THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEMAY 19 4 1THE ALUMNI COUNCILOFTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOChairman, JOHN NUVEEN, JR., '18 Executive Secretary, CHARLTON T. BECK, '04The Council for 1910-41 is composed of the following delegates:From the College Association: Josephine T. Allin, '99; Arthur C. Cody, '24; Charles C.Greene, '19, JD'21; Olive Greensfelder, '16; Huntington Henry, '06; Frances HendersonHiggins, '20; J. Kenneth Laird. '25; Frank J. Madden, '20, JI)'22; Herbert I. Markham,'05; Robert T. McKinlay, '29, JD'32; Frank McNair, '03; Helen Norris, '07; John Nuveen,Jr., '18; Keith I. Parsons, '33; JD'37; Elizabeth Sayler, '35 ; Katharine Slaught, '09; Clifton Utley, '26; Helen Wells. '24.From the Doctors of Philosophy Association: Leon P. Smith, AM'28, PhD'30; Eleanor Conway, PhD'36; Paul R. Cannon, PhD'24.From the Divinity Association: Charles L. Calkins, AM'22; Laird T. Hites, AM' 16, DB'17,PhD'25; Sylvester Jones, DB'07.From the Law School Association: Charles F. McElroy, AM'06, JD'15; Charles P. Schwartz,'08, JD'09; Sidney S. Gorham, Jr., '28, JD'30.From the Education Association: Harold A. Anderson, '24, AM'26; Paul M. Cook, AM'27;Robert C. Woellner, AM'24.From the School of Business Association: George W. Benjamin, '35; Louise Forsyth, '30;Neil F. Sammons, '17.From the School of Social Service Administration: Anna Sexton Mitchell, AM'30; MarionSchaffner, '11; Richard Eddy, AM'34.From the Rush Medical College Association: C. J. Lundy, '24, MD'27; William A. Thomas,'12, MD'16; R. W. Watkins, MD'25.From the Graduate Library School: Jeanette Foster, AM'22, PhD'35; Gladys Spencer, AM'31;Miriam D. Tompkins.From the Association of the School of Medicine in the Division of the BiologicalSciences: Alf T. Haerem, MD'37; John Van Prohaska, '28, MD'34; B. G. Sarnat, '33,MD'37.From the Chicago Alumnae Club: Mrs. Jasper S. King, '18; Mrs. George Simpson, '18;Mrs. Bernadotte E. Schmitt '22.From the Chicago Alumni Club: John J. Schommer, '09: Wrisley B. Oleson, '18; John William Chapman, '15, JD'17.From the University: John F. Moulds. '07.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Association: President, John Nuveen, Jr., '18; Secretary, Charlton T.Beck, '04, University of Chicago.Doctors of Philosophy Association: President. Fred J. Rippy; Secretary, Eleanor Conway,PhD'36, Department of Anatomy, University of Chicago.Divinity School Association: President. William T. Seitz, '33; Secretary, Charles T. Holman,DB'16, University of Chicago.Law School Association: President, George M. Morris, JD'15; Secretary, Charles F. McElroy, AM'06, JD'15, 29 S. LaSalle Street, Chicago.School of Education Association: President, Aaron J. Brumbaugh, PhD'29; Secretary, Le-nore John, AM'27, 6009 Kimbark Avenue, Chicago.School of Business Association: President, John Cornyn. AM'36; Secretary, Sarah Hicks, '36,6656 Stewart Ave., Chicago.Graduate Library School Association: President, Leon Carnovsky, PhD'32; Secretary, Robert Miller, PhD'36, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb.Rush Medical College Association: President, Frederick B. Moorehead, MD'06; Secretary, CarlO. Rinder, '11. MD'13, 122 S. Michigan Avenue. Chicago.School of Social Service Administration Association: President, Mrs. E. J. Lewis, '25,AM'37; Secretary, Alice Voiland, AM'36, 5654 Kenwood Avenue, Chicago.Association of the Medical School of the Division of Biological Sciences: President,Ormand Julian, '34, MD'37; Secretary, Gail Dack. PhD'27, MD'33.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the Alumni Council,Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in any one of the Associations namedabove, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, "are $2.00 per year. A holderof more than one Degree from the University of Chicago may be a member of more than one Association;in such instances the dues are divided and shared equally by the Association involved.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCHARLTON T. BECK, '04 REUBEN FRODIN, '33Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorHUGH M. COLE; DAVID DAICHES; BERNARD LUNDY, '37; DON MORRIS, '36; RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36Contributing EditorsTHIS MONTHTHE COVER: William Hay Greece, not told to him by Socrates, ican Institutions. (A note containingTaliaferro, Eliakim H. Moore, but by Metaxas. This is, of course, a list of these and the plans for pub-Distinguished Service Professor in answer to the piece by Milton lication will be found on page 10.)of Parisitology and Dean of the Di- Mayer in last month's Magazine In this issue of the Magazine we arevision of the Biological Sciences, called "The House is on Fire." pleased to present one of these lec-Born in 1895 in Virginia, he was Other letters bear on last month's tures in full, that of Harold G. Moul-educated at the University of Vir- contributions, too. ton, '07, PhD. '14, LLD '37 , whoseginia and Johns Hopkins. He has Eugene V. Rostow, Visiting Assist- work is familar to readers of thebeen a member of the University fac- ant Professor of Law, takes "picks" Magazine.ulty since 1924, and Dean since 1935. on both Mr. Mayer and President Mr. Moulton's address on the eco-Professor Taliaferro is noted for his Hutchins in an article entitled "The nomic essentials for national unity instudies of tropical diseases, for which War and Our Future,"written at the this period of military and naval prep-he has received the Chalmers Medal invitation of the editors, Mr. Rostow, aration is authoritative, and "must"of the Royal Society of Tropical a young and brilliant member of the reading. With access to the con-Medicine and Hygiene. faculty of the Yale Law School, is an tinuing studies of the Brookings In-• able protagonist for the view that stitution which have been madeWith the other deans of the divi- "unless we win the war" the security during the past ten years, Presidentsions and the professional schools and freedom in American life which Moulton skillfully surveys the broad(Richard P. McKeon, Humanities; we cherish will be at stake. economic picture which this countryArthur H. Compton, Physical Sci- ^ faces today.ences ; Robert Redfield, Social Sci- ^ . . UAT r . •ences ; William H. Spencer, Business; ^ Dtmng^the past year News of the Qn anQther { tant «front» inErnest Colwell, Divinity; Wilber G. Quadran£; es has earned notices and, tWs ^ rf ^.^ Dr Fred L.Katz, Law; and Edith Abbott, So- occaslonal £ ^ports of the lectures A(ki Chief of Staff of the Lying.incial Service), Mr. Taliaferro has glven on *« Q^^g^ ""d?r the Hospital, writes on "Health and De-been working during the past months ausPlcfs °f *e Charles R. Walgreen moc ;». Dr. Adair; it will be re_to arrange the program of symposia Foundatlon for *e Study of Amer- ^^ was Qn the CQver of the Marchwhich will be held in September dur- " ¦— ~ issue of the the Fiftieth Anniversary Cele- TABLE OF CONTENTS •bration. MAY, 1941 Other contributions this month in-Details of the program will be an- PAGE elude a report on the tree ring studiesnounced by Frederic Woodward, Di- Letters . . 2 0f Florence Hawley of the Depart-, j ~ , i x. , . ^ A Civilization Knows Itself, John , , A ,, . Jjj rrector of the Celebration, in the near Collier . . 5 ment of Anthropology ; an address offuture ; photographs and biographical The War and Our Future, Eugene the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,sketches of those to be awarded hon- „ v- Rostow • -T 6 John Collier, in celebration of Pan-- • o , 1 mi 1 Economic Essentials for Unity, \ . ~. 1 -orary degrees in September will be Harold G. Moulton.. 9 American Day; and an essay on thefound in the May issue of the Alumni Notes for a Dilettante, David scientific method by Helen CrampBulletin. " Daiches 13 McCrossen, '09, who writes fromHealth and Democracy, Fred L. ~ ... .• Adair 15 California.We might as well start off by say- Wooden Dairies — 19 The regular departments includeing that our contributors have some- N^^F THE QUADRANGIES' Bernard^ David Daiches' concluding article ofthing to say about the war again this Athletics," Don Morris ".'.'.'. '.'.'. ........ .22 an extremely interesting series onmonth. Professor Irwin (T7, PhD Reflections : In Spite of War, Helen "British Writers and the War";'25 ) of the Oriental Institute has a B^np McCrossen • • • ¦ ¦• ¦ • ^ News of the Quadrangles, by Bernardlively letter about fire prevention in News of the Classes* ...... . . .... . . . 29 lAindy ; and Athletic, by Don Morris.Published by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. atEllis Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the PostOffice at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of the University of Chicago Magazine.2 THE UNIV ERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETake yifate- Movies!Don't you often say, "We should have amovie of that!" When you do, rememberthis — most movie opportunities must begrasped when they occur or be lost forever.So begin taking movies now. And to getfine pictures right from the first, start witha Filmo, built by the makers of Hollywood's preferred studio equipment.It's easy with a Filmo. Just press a button,and what you see, you get . . . in full color orin sparkling black-and-white. Soon you'llhave mastered the simple fundamentals.Then you'll rejoice that Filmo is a basiccamera which provides features that permit interesting variations of movie technique. See Filmos at your dealer's or mailcoupon. Bell&Howell Company, Chicago;New York; Hollywood; Washington,D. C; London. Established 1907.ONLY A FILMO 8 OFFERSAIL THESE FEATURES:• A lifetime guarantee!• "Drop-in" threading. . . no sprockets.I w/tjm- ¦ Built-in mechanismfor slow-motion andanimated-cartoonmovies.$4950 • Automatic, sealed - inlubrication. oiling.Makes movies for afow cents a scene • Adaptability to growwith your skill.With 3-lens turret head, from $109.50For those who prefer 16 mm. film there is FilmoAuto Load, ace of magazine-loading motion picture cameras, priced from f 115.• • •BELL & HOWELL COMPANY1839 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111.Please send free: ( ) 16-page booklet about Filmo 8mm. movie equipment; () literature on 16 mm.Filmo Auto Load Camera.Name Address LETTERS"THE HOUSE IS ON FIRE"To the Editor :Mayer has it all wrong about thatfire in Jones' house. Incredible thata local episode can be so garbled bygossip — shows the need of our doingsome clear thinking about things thatgo on around us ! I have the storystraight from one of the neighbors, achap by the name of Metaxas, whorushed up with a bucket of water justafter Socrates buttonholed poor Joneswhen with one foot on a ladder he wasstarting up to rescue his wife and children. It seems that the street is apositive tinder-box of old woodenhouses built close together. Socrates'is right beside Jones' ; in fact, Joneshas a sort of lean-to extension so closeto Socrates' house that one couldn'tslip a bad nickel between them. Thoserags had been in Jones' cellar sincebefore the first World's Fair. Nobodyknows how the heap started, but it appears that everybody on the streetdumps his oily rags in Jones' cellar ;and what they are doing with so manyrags and so much oil is just one of thelocal peculiarities which we outsidersmay not hope to understand. Therewas a bit of a blaze there a week before,and most of the neighbors turned toand helped put it out. Even Socrateslent a hand, for though he is a mostpestilential talker — it is said that oncewhen the children took diphtheria hetalked for two solid weeks arguingwhether Xanthippe should do anythingabout it — yet when roused he can puton a great spurt of energy. And hecame through with the big idea thatthose rags were a nuisance. Jonesagreed ; and undertook to organize theneighbors to carry them out, for therewas a tremendous heap of them. Butwhen all was going well Socrates refused to have anything to do with it :and said he was afraid they might thinkhe was a professional ragpicker. Sothe others went at it alone, in theirevenings after work. But recently therags were accumulating faster than theycould get them out.Metaxas says he didn't hear the beginning of the conversation ; but whenhe came up Jones was staring at Socrates in a disgusted way ; then heblurted out — under the. circumstanceswe can understand how his temper wasa little frayed — -"Yes, you idiot ! Doesn'teverybody know that people fight firesbecause they want to live in safety intheir homes ?" But Socrates went on,"Now about those rags ." This wasmore than poor Jones could endure.He broke away angrily, and half up theladder shouted back, "Of course, of course ! I know all that as well asyou, but the fact now is that my houseis on fire ; all the money I own in. theworld is sewed in that mattress in thefront bedroom, and (his voice rosealmost to a scream in its intensity) mywife and children are trapped on thesecond floor. If only you had done .'.'Here his words were lost in the crashof breaking glass as he plunged inthrough a window. But above the roarof the flames from within he was heardin a moment shouting, "It's breakingthrough to your house; look out forXanthippe !"It was here that Metaxas ran backfor more water. And that's the lastauthentic word we have. The fire wasstill raging. Whether Jones alone couldput it out was uncertain ; but with astrong east wind blowing, nothing shortof a miracle could prevent it spreadingto Socrates' property. How did Mayerget the yarn that Jones was coollydrinking coffee with Socrates after itwas all over ? His house burned downand his wife and children missing, andhe sitting down quietly to a friendlyargument ? Absurd ! The fellow whostarted that story didn't know Jones.Besides, by that time Socrates wouldn'thave any house to sit in, nor any coffee ;nor Xanthippe to brew it !Sincerely,W. A. Irwin, '17, PhD '25.Professor of Old Testament.'Oriential Institute,University of Chicago.To the Editor :In re the April issue of the Magazine and Milt Mayer's discussion ofoily rags, fires and the Jones — Socratescoffee klatsch. It seems to me that hislittle allegory is so over-simplified thatit sheds no light on the present situationbut rather throws an "oily rag smudge"over the scene. The following pictureis submitted as nearer to the truth.After the Great Fire 1914-1918, manyof the sufferers decided to start a community fire department, the League ofNations if you will. Sam Americushelped to put out that last fire and atfirst thought that the fire department wasa good idea ; but then he thought thelast blaze didn't damage his homemuch and afterall the creek, Atlantus,was broad and set off his large framehouse from the rest of the community.Sam didn't join.The fire department got along fairlywell without Sam, and managed toput out a few small fires ; but Sam wasnot very cooperative about the use ofthe creek or allowing the fire fightersto cross his propertv. There were timesalso when a few big shots in the department tried to handle affairs toomuch their own way. So eventuallyanother great fire started.In fairness to Sam it must be statedthat though he didn't join the fire de-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3partment, he did start a New Dealmovement to clean up some of the firehazards on his own place. The oilyrags were the first to go, and he wasjust getting well started on the fireproof shingles when the big fire brokeloose across the creek. The sparks began to land on Sam's house. He likedhis neighbors better than the fire-bugwho started the blaze, and he also likedhis home. He decided to take measuresto keep his house from catching fire —pouring water on the roof was best;and then he and part of his familywent across the creek to help the neighbors quench the fire and the fire-bug.It was clear that Sam couldn't do muchwork on the new shingles while thesparks and water were falling; and besides Sam liked his neighbors.After the fire was out Sam wenthome to finish the improvements on hisown house, but not before he had become a charter member of the "UnionNow and Forever" fire department.Years later another coffee klatsch isobserved. This one is on the Midway,and we find Socrates and Mayer drinking from their saucers and Hutchinsfrom his cup. Socrates is saying toMayer that it was probably difficult forthe British and the Greeks to fight"joyously" when the enemy had eighttimes as many tanks and bombers. Atthis point Clark Shaugnessy breaks inwith a "rational" observation. He says that his Stanford "Rose Bowl" champions were really joyous against Nebraska, but that years before in thatMichigan 85, Maroons 0 debacle, hehad a hard time even keeping the boysof Chicago "dogged." We now leavethe pundits pondering this problem.Very truly yours,Arthur Abbott, '33.Chicago.[While we are on the subject of football, perhaps the recent news releasedby former G-man Edwin Atherton, Pacific Coast Conference Athletic Commissioner, about the joyous Rose Bowlers may be of interest. Eight Stanfordathletes were declared ineligible for further competition and fifteen high schoolstudents in Oklahoma and Texas weredenied "possible future athletic participation" at Palo Alto. The rulingswere based on Mr. Atherton' s findingthat improper inducements had beenmade: tuition, room, board, transportation, hospitalisation, etc. — Ed.]To the Editor :I have just read Mr. Mayer's- article"The House is on Fire" in the AprilMagazine. After starting it, I had tofinish it because I could not find outwhat it was all about until I was allthrough, and then I didn't find out.As for the oily rags that set thehouse afire and continue to smolderafter the new house is built, I have long suspected the presence of theserags and Mr. Mayer doesn't minimizethe smell, but I never have been able tosee the darn things or get hold of themso that I could help throw them out.I suspect that even Mr. Mayer mighthave trouble pointing them out to us.How about it ? Maybe the profit motive is one of our worst oily rags ? Butrecognizing some worth in the profitmotive, perhaps the cooperative movement offers one of the best democraticchecks to the profit motive. I don'tknow anything about cooperatives ; Iam just giving you a shove along theroad you want to go.Lead on Macduff ! Mr. Mayer raisedthe question ; so we'll let him be chairman of the committee. But if anotherlaw is suggested to solve our problem,I shall be very sorry I seconded themotion.Seriously, how about extending thisdiscussion a little further. My ownbusiness happens to be concerned withwar preparation for the Federal Government, but it seems to me high timethat we learned to be practical andidealistic at the same time. Furthermore, it is my humble belief that if wehandle the discussion right we will findthat Mr. Hutchins is as exactly rightas are the "five friends of the Presidentwho disagree with his views." Theonly trouble is that President Hutchins{Continued on Page 28)4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1941ALUMNIREUNIONThis Is the Fiftieth Anniversary Year of the University — and it will be specially celebrated in September. At that time sessions of the annual AlumniSchool will be convened. In view of the varied andinteresting program being arranged for the Celebration no Alumni School will be held in June.But the traditional reunion time has not beenneglected, as will be seen by a glance at the programs below. Again, it's "Back to the Midway."Convocation is on Tuesday, June 10.SATURDAY, JUNE 7— REUNION DAYALUMNAE BREAKFAST IN IDA NOYES HALL 1 2 NOONALUMNI ASSEMBLY IN MANDEL HALL 3:30 P.M.SUNSET SUPPER; CLUB AND FRATERNITY DINNERS 6:00 P.M.BAND CONCERT IN HUTCHINSON COURT 7:30 P.M.THE THIRTY-FIRST UNIVERSITY SING 8:30 P.M.SILVER ANNIVERSARYCLASS OF I9I6(and by courtesy, I9I7)LUNCHEON JUNE 7 12:30BASEBALL GAME 3:00 CLASS OF 1909DINNER JUNE 6CLASS OF 1911DINNER JUNE 6CLASS OF 1937GET-TOGETHER JUNE 6BRAWN V. BRAINSW. A. A. JUNE 3ORDER OF "C" JUNE 5PHI BETA KAPPA JUNE 9 ASSOCIATION DINNERSSOCIAL SERVICE MAY 28BUSINESS JUNE 5LAW JUNE 6RUSH JUNE 7VOLUME XXXIII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 8MAY, 1941A CIVILIZATION KNOWS ITSELF• By JOHN COLLIER[On April 14, 1941, a Pan-American Day Servicewas held in Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, "dedicated tothe idea that individuals have a real responsibility forfuture world co-operation through control of their ownattitudes and prejudices." Dean Charles W. Gilkeywelcomed the guests and participants to the University.A varied musical program and short addresses by distinguished Americans and the High Commissioner fromIndia completed the service. Commissioner of IndianAffairs John Collier presented the "Salute from NorthAmerica/' His address is reprinted here. — Ed.]THE GREEK historian, Thucydides, gave us thismaxim — a ray of thought penetrating an abyss:"A civilization knows itself only when confronted with death."Our civilization is under a terrible and probably sustained threat of death.I pass by the obvious fact that the paramount needhere and now is action in the face of that threat. I passit by to dwell with you upon the meaning to us of thephrase of Thucydides, "A civilization knows itself onlywhen confronted with death." Action is our overridingduty now, but it matters greatly that it shall be "action'mid the issues of the soul."What is the heart of our civilization? It is reverencefor the personality of the other person. Reverence forthe "abysmal deeps of personality" in the other individual, in the other group, in the other race, in the otherspecies. That is the genius of our civilization, into whichthe long achievement of Greece, of the Hebrew world,of the supreme affirmation in Galilee, of the Middle Ages,of the Renaissance, have entered and blended. And whatwe are witnessing now, what we ourselves are confrontedwith now, is something more than mere physical conquest by force. What we are witnessing is the application to themselves by whole great nations of a kind ofinverted psychotherapy which is breaking down the values which we call and they once called civilization : a deliberate self-slaughter, within some of the totalitariancountries, of the values by which those nations oncelived as much as we live by them now, and sometimes,perhaps, more than we. It is this annihilation of valueswhich, having imposed it on themselves, they now seekto impose on us all. What they have killed first, andat the root of all else that they have killed, is reverencefor personality.The central value is just that universal value: thatthe personality of the other, the different personality, group, or race, is dearer to the civilized man than anything else. I want to suggest that we are going to keepthis value — which is the value that makes our life worthliving — only through effort. We will keep it only by intensifying the central genius by which we live. Alongside and beyond all need for action is this need — if weare to guard our civilization — the need to guard thatvalue which is our civilization's fountainhead. The valueis more than a mere tolerance toward the other and thedifferent. It is reverence and enthusiasm toward, andan ardent belief in, the personality of the other self, theother group, the different, alien race.We are witnessing over there in England, these days,a tremendous fact. England has rediscovered hersources, her profounder nature, her genius. Within thelast twelve months, under the imminent threat ofdeath, in the face of a challenge addressed to all of herconsciousness and her will, England at the verge of theprecipice knows her own soul. And England is nothating. The note of rage is struck, but the note of hateis not struck, in these times, by the English. Theyare living too greatly to need to hate.Coming to our own hemisphere, there are two aspectsin which we are, potentially at least, one great WesternHemisphere society. One, as mentioned earlier tonight,is that of the many adventuring peoples who came tothe Western Hemisphere, and by sustained heroism andby statesmanship penetrated the whole hemisphere. Themost daring elements of Europe, seeking horizon andseeking liberty, came here to build a world. There ismuch darkness in the record, but there is splendor too,and the greatness of impulse has not died.And, less often remembered, there was another andeven more ancient and profound union of man with ourhemisphere ; living in it and caring for it for more thanten thousand years was that Mongoloid family of racescalled the Indian. There are more than 30,000,000 offull-blood Indians in North and South America. Theyare the dominant population of many of the southerncountries. Certain traits and qualities of life they almostuniversally have in common : the Indians are consciousof supernatural forces at the center of their practicallife: universally, they are religious, and their religionsare actively tolerant. Universally, by institutions, bybelief and emotion, they are united to the earth, thesoil; and all but universally, in their local living, theyare democratic. Local democracy is nearly universalamong the Indians of the two continents ; and by democracy, one means more than town meetings: one means,6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEspeaking of Indians, complex institutional systems of lifedesigned to bring the whole population into deep participation in the tasks and the fears and joys of the community. Therefore, personality in Indians is quiet andpatient and deep. Reverence for the personality of thelowly is stronger than with most of us. Faithfulnessto the race is more constant and living than with mostof us. And the Indian knows that the future has a placefor his yet-living past. He knows that our WesternHemisphere future calls to him. Here is a Westernworld solidarity reaching from Arctic Alaska to CapeHorn. And I merely mention that the twenty-one republics, since last year, have for the first time joinedin a hemispheric undertaking to understand, to help andto use the Indians.Returning to the crisis of the world. Action — actionwe must supply, going far beyond what we are sup-[At the invitation of the editors, Mr. Rostow presentshis views on the address of President Hutchins, and thearticle of Milton Mayer, printed in last month's Magazine. Mr. Rostow, a member of the faculty of the YaleLaw School, is Visiting Assistant Professor of Law at theUniversity this spring, teaching a course on "Law andEconomic Organisation" for senior students. — Ed.]THE MOST obvious difficulty with the statementsabout the war which President Hutchins and Mr.Mayer have recently made in the University ofChicago Magazine is that they are irrelevant. President Hutchins and Mr. Mayer are not talking about warat all, as an event affecting the basis of political organization, and they are surely not talking about this war, anattempt by Nazi Germany to conquer the instruments ofworld power. The articles of both men are in the endeloquent pleas for democratic reform, and they rightlynote that killing and bombing will increase neither themoral nor the material welfare of the American people.I, for one, enthusiastically share their interest in reform,but I do not understand how that interest can be pursued with any promise of success, unless we win thewar, and thus preserve within the United States thekind of security and freedom in political life which arenecessary conditions of the quest for reform.It is this aspect of war which President Hutchins andMr. Mayer ignore. Nowhere do they consider the possibility that the United States has a strictly non-ideological and non-sentimental stake in the war— that thewar may threaten the underlying conditions of our military security and political independence. They do notexamine the extent to which our security has dependedon a dispersion of power among many states, and ourpolitical independence on our military security.These are first principles of thought about the significance of force in political order, and, like many firstprinciples, they have the advantages and disadvantagesof abstraction. Their bearing on our crisis of decision plying yet. But in what spirit, toward what hope ? Weanswer by invoking each in his own soul a clearer consciousness of what it is that makes us men. Active, seeking love, perservering courage of love, directed towarddiverse personalities, toward differing groups, differingsects, differing skin-colors, differing culture complexes,alien races — yes, and the dumb species, too : this activelove is the power at the heart of all beside. To increasein our own breasts, and help kindle in each other'sbreasts, "that love," in Dante's words, "which movesthe sun in heaven and the other stars."While a gathering like this tonight may seem withoutpoint in immediate objectives, it has to do with the critical and abiding problem of our race: to keep alive withineach of us that love of the different, other, alien personality and group, out of which our own lives too shallreceive their strength.