is in no way re-markable.""That last sentence is a dirty He," said Cuppy, readingover my shoulder. "Here, read this review from theDaily Maroon — I wrote it myself."Remember These Dates:September 21 -27Back to the Midway15NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By BERNARD LUNDY, '37THE thousands of alumni who returned to theQuadrangles early this month didn't get an AlumniSchool, but they did get ali the other trimmingsof Alumni Week, plus the radio Quiz Kids vs. the Pro-fessors as an added attraction.Saturday climaxed the events, with the Alumni As-sembly in Mandel Hall at which William V. Morgen-stern, '20, JD '22, who has done an outstanding jobas Director of the Alumni Foundation, announced theAlumni Gift (to date) as $455,098. The gift will bepresented to the University at the Academic Festivalin September. The generous aid of the alumni hasdemonstrated that the increasing dependence of an en-dowed university upon many small gifts from those mostclosely related to it is feasible, President Hutchins toldthe Assembly. "The faith you * have shown in the University as a leader among the great independent educational institutions of the nation and as a symbol andstronghold of our hopes of attaining democracy is im-mediately significant to you and to your University,"he said. "As proof that those closest to the Universityare fully in accord with her aims, it is of much morewidespread significance."Details of the Alumni gift: More than 13,000 alumni— more than one-fourth of the total of 48,000 living grad-uates, have contributed. The average individuai giftwas $34.99. Chicago alumni gave $135,830; suburbanalumni $26,174; alumni Trustees $100,671; faculty andalumni-in-the-University $37,629.THE THIRTY-FIRST SINGIt didn't rain again for the thirty-first annual Sing,the weatherman to the contrary nothwithstanding (show-ers had been predicted for Saturday evening, but theydidn't come). Beta Theta Pi won the qùality cup, andPsi Upsilon, with 170 men, took the quanti ty trophy.Because they had won the quality award last year, theAlpha Delts couldn't win it this year, but they madenews any way by rendering a new "Sing Song," writtenespecially for the Anniversary year Sing by ArthurBovee, '08, Assistant Professor of the Teaching ofFrench, who has led the fraternity for the last 31 years.Following the Sing, the alumni danced in the ReynoldsClub. \Other alumni events of the week included the annualSchool of Business dinner, in Ida Noyes Hall, attendedby more than three hundred students and alumni. Norman M. Littell, Assistant Attorney General of the UnitedStates, who reeently made a study of f oreign interestsin American enterprises, spoke on "American Businessand the New Order."The Law School Association's annual dinner presentedSir Wilfred Greene, prominent British jurist who isMaster of the Rolls, as the principal speaker. Dr. Arthur L. Goodhart, Professor of Jurisprudence at OxfordUniversity and Editor of the Law Quarterly Review, also'addressed the group. Both guests felt themselves to be in familiar surroundings ; the Law dinner was held inHutchinson Commons, replica of Oxford's Christ ChurchCommons. More than 250 law alumni from eastern andmidwestern states attended the dinner, another featureof which was the presentation to the Law School of ascholarship gift from the Class of 1916 by H. NathanSwaim, Justice of Supreme Court of Indiana and chair-man of the class's Reunion Committee.Law School students made news last month whenthey won the eighth annual moot court competitionsponsored by the Illinois State Bar Association, triumph-ing over University of Illinois students in the finals ofthe competition. The Chicago team also disposed ofNorthwestern and Loyola. The University's studentshave compiled an enviable record ; they entered the competition for the first time in 1937, and won it that year ;they won again in 1938. The competition is now eightyears old, but the University, though it has competedonly five times, is the only competing school which haswon it three times. Members of this year's wrinningteam were Sam Myar, Memphis Tenn. ; Robert Mohl-man, JD '41, Theodore Fink, JD '41, and William Sweet,JD '41, of Chicago, with Kent Lukingbeal, Farmersville,O., as alternate. Myar and Mohlman also won the first-and fifth-place individuai awards.ANNIVERSARY NEWSA luncheon given by the Citizens Board and thedirectors of the Standard Club early this month com-memorated the important part the members of the Clubplay ed in 1890 in helping to launch the University. Ap-peals to the Baptists of Chicago and the nation hadbeen fruitful, but not f ruitful enough, according to University Historian Thomas W. Goodspeed, when in Feb-ruary, 1890, he and Fred T. Gates, corresponding sec-retary of the Baptist Education Society, called uponBerthold Loewenthal, president of the InternationalBank, and a member of the Standard Club. Mr. Loewenthal, Dr. Emil G. Hirsch (later Professor of Rab-bìnical Literature and Philosophy on the University'sfirst faculty), and Eli B. Felsenthal agreed to help, and"on Aprii 8 the Standard Club, composed of four hundred of the leading Jews of the city, on the motionof Morris Selz, unanimously and enthusiastically votedto raise $25,000 for the new institution. A committeeof ten was appointed which pushed the work with energythrough the succeeding two months. The committeeassumed the entire labor of securing subscriptions, whollyrelieving the secretaries from any responsibility or effort.This generous cooperation was one of the essential fac-tors in the final success achieved. The fact that theStandard Club was making this voluntary contributionfor the new institution did much to invite public attention and to interest ali classes of citizens in the move-ment. . . .,"Speakers at the luncheon included George A. Ranney,Chairman of the Citizens Board, William M. Klein, PresiloTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17dent of the Standard Club, and President Hutchins,who introduced seven divisionai and professional schooldeans who participated in a round-table discussion of"The Next Fifty Years," predicting what research ad-vances would be made before the University celebratesher one hundredth anniversary. The men participatingwere: Robert Redfield, Social Sciences; Arthur H.Compton, Physical Sciences ; Wilber G. Katz, Law;Richard P. McKeon, Humanities ; Ernest C. Colwell,Divinity; William H. Spencer, Business; and WilliamH. Taliaferro, Biological Sciences. Chairman Ranneyannounced, preceding the round-table, that the CitizensBoard is just short of the half-way mark in its drivefor a million and, a half dollars as an anniversary gift,with a total of $627,000 contributed to date.204th CONVOCATIONMore than 400 bachelor's and 300 advanced degreeswere awarded at the 204th Convocation in RockefellerMemorial Chapel Tuesday, June 10. President Hutchinsdelivered the Covocation address, speaking on "A Liberal Education." {See page 5.)Newsworthy candidates for degrees at the Convocation included : Three faculty daughters, Prudence Coul-ter, specializing, like her father and grandfather, in thebiological sciences ; and Caroline and Cynthia Grabo,receiving the Bachelor's degree in the Humanities andthe Master's degree in Social Sciences, respectively.Asuquo Udo Idiong, who has attended the Universityon a tribal grant from the Ibio union in Nigeria, WestAfrica, received the Bachelor's degree in the BiologicalSciences ; Jesse Wilkins, brilliant Negro student whoentered the University at the age of 14 years, receivedthe Master's degree in mathematics at 18. Three gen-erations of doctors were present as Charles Grace received his MD degree, with his father and grandfather,both doctors, looking on. Chillicothe, Ohio, will haveanother Dr. Grace as Charles joins his father and grandfather in their practice there.PART THREEThe Selective Service Act is re-focussing attentionupon the streamlined three-years-to-a-Bachelor's-degreeprogram which President Harper made possible fiftyyears ago when he decreed the first regular SummerQuarter to be offered by any American University.(Northwestern announced the adoption of the quartersystem last month.) According to a recent statementby Dean George A. Works, a number of undergraduatecourses will be reinstated in the Summer Quarter program, enabling the student to get his degree in threeyears by the attending throughout the year. Thus moststudents will be able to get their degrees before theyreach 21, the present minimum age for Selective Serviceconscriptees. Only probable difnculty in the offìng isthe proposed downward revision of the minimum draftage to 18.Thirteen courses dealing with inter- American relationshighlight the offering of the Summer Quarter programof 600 courses to be conducted*by 450 faculty members,according to CarlF. Huth, Dean of University Collegeand Director of the Summer Quarter. Leaders of SouthAmerican business and education will also be presented,in the seventeenth annual Harris Foundation Institute, which this year will be devoted to the subject of "ThePoliticai and Economie Implications of Inter- AmericanSolidarity." Along the Latin American visitors will be :Dr. Luis A. Podestà Costa, Minister of Foreign Affairsof Argentina ; Dr. Eduardo Villasenor, president of theBank of Mexico, Mexico City; Dr. Daniel Samper-Ortega, director of the Gimnasio Moderno of Bogota,Colombia ; and Dr. Luis Anderson, international law ex-pert of Costa Rica. Special courses in Spanish andPortugese will also be given in the Quarter.The recently-organized Institute of Military Studieswill conduct a basic training course, to be given at MillRoad Farm and to cover four weekends. Treating ofseventeen important topics ranging from Army organization to scouting and patrolling, the course is open toali male students, faculty and staff of the University,and to Chicago metropolitan area residents who arebetween 18 and 45 years of age and are citizens.NOTESDr. Calvin W. McEwan, Field Director of the MarrinerMemorial Expedition conduct ed jointly by the OrientaiInstitute and the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, landedin New York on June 13. The last of the University'sarchaeologists