THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEA P R I 19 4 1THE WORDS COMEPOURING IN! Twenty thousand words an hour thenews pours in -from Berlin and beleaguered Britain— from Athens andToronto and Benghazi - from Rio andTokyo and Washington, D. C.It fills our newspapers with far morewords than any of us has time to read.It brings us contradictory reports fromevery foreign news capital. It comesso fast and changes direction so oftenthat today, more than ever, thoughtful Americans need Time —To save their time ... to verify theirfacts... and to help them make thenews make sense.330 EAST 22 ST. • CHICAGO, ILLINOISYou can start TIME on its way ioi 52 weeks to come by dropping a postcard in the mail today.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCHARLTON T. BECK, '04 REUBEN FRODIN, '33Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorHUGH M. COLE; DAVID DAICHES; BERNARD LUNDY, '37; DON MORRIS, '36; RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36Contributing EditorsTHIS MONTHTHE COVER: Fay-Cooper lor's degree in approximately two signal opportunity to present viewsCole, Professor and Chair- years, or perhaps it was less. At any on the war which are not to be foundman of the Department of An- rate, as you will see from the article, in the mine run of periodicals. Forthropology, who arranged and acted he wishes he had stayed around example, Mr. Daiches, who thisas chairman of the very successful longer. For the last year or so he month continues his discussion ofUniversity Week, April 6-12. (See has been teaching at Rollins College British writers and the war, has inti-News of the Quadrangles.) Professor in Florida. mate contacts with younger writersCole himself gave one of the three • in England, and at the same time,addresses in a symposium on "Race Complementary to Mr. Dexter's teaching at Chicago, he is far enoughand Minority Problems/' which was essay, we believe, is the letter from removed from the scene to exercisea well-attended session in Mandel a student who graduates from the llis useful critical sense. David Grene,closing the Social Sciences Day. University this spring which appears Instructor in Greek at the Univer--0 on page 12. sity, is a young Irishman, educated• in an Irish university, who is in aIn the February issue of the Maga-p similarly appropriate place to describezine we printed Mr. Hutchins radio . nrevious months oonrrihn for Americans the attitude of thespeech on "America and the War," Page m P^vious months, contnbu-gi • -i . u. , , , ,. • • tors to the Magazine this year have uie wai. ne was inwhich brought about a sharp divisiong ^ Ireland in the summer of 1939, atof opinion on the Quadrangles with aooreciated the fact that our the time Word War n be&an-regard to the United States' policy on liav? aPPrec,ated the tact that ouirU~ „^,- tu- n, -.. readers like to hear about something •the war. this month we are print- , , , , s •S\rTThSeCOilddrern .^^rfS^^SeJw Milton S. Mayer, whose articlesRocitn! ' tl M3 r?V6T mever, that the Magazine offers a are familiar to readers of the Maga-Rockefeller Memorial Chapel on ZINE^ writes Qn „The House Is onMarch 30 and broadcast over a radio™K1TCMTC Fire" this month. (Most familiar ofnetwork On the following Sunday, TABLE OF CONTENTS ^ contributions ^ ^ MagazineApril 6, five members of the Umver- APRIL, 1940 was „The Great M Mystery";sity faculty undertook to answer the Letters ^ another which b ht hJm fame wagPresident s position. Their argument, BooKs 3 «The Mother of Comptons.") Mr.which was likewise broadcast over a The Proposition Is pEACE> Robert M_ Mayer made his position 0n the warradio network is reprinted in this Hutchins 5 clear sometime before it started withissue of the Magazine starting on HlTLER Will Decide, Jerome G. Ker- a controversial piece in the Saturdaypage 8. wm, Bernadotte Schmitt, Richard P. z? „ • r> x 11 1 "t n-1 • 1 tmi o-lF* McKeon, Paul H. Douglas, William Evening Post called I Think I ll SitH. Spencer 8 This One Out." In this issue of theThe essay, "What I Owe to Chi- What I Owe to Chicago; Lezvis Dex- Magazine he takes his theme fromcago/' which appears on page 13, is ter ••••¦ 13 a paragraph in President Hutchins'in the pattern of essays which we Ireland and the War, /)ci^ Gr^. . 14 first radio address on the war: "Weprinted in the Magazine last spring Tl™ House Is on Fire,. Milton S.^ are told it is too late. The house is• — in which various alumni wrote on ^T ~ '. ' ' * .'* 'on fire. When the house is on fire,^rUn4. ±u tt • v *. j. *a Notes for a Dilf.ttante, David , A , • 1 , ,, r •what the University meant to them Daiches . .. 19 >T°U ^° not straighten the furniture,and to American life. Lewis Dexter, News of the quadrangles^ Bernard and clean out the cellar • • -you put'35, was one of the early New Plan Lundy 21 out the fire if you can. The answergraduates. As we recall his stay on Athletics, Don Morris 23 is that the house is not on fire. Thethe Midway, he acquired his bache- News of the Classes 25 house next door is on fire. . . -."Published by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. atEllis Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the PostOffice at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of the University of Chicago Magazine.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE— reached easily andquickly by "NORTHWESTERN" train*YELLOWSTONE ^rT-where Nature, in a topsy-turvymood, puts on a show that can'tbe excelled for thrills. CircleTours enable you to see alJ <r-JYellowstone comfortably i.n<*quickly.COLORADO IA"thew°r!dvwhwnrurw loves thisMountain Empire — so cool, sopicturesque, so famous for itsoutdoor recreation and pastimes, so easy to get to via"North Western's" fast trains.CUM WAI ¦ CV 'MHO— Like a»ul" »""'¦ seaside ranchin the mountains. Fishing, golf,bathing, horseback riding, ice-skating on an outdoor rink; everyother pastime. 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If timepermits, include the CanadianRockies and Alaska, "Land ofthe Midnight Sun.""NORTH WESTERN'S" modern air-conditioned trains provide thru service to all ofthese western vacationlands. The couponbrings you the complete story — simplyindicate the region or regions in whichyou are interested.TRAVEL ON THE INSTALLMENT PLAN—Go Now — Pay Later — No Money DownCHICAGO «* NORTH WESTERN LINE MAIL THIS COUPON R. Thomson, Passenger Traffic ManagerChicago and North Western LineDept. 136 —400 W.Madison St., Chicago, III.Please send information about vacations toj NameJ Strest.1 City_.I State. . .? Also all-expense tours LETTERSTo the Editor :Some remarks made in the Marchnumber of the University of ChicagoMagazine on the subject of the Dictionary of American English have cometo my attention, and I am anxious tocorrect as speedily as possible an errorwhich has already been widely circulated in the newspapers.In News of the Quadrangles, on page14, we are credited with having "statedthat the first printed reference to Abraham Lincoln as 'Honest Abe' appearedin a work by Albert D. Richardson,The Secret Service, the Field, the Dungeon, and the Escape, published in 1865,just after Lincoln's assassination."Actually, of course, we made no suchstatement, but merely gave the quotation as the earliest we had found; andmembers of this staff would be the lastpeople in the world to suppose for amoment that this example could be theearliest in print. The process of tracingusage historically is so complex and somuch, no matter what the technique, amatter of luck, that lexicographers arealmost never justified in claiming tohave the "first" example of a givenexpression. We have never made thatclaim ourselves, feeling certain that forany number of words the future mayreveal examples as much as a hundredyears earlier than our earliest ones.Since the arrival of the material mentioned by Mr. Lundy for "Old HonestAbe" and "Honest Old Abe" we havebeen supplied, from outside sources andfrom our own research, with evidenceof the use of "Honest Abe" in 1860;and undoubtedly many other quotationscould be found clearly antedating thosewe have.The generosity with which readersof the newspaper article on Lincoln'sBirthday sent us new quotations shouldmake it sufficiently plain that no dictionary evidence can be regarded asmarking the "first" appearance of aword. Any such interpretation of thematerial in the Dictionary of AmericanEnglish places the members of this staffin the graceless position of presumingto have accomplished the impossible ;and I should like to appeal to everyonewriting on the subject of the Dictionary to do his utmost to prevent thespread of this misconception.Very truly yours,J. R. Hulbert,Editor.\Jn the course of the story it waspointed out that: "Since the zvorddetectives of the Dictionary staff cannothope to read every word published inAmerica to find first usages — but haveto rely on best sources — there is alwaysa chance that some one of 130,000,000Americans will find an earlier usage ofa word than the lexicographers have putin the Dictionary. (The lexicographers,incidentally, are never chagrined whenconfronted with such a find, but aredelighted that new light has been thrownon their tremendous search-job.)" — Ed.] HE SEWSFOR THE MOVIES/But it's not a Hollywood cameraman whotakes tho pictures . . . it's her own DaddyVTOUR children, too, will delight in¦*• having movies taken of them. Andyour movies will be both an immediateand a lasting joy. But— movies of childrenas they are now must be taken now. So avoidfuture regrets . . . start now. And start witha Filmo, the basic camera that meets present and future needs.Filmos are built by the makers of Hollywood's preferred studio equipment to giveprofessional results with amateur ease, rightfrom your first reel. Just press a button,and what you see, you get, even in full,natural color if you wish. See Filmos atyour camera dealer's, or mail coupon.Bell & Howell Company, Chicago; NewYork; Hollywood; Washington, D. C;London. Established 1907.ONLY A FILMO 8 OFFERSALL THESE FEATURES:• A lifetime guarantee J• "Drop-In" threading. . . no sprockets.