• By EUGENE V. ROSTOWdeserves to be examined, and neither the President norMr. Mayer does so. They don't deal with the politicalconsequences of war at all. Their essays ring changes ona single theme: War is hell. Everyone agrees with thatproposition. The fact is, however, that we cannot safelyignore war, despite its unpleasantness. And certainly wecannot exorcise it by proclaiming its evil. If we wantto preserve the only political order within which oursociety can hope to continue its evolution, it is essentialthat we answer certain concrete and elementary questionsabout Power and Politics.On what does security depend? On force. In international as in domestic life, order is a problem in force.Small states and large ones alike are safe when the powerof possible enemies is more or less matched by that ofpossible friends. From the point of view of Americanforeign policy, we must face the war first as a disturbancein the comfortable balance of power on which our securityduring the twenties and thirties depended. In those dayswe pursued our course without a significant army, andwith naval expenditures pitched to the balance of worldnaval power which did not threaten our economy and social order. But the war has already destroyed the secureand stable equilibrium of power which permitted us suchluxuries. We must judge the extent to which that disturbance imperils our security — our geographic and political security, and the security of our way of living.Yet we are in danger of forgetting this truism. Like allother peoples faced with the brutality of the thirties, weare turning after any god, any theory, any explanationof events which we think may permit us to evade the war.Some repeat the pacifist slogan that wars change nothingand solve nothing; the false gods, says PresidentHutchins comfortably, will fail in the end because theyare false ! We are disillusioned with our part in theWorld War, and irritated with the epic stupidity ofAllied diplomacy since 1931. Senator Wheeler is stillmourning for the injustices of Versailles, as if the debatable rights and wrongs of twenty years ago can help usTHE WAR AND OUR FUTURETHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7choose a policy of maximum security in 1941. Germanyorganizes fascism, and shoots all dissenters, in countryafter conquered country, but we are told over and overagain that political ideas cannot be imposed by force, andthat democracy could not be restored in Europe by itsvictory. Voice after voice urges that the war is foreignto our interests — a European quarrel over real estate —and that if we could only conquer our sentimentalism(which we are taught to mistrust) we would realize thatit is a matter of indifference to us as a nation that Francehas been obliterated, and England reduced to the rawedge of complete defeat.No course of reasoning could be more dangerous toAmerican security. Sin has nothing to do with security,nor do the causes of the war guide us much in decidingon our stake in it. To borrow Mr. Mayer's favoritemetaphor, you help put out a fire in your neighbor'shouse, if the wind is blowing in your direction, whetherthe fire was started by a fire-bug or by a spark fromthe parson's pipe. And if the fire was caused by oilyrags in the basement it's hard to see how even Socratescould gtt at the rags without first stopping the blaze.But we are not thinking of the impact of the war onus in terms of political realities. Consider PresidentHutchins' thesis. His argument against going to waris that war would end the capitalist system, plunge usinto terrible poverty, and destroy political democracyat home. Without at all minimizing the costs or thedangers of a war, I suggest that these bland prophesiesare indefensible, being based neither on analysis nor onthe history of our experience with other wars. The exact converse of President Hutchins' case seems morenearly justified by the facts. If we fail to win the war,we shall see impoverishment and fascism at home; butvictory will give us another chance to fulfill the Americandream.It is a pathetic commentary on our capacities that thebig wars have been the occasions in our economic development of the biggest ultimate increases in our standardsof life. The Industrial Revolution dates from theNapoleonic wars ; we were industrialized by the CivilWar, and became a great financial power as a consequence of the World War. For all its tragedy, war isan occasion for intense economic creation. We built thefactories which in peace time can make us rich. And, ifthe economic history of the last ten years is read withdiscrimination, it is clear that we have a good chance ofexploiting that opportunity, and achieving real progressat home in the post war wrorld, if we win the war. Weare close to knowing how to manage our domestic affairs.Despite costly mistakes, the democratic and capitalistcountries have evolved a conception of policy whichpromises social security, and renewed progress, withoutimperilling either democracy or capitalism. The fight fordemocracy demands affirmations which can become theslogans of armies : Our experience gives us sober reasonfor believing in the capacity of our system for real reform.But, say Messrs. Hutchins and Mayer, why not pursuethis program for democratic progress, turning Americainto the home, and not the citadel, of * democracy ? Thefact of the situation is that their dream of a resurgent andsuccessful American democracy at home, to confront victorious Germany on one side, and victorious Japan on theother, could never be realized. A German triumph in Europe and Africa would make it impossible for us torebuild a recognizable society at home. It would meanan atmosphere of insecurity imperilling our political life,and a burden of military expense destroying oureconomy.If Germany reaches the oil fields of the Middle East(and in the campaign all factors of reasonable predictionare in her favor) Britain's chances will be dangerouslyreduced. The blockade will lose much of its force, andthe English chance of victory will become remote. And ifBritish industry is destroyed by bombing, if the presentrate of British shipping losses is maintained, that chanceof victory will almost disappear. One fact should by nowbe very clear: the defeat of England will mean the endof English power. In this war the loser will not soon beallowed to try again, if German ingenuity can preventit. This is not a war for prestige, or border provinces,or colonies, or reparations. The Germans have redefinedthe stakes of war. They are nothing less than politicalindependence — the privilege of the non-German peopleof Europe to participate in their own political destinies.The German policy is often and authoritatively described,and it can be seen in action in Poland, Czechoslovakia,Scandinavia, the Low Countries, and France. TheGermans propose to rule, subjugate, exploit, and command the conquered peoples. They will shift populations(especially of young men) on a large scale to prevent theconcentration of opposition; they strip conquered countries of goods and resources, organize them politicallyinto an empire which in fact, if not in form, will be controlled exclusively from Berlin. There will be no peacetreaty in the polite historical sense; the war will endwith conquest and assimilation. The defeat of Englandin the near future will leave only four significant worldpowers : Germany, Russia, Japan and the United States.We may find that segments of the British Commonwealthof Nations are affiliated with us. But basically, the endof England would leave us in a world that has three otherimportant members, each one militarist, aggressive andinterested in acquiring^as much power as possible.Our troubles would begin.First, we would face some difficult decisions on trade,and difficult adjustment of our life to those decisions.Assuming that we would decide to resume economic relations with Europe (and thus make Europe blockadeproof) rather than continue the war, how should we fixthe terms of our trade, and of South American trade,with the controlled economies? We might have to organize both Americas into an export and import monopoly, to deal at all with the trading methods and bargainingpower of Germany; and it is stretching facts badly toassume that we could control South America at all in theevent of a Germany victory. Fluctuations in the volumeof the resulting trade would occur for political andstrategic reasons, and trade would remain a form of economic warfare. We could not play the game withouttransforming large areas of our economic life into a directly controlled agency of government. And large sectorsof the economy are involved, even for our foreign trade.Some commentators have estimated that during thetwenties and thirties international trade accounted forsome 10 to 12 per cent of American economic activity.One can visualize the importance of this statistic in arough and ready way by recalling that our working popu-8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElation is now nearly 50,000,000; 10 per cent of the economy would thus embrace the efforts of about 5,000,000workers. Our experience with the unemployment problem indicates how considerable a job it is to find workfor so large a group. Great disturbances in 10 per centof our economy are far from negligible to our prosperity,and the corresponding burden on government is a political fact too big to be ignored. The permanent spread ofdetailed administrative control of business by government contains obvious dangers for the survival of oursocial life. Our national government now has almostthe economic power of the British government in 1911;its present position does not threaten the continuity eitherof our evolving forms of capitalism, or of democracy.But rapid increases in the power of the national government might seriously alter the balance of authority in ourdomestic life, in favor of the state and its instruments. Acontinuance of world trade in a community of freelytrading states is an important condition for the survivalof both capitalism and democracy in our society.Then there would be a political problem. At this latedate there is no excuse for misconceiving the object ofthe Germans. Whether one calls facism "the wave of thefuture," or the undertow of a remote and primitive past,all parties must agree on the objects of German militarypolicy. A sober commentator, Professor Wolfers ofYale, has said: "It would be blind and unforgivablyoptimistic to believe that such countries as Germany,Italy, Russia, or Japan, if successful today, would be willing or able tomorrow to keep their revolutionary movements from expanding into an inviting military vacuum.Desire for a maximum of security for themselves and fortheir newly acquired gains, if nothing else, would impelthem to carry the process of Gleichschaltung to its ultimate limit." One of the most brilliant successes ofGerman propaganda was to announce this thesis — toshout it out, in fact — a hundred times, meanwhile judiciously confusing it with professions of peace and good will.The story was so fantastic that few people took it seriously. It was for internal consumption, we were told, torestore German morale. Now few dispute that theGerman purpose is to conquer indefinitely ; indeed, thesecurity of present conquests requires that potential centers of opposition be destroyed. The only realistic limitto be placed on the German purpose to conquer is thatfixed by the capacity of Germany to win wars against itspossible rivals.The tools of conquest are sickeningly familiar. Propaganda spreads, division is promoted. The society is spliton the irrelevant issue of how to treat Jewish citizens.The fascists announce that they hate all Jews, so thatalmost all Jews become anti-fascist. Then the fascistworks on subtle and irrational social forces by pointingto the presence of all Jews in the anti-fascist camp. Butthe choice of anti-semitism as a weapon of destructionwas an accident. Other outlets for hate will have a seasono;. fashion: the Catholic Church is a likely victim, and soare the middle classes. The normal antagonisms of anactive political life are magnified into charges of treason,as in France, where in the end the Right preferredHitler to the French Left. Well-meaning pacifists act asfront-men for the movements preaching collaborationwith the victor. A fascist political party appears,financed from abroad, newspapers are bought, key places in the armed forces are filled by fascists. Leaders talk ofmorale and rebirth. Simpler men say "there must besomething in it, after all. They won the war, and they'reso efficient. They have no unemployment, and theirtrains run on time." Fascism has the immense prestigeof its victory, and democrats everywhere face doubt anddefeatism. Pin pricks continue in South America and inAsia. War panics are experienced. We are offered adisarmament treaty, which will be hard to resist. If werefuse to collaborate, on the German terms, in the economic and political life of the world, the contest overSouth American and Asiatic outposts will become acute.As Professor Wolfers has said, the Axis powers would"be likely to be deterred from expanding into this hemisphere only if they were convinced that the price of success would far outweigh any possible advantage theymight hope to obtain. And since the benefits which wouldaccrue to them if they could eliminate the possibility ofAmerican hostility or of American aid to their opponents,or if they could lay hands on America's wealth, would betremendous, the risks would have to be made correspondingly great.'*Thus finally we confront the issue as a military problem. The combination of economic pressure, the irritations of our social adjustments to changing economicarrangements, and the disruptive effects of German political action may provoke us into a difficult war againstoverwhelming odds, both in ships, men and planes. Andthe longer we avoid or defer this kind of war, by diplomacy or by building up home defenses, the more surelyare we imperilled. As the possibility of military actionin areas which we regard as vital to our interest comescloser, we will struggle with the expense and social issueof a large army. We are beginning to understand howmuch a two-ocean navy costs, but that is nothing to thepotential cost of building against all Europe's y?rds,dominated by Germany. Germany, inheriting a distantEmpire, wall naturally build ships to control it. We willneed fighting ships, and the merchant vessels to moveconsiderable forces quickly, because we are undertakingto defend scattered places — Hawaii, if not Singapore andAustralia; Brazil, if not Argentina. An. air force of50,000 planes means ground crews of 1,000,000 men ormore, and several hundred thousand radio operators,navigators, and staff officers. The scale of the preparations that would thus be required, over an indefinite period, and for an uncertain strategic purpose, would becrushing. Until full employment was reached, intensivedefense expenditures, like other expenditures of borrowedmoney, would force rapid increases in total output, andthus add to general economic welfare. But no effectiverearmament on the scale that would be required of usafter a German victory could be accomplished withouttransferring resources to defense industries from otheruses. A larger and larger share of the national outputwill be absorbed by war industry. Even if the whole ofour output is increased, the absolute amount going toconsumers will fall. A Leviathan state would perforceintervene, as rationing agent, to control the economy.Nor is this all. Modern war requires large and welltrained fighting services. The German shock troops havehad three years of training, and ordinary infantry at leasta year. A prolonged period of preparation for war would(Continued on Page 25)ECONOMIC ESSENTIALS FOR UNITYA Walgreen Foundation Address• By HAROLD G. MOULTON, '07, PhD' 14, LLD'37SERIOUS discussions of "national unity" are stagedonly in periods of war emergency. At other timesnational unity appears to be either taken forgranted, regarded as unimportant, or conceived as unattainable. Even in periods of acute economic crisis thenote of unity, of mutual sacrifice, of cooperation on thepart of all groups, is seldom sounded; the emphasis israther upon denunciation of thegroups regarded as responsible forthe unhappy situation — the moneychangers, the monopolists, the sixtynefarious families — working unitedlyto enhance their riches by impoverishing their customers — the demagogues, the Democrats, the Republicans, the starry-eyed liberals, theglassy-eyed conservatives, the radicals, the reformers, the New Dealers,the reactionaries, the Tories, theBourbons, the Royalists, and theCommunists. But whenever a waremergency arises unity becomes thenational theme song.To be sure, this concept of unityis not exactly an outgrowth of a newborn spirit of brotherly love. Forpatriots, still standing guard over the ramparts, are prepared to put down alien elements and minority groups.War-time unity is of course based primarily on fear —fear that unless all stand together the enemy outsidethe gates cannot be defeated. It is moreover easier toachieve a substantial degree of unity in time of war, forthe simple reason that one vitally important nationalgoal is so clearly defined that everyone understands it— namely, the winning of the war. We have an objective test, by which to measure the policies and activities of the varied groups which comprise society.We can concentrate on a primary purpose and subordinate everything which interferes with or does notcontribute to the immediate national goal. I have saidwe can concentrate on the war objective; but as I shallshortly indicate we may continue to do many thingswhich run directly counter to this objective.But before we get too far into a discussion of unityduring war time we should perhaps pause long enoughto note that the United States is not at the present timeengaged in war. That is to say, we haven't — so far asI am aware — fired a single shot. Nor are we as yetcommitted to war. Polls of opinion indicate that agreat majority of the people are strongly in favor ofunlimited aid to Britain- — but short of war; they do notindicate that we would vote in favor of sending troops.Nor has either the administration or Congress gone on record in favor of real war- — however strongly certainpolicies may be carrying us in that direction. Consequently, no one should be under any compulsion at thistime to refrain — in the interests of national unity — fromdiscussion freely and fearlessly the question whether weshould, under any circumstances, enter this war. Until an irrevocable decision in favor of complete participation in the war is made, the issueshould remain open for free andvigorous discussion. When thePresident of Harvard Universityvoices the opinion that the Americanpeople will suffer moral decadence ifwe do not fight in this great battlefor human freedom, he is appropriately contributing to national thoughtin a time of grave crisis. When thePresident of the University of Chicago states that the American peopleare about to commit suicide becausewe seem destined to enter the war,he is, properly, discussing vital issues which our democracy faces.(You will of course observe that inthus approving the position taken byboth of these distinguished leadersof American education I am evidencing the spirit of scientific objectivity.)Whether or not we enter the war as a full-fledgedbelligerent it is nevertheless clear that we have madeone great national decision — namely, to go "all out" inthe matter of furnishing supplies to Great Britain andother "informal allies" and in the development of adequate national defenses. This national decision certainlycarries with it the responsibility for whole-hearted effective cooperation in the carrying out of the nationaldefense and foreign aid programs. This does not meanthat all differences of opinion and judgment should beforthwith shelved for the duration of the emergency.It does not mean that we should not be free to analyzethe policies of business, labor, agriculture, and government with a view to determining whether they promoteor retard the realization of the national goal. It goeswithout saying that such criticisms should be constructive in purpose.The economic magnitude of the emergency programis now little different from what it would be if we weredirect participants in the struggle. The aviation program and the naval program are quite as large as theywould be were we active belligerents. Moreover, thearmy supply program and the contracts that have beenlet are based upon the assumption of a possible need fora four million army. The only probable difference betweenHAROLD G. MOULTONPresident of the Brookings Institution910 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe present situation and that which would prevail if wewere to become a direct participant is in the speed withwhich the production program might be carried out.A combination of patriotic impulse and governmentalcoercion would doubtless accelerate to some extent theproduction of war supplies.In any case, the magnitude of the undertaking isclearly of such proportions as to exert a profound influence upon economic conditions, and hence to be offar-reaching significance from the standpoint of nationalunity both during and after the war. It is to these questions that our attention will now be directed.ECONOMIC SOURCES OF DISUNITYIf we are to gauge the possible effects of the presentwar emergency program upon national unity, we mustfirst look for the sources of disunity in time of war. Itshould be borne in mind that this discussion will be confined solely to the economic causes of group and classconflicts.The history of past wars reveals very conclusivelythat the two primary sources of economic discontent intime of war are found in the inflation of prices and so-called profiteering. A re-reading of the history of theWorld War period and also the Congressional inquiriesof recent years will reveal that the primary focus ofcontroversy is the inflation and profiteering issues.The reason why these two phenomena produce nationaldisunity is that they involve extensive redistributions ofnational income. While closely related in origin andin effect, they require separate consideration.An extensive inflation of commodity prices exerts aprofound influence upon the economic life of a nation.This is because the inflation process affects prices, profits,rents, and wage rates most unevenly, and thus servesto enrich certain groups and to impoverish others. Statedin other terms, the burden of war costs is inequitably distributed. Some lines of business obtain great increasesin profits as a result of rising prices, while others, particularly regulated industries such as railroads and public utilities, suffer a reduction of profits, or actual losses.Labor groups in a position to obtain constantly increasing wages may gain, while other labor groups, less fortunately situated, suffer. Most salaried groups sufferseverely. Those receiving profits and dividends maygain, while receivers of interest and fixed rents lose.This situation inevitably works against the efficientmobilization of the nation's resources. The endless controversies over wages, rents, etc., the unrest, the stoppages of work, and the absorption of energies both onthe part of business executives and government officialsin trying to adjust or settle controversies, slows downthe mobilization program and correspondingly increasesthe costs and the suffering involved in a great warstruggle. In a given case, moreover, it might well meanthe difference between victory and defeat.Equally important is the effect of wartime inflationupon post-war economic conditions. The after-the-warproblems are gravely complicated in two ways: (1)The specialized character of the production and pricestructures which have developed during the war, necessitates, when war demands cease, extensive readjustmentsin the whole structure of industry. The prices of certain types of commodities may be expected to rise some- During the current academic year the Charles R.Walgreen Foundation for the Study of American Institutions has sponsored on the campus six series of lectures on topics relating to democracy and present-dayproblems. It is expected that each of these series willbe published as a separate volume by the University ofChicago Press. Scheduled* to appear during the comingsummer are What Is Democracy?, by Charles E. Merriam and Democracy in American Life: An HistoricalView, by Avery Craven. Other titles in the WalgreenPublication Series will probably be — The United Statesand Civilization, by John U. Nef, The Functions and Responsibilities of Education in a Democracy, by Guy T.Buswell, Newton Edwards, Robert J. Havighurst, William C. Reavis, John Dale Russell, Mandel Sherman,Ralph W. Tyler, and George A. Works, a volume ofAmerican political documents with commentary by William T. Hutchinson, and Democratic Government andNational Unity by Thomas Reed Powell, Henry F. Prin-gle, Herbert Agar, Harold G. Moulton, Matthew Woll,and Oliver E. Baker.what, but in most of the important war lines sharp andextensive declines in war demands will appear morequickly than corresponding increases in peacetime demands. A reorganization of industry, with accompanying changes in prices, becomes necessary — either immediately or within a relatively short period. This wouldbe likely to cause depression even if there had beenno inflation. But inflation makes the situation muchworse, because it is always assumed, on the basis of pastexperience, that the general level of prices will in the"not distant future inevitably fall to something approaching the pre-war level. This expectation, often supported by a government policy which aims at restoringa pre-war monetary standard or a pre-war price level,greatly increases difficulties of post-war readjustment.