to leave the Near East, Dr. McEwan hasbeen on the job since February of 1940. Mrs. McEwanand their two sons, ali of whom returned to Chicagolast December after a 16,000-mile journey, will go toNew York to meet Dr. McEwan.The recently established Harriet Monroe Award forPoetry ($500) was presented for the first time, thismonth', to Muriel Rukeyser of New York City. A committee composed of George Dillon, '29, editor of Poetry,Robinson Jeffers, and Archibald MacLeish, Librarianof Congress made the award.Because of the demand of garden groups and other swho have visited the estate, the Mill Road Gardens willremain open to the public for an indefinite period follow-ing the first Spring Flower Festival. More than 11,000visited the estate during the 16-day festival.Reginald J. Stephenson, Assistant Professor of Phys-ics and Associate Co-ordinator of the Civilian PilotTraining program, has completed two li-minute motionpictures on flying, "The Theory of Flight" and "Problems of Flight," in collaboration with Erpi ClassroomPllms, Inc. Using models and animated drawings aswell as actual planes, the movies deal with the forcewhich make planes fly, and how to measure and controlthose forces. They will be used in the Civilian PilotTraining program, and may also be adopted for pilottraining by the armed forces.More than 500 nutrition experts from ali parts of thecountry attended a three-day "National Nutrition Con-ference for Defense" in Washington, D. C, last month.Lydia J. Roberts, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Home Economics, and Chairman of the Con-ference's Nutrition Subcommittee, presented, via radio, amenu which the Conference was to recommend for adaily diet: one pint of milk (for an adult; more for achild) ; a serving of meat; one egg, or a substitute suchas navy beans; two vegetables, one green and one yel-low ; two fruits ; bread and cereal, pref erably whole-grain ;butter, or a substitute with vitamin A added,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPRIZES FOR UNDERGRADUATE TEACHINGThe University's three $1,000 prizes for excellence inundergraduate teaching were awarded in June to JamesC. Babcock, Assistant Professor of Romance Languagesin the College ; Victor E. Johnson, '26, PhD'30, MD'39,Associate Professor of Physiology and Dean of Students-in the Division of the Physical Sciences; and Norman F.Maclean, PhD'40, Instructor in English.The purpose of conferring the prizes is "to interestteachers in training not only scholars and research work-ers but also young men and women for intelligent andpublic spirited participation and leadership in business,civic, and professional life."The three 1941 winners join nine other faculty members who have been so honored in the last four years,since an eastern alumnus of the University gave $75,000to raise the amount of the prize to $1,000. Previouslysmaller awards and citations had been given since 1930,in accord with President Hutchins' beli'ef that collegeteaching is as worthy of academic recognition as research.Dr. Johnson, knòwn for his research on body lymphand the heart in addition to his skill as an instructor, wasborn in Chicago in 1901. Following his graduation in1926, he entered graduate study and was awarded thePhD degree in 1930, when he had already been a facultymember for one year. He received the MD degree in1939. He was appointed dean of students in the Divisionof the Biological Sciences in 1940.Dr. Maclean, one of the most popular instructors inthe University's general course in the humanities required of ali entering students, also is an authority in thefield of literary criticism and esthetics. Born at Clarinda,la., in 1902, he taught at Dartmouth College for twoyears following his graduation in 1924. In 1928 he carneto the University of Chicago as instructor in English.He was awarded the PhD degree in the Department ofEnglish in 1940 for his dissertation on "The Theory ofLyric Poetry from the Renaissance to Coleridge."Dr. Babcock, in addition to his teaching in the Department of Romance Languages, is known for his researchin Spanish drama and also has published in French. Hewas born in 1908 in Fayetteville, Ark., and after hisgraduation from the University of Arkansas in 1929, hewas awarded both the Master's and in 1934 the PhDdegrees at Iowa, where he had been a faculty membersince 1930. After teaching at Iowa for two more years,he joined the University faculty in 1936.THE HARPER LUNCHEONA luncheon in Ida Noyes Hall on Jury 1 commemo-rated the fiftieth anniversary of William Rainey Har-per's taking office as the first president of the University. Paul Vincent Harper, '08, JD'13, Trustee of theUniversity and son of the first president, accepted onbehalf of his mother, who was unable to be present, aspecially-bound copy of the biography of William RaineyHarper which forms the second part of this issue of theMagazine. The presentation was made by FredericWoodward, Vice-President Emeritus and Director ofthe Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration. The three hun-dred guests also heard Maud Slye, pioneer cancer re-searcher and one-time secretary to Dr. Harper, and Dean Shailer Mathews, long-time friend of the University's first president.Presented with the special copy of the biography ofhis father Mr. Harper said : "Mrs. Harper, my mother,is in her eighty-fifth year. Until recently she has en-joyed good health. During her later years, she has re-tained to an exceptional degree her vigor. She has hadthe same enthusiasm and forward-looking viewpointwhich she had fifty years ago when as the young wifeof the first president of your University, she carriedher helpful share in the beginnings. Since my father's.death, she has with great interest and intelligent judg-ment followed the progress of the University. She isunable to be here because only a few weeks ago she wasseriously stricken."Dr. Mathews, dean emeritus of the University'sDivinity school, speaking on "William Rainey Harper,"said:"He had a genius for friendship. At his death hun-dreds of people believed that he was in some way theirexclusive friend. If they had been students, they knewthat they could aways get access to his office even thoughothers had to wait. He could be dignified and reservedwhen occasion demanded, but with his friends he was asinformai as a boy. He loved men and wanted to helpthem."A new idea made him a propagandist. Whetherthat new idea was a new method of studying Hebrew,a new sense of the historical perspective of the Bible, anew scheme for afflliating colleges, or a new sense of thepardoning love of God, he wanted to teli somebody elseabout it."It was the teacher's passion to reproduce himself. Itwas the brother's passion to help someone else. It layback of his ambition for the university. He had none forhimself. It lay back of what many of his friends regardedas an ill-advised attempt to reform the Chicago schoolsystem. It lay back of lectures on the narratives ofGenesis with which in the early days of the Universityhe startled the religious world of the middle west andhelped to make him a champion of academic freedomwhen such freedom was dangerous. It lay back of hisdetermination to develop a healthy university rather thana college spirit It led him to become Superintendent ofthe Hyde Park Baptist Sunday School in order to improve religious education."And above ali, it lay back of his personal interest ineveryone with whom he carne in contact. You could notget him to stop helping people."He had the capacity for anger. He would criticizemen, sometimes severely, but anyone who heard himknew that the criticism to which he listened would notprevent Dr. Harper's helping the man whose weaknesshe had laid bare. He could not forget friendships."If one would see the real Harper, one must see ascholar forced to become an administrator, not an ad-ministrator trying to be a scholar. Nor was scholarshipwith him a matter of mere learning. He repeatedly expressed the belief that the attitude of the scholar whowas in search of truth was a prime condition for honestybecause of its devotion to accuracy."FRANK DINNERThe Law Alumni Meet in WashingtonWASHINGTON law alumni of the Universitygathered at the Carlton Hotel on May 24 tohonor Jerome N. Frank, T2, JD'12, formerchairman of the Securities and Exchange Commissionwho has recently been appointed judge of the CircuitCourt of Appeals. Justice William O. Douglas, JudgeJ. Warren Madden, JD'14, SEC Chairman Edward C.Eicher, '03, and Dean Wilber G. Katz of the Law Schoolspoke to the gathering of a hundred alumni. Dean Katzannounced that Judge Frank has accepted the University's invitation to become a professorial lecturer.Quoting a 1933 speech before the American Bar Association in which Mr. Frank reviewed his experiencesat the University of Chicago, Dean Katz said, "He spokeof the 'sharp tang in the intellectual atmosphere. . . Theuntidy disciplines of economics, politics, and history, towhich I had devoted myself in undergraduate daysseemed remote and unimportant. In my third year, Isat at the feet of a diflerent kind of teacher — Julian W.Mack. This teacher had been a practicing lawyer andwas on the bench. And he told us much of how problemsare flung, in the raw, at lawyers by clients or at judgesby lawyers. We began to under stand what an unlogical,shifting, untidy, uncertain, thoroughly human, catch-as-catch-can thing we were going to be grappling with, oncewe passed our bar examinations. The course itself wasuntidy and sloppy. . . There was a stimulating air offragmentariness about. What he was teaching was lawas she is practiced.' " Dean Katz continued :"I think those of you who are familiar with Mr.Frank's work will recognize in this recital of experiencetrustworthy testimony of the sort of impetus and direction a teacher can give to the able student. Of course,such happy interaction of the minds of student andteacher is in a sense accidental. Ali that a school cando is to seek to increase thè probability of such acci-dents . . . to bring within its faculty teachers whoseinsight and ideas range beyond the subject matter im-mediately at hand and whose personalities excite re-sponse. It can broaden its curriculum of study to