• Built-in mechanismfor slow-motion andanimated -cartoonmovies.• Automatic, sealed - inlubrication... no oiling.Makas movies for a • Adaptability to growfmw cents a scene with your skill.4950With 3-lens turret head, from $109.90For those who prefer 16 mm. film there Is FilmoAuto Load, ace of magazine-loading motion picture cameras, priced from $115.• • •BELL & HOWELL COMPANY1839 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111.Please send free: ( ) 16-page booklet about Filmo 8mm. movie equipment; () literature on 16 mm.Filmo Auto Load Camera.Name Address City State GG 4-41THE. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3BOOKSCity of Illusion. By Vardis Fisher,AM '22, PhD '25. New York:Harper and Bros., 1941. $2.50.Around the time of the Civil War,Nevada's Virginia City, site of thefabulous Comstock Lode, was the wildest, hell-roaringest mining town in theworld. Men who arrived haggard,filthy and penniless soon made thousands of dollars a week from the blue-black silver ore, gorged themselves onoysters, caviar, champagne. The streetsthundered all night with brawling,boozing, wenching. Sam Brown, oneof the first "bad men" of the old West,literally carved a man to pieces withhis bowie knife, went to sleep on a tablewhile his awed companions collectedand removed the fragments. In theopera house, fights between bulldogsand wildcats alternated with Easternstage celebrities, including famed, dark-haired Adah Isaacs Menken, strappedhalf-clad to the back of a horse.There was loud-mouthed Henry Comstock, called "Old Pancake" because hepractically lived on flapjacks. Therewere Eilley and Lemuel Sanford("Sandy") Bowers, she a boarding-house keeper, he an illiterate muleskinner. They had a 20- ft. claim onthe richest part of the lode, and at onetime were taking $18,000 a week outof it. They built a mansion with solidsilver doorknobs, made a trip to Europeto get furniture, tried to get an interview with Queen Victoria.For Author Vardis Fisher, long somberly enraptured (in Children of God,etc.) with the whole sprawling, pat-ternless vigor of U. S. westwardexpansion, Virginia City and its characters are tasty raw meat. But City ofIllusion is written as a novel, and in itAuthor Fisher has recaptured the vitality of U. S. legend as well as U. S.history.Central figures are Eilley and SandyBowers. Regional history says theywere admirable people, but in City ofIllusion they are more like monsters —she a driving shrew, he a small, henpecked caricature of pathos. Eilleyknows she is going to get rich, andwhen she is rich she enjoys it. ButSandy is miserable in his fine clothesand fine house, goes off to live in ashack. After Sandy dies of tuberculosis, Eilley loses both her mine and hermansion, ekes out a living taking feesas a "clairvoyant." But adversity altersher iron soul not a whit."What would you do," a friend asked,"if you had two hundred and fifty million dollars?""Fd spend it," said Eilley.Walter Stockly.[From Time Magazine."]City of Illusion is Mr. Fisher's firstnovel since Children of God, his superb MAKE SUREYOU KEEP THEMThe bolt on your door, the lock onyour automobile, the safety catch onyour pin, are all expressions of thehuman instinct to protect what youhave. But there are other threats toyour ownership of your possessionsthat locks and bolts and safetycatches cannot nullify . . . fire, windstorm, explosion, accident, theft, etc. The certain way to protect whatyou have . . . home, furnishings, automobile, business ... is dependableinsurance. It won't prevent the loss,but it will prevent the loss from falling on your shoulders.For dependable insurance, consult the North America Agent invour locality.• CAPITAL $12,000,000• SURPLUS TO POLICYHOLDERSover $75,000,000• LOSSES PAID over $457,000,000SEEInsurance Company ofNorth AmericaPHILADELPHIAFOUNDED 1792and its affiliated companies write practically every form oj insurance except lifestory of the Mormons, which was reviewed in the October, 1939, issue ofthe University of Chicago Magazineby Professor Napier Wilt, AM '21,PhD '23.City of Illusion grows naturally outof Mr. Fisher's far-ranging knowledgeof the pioneering West. In telling howhe came to write it, he says:"When the Federal Writers Projectsent me to Nevada to assist with theNevada Guide, one of the first things Iran into was the Comstock story, aboutwhich I already knew a great deal. Itso fascinated me that soon I was reading about it everything I could find inprint, as well as tracking down all theold-timers who had been a part of thestory and who were still living and fullof memories."In regard to Eilley and SandyBowers, the two central characters, Isoon discovered that they were so lostamong legends that not all the researchunder the sun could ever wholly digthem out. Of all the persons I talkedto who knew Eilley, not a single onecould tell me her first name ! Yet theyknew her 'as well as I know my ownneighbors.' And no two Nevada histories agree !"Some who knew her well say shehad no children, but invented them, andthe graves too; from others I havetaken the stories of the children aschronicled in this novel." ELIZABETH MADOX ROBERTSAmy Loveman, an editor of the Saturday Review of Literature, writes thefollowing tribute to Elizabeth Madox' Roberts, '21, who died on March 13 :"It was the peculiar grace of Elizabeth Madox Roberts, whose death theother day deprived American literatureof a writer skillful both in verse andprose, that she could deal with thetragically meager life of the underprivileged without making it whollysordid. Her first, and best novel, TheTime of Man, in its depiction of theSouthern mountaineers, reflected a manner of living that was pinched andugly and pitifully precarious but which,in the person of her heroine at least,was redeemed from unadulteratedmisery by a certain valor of emotion.The novel won dignity from an almostBiblical cadence and turn of expression, but more than that it had a lovelylyrical quality in its rapture of delightin nature and in its deep-seated senseof an iridescent and pervasive beautyin the world. Miss Roberts neverachieved in any of her later novels thesame pregnant philosophy of life thather first book showed; indeed, as shewent on her work became more andmore tenuous. But at her best, in TheTime of Man, she struck a richer notethan most of her contemporaries wholike herself were attempting to depictlife in unvarnished colors."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJMI \/FP^ITV W/FFk' pa++e™ed after the extremely successful Alumni Schools which have beenUl Nl V L-rWI I / W L_L_I\ held each June for the last five years University Week was an eye-openerto those who attended (see News of the Quadrangles). Above: Two great University scientists in demonstration lectures, Nobel Prize Winner James Franck (physical chemistry) and Anton Carlson (physiology). Below: the first broadcastof the Round Table before an audience (ini Mandel Hall). The participants were Messrs. Cole. Gottschalk and Pflaum.VOLUME XXXIII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 7APRIL, 1941THE PROPOSITION IS PEACE• By ROBERT M. HUTCHINS[ The following address oj Mr. Hutchins' was deliveredover the network of the Mutual Broadcasting Systemjrom Rockefeller Memorial Chapel on Sunday, March30, at 11:15 a.m. His speech developed the ideas expressed in "America and the War," reprinted in theFebruary issue oj the Magazine. — Ed.]WE HEAR on every side that war is inevitable,even that we are at war, and that there is nothing we can do about it.Things look black. The President now calls for "totalvictory" over "the enemy" and urges upon us the determination needed to win.Still there is a chance that these remarks are for foreign consumption and do not mean what they seem tomean. They seem to mean that the British, Chinese, andGreeks are our allies. If this is so, it is immoral to letthem die for us while we sit safely at home. We shouldhave been in the war from the start. We should fightnow. And if we are actually to press on to total victory,we must fight. We are not justified in hoping that theAxis will suffer total defeat without full American participation in the. war.Two days after war broke out in Europe the Presidentassured the nation that he would do everything he couldto keep it at peace. He has repeated these assurancesagain and again. Every speech he made during the campaign contained a pledge to keep the country out of war.The night before the election he said, "We propose andexpect to continue our lives in peace." Two weeks agohe said, "Do not let us waste time reviewing the past orfixing or dodging the blame for it." But I cannot believethat this means that he wants us to forget his promisesto pursue a policy of peace.Until we are engaged in military action we must continue to hope that we can avoid the ultimate catastrophe.We stand on the brink of war. But we have not beenattacked. The burden of proof rests on those who claimwe are about to be. We have not lost the power todecide for peace or war. We still have a chance to catchour breath, reflect a little, and take a last look aroundbefore we plunge into the abyss. The President is ademocratic leader. One of his