(2) Inflation and the consequent high level of costsincrease both public and private debt beyond what theyotherwise would have been. If the wartime level ofprices and incomes continued after the war, paymentson the debts could be met without any more difficultythan if there had been no inflation, but with the fallof prices and incomes the burden of debt becomes correspondingly heavier.The deflation following the Civil War so affected theposition of all those who had contracted long-term indebtedness during the period of high prices that it ledto controversies and inflationary movements which lastedfor a generation. It began with the greenback movementof the late sixties, continued in the silver agitations ofthe seventies, and did not end until after the paper moneyand free silver campaigns of the nineties. Similarly,after the World War, the agricultural situation was profoundly disturbed by the difficulty of meeting mortgagepayments on inflated land values from the sale of products, the prices of which were constantly declining.The causes of inflation in time of war are complexin character and cannot here be adequately discussed.As a rule the processes involve competitive bidding onthe part of governments for scarce munitions and supplies, speculation in both war supplies and ordinaryconsumer goods, unsound fiscal policies in financing theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11war, overly liberal extensions of bank credit, and increases in rates of wages. The relative importance ofthese factors naturally varies greatly under differingconditions. Likewise the extent of the resulting inflation may assume widely differing proportions dependingupon economic conditions during a war and also uponthe mechanisms of control that may be devised.FACTORS OF SAFETY IN THE PRESENT SITUATIONAt the present time there are some reassuring and safeguarding factors and some elements of grave danger.Some of the inflation influences that were present during the World War are not present in anything likethe same degree now. Frantic competitive bidding onthe part of European governments and between different agencies of our own government has been largely,though not wholly, replaced by coordinated control ofpurchases. Moreover, price-control machinery hasbeen established at the beginning of the emergency ratherthan late in the day — after the vicious spiral is alreadyin full swing.The application of the priority principle is also ameans for preventing price increases in basic materials.As shortages of certain materials begin to appear theymay be conserved for war purposes by restricting theamounts that non-war purchasers are permitted to buy.It will be seen that this process automatically eliminatessome of the potential demand and thus helps to keepprices stable.A very great safety factor is also found in the existenceof abundant supplies of most raw materials and foodstuffs. This fact has been and should continue to bea powerful deterrent to speculative purchases in anticipation of price advances. In a number of special cases wehave, to be sure, an actual or a potential shortage of rawmaterials; and in these cases the development of additional sources of supply is obviously necessary. In somecases they can be procured abroad; in others we mustcreate additional domestic producing capacity. By andlarge, however, the raw material situation is unusuallysatisfactory. There are not only accumulated surpluses ;but in many cases the supplies could be quickly increasedby removing obstructions which now curtail output.This is notably the case in the field of agricultural rawmaterials; and the same is true of foodstuffs.The situation is similar with respect to fuels. Bothcoal production and petroleum output could be greatlyincreased without the slightest difficulty, and to thevery great satisfaction of all concerned with the industries in question.Transportation facilities, likewise, appear to be reasonably adequate for all probable requirements. Thisfavorable situation is in part attributable to the greatimprovement in recent times in railroad operating efficiency, and in part to the development of highways whichin case of need could be used for many types of heavytraffic. Similarly, there is no evidence of an impendingshortage of electric power.The situation in these respects "is in striking contrastto that prevailing at the time the United States enteredthe World War in 1917. Then we were already confronted with serious shortages in many important rawmaterial lines, the prices of which had already increased as much as 100 per cent. Fuel supplies were also inadequate for the combined war and civilian requirements.The most serious bottleneck, however, was in transportation. Owing to transportation difficulties in the winter of 1918, and the consequent shortage of coal for industrial output, the steel industry was for a time forcedto operate at less than half, capacity.The significance of these surpluses of basic raw materials and foodstuffs from the standpoint of generalprice control cannot well be over-estimated. If theprices of raw materials which enter into manufacturingcan be held stable, one of the most important elementsin manufacturing costs remains under control. Stableprices of food are of equal importance, though the effectis manifested indirectly. Since food is a primary factorin the cost of living of the masses of the people, risingfood prices present a cogent reason for compensatingincreases in wage rates. Then as soon as wage ratesare increased over a wide range of industries, we havea universal factor operating from the cost side to pushprices up.The easy bank credit situation now existing is generally regarded as a dangerous inflationary factor. Theextraordinary gold supply of the nation, the enormousexcess reserves of the banking institutions, and the un-precedentedly low rates of interest naturally suggest thatthere is grave danger of a great expansion of creditthrough private channels — for speculative as well as forproductive purposes. There is, however, a safety factoreven in this situation, namely, the uncertainties in boththe national and the world outlook, which makes forgreat caution — even pessimism in financial circles.Thus, although high grade stocks are now yieldingunprecedentedly high returns, many investors are holding a substantial amount of their funds in idle cash.Because of increasing taxes or because of the risks involved in a possible sudden ending of the war there islittle evidence of speculative activity in the field of urbanreal estate, where the losses of recent years coupled withhigh taxes makes for caution; nor is there any greatamount of speculation in farm lands — fostered by anexpectation of great agricultural prosperity either duringor after the war. Not until the whole general economicoutlook is materially improved is there any great likelihood of a dangerous general expansion of private credit.SOME INFLATIONARY ELEMENTSWhile there are thus reassuring factors and restraining influences in the present situation, there are alsoinfluences and forces working directly toward infllation.In the first place it has not as yet been definitely decidedby government financial authorities whether to financethe war in large part by borrowing from the banks, orprimarily from increased taxation. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has taken a strongpublic stand against bank credit expansion and in favorof financing the war out of increased taxation or byloans floated with the general public and paid for outof current income. They also emphasize the importanceof restraining bank credit expansion to private enterprisewhen we reach a stage in the war boom where furthercredit expansion would do more harm than good. Withthis end in view, the Board wishes amendments to thebanking laws which will make it possible to increase12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe reserve requirements of the banks and to raise interest rates as a deterrent to unnecessary credit expansion.Treasury officials do not see quite eye to eye with theBoard of Governors of the Federal Reserve System onthis question. The Treasury would like to be in a position to raise the funds required at the lowest possiblerates ; and they therefore do not look with full favorupon any plan which would raise interest rates. Thesame divergence of viewpoint was strongly in evidenceduring the World War. On that occasion the Treasuryhad its way completely; and the method of finance employed at that time was a powerful factor promotinginflation.Recently, the Treasury has taken a strong stand infavor of heavier taxation and a broader base. This is distinctly encouraging, for it would mean limited borrowingoperations.WAGES AND INFLATIONThe greatest immediate danger of inflation is foundin connection with the wage situation. This issue is ofsuch vital immediate importance that I shall discuss itat some length. The wage problem is also closely related to profits ; hence this question must also be included.The labor situation is indeed the paramount issue beforethe country today.I shall not discuss the strike problem, except to pointout that the issues involved go much beyond the question of wages. Current strikes, and threats of strike,are of three different kinds : The first pertains to labororganization and the extension of unionism of one typeor another. The second involves jurisdictional issuesand local squabbles. The third relates to wages andworking conditions. This third type has thus far notbeen of principal importance. It remains true, nevertheless, that the movement for higher rates of wages isvery wide-spread. To a considerable extent the increaseswhich have been occurring are a result of ordinary competitive bidding on the part of employers for an essential factor of production which is rapidly becoming scarce.But to a much greater extent — in recent weeks — it is dueto the demands of organized labor groups in connectionwith the renewal of labor contracts.Before we consider the reasonableness of demandsfor wage increases at this time, it is desirable to answertwo questions. The first is whether it is economicallynecessary for the standards of living of labor to be reduced during this war emergency ; and, second, whetherthe real earnings of labor have thus far declined orincreased.The position of the government, as officially expressed,is that the economic position of labor should not be sacrificed or undermined as a result of the war emergency.Is this a feasible policy, one that can be realized without serious impediment to the war program ; or must weall expect to have a substantial curtailment of livingstandards because of the struggle in which we are engaged? My answer to this question is a clear and unequivocal 'affirmative. Not only can the income of thelaboring population as a whole be maintained duringthe period of the defense program; it can even be increased. This is because we can meet the requirementsof the war out of an expansion of production.At the beginning of this emergency period national production was running at the rate of about 70 billiondollars a year. Since the nation's productive capacity-—computed on the basis of present prices — is probablyclose to 90 billions a year it is apparent that there hasexisted a very large industrial slack — represented byunusual plant capacity and idle labor. If total nationalproduction could be maintained during the four fiscalyears from July 1940 to July 1944 at an average levelof 85 billions, the increase in total national production,as compared with the rate in 1939, would aggregate 60billion dollars. This sum is roughly double the amountcalled for by the present war production program. Thusif the problem were merely one of aggregate productivecapacity it is clear that we could carry through the defense program and at the same time greatly increasetotal civilian consumption as compared with the levelof recent years.The problem is, however, not so simple as this because the defense production program is highly concentrated. For example, something like 98 per cent ofthe requirements of the army are for the two majorcategories of aircraft production and ordnance. Inselected industrial lines the expansion of production willtherefore have to be many fold. The demands whichstimulate increased production are so unevenly distributed throughout the economic system that we may wellhave considerable slack in some divisions of the economyand substantial shortages elsewhere.It is because of this uneven production load that itwill be necessary henceforth to restrict the consumptionof certain types of consumer goods. It is not at themoment altogether clear whether we shall have to reduceconsumption in a positive sense; but it is certainly already apparent that further expansion of consumptionin numerous lines will have to be restrained, or limited,in the interests of the defense program. It remains true,however, that the income of the labor population as awhole can be maintained on a substantially higher levelduring the war emergency than it has been in recentyears. Incidentally, the real wages of labor as a wholerose during the World War period.What now has been the actual trend of wages sincethe launching of the defense program ? The fact is thatduring the past year we have had a great increase inaggregrate money wages. Several factors have combined to give this result. In a period of expanding business, the money income of the labor population as awhole automatically increases as a result of the absorption of the unemployed. It also increases because ofsteadier employment. Concretely, if the number of daysworked per year in the coal industry increases from 160to 200, there is a 25 percent increase in wages — eventhough rates of pay remain unchanged. Similarly, anincrease in the number of hours worked per week in themachine tool industry, say, from 40 to 60, as has occurred, would mean a 50 per cent increase in the moneyincome of the labor employed.Besides additional employment and steadier workthroughout the year, we have had a substantial increasein wages as a result of over-time rates of pay — timeand a half beyond the 40-hour standard week. Andthere has also been an appreciable increase in wage rates.(Continued on Page 26)NOTES FOR A DILETTANTEVIII. BRITISH WRITERS AND THE WAR(Concluded)The preferences of sentient creatures are what create theimportance of topics.William James.BRITISH POETS in this war have consistentlyrefrained from beating the big drum. Since thewar broke out, nothing has been produced that isat all reminiscent of, say, Rupert Brook's war sonnets of1914. There have been no waving of flags, no militarymusic, no jingoistic outbursts. The poetry of this warhas been contemplative, "metaphysical," ironical, orelegaiac. Here is a characteristic poem written by Nicholas Moore in the first months of the war :The ravages of time and temper,That we live now in a cloudCrying for money and bloodFrom government and dictator,Are storms we never hide.That evil men in a frenzyHave brought the world to war,Testament of time and tearPour on the heads of the manyThe evils the few bear.That we take in our handsThe dear loved threads of lifeAnd through this bitter strifeLook forward and understand,Does this allay our grief ?The melancholy acceptance of a bitter reality is a moodto be found frequently in the poetry of early 1940. Thereare other strains. Frances Scarf e's "Conscript" (whichappeared in Horizon, May, 1940) has a tone of subduedanger :...Mothered for pitted dunes and these livid grassesHe stands on the edge of murder motionlessAs the green statues that to his fame shall moulderWith love's and death's stone wings touching his shoulder.While all he meant to live for hides behindThe click of hell released by his unskilled finger,Index of Europe's hand dyed red with honourWhich wields the boy a puppet of its anger...William Empson continues his personal subtlety :I have mislaid the torment and the fear.You should be praised for taking them away,Those who doubt drugs, let them doubt which was here.Well are they doubted for they turn out dear.I feed on flatness and am last to leave.Verse likes despair. Blame it upon the beer.I have mislaid the torment and the fear.All losses haunt us. It was a reprieveMade Dostoevsky speak out loud and clear . . .Cecil Day Lewis, reflecting a fairly common trend,turned to the elemental things of the countryside andtranslated Virgil's Georgics in a free, swinging verse :Soon enough each is called into the quarrel.Till then, taking a leaf from Virgil's laurel,I sang in time of war the arts of peace.The countryside as the symbol of the elemental routineof human life is a common theme for the British poetsof 1940 and 1941, yet this is no Wordsworthian poetry.There is always the attempt to relate the simplicities of • By DAVID DAICHESthe rustic scene to the realities of the war, as in Spender's"Dusk," which opensSteel edge of ploughThrusts through the stiffRuffled fields of turfyCloud in the sky.Above charcoal hedgesAnd dead leaf of landIt cuts out a gleaming-Deep furrowOf clear glass lookingThrough our thick dayUp a stair of stars.And the poem concludes :The sun of such knowledgeMocks their aims —Robbing themselvesAnd killing themselves.Abandoning hopeThey turn with a groanFrom that nightmare of loveBack to their daybreak ofHabitual hatred.Spender's "Air Raid" has the same surface calm, witha tense emotion underneath :In this room like a bowl of flowers filled with lightThe family eyes look down on the whitePages of a book, and the mild white ceiling,Like a starched nurse, reflects a calm feeling.And the conclusion:But the home has been cracked by metallic claws,Years of loving care ground to rubble in jaws,And the delicate squirming life thrown awayBy the high-flying purpose of a foreign day.The impingement of air warfare on a peaceful countrycommunity is told with quiet irony by Ann Scott-Mon-crieff in her poem "The Brig o' Waith," describing theeffect of bombs dropped on Orkney :. . . For they blew out the fields o' Queenamore— Oh Nancy, Theodore —And they burnt up the peedie mill at Housequoy.They wereFlying doon the twa lochsFollowing the sheen o' the water— Dost thou mind? Ah, that time o' night —And they winned at last to the brig,Wide Waith that wreaths the salt tide wi' the fresh,Where swan and eider sweem,Whaur weed meets ware.It's no a bonny place, nither here nor there,Twa-three hooses and a dull-like shore.Yet I hae thocht on this afore —Brig — the brig — brig o' WaithO' Waith— the brig o' WaithThat hinter sub-significance in a nameNot past nor present but to come for fameWersh witting WaithWaitingFor danger and the hunting game.Here John Isbister got his death.Maggie o' Cumminness wi' many moreFearful running to the doorWere stricken doon by door itsell,Wall o' hoose, bumbazement, shell,The flying stove, the studdering road,This hell let loose!What time the mighty empires at their gameGrown skeered — and skeered this long time past —Skud from the sky, up anchor from the FlowAnd skatheless flee for fear they canna last.1314 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAlun Lewis's poem — "All day it had rained . , ." — ¦that appeared in Horizon for January 1941 is an excellent example of the mood of reminiscence and contemplation which is so common in British poetry of thiswar:. . . And I can remember nothing dearer or more to my heartThan the children I watched in the woods on SaturdayShaking down burning chestnuts for the school-yard's merry play,Or the shaggy patient dog who followed meThrough Sheet and Steep and up the wooded screeTo the Shoulder o' Mutton where Edward Thomas brooded long-On death and beauty — till a bullet stopped his song.But elegaiac reminiscence and ironical acceptance arenot the only moods. Geoffrey Matthews, in his "Poemfor a Friend joining the R.A.F." that appeared in thesame issue of Horizon as Alun Lewis's poem, takes amore positive and optimistic approach. After admonishing his friend to remember the things that matter andbidding him keep in mind, even in the midst of combat,Those nights we spent drinking the death of wars,And our wheels unwinding the stinging roads of CumnorWhen frost dripped off the trees and telegraph wires,"Had I a falconer's voice" — a world in amberWith beer drawn from the wood and a map of Berkshire,he concludesKeep faith; stroll in one day and tear the blindsTo make our Herod's fires a star in the East,As after a night of storm some restless gipsy,Wakening under canvas wet as a dipper's nest,Blinks haggardly, breaks open the flap and findsPure blue behind the tent-pole, a perfect sky.I have not space to give more examples, but I wouldlike to insist that there is a great amount of good versebeing produced currently in Britain, mostly appearing inperiodicals. As Cyril Connolly remarked at the beginningof a review of new poetry in February of this year,"England is still a nest of singing birds ; an editor I knowtells me that, of the unsolicited contributions he receives,sixty per cent are in verse." The major poetic worksthat have appeared in Britain since the outbreak of thewar have already been sufficiently publicized in reviewsand articles; but it is the periodical poetry that givesthe best index to the mood of the nation's poets. I haveconfined myself, therefore, to picking out characteristicexamples from periodicals, leaving the collected poemsand the anthologies to the regular reviewers.I have already mentioned the satirical verse of TheNew Statesman s "Sagittarius," the wittiest and hardesthitting satire being turned out in Britain to-day. "Sagittarius," like many other writers in contemporary Britain,does not confine himself to attacking Nazis and Fascistsabroad ; he is equally merciless in his lashing of. abuseand incompetency at home, and one has only to readone of his poems attacking the government for someunimaginative or inept measure to realize how strongthe democratic tradition of political satire in Britain stillis. Most interesting of all, perhaps, is the folk-satire andfolk-humour of this war, the rhymes that have evolvedanonymously and are being passed around by word ofmouth. It is here that the real index to the Britishcharacter is to be sought. Quite early in the war an airraid warning in the middle of the morning precipitatedDave Willis, the celebrated Scots comedian, into themidst of a shelter occupied largely by Edinburgh housewives who were interrupted in the midst of their shopping. As he surveyed the Edinburgh ladies crowded into the shelter on all sides he decided to cheer everybody upwith an impromptu song, sung to a popular air. So there,in the midst of interrupted housewives, Dave Willis liftedup his voice and sang as only he can:When we hear the warningWe all begin to cry :"An airyplane, an airyplaneAway up in the sky."We all run helter-skelter,But dinna come wi' me :Ye can't get in ma shelterCos it's far too wee."Having sung this little ditty through a couple of timesin that inimitably vulgar accent which is a large part ofhis success as a comedian, he proceeded to lead theassembled housewives in a choral rendering, and withina few minutes the entire population of the shelter werejoining rollickingly in that silly little song. Respectablemiddle aged women, shopping baskets on their arms,their minds full of the price of vegetables and the menufor dinner, lifted up their voices and sang with DaveWillis. This is one of a thousand such incidents thathave happened and are happening all over the country.The folk literature of this war, as far as I can seefrom such specimens of it as I have been able to gatheror have gathered for me by correspondents, is wholly different in character from that of the last war. There aresome similarities of course, the grim, bantering witticismthat conceals tragedy, the satirical pun, the fantasticunderstatement — these were common to both wars. Butthere is little or no jingoistic humour this time; it is ona more international level, as it