em-brace those 'untidy disciplines' which become relevantonce the range of inquiry is lengthened. . . ."I have been speaking of what the Law School mayhave done for Mr. Frank. There remains the questionof what Mr. Frank has done for or to the Law School."Back in the 1920's strife was brewing in the domainof legai education and scholarship. No sooner had orderbeen established in the House of Jurisprudence . . . thana group of restive souls . . . began to be disturbed by,and to disturb, this comfortable state of affairs. . . ."But it was not until 1930 that the blitzkrieg began.Its field marshal was Jerome Frank and he launched hisattack with Law and the Modern Mind. When criticsrose in defense, he attacked their positions unsparinglyin a succession of law review articles. . . ."It is difficult to estimate with accuracy the effect of this contro versy on legai education . . . for much of thechange it has wrought is stili working within formswhich antedated its impact and are stili preserved. Withmany other schools we were harassed and shaken byFrank's writings; but more than that, we got our ownprivate spanking in 1926 or 1927 . . . from a distinguishedcommittee of alumni, among whom I need not say wasJerome Frank, telling us why our curriculum was out-worn and what we should do about it. . . . In 1937 wegot to where Frank was in 1927. We had attempted tobreak down the remoteness of the 'untidy disciplines' ofeconomics, politics and history. But Frank was troublingus anew with his prescription of a clinical lawyer school.The impact of his questions and suggestions is stili mov-ing us along. ..."If Judge Frank were to enroll in the University ofChicago Law School today, he would find many coursesin which the effort to schematize legai doctrine into neatpatterns had been abandoned for an effort to make thestudents aware of those characteristics which JudgeMack's teaching had revealed to him. He would find histasks had become riarder but more challenging. But hewould find more. He would find an effort to substitutefor the construction of an artificial order in legai doctrine, an inquiry into the rational structure of ethics andpolitics which either underlies or is postulated for thelegai order. I shall not say in pursuing such inquirieswe are following Jerome Frank"After acknowledging the comments of the speakers,Judge Frank commented :"When I carne with my slate and pencil to my newschool [the federai bench] the other day and sat for thefirst time and heard counsel for both private persons andthe departments of the government talking about thesedepartments and governmental agencies and referring tothem as the 'government' I said to myself, 'Well, if theyare the government, what are we?'"What would democracy be like if the judges didn'tconsider themselves a part of the government?"I think there was a definite intention on the part ofthe framers of the Constitution to make the judiciary anintegrai part of the government and I ani sure they considered it a part. I don't mean for a minute that thejudiciary should merely approve without question theactions of the executive and legislative branches. . . . Itis the virtue of our forni of government that the judiciary— while it isn't fused with the executive and with thelegislative departments, and with the administrative, thatali the departments of the government, while they are tobe kept somewhat apart— is to be fused with the restof the government for the purpose of justice and equity."If the judiciary should ever take the position that itis not a part of the government and whenever that isdone, so it has and will lead to the paralysis of government that invites dictatorship."19ATHLETICSTHE MAROON SCOREBOARDBaseball-12 Iowa-12 Iowa- 7 Wisconsin- 5 Wisconsin- 9 Illinois Tech- 8 Minnesota ¦- 6 MinnesotaChicago 1-Chicago 1-Chicago 6-Chicago 1 —Chicago 5 —Chicago 3 —Chicago 5 —TrackChicago 44^—63^ Minnesota46 NorthwesternChicago 38—73 Purdue TennisChicago 4 — 5 Notre DameChicago 7 — 2 IllinoisChicago 3 — 6 NorthwesternChicago 7 — 2 PurdueChicago 8 — 1 KalamazooChicago 0 — 9 NorthwesternGolfChicago 3T/2 — 20H WisconsinChicago 1^—16^ IowaChicago 0 — 18 PurdueFOR about fifteen houfs, between the semifinalsand the start of the finals of the Big Ten tennismeet on the varsity courts, there was a mathemat-ical chance for Chicago to tie with Michigan for theConference championship. It was necessary for Chicagoto win its four finals matches and Michigan to drop aliof its six. Michigan won two of the six and a clear title.It then became possible for Chicago to take third, be-hind Northwestern, second, ahead of Northwestern, ortie with the Wildcats. Walter Kemetick won the No. 2singles title for the Maroon team over Northwestern'sGene Richards. Dave Martin and Ralph Johansen wonthe No. 3 doubles title. This eliminated the third placechance. A victory. by Kemetick and Bill Self over BillLewis and Jerry Rosenthal, of Ohio State, would haveshoved Northwestern into third place. But lanky, red-headed Lewis and his stubby team mate, Rosenthal, whohad lobbed their way to victory over Harrie Hall andBeryl Shapiro, of Northwestern, and Ed Olson and DickMoore, of Minnesota, put on another long loop-shot drilland left Chicago with no better than a second-place tie.This, needless to say, was somewhat better than mostfollowers of the team had expected. After two dual meetlosses to Northwestern, one by the unheard of score of9 to 0, and additional losses to Notre Dame and Michigan, Chicago was conceded no higher than third. Andafter Capt. Cai Sawyier was freakishly knocked out ofthe meet by Dick McFarlane, of Ohio State, in the firstround, even Ohio State and Minnesota were consideredpossibilities to end ahead of the Maroon team. But Chicago proved steadier under the pressure of the Conference affair than under dual meet conditions, a factparticularly interesting in the light of the fact that ofthe six finalists five were sophomores ; the other a junior.Ali of which, plus the ten freshmen who won numerateand include Bob Smidl and John Jorgensen, both good,sounds like championship talk next year.NOTES FROM THE ORDER OF THE C DINNERJim Ray, captain of the track team, who was awardedthe Conference medal for his egregious ability in sportsand scholar ship, will represent Chicago in the Big Tei}vs. Pacific Coast track meet. He tied for the Conferencehigh jump title and was fifth in the broad jump, winning • By DON MORRIS, '36ali Chicago's points in the Conference meet at Minneapolis. Height: 6 feet, 4% inches.A tree will be planted in a corner of Stagg Field thismonth to honor the memory of Jimmy Twohig, the color-ful and beloved old Irishman who died in 1936 aftertending the athletic fields of the Midway for more than athird of a century.The citation : This oak recalls Jimmy Twohig,groundskeeper of Stagg Field, whose loyalty and; friend-ship inspired Chicago athletes for thirty-six years.Andy Wyant, of the 1892 football team, the Rev, Mr.Franklin C. Sherman, a half miler in 1894, and Dr. S. C.Dickerson, a quarter miler man in 1895, spoke at thedinner representing the Old Guard. John Schommer, ofthe vintage of 1906, was elected to succeed Judge HugoM. Friend, a 1902 man, as president of the Order. Col.Lawrence H. Whiting, also spoke.Yancey T. Biade, ineluctible Maroon sports enthusiast,was grieved at the musical talent displayed by the newmembers of the Order inducted this year. Biade, an authority on the Greek use of the five-tone scale as well asthe conventional modern eight-tone system, was unableto follow the course of the melody in either system.Stili undetermined, as Chicago with a single championship finished the year tied for fourth in the Big Ten,was the Conference golf title, at which the Universitywas to be host at the Mill Road Farm. The meet is thefirst ever held on the course, ranked as one of the threebest in the country, which was given the University lastyear by Albert D. Lasker, a member of the Board ofTrustees. The meet, which probably will be history bythe time this reaches print, was booked as a repetition oflast year's struggle between Michigan and Illinois, withthe Illini expected to pulì through and retain their title.Chicago's entry, stronger than last year when it was notpossible to muster a full team, stili is not expected towind up near the top.Disregarding the golf title, the allotment of champion-ships for 1940-41 went something like this: Michiganwon three : swimming, baseball, and tennis. Indiana like-wise had three: cross country and outdoor and indoortrack. Minnesota won two : football and wrestling. Chicago took fencing, Illinois gymnastics, Wisconsin basket-ball, Northwestern water polo. This represents a fairamount of shufning. Michigan, the stronghold of track,lost out to the Hoosiers but became the first team out-side of Chicago and Northwestern to win the tennis teamtitle, also moving in on baseball. Wisconsin's remarkablebasket-ball performance likewise was unlooked for. Thewater polo championship stayed within the confines ofthe Chicago metropolitan area, as expected, and Illinois'regaining of the gym crown was not as strange as waslosing it to Minnesota by half a point last year.The yacht club pulled one second and one first out ofits two spring engagements, beating Northwestern in theIone dual meet and finishing second to Illinois Tech in aregatta in which five other institutions finished behindthe Maroon contingent.20NEWS OF THE CLASSES1897James Fosdick Baldwin, PhD, Professor of History at Vassar College,was retired at the end of this schoolyear.1900Frank George Franklin, PhD, whois Librarian Emeritus at WilliametteUniversity in Salem, Oregon, will celebrate his eightieth birthday this year.1901Eliot Black welder, President of theGeological Society of America, spokeon "Science and Human Prospects" before the Society at a spring meeting.Helen Gardner, author of "ArtThrough the Ages" and "Understanding the Arts," has in recent years beenChairman of the Department of Historyof Art, the Art Institute, Chicago.Francis Gevrier Guittard, AM '02,Chairman of the Division of Historyand Social Sciences at Baylor University in Texas, has been associated withthe same institution since he completedhis