greatest qualities is hissense of responsibility to the people. If he is movingtoward war, he must be doing it in the conviction thatthe people want him to. If this is his conviction, he ismistaken.The people have never had a chance to express themselves on the issue of war or peace. The election gave them no chance. Both parties declared for peace. Bothcandidates declared for peace.No one should know better than Mr. Roosevelt thatthe newspapers are not always a reliable index of publicopinion. Even if most of the newspapers are for war,it is no more significant than that only a third of themwere for Roosevelt in 1936 and only a fifth of them forhim in 1940.The Gallup Poll shows that the people are for peaceand that they trust Mr. Roosevelt to keep them at peace.The Gallup question published ten days ago was, "If youwere asked to vote on the question of the United Statesentering the war against Germany and Italy, how wouldyou vote — to go into the war or to stay out of the war ?"Eighty-three per cent of those asked said they would voteto stay out. The percentage voting to stay out was higherthan it was a year ago. On the other hand, when thequestion has been, "Do you favor aiding Britain at therisk of war?" the majority of those asked have said yes.We can only infer that the people want peace and thatrelying on Mr. Roosevelt's promises of peace they havebeen willing to help Britain at the risk of war. The riskof war, with Mr. Roosevelt at the helm, was too slightto worry about.The country wants to defend itself, aid Britain, andstay out of war. We have been told over and over againthat we could do just that. During the hearings and debates on the Lease-Lend Bill man after man announcedthat this was a bill to keep the country out of war. Mr.Willkie said that was why he was for it. Senator George,who led the fight for the bill, said that was why he wasfor it. The passage of this bill gave the President nomandate for war. The people want peace.If we go to war, what are we going to war for ? Mr.Roosevelt tells us we are to save "the democracies. " Thedemocracies are, presumably, England, China, Greece,and possibly Turkey. Turkey is a dictatorship. Greeceis a dictatorship. China is a dictatorship. As to England, in 1928 Mr. Anthony Eden, now Foreign Secretary, speaking in behalf of a bill extending the suffrage,felt it necessary to say to the House of Commons, "Wehave not got democratic government in this country today ; we never have had it and I venture to suggest tohonorable members opposite that we shall never have it.What we have done, in all the progress of reform andevolution of politics, is to broaden the basis of our oligarchy."There can be no doubt that the people of this country56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEprefer the government of Britain to the governments ofits allies or its enemies. Britain is a constitutional stateand has been the inspiration of many constitutional states.We prefer the governments of China, Greece, and Turkey to those of the Axis. But we cannot use the worddemocracy to describe every country that is or may beat war with the Axis. If Russia is attacked by Germany,will she be welcomed into the choir of the democracies ?If we go to war, what are we going to war for ? TheBritish propose to defeat the Axis. What they proposeto do then they do not say. They have repeatedly refusedto say. Yet the United States is entitled to know. Arewe to rush to arms every time the British Empire is indanger? If so, we are entitled to know what the futurepolicy of the British Empire is to be. Are we to putdown every tyrant that arises in Europe ? If so, we areentitled to know what is to be done to keep each tyrantfrom being worse than the last.If we go to war, what are we going to war for ? Theonly specific statement the President has made on thecourse we are to pursue after the war is found in twosentences in his last speech. He said, "We believe thatany nationality, no matter how small, has the inherentright to its own nationhood." To the same effect he said,"There never has been, there isn't now, and there neverwill be any race of people fit to serve as masters over theirfellow men." Do these statements imply the restorationof pre-war boundaries in Austria, Czechoslovakia,Memel, Danzig, Poland, France, China, and Rumania?Is this undertaking to be world-wide? If so, how do weinduce Russia to restore the pre-war boundaries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, and Poland?If we succeed in re-establishing these boundaries, howdo we know they will last? The boundaries we helpedlay down the last time fell apart in twenty years. Andwe tried to lay them down on the same principle thatthe President proposes now: the principle of self-determination.And what do we do about the countries which werevictims of aggression before 1939? Is everybody whostole anything before that date to keep it, and everybodywho stole anything after it to give it up? What do wedo about Hong Kong, the Malay States, the Dutch EastIndies, French Indo-China, Africa, and, above all, India?If there never has been, isn't now, and never will be anyrace of people fit to serve as masters over their fellowmen, how can we tolerate the mastery of the white raceover our yellow, brown, and black fellow men throughoutthe world ?If we go to war, what are going to war for? We arestirred, but not enlightened, by the great phrase — thefour freedoms — which the President has used as the general statement of our aims. Freedom of worship, freedom of speech, freedom from want, and freedom fromfear — if we go to war, we go to establish these four freedoms everywhere.The President cannot literally mean that we are tofight on till the four freedoms ring everywhere. If weare to be responsible for the four freedoms everywhere,we must have authority everywhere. We must force thefour freedoms upon people who might prefer to do without them rather than accept them from the armed missionaries of the United States. This new imperialism, this revised conception of the White Man's Burden, thismodern version of America's Manifest Destiny is a repudiation of the presidential teaching that there never hasbeen, isn't now, and never will be any race of peoplefit to serve as masters over their fellow men.Of course, we must extend the four freedoms to our"allies" as well as to our "enemies." We must see toit that British possessions throughout the world havethem. The hopes held out to India during the last war,disappointed after it, and now held out again must befulfilled. China, Greece, and Turkey must reform, too.In the Latin- American countries we shall have no easytask. Few of them have the four freedoms now. FromMexico to Patagonia we must send our legions to convert our good neighbors by force of arms.The President cannot mean this, for it is a program ofperpetual war, war in Latin-America, war in the FarEast, war in the South Seas, and even war with Britain.Mr. Roosevelt must mean that by defeating the Axis weshall rid the world of those governments at present mostaggressive in their attack on the four freedoms. Duringor after the war we shall have to figure out the nextsteps : how to establish and maintain governments thatbelieve in the four freedoms. The first step is war.Here, then, is the real issue. Is the path to war the pathto freedom?This war, if we enter it, will be long, hard, and bloody.We do not have the choice between a short war abroadand a prolonged period of militarization at home. The"enemy" now controls all of Europe and part of Asia,and is not yet driven from Africa. We have no evidencethat the totalitarian regimes will fly to pieces when theiropponents get superiority in the air, or even that superiority can be achieved.Total war for total victory against totalitarian statescan best be conducted by totalitarian states. The reasonis simple. A totalitarian state is nothing but a militarymachine. A totalitarian state will be more effective inwar than any other kind of state. A democratic stateis organized for the happiness of its citizens. But theirhappiness cannot be considered in total war. Every oneof them must become a cog in the military machine. Ifthe United States is to proceed through total war to totalvictory over totalitarian states, it will have to becometotalitarian, too.Is total war, then, the path to freedom? We seek freedom from want, and we impoverish ourselves. We seekfreedom from fear, and we terrorize ourselves. We seekfreedom of worship and freedom of speech, and we suppress them.And when total victory has been won, will the totalitarian administration end ? We may find a clue in England. A responsible member of the British Cabinet, SirArchibald Sinclair, publicly supports a proposal thatthere shall be no elections in England for three yearsafter the war. The reason is clear. Poverty and disillusionment will make democracy dangerous.What will be America's fate after a long, hard, andbloody war? In times of peace we have had ten millionunemployed ; we shall have at least that many again. Weshall have an enormous debt. Repudiation and infiltration may rid us of that — and at the same time of themiddle class. Having exhausted our resources in get-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7ting guns, we shall have none for butter, houses, relief,social security, or education. We shall have want andfear, and we may have the maintenance of order by agovernment scarcely distinguishable from those which wewent forth to fight. We may have the kind of freedomproclaimed by one of Napoleon's marshals to the Germantowns. He said, "My friends, I bring you perfect