were. Personalities comein, of course — Hitler, Goebbels, Goering and the otherregulars : these have almost become figures in a folkmyth, and quite different in kind from the purely funnyand often obscene figure of Kaiser Bill as he appearedin popular limericks and verses in the last war. Thereis a note of fatalism discernible this time, and perhapsan underlying note of more genuine tragedy, and thepatriotism that peeps out shyly at rare intervals fromunderneath a mass of humour, grim, fantastic, rollicking or satirical, seems deeper, wider, and more thoroughly grounded in personal experience than before —and that is the reason why it is so well concealed. Onlyin large communal utterances meant as public gesturesdoes the more obvious patriotic note emerge, brassy, confident and, to ears not yet accustomed to the crashing ofbombs, somewhat shrill: "There'll Always be an England," "Thumbs Up," "Are We Downhearted?" But,as in all folklore, the ceremonial public gesture is to bedistinguished from the more personal (though no lesspopular) kind.In conclusion, let me say something about publishingin Britain today. What kind of books are currently appearing on publishers' lists ? Well, here are some figuresfor the month of November, 1940. In that month-after two months of heavy air-raids on London, the centre of British publishing, and considerable destructionof bookbinders' warehouses, bookshops, and similarpremises, which resulted, among other losses, in the largefirm of Cassell losing almost all their October publications which were, however, very quickly reprinted — therewere published in Britain some 700 books with the following distribution: Philosophy, 16; Religion, 49; So-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15ciology and Politics, 45 ; Education, 33 ; Natural Scienceand Medicne, 40; Useful arts, 43; Fine arts, 7; Literature and Language (excluding new fiction), 74; History,25; Biography and memoirs, 32; Fiction, 250; Children'sbooks, 50. Since then there has been further destructionof bookstores and warehouses, but both publishers andbooksellers are carrying on with great energy and resourcefulness and, what matters most, the public is buying books. Light fiction for shelter reading, topography,biography, and antiquities for what could in a wide sensebe called patriotic reasons (the endeavour to understandthe Britain that is threatened), and a very great deal ofsociology and politics for the double purpose of understanding the origin and nature of the war and planningfor the future. One hears regularly of new series ofpamphlets or cheap books of one sort or another dealingwith problems of post-war reconstruction, with sociology,politics, economics and public health. Never have theBritish people been more conscious of the problems andresponsibilities of living in a democracy — or of the fail-DEATH is the transformation which reduces the livingorganism to its inanimate chemical components.FAMINE is an economic disorder.PESTILENCE is an hygienic infirmity.WAR is a political disease.IN THE large view medicine devotes itself to theattainment of the optimum degree of health for allindividuals. In an even greater sense medicine concerns itself with the relation to health of every inanimateand animate thing. Passing them in review, we pictureinjuries resulting from means of transport such asautomobiles, from industrial activities on and under theearth's surface, from poisonous gases and minerals, andfrom parisites and disease carrying insects. We envision pollution of our food and water supply with bacterial and other noxious agents. We see the transmission of contagious diseases from one person to another. We recognize our natural and acquired appetiteswhich may on the one hand lead to deficiencies and onthe other to excesses but which should be so controlledas to promote optimum well-being. We realize thathabits are formed which are good or bad and lead tobenefit or harm. We know that all of us are not equallyendowed mentally, physically, and morally and that whatwe are is the result of hereditary and environmentalfactors working in combination.No one should be so dogmatic as to hazard a prophecyregarding the ultimate fate of an individual whose personality begins with the union of the germ cells. Webelieve that matter is indestructible and that life iseternal, flowing through ever changing currents andstreams. We are buffeted this way and that in the continuous conflict of constructive and destructive forces.As humans we originate from the fusion of the male ure of their own governments to meet those problemsin the years between the wars. These are the themesthe British are reading about and that they are discussing daily: ninety per cent of my letters from Britain,from all types of people, discuss them.And the upshot of it all ? Well, I have tried to presentfacts and I shall leave conclusions to my readers. Butone minor moral I cannot help suggesting. It is this :If you assume beforehand that such a great and horriblenational catastrophe as war will automatically mean thedeath of literature and the arts, it probably will meantheir death, but it you refuse to accept such an inevitability and deliberately fight for the perpetuation — eventhe extension— of culture in war-time you will achieve it.The Spanish loyalists reorganized and extended theirwhole educational system in the midst of the civil war,encouraged their artists and writers, and achieved wonders in the whole cultural field. But they lost the war,and the victors destroyed all these gains. Perhaps thereis a moral here too.. • By FRED L ADAIR, MDand female germ cells which contain all the biologicforces of bygone ages. For a time the constructiveforces predominate and we grow and develop. Themetabolic and katabolic processes reach more or less ofan equilibrium, and though we change from second tosecond, hour to hour, and year to year, a certain stablebalance is maintained through the various cycles of life.We attain the acme, various alterations take place, andthen decline begins almost in reverse of the ascent, stepby step, and the transformation known as death occurs,in which the physical organism is reduced to its inanimate chemical components and life flows on, we knownot how or where. The conflict for the survival withinthe individual is comparable to the constructive and destructive forces of nature, both animate and inanimate.We see the struggle of individuals, one attempting to overcome the other, of groups of individuals trying to dominate one another, and of nations with total wars loosingunlimited forces to create complex and ingenious "devicessolely to destroy animate and inanimate things.Thus, we may depict the conflict between the forcesin the life of an individual and the step-like unevennessof growth, of decline, and of ultimate evolutionarychange. Mankind has not always been as it is today, andby continued step-like progression it will ultimatelyevolve into the human race of the future. Just as we areunable to prophesy the outcome of the union of two germcells, so we are unable to foresee the future of the humanrace. We should, however, strive to bring about as optimum hereditary and environmental backgrounds as possible. There was a time when the individual and thegroup were more or less isolated from others and had tobe self-sufficient. Now they have become more or lessHEALTH AND DEMOCRACY16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEinterdependent. With this interdependence arose theconcept of greater equality. This idea spread from smallareas to small nations and to greater nations till now aconflict of almost world proportions is being waged between the so-called "haves" and "have nots." There isalso a conflict of ideas, some based upon the conceptthat human needs can best be met by authority fromabove and others holding that the governed should alsobe the governors. It would seem axiomatic that no governmental system could survive which did not maintain the welfare of its individual components.One could deduce from this that the system whichaffords the greatest measure of protection to its citizenswill be the one to survive. Malthus taught that war,famine, and pestilence were the potent forces in avoiding overpopulation and in preventing the demand foressentials from exceeding the supply. All of these forcesaffect the health of individuals, of nations, and of theworld. The maintenance of health determines the futureof man and of mankind. The knowledge now availableenables us to control most of the pestilential diseases,but this knowledge needs to be world wide in its application. It is extremely difficult to circumscribe a pestilence. Famine could be averted because there is availablewith proper distribution enough of the essentials toprevent malnutrition and starvation. The effects ofthese conditions on the human race cannot be localized.They are not limited to the present, but affect futuregenerations. The dearth of adequate food supplies leadsto the development of pestilential diseases which sweepover great areas. The problem of adequate food stuffswithin nations and throughout the world would seem tobe one of proper distribution and not lack of adequateproduction on a world-wide basis. War is unhealthyand destructive both physically and psychologically. Itis unhealthy physically because it injures, kills, andbrings famine and infectious diseases in its wake; psychologically, because it destroys the fundamental objectsof living which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.If one considers those basic ideals the conclusion mustbe reached that none of them is absolute, but all arerelative. What is the relation of health to those essentials ? Surely natural life is itself not attainable withoutoptimum health. The maximum amount of liberty andfreedom of action is not obtainable without health, fordisease incapacitates and restricts our activities. Granting that happiness is a state of mind, you will all agreeit is difficult to suffer and be happy.The inevitable conclusion is that the health of its citizens should be the objective of any government, but particularly of a democracy, because each and every citizendesires health and the electorate selects the leaders anddetermines the policy and the acts of a democratic formof government. Health depends upon medical knowledge which is developed and applied by doctors. It isimportant, then, to know whether or not doctors havea democratic viewpoint. They are individuals — all scientists must be individualists — but not to the point ofbeing uncooperative or undemocratic. They must reflecttheir own ideas and apply them.Politicians are not as a rule individualists, but are interpreters of popular opinion as determined by the num ber of votes received. Doctors checked by the opinion oftheir peers rely upon scientific facts; politicians dependupon impressions of themselves and their promises. Canyou imagine what would happen to medicine if doctorswere elected by popular vote instead of being qualifiedby their peers? How often are the lawyers who arerecommended by their peers elected as judges ? Are notmany of our elected representatives in legislatures andCongress lawyers and others who have been either unsuccessful or moderately successful in their chosen fields?Does not this courting of political preferment constitutea danger to the success of our democracy? (This mayseem far afield from my theme, but in passing it is wellto point out that there are few doctors, at least goodones, in the political arena: which is probably unfortunate because of the importance of health in a governmental system.)The major importance arises, however, from the ideaof some governmental agencies to make medicine a political handmaiden. This is not exclusively or evenprimarily the concern of doctors though they have takenup the cudgel in the interest of medicine as a democraticinstitution which has as its major and sole interest thehealth and welfare of individual patients and of the community as a whole. Everyone should be aware of thedangers of political domination of health activities. Isthere a profession or a group of any sort which is moredemocratic than all the medical professions includingpractitioners, administrators, public health workers,nurses, and others who render equitable service to allwithout distinction as to race, creeds or to economicstatus? Medical science and knowledge are availableto all and not to one, but through no fault of the professions the facilities are not equally available throughoutour nation or the world. It is, I believe, fair to statethat the medicine of this country is on a plane unexcelled in any other country. American medicine is undemocratic in that its services are not equal throughout our land, but in all fairness, it may be asked whatin this land of ours is evenly distributed. Surely notwealth, certainly not food or clothing or shelter. Thereare many things essential to health aside from medicalservice, and I venture to assert that there are morepersons in our country suffering from lack of properfood than from negligent or incompetent medical service at the time of illness.The medical knowledge can point out the needs, butthe medical professions cannot supply the means. Themedical professions can supply the leaders and workers,but they cannot construct the institutions and makeavailable all the essentials for optimum, health. It is thefunction of governments for the people to find ways andmeans of filling these needs. It is for us, the people, todemand these essentials from our representatives. Thisis the method of a democratic form of government ofthe people by the people and for the people. In the totalitarian form of government the leaders vested withdictatorial powers tell individuals what they should dofor the benefit of the state. In our form of governmentthe individuals tell the leaders what to do though ourway of telling is not very effective. The representativesare elected for varying periods and cannot be called toaccount till the next election. We should have localTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17and state committees of our parties who could call therepresentatives to account and provide for their recallwhen they proved obdurate or incompetent. We andthey should be constantly reminded that the purposesof a democracy are to provide an equal opportunity forall to make a satisfactory living, to learn how to live,and to be well and healthy.This means that every one should be adequately caredfor and protected when too young or too old or otherwise unable to be self-sufficient. Where no other meansare available, governmental agencies should perform thisfunction. Everyone should have an equal opportunity,which means that the scheme of things should offer themethod of securing the essentials for health, life, andhappiness to all. There should be freedom of actionor liberty of living which does not mean the right toencroach upon or interfere with the equal rights ofothers. There should be opportunity for legitimatehappiness and pleasure for all which does not in anyway injure others. In other words there should be thegreatest possible freedom for all with the least interference with others. All of these desirable attributesare relative and not absolute. There never could becomplete equality, and it is a biologic fallacy to believethat all men are created equal though it should be apolitical truism. There is no such thing as an equalityof heredity and it is impossible to create an absolutelyequal environment, certainly during intrauterine, andalmost surely during extrauterine life.One should hardly imagine the development of a Derbywinner from a Percheron ancestry no matter what theenvironment might be. We should deal with facts andnot with fantasy. But this does not mean that all ofus could not and should not live full, healthy and happylives in our various ways. It does mean that all of uscannot live in the same way, nor do all of us wish to doso. Not everyone wishes to be a doctor, even thoughtoo many apparently are desirous of so becoming. Oursocial organization depends upon all of us doing in acapable manner the type of work we can perform best,and most persons are happiest in performing the tasksfor which they are best fitted. None of us can expectto escape doing some things we would prefer to avoidbut one occasionally finds individuals who shirk doingunpleasant jobs and ultimately form a habit of doingnothing of service to mankind. This is an unhealthystate and affects two major groups: first, those withindependent unearned incomes, and second, those whodepend upon taxpayers or philanthropists for a living.Of course, one must realize that there are dependentgroups who are incapacitated in life's cycle by their agesor by life's adversities and are in need of support. Itwould seem that the most unhappy ones would be thosewith no hope and no. purpose in life. It appears obviousthat the pursuit of happiness would result in its attainment more frequently if all had an equal start in lifewith no unnecessary handicaps for any and no avoidable special advantages for others. It is true that allare not equally equipped for life's Marathon but inlife's battle there should be selective service as in thedraft for war. We are more interested in the success ofpeace time activities than in the adventures of war.Peace is democratic and war is oligarchic. Our activi ties in the former should be determined by our desiresbased upon intelligent advice and selection, but in thelatter they are decided by authority and by compulsion.In either case health is essential to the best performance.We should look upon peace as a healthful social statein which the purposes of living, the development of themind, the body and the character, can be attained: Theseare best secured by the main function of government,which consists in giving to every individual an equalopportunity to obtain his maximum development in thesespheres. When one uses the words equal opportunity,they should not be interpreted to mean identical, becauseour lives and activities cannot be identical. Men andwomen may have political equality and equal, though notidentical, opportunties in their respective functions. Theyoccupy different spheres and never can be biologicallyequal. There are occupational variations as well. Civilization is complex and there are manifold activities, eachrequiring its special educational and health opportunities.A miner, a farmer, a mechanic, a lawyer, and a doctorshould each have equal but not identical opportunities fordevelopment of perfection in his life's activities. All ofthese possibilities depend upon the economic level of theindividual, of the nation, and even of the world forattainment.To secure these advantages requires able leadershipand broad cooperation. In such fields as education, andparticularly in the field of health, we find leaders heldaccountable for any lapse. This is seen frequently whenepidemics of disease occur in institutions or communities.Investigations follow and dismissals occur. This isproper, and those responsible for poor health conditionsshould be called to account. But why not call someoneto account if, as stated, one-third of our population isundernourished? If, as also stated, about half of ourpopulation lives on an income of $1,000 or less andnearly two-thirds on a total income less than $1,500 perannum, how can we expect to have optimum health andeducation for our citizens, the family, and the nation?It must be remembered that the sum of individual incomes today, reduced as it is by taxes would probablybe insufficient to secure optimum conditions for all evenif equally distributed. There is need for increasing theproductive wealth of both the citizens and the nation asa whole. This cannot be done by diverting our humanand material resources to the creation of destructiveforces. We should never confuse money — gold, silver orpaper — with wealth. It is only a measure of value in thesame way that a yard is a measure of quantity. Onebuys a yard of cloth for a dollar. The former measuresthe size, the latter the value, but neither the yard nor thedollar is the cloth.We consider an individual to be in the best conditionwhen all his physical, all his mental, and all his spiritualfunctions are performing their tasks properly. Whendisease comes, these functions are disorganized, the person may be upset mentally, incapacitated physically, anddisturbed in his morale. He may recover more or lesscompletely, but he always suffers some impaired functional reserve and often becomes a disoriented individualwho requires certain, readjustments to life. This meansamong other things an economic readjustment, but something of reserve resources has been lost and cannot be18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEreplaced, though he may still acquire some of the measures of value. Such an economic readjustment in itselfoften results in an abnormal viewpoint toward life andthe individual's relation to it.The nation and the world are like individuals — humanbeings "en masse" are like each individual. The normalperson has all his various functions working at peaceand in harmony. When this ceases there is conflict anddisease. When human beings work together in peacethere is health — when they are in conflict or war thereis disease. Who are responsible for these national diseases? The governments assume responsibility for preventing epidemics. War has its causes as does disease.The people through government must assume responsibility of preventing war. We expect leaders and expertsto control and eliminate disease, and when they fail toprevent or cure we change experts. We should regardwar as a disease inflicted upon people by incompetentleaders who look upon it as a cure for certain evils ordeluded ideas. Doctors do not regard death as a curethough some valuable information may be gained at theautopsy table. If the politicians and leaders have everlearned anything at the autopsies of wars they havenever applied it as a preventative or as a cure.Any government which cannot keep its people out ofwar is just as culpable as one which exposes its citizensto the ravages of famine or pestilence. All the peopleof the world should call their leaders to strict accountability for any failure to prevent disease, famine, or war.A nation at war, like a sick individual, develops abnormal viewpoints relative to itself and to the world.We doctors must realize there is a very close relationship of optimum health and education to the economicsystem. When we discuss medical economics it is imperative to think not only of the economics of the medical profession but also of the state of the individual, thefamily, and the community. It must always be remembered that the doctor is not in an economic position torender any service or assistance except professionally,and that he cannot render the best service without properequipment, environment, and assistance for both himself and the patient.The success of democracy depends upon the intelligence and the health of the electorate. These are basedupon universal education and the application of properhealth measures. This does not belittle the importanceof economics, but there can be no satisfactory democraticsystem without an intelligent and healthy citizenry. Ifthese things cannot be accomplished, democracy will fail.Health is dependent upon education not only in the general but also in the special sense. The public school system is democratic, and it must be developed to a superlative degree. Every child in a democracy should haveeducation in the public schools as a training for democracy and every foreign born adult or child should receive an educational training in democracy equivalentto that received by native born children. Democracticprinciples and ideals cannot be acquired in a perfunctorymanner, and our system of inducting citizens into ourdemocracy is a disgrace to our country. Those so inducted cannot be favorably impressed with the systemeven though they profit by it. Everyone who casts avote should be sufficiently intelligent to know and decide upon the significance of his ballot.All our population should have equal opportunitiesfor education and health. As mentioned before, equalitydoes not mean identity, and selection is essential. Underour governmental system this should be upon an advisoryand voluntary basis. It is quite obvious that the complexity of society requires diverse and manifold humanactivities. Each of these should be carried on accordingto need by those best suited by mind, body, and character for the particular fields. The development of so-called robots has lightened many arduous tasks, but industrial organization has had a tendency to deprive manof pride in his work. No matter what we do in lifewe should strive for the ideal of perfection, howeverhumble the task. A task well done leads to justifiablepride. Everyone should have an opportunity to producesufficient goods or services to enable him to exchangethe products of his work, well done, for the necessitiesof optimum living. There should be no hereditary economic inequality, but there should be sufficient recognition and rewards with an economic or other appealingvalue to stimulate man to his best performance whichshould be proportional to his service to mankind. Discontent and unhappiness arise from inequalities whichcannot be justified on the basis of humanity to our fellow men. We need unity for strength. Those whoare responsible for this disunion and these inequalitiesshould go unrewarded or be disciplined. Democraticcivilization cannot reach its goal with millions deprivedof the optimum opportunity for life, liberty, and thepursuit of happiness.Our course is clear. This country, with its cosmopolitan people and its manifold resources, offers us an unsurpassed opportunity to demonstrate to the world theproposition that a great people can live peacefully, indemocratic equality. Wars and revolutions result frompolitical, social and economic inequalities between individuals and between nations. The road to war is throughthe continuation of these inequalities. Without democracy there can be no peace. Without universal health andwelfare there can be no democracy. The road to peace,health and democracy is through the practice of democratic principles within our own country and their dissemination to other countries. Of the four terrible horsemen who harass mankind only ultimate Death is unconquerable, when the individual has lived out his allottedspan. It must be our task, then, to use our powers forthe perfection of true democracy in this country, so thatWar, Famine and Pestilence may be eradicated. Premature and violent disabilities and deaths will then be relegated to a regrettable past and ultimate natural Deathwill appear as the dignified culmination of a busy, happyand profitable life.PhD's— 1 931 -40At the request of the American Council on Education,the Alumni Council recently announced a survey ofPhD degree holders of the University in the last tenyears. Of the 1,631, only five were without definite positions. Somewhat over half of the number werein education, 454 in colleges and universities (and ofthese 77 were heads of departments).WOODEN DIARIESOf Ten Thousand TreesIT was a devastating drouth, lasting for almost aquarter of a century, that broke the back of Puebloculture in the Southwest. The drouth struck in1276, while Europe was fighting its crusades in the NearEast. It ended in 1299 a year before Dante became aleading political figure in Florence. The American Indians weren't writing their own history in 1276, and nowhite men were on the continent to write it for them.The story of the drouth which caused the collapse of acivilization was noted in the diaries of hundreds of trees.Everyone knows that a tree adds a ring as its trunkgrows every year — that counting the rings from bark tocenter gives the tree's age. The scientific value of thisphenomenon — available since the first tree was saweddown — was not perceived, however, until Andrew E.Douglass, probably the only astronomer whpse name isknown to every anthropologist, began his pioneeringwork at Arizona in 1902. After twenty-five years heannounced his dates in 1925.When Dr. Florence Hawley, working at. the University of Chicago, undertook the overwhelming task ofdating in the Middle West in 1934, the Tennessee Valley,Authority thought that the weather records of the treesmight be useful in planning their dams, since if the treesshowed greater floods than any that have occurred inrecent years, it would be necessary to allow for repetitions of the maximum. After a year of study Dr. Hawley, a comely former student of Douglass', reported tothe TVA that at least since 1318 — her records went back174 years before Columbus — there had been no floodsin the Tennessee valley greater than those of recenttimes.This, however, was a by-product of Dr. Hawley's endeavors, actually aimed at dating exactly the remains ofthe Moundbuilders and other Indians of the Midwest. Itwas to this job she was called from the University ofNew Mexico, where she still teaches six months in theyear. Supposedly, tree-ring dating in the Middle Westwas virtually impossible, because a relatively wet climaterots trees before they can attain the ripe old age whendendrochronologists want them. Chicago became thethird university in the country, with Arizona and NewMexico, and the first east of the Rockies, to try the work.This month Dr. Hawley published her first major results. They outlined, after seven years of research, thelargest tree ring areas yet discovered, one extendingfrom Pennsylvania to Oklahoma and from southern Wisconsin to Louisiana, and the other reaching northwardfrom Wisconsin into Minnesota — its limits still undetermined. The research carried the chronology of thejuniper tree, one of five species used in cross-checking —back to 1318, confirmed the fact that there is no American weather, and showed, in a more typical climate thanthat of the arid Southwest, that efficient utilization ofrainfall is more important than absolute volume — thatwasteful runoff can produce the same unhappy effects asdrouth. Tree-ring areas, indicators of general weather conditions, show that one part of the country may behaving severe drouth while another is steeped in rain.All this has taken seven years' time and beyond itlies the possibility of extending the Midwestern chronology, with its double usefulness, in archaeology andweather, back as far as Douglass and his colleagues inthe Southwest have — back to or beyond the thirteenthcentury B. C, when Seti I was ruling in Egypt. Treerings already have exploded many an anthropologist'sguess about the antiquity of an Indian tribe. They havealready, through their use in sunspot-cycle theory, servedwell in advancing the science of weather forecasting.Trees already in the laboratory on the Midway have revealed the Midwest's history for two hundred years before Robert the Bruce beat the English at Bannockburn.The laboratory, incidentally, is located, along with alarge library of carefully boxed Indian skulls, in the greatstudio of Lorado Taft ; science has moved in on art,bringing along the wooden diaries of ten thousand trees.What does a tree have to do with the King of Egypt orrhe weather possibilities for 1991 ? Suppose there is abig oak in your yard — one which, if cut and its ringscounted, would carry the record of "fat" and "lean"years back to 1620, the year the Pilgrims landed onPlymouth Rock. Suppose that this is an average treeand its rings show approximately the same variations asother trees in the neighborhood. Then suppose that thestump of a big tree nearby is identified as one choppeddown in 1732, the year Washington was born. Theouter rings of the second tree, formed as it grew into oldage, would correspond to the inner rings of the first tree.There would be 112 overlapping years of similar rings.But the second tree would carry the record back to thedays of its own infancy, say, to 1066, the year Williamthe Conqueror took over England. And so on. A thickyear followed by half a dozen thin years, then a mediumyear, another thin year, plus a couple of adjacent thickyears can provide the type of. missing link whichdendrochronologists dream about, if the same patternoccurs in different parts of two stump sections. Oftenthe differences between thick and thin years are microscopic. Each species of tree and each individual treevaries in sensitivity from the others. The only answerto this is painstaking statistical analysis. Averaging thecedars to produce the "Miss Cedar" of a given area, thenaveraging the oaks to find "Miss Oak" and in like manner charting the three or four other trees used providesa simplified set of year-by-year records which, averagedin turn produce the master chart for the area. But themaster chart, growing longer on the recent end, at thecustomary rate of one ring a year, is wide open on theother end. In 1804 Meriwether Lewis and WilliamClark opened the Middle West for the future. Dr.Hawley's research at Chicago is somewhat less spectacular, but it may be equally important in opening up theMidwest's past.19NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESTHORFIN R. HOGNESS, Professor of Chemistry, is a specialist in a field which he has helpedto pioneer — cell chemistry, the application of techniques of the physical sciences to the study of living matter. Such study is basic to the understanding of the lifeprocesses. Incidentally it yields from time to time discoveries which, although really by-products, are important in themselves.One such discovery was announcedby Professor Hogness last monthwhen at the meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology in Chicago he toldof the isolation of a new enzymewhich completes the chain of metabolic respiration in body cells bywhich sugar is converted into energy.Called, for short, cytochrome "c"reductase, it contains a protein component plus vitamin B2 (riboflavin)in its phosphorylated form, and actsas a catalyst in the body reaction.Professor Hogness, with the helpof his associates, Bernard L. Horecker and Erwin Haas, has been twoyears on the trail of the enzyme,which has long eluded scientists because of its instability to heat andslight disturbances of its acid-basebalance.Dr. Hogness likens the process of PRr>PP<;<;npcell respiration to a bucket brigade, PROFEbbORin which sugar molecules are oxidized in a series of reactions which yield energy, and not in a single step,which would produce only waste heat. Cytochrome"c" reductase supplies the missing link in the formationof carbon dioxide from molecular oxygen and foodstuffcarbon. "In most cases that have been studied," Professor Hogness explained, "it has been found that theoxidation process involving the formation of water byhydrogen atoms, combining with the foodstuff moleculeand oxygen, takes place through a series of reactions.The enzymes and co-enzymes taking part in these reactions are often referred to as the hydrogen transportsystem. This system may be thought of as transportingatoms of hydrogen toward the oxygen molecules, withwhich they react to form water. Thus the system may belikened to a bucket brigade."CITIZENS FUND NEWSMembers of the Citizens Board of Sponsors have nowcollected almost one-third of their desired total of $1,-500,000, Chairman George A. Ranney announced at aluncheon at the Chicago Club on May 1. The total atthat date was $481,105, pledged within three weeks ofthe start of the campaign. Other highlights of the • By BERNARD LUNDY, '37luncheon were talks by Arthur Holly Compton, Chairman of the Department of Physics and Dean of the Division of the Physical Sciences, on "Science and the Defense of America"; and G. A. Borgese, Professor ofItalian Literature.The United States is currently the center of civilization, and must exercise its fullest vision and strength tomaintain its role, according to Dr.Borgese. "The newcomer can quicklysense the merging of the streams ofintellectual and moral growth, originating in Europe, into a unifiedwhole," he said. "This is the American democracy. It has been a nativeAmerican spirit. There is nothing inthe world to Compare with it. . . Thisis and must be a fluid achievement.It must not congeal. In the face ofthe complex urgencies before us, onething stands out in the perspective ofthe newcomer from .the Old World —that the institutions of learning, thegenerators of enlightenment whichstand high on America's landscape,must continue to be zealously fostered."Dr. Compton saw the role of American universities as twofold : the development of technical help to an arming nation; and long-run efforts inHOGNESS the direction 0I gradual improvementof our American civilization. "It istrue that the nation today must take a clear-cut position,"he said, "but it is equally true that the nation must understand its position fully and the issues underlying it,and also must continually re-examine the position. Inthe development of this understanding the universitiesare qualified to play the leading role, and the Universityof Chicago has been a leader among the universities."Dr. Compton, incidentally, reported to the NationalAcademy of Sciences in Washington in April that newobservation on the cosmic rays, made by the Universitygroup, supported the hypothesis that the primary cosmic ray particles entering the atmosphere consist solelyof protons, the fundamental particles of matter carryingone fundamental unit of positive electricity and havinga mass 2,000 times that of the electron, fundamental particle of matter carrying an equal charge of negativeelectricity.PAUL HARPER, '08, JD' 13, NEW TRUSTEEThe Board of Trustees announced this month the election of a new member. Paul Vincent Harper, '08, JD'13,member of the LaSalle street law firm of Sidley, McPherson, Austin and Burgess, becomes the secondHarper to sit on the Board (his father, President Wil-20THE- UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21Ham Rainey Harper, was a member) and the third toserve the University. His older brother, Samuel Northrup Harper, '05, authority on Russia, joined the facultyin 1905. The new trustee becomes the fourteenth alumnitrustee of the University.Paul Harper was born in New Haven, Conn., in1889, as his father was contemplating resignation of histhree faculty posts there to accept the presidency of the"new" University of Chicago. In addition to his workat the University, he attended the University of Bonn,Germany; the American School of Archaelology inJerusalem; and Harvard Law School. As an undergraduate he was president of the Dramatic Club, member of the swimming team, and a University Marshal.He served during World War I as a captain in thefield artillery. He lives with his wife, Isabel VincentHarper, and two children in Lake Forest.MILITARY INSTITUTE CREATEDEstablishment of an Institute of Military Studies offering basic military training and advanced courses toall men in the Chicago area was announced last monthby President Hutchins. The pre-service training program, initiated last fall in cooperation with the Ft. Sheridan Special Battalion C.M.T.C. Association, has beenincorporated into the Institute's program, which will include further training in military matters. Arthur L. H.Rubin, expert in military training and education programs, has been appointed executive secretary of theInstitute. Among the new activities scheduled by theInstitute are: a series of lectures on Current MilitaryCampaigns by Hugh M. Cole, instructor in history ; anda basic training to be offered this summer at Mill RoadFarm.The war continues to turn up items of interest in moreways than one. For example: Italian armies neededthe help of German troops as long ago as the third century A.D. Albert T. Olmstead, Professor of OrientalHistory, told the annual meeting of the American Oriental Society last month that in 272 A.D., Shahpuhr I ofPersia noted in one of his commentaries that the Romanarmies had no strength unless they were supported by theGermans. The Persian monarch's animadversion wasmade in the course of a recital of how the Romans hadassembled a force of Germans from all parts of the German empire to make war upon the Aryan Persians (whoconsidered their enemies non-Aryan). The passage inwhich this occurs was discovered on a Persian monument by Dr. Erich F. Schmidt, field director of theOriental Institute's Persepolis expedition.AWARDSif To George G. Wright, Jr., a student of Dr. Dan Campbell in Bacteriology and Parasitology, the Howard Taylor Ricketts Prize ($200) for research on "The Antigenic Relationship between Horse Antibodies and theProteins of Normal Horse Serum," an important stepin understanding the action of vaccines used in prevention of pneumonia, diphtheria and similar diseases;if To Dr. Frances Dorris Humm, Yale University research assistant, and formerly graduate student at theUniversity ; the Sigma Delta Epsilon scientific fraternity's National Research Fellowship of $1,500. NOTESTulips, giant pansies, petunias, geraniums, and begonias; flowering apple and pear trees. These will bethe main attractions at the Mill Road Garden FlowerFestival, beginning May 17 and running until June 1.The Festival will be open to the public.More than two thousand teachers who will attend theFourth Annual Conference on Reading on the Quadrangles June 25 to 28 will participate in a new kind ofprogram which will enable them to consult the visitingexperts in small 'group-conferences, Professor WilliamS. Gray, professor of education, authority on reading,and founder of the conference, has announced.Five members of the faculty have been appointed byPresident Hutchins to a Committee on Biology andMedicine to further the publication through the University Press of books in the field of medicine and thebiological sciences. Members of the Committee are:William H. Taliaferro, Dean of the Division of the Biological Sciences and Chairman of the Department ofBacteriology and Parasitology ; Dr. Franklin C. McLean,Professor of Pathological Physiology; Dr. C. PhillipMiller, Associate Professor of Medicine; Thomas Park,Assistant Professor of Zoology ; and Dr. Lester R. Drag-stedt, Professor of Surgery.The Committee will advise the University of ChicagoPress of research suitable for publication, will planneeded texts, and act as a possible outlet for valuablework now being done throughout the country in thebiological and medical fields. In the matter of securingmanuscripts, the Committee will be assisted by an advisory group, one man from each department of thebiological sciences at the University.Also last month the Student Fiftieth AnniversaryCommittee decided to combine loyalty with pleasure byselecting one hundred of the "most datable" undergraduate women who "signed away a week-end" for the Student Anniversary Fund. The plan was to attend onlySFAC functions on the week-end of May 9-10. Theevents included a student production of ThorntonWilder's Our Town in Mandel Hall ; and an all-student"Show of Shows" and a "Dance of the Queens" Saturdayevening. The committee selected its women on fourstandards: "attractiveness, worldliness and intelligence,congeniality, and sufficient emotional response, and especially emotional synchronization."James H. R. Cromwell, former United States Ministerto Canada, was tospeak on the Quadrangles on May 15and 20. His addresseswere entitled "American Democracy andWorld Peace." Ashort movie made byMr. Cromwell to develop (and present inpictorial form) economic theory was recently shown in theSocial Science surveycourse.News from Rio de JAMES H. R. CROMWELL22 THE UNIVERSITY OFJaneiro, Brazil, comes to the Quadrangles via theNew York Times of the opening on May 3 of a newInstitute of Graduate Studies in Economic, Political andSocial Sciences.Salviano Cruz, who has been instrumental in organizing the school, told the Times correspondent, "Wehave borrowed most heavily from the ideas for highereducation of Dr. Robert Maynard Hutchins of the University of Chicago. It will take five years for a studenttc earn a Bachelor of Arts degree — two years of generalstudy and three years of specialized research."FRANK DINNER IN WASHNGTONAlumni of the University in Washington, D. C, andespecially the law alumni, will meet for dinner on Saturday, May 24, to honor Jerome N.Frank, '12, JD '12, who resigned asChairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission to become ajudge of the Circuit Court of Appealsfor the Second Circuit. The placeis the Carlton Hotel, and the time7:30 P.M. The speakers will include Mr. Justice William O. Douglas of the Supreme Court, JudgeFrank's predecessor as chairman of_the SEC; Edward C. Eicher, '03, JUDGE FRANKJudge Frank's successor as chairman; Judge J. Warren Madden, JD '14, of the U. S.Court of Claims ; and Dean Wilber G. Katz.REUNION PLANS FOR JUNEAs noted in the announcement on page 4 of this issueof the Magazine 1941 Alumni Reunion plans do notinclude an Alumni School. The sixth annual sessionsof the School will be held as part of the Fiftieth Anni-ATHLETICSTHE MAROON SCOREBOARDBASEBALLChicago 4— 7 DePauw Chicago 1—10 MichiganChicago 9— 6 DePauw Chicago 0— 7 MichiganChicago 10—17 Notre Dame Chicago 4—22 IllinoisChicago 0— 4 Northwestern Chicago 3—16 IllinoisChicago 4—11 NorthwesternTENNISChicago 7— 2 Wisconsin Chicago 7— 2 MinnesotaChicago 1— 8 Michigan Chicago 8— 1 Western StateChicago 8 — 1 IowaTRACK GOLFChicago 74—56 Wayne Chicago ^—26^4 IllinoisChicago 63—68 Western StateTHE last time this department saw Chicago's baseball team, it was still trying to get together andplay baseball. A team which seemed to contain thegerm of something really good, the Maroon nine has beenhaying a considerable amount of difficulty in fielding andhitting; the former has produced a total of forty-sixerrors in the first six Conference games, and the latterhas given Chicago twelve runs to seventy for the oppo- CHICAGO MAGAZINEversary Celebration in September. (Plans will be announced in the summer issue of the Alumni Bulletin.)The June Reunion, however, will not be without itstraditional features. The Alumni Assembly addressedby President Hutchins will be held in Mandel Hall onSaturday, June 7, at 3:30 P.M. The thirty-first University Sing will be held in Hutchinson Court on thesame day, beginning at 8:30 P.M. Class and associationdinners and meetings will be held — as outlined on page 4.The School of Business annual dinner will be heldon Thursday, June 5, at 6:30 P.M. in Ida Noyes Hall.The speaker of the evening will be Norman M. Littell,Assistant Attorney General of the United States incharge of the Lands Division. Mr. Littell, whose division is charged with acquiring land for the governmentin the national defense emergency, will speak on "American Business and the New Order in Europe."The reunion program of the Law School will get under way on June 6. The third annual conference onpublic law will be held at 3 :30 P.M. in Oriental Institute, with David Ginsburg, General Counsel of theOffice of Price Administration and Civilian Supply, andTheodore O. Yntema, Professor of Statistics at the University and adviser to Edward Stettinius of the Officeof Production Management discussing "EmergencyPrice Control."The Law School Association's annual banquet will beat 6:30 P.M. on the same day, Friday, June 6, in Hutchinson Commons. The speakers of the evening will bethe Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Greene, of London, Masterof the Rolls, and Arthur Lehman Goodhart, ProfessorJurisprudence at Oxford and Editor of the Law Quarterly Review. George M. Morris, JD '15, of Washington, D. C, president of the association, will preside.The presentation of the Class of 1916's gift to make upthe Twenty-fifth Anniversary Scholarship will be made.• By DON MORRIS, '36nents in the first brace of half a dozen. This is a gruesome sample of the documentation and no doubt willsuffice. The question followers of Maroon sports areasking is "Why?" Well, it's a somewhat complicatedstory, including the rain which drowned out the trip toKentucky, the series of injuries, the newness of some ofthe players, cold weather in the early games, and the rest.But all this doesn't really supply an answer. There istoo much that is good in the team to account for the badshowing so far. (Of course it is possible that the teamwill win all the rest of its games, or even some of them.)Art Lopatka, captain, senior, southpaw, has been playing a good game — at the plate, on the mound, and in center field. So has Sy Hirschberg, who has hit .411 inseventeen times at bat and is still a consistent infielder,even after his switch from second base to shortstop. NickParisi, left field ; Aaron Manders, right field ; and JackFons, who has been nominated to the regular third basespot, have been playing a pretty good game and showsigns of playing a better one. Earl Shanken, now atsecond base, and Bill Oostenbrug, at first, have showedTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23a little of the characteristic inconsistency of newcomers,brilliant play followed by a couple of cold misses, but thatalone will scarcely hold up as the reason for the record.George Basich, who showed ditto, now is out of the lineup with an injury. Put the boys together and they spella good team, but they haven't yet been together.Events since the rather startling 8 to 1 drubbing administered to the tennis team by Michigan have tendedto indicate that this was merely the product of an off dayon the Midway courts ; certainly it was a cold day. Themeet did, however, remove the "undefeated" tag fromevery member of the team except Captain Cal Sawyier.Sawyier has successively beaten Sherwood Gorenstein,Wisconsin's No. 1, Capt. Jim Tobin, of Michigan, AlButterworth, of Iowa, and Ed Olson, of Minnesota, notto mention Gene Russell, Western State's top man.Coach Wally Hebert is still jockeying the bottom end ofboth the singles and doubles lineups, with the rightcombination apparently still elusive. The No. 1 doubleshas not looked too strong, because Lifton is so noticeablyunequal to Sawyier, but Hebert feels it is better to pairSawyier with a hard hitter like Lifton, even though hemakes errors, than saddle the captain with some of themore consistent players, whose slower tempo of playmight be an even more disturbing influence than theerrors.The good ship "Gamma," third in the Yacht Club'sfleet, which this department reported on tap last fall,was delayed in appearance, and now is slated to be setby the end of June. Spring this year saw the yachtsmenrevising their membership rules, re-rigging the "Alpha,"and improving considerably in a competitive way. Witha membership of about fifty, the Yacht Club this yearamended its constitution to permit women students tobelong, in line with similar action taken by the Intercollegiate Association. This action has had the effect ofbrightening up the waterfront, since two-fifths of themembership are girls, including one of the newly-elected officers.The yachtsmen were second in a six-way regatta thismonth, losing out only to Illinois Tech, but crossing theline ahead of Northwestern, Michigan, Wisconsin, andChicago Teachers. A dual regatta with Northwesternlater this month will wind up activities for the spring, buta full program is already designed for the autumn.Yancey T. Blade perpetual cheering section for Maroon teams, reports that he had been grooming himselffor the annual alumni-varsity baseball game June 5, withhis eye on the berth at first base, when a careful readingof the sports pages convinced him that a better way tobuild his fame might be to be drafted and go to, say,Camp Custer. This was all right with Blade, but thearmy rejected him because of his advanced age, payingscant heed to the fact he never breaks the infield flyrule. Irked, Blade plans to enter a late enrollment as astudent ; this will not hurt the alumni chances in thegame.DANIEL L HOFFER DIESAll who had known Daniel L. Hoffer, Assistant Professor of Physical Education and dean of theUniversity's coaching staff— and the number who calledhim "D. L." was vast — grieved at his death April 14, COACH HOFFERCoach of gym-nastics and icehockey and skatingat the Universitysince 1909, he wasranked among theleading spirits incollege athletics inthe nation. At Chicago he was knownas a coach whocould take an awkward kid and turnhim into a brilliantperformer, whocould take a teamof awkward kidsand turn them intochampions. Hecoached fifteenWestern Conference championshipteams and fourwhich won nationaltitles. But he alsohad served as chairman of the boardof the National Collegiate Athletic Association. He hadbeen for sixteenyears a member of the American Olympics committeeand in addition had been national chairman of Y. M. C. A.gymnastics. He died just two days after the 1941 national collegiate gym meet, an event he had been instrumental in founding in 1938, when his team won thechampionship. In this year's meet one of his boys wontwo national individual championships, another retainedone he won in 1940.Born in Denver, Colo., December 2, 1883, Hoffer waseducated in Denver and in 1905 was appointed physicaldirector of the Y. M. C. A. in Colorado Springs. In thefollowing year he was transferred to Fort Dodge, la.,and in 1907 he came to Chicago, where he held the sameposition at the Hyde Park Y, M. C. A. and also wasdirector of physical education in the Riverside elementaryand high schools. In 1909 he was appointed assistantin the University of Chicago's department of physicaleducation by Amos Alonzo Stagg.He is survived by Mrs. Elizabeth Brown Hoffer, hiswidow, and two daughters, Catherine and Jane.Plans for a memorial to Coach Hoffer have been announced by Erwin Beyer, chairman of a committee offormer team members and friends of Mr. Hoffer's. Afund of several hundred dollars will be raised for thememorial. A bronze tablet will be placed in BartlettGymnasium on the east wall of the gymnasium floor,where "D. L." spent so many years coaching championship teams. If the amount raised permits, a trophy, onwhich will be inscribed annually the name of the Chicago gymnast who stands highest in all-around competition, also will be established. Contributions to the DanielL. Hoffer Fund should be sent to Mr. Beyer, at Bartlett.REFLECTIONS: IN SPITE OF WAR• By HELEN CRAMP McCROSSEN, '09HERE among the citrus groves of California, whereI write, it might seem a far cry to discuss thesignificance of the University of Chicago. Andyet things in the modern world show a great capacityno problem is isolated in a world where science hasbecome the watchword.These citrus groves would in a few years revert to thedesert from which they sprang — sage brush and cactus —if it were not for the continued application of science.Science has been used to plant, irrigate, prune, sprayand fertilize, and science will also some day be appliedto the social and economic life of the people who plantedthe trees and the Mexican laborers who pick the fruit.And the great universities of America, especially Chicago, stress the scientific approach to knowledge, notonly in the particular fields originally claimed by sciencebut in the fields of the humanities as well. If we saythat the nineteenth century staged a battle between science and religion we might add that the twentieth century staged another battle between science and humanism. But humanism has in no sense gone down to defeat: it has perhaps stretched its contours a little torecognize the continuity between man and nature and toreconstruct its critical principles along more empiricallines. And even the subject matter and terminology ofscience enter increasingly into other fields, such as literature — witness the poetry of Marianne Moore in theUnited States and of W. J. Turner in England, and thecritical work, say T. S. Eliot and I. A. Richards.In short, a great deal of water has in this centuryflowed under a great many bridges and if the separatestreams have not yet united into a single river, the hopecf many educators seems to be that they will. To quoteJohn Dewey: "The problem of restoring integrationand co-operation between man's beliefs about the worldin which he lives and his beliefs about the values andpurposes that should direct his conduct, is the deepestproblem of modern life." And, as Professor CharlesW. Morris has put it: "This country stands before anera of great promise. . . But if the promise is to be fulfilled it will require the full resources of scientists, artists and technologists,, proud and courageous in theirown activities, with vision enough to see that each complements the other and that each requires of the othersunderstanding, co-operation and support."That the University of Chicago has undertaken thepublication of an International Encyclopedia of UnifiedScience is significant and gives the University uniqueprestige. The encyclopedia, as planned, does not confineitself to science in the restricted sense but undertakes toapply the methods of scientific inquiry to all learning,including the humanities. It thus expresses a trend offorceful education today.To those of us who can look back over several decades, the growth of the scientific spirit in the Universityand the increasing application of science to the problems of society, is plainly visible. Social Science, called Sociology in my day, seemed in many ways purely theoretical. Veblen, Sumner, Ward and others had laidtheir cards on the table but no> one could have guessedthat in the 1930's those cards would be carried to Washington and reshuffled. Economics, called Political Economy, was a good class-room subject and no one evendreamed that in 1940 some 170,000,000 people would beliving under a plan conceived more or less by one, KarlMarx. Semantics probably existed as a word in thedictionary but few of us, I am sure, had ever heard of itor, if we had, could have forseen the importance it wouldplay in a future synthesis of science.The battle of the "humanists," fantastic as it nowseems in some of its aspects, did much to clarify issuesand my own mind, at least seemed to come to rest in anessay of Lewis Mumford, Toward an Organic Humanism. "The most complete personalities/' he writes, "areprecisely those that have accumulated the most diverseelements in their cultures and have lived least to themselves. Personality provides not only our original nucleus of experience; it is also the summit of our achievement. And the apex of every culture is accordinglyneither its technology nor its positive science nor itsworks of art, but all of these together and many partsof the universe besides, as they are concentrated andfulfilled in the highest personality." In such a point ofview science and the humanities meet.Education, like art, lends itself to innumerable definitions and because the subject has many facets, definitionsthat seem quite different may be true and important asworking hypotheses for individuals. As I look backover my own life and forward to the lives of my childrenand other young people, it seems to me that educationmay be expressed as a search for values, both scientificand human.Until very recently religion dominated institutions oflearning, even in the United States. The imprint endures in many places and undoubtedly still has certainhuman values. But in spite of the fact that all greatteachers of practically all creeds stressed the idea ofbrotherhood, religion has been largely concerned withindividual destiny, whereas intelligent and forceful leaders today are concerned with problems of social destiny.To the solution of these problems scientific knowledgeand human insight seem equally necessary.It is true that, as many writers, including PresidentHutchins, have pointed out, we have applied science witha vengeance to the manufacture of gadgets without applying it — as yet — successfully to the important problemsof society and government. But the scientific spirit, evident in the University today, is in itself a promise. Animportant proportion of graduates enter fields of scienceand affairs. But in thinking of them we must not forgetthat in a democracy the burden of solutions rests also24THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25upon each and every citizen, the average student asdistinguished from the brilliant and exceptional.There seems little hope for. civilization as we unless the future peace conference or league of nations or whatever organization it may be that will attempt to solve world problems approaches them in thedisinterested spirit of the scientist. And similarly inAmerica our own pressing social and economic problemswill have to be studied much more thoroughly than hasyet been done. Here is work for the youth emergingfrom the University. America and the world are theleave the State in charge of all economic activity, and alarge army in charge of the State.Thus the conquest of Britain would enormously alterthe balance of power against us, and add enormously tothe burden of our social, political and economic life.Forces which once balanced each other in the interplay of world politics would be rolled into one mightyengine of expansion. The German war potential wouldbe astronomic. A population of 400,000,000 Europeanswould provide the military and industrial man-power- fora prodigious assertion of force. Iron, steel and oil areavailable, industrial skills, great accumulations of capital.In relation to such a Europe, backed by its colonies, andflanked by its two Eastern allies, our strength would begreatly impaired, and our security correspondinglyendangered.Under the old regime we knew where we stood. Wewere safe strategically, and could continue by trade todevelop the capitalist and democratic institutions wepreferred. And we would be correspondingly secure, itseems fair to predict, if England could win the war, andwith us direct the creation of a new regime built out ofthe ideas and organizations of the democratic culture.With England conquered, we should face a doubtfuland insecure future. We should be forced to undertakegigantic and prolonged military expenses, and a dangerous reorganization of our economy and of our social order. We should face a hostile political system, whichwould attempt to demoralize our political life, and weakenour strategic position. And these sacrifies would by nomeans give us convincing assurances against the coming of war — a war against a superior combination ofpower, and not necessarily on favorable territory.Our dilemma is to choose between dangerous action,designed to win the war, and dangerous inaction, postponing the issue until Germany has conquered and reorganized all Europe. Helping England energeticallynow carries with it a risk of war, the chance of securitypreserved, and of social democracy enhanced in thepost-war world ; letting England fall now, and then collaborating with victorious Germany, carries with it therisk of later war, and of Fascism and impoverishment athome and abroad. This is the simplest meaning the warhas for us, and this is the factual beginning for the formulation of our policy in relation to the War.The safest course for us to follow, if we want to preserve our independence and our social institutions, is toovercome our terrible paralysis of will and settle down laboratory: the student is the disinterested researcher.Perhaps the old nineteenth century dread of sciencewas really the fear that it might in some way distort notonly religious but human values. Instead it has greatlyenriched them. The next step for us in America — andcertainly the University and its graduates can be ofenormous help — is to apply our scientific knowledge tothe construction of a more complete democracy. Thephilosophers of the eighteenth century conceived theplan: it remains for men of the twentieth century, imbued with the scientific spirit, to fill in the winning the war against Germany from the advancedbase of Britain. We should mobilize and use our industrial and military power at great tension. So far wehave deceived ourselves about "Aid to Britain." Wehave thought of ourselves as philanthropists, and actedlike profiteers. We are not aiding Britain out of sentiment, because Shakespeare wrote in English, or because the British are "brave." We have an immenseinterest in the war, and it should be protected withouthesitation. It is time to settle down to the job, and seeit through. Such a course offers a greater chance ofsecuring our essential political interests than any other,and with a lesser danger of destruction.It is becoming clear that the British Commonwealthof Nations cannot win the war alone. We are nowcalled upon to decide whether the interests of Americansecurity require us to intervene actively — by permittingvolunteers to go, or by sending our navy and air forceinto battle. At bottom, it was that question which ledus to war in 1917; we face the issue, and the risk, again.We reduce that risk if we can help Britain win ; we faceit, in more aggravated form, if Britain loses.The evolving pattern of life as we know it — the schemeof political democracy and economic capitalism, of stateenterprise and reform as it is conceived by the progressive forces of all the democracies, in Mr. Willkie'sspeeches as well as in Mr. Roosevelt's, by the Scandinavian Socialists and the Liberals and Laborites of England—this generally accepted program of action couldsurvive a war, even a long war: witness the emotionalresources and social responses of England. Its greatestperil would come not from war itself, but from a prolonged period of militarization and indecision, characterized by delay, propaganda, crushing expense, and asense of the futility of possible war. We should facejust such a period if Germany wins soon. If, with theresources of this continent, we have to build a militarymachine against the superior equipment, industry, manpower and wealth of Europe, Africa and Eastern Asia,we would be weakened or destroyed by the process ofbuilding, even if the war itself never came. That contention is the essence of our interest in the War. It isa compelling, a truly national interest, going to the rootsof our security, for, if correct, it means that we have avery large stake in a German defeat. If we fail to protect that stake, we shall have little opportunity for reform, for democracy, for political independence, or theother great values of our tradition.The War and Our Future (Continued from Page 8)26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEEconomic Essentials for Unity(Continued from Page 12)Figures covering total payrolls — which take account ofall the factors influencing wages — show that labor income in all manufacturing industry in January 1941 were31 per cent higher than the average in 1939. Meanwhile, the number of workers had increased only 15.5per cent. The increase in payrolls between July 1940,when the defense program began to get strongly underway, and February 1941, amounted to 29 per cent.1The increase in hourly rates of pay have also beenappreciable. Figures compiled for 25 leading manufacturing industries show an average wage rate for 1939of 72 cents; for 1940 of 74 cents; and for January 1941of 76 cents. The January figure indicates an increaseover 1939 of 5.5 per cent. Thanks to longer hours andovertime rates of pay the average weekly earnings inthe same industries increased as much as 13 per cent.2This increase in money wages has also been an increasein real purchasing power. The cost of living index ofthe Bureau of Labor Statistics was, in January 1941,less than 5 per cent above the average level for 1939.Thus it is quite clear that up to the spring of this yearwTeekly earnings have risen well over twice as much as thecost of living. When account is taken of the steadierwork throughout the year it is evident that the positionof regularly employed labor in manufacturing industrieshas shown very material improvement.An increase in wages resulting from steadier employment is of course altogether warranted and desirable.The increase in labor income is the direct result of addedhours and days of work, and it is matched — except inthe case of overtime rates — by increased output of products. All would presumably agree that labor is fullyentitled to the added compensation which results fromincreased work and increased output. It is not only anincentive to the laborer but the accompanying improvement in the standard of living is a fortunate circumstancebecause it makes possible a more satisfactory state ofhealth and efficiency among the lower income groups,and in all cases it serves to compensate for the restrictedearnings of depression years.Notwithstanding the improvement which has beentaking place in labor's position, there is a widespreadtendency at the present time to demand wage increasesin connection with the renewal of labor contracts. Thesedemands arise out of three different considerations.The first is a natural desire on the part of labor totake advantage of an improved bargaining position. Notcontent with the maintenance of existing labor standards and rates of pay, and the increase in income whichresults from the expansion of employment, the war emergency is regarded as an opportunity to obtain still higherrates of pay. In the words of Philip Murray in a muchquoted address delivered before the American Association of School Administrators in February 1941, "IfAmerica in the days of national defense is going to bemenaced with industrial turmoil, then that condition williThese figures are from the U. S. Department of_ Labor, Bureauof Labor Statistics, Indexes of Employment and payrolls in All Manufacturing Industries Combined.2Compiled from the Economic Almanac, "1940, National IndustrialConference Board, p. 232; and Survey of Current Business, February1941, p. 75. be altogether attributable to the unwillingness of largeemployers of labor to recognize the common needs ofman — of men, women, and children who are aspiring tosecure for themselves just a little more of this sunlightthat God in His infinite wisdom decreed human beingsshould have."The second argument advanced in justification of wageincreases in renewal contracts at the present time is thatthe cost of living has recently been showing some tendency to rise, and that it might rise considerablybefore the expiration of the contract. Accordingly, it isurged that wages niust be increased now,, even thoughthe cost of living has not as yet advanced in line withthe increase in money wages.Third, it is argued that increases in wage rates arejustified because of rising profits — that they can be paidfor out of increased profits. Great emphasis is attachedto this argument and unique methods of statistical computation are employed in support of the position thatpresent profits are excessive. Accordingly, it is necessary at this place to consider the situation with respectto profits.It is true, of course, that profits have been rising during the war emergency period. This is for exactly thesame reason that aggregate wages have been rising.The increase in profits is attributable to the fuller employment of plant and equipment, just as the increasein wages is attributable, chiefly, to fuller employment oflabor. It should be carefully noted in this connectionthat the increase in profits which has occurred has notbeen — except in a few cases — attributable to rising prices,or to "profiteering" ; it has resulted almost entirely fromthe increased volume of production.The facts show that manufacturing corporations asa whole had increased net profits in 1940, as comparedwith 1939, of $600,000,000. Of this total, $300,000,000were disbursed as dividends, the remainder being retained in the business for purposes of improving thefinancial position and meeting expansion requirements.As a result of the expansion in the total volume ofbusiness, corporations paid $1,800,000,000 in additionalwages ; $900,000,000 in increased taxes ; and $300,000,-000 in added dividends.3 In view of the fact that manycorporations in recent years have been operating at adeficit, or on very narrow margins of profit, it was regarded as sound policy, when levying war taxes, topermit some increase in profits. The fact is that anincrease in profits was necessary in many cases to thefinancial health of corporations ; and they are also astimulus to increased efficiency. The arguments here aresubstantially the same as those applicable to labor. Asa matter of policy, we have thus far deemed it wise toallow labor to retain practically all of the gains resulting from increased employment and higher wages.However, in the case of capital, we have limited, bymeans of excess profits and other taxes, the extent towhich the gains resulting from increased output mayaccrue to the advantage of the corporation.Gross corporate earnings in 1941 will, however, undoubtedly be materially higher than they were in 1940.Looking forward, therefore, can it not fairly be arguedthat wage rates should be increased in the interest of3See con-mutation in monthly publication of the National City Bankof New York. March 1941.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27equity and fairness ?My answer to this question is that "excess profits"should be taken by the government in the form of taxesrather than paid to labor in the form of increased wagerates. When the increased profits are channelled intothe Treasury, they are helping to meet the cost of thedefense program as we go. When transferred to the payenvelops of labor, they are employed chiefly in expanding consumption, which, beyond a certain point,tends to impede the war production program.In view of the substantial rise in real wages whichhas occurred, sharp advances in wage rates at thistime cannot be justified on grounds of equity. Whileit is, of course, possible that as a result of factors otherthan labor costs there might be some increases in pricesduring coming months, it is absolutely certain that increases in wage rates will force price increases, therebybringing about the very situation which is feared. Thatis to say, through increasing costs of production, wagerate advances will inevitably result in price advances.Soon the spiral of rising costs, rising prices, and againrising wages would be in full swing. In some industriesthey may for a time be met out of profits, but in theend price advances are inescapable and uncontrollable.We may indicate the process involved by specific illustrations drawn from current news. Coal mine workers are asking for an increase of a dollar per day ; andthe coal mine operators are insisting that if the increaseis granted it will be necessary for them to advance theprice of coal by an equivalent amount. The outcomewould thus be increased cost of coal for both industrialand household uses. The rise in an important elementof manufacturing cost would exert pressure for compensating increases in the prices of manufactured products generally. The increase in the cost of coal forhousehold consumption would be reflected in the indexof the cost of living. In the amalgamated clothing tradesan increase of from 10 to 13 per cent in wages has justbeen agreed upon. It is announced that this — togetherwith some advances in wool costs — will mean an increasenext autumn in the price of ready-made suits of from$2 to $5.The effects of increasing wages in any given industryquickly spread to other industries. They operate on theone hand to increase costs, and, on the other, they serveas a stimulus to similar wage increases elsewhere. It isshortly taken for granted by industry and labor alike,and by. mediation boards and other government agenciesas well, that cumulative wage and price increases areinevitable. For example, the Consumers' Division of theAdvisory Commission to the Council of National Defense recently issued a statement which evidently acceptswage and price increases as inevitable and contents itselfwith making an appeal to the distributing industriesto mitigate the situation by refraining as long as possiblefrom making corresponding increases in prices.INEQUITABLE CONSEQUENCESThe tragedy of the situation is that increases in wagerates in strategically placed industries will tend to be atthe expense of large segments of the population whose income position is often less satisfactory than that of themore favored labor groups. Many groups of unorgan ized labor and of workers in trades less vital from thestandpoint of the national defense program cannot hopeto obtain quickly corresponding increases in wage rates ;the lag will always be against them. The position of theso-called "white collared" groups will be even worse, forthey have little chance to obtain increases in rates of payto offset rising living costs. It should be rememberedalso that the returns from insurance annuities and otherpayments, and old-age and other pensions, lose a substantial portion of their purchasing power.The process also affects the position of farmers, increasing the disparity between industrial and agriculturalprices, and leading, no doubt, to demands for still greaterfarm subsidies from the government. (Since this statement was written, announcement has been made of aso-called agricultural price stabilization plan — madeeffective by government purchases — which will raise theprices of a selected group of farm products.)The inflationary movement now beginning will thuscreate economic inequities and produce social discontent.This in turn will impede the war production program andpromote national disunity.While an inflationary movement is now definitelyunder way, there is however still room for hope that itcan be restrained. Because of the safeguarding factorsto which reference has been made there is little reasonfor believing that we will have a degree of inflation comparable to that which occurred during the World Warperiod when the general level of prices more thandoubled.It is, moreover, still possible to restrict the influenceof wages on prices. Instead of granting wage increasesin anticipation of subsequent advances in the cost ofliving — thereby forcing price advances — wages couldreadily be adjusted to actual changes in the cost of living as they occur. Assuming it is sound national policyto preserve the present level of real wages this can beaccomplished by flexible labor contracts which providefor periodic review of money wages in the light ofchanges which may have occurred in the cost of living.This is not the place to present the details of a formulafor handling this problem. It is enough to point outhere that this approach to the problem offers the possibilities of a constructive solution. Nothing would domore to promote national unity during the presentemergency than the development of a plan for the adjustment of this problem along the lines indicated.Very difficult times undoubtedly lie before us. Whileas I have indicated the income of the wage-earningpopulation — generally speaking — may be expected .to risesomewhat, that of many other groups will undoubtedlyfall. Expanding consumer expenditures in numerouslines will increasingly compete with war requirements— necessitating restrictions on consumption. Taxes wrillbe greatly increased, especially on business enterprisesand on the middle income classes.We shall have a very large national income and —given wise fiscal administration and sound wage andprice policies— we could pass through the ordeal withouta great financial upheaval and its accompanying socialunrest. Recent pronouncements with respect to fiscalpolicy are definitely encouraging. But as yet the wagequestion has not been faced by the administration.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPACIFIC fiflfl^T — San Francisco, Losntuinir UUHdl Angeles> Pacific North.west. All the high spots of the West Coaston one grand circle tour. Round <££•- r\r\trip in coaches, from Chicago . ^OD.UUROM RFR RAM— Lake Mead. En route toDUULULft VHIVI orfrom California. Toursfrom Las Vegas, Nevada, at a nominal charge.COLORADO — Sublime mountain vacation-vvkvnnvv jan(j overnight from Chicago,round trip in coaches as ^~* * ftlow as $31. IllYELLOWSTONE— Ma^lc land of geysers,ILLLUHOIUI1L waterfalls, canyons.Round trip in Pullmans (berth ty|ft OAextra), from Chicago *4!l.uUZION, BRYCE, GRAND CANYON NAT!PARKS — ^ee a^tnree awe-inspiring wonder-lands on one tour. Round trip toCedar City in Pullmans (berth *Cn £«*extra), from Chicago ^5U.uURI ACK Mil I ^ of South Dakota— HighestDLHOft niLLO mountains east of theRockies. Picturesque. Romantic. Site ofMt. Rushmore Memorial. Round trip incoaches from Chicago, as ***** jii-low as ; $26.45SUN VALLEY, IDAHO SSSSSSSon the edge of America's "Last Wilderness." Round trip in coaches, *-. - ^^from Chicago $54.90CANADIAN ROCKIESl^UkeLo^e,Vancouver. En route to or from thePacific Coast. Round trip in fi- AAcoaches, from Chicago . . . $b5.UUAl ncKA~~Midni&nt Sun Land- sine t\t\HLHdHH ROUnd trip from Seattle *1U5.UUCOAST-TO-COAST CIRCLE TOURfrom any point in the United States, by anyroute you choose — round trip ***(*. aarail fare in coaches, only . . . ^"U.UUIn Pullmans (berth extra) .... $135.00For routing in one direction via the CanadianRockies, additional charge of $5.00 will apply.NORTH WOODS ?/ ^iscons^j upper"Wl ¦ " " VW1"" Michigan, Minnesota— Forest playground of the Middle West,from Chicago, round trip rail fare ~ - —as low as $9*Ob"NORTH WESTERN'S" modern air-conditioned trains provide thru service to all ofthese western vacationlands. The couponbrings you the complete story — simply indicate the region or regions in which you areinterested.TRAVEL ON THE INSTALLMENT PLAN—Go Now — Pay Later — No Money DownCHICAGO — NORTH WESTERN LINE LETTERS— », MAIL THIS COUPON- — R. Thomson, Passenger Traffic ManagerChicago and North Western LineDept. 137 — 400 W.Madison St., Chicago, 111.Please send information about vacations toName. .Street_ .City ? Also all- expense tours . State ? Credit Travel (Continued from Page 3)is not too practical, and the friends arenot too idealistic.Some one has said, "Render untoCaesar the things that are Caesar's andunto God the things that are God's."Do you suppose we can ? I'd like to try.Very truly yours,Merlin M. Paine, '16.Colonial Park, Pa."THE PROPOSITION IS PEACE"To the Editor :Far be it from me to enter into competition with the five powerful and reasoned rebuttals of this address carriedwith it in the April number of theMagazine. But one point might bemore explicitly stressed.The title of the address is an appealing phrase, the more so since it isquoted from a lover of liberty and inrelation to our own struggle for freedom. But, since Mr. Hutchins insists,again quoting Edmund Burke, that hisproposition has nothing but reason torecommend it, and since reason is logicif it is sound reason, it must be saidthat Mr. Hutchins' use of Burke'swords is logically a non sequitur of anextreme type, since if it proves anythingit goes against Mr. Hutchins, and foren-sically, to put it mildly, it is an argu-mentum ad ignorantiam. And I fearMr. Hutchins might be offended if weexcused him on the ground of ignorance.Yet so it is. For, as we surely allknow when we think of it, Burke waspleading with the British government,King, ministers, parliament, to ceasetheir aggression against the AmericanColonies. His hearers could have peaceby their own volition, an end to warand a return to sanity. To justify Mr.Hutchins' use of Burke's grand phrasethe appeal would have had to be madeto the Colonies, to General Washingtonand the Continental Congress, to laydown their arms and accept a Britishpeace. If he desires to use Burke logically, today, there is only one power,or at most two, to whom he should address its logic — to Nazi Germany andperhaps to Japan. They are the onlypowers in the world today who can, bytheir own volition and action, have anydecent and trustworthy peace. Let himouote Burke to them ; it is not likelythat their response will be gratifying,but at least he will be using reason aswell as eloquence.I am writing this because I am soprofoundly concerned for the one positive and affirmative "propostion" in theaddress, and am so dismayed by the prevailing negatives. The positiveproposition is that "It is our task towork out a new order in America, notlike Hitler's. . ."—to which I add, tomake my own .position clearer, not likethe British Empire. My devotion tothis proposition is indicated by my warmadmiration of Mr. Mayer's brilliant"The House Is on Fire," in the sameissue. If anything in this letter seemsto imply that I think I know the answers to the current riddles of theSphinx, then I have expressed myselfblunderingly. But the wrong answers,however persuasively advocated, willnot save the Republic.Edward O. Sisson, '93.Bremerton, Wash.BOOKSOla Elizabeth Winslow, PhD '22,head of the department of English atGoucher College, was this monthawarded the Pulitzer Prize for her biography of Jonathan Edwards. Thisvolume will be reviewed in these columns next month by Professor WilliamW. Sweet, Professor of the History ofAmerican Christianity.A native of California, Miss Win-slow was raised in Santa Clara, received her bachelor's and master's degree in arts from Leland StanfordUniversity and her doctorate in philosophy from the University. She hasbeen a member of the English Department at Goucher since 1914, specializingin American literature.The author of occasional essays thathave appeared in the Atlantic Monthlyand other magazines, the Edwards biography is her second book. The first,American Broadside Verse, appeared in1930. Her research for the biographywas based on manuscripts in the YaleUniversity Library and the British Museum. She is now working on a volume on early American religious history.NEWS OF THE CLASSES1893Edward Octavius Sisson, founderof the South Side Academy which laterfurnished the nucleus student body forthe University High School, nowEmeritus Professor of Philosophy atReed College in Portland, Oregon, hasjust finished writing a book entitled,"One Man's America."1895Always popular as a lecturer, JamesWestfall Thompson, PhD '95, President of the American Historical Society, made the address gt this year'sannual meeting of the Medieval Academy and delivered a series of lecturesat the Universities of Minnesota, Ohioand Iowa on the diffusion of cultureduring the Middle Ages.Ernest Green Dodge, AM '95,serves as a member of the Senior Rating Board in the Investigation Division of the Civil Service Commissionin Washington, D. C.1897Charles Truman Wyckoff,PhD '97, has just retired from his position as head of the Department ofHistory and Dean of Bradley Tech inPeoria, Illinois.1904James G. Randall, AM' 04, PhD Tl,Professor of History at the Universityof Illinois and former President of theMississippi Valley Historical Association, authored a number of articlespublished in The Mississippi ValleyHistorical Review, and is now engagedin research on Lincoln.1905Purdue History Professor, Louis ;Martin Sears, AM '09, PhD '22,wrote the article on "Foreign Relations" in the Dictionary of AmericanHistory.1907Irene Otis Bunch heads the FrenchDepartment of Peoria Central HighSchool in Peoria, Illinois.1908Milo M. Quaife, PhD '08, Secretaryof the Burton Historical Collection,Detroit Public Library, has recentlypublished "Condensed HistoricalSketches of Each of Michigan's Counties" and "War on Detroit."1911Wesley M. Gewehr, AM 'h2,PhD '22, formerly a faculty memberof the American University, Washington, D. C, is now Chairman of theDepartment of History at the University of Maryland.The Editor is indebted to ConradoBenitez, AM '12, Dean of the School of Business in the University of thePhilippines and Assistant Secretary toPresident Quezon, for a beautifully illustrated volume on the Philippines, entitled, "Our Government: What it isdoing for us."1912Leonard B. Loeb, PhD '16, MilitaryCommander, U. S. Naval Reserve, ison active duty at the Naval ProvingGround, Dahlgren, Virginia. In civillife Mr. Loeb is Professor of Physicsat the University of California.1913Alfred Procter James, AM '13,PhD '24, Professor of History at theUniversity of Pittsburgh, has writtenseveral articles for the Dictionary ofAmerican History.1914Derwent Whittlesey, AM '16,PhD '20, Associate Professor of Geography at Harvard University and author of "The Earth and the State: AStudy of Political Geography," has been in great demand as a lecturer. Recentengagements were Cooper Union, Western Reserve University, The AmericanHistorical Association and WesternPennsylvania Teachers Association.Etta Shield Preston, Associate.Principal of Roycemore School inEvanston, will become Principal nextyear succeeding the present head whowill retire in June.Emma Brodbeck left Chicago lastSeptember on a return trip to her Mission Station in Suifu, China. Letterspublished in the Chicago Times chronicle her adventures as she went bywater to Rangoon, thence by rail toLashio, where she was classified as"necessary war supplies" and allowedto ride by truck over the Burma Roadto Kunming. At Kunming she tooktruck to Luchow and then a river boatto her station. The letters proved ofsuch interest that they have been issuedas an attractive brochure by LouiseHages of Chicago.George S. Leisure, of New YorkCity, writes that he has just returnedfrom a trip to Trinidad.IF IT'S WORTH KEEPING,INSURE ITvsasssmgehiAnything that's worth owning isworth protecting, yet you never knowwhen your home, furnishings, business, automobile, jewelry and otherpossessions may be taken from you... by fire, windstorm, theft, acci dent or other hazard over which youhave no control.You can circumvent the uncertainties of the future by dependable property insurance. There's a policy forpractically every contingency that canaffect your financial welfare. Andthere's a North America Agent inyour vicinity ready to sit down withyou, discuss your specific insuranceneeds and tell you which policiesyou should have.• CAPITAL $12,000,000• LOSSES PAID over $457,000,000Insurance Company ofNorth AmericaPHILADELPHIAFOUNDED 1792and its affiliated companies write practically every form of insurance except life29THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGET A COMPLETECHANGE OF SCENE!SOUTH AMERICA)ee new places — new people —new sights. Take in the beauty ofRio's enchanting harbor — the luxuryof cosmopolitan Buenos Aires — thegracious charm of friendly Montevideo. Bring your swim-suit, yourgolf things, your dress clothes —you'll have the time of your lifegetting acquainted with your"GoodNeighbors" below the Equator!38-DAY ALL-EXPENSE CRUISESon the Luxurious33,000-Ton American Republics LinersS.S.BRAZIL S.S.URUGUAYS.S.ARGENTINASailing from New Yoric Every Other Fridayand Calling atBARBADOS • RIO DE JANEIRO • SANTOSMONTEVIDEO • BUENOS AIRES • SANTOSSAO PAULO • RIO DE JANEIRO ¦ TRINIDADEvery cruise comfort— every shipboardpleasure. All staterooms outside, air-conditioned dining rooms, outdoor tiled swimming pools, broad Lido sports decks.CRUISE RATES: $395 Tourist, $585 FirstClass (Prices include all shore excursions andhotel expenses at Buenos Aires, ship is yourhotel at all other ports.)Consult your Travel Agent orMIIIIIII-llrCIIIIMlili3 Broadway, New York 1915Besides being Dean of the GraduateSchool, Albert Burton Moore, AM'15, PhD '21, heads the History Department at the University of Alabama.Vernon F. Schwalm, AM '16, PhD'26, will leave the presidency of McPherson College, McPherson, Kansas,to assume that of Manchester College,North Manchester, Indiana, where heformerly served as Dean.Charles O. Hardy, PhD '16, author of "Wartime Control of Prices"which appeared last year, is on the staffof Brookings Institution in Washington, D. C.1916Albert Russell Mann, AM '16, isVice-President and Director of theGeneral Education Board in New YorkCity.1918Charles Melvin Phillips, AM '18,is interim Pastor of the First BaptistChurch in Murphysboro, Illinois.David B. Eisenberg is President ofThe Graphic Arts Monthly, with officesat 608 South Dearborn Street, Chicago.1919David H. Annan returned on February 1, from a three-month trip toSouth America.Glyde Boshell, who was married toEdward Dietterle of Melvin, Illinois,in September, 1940, writes that she andher husband have recently moved intoa new home in Melvin.1920Severe illness has interrupted theteaching of Joseph B. Stevens atThornton High School in Harvey, Illinois.1921Edwin W. Webster, AM '21, PhD'34, author of "The Classics as theBasis of a Modern Education," is Professor of History at Ripon College inRipon, Wisconsin.Mrs. William" T. Mason (VivianCarter) directs field operations for theDepartment of Welfare, New YorkCity.Chester Jacob Attig, PhD '21, isProfessor of History and Dean ofFreshmen at North Central College,Naperville, Illinois.Mrs. James M. Osborn (Ida Bond)is teaching at McKinley High Schoolin Chicago.1922Charles E. Lee, '22, is an editorialassistant on the staff of The Journal ofModern History.Major James R. Jacobs, AM '22,author of "Tarnished Warrior," a biography of Major General James Wilkinson, is writing a history of the Regular Army from 1783 to 1812, whichwill be the first of three volumes on thesame subject covering the years 1783to 1861. Winnetta H. Grady teaches HomeEconomics in Sumner High School, St.Louis.Harry L. Bird writes copy for theFitzgerald Advertising Agency in NewOrleans.1923Richard H. Bauer, AM '28, PhD'35, of the Department of History,Mary Washington College, Fredericksburg, Virginia, will have an essay onHans Delbruck in the volume on European Historiography to be publishedby the University of Chicago Press.Rose T. Baker, AM '23, is AssistantDirector for the dining halls at YaleUniversity.George W. Brown, AM '23, PhD'24, Professor of History at the University of Toronto and Editor of TheCanadian Historical Review, has recentlypublished, "Readings in Canadian History."N. Paul Hudson, PhD '23, is inEngland at present helping the Britishin a health program and distributing anew influenza vaccine under the auspices of the Rockefeller Foundation,besides assisting refugee governmentsin London to place medical studentshere in the United States.1924. William H. Gray, AM '24, PhD'37, Instructor of Latin American History at Pennsylvania State College,wrote an article entitled, "AmericanDiplomacy in Venezuela, 1835-1865"which appeared in The Hispanic American Historical Review last November.John Duncan Brite, AM '24, PhD'37, Associate Professor of History atUtah State Agricultural College, thisyear broadcast an address over StationKSL, Kansas City, entitled, "The NewAmerica of 1940," and took part in around table discussion of national defense which was broadcast over StationKVNU, Logan, Utah.1925William Nelson Fuqua, perennialcampus uncle, was impersonated in thisyear's Blackfriars show, much to hisenjoyment.John H. Provinse, PhB '28, AM'30, PhD '34, recently joined the staffof the U. S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, D. C, as a soilconservationist.Loren C. McKinney, PhD '25, Professor of Medieval History at the University of North Carolina and author ofseveral articles that have recently appeared in Speculum and the Bulletin tthe History of Medicine, read a pap<at the January meeting of the Unive:sity of North Carolina's Philologic;Society.Abba Abrams, JD '25, is now locatein the Investment Building, Washington, D. C.Fremont P. Wirth, PhD '25, Prefessor of the Teaching of History iPeabody College in Nashville, Tenne:see, and author of "Recent Events iTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31the Development of America," was recently elected President of the NationalCouncil for Social Studies.1926Jean Ingram Brookes, PhD '26,will soon publish a book entitled, "International Rivalry in the Pacific Islands."Virginius F. Coe of East FallsChurch, Virginia is on the staff of theTreasury Department, Washington,D. C.Eugene H. Kleinpell, AM '26, isChairman of the Division of SocialStudies at State Teachers College,Maryville, Missouri.1927Marion Dargan, PhD '27 , Professor of History, University of NewMexico, whose two articles on NewMexico's struggle for statehood appeared in the April, 1940, and January, 1941, issues of The New MexicoHistorical Review has just edited Miguel Antonio Otero's "My Nine Yearsas Governor of New Mexico, 1897-1906."John Charles Clark, SM '27, isAssistant Professor of Physics at Michigan State College in East Lansing.Charles Isabell Henry, AM '27, isSuperintendent of Schools in Mayfield,Kentucky.1928Author-lecturer, Chester McArthurDestler, AM '28, PhD '32, Chairmanof the Division of Social Sciences atGeorgia State Teachers College in Col-legeboro, has been elected President ofthe Georgia Council for Social Studies.Colonel Donald B. Sanger, AM'28, PhD '34, has continued work on hisbiography of Joseph Johnston and amilitary history of the United States,although incapacitated during much ofthe past year by an eye ailment.Conrad Bergendorff, PhD '28, ThD(Hon.), is President of Augustana College Theological Seminary and hasserved since 1938 as a member of theAmerican Committee of the LutheranWorld Convention.Mildred A. Dawson, AM, '28, is Associate Professor of Elementary Education at the University of Tennesseein Knoxville.1929Hazel E. Foster, BD '32, PhD '33, on leave of absence from the Presbyterian College of Christian Education,Chicago, is making a lecture tour ofAsia. Her present address is the Y. W.C. A. in Calcutta.John Henry Davis, Jr., PhD '29,Professor of Biology at SouthwesternCollege in Memphis wrote "The Ecology and Geologic Role of Mangrovesin Florida," which appeared in the Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 517.1930Mary Alice Ball, SM '30, is headof the Department of Home Economics at St. Mary of the Spring College,Columbus, Ohio.Saul K. Padover, AM '30, PhD '32,serves as Assistant to Secretary of theInterior, Ickes.Mrs. John Maier (Agnes Ryan) isteaching at Fenger High School in Chicago.1931Mary Sue Bledsoe, SM '31, of Atkins, Arkansas, serves as Technician atCharity Hospital in Shreveport, Louisiana.James A. McDill, AM '31, formerlyof the First Union CongregationalChurch in Quincy, Illinois, is now atthe First Congregational Church, LongBeach, California.Stuart R. Tompkins, PhD '31, Associate Professor of History at the University of Oklahoma is the author of"Russia Through the Ages." He spentlast summer working on conflicts between Russian and British interests inthe Pacific.Gaylord Wilkinson is teaching Artat the new South Shore High School inChicago-.Erna Risch, PhD '31, holds an assistant professorship at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh.Mrs. Herman Gendel (GertrudeHuebsch) is Claims Deputy for theIllinois Department of Labor in Chicago.Last November Raymond O. Rockwood, AM '31, PhD '35, AssistantProfessor of History at Colgate University, helped arrange the Foreign Policy Association's round table conferencein Montreal at which Canadian-American cooperation was discussed.The Mississippi Valley HistoricalReview recently published "Letters byRichard Smith of the Cincinnati Gazette" edited by Muriel Drell, AM '31.Harris Gary Hudson, PhD '31,whose address before the Illinois StateHistorical Society, "The Compensationsof a Historian" was published in Papers in Illinois History: 1939, is President of Illinois College at Jacksonville.Bernard Drell, AM '34, PhD '39,Instructor at Englewood Evening JuniorCollege and contributor to The Mississippi Valley Historical Review is writing a life of John Taylor.1932Mrs. Allan B. Cole (MarjorieDaniel, AM '32, PhD '35) of Chicago, former staff member of Newberry Library, has been appointed a member ofthe Advisory Council, Institute of Oriental Students for the Study of HumanRelations, on which her husband alsoserves.E. Wilson Lyon, PhD '32, Chairmanof the Department of History, ColgateUniversity, wrote several articles on~~ i-American relations in the earlyBUSINESSDIRECTORYAMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAUTO LIVERYAuto LiveryLarge Limousines - $3 Per Hour5 Passenger Sedans - $2 Per HourSpecial rates for out of townEMERY-DREXEL LIVERY INC.5547 S. HARPER AVE.FAirfax 6400AUTOMOBILESFRED W. REMBOLD, INC.6130 Cottage Grove Ave.DODGE and PLYMOUTHDirect Factory DealersSales and ServiceDependable Used CarsPhone Midway 0506AWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691-The Old Reliable -0692Hyde Park AwningINC. Co.,Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove Avenue32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24-HOUR SERVICELICENSED - BONDEDINSUREDQUALIFIED WELDERSHAYmarket 79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoBOOK BINDERSBOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof AM PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeBUTTER & EGGSMURPHY BUTTER and EGG GO.2016 CALUMET AVE.CHURNERS OF FANCY CREAMERY BUTTERFINEST WISCONSIN EGGSAlways UniformChurned Fresh Daily-Phone CALumet 5731CAMPGlen Eyrie FarmFOR CHILDRENDELAVAN LAKE, WISCONSINBOYS and GIRLS 7—12Farm experience besides camp activities including swimming and boating.June 25 to September 3Send for story oi tne Farm.VIRGINIA HINKINS BUZZELL, '13Glen Eyrie Farm, Delavan Lake, Wis.CATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882 years of the United States that haveappeared in The Journal of ModernHistory.Sue C. Hamilton, AM '32, whoteaches Chemistry at Garland School inBoston, was just elected Secretary ofthe New England Association of Chemistry Teachers.Naomi Riches, PhD '32, doubles asDirector of Admissions and AssociateProfessor of History at Goucher College in Baltimore.John K. McCalmont, AM '32, whoformerly taught at Maine High School,Des Plaines, is now at Taft HighSchool in Chicago'.E. B. Wetherow, AM '39, has beenmade Superintendent of Schools inNoblesville, Indiana, and writes that heis enjoying his work there very much.William A. Niebuhr, MD '32,carries on his medical practice in Waukesha, Wisconsin.Thomas H. Slusser, Jr., JD '33,formerly of Lombard, Illinois, is nowwith the Chicago Claim Department ofthe Continental Casualty Company inChicago.Edward B. Levi, JD '35, on leavefrom the Law School Faculty, is working on the staff of the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice inWashington, D. C.Charles D. Lutz, AM '32, for thepast seventeen years Principal of Horace Mann High School in Gary, Indiana, has been named new Superintendent of Schools by the Gary Board ofEducation.Wood Gray, PhD '33, is AssociateProfessor of American History andExecutive Officer of George Washington University's Department of History.1933Marie E. Lein, AM '35, teachesModern Languages at Jamestown College, Jamestown, North Dakota.Rosa-Hall Baldwin, who wascaught in England when the war brokeout, is now home in Baltimore whereshe is Secretary of the Medical Boardfor Occupational Diseases, State Industrial Accident Commission of Maryland.1934Ben Euwema, PhD '34, will be avisiting Instructor at the College of theCity of New York this summer for twomonths.Philip Mullenbach of Arlington,Virginia, is on the staff of the War Department in Washington, D. C.1935David Nelson Rowe, PhD '35, Lecturer on Far Eastern Affairs at Princeton University and author of severalarticles on Japanese war propaganda inChina since 1937, is now indexing acollection of published documents onChinese diplomatic history, the "Ch'oupan i wu shih mo."Louis Aller is employed as a clerkin the Immigration Department, Washington, D, C. CEMENT CONTRACTORST. A. REHNQUIST CO. CONCRETE\V-// FLOORS\r\r SIDEWALKS\\ V MACHINE FOUNDATIONS\\ MASTIC FLOORSv ALL PHONESEST. 1929 Wentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Ave.CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or—Wasson DoesCOFFEE-TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350B oston — N ew York — Ph i lade I ph ia — SyracuseELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER CONSTRUCTION600W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneSeeley 2788EMPLOYMENTCOLOREDDOMESTIC HELPFurraishedDay or NightReferences investigated.Englewood Employment Agency5530S. State Phone-Englewood 3 1.8 1 -3 1 82Street Night-Englewood 3181Established 20 yearsTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33GRAPHIC ARTSTHE SCRIPTORIUMScribes • Illuminators • BindersC L RICKETTS JASPER S KING// it is said to last a lifetime or longer, sayit sincerely with well-chosen words in beautiful, imperishable designMESSAGES OF APPRECIATION, RESOLUTIONS, ILLUMINATED INSCRIPTIONS,MEMORIALS; BIRTHDAY, CHRISTMASAND GUEST BOOKS; CRESTS, COATSOF ARMS, TITLE PAGES•DIPLOMAS, CITATIONS,HONORARY DEGREES, CHARTERSValued papers and letters restoredand bound38 SOUTH DEARBORN STREETDEARBORN 0001 CHICAGOGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoLITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead *2I. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing73 1 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182OFFICE FURNITUREBusiness Equipm&rrt \FILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co*Grand Rapids, Michigan Carleton L. Lee, AM '37, of Atlanta, Georgia, serves as Y. M. C. A.Secretary in that city.Oliver R. Aspergren, II, is Presi^-dent of the Evanston Young Republican Club and a member of the EvanstonCity Planning Commission.Harold W. Thatcher^ PhD '35,took time out from the teaching of History at the University of Maryland thisyear to debate with Senator Nye onAmerican neutrality.Bernard D. Meltzer, JD '37, formerly of Chicago, is now on the legalstaff of the Office of Production Management in Washington, D. C.1936Randolph W. Bean directs the programs for radio stations WWAE (ofwhich Robert Adair is Manager) andWJOB in Hammond, Indiana.Helen E. Loth, PhD' '36, teachesLatin and Spanish at Superior StateTeachers College and has in recentyears been active in the WisconsinTeachers College Association and othereducators' organizations.Margareta A. Faissler, PhD '36,besides teaching History in the RolandPark Country School in Baltimore findstime to write book reviews for TheJournal of Modem History. Her latest piece of writing, "Civic Educationfor the Well-to-do," will appear in thenext issue of Social Studies.Helen K. Staley, AM '36, is in theResearch Department of the Encyclopedia Britannica, Civic Opera Buildingin Chicago.Morris L. Wardell, PhD '36, isProfessor of History and Assistant tothe President at the University of Oklahoma.1937H. A. Vernon, AM '40, spent amonth last summer travelling in his native Quebec.Walter R. Linre is an optical apprentice at the Central Scientific Instrument Company in Chicago.Esther Jane Aberdeen, PhD '37,holds an assistant professorship atWellesley College.Godfrey Lehman, having completeda year of graduate work at the University of California, Berkeley, is now employed as a student research assistantin the State Department of Social Welfare at Sacramento, California.Emil Lucki, AM '37, PhD '40, isteaching History at the University ofToledo in Toledo, Ohio.Norman Davidson, Rhodes Scholarwho returned to campus to continue hisstudies for the Doctorate when warbroke out in Europe, has received anappointment in the Department ofChemistry at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles.Allan B. Cole, AM '37, PhD '40,Instructor in History. University ofTexas, has published in the March issue of The Pacific Historical Review,"Captain David Porter's Proposed Expedition to the Pacific and Japan, 1815"and is preparing for publication several articles on American-Japanese relationsas well as an edition of "A Scientistwith the Perry Expedition to Japan:the Journal of Dr. James Morrow."The University has awarded theCatherine Cleveland Fellowship for1941-42 to Laurence K. Bordy, AM'37.Luther P. Jackson, PhD '37 , Professor of History at Virginia State College, Petersburg, read a paper on NegroHistory at the meeting of the Association for the Study of Negro Life andHistory held in Chicago last September.Arthur L. Funk, AM '37, PhD '40,teaches Medieval History and CivilAeronautics at St. Petersburg JuniorCollege in Florida.Seymour Tabin, JD '40, is now located at 231 South LaSalle Street, Chicago.Shirley R. Barish, AM '38, is adoctor's assistant in Los Angeles, California.Gertrude E, Polcar, '38, JD '40, ofShaker Heights, Ohio, has been admitted to the Ohio bar.George G. Starr, AM '38, teaches atShaker Heights High School in ShakerHeights, Ohio.Gladys M. Gerner, SM '39, was recently made an agent in the Bureauof Plant Industry, U. S. Department ofAgriculture. She is located at the U.S. Plant, • Soil & Nutrition Laboratoryin Ithaca, New York.Albert G. Guy, a Wright-Ford Fellow at Ohio State University this year,has been awarded an assistantship in theDepartment of Physical Metallurgy atCarnegie Institute of Technology, forthe year 1941-2.Seymour Pomrenze, AM '38, wrotethe article entitled, "The Russian Jewin Chicago" which appeared in The Advocate, Vol. 99, Nos. 44 and 45.Samuel I. Weissman, PhD '38, hasbeen awarded a National ResearchCouncil Fellowship for next year andwill work in the East.Joseph L. Norris, PhD '38, whoteaches History at Wayne University inDetroit, has found time to serve bothas Secretary of the Detroit Council onLocal History and as Research Supervisor for an historical radio programthat is broadcast over Station WWJ.Arthur Robinson, MD '38, is a research fellow in pneumonia at HarlemHospital, New York City.Blair Kinsman teaches Mathematicsand Physics at Daycroft School inStanford, Connecticut.Robert B. Anderson, Jr., works atthe Chicago Airport, as a reservationsassistant for the American Airlines.A President White Fellowship inModern History has been awarded toWilliam Hardy McNeill, AM '39, byCornell University. The Fellowship includes free tuition as well as a cashstipend.Richard L. Bronwell of Riverside,Illinois, has recently formed an electrical supply firm under his own nameat 20 North Wacker Drive in Chicago.VERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE34 THE UNI OPTICIANSNELSON OPTICAL CO.Dr. Nels R. Nelson, Optometrist PAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 866. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 3192 PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions" 1939John R. Van De Water, LawSchool student and head of the Men'sResidence Halls, iust returned from atrip to Washington during which heenjoyed interviews with Justice Douglasand retired Justice Brandeis.Stanley Dodd has accepted a position with the Washburne-Crosby Company in Chicago.Clyde E. Hewitt, AM '39, teachesat Aurora College, Aurora, Illinois.Dorothy Culp, PhD '39, is actingProfessor of History at New MexicoState Teachers College.Leland H. Carlson, PhD '39, Author of "A History of North Park College," to be published this month, recently made a lecture tour throughAlaska and Northern Canada.Eugene Olshansky, SM '39, hasaccepted an appointment on the staff ofthe General Electric Company in Pitts-field, Massachusetts.Frieda Panimon, PhD '39, (Mrs.Albert Simon) research assistant atElgin State Hospital in Elgin, Illinois,recently wrote two papers on "Iron andOrthophenanthroline re: Brain Metabolism" which were published in theJournal of Celhdar and ComparativePhysiology.Mrs. Henry S. Weiskopf (DorothyLondon) teaches at Lew WallaceSchool, Gary, Indiana.C. Cecil Lingard, PhD '39, authorand lecturer, is Chief Librarian of theRegina Public Libraries, Regina, Sas-• katchewan.Asa J. Merrill, JD '30, formerly ofChicago, has assumed a post with theInterstate Commerce Commission, Bureau of Motor Carriers, in New YorkCity.Waldo H. Kliever, PhD '39, hasjoined the staff of the Design Department of the Minneapolis-HoneywellRegulator Company.1940Wayne Barker is a leader in thefight for the Murray bill, which wouldallow medical students to complete theireducation or serve in a special sectionof the Army.To George B. Carson, AM '40, goesthe University's Henry Wolf Fellowship for 1941-42.Alfred E. Volpe, AM '40, has beenmade Assistant to the President at theUniversity of Dubuque, in Dubuque,Iowa.Samuel R. Mohler, PhD '40, hasbeen granted a fellowship by the Department of Research of Colonial Williamsburg, Incorporated, Williamsburg,Virginia.John H. Bailey, MD '40, of Marble-head, Massachusetts is interning atHarper Hospital, Detroit.Jewel G. Briggs is teaching Shorthand at Oklahoma Agriculture and Mechanical College in Stillwater.1941J. Ann Hughes, SM '41, has beenappointed Area Supervisor of Health in Mt. Vernon, Illinois. Her headquarters are the N. Y. A. Office in Mt.Vernon.Wilbur Taylor Wallace, AM '41,is Minister at Capital Christian Churchin Tallahassee, Florida.Paul Willard has received an appointment to the staff of the U. S. Rubber Company in Passaic, New Jersey.SOCIAL SERVICEAnn Gurin, AM '40, is now employed in the Social Service Departmentof Belleview Hospital, New York City.Dean Abbott spoke at the KansasState Conference in Topeka on April22 and was guest of honor at a reception given by the Alumni of the Schoolwho were attending the Conference.The American Public Welfare Association has recently published an interesting pamphlet on "The Place of CaseWork in the Public Assistance Program" written by Eda Houwink, amember of the University's Field WorkSupervisory Staff.Alumni of the School of Social Service Administration met together inApril and early May at the State Conferences of Social Work in Idaho,Washington, California and Kansas.Jeannette Elder, AM '33, has accepted a position with the Bureau ofResearch and Statistics of the SocialSecurity Board in Washington, D. C.Helen Orvis, AM '35, formerly withthe Catholic Home Bureau of NewYork City, is now a Child WelfareWorker for the Washington State Department of Social Welfare.Merrill Krughoff, AM '36, whowas with the Council of Social Agencies in Los Angeles, has become theDirector of the Council in Dallas,Texas.Kenneth Foresman, AM '37, willsoon become Director of Child Welfare Services in Alaska for the UnitedStates Children's Bureau.Albert Goldstein, AM '38, has beenappointed Administrative Assistant forthe Associated Jewish Charities inBaltimore.Jane Newman, AM '38, has accepteda position with the Jewish SocialService Bureau in St. Louis.Charles Moody, AM '39, who wason the staff of the Children's Divisionof the State Department of Public Welfare in Illinois, has become affiliatedwith the Social Security Board.Catherine Barnes, AM '39, formerly with the State School at Sparta,Wisconsin, has become Case Workerfor the Milwaukee Orphans' Asylum.Ruth Perrine, AM '40, is now withthe Children's Division of the State Department of Public Welfare in Texas.A new Social Service monographentitled, "Federal Aid and Public Assistance in Illinois" was written byArthur Parker Miles, PhD '40.Gertrude Longdon, AM '40, hasTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 35RESIDENTIAL HOTELSBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorRESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideAMDIXSK(*lif4H*I:J ¦aiSI4Bat>X*]»JCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324ROOFERSESTABLISHED 1908KiROVE^SBtes^ co.ROOFING and INSULATINGRUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000COMMERCIAL SCHOOLSINTENSIVE¦ STENOGRAPHIC COURSEfor College People OnlySuperior training for practical, personal use or profitable employment. Course gives you dictation speed of100 words a minute in 100 days. Classes beginJanuary, April, July and October. Enroll Now.Write or phone for bulletin.BRYANT & STRATTON College18 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago Tel: RAN. 1575MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130 been appointed Case Supervisor in theHome Service Division of the American Red Cross in Cleveland.Phillipine Klaus, AM '41, hasbeen appointed Case Worker for theLeague of Catholic Women in Saginaw,Michigan.Ethel Speas/AM '41, has been madeDirector of Case Work at Connie Maxwell Orphanage in Greenwood, SouthCarolina.Thomas Lehman, AM '41, has become Statistician of the Department ofPublic Welfare in Maryland.IN THE SERVICEHarry Reber Berry, MD, Rush, '06,serves as surgeon for the Ninth CorpsArea, Presidio of San Francisco.David Harold Davis, '20, JD '22,now holds the rank of Captain and isstationed at the 37th Training Battalion, Camp Croft, Spartanburg, SouthCarolina.Frank Weiss, MD '36, of Yonkers,New York, is now with Company"G", 119th Medical Regiment, at FortDix, New Jersey.' Francis Griffith Hufford, AM '37,a Major in the U. S. Army, is stationedat Fort Knox, Kentucky with the 13thRegiment of Armored Troops.Lieutenant Hugo Anderson, '37, iswith the Quartermaster Corps at SanAntonio.Mark Goldstine, AM '37, has beencalled from his position with the StateDepartment of Public Welfare in Illinois to serve as First Lieutenant inthe Field Artillery in Manila, Philippine Islands.Harms W. Bloemers, MD '37, nowa Lieutenant, is located at the U. S.Naval Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.Robert Shallenberger, '37, is stationed at Camp Grant near Rockford,Illinois.Paul James Ferguson, '38, is aLieutenant with the 108th ObservationSquad of the Air Corps, stationed inChicago.Joseph Winslow Baer, '38, JD '40,now an Ensign on the Cruiser Louisville, is on the high seas, headed forHawaii.Fred Ash, '38, JD '40, is now withCompany B, 12th Training Battalion atCamp Wheeler, Georgia.John Marks, '38, has this to sayabout life in the Third Signal Corps atFort Lewis, Washington: ". . . in thiselysian region March brings nothingbut daffodil festivals, spring fever, andbock beer. . . The mist (natural) is sodense in the morning that they provideus with compasses, altimeters and fewother instruments so that we can walkby dead reckoning. . . I am studyingradio . . . shorthand . . . two sorts ofcodes. I am rapidly losing all abilityto speak in ordinary English and expect soon to carry on all my social relations in dots and dashes."Hugh R. Lawrence, '39, serves asan Ensign, U. S. N. R., care Commandant, 16th Naval Dist, Cavite, Manila,Philippine Islands. SCHOOL— SHORTHANDYour whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.For more particulars call, write,or telephone.THE GREGG COLLEGE6 North Michigan Avenue, ChicagoState 1881SHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893STOCKS— BONDS— COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, 'II. H. 1. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W Davis, '16. F. B. Evans, 'IIPaulH. Davis & Co ¦MembersNew York StoclChicago StockChicago Board ExchangeExchangeof Trade10 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622TEACHERS' AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Botn organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One FeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY, MO. SPOKANENEW YORK36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETEACHERS' AGENCIESHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized as one of the leading TeachersAgencies of the United States.UNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492VENETIAN BLINDSQUEENS VENETIAN BLINDPHONE CENTRAL 4516Flexible steel slats orseasoned basswoodtwo-tone tapes or solidcolors. Any size blinds.Per square foot After 5 P. M. Plaza 369828'VENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE AFTER19 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseALSOELECTROLYSIS EXPERT ¦Multiple 20 platinum needles can beused. Permanent removal of Hair fromFace, Eyebrows, Back of Neck or anypart of Body; destroys 200 to 600 HairRoots per hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885% Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in Beauty Donald C. Carner, '39, formerly incharge of the Children's AdmittingOffice for the University Clinics, willbecome a medical administrative officer in the 18th Medical Regiment atCamp Forrest, Tennessee.Herman Schneiderman, PhD '39,now in the Air Corps, is stationed atLowry Field, Denver.Saul Weisman, '40, of Aurora, Illinois is now located at Battery "B," 6thCoast Artillery, Fort Funston, SanFrancisco.Herbert Schuelke, who would havereceived his PhD this June, is now withthe 6th Signal Corps at Camp Grant,Illinois.BORNTo Kenneth Forsman, AM '37, andMrs. Forsman, a daughter, last August,in Lincoln, Nebraska.To Alfred Wardley, AM '40, andGladys Kerns Wardley, a daughter,Gloria Anne, last October 14, at Chicago.To F. Roger Dunn, AM '29,PhD '40, Chairman of the Departmentof History at Central Y.M.C.A. College in Chicago, and Mrs. Dunn, a son,Christopher Rogers, on November 26.To Sidney Weinhouse, '33, PhD '36,and Mrs. Weinhouse, a daughter, DorisJoan, on March 31, in Chicago.ENGAGEDAlison Wayne Grant of River Forest,Illinois, to H. Quayle Petersmeyer,'39, of Berkeley, California, who is nowaffiliated with the Liberty Mutual Insurance Company as a service salesman.Jane Crugar to* Edward L. Haenisch, '30, PhD '35, of Bryn Mawr,Pennsylvania. The marriage isplanned for June 14.Janet Kathryn Wright of Wilmetteto Ensign Stoddard J. Small, '32.Genevieve Louise Henderson toLoli Raynold Cortesi, '33, MD Rush,'37, staff physician at the Oak ForestInfirmary. The wedding will take placein June.Vivian C. Klemme, '36, MBA '37,to Clifford G. Saratso of Teaneck, NewJersey. The marriage is planned forMay 31.Betty Quinn, '38, to Robert R.Brinker, '39, of Chicago.Mary Louise Burgess, daughter ofKenneth F. Burgess, President of theBoard of Trustees of NorthwesternUniversity, to J. Edward Day, '35,lawyer, now taking the officer's training course, Naval Reserve.MARRIEDBabette Mayer to Irving Naiburg,'30, JD '32, of Chicago, on April 23.We have just learned of the marriageof Gertrude Lawrence, '40, to FirstLieutenant Richard Ehrler of Alexandria, Louisiana, which took place lastSeptember. "Two other marriages of which wedid not hear until now are those ofAlma Jean Patterson, '32 to G. L.Sensabaugh, last June and Doris R. Wollaeger, '38, to George A. Munk-witz of Milwaukee, which also tookplace last June.Deborah Port of Chicago to FirstLieutenant Lincoln Clark, '37, atFort Stotsinburg, Philippine Islands, onApril 17.Helen Jane, '37, to Dr. John B.Case of Chicago, on April 12. At home,6139 Kenwood Avenue, Chicago.Betty Jean Dunlap, '39, to Warren "Duke" Skonning, '38, on April26, in Thorndike Hilton Chapel on thecampus.Harriet T. Qua of Lowell, Massachusetts, to Dr. Henry M. Lemon,SB '38, now interning at Billings Hospital, on May 3.Inez C. Carpenter, '38, to AlfredM. Swetlik, '37, on March 29, at St.Thomas the Apostle Church in Chicago.At home 7050 Merrill Avenue, Chicago.Mary Emily Davis of Berkeley,California, to Clement E. Brooke,'39, of LaGrange on March 22. Theywill reside in the East.Joanne Bolger, '36, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, to David Henry Cleggon April 5, in Chicago.Doris S. Baldwin of Portland, Oregon, to Carl Hopkins on January 10.At home 2310 East 22 Avenue, Portland.Carol Brookins of Fond du Lac,Wisconsin, to Leland Hess, AM '40,last Christmas Day.Beatrice C, Beale, '37, to James V.Jones, '36. At home, 213 North WestEnd Avenue, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.Ruthadele La Tourrett to CharlesHauch, '34, AM '36, in January ofthis year. They are living in the Dominican Republic where Charles isdoing special research.Helen Cob, AM '35, to HartwellWilson last December. At home inMemphis, Tennessee.DIEDJames Harvey Ransom, PhD '99, ofDecatur, Illinois.William J. Eyles, BD '03, ofWashington, D. C, on January 28.Seymour Ellsworth Moon, BD '03,formerly a missionary in the BelgianCongo, on September 25, 1940 in LosAngeles.Myrtle Farnham, '06, on March 28,in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin.Ellis P. Legler, JD '11, formerlyof the firm of Legler and Murray, onMarch 10, in Dayton, Ohio.Josephine E. Nichols, '12, onMarch 27, in Chicago.Sarah Gibson Brinkley, '20,AM '35, on^ November 17, 1940 atJewell, Georgia.Ida Mae Lintner, '39, of Joliet,Illinois.Elizabeth M. Fisher, '22, on April28, at the Presbyterian Hospital in Chicago. A lecturer at the Art Instituteand illustrator of children's books, MissFisher designed the colored cartographmap of the University of Chicagoquadrangles, prints of which the Chicago Alumnae Club sold for the benefitof the Scholarship Fund.EMPLOYERS HAVE PROBLEMSJOB SPECIFICATIONSMEASURING HUMAN TALENTSSOURCES OF LABOR SUPPLYCREDENTIALS OF CANDIDATESI: KINDS OF TRAINING FOR JOBS* KINDS OF TRAINING FOR JOBSThe most promising employee possesses a broad general education which he needs for long term service andsome specialized training for the immediate job. Employerswho think only of today limit their consideration of applicants to the skills needed for the job at hand. The employerwho builds for tomorrow realizes the importance of thebackground provided by general education. Many skillsare best taught uon the job," whereas general education isalone the province of our schools and colleges. Wise employers encourage educational institutions in providingthe best possible program of general education for theworkers of tomorrow.Fifth in a series of advertisements dealing with the workof the Board of Vocational Guidance and PlacementWHICH WE HELP SOLVETHE BOARD OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENTThe University of Chicago Midway 0800 • Local 391This is Woollcott speaking-fWill you let metell you aboutsomething good?"I want to tell you about some good books,entertaining and beautiful books, whichare now offered 1to you for only i. . They represent anentirely new idea in book publishing!"Now, we all know that there are plentyof cheap books to be had-remainders,reprints, inexpensive pocket editions.We are not printing this advertisement inorder to tell you about such books. We arepresenting to you a plan for publishingbooks based upon a completely new idea.What the plan is:You probably know this fact to be true,that the best books sometimes fail tocome to your attention when they are firstpublished.Why? How is it possible for good booksto drop quickly out of sight? Well, some ofthem did not receive a proper amount ofadvertising and publicity when first published. Others were published ahead oftheir proper time-or at an "unfortunate"time. For instance, during the year afterGone With the Wind was published, threefine novels about the Civil War appeared.But everybody was Gone With the Winding] Books published during the dark daysof 1929, or during the bank crash, or during the awful months of the Munich crisis-who paid any attention to them?Yet, among these books there are somewhich would bring you magnificent entertainment, which would give you new thrillsin reading-if only you could find them.Now, by this new plan, you can!Let this committee tell you aboutgood books you may have missed!ALEXANDER WOOLLCOTT, CLIFTON FaDI-man, Sinclair Lewis and Carl VanDoren are among the country's most respected experts in books. When four suchmen join in recommending a book to you—you can be very sure it is worth reading!Now these men are doing it! Every monththey will select for your pleasure an enjoyable, entertaining, good book which it isnot likely you will have read before. Their choices will include some of the best booksever published in this country. They willbe the books about which the members ofthis Committee have for years been enthusiastic; as, to use Mr. Woollcott's famousphrase, "Books over which I have gonequietly mad."You can have these booksfor only $1 each!Each book selected by these famous menwill be re-published by The ReadersClub, with the permission of its author andits original publisher, to be sent to you foronly $1. No book club in America offersyou books at so low a cost; for this pricewill include every expense of delivering thebook to you, even the postage.The books will, in addition, be unusuallywell-made. In no sense of the words willthey be cheap reprints. They will be full-size books, not pocket editions. They willbe designed by W. A. Dwiggins, one ofAmerica's most famous designers of books.They will be set up in new type, printedfrom new plates on good paper "free ofground wood", and staunchly bound in silk-finish cloth. Because so large a quantity ofbooks will be printed (there are alreadynearly forty thousand members!) it is logical that this new edition, at $1, shouldprove a better-made book than the originaledition at $2.50 or $3.A good investment in reading!These books are not "precious" books,they are not books with a limited or aspecial appeal. They are selected to giveyou entertainment, to entertain a wide audience of people who like to read. Remember that they have been read and re-read bytheir admirers, that they have stood the testof time. You can buy such a book with moresafety than you can buy a book touted in thefirst heat of publication. Alexander WOOLLCOTT, famous as America's Town Crier, author of WhileRome Bvrnit. He frequently has called your attention to good books. Lost Horizon, forone example, was dozing on its publisher's shelves until Mr. Woollcott told you about it.Hon FADIMANfamous interlocutor of "Information. Please!" and LiterarvEditor of The Sew Yorker. In hisbook reviews he pulls nopunches! Sinclair LEWISwinner of the Nobel Prize, authorof books like Main Street, Arrow-xmith and Babbitt which are already considered classics. Carl VAN DOREwrote the best-selling biofrapiof Benjamin Franklin and edfthe famous Cambridge HiatonAmerican Literature.When you join The Readers Club, youwill receive a description of each book before it is distributed. If it does not seemthe kind of book which will interest you,you may reject the book in advance. Then,even after you get the book, you may returnit if it does not please you.Become a charter member!Therefore, in becoming a member ofThe Readers Club, you undertake noobligation to purchase books you do not like.You simply make it possible for these fourmen-of-books to f.nd you, to tell you aboutthe books for which they are enthusiastic andwhich you have missed On the other hand,we will give you no books free, gratis, fornothing. We cannot afford to have in TheReaders Club the kind of people who thinkit is possible to get something for nothing. We want as our members the decent, honiest, intelligent people who are eager to joinjwho will cooperate with us in helpingre-publish these good but neglected boot!at so good a bargain price.Rememher that you pay one dollar, antione dollar only, for each book whicipleases you. If, however, you do not buysix books within one year, we cannot affordto keep you in the membership, and willfind it necessary to drop your name.On these very liberal terms, you are askedto send in the subscription form now. You;will then be sent, without charge to you, acopy of the new magazine called The Reads'( edited by Mr. Van Doren, designed by Mi.Dwiggins ) in which you will find many articles and essays; and chiefly a description olthe Club's first book, to be issued this monthA CHARTER MEMBERSHIPThe Readers Club, 41 east 57 street, new york:Please enroll me as a member. It is understood that you will publish forthe members one book each month, selected for publication by the Committeeconsisting of Clifton Fadiman, Sinclair Lewis, Alexander Woollcott, and CarlVan Doren as chairman. It is understood that you will send each book to me forone dollar, which price is to include the costs of wrapping and postage. It isunderstood that you will send me a copy of The Reader each month, in whichI will find a description of the forthcoming month's publication; that I maythen send you word to refrain from sending the book to me, or may even returnthe book to you within five days after receiving it if I am not pleased with it.Finally, however, it is understood that my name is to be dropped from the membership lists if I do not accept and pay for six books within one year.)63w55«5«555S5SS8SFL