studies for the Master's at Chicago.Walter Wilson Hart, joint authorof the Wells-Hart Mathematics texts,having retired from teaching, is livingin Kenilworth, Illinois, where he de-votes his time to writing and lecturing.After thirty-óne years of service atJohns Hopkins University, Burton E.Livingston, PhD, has retired from hispost as Professor of Plant Physiology.Russell Lowry writes that he "foundrefuge in a San Francisco bank shortlyafter the fire of 1906; and has beenidentified with the same bank ever since,most of the time with the obscure titleof Vice-President."Mrs. E. R. Downing (Grace E.Manning) writes from Williams Bay,where she has been since ProfessorDowning's retirement from the Schoolof Education in 1934, that she now hasone grandson and three granddaughters.Mrs. W. O. Mendenhall (Lucy Os-good)^ of Whittier, California, whosehusbarid is President of Whittier College, is active in YWCA and AAUWwork besides serving on the WhittierCollege Auxiliary.Esther Fay Shover teaches highschool in Indianapolis, Indiana, whereshe is in charge of student broadcastson a world goodwill program.1902Earl Dean Howard, PhM '03, PhD'05, economist, was recently named byChicago's Mayor Kelly as investigatorof working condì tions and wages amongcity hall employees in Chicago.1904Daniel J. Fleming, SM, PhD '14,recently published "Christian Symbolsin a World Community," which containsover two hundred illustrations of sym-bolic Christian art of China, Japan,India and Africa. Perry J. Stackhouse has announcedhis resignation, effective in October,from the pastorate of the First BaptistChurch of Chicago. He will retirefrom the ministry and make his homein Florida.1905On June 2, paying tribute to her asteacher and scholar in the field of physi-cal chemistry, Russell Sage College be-stowed the honorary degree of Doctorof Science upon Emma Perry Carr,Bs, PhD '10, Chairman of the Department of Chemistry at Mount HolyokeCollege. Miss Carr was one of threewomen to receive honorary degrees atthis Commencement, the other two be-ing Ève Curie and Sigrid Undset.The University of North Carolina'sDaily Tar Heel recently compared"gaunt, impulsive, inspirational" GeorgeCoffin Tayler, PhD, to a sealtrainer, so responsive are the under-graduates to his teaching of Shakespeare.1906Evon Z. Vogt, rancher from' Ramah,New Mexico, and Editor of the GallupGazette, returned to the Quadrangleswith his wife and two ehildren to joinin reunion activities, and witness thegraduation of his son, Evon Z. Vogt,II, a marshal of the University. TheVogts were house guests of your Editor while in Chicago.1907Odell Shepard, Pulitzer prize win-ner, Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut and Professor of English at TrinityCollege, Hartford, Connecticut, wasawarded an honorary degree by BostonUniversity this month.Harold H. Swift, President of theBoard of Trustees of the University,has been appointed Director of the National Science Fund, a new foundationwhich will receive and administer giftsfor the advancement of science, theNational Academy of Sciences announced recently.1908William Clarence Ohlendorf,SM '10, MD '18, of 1924 Blue IslandAvenue Chicago, has written a pamphlet in which he endeavors to synthe-size Science, Philosophytìand Religion.The pamphlet is priced at twenty-fivecents and may be- obtained from theauthor.1909The Class of 1909, meeting for itsthirty-second reunion and dinner onJune 6 at International House, presented prizes to Mrs. J. B. Miller(Marie Kellogg) for having the larg-est family and Mrs. Arthur O. Dady(Virginia Admiral) for having twins who are on the campus. Others whoattended the class dinner were Mr. andMrs. John J. Schommer, Mr. andMrs. Robert Harris, Reverend Walter Pond, Doris Morgan Scott, Florence Tyley Skidmore, Mr. and Mrs.J. J. Lawrence and daughter, Mary,ROSEMARY QUINN, MARY E. COURTE-nay, William R. Peacock, SamuelE. LlNGLE, SOPHIA CAMENISCH, Mr.and Mrs. Thomas Miller, John F.Dille, Dr. and Mrs. Louis G.Wherle, Mr. and Mrs. Emmet J. Graham, and Mrs. Pearl Steffen.Mrs. Marion Maxwell (ValentineDenton Bachrach) and EmilyFrake are both recover ing from ili—nesses.Mary E. Courtenay, AM '37, isdoing an unusually fine piece of serviceas Principal of the Gompers School forCrippled Children in Chicago.Marjorie Day, who frequently givesprograms with the Elizabeth Singers,joined them in a concert on May 25, atthe Fox River British Relief Celebra-tion.Mrs. Preston McCrossen (HelenCramp) whose article on the sdentinemethod appeared in the May issue ofthe Magazine, has a son entering Po-mona College who, on reading one ofPresident Hutchins' speeches, remarked,"Why, that is just plain common sense."Mrs. F. P. Clarke (Esther God-shaw) recently wrote a high schooltext called "This Machine Age— HowOur Industriai World Carne to Be,"which is being published by Scribners.Mrs. Leroy F. Harza (Zelma David-. son) recently new to the Canal Zonewith her husband who is a consultingengineer. Her oldest son, Arthur C.HofTman, who graduated from DukeUniversity, is about to be married ; hersecond son, Dick Harza, leads his^ classin Mercersburg Academy and will goto Princeton next year.Passing through Chicago but unableto attend reunion, R. D. Elliott ofLong Beach, California, 'phoned regretsto the class secretary between planes.W. C. Handy is living at 203 Dow-sett Avenue, Honolulu, Hawaii.Mrs. Arthur E. Needham (FlorenceManning, SM '10,) of Kirkham,Washington, has five unusual childrenattending high school and college.Marinda Winsor Miller of St. An-drew's Priory in Honolulu is on herway to the United States for a visit.Mrs. S. V. Eaton (Edith Osgood,AM '14) has a daughter studying forher Master's at the University.Mrs. William Crocker (PersisSmallwood) of Yonkers, New York,has a son from West Point who is nowat Camp Jackson, South Carolina.1916Gertrude Smith, AM '17, PhD '21,Professor of Greek and Chairman of2122 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGET A COMPLETECHANGE OF SCENE!SOUTH AMERICA>ee new places — new people —new sights. Take in the beauty ofRio's enchanting harbor — the luxuryof cosmopolitan Buenos Aires — thegracious charm of friendly Monte-video. Bring your swim-suit, yourgolf things, your dress clothes —you'll have the time of your lifegetting acquainted with your"GoodNeighbors" below the Equatori38-DAY AlL-EXPENSE CRUISESon the luxurious33,000-Ton American Republics LinersS.S.BRAZIL S.S.URUGUAYS.S. ARGENTINASaìling fcom New York Every Other Fridayand Calling atBARBADOS • RIO DE JANEIRO • SANTOSMONTEVIDEO • BUENOS AIRES • SANTOSSAO PAULO • RIO DE JANEIRO • TRINIDADEvery cruise comfort — every shipboardpleasure. Ali staterooms outside, air-condi-tioned dining rooms, outdoor tiled swim-ming pools, broad Lido sports decks.CRUISE RATES: $395 Tourist, $585 FirstClass (Prices include ali shore excursions andhotel expenses at Buenos Aires, ship is yourhotel at ali other ports.)Consu/f your Travet Agent or\.iiiii.i-...-i:.iiimi:iiS Broadway, New York the Department of Greek at the University, is President of the ClassicalAssociation of the Middle West andSouth this year.1910Kate L. Knowles now lives at 121Wanuick Boulevard, San Antonio,Texas.1911The Class of 1911 held its thirtiethreunion at the University on June 6and 7. On Friday, June 6 sixty-fivemembers of this famous aggregationgathered at the Shoreland Hotel for abanquet which was in the charge ofRalph Kuhns, MD '13, and his wife.Earle appeared after an absence of thirty years, and performed onthe piano with the same agility as dur-ing his undergraduate days. Other outof town members in attendance were :Mrs. Melville S. Brown (FlorenceCatlin) of Coranado, California, whospent June Week with her son, Mid-shipman Garrison Brown, before com-ing on to Chicago for reunion, Dr.George Braunlich of Davenport,Iowa, Harold Earle of Hermansville,Michigan, Harper McKee of NewYork City, George Sutherland ofBaltimore and William H. Kuh, SM'14, of Marinette, Wisconsin. Numer-ous letters and telegrams from thoseunable to attend were received and readat the dinner.After the Assembly at Mandel Hallon Saturday the Ee-O-levens were en-tertained at a tea in the home of Mrs.Charles Gilkey (Geraldine Brown).Everyone present renewed his love forAlma Mater and swore by ali the godsto be present at the thirty-fifth reunion.1912The first award ever given for distinguished service to the crippled children of this country was recently presented by the National Society for Crip-ped Chidren to Thecla Doniat, retired Principal of Chicago's SpaldingSchool, and pioneer in the struggle toprovide physically handicapped childrenwith equal educational ópportunities.Sumner M. Wells, Jr., MD '14, ofGrand Rapids, Michigan, is Chairmanof Medicai Advisory Board No. 9 forSelective Service for Michigan.1913W. C. Krathwohl, PhD, is Professor of Mathematics and Director of theDepartment of Tests and Measurementsat Illinois Institute of Technology inChicago.Frank E. Newlove, MD '31, ofPlatteville, Wisconsin, and Mrs. Hubert K. Whitmer (Lillian Spohn) ofBuffalo, New York, were two Thirteen-ers who attended Reunion.Mary L. Porter of Meredith Col lege, Raleigh, North Carolina, writes usthat she is retiring this year.William Homer Spencer, PhD, JD,Dean of the School of Business at theUniversity, has been appointed Chairman of the Lumber and Timber Products Industry Committee under the Federai Wage and Hour Division.1914Mary Louise Foster, PhD, who retired from the faculty of Smith College in 1933, has recently had a paint-ing exhibited in the Independent Art-ists' Exhibition in Boston.George D. Parkinson, JD, special-izes in oil and other naturai resourcelaw in San Marino, California.Two prominent Chicagoans werehonored at the tenth annual Shakespeare birthday program and awarddinner held at the Blackstone Hotel inChicago on May 10. Professor PercyBoynton was presented with the Chicago Foundation for Literature awardfor distinguished service to literature inrecognition of his contribution asteacher, critic and scholar and MartinStevers received the same Foundation'saward for non-fiction for his book,"Mind Through the Ages," which wasreviewed in the January, 1941, issue ofthe Magazine.1915Mrs. Sumner Koch (Lucille Bau-mann) was among those who enjoyedseeing the Quiz Kids defeat the Facultyat the Reunion Day program in Mandel.John William Chapman, JD '17,formerly of Chicago, is now Secretaryto Governor Green and lives at StateHouse, Springfield, Illinois.Edward Z. Rowell, AM '16, PhD'22, Assistant Professor of PublicSpeaking at the University of California in Berkeley, and newly electedPresident of the Northern CaliforniaAlumni Club, participated in ReunionDay activities on June 7, and found timefor a visit with the Editor while on theQuadrangles for his daughter Anne'sgraduation.1916Hygienist Emery R. Hayhurst,PhD, of Columbus, Ohio, is a memberof the National Research Council'sCommittee on Nutrition.D. M. Key, PhD, is Professor ofClassics and Chairman of the Human-ites Division at Birmingham SouthernCollege, Birmingham, Alabama.Two out-of-town members of theClass of 1916 who participated in Reunion activities were Mrs. S. J. Benson(Helen Orton) of Kewanee, Illinois,and David Gustafson, AM '27, ofAurora, Illinois.1918Mrs. John W. Chapman (EvaRicholson) of Land O'Lakes, Wisconsin, attended Reunion.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 231919Having served the Chicago publicschools tor .twenty-fìve years both asteacher and principal, Edna Richard-son Meyjers, '19, has now retired andis planning to write a book on theearly history of Chicago.1922Richard N. Bardwell, of Evanston,is Editor ial Director of the Unitextpublishing program in social studiescarried on by Row, Peterson and Co.J. Wesley Hoffmann, AM, PhD,'37, is Professor of History at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.1923Clarence Burton Day, AM, headsthe English Department of HangchowChristian College which has now beenmoved to Shanghai.William^ Dock, MD, will becomeProfessor of Pathology at the MedicaiCollege of Cornell University, on July 1.Newton Edwards, PhD, Professorof Education at the University, de-ivered the address at the inaugurationof President Rainey at the Universityof Texas.1924Charles Flinn Arrowood, :PhD, ofthe University of Texas faculty wasawarded an honorary Doctor of Literature by Davidson College on June 9.Joseph Patterson Smith, PhD '30,whose articles and reviews have ap-peared in the Canadian Historical Review and the Illinois College Quarterly,is Professor of History and PoliticaiScience at Illinois College, Jacksonville,Illinois.O. E. Bonecutter, AM '30, is Principal of the high school in JunctionCity, Kansas.; Anson T. Dewey, AM, formerly ofpklahòma City, has moved to Tah-Jequah, Oklahoma, where he is Pastòròf the First Presbyterian Church.! Y£RNE O. Graham, SM, PhD '31,President of the Illinois Academy ofScience, was elected Honorary Curatorjof Mycòlogy in the Chicago Academyòf Se fèrree s this year.Constance E. Hartt, SM, PhD '28,author of many articles on the physi-ology of sugar cane, is President of theHawaiian Botanical Society this year.1925Julie Emery of Wichita, Kansas,visited the Quadrangles early in Juneand enjoyed participating in reunionactivities.1926Victor Johnson, PhD '30, MD '39,Professor of Physiology and Dean ofStudents in the Division of the Biological Sciences, was one of the tìireerecipients of the $1,000 award for ex-cellence in undergraduate teaching presented at the June Convocation.1927Walter M. O. Fischer teaches Chemistry in Balboa High School, Bai-boa, Canal Zone.James A. Helm, MD, of New Florence, Missouri, is a member of the Advisory Board of the Selective Servicefor ten centrai Missouri counties.To Mary Ann, four year old daughterof Harry R. Keiser, MD '28, and Mrs.Keiser (Anna Mae Hungerford, AM'28) went a silver loving cup and $200cash prize for winning the Most Beautiful Child Contest recently held by themagazine, You and Your Child.1928William Claude Booth, AM, author of a shorthand method for the Chi-nese language and Dean of Yih WenCommercial College in Chef oo, China,writes that this is the first year that bothChinese shorthand and Chinese type-writing have been offered as regularcourses in the College.Gretchen Ottie Branstetter isnow a full-time supervisor of instruc-tion in the week-day program of religious education in the St. Louis public schools.Dorothy G. Downie, PhD, lectureson Botany at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, and has, during the war,been driving an ambulance in that re-gion.Margaret K. Strong, PhD, has lefther post at the University of Louis-ville to return to her home in Toronto,Canada, where she will serve on thestaff of the Department of Social Science at the University of Toronto.1929C. E. Kellam, AM, is AssistantPrincipal at Washington High Schoolin East Chicago, Indiana.On June 2, Howard Y. McClusky,PhD., was awarded the honorary degree, LLD by Park College, Parkville,Missouri, where he spent his undergraduate days.Leon M. Pultz, PhD, formerly plantphysiologist for the U. S. Departmentof Agriculture, has become Chairmanof the Department of Botany at the University of Arizona.1930For the past five years John Douglas Aikenhead, AM, has been In-spector of Schools and Superintendentof School Division No. 28 in McLeod,Alberta. His position involves executive work on sixty-four rural schoolsplus the supervision of some ninetyteachers.Lester F. Becic, JD, formerly ofNew York, is now located in the Officeof Chief of Ordnance, Industriai Serv-( ice Facilities, Washington, D. C.j Paul G. Dibble, AM, has been ap-; pointed pastor pfFourth Street Mth-¦ odist Church in Aiirpra, Illinois.Joe R. Hart inspeets foods and drugs OAK PARK CLUBAssembling for the first meeting ofthe newly organized Oak Park AlumniClub, the one hundred members werereceived by Dr. and Mrs. EdwardWestland and Mr. Reginald Ibenf eldt inthe spacious Westland home at 939Elmwood Avenue, Oak Park, Illinois.Mr. Ben Badenoch presided over themeeting, the stellar attraction of whichwas speaker James L. Cate, Dean oiStudents in the Division of the Human-ites, Medieval History Professor andwinner of last year's $1,000 award forexcellence in teaching. Following thelecture there was a lively discussionperiod, after which refreshments wereserved and old acquaintanceships re-newed. Ali agreed that it was a mostsuccess fui first meeting and the Club isdeeply grate fui to the Westlands fortheir charming hospitality.BUSINESS DIRECTORYAMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.AH phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAUTO LIVERY— i— ¦ i^— — — —i— —Auto LiveryLarge Limousines - $3 Per Hour5 Passenger Sedans - $2 Per HourSpecial rates for out of townEMERY-DREXEL LIVERY INC.5547 S. HARPER AVE.FAIrfax 6400AUTOMOBILESFRED W. REMBOLD, INC.6130 Cottage Grove Ave.DODGE and PLYMOUTHDirect Factory DealersSales and ServiceDependable Used CarsPhone Midway 0506AWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Cerno pi es for Ali Purposes4508 Cottage Grove Avenue24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED ~ BONDEDINSUHEDQUAUFED WELDERSHAYmarket 79171404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoBOOK BINDERSBOOKSMEDICAI. BOOKSof AH PublisherThe Largest and Most Complete. Stock andali New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medicai Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medicai CollegeBUTTER & EGGSMURPHY BUTTER and EGG CO.2016 CALUMET AVE.CHURNERS OF FANCY CREAMERY BUTTERFINEST WISCONSIN EGGSAlways UniformChurned Fresh DailyPhone CALumet 5731CAMPGlen Eyrie FarmFOR CHILDRENDELAVAN LAKE, WISCONSINBOYS and GIRLS 7—12Farm experience besides camp activities including swimming and boating.June 25 to September 3Senti for story of the Farm.VIRGINIA HINKINS BUZZELL, '13Glen Eyrie Farm, Delavan Lake, Wìs.CATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in ali its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retai! Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882 for the government and has his head-quarters in Baltimore, Maryland.1931William G. Navid, JD '32, has accepted a position with the Illinois Department of Labor in Chicago.Benjamin Prescott, who until recently was a research chemist at JohnsHopkins Hospital, is now on the staffof the National Institute of Health inWashington, D. C.Mrs. Frederick W. Langner (AgnesSporer) writes that, after the manymonths which it took to make trans-atlantic connections, she is finally re-united with her husband in Budapest.The LangneFs mailing address is Kos-suth Lajos Ter 18, Budapest V. Hun-gary.Joseph H. Gourley, PhD, who headsthe Department of Horti culture at theOhio Agricultural Experiment Stationin Wooster has recently co-authored,"Modern Fruit Production," publishedby the Macmillan Company.Dale Allen Letts, JD '35, hasjoined Scott, MacLeish and Falk ofChicago, in the practice of law.Lloyd F. Catron, MD, is a pathol-ogist on the staff of the City Hospitalin Akron, Ohio.E. Wilson Lyon,, PhD, will leave hispost as Chairman of the Departmentof History at Colgate University thismonth to become the sixth President ofPamona College in California.1932Floyd M. Bond, MD '32, is head oithe Department of Ophthalmology atthe County Hospital of San Diego,California.Lawrence J. Schmidt, who has recently left Chicago to become Area Director of NYA, overseeing elevencounties in western Illinois, centering atGalesburg, was among those to attendreunion on June 7.Paul M. Stagg following in thefootsteps of his famous father, hasbeen appointed head football coach andInstructor of Physical Education atWorcester Polytechnic Institute in Worcester, Massachusetts.Theodore Thau, JD '34, formerlyof Chicago, is now on the staff of theSecurities and Exchange Commission inWashington, D. C.1933Arthur Clifton Boyce, PhD, is en-gaged in work in adult education at theAmerican Mission, Teheran, Iran.Donald M. Crooks, PhD, formerlyChairman of the Department of Botanyat the University of Arizona, has beencalled to Washington, D. C, to headthe Division of Drugs and RelatedPlants in the Bureau of Plant Industry.John Bennett Elliott is on thestaff of the Department of Archeology,University of Kentucky, in the capac-ity of a field archeologist.Robert H. O'Brien, LLB, is thenew Director of the Public Utilities Division of the Securities and ExchangeCommission. CEMENT CONTRACTORST. A. REHNQUIST CO. CONCRETEFLOORSSIDEWALKS\\ V MACHINE FOUNDATIONS\\ MASTIC FLOORSVEST. 192* ALL PHONESWentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Ave.CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, "12B. R. Harris, 71Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wasson's Coal Malces Good — or—Wasson DoesCOFFEE-TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston — New York — Philadelphìa — SyracuseELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER CONSTRUCTION600W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneSeeley 2788EMPLOYMENTCOLOREDDOMESTIC HELPFurnishedDay or NightReferences investigated.Englewood Employment Agency5530 S. State Phone-Englewood 3 ! 8 1 -3 1 82Street Night-Englewood 3181Established 20 yearsTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25GRAPHIC ARTSTHE SCRIPTORIUMScribes • Illuminators • BindersC L RICKETTS JASPER S KINGIf it is said to last a lifetime or longer, sayit sincerely with well-chosen words in beautiful, imperishable designMESSAGES OF APPRECIATION, RESO-LUTIONS, ILLUMINATED INSCRIPTIONS,MEMORIALS; BIRTHDAY, CHRISTMASAND GUEST BOOKS; CRESTS, COATSOF ARMS, TITLE PAGES•DIPLOMAS, CITATIONS,HONORARY DEGREES, CHARTERSValued papers and letters restoredand bound38 SOUTH DEARBORN STREETDEARBORN 0001 CHICAGOGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Parie 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAH ServicesDry Cleoning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110( LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAli Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoLITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing73 1 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182OFFICE FURNITURE5TEELCA5ÉBtz&in&ss JScjtzipment \FILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co*Grand Rapida» Michigan 1934Aaron Altschul, PhD, '37, hasjoined the staff of the Regional Labo-ratory of the U. S. Department of Agri-culture locateci in New Orleans.Mary M. Fiola, AM, of Brooklyn,New York, is now locateci at Kings-wood School, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, where she heads the Latin Department.Carolyn R. Just, now an attorneyat the Department of Justice, Washington, D. C, was one of the delegates ofthe Federai Bar Association at the FirstConference of the Inter- American BarAssociation in H a v a n a, Cuba, lastMarch.William Charles KorfmacherPhD '34, of University City, Missourihas recently been elected Vice-Presi-dent of the Missouri Academy ofScience.Nancy Moorefield of Centerville,Iowa, who was a graduate student atthe University, was present for Reunionactivities.1935Carl C. Batz, JD, is now located atArmour and Company, Union StockYards, Chicago.Claude E. Hawley, PhD '39, whois on the faculty at the University ofFlorida in Gainesville, Florida, wasamong those present at Mandel Hall onReunion Day.David F. Matchett, Jr., JD hasbeen appointed Secretary of the Committee on State Statutes of the IllinoisBar Association for the year 1941-42.Joseph C. Varkala, AM '36, has recently become affiliated with the ArmcoInternational Corporation at 120 Broad-way, New York City.1936E. E. Bratcher, PhD, is Superin-tendent of Schools in Hot Springs,Arkansas.Henry Kavina, JD '38, has becomeaffiliated with Montgomery Ward &Company in Chicago.Frederic S. Marks is serving an in-ternship at University Hospital, AnnArbor, Michigan.Mary Ellen Ryan has just returnedto her home in Chicago after a very in-teresting ten months spent teachingEnglish and Social Studies in Quebra-dillas, Puerto Rico.Martin Soderback, AM '38, is teaching German and Swedish at North Park;Junior College in Chicago.William C. Spitzer, PhD '40, iswith the Sherwin-Williams Companyin Chicago.1937Elizabeth Purdie Dame has justreturned, via South Africa, from theBahrain Islands, Persian Gulf, and isliving at 2238 West 121st Place, BlueIsland, 'Illinois.Robert S. Hardy, PhD, formerly ofRoberts College, Instanbul, Turkey, hasreturned to Chicago where he lives at1215 East 54th Street. Paul Harris, AM, of Annapolis,chairmans the Art Department of the-Maryland State Teacher's Association.Gladys Gerner, SM '39, is on thestaff of the U. S. Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory in Ithaca, New York.1938Charles N. R. McCoy, PhD, wasordained a priest on May 31, in theCathedral of St. Paul in St. Paul, Minnesota, and said his first Mass at theChurch of St. Thomas the Apostle inChicago on June 1. Father McCoy willteach at the Catholic University ofAmerica in Washington, D. C, thissummer.D. S. Pankratz, MD '38, teachesAnatomy at the University of Mississippi.Elma O. Phillipson, AM, formerlyof Duke Hospital, D u r h a m , NorthCarolina, has become associated withThe Children's Country Home in Washington, D. C.Marie E. Serrill is Director ofNurses at Lincoln General Hospital inLincoln, Nebraska.1939Alfred T. DeGroot, PhD, has beenelected Professor of Old Testament atDrake University.Grayson E. Meade, spent most ofthe last year in charge of a party ex-cavating vertebrate fossils near BigSpring, Texas.Jerrold Orne, PhD, has been appointed librarian and associate Professor of Modern Languages at Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, effective September 1.Clementine Vander Schaegh, '39,Treasurer of the Chicago AlumnaeClub, is on the staff of Butler Brothersin Chicago.1940T. Carter Harrison is educationalrepresentative for the Odyssey Press,386 Fourth Avenue, New York City.John Oliver Levinson, JD, formerly of Chicago, has joined the staffof the Office of Price Administrationand Civilian Supply, in Washington,D.C.Georgia M. Mann, is Superintend-ent of Nurses at Victory MemorialHospital in Waukegan, Illinois.To Norman F. Maclean, PhD, Instructor in English at the University,went this years $1000 award for excel-lence in undergraduate teaching in theDivision of the Humanities. Also re-cipients of the award were VictorJohnson, Dean of Students in the Biological Science Division and JamesChester Babcock, Assistant Professorof Romance Languages in the College.In March Harris A. Sprecher wasappointed Assistant in Government atthe School of Government, the University of Southern California.ERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE26 THE UNIOPTICIANSPAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86E. STEWARTINC. FEIGHPAINTING — DECORATING5559Cottage Grove Ave. TelephoneMidway 4404RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 3192PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . S+a+e 8750OFFICIAI. PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECI ALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of Ali Descriptions" Harold P. Wright, publisher of the1940 Cap and Gown, is now affiliatedwith Harris, Hall and Company, an investment banking firm, in Chicago.SOCIAL SERVICELorraine Ade, AM '37, has accepteda position as medicai social worker atthe Presbyterian Hospital in New YorkCity.Eugene Adelman, AM '37, has beenappointed Director of the OklahomaCity Jewish Community Council.Mrs. Marguerite Bowman, AM '38,has been appointed State Super vi sorof Counseling of the National YouthAdministration.Zola Bronson, AM '41, serves asresearch analyst on the Regional Su-pervisory Council of the National De-fense Advisory Commission in Chicago.Virginia Cardona, AM '40. is amedicai social worker at the Evans-ton Hospital Association in Evanston,Illinois.Victor Carlson, AM '40, is now onthe staff of the Public Assistance Division of the Social, Securitv Board, lo-cated in the Regional Office, Denver,Colorado.William Chilman, AM '38, was re-centlv appointed Assistant Director ofthe Council of Social Agencies of Syracuse, New York.Shirley Duncan, AM '41, is on thestaff of the Bureau of Public Assistanceof the Social Security Board, Washington, D. C.Jane Epperson, AM '37, is doingcase work for the Children's Aid Society of New York City.Helene Burroughs Furst, AM '37,is a case worker for the Medicai Clinicof the Boston Dispensary.Helen Malone Glass, AM '41, hasbecome a social worker for the FamilyWelfare Association of Los Angeles.Julia Hall, AM '40, is with theMedicai Social Work Department ofProvident Hospital in Chicago.Gilbert Hunter, AM '39, serves theMunicipal Housing- Authority of Hope-well, Virginia, in the capacity of Super-visor of Tenant Selection.Helen Rankin Jeter, AM '20,PhD '24, has resigned from her position as Director of Research for theWelfare Council of New York in order to become Secretary of the Committee on Family Security in connection with the defense program.Ella Karsh, AM '40, is a caseworker with the Child-Parent Department of Erie, Pennsylvania's WelfareBureau.Arthur Parker Miles, PhD, '40,authored the recently published SocialService Monograph entitled, "FederaiAid and Public "Assistance in Illinois."Elma Phillipson, AM '38, is doingmedicai social work for the Christ ChildConvalescent Home in Washington,D. C. Anita Rose Reece, AM '41, recentlyaccepted a position with the Child andFamily. Service of Honolulu.Helen Waters, AM '39, is doingcase work for the Cleveland Children'sBureau. MIN THE SERVICERobert E. Ackley, '24, is stationedat Camp Forrest, Tullahoma, Tennessee.William Griffiths Black, AM '26,PhD '36, now a First Lieutenant, is anInstructor in the Canadian Army Reserve Centre at Gordon Head, BritishColumbia, Canada.Thad Carter, JD '40, is in Battery"D" of the 54th Training Battalion atCamp Callon, California.Frank H. Hughes, '39, is a FirstLieutenant in the Fourth Cavalry atFord Meade, South Dakota.William H. Hughes, '35, is a Cor-por al in the 47th Infantry at FortBragg, North Carolina. In the last is-sue we con fused him with his brotherFrank.J. J. Keith, MD, Rush, '33, is nowa Captain in the Medicai Corps ano*is stationed at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana.Herbert Frank Larson, '38, writes,"I, too, was 'selected' on Aprii 30, andsince then have been with the newarmy's only e o m pi e t e ly-_. motorized240mm. Horwitzer outfìt here at FortBragg, North Carolina."Herman Schneiderman, PhD '39,is serving in the Fìying Cadet Detach-ment — Photography, at Lowry Field,Denver, Colorado.Walter W. Schwiderski, '40, isserving Avith the 94th Coast Artilleryat Camp Davis, North Carolina.BORNTo William B. Basile, '31, JD '33,and Mrs. Basile, a son, William BasiiBasile, Jr., on March 6, in Berwyn,Illinois.To James R. Browne, PhD '40, andMrs. Browne (Betty Thomas '39)of Annapolis, Maryland, a son, CalebBaldwin .Thomas, last October.To Howard Pinson Clarke, '31,JD, '32, and- Mrs. Clarke, a daughter,Allison Jean, on May 24, in DuluthMinnesota.To Robert L. Eiger, '34, and Mrs.Eiger, a daughter, Aimee Claire, onMay 20; in Highland Park, Illinois.To Wallace C. Fischer, '32, andElizabeth Rothfus Fischer, MD, '38,a son, John Warren, in Chicago onMay '57 " :" ¦ '¦ To Richard F. Friedeman, '33, andMrs. Friedeman (Elizabeth F.Walker, '35), a son, Richard, Jr., onMay 24, in Chicago.To Mr. and Mrs. Guy Berghoff(Sylvia Friedeman, '32), a son, William J., on May 30, in Mt. Lebanon,Pennsylvania.To Robert C. Hepple, ,34,. and Mrs.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27RESI PENTI AL HOTELSBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistriciOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorRESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324ROOFERS RUGSAshjian Bros., w.ESTABLISHED 1921Orientai and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000COMMERCIAL SCHOOLSINTENSIVE¦ STENOGRAPHIC COURSEfor College People OnlySuperior training for practical, personal use or profit-able employment. Course gives you dictation speed of100 words a minute in 100 days. Classes beginJanuary, Aprii, July and October. Enroll Now.Write or phone for bulletta.BRYANT & STRATTON College18 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago Tel: RAN. 1575MacCormac School ofVCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAecredited by the National Association of Ac-credited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130 Hepple, a daughter, Jane Ann, onMay 7.To Harold L. Ickes, '97, JD '07,Secretary of the Interior, and Mrs,Ickes, a daughter, on May 16, in Baltimore.To Captain J. J. Keith, MD Rush,'33, and Mrs. Keith (Caroline Ma-sini, '26), a daughter, Caroline Helen,last November, in Marion, Iowa.To Robert W. Kingdon, AM '28,and Mrs. Kingdon, a son, John Wells,last October 28.To Quentin Ogren, '38, Educationaldirector of the International LadiesGarment Workers' Union, and PaulaMeyers Ogren, '39, of 6110 Ellis Avenue, Chicago, a daughter, Elizabeth, onMay 17.To Mr. and Mrs. Fred G. Lehmann(Marcella Ri ver, '29), a son, theirthird, Donald Robert, on Aprii 21, inChicago.To Daniel D. Swinney, '30, AM'38, and Mrs. Swinney (Olive Walker,AM '36), a daughter, Mary Lael, onFebruary 26.To L. A. Williams, '26, SM '27,MD '30, and Mrs. Williams, a son,David Lawrence on Aprii 3, in Pasadena, California.ENGAGEDBarbara Blend of Chicago to Donald McKinlay, JD '40. The weddingis planned for next fall.Mary Frances Dakin to DanielClark, '33, who will be stationed atCamp Léonard Wood in Missouri afterJuly 1.Blanch e L. Graver, '41, of Long-wood, Illinois, to Edward Nixon Mid-dleton, U. S. N. R. The wedding willtake place this month.Lorraine Matthews, '36, to William H. Weaver, '36, of Chicago.Frances Partridge, AM '39, ofProctor, Vermont, to John Wesley Coul-ter of Honolulu.Persis-Jane Peeples, '40, of Chicago,to Léonard H. Mayfield of Chicago.The wedding will take place next fall.Dorothy Jean Dieckmann, a studentat the University to Robert G. Reynolds, '40, who will leave for activeduty in the Marine Corps in October.Anne Harding to AlexanderSpoehr, '34, PhD '40, staff member ofChicago's Field Museum.Ruth Irwin of Kankakee, Illinois, toHarry F. Topping, MBA '40, of thesame city.MARRIEDDorothy Montgomery Johnson toRoger W. Ach, '40, on May 7. Athome, R.R. 3, Hamilton, Ohio.Maxine Farr of Des Moines, Iowa,to Donald B. Anderson, '38, on Aprii27. At home, 10740 Calumet Axenue,Chicago.Beth E. Baker, of Cedar Falls,Iowa, to Gifford Mast, '35, of Daven-port on June 22, in the First Methodist SCHOOL— SHORTHANDYour whole life throughShorthand will be usef ul to you.For more particulars cali, write,or telephone,THE GREGG COLLEGE6 North Michigan Avenue, ChicagoState 1881SHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTi le, Slate and Asbestos Roofìng1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893STOCKS— BONDS— COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, 'II. H. I. Markham. 'Ex. '06R. W. Davis, '16. F. B. Evans, 'IlPaul H. Davis & Co.MembersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock ExchangeChicago Board of Trade10 So. La Sai le St. Franklin 8622TEACHERS' AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Plaeement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers alithe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Àgency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One TeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY. MO. SPOKANENEW YORKAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Plaeement Bureau formen and women in ali kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent ópportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in ali parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well pre-pared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.ERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE28 THE UNITEACHERS' AGENCIESHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized as one of the leading TeachersAgencies of the United States.UNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.Ali Phones OAKIand 0492VENET1AN BLINDSQUEENS VENETIAN BLINDPHONE CENTRAL 4516Flexible steel slcrts orseasoned basswood ^% f\two-tone tapes or solid E mE ncolors. Any size blinds. m m\^Per square foot. Mm \EAfter 5 P. M. Plaza 3698VENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air CondifioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767 Church at Cedar Falls, of which thebride's father is pastor.Loretta M. Bell, '33, to WilburK. Bush on Aprii 19. At home, 50 PineAvenue, Riverside, Illinois.Margaret Susanne Black, AM '39,to Frank Joseph Kockritz, Jr., on Feb-ruary 7. At home, 2507 Rose Walk,Berkeley, California.Margaret Mary Burns, '34, to JohnDrew Ridge on March 17. At home,4418 Drexel Boulevard, Chicago.Edith F. Green to H. B. Emerson,'37, MD '38, of Tarentum, Pennsyl- ,;vania, on March 22. At home 142 West:7 Avenue, Tarentum.Betty Farrell, '37, to Harry E. Ciòof Evanston, Illinois, on May 17, inThorndike Hilton. Chapel. At home,1056 Hale Avenue, Chicago.Helen M. Harrison, '35, to Guy R,.Sinclair, Jr., on May 14. They willspend the summer near Valparaiso, Indiana.Ida V. Matlocha, '33, to MichaelJ. Lampqs,. AM '33, June 20. Theywill be at home at 5728 BlackstoneAvenue, Chicago. '"'Barbara Monser of Pontiac, Illinois,to John Patrick Howe, '27, AssistantDirector of Public Relations at theUniversity, on June 14, in Decatur,Illinois. At home after July 25, 1153East 56th Street, Chicago.Mary Johnstone (sister of QuintiliJohnstone, '36) to Joseph Grimshaw,'36, on Aprii 26, in Bond Chapel. Theyare living in Chicago on the north side.Vivian C. Klemme, '36, MBA '37, toClifford G. Saratso on May 31. Athome, 668 Riverside Drive, New YorkCity.Lucille A. Korbel, '40, to JosephJachim, on May 3. At home, 133^12th Street, Rock Island, Illinois.Gertrude Laurence, '36, to RichardG. Ehrler, First Lieutenant in the 106thCavalry. They are living in Alexandria, Louisiana, where LieutenantEhrler is on active duty.Frances Valentine Lloyd, PhD'40, Aubrey Naylon, '37, SM '38, PhD'40. last December 26, at the Presbyterian Church in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.Margaret J. McKinney, MS '26, toEdward Kennedy on March 1.Georgiana A. Murphy, '36, toClaude L. Hikade, an industriai designer, last December 28, in Chicago.At home, 4723 Ellis Avenue, Chicago.Marjorie Bea Schlytter, '41, toRoger Wolcott Sperry, a graduate student at the University, on June 11.Belle Schwager, '38, to LeslieSanford, '38, JD '40, on June 15. Athome, 443 West Wrightwood Avenue,Chicago.Jane Shields, MD '37, to ThomasG. Lawson on March 3. At home, 419Vance Street, Santa Monica, California.Frieda Goldman to Arnold I. Shure,'27, JD '29, on March 30, in Chicago.Margaret E. Smith, '39, to Richard E. Wheeler, '40, on May 19, in Chicago.Marjorie Strandberg, '40, to Robert W. McRoy, on May 17, in Thorndike Hilton Chapel on the Quadrangles.Maurine L. Evans to Earle E. Wilson, '26, MD '33, on May 3. At home,814 South -Maple Avenue, Oak Park'Illinois."DIEDWilliam M. Alexander, '25, lastOctober in Nashville, Tennessee.Harry D. Browning, '92, on May2Ù, in Hamilton, Montana.Abram C. Cluts, MD '93, on March31 in Canton, Illinois.Festus Newell Cofiell, '09, of Up-perco, Maryland, on November 11, 1939.Eleanor B. Craig, '06, AM '23, lastAugust, in New York City.John C. Curry, Jr., '35, on March 20,in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.Janie P. Deming, "11, of Chicago,in Aprii of this year.George Deveneau, '12, on February3, 1939, in Balboa Heights, Canal Zone.William Joseph Eyles, '03, on January 28, in Washington, D. C., wherehe had lived since he retired from theministry ten years ago.William H. Garfield, '04, on Aprii7, in Compton, California.JUNETTA^ C. Heinonen, PhD '29,last December 18, in Cedar Falls, Iowa.Henry Wilbur Humble, '11, JD '16,Professor of Law at Brooklyn LawSchool, on January 11.Katherine E. MacKay, '24, on May12, 1940, in Picton, Nova Scotia.Joseph J. Mòorhead, MD Rush, '95,of Terre Haute Indiana, on March 16.Jacob L. Kauffman JD '16, onMay 16, in Chicago.Fletcher H. Knollin, '18, on May12, in Fair field, Maine.Ada Rowena Kruger, '12, on Aprii14, in Chicago.Leslie Rutherford, MD '01, of Pe-oria, Illinois, on March 28.Edmund T. H. Schmidt, '04, in Chicago on February 27.Blanche Simmons, '20, on February20, in Concord, New Hampshire.Herbert H. Smith, '90, of the oldUniversity, on February 2, in Maywood,Illinois.William Donaldson, Smith, '15,on March 22, in Polo, Illinois.Reuben Giles Stowell, '98, on May31, in Ramsey, New Jersey.Le ah T. Ten Gate, of Chicago, inJanuary of this year.Birdie Vorhies, '18, AM '31, onMarch 1, in Lincoln, Nebraska.Axel S. Wallgren, '09, AM '36,last August 6, in Chicago.Harry Nichols Whitford, PhD '03,manager for the last sixteen years ofthe crude rubber department of theRubber Manufacturers' Association, In-corpòrated, on May 16, in New York.HAIR REMQVED FOREVER20 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEELECTROLYSIS EXPERTGraduate NurseMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused. Permanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows,' Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600 HairRoots per hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medicai Hydrohgy andPhysical Therapy, Also Electrologists Associationof Illinois$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in BeautyINDEX FOR VOLUME 33 (1940-41)ARTICLESMonth — PageAdvisers — Everywhere, Barbara Cook Dunbar Oct. 20After Thirty Years, Stephen S. Visher Oct. 18America and the War, Robert M. Hutchins Feb. 5America and the War, Nathaniel Peffer, Hilmar Baukhage,Bernadotte Schmitt Dee. 16Armchair Strategist, The, Hugh M. Cole Nov. 19, Dee. 23, Jan. 17, Feb. 17, Mar. 21Athletics, Don Morris Oct. 25Nov. 25, Dee. 32, Jan. 24, Feb. 24, Mar. 23,x Apr. 23, May 22,June 20.Beginning the 50th Year, Robert M. Hutchins Oct. 5Bobs Roberts Hospital Jan. 11Camacho Inaugural, Ralph W. Nicholson Dee. 26Celebration Plans, Howard Hudson Feb. 22Civilization Knows Itself, A, John Collier May 5Criminal Law, Ernst W. Puttkammer .. Dee. 8, Jan. 12, Feb. 13Curricula and Ideals, Ralph W. Tyler June 7Dancing Anthropologist Mar. 8Deceitful Dean, The • Nov. 20-21Democracy in Action, Charles P. Schwartz .Mar. 18Dr. Ames Retires, Winfred E. Garrison Nov. 23Economic Essentials for Unity, Harold G. Moulton. . .May 9Education in Clinical Medicine, Dallas P. Phemister. .Feb. 10Financial Highlights, Harvey C. Daines Dee. 30For the Next 50, William V. Morgenstern Feb. 23From Harper to Hutchins Dee. 13Hitler Will Decide, Jerome G. Kerwin, Bernadotte Schmitt,Richard P. McKeon, Paul H. Douglas, William H. Spencer. Apr. 8House Is on Fire, The, Milton S. Mayer Apr. 17H. R. 1776... ......Feb. 8Influence of the University, The, Robert A. Millikan. Jan. 5Interview with Cardenas, John Gunther Nov. 15Ireland and the War, David Grene Apr. 14Liberal Education, A, Robert M. Hutchins June 5Madrid Speaking, Helen Heitt • .Oct. 15Man From Elwood, A, Howard P. Hudson Nov. 9Mexican Letter, Ralph W. Nicholson Oct. 14Mexican Letter 2 : Ralph W. Nicholson Nov. 16Mexico and the Future, Ralph W. Nicholson Jan. 21Mobilizing Economic Strength Nov. 10Notes for a Dilettante, David Daiches Oct. 16, Nov. 13,Dee. 14, Jan. 6, Feb. 15, Mar. 11, Apr. 19, May 13, June 11Notes on Geology, Ralph W. Nicholson Mar. 16News of the Quadrangles, Bernard Lundy.Oct. 22, Nov. 22,Dee. 28, Jan. 8, Feb. 19, Mar. 13, Apr. 21 May 20, June 16Origin of Printing, The, Pierce Butler Nov. 24Physics in the University, Harvey B. Lemon Nov. 5Proposition Is Peace, The, Robert M. Hutchins Apr. 5Reading Courses for Alumni, Gordon J. Laing Dee. 33Reflections : In Spite of War, Helen Cramp McCrossen May 24Return of a Dean Mar. 20Rise of a University, In the, Allan Nevins Dee. 5Rush Medical College, Wilber E. Post June 13Social Science and Defense, Albert Lepawsky Mar. 5South American Double-Cross, Irving Pflaum Jan. 19Teacher and Pioneer, Alan D. Whitney Mar. 9Tribute to Manly, David H. Stevens Nov. 17Then and Now, John F. Moulds Oct. 7Two Colonels, The Feb. 21War and Our Future, Eugene V. Rostow May 6What I Owe to Chicago, Lewis Dexter. Apr. 13Why I'm for Roosevelt, Jerome G. Kerwin Oct. 13Why I'm for Willkie, Raleigh W. Stone Oct. 12Will Cuppy : An Interview, Martin Gardner June 15William Rainey Harper, Milton S. Mayer June 29Wooden Diaries May 9Health and Democracy, Fred L. Adair May 15AUTHORSAdair, Fred L., Health and Democracy May 15Baukhage, Hilmar, America and the War Dee. 16Butler, Pierce, The Origin of Printing Nov. 24Cole, Hugh M., The Armchair Strategist Nov. 19, Dee. 23, Jan. 17, Feb. 17, Mar. 21Collier, John, A Civilization Knows Itself May 5Daiches, David, Notes for a Dilettante Oct. 16, Nov. 13, Dee. 14, Jan. 6, Feb. 15, Mar. 11, Apr. 19,May 13, June 11.Daines, Harvey C, Financial Highlights Dee. 30 Month — PageDexter, Lewis, What I Owe to Chicago Apr. 13Douglas, Paul H., Hitler Will Decide , . .Apr. 8Dunbar, Barbara Cook, Advisers — Everywhere Oct. 20Gardner, Martin, Will Cuppy : An Interview June 15Garrison, Winfred E., Dr. Ames Retires Nov. 23Grene, David, Ireland and the War Apr. 14Gunther, John, Interview with Cardenas No. 15Heitt, Helen, Madrid Speaking Oct. 15Hudson, Howard, A Man From Elwood Nov. 9, Celebration Plans Feb. 22Hutchins, Robert M., A Liberal Education June 5 -, America and the War Feb. 5, Beginning the 50th Year Oct. 5— — , The Proposition Is Peace Apr. 5Kerwin, Jerome G, Hitler Will Decide Apr. 8— ; , Why I'm For Roosevelt Oct. 13Laing, Gordon J., Reading Courses for Alumni. ... .Dee. 33»Lemon, Harvey B., Physics in the University Nov. 5Lepawsky, Albert, Social Science and Defense Mar. 5Lundy, Bernard, News of the Quadrangles. Oct. 22, Nov. 22,Dee. 28, Jan. 8, Feb. 19, Mar. 13, Aprii 21, May 20, June 16Mayer, Milton S., The House Is on Fire .Apr. 17, William Rainey Harper June 29McCrossen, Helen Cramp, Reflections: In Spite of War.. May 24McKeon, Richard P., Hitler Will Decide Apr. 8Millikan, Robert A., The Influence of the University. Jan. 5Morgenstern, William V., For the Next 50 Feb. 23Morris, Don, Athletics Oct. 25, Nov. 25,Dee. 23, Jan. 24, Feb. 24, Mar. 23, Apr. 23, May 22, June 20Moulds, John F., Then and Now Oct. 7Moulton, Harold G, Economic Essentials for Unity.. May 5Nevins, Allan, The Rise of a University Dee. 5Nicholson, Ralph W., Camacho Inaugural Dee. 26, Mexico and the Future Jan. 21, Mexican Letter Oct. 14, Mexican Letter : 2 Nov. 16, Notes on Geology Mar. 16Peffer, Nathaniel, America and the War Dee. 16Phemister, Dallas B., Education in Clinical Medicine. Feb. 10Post, Wilber E., Rush Medical College June 13Pflaum, Irving, South American Double-Cross Jan. 19Puttkammer, Ernst W., Criminal Law.. Dee. 8, Jan. 12, Feb. 13Rostow, Eugene V., War and Our Future May 6Schmitt, Bernadotte, America and the War. Dee. 16, Hitler Will Decide Apr. 8Schwartz, Charles P., Democracy in Action Mar. 18Spencer, William H., Hitler Will Decide .....Apr. 8Stevens, David H., Tribute to Manly Nov. 17Stone, Raleigh W., Why I'm for Willkie Oct. 12Tyler, Ralph W., Curriculum and Ideals June 7Unsigned, Bobs Roberts Hospital Jan. 11, Dancing Anthropologist Mar. 8, From Harper to Hutchins Dee. 13, H. R. 1776 Feb. 8, Mobilizing Economic Strength Nov. 10, Return of a Dean Mar. 20, The Two Colonels Feb. 21, Trustees of the University Oct. 8, Wooden Diaries May 19Visher, Stephen S., After Thirty Years ...Oct. 18Whitney, Alan D., Teacher and Pioneer Mar. 9BOOK REVIEWSDaiches, David: Poetry and the Modern World (RebeccaHayward Frodin) Dee. 2Farrell, James T. : Father and Son (Ralph Thompson). Nov. 3Fisher, Vardis : City of Illusion (Walter Stockly) Apr. 3Gilson, Mary B. : What's Past Is Prologue (Morris L.Cooke) Feb. 3Jordan, Wilbur K. : The Development of Religious Tolera-tion in England, Voi. 4 Mar. 3Haydon, A. Eustace : Biography of the Gods Feb. 26McKeon, Richard P. : The Basic Works of ARiSTOTLE.Mar. 3Peattie, Roderick The Incurable Romantic (KatherineWoods) June 3Salter, J. T. : The Pattern of Politics (R.F.) Jan. 2Smith, T. V. : Lincoln : Living Legend Feb. 3Stevers, Martin: Mind Through the Ages : A History ofHuman Intelligence (Howard P. Hudson) .Jan. 3Wright, William K, A History of Modern PHiLOSOPHY.Feb. 3Winslow, Ola Elizabeth : Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758 : ABiography (William W. Sweet) June 3'A New Song Booki!¦A BOOK IN THE BEST TRADITIONOF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOIn celebration of the University's Fiftieth Anniversary, a new and enlarged edition of the Universityof Chicago Song Book is in the process of prepara-tion. The last edition, which has been out of printsince 1939, was called by leading Chicago musichouses, "the best college song book in the country."TWICE AS BIG . . .TWICE AS MANY SONGSThe new song book will be off the presses during thesummer. In addition to forti/ — count them — Universityof Chicago songs there will be songs of flfty-six othercolleges and nineteen fraternities.Here's a partial table of contents:Part I — Chicago SongsPart II— Big Ten SongsTwo or three songs of each of Chicago's sister universities, includingsuch favorites as "Hail to the Orange," "Iowa Corn Song," "OnWisconsin," etc.Part III — Songs of Other UniversitiesSongs from Coast-to-Coast. Includes "Lord Jeffrey Amherst," "HailPennsylvania," "Fair Harvard," "Men of Dartmouth," "RamblingWreck of Georgia Tech," "Washington and Lee Swing," "Bow Downto Washington," and many others.Part IV — Fratemity SongsSongs of Alpha Delta Phi, We Come With a Shout and Song; AlphaPhi Omega, Toast Song; Alpha Tau Omega, Our Jewels; Beta ThetaPi, The Loving Cup; Chi Psi, Chi Psi Rally; Delta Chi, Bond ofDelta Chi; Delta Tau Delta, My Delta Shelter; Delta Upsilon, DownAmong the Dead Men; Kappa Sigma, Come Gather Ali Ye MerrieMen; Phi Delta Theta, Phi Delt Bungalow; Phi Kappa Psi, PhiKappa Psi Triumphant; Phi Kappa Sigma Loyal Sons; Phi SigmaDelta, Phi Sigma Delta Forever; Pi Lambda Phi, Jolly Laddies; PsiUpsilon, After the Battle; Sigma Chi, Fèllowship Song; Sigma Nu,White Star of Sigma Nu; Tau Kappa Epsilon, Sweetheart of T. K. E.;Zeta Beta Tau, Here's to Z. B. T. Boys.Three thousand copies of the last edition were sold. In order tosecure the new book at the pre-publication price of $2.50 send yourreservation to the University of Chicago Bookstore. The publicationprice will be $2.50 or more. CHICAGO SONGSAlma MaterArrangement for Mixed VoicesArrangement for Male VoicesWave the FlagMarch of the MaroonsC Stands for Cherished CourageFlag of MaroonOur Chicago.Chicago LoyaltyMan Who Wears the CHeUo BelloChicago Will Shine TonightCampus Even Song1893Grand Old StaggChicagoI'm Strong for ChicagoThe Song of the "C"Cheer Boys CheerLet's Win This GameMarching for Old ChicagoAlma Mater, Honored RushGood Old RushIt's Blackfriar Time AgainI Told You SoMay QueenCan Love Be GoneHands Up for LoveOne Foot in the AisleMy Heart RemembersWhere in the WorldSuzannaUp in the CloudsLife Ain't Like the Movies You SeeThey' re YouI'II Always be a SophomoreThe Junior League GirlParading on the PradoMy Ten Cent Football HeroNight in Vienna5802 ELLIS AVENUEUniversity of Chicago Bookstore