liberty. But be prudent. I shoot the first man who stirs."There are those who say, "Of course, if we go to war,we shall have totalitarianism in this country. But if wetry to stay at peace, we shall have all this and Hitler, too.Unless we go over and get Hitler, Hitler will come overand get us."Lord Halifax on Tuesday said that Hitler could neverinvade England. If he can never invade England, hecan never conquer the Western Hemisphere. We inAmerica have a chance to save democracy if we build ourdefenses and stay at peace. If we enter upon total warto total victory, we lose that chance, even if we win thevictory.War, except in self defense, is a counsel of despair,despair because the world is bad, despair because peaceful change is too slow and hard. It was the counsel ofthe nihilists, the Russian revolutionaries described byDostoyevsky. They believed in progress by catastrophe.Our modern American nihilists want catastrophe becausethey despair of getting progress in any other way. Theythink that everything will be wonderful after the warbecause such things as capitalism, which they dislike, willbe destroyed.I think it fairly certain that capitalism will not surviveAmerican participation in this war. And since it is thevehicle of the materialism that has brought us to ourpresent pass, I am not altogether sure that it deserves to.But experience after the last war in Germany, Italy, andRussia does not suggest that catastrophe is the road tosomething better.The trouble with the doctrine of progress throughcatastrophe is that you can be sure of the catastrophe,but not of the progress. So of war as the path to freedom. You can be certain of the war. The freedom isanother matter. If we enter this war, we shall lose whatwe have of the four freedoms. We shall lose the hopeof realizing them. What we have, in this country, ishope. War, for this country, is a counsel of despair. Itis a confession of failure. It is national suicide.We have far surpassed most other nations in our advance toward the four freedoms. We and we alone havethe hope of realizing them. We must bravely and hopefully face the task of realizing them. We must showthe world a nation which understands, values, and practices the four freedoms. This is America's destiny.We cannot run away from our destiny because it ishard. We cannot avoid it by claiming that we musthave the British fleet to protect us. We cannot evadeit by pleading fatigue from our futile efforts to meet thedepression, suggesting that we would like an ocean voyage to recuperate. We cannot be like Stendhal's hero,who at the age of sixteen ran away to join Napoleon toescape from the sorrows that were poisoning his life,especially on Sundays. We must stay here and fight. AsMr. Willkie said so truly during the campaign, "America's battle for liberty is right here at home." The path to war is a false path to freedom. It is afalse path to freedom for America. It is a false path tothe four freedoms everywhere. War is for the sake ofpeace. The spirit of the peace will be determined by thespirit of the countries which make it. An Englishman,J. Middleton Murry, said of England, "This country, asit is, is incapable of winning a Christian victory, becauseit simply is not Christian." This general principle issound. No country can win a democratic victory unlessit is democratic. Only those who understand, value, andpractice democracy know what a democratic peace wouldbe. Only those who understand, value, and practice justice can make a just peace. Only those who understand,value, and practice the four freedoms can make a peaceto establish them everywhere.Fear and ignorance wrote the last peace: the fear ofthe French and British, the ignorance of all the nations.From this fear and ignorance sprang a peace that madethis war inevitable. There is no less fear and certainlyno less ignorance today. Have we the courage and thewisdom to bring the world to a peace that shall establishthe four freedoms everywhere? If we have, we shoulddo it, no matter what the cost in blood or treasure. Wewant to serve humanity, and in her cause we should beproud to sacrifice our fortunes and our lives.We cannot seriously believe that what we have of thefour freedoms we owe to our courage and our wisdom.We owe it rather to the courage and wisdom of ourforefathers who wrote our constitution and to theDivine Providence that placed enormous resources at ourdisposal at a distance from the conflicts of the Old World.Do not misunderstand me. We have accomplished much ;but when we appraise our opportunities and our obligations we see that it is only a beginning. We are fearfuland we are ignorant. Our fear is the result of ourignorance. Our fundamental error is the overwhelmingimportance that we attach to material goods. Money isthe symbol of the things we honor. Only in war can webe united by the call to sacrifice billions for the welfareof mankind. Only at such a time could Mr. Jesse Jonessay without bitter protest from the taxpayers, "We arepreparing for war. When you do that, you must throwmoney away." We are frightened and confused by ourinability to use our vast resources to obtain a constantflow of more and better material goods. We. are dismayed by the long depression and the collapse of ourattempts to deal with it. We are easy marks for thosewho tell us that the way out of our troubles is to marchto Berlin.Are we so ignorant that we think the way to defeat adoctrine we hate is to shoot at it? Are we so naive thatwe believe that rearrangements in the material order —land, mines, and waterways — will solve the problems ofthe world ? Are we so child-like as to suppose that theoverthrow of the Nazis will bring a just and lastingpeace? Are we so frightened as to think that if onlythe British Empire can be preserved, if only the Germanscan be crushed, all the ills that have beset us will automatically disappear?But if we go to war, and preserve the British Empire, and crush the Germans, our fundamental problemswill remain. We do not face our fundamental problems8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEby going to war; we evade them. We do not make ajust and lasting peace by writing into another treaty thefear, ignorance, and confusion that have marred ourefforts to build a democratic community at home. If wewould change the face of the earth we must first changeour own hearts.Hitler was right in holding before the German peoplean ideal higher than comfort. He knew he could notgive them that. He offered them instead a vision ofnational grandeur and "racial" supremacy. These arefalse gods. Since they are false, they will fail in theend. But Hitler was half right. He was right in whathe condemned, and wrong in what he offered in its place.It is our task in this country to realize the true idealsof human life, the true organization of human society,the true democracy. It is our task to work out a neworder in America, not like Hitler's, based on slavery anddegradation, but based on the premise that society existsto promote the happiness of its members and that happiness consists in the development of the highest powers ofmen. The good life and the just society — not the luxurious life or the powerful state — these are the goals towardwhich America must strive.It is America's destiny to reach these goals. It isher duty to the world to struggle toward them. The warto which humanity calls America is the war againstpoverty, disease, ignorance, and injustice. We mustwin this war in America now. We can hardly be content with a society in which almost half the people areliving below the minimum level of subsistence. Wecannot be proud to learn that 250,000 babies were bornHITLER WILL DECIDEFive Answers to President Hutchins last year without benefit of medical care. With one-roomschool houses, scanty libraries, non-existent art museums,and undernourished churches, vast stretches of ourcountry are barren cultural, intellectual, and spiritualwastes. And too often American justice is the interestof the stronger written into law. We must fight on ifwe are to win America's war.To win this war we must have peace. Edmund Burkesaid to the House of Commons: "Judging of what youare by what you ought to be, I persuaded myself thatyou would not reject a reasonable proposition becauseit had nothing but its reason to recommend it. . . Theproposition is peace."The proposition has nothing but its reason to recommend it. The war to total victory over poverty, disease,ignorance, and injustice has none of the glamor anddraws few of the cheers that accompany a war of mutualextermination. But though tyrants may be put down,tyranny cannot be. destroyed by airplanes and tanks.Tyranny can be destroyed only by creating a civilizationin which people will not suffer so much that they willtrade their liberties for the pitiful security which thetyrant offers. The war to create this civilization is ourwar. We must take advantage, of every day we haveleft to build a democracy which will command the faithof our people, and which, by the light of its example,will restore the democratic faith to the people of theworld.America has been called the arsenal of democracy. Ithas been called the larder of democracy. Let us makeit the home of democracy. This is America's destiny.[On April 6, over the same network available to Mr.Hutchins, five friends of the President who disagree withhis views on the war, answered "The Proposition IsPeace." They were Jerome G. Kerwin, Associate Professor of Political Science; Bernadotte Schmitt, Professor of History; Richard P. McKeon, Dean of theHumanities Division; Paul H. Douglas, Professor ofEconomics; and William H. Spencer, Dean of the Business School. — Ed.1II N HIS speech delivered lastSunday over the stations ofthe Mutual BroadcastingSystem on "The Proposition IsPeace," President Hutchinsstated that the issue is whetherI we are deliberately to go to warand thus destroy the democraticA o^ order in this country ... orI whether we are going to remainat peace to wage a total war onpoverty and social injustice inthis country.This is a misstatement of the issue. The issue is notwhether we are deliberately to go to war, but whetherKERWIN we are to aid those who are resisting the dictators evenat the risk of war. This issue has already been decidedby the American people, and in the affirmative, aftermuch deliberation— deliberation in which Mr. Hutchinsand Senator Wheeler have taken part ; deliberation inwhich Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Willkie have taken part;deliberation in which the whole American people havetaken part for many months past. In accordance withour democratic methods the majority of Americans havesaid that they do not want war if it can be avoided; butthey have also said, according to the Gallup Poll to whiclMr. Hutchins refers, that they will aid Britain to thtutmost, even at the risk of war. The Lease-Lend Billprovides for just that, and there can be little question ofthe determination of the American people on that point.Whether we get involved in war or not will be determined, not by us, but by the man who sits in the seat ofthe mighty in Berlin — he will decide. I doubt not thatthe last thing Hitler wants is war with the United Statesat this time. The burden, however, is on him, not on us.We have chosen our course. It were better to adviseMr. Hitler to go slowly, and not the American people.We have not been attacked, says Mr. Hutchins, so whyall this hostility? Surely Mr. Hutchins and those whosympathize with the isolationist point of view must knowTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthat in the present conflict several nations have alreadylost theiy freedom because they waited to be attcked.Hitler does not attack physically until he has preparedthe way psychologically by spreading the deadly poisonsof disunity, confusion of issues, fear and despair withinthe borders of his prospective victims. No people canwisely bind themselves to a permanent resolve not toenter this war, for we are dealing with war lords holdingarbitrary powers, and free to change their objectives andtheir military tactics from day to day. Free peoplesmust be free to act.The American people are not indifferent to the social,economic and moral ills existing in this nation. Some ofthem know these ills by report, and too large a numberbecause they are victims of them. But they can copesatisfactorily with these problems only in a climate favorable to peace, rather than in an atmosphere of perpetualdanger and constant threat which a Hitler-controlledworld will provide for us. It is because we are verymuch aware of our social needs in this country andbecause we desire to solve them according to our democratic traditions that we are determined to bolster theremaining bulwarks of democracy against the mightiestand the most sinister threat it has had to face in moderntimes. While we seek the perfection of our own land — aworthy goal for any people to set before itself — we mustput ourselves on guard against those who frankly statetheir determination to destroy the system through whichwe seek perfection. Mussolini's chief spokesman promises the United States that the Axis, in case of victory,will present us with an economic depression that willmake the last one look merely like the loss of a penny ina slot machine. Does Mr. Hutchins really believe thatwe can successfully pursue perfection in such a setting?Hitler definitely counts upon the removal of obstaclesto his program of conquest by able and sincere men,men of unquestioned good will, in the democratic countries — men who hate the carnage of war, men who lovetheir country, but who in placing distant ends beforeemergency needs, serve to darken the issue, confusethinking, and paralyze the national will.It is because we believe that Mr. Hutchins, whosefriend we all are and whom we greatly admire, has beenmisled by his love of perfection into adopting a role inthe present crisis which plays directly into Hitler's hand,that we are taking this occasion to examine his arguments and their consequences in the light of the obviousrealities of the present situation.MR. HUTCHINS, declaring that "the proposition is peace," statesthat "the proposition has nothingbut its reason to recommend it."This language must mean that theproposition is clearly stated, thatits main points are proved, andthat the argument gives due considerations to present realities.For a man who lays such storeby reason, Mr. Hutchins showsthe meaning of words and theSCHMITTStrang disregard foraccurate statement of facts. Knowing that Americans hate dictatorships and totalitarianism, he uses these words, not to make us consciousof the menace of Nazi or Facist tyranny, but to createsuspicions of those very countries now engaged in fighting aggression. Turkey, Greece and China, he tells us,are "dictatorships." Because these countries do notmeasure up to his standard of democracy, because theyhave not declared what kind of peace they desire, Mr.Hutchins apparently regards them as not worth savingor helping. And that too in spite of the fact that if theycan successfully resist aggression, they will thereby freethe United States from the same menace. This is aconclusion which does not follow from the premisses.According to Mr. Hutchins, "total war for total victoryagainst totalitarian states can best be conducted bytotalitarian states." Here he confuses the issue bypunning on the similarity of sound between the wordstotal and totalitarian. England is not a totalitarian state,and there is not the slightest evidence that she is evenmoving in that direction. And to say, as Mr. Hutchinsdoes, that should the United States, unhappily, becomeinvolved in war, we would have to go totalitarian, is tomake a wholly gratuitous assumption, unwarranted byhistory and unsupported by facts or argument.As an argument against aiding Britain at the riskof war, Mr. Anthony Eden, the British foreign secretaryis quoted as saying in 1928, when discussing a bill toextend the suffrage in Great Britain:"We have not got democratic government in thiscountry today ; we never have had it, and I ventureto suggest . . . that we shall never have it. Whatwe have done, in all the progress of reform andevolution of politics, is to broaden the basis of ouroligarchy."On the basis of this single statement, wrenched fromits context, we are apparently asked to believe thatEngland is an oligarchy, presumably in the ordinarysense of that word. I have looked up the full text ofthis speech by Mr. Eden in the House of Commons.Its meaning is very different. Mr. Eden supporting, notopposing, an extension of the franchise, was pointing outthat democracy meant something more than the possession of the right to vote, that in a successful democraticstate "as great a portion as possible of those who arein that state must take an interest in the government ofthat state." In England, he said, "always only a percentage of those who possess the vote will exercise itor take an interest in its use," and he used the word"oligarchy," not in the sense of a corrupt and smallclique, but as meaning incomplete exercise of theirfranchise by those who had the right to vote. And hewent on to say:"I do not believe that, in the evolution of government, there is any finality. It may be that we havereached the final stages in the granting of the suffrage, but it does not by any means follow that wehave reached the final stage in the evolution ofdemocratic government in this country."Finally, Mr. Hutchins quotes Lord Halifax as sayingthat Hitler can never invade England, and adds : "If he[Hitler] can never invade England, he can never conquer the Western Hemisphere." This is highly disingenuous, for in the same speech Lord Halifax also said :10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"It is not only with physical invasion that youor I are concerned, but with a spiritual invasion,which, if permitted, would work greater havoc thanall the tons of high explosive that it is in the powerof the German air force to unload."Furthermore, Hitler ' may conquer England withoutinvading her — he may starve her into submission, andEngland fears that much more than a direct attack. IsMr. Hutchins prepared to assert that if England fallsand Hitler conquers Europe, there is no serious dangerthat he will try to' extend his conquests to the WesternHemisphere as well?Mr. Hutchins asks if we are to rush to arms everytime the British Empire is in danger. The war of 1812,when the United States attacked England when shewas beset by other enemies, provides one answer, but,quite apart from that, the purpose of helping Britaintoday is not to preserve the British Empire, but todefeat Hitler and thus to save ourselves.We are also asked to believe that because PresidentRoosevelt has declared that "any nationality, howeversmall, has the inherent right to its own nationhood," theUnited States is being committed to what Mr. Hutchinscalls "the restoration of pre-war boundaries in Austria,Czechoslovakia, Memel, Danzig, Poland, France, Chinaand Rumania." This is another gratuitous assumption,totally unsupported by evidence.Mr. Hutchins is sincerely and passionately devoted toreason and truth, I must suppose, therefore, that he usessuch arguments because he is a perfectionist. He thinksthat unless and until we have attained a perfect politicaland social order in the United States, we should donothing to help a suffering world which involves us inany risk. But where do his arguments lead him?Throughout his address there was a note of impliedcriticism of almost everything the President of the UnitedStates has done or is preparing to do. On the otherhand, Mr. Hutchins declared that Hitler is at least halfright, and makes our potential friends seem almost worsethan our declared enemies. In the end, he reached theconclusion that no people can oppose the evil of Hitlerismby force without succumbing to it and that, therefore, itwould be better not to oppose it. This is a counsel ofdespair — God forbid that the American people shouldfollow it. in1 *HE proposition which wehave met to discuss, we aretold, has only reason to recommend it. Two questions areof fundamental importance inconsidering an appeal to reasonsuch as Mr. Hutchins makes:first, how should rational persua-tion operate in a democracy?Second, how does reason apply inthe discussion of political problems ?The practical use of reason has its strength and itsweakness,, its advantages and its disadvantages. Democracy depends on discussion and persuasion to an extentwhich is neither necessary nor feasible in any other formof government; reason serves as a check and supplies aMcKEON standard for such persuasion. By means of it we canhope to arrive at decisions which reflect, not factionalinterest or partisan passion, but that balance of interestsby which a maximum common good might be achieved.By the same token, arguments advanced in the name ofreason, which rationalize an impracticable hope or whichfail to recognize an actual situation constitute at once agrave danger to democracy and a pertinent cause for thedistrust of reason. The strength of democracy does notlie in the efficiency with which it can institute or pursuea course of action. Democracy is basically self-government, and it must balance the inefficiency and indecisionof its initial discussions, on which dictatorships count,by an equity and wisdom of decision which will unitemen in action and preserve the state from the spectacularerrors and miscalculations to which dictatorships arcprone. Democracies have never achieved the perfectionof freedom, but it is well to remember that the alternatives to the democratic way toward freedom totallyexclude all vestige of freedom.How then is reason applicable to a practical politicalquestion? Since the question is practical, its solutionmust consist in a practicable course of action. As longago as Aristotle, political philosophers recognized thatthe purpose of moral and political inquiry was not to setup definitions of virtues, actions, and political institutions, but rather to lead men to perform just actions andto establish just social organizations. And since a practical question involves many factors and many contingencies, the solutions should not pretend to the rigor ofa mathematical formula.The discussion of a practical question involves, first,the statement of the alternatives, second, the determination of the preferable alternative, third, action calculatedto realize that preferable alternative.The reasons by which Mr. Hutchins supports his proposition seemis to us defective on such standards of practical reasoning. The alternatives are not peace as opposed to war. We are all, as is the vast majority ofAmericans, in favor of peace and opposed to war. Butin the last two years the democracies of the world werenot given the privilege of deciding between those alternatives : in all cases it was Hitler who decided ; according to this morning's news Hitler has again decided forYugoslavia and for Greece. We shall not achieve peaceby announcing our opposition to war. Conversely weare not concerned to oppose war at the cost of all that ournational life stands for and all that our individual livesachieve. Our problem is the preservation of freedom,and freedom can be preserved now, as at other criticalmoments of our history, only by accepting the risk ofwar. But we are also convinced that the determinationto preserve our institutions even at the risk of war isin the present crisis the best means of preventing war.The alternatives are not the solution of our own domestic problems as opposed to the quixotic abandonmentof them to engage in a crusade to defend the BritishEmpire. No nation lives in a vacuum, and the solutionof internal political, social, and economic problems cannot be divorced from the world situation. When Mr.Hutchins asks, "If we are going to war, what are wegoing to war for?" and implies in that question that wemight instead quietly devote ourselves to the solutionTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11of the problems of infant mortality, housing, poverty,education, social injustice and cultural stagnation, he isposing a rhetorical question. The proposition is not war,nor is the proposition peace. It is the preservation ofour freedom so that in that freedom we may seek thesolutions to problems that have arisen in our nationallife. But so stated the proposition requires the recognition that national problems are involved in internationaldangers and affected by international forces.The alternatives are not rational certainly as opposedto the forces of fear and ignorance. Mr. Hutchins expresses certainty on a great many points: he says thatignorance and fear made this war inevitable ; he is certainof the consequences of any deviation from the principleshe enunciates; he is emphatic in his statement of America's destiny. The opposition is rather one of probabilities. We are convinced that it is highly improbable thatthe United States will be able to pursue any of the idealsof internal readjustment, which we share with Mr.Hutchins, if the Axis powers succeed in dominatingEurope and Asia and Africa. A list of questions mightl>e drawn up to balance those to which Mr. Hutchinsfinds no answer except fear and ignorance. What kindof education will we plan for our children if Hitler winsin Europe? What progress will be made in the solutionof our economic and social problems? What directionwill research in the sciences take in America? Whatwill happen to the cultivation of the arts and letters?Mr. Hutchins has stated the problem in terms of falsealternatives. He does not address himself to a problemthat can be stated as genuine alternatives among whichthe American people can choose. This is apparent inthe fact that his solution is not expressed in any clearlystated course of action : he opposes an obvious evil, buthe does not aid us in the choice between evils ; he turnsfrom an international crisis which affects our internalgoods and securities to advocate the solution, in times ofstress, of problems to which we have been inadequatein times of leisure. His proposition is unrelated to thefacts of the case, and the reasons by which he supportshis proposition are unsuited to the solution of the problem.IVETT THAT, then, are the facts of\A/ the case upon which our* * decision must depend?Mr. Hutchins in his speech almostcompletely ignored the danger tothe United States which a Hitlervictory over England would bring.Having minimized this danger, hethen argued that the United Stateshad everything to lose and nothingDOUGLAS t0 &a'n by giving all out aid toBritain and her allies in the struggle against Hitler. Were his basic assumption correct,we might agree with his conclusion. But the truth ofthe matter is that without our aid Britain would almostcertainly be conquered and that if she were to be conquered our own future would be placed in tremendousperil. Had it not been for the help we have alreadygiven Britain in the form of food, guns, ammunition,ships, destroyers, and airplanes, she might have been forced before now to give up. Similarly, the passage ofour lease-lend bill has already been effective in stiffeningthe backs of Greece, Jugoslavia, Turkey, and Britainitself, and will shortly provide a tremendous flow of materials to help them. Unless we continue to aid GreatBritain and her allies in large measure, however, theywill almost surely go down to defeat. And although theisolationists sometimes say they are in favor of moderateaid to Britain, they always minimize the need for thisaid and actually oppose any method of making it reallyeffective.The central truth upon which American policy is nowbased is that the United States would be placed in terrificdanger were Great Britain permitted to go down. I amnot in any sense of the word a military expert, but thereare certain elementary facts a layman can grasp eventhough the isolationists ignore them. According to Secretary of the Navy Knox, the strength of the Americannavy is approximately one and a quarter million tons,while the combined strength of the German, Italian,French, and Japanese navies is approximately 2,145,000tons, or nearly twice as much. As I understand it, theBritish have about two million tons of fighting ships.Therefore, as long as the British navy is intact andopposes Hitler, we are relatively safe with a combinednaval superiority in about the ratio of three to two. Butif England were to be taken and the British navy wereto be sunk or neutralized, then we would lose the controlover both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Moreover, if the Germans took England they might very wellget control over the British fleet by holding the familiesof the sailors and navel officers as hostages and bythreatening to destroy key cities. If this were to happen,then Hitler and his allies would have four million tonsor more of naval vessels, or more than three times ourstrenght. Moreover, it seems apparent that Hitler nowhas six times as many airplanes as we, and at least eightto ten times as many trained soldiers.It is folly to ignore the implications of these facts andto gamble with our safety by assuming that Hitler will bebeaten. For if he wins we would not only be hemmedin from the east and the west, but Hitler would also beable to take over most of Latin America and wouldthreaten us from the south. America would have tobecome a gigantic armed camp. We would not have theopportunity to live in the spirit of peace and progresswhich we all desire and our very national survival wouldbe in danger.Moreover, with Hitler in control of the world outsideof us, he could refuse to accept our goods unless we gaveup our democracy. With his combined military andeconomic power and with the aid of appeasers, fifth-columnists, Nazis, Communists and perfectionists fromwithin, our position would be greatly weakened.Under these conditions war would certainly come tothe United States, but it would be war in our hometerritory and on terms disadvantageous to ourselves.It is for this reason that it is simple prudence to giveGreat Britain effective aid so that she can keep Hitleroff our necks and the war away from American shores.Neither America nor England is perfect, but we area much better society than we would be were we forcedto live in a state of continuous siege and to fight aloneand with our backs to the wall. No father or mother in12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthis country wants his children to grow up under suchconditions as that. If we are to preserve what we haveand get the chance to become better, we should thereforehelp to defeat Hitler. That is the real issue before theAmerican people.VWiSPENCER 'E have engaged in debate with Mr, Hutchinsbecause we and he differon a major issue. On most issues we gladly accept his leadership. ( )n tin's issue, we are convinced he is wrong.Mr. Hutchins presents this issue before the American peopleas if it were a choice between tliepursuit of the millennium, on theone hand, and unnecessary en-tance into a foreign war, on the other. Would that hewere right! But the millennium unfortunately, is notimminent, whereas the menace of Hitler is."If we are going to war, what are we going to warfor?" asks Mr. Hutchins. Mr. Coolidge's minister wasagainst sin. Mr. Hutchins, all credit to him, is againstwar. So are we all, all good Americans. But Mr. Hitlerand Mr. Mussolini and the Japanese, unfortunately, arenot against war. Except for advocates of passive resistance, or of passive submission, war is an activity which,while it involves two parties, can be started by one alone."If we are going to war, what are we going to war for?"Let me suggest a revision of this question, so that itreads: "If we aid Britain even at the risk of war, whatare we aiding Britain for?" It is not because we loveor admire Britain. Some of us do, and some of us don't.It is not because Britain is a democracy, and Germanyand Italy are dictatorships. Some of us may think it isour duty or our interest to help democracies wheneverattacked by dictators. Some of us may not. It is notbecause we are anxious to preserve the British Empire.Some of us think it is worth preserving. Some of usdon't. It is not because we like war for its own sake.None of us does, any more than does Mr. Hutchins. Weare for aid to Britain even at the risk of war becausewe believe that the dictators are menacing the democralicway of life wherever it exists, and in whatever degree itexists. We are for aid to Britain because we believethat except for us Britain is the last stronghold of democracy ; because we believe that without our aid Britaincannot stand ; and because we believe that if that stronghold is overcome we will find the menace to our democracy right at our own doorstep, and so formidable thatour power to resist it will not be beyond question.Mr. Hutchins suggests that those who wish aid toBritain even at the risk of war contemplate forcing the"four freedoms" upon people everywhere, even if theydon't want them. No one in this country, and certainlynot Mr. Roosevelt, has challenged the right of any people to adopt or even to submit to non-democratic formsof government if they please to do so. We are for aidto democracies who wish to remain democracies. Weare for aid to victims of wanton aggression even if theirdemocracy falls short of the American standard. Andwe are for such aid because in a world in which aggres sion goes unrebuked our own democracy is in aiding Britain, or Greece, or China, we are aidingAmerican democracy.Mr. Hutchins asks : "Are we so frightened as to thinkthat if only the British Empire can be preserved, if onlythe Germans can be crushed, all the ills which have besetus will automatically disappear?" He should have asked,"Are we so sanguine" not "Are we so frightened?" andthe proper answer would I>e "no." Perfection is not ofthis earth, but the pursuit of it is man's noblest activity.Hut all things in their time. A prairie fire has attackedour neighl)or's house, and ours is next in line. Mr.Hutchins would have us refrain from going to aid ofour neighbor until we had perfected the architecture ofour own house. Let it be admitted that defeat of Hitlerwould not solve all the world's ills by any means. Itwould solve, however, the single most pressing ill of themoment. If it is reasonable to oppose effective aid toBritain because we would still have some problems unsolved, it would be equally reasonable to oppose a curefor cancer, or higher education, or political or economicreform on the same ground. The most immediate andportentious evil is the menace of the dictators to oursecurity. The most effective remedy is aid to Britain.Whether that involves war or not, Hitler, and not wewill decide.A Letter from a Graduating SeniorDear President Hutchins:WITH graduation a few months away this studentwrites to thank you for an education.Education through discussion of opposing theories by those who strive to be tolerant thinkers, insteadof "education" through indoctrination by belief defenders, has given U. of C. students a broader tolerance anda more vital conviction of democracy's practicability.The current discussion within the University regardingthe nation's stand in world affairs is convincing thinkingpeople of the entire nation that the University of Chicagois a working democracy. The democratic tolerance ofone another's honest convictions demonstrated by thePresident of this University and its faculty is furnishinga stirring example to us all of democracy at its best; ademocracy in which discussion of alternatives, ratherthan argumentive defense of personal opinion, permitsintelligent evaluation of the problem at hand and itspossible solutions. We students believe with you thatthe University is "the symbol of all this country has todefend." Because of this symbolic value, because of itsown worth as an institution, and because of the individualpersonalities who make it live, we students are proudto be a small part of the University of Chicago.Within my own limited circle of acquaintances I finda constantly growing respect for the University and itsPresident. The present display of disagreement seemsvaluable from a public relations standpoint. Even thosewho formerly considered the University of Chicagoslightly "pink" are now coming to realize that discussionof pros and cons does not necessarily indicate completeacceptance of either, but that such discussion does indicate a real desire for truth and democratic progress.Tom Murray White, '41WHAT I OWE TO CHICAGO• By LEWIS DEXTER, '35OVER the years I developed an answer to theinquiry of curious persons who wanted to knowwhy I went to Chicago, when, as a NewEnglander, with ancestors who went to "respectable"colleges, I ought to have gone to Harvard or Yale orBrown. I tell them that I attended Chicago in order totake advantage of the New Plan and graduate in lessthan the usual time of four years; since I did do this,the answer is entirely plausible, in fact so plausible thatI believed it myself, until, searching my memory whilewriting this article, I recollected that I never said thatuntil I had been at Chicago a quarter.I remember well tossing a coin, Chicago or Swarthmore, but what process of "reasoning" led me to narrowmy choice to these two non-New England institutions isnow forgotten. In any event, I am glad the coin saidChicago, and, for purposes of this essay, rather gladthat I have no more to say on why I came to the University. For it is difficult enough to list what I got outof it for just the opposite reason — I credit the Universitywith so much.In fact, one of the things I, in a way, most regretabout my University career is that I stayed there considerably less than the normal time. Not, be it hastilyadded, that I do not believe in the New Plan's possibilities for quick graduation; emphatically I do; but, agraduate student who goes somewhere else, when hemight go to Chicago, is a guy who doesn't have senseenough to come in out of the cold. I — (for financial andclimatic reasons however) was that guy.(After I'd been away from Chicago for awhile, afriend of my father's, A.B., Chicago; M.A., Columbia;Ph.D., Radcliffe, asked my father whether I really likedHarvard. He gave an unenthusiastic answer, and shesaid, "I imagine he doesn't. When I went from Chicagoto Columbia, it was like going from a nice warm roominto an icebox, and when I went from Columbia to Harvard, it was like going from an icebox right into theheart of an iceberg." Well, I went from Chicago toHarvard to Columbia, so you can see my temperaturydifficulties.)It seems to me that sixty per cent of the educationalassets which I have received came from my quarters atChicago ; (and the proportion would be far higher, savefor one extraordinarily skillful teacher, Carl J. Friedrich,in graduate school). First; I acquired from my University career a realization that philosophy, concern aboutintellectual matters could be fun, fun as controversy, funas investigation.Second. I learned this, while I was learning to realizethat the ultimate problems of our society are philosophical ones, problems of ethics and logic. Curiously enough,I acquired this realization in the very process of strenuously denying it. For, wdiile I was an undergraduate,to my shame be it recorded, I was a vociferous opponentof President Hutchins' "theoretical" approach. But, indenying the merits of philosophy, I had to philosophize; and, when later on, I came into contact with scholarsunaffected by his notions, who actually proceeded uponthe assumption that "facts is facts," the yeast which thecontroversy about neo-Aristoteleanism had set fermenting quickened ; and despite myself, I came to realize how,on essential points, Hutchins is right and his common-sense opponents wrong.Third. Closely connected with the two preceding, Irealized that philosophy could be and should be amongthe major concerns of the run-of-the-mill undergraduate ;and that they can be at least as vehemently interested inideas, as in end runs. (Parenthetically, to alumni ofother institutions, the abolition of football was not nearlyas great a tragedy at Chicago as it would be at mostplaces; the students still have several matters of common concern to talk about, even if they can no longerchew the rag about "our" team.) Because I learned thisat Chicago, I believe I am a far better teacher than Iotherwise would be. I have not been conditioned, asthe majority of teachers are, even in our best universities, to feel that an interest in ideas is something vaguelydiscreditable; and so I do not find myself handicappedby the need to be apologetic, when I call ideas to mystudents' attention.Fourth. There were far too many interesting thingsgoing on at the University for anybody in his right mindto devote his major attention to studies or even philosophy. I once made a list of seventeen organizationsand activities with which I had been connected, duringmy five quarters in residence. Of course, my concernwTith most of them was pretty ephemeral; but I did gaina feeling for a wealth and variety of interests, which anunprepossessing, opinionated youngster, such as I was,could never have got in the more socially-consciousuniversities of the East, where discretion in dress anddemeanor are so much more important. And most othercolleges, which are equally tolerant, have far less goingon.Fifth. I think I realized through the intermingling ofgraduates and undergraduates, more than I would haveelsewhere, that graduate students need not necessarilybe cut off from the world of things that matter to theundergraduate.Sixth. In many of the organizations in which I tookpart, there was occasion for me to lead and administer.And, through these experiences, I gained some rudimentary skill in organizing, and considerable assuranceas to taking the lead, which later led me to take the lead,in a way to gain further skill in organizing.And the example of President Hutchins gave me adefinite ambition to become a college president, and thusled me to devote a great deal of reflection to generalproblems of administration. (The most amazing factor,which I have first perceived from the writing of thisessay, about my college career, is what an influence thatman, whom I only met three times, and whom, oftenand often, I have bitterly condemned, had upon me. The1314 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEonly comparable influence was from his arch-opponent,now President Gideonse of Brooklyn. Philosophicallyspeaking, I think that the thesis and antithesis whichthey presented has stimulated me in the direction offinding a synthesis.)Seventh. Not only did I acquire a number of friends,as most undergraduates at most colleges, I suppose do,but I acquired a point of view which means that somehow or other I find a quicker mutual understanding withChicago New Plan graduates than with any other classof persons. That is to say, on a number of occasionsnow, I have found myself thoroughly at home with someChicagoan whom I had not known, or who was at theUniversity after I left, in a way which is uncommon.And the absence of a marking system, or rather thenon-responsibility of teachers for marks, made it fareasier for me to act naturally with teachers, and establish more friendly relations with them. And, now thatI have to give marks myself, I can see that it made iteasier for teachers to establish friendly relations withstudents.Eighth. And of course, all this — and more too — sumsup to a memory of the most unalloyedly happy — excitingly happy— period of my life. The feeling I have aboutthe Chicago I knew as an undergraduate is not one Icould express in cold prose — I hope someday that oneAT THE beginning of this war, it looked as ifIreland's role might be important, and perhapstragic. Then with the long stalemate of the firstwinter, Ireland gradually slipped back out of those grimmoments of alertness, the grim realization of unpreparedness, the grim blackouts of the first few weeks when allthe lights were quenched in Dublin at seven in theevening ; and gradually Ireland decided that the war wasa false alarm and the Irish could go about their businessas if nothing were the matter. This is a mood whichhas only very recently evaporated and is not completelygone yet. But events have jolted it. so rudely that itcannot long continue. Ireland is now suffering acutelyfrom shortage of many necessary supplies. There is nomore gasoline for private cars at any price or in anyamount. For a long time past, the rationing of gasolinehas been severe. Now the supplies available are so shortthat only a reduced bus service and the needs of doctorscan be satisfied. Much worse than the lack of gasoline(Ireland is not yet as dependent on automobiles as therest of Europe) is the threat of lack of food. Tea isalmost unobtainable, and few Americans can realize whatthat means in the Irish countryside where the pot of teais always stewing by the hearth. The Department ofAgriculture is desperately trying to increase the acreageunder wheat by nearly half a million acres in order toprovide enough bread for next winter. To most Americans Ireland is the Green Isle. Few know the degree of my fellow-graduates may be able to say what surelymust have "oft been thought" but has not yet been very"well-expressed."There are two disadvantages of a sort which I receivedfrom being at the University. Many times, I have heardof something new, valuable, important, exciting that washappening there while I was there — and I didn't knowanything about it. At a University that did less, therewould be no occasion for regret over such missed opportunities — but I suppose the graduates of such lessertraining grounds "without the law," as Kipling put it,may bitterly regret the lost opportunity of not havinggone to Chicago.And, of course, so far, other institutions compare unfavorably with Chicago. Sometimes, I have almost persuaded myself, that my picture of Chicago is merely thenostalgia of the perpetual undergraduate, but then I remember that I have been back three times for a week,and each time I have met more interesting and excitingundergraduates in a week, than I would at Harvard orColumbia in a semester. It is to anyone in academiclife, indeed regrettable that Chicago comes so close tobeing unique — for there must be so many exiles fromwhat would be (may one located in a Florida climatewhisper) save for the breezes of Lake Michigan anacademic quasi-Paradise.• By DAVID GRENEof moisture that goes with that greenness. Generallyspeaking you can bet on one day in every three clammilystickily wet from June to September. That is why innormal times the Irish farmer does not try to growwheat, and oats only in small quantities. (In a recentinterview with the Minister of Agriculture the farmersof Meath, the richest grazing land in Europe perhaps,complained that their ground had never been tilled inthe memory of themselves or their fathers; that theyknew nothing about plowing; that they didn't have thetools ; and that they had been led to believe that plowingwould permanently injure the quality of the soil!) Andnow, last but by no means least, there has been anoutbreak of hoof and mouth disease which can be countedon to increase the already high price of meat and milk tothe consumer. The markets for produce have shownnone of the last war's boom to enrich the farmer — mainlybecause England has put the importation of Irish agricultural commodities on a strictly limited quota. This isprincipally due to the small amounts of shipping availableand also to a desire to favor the Dominions (notablyCanada and New Zealand) in preference to a countrywhich is neither friend nor enemy, neither in the warnor out of it.It is apparently very difficult for Americans to understand the Irish attitude to the War. I have noticed twomain trends of opinion, both of which miss the point.One is well represented by most of the American newsIRELAND AND THE WARTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15commentators in England at the present time. Theyare frankly impatient with the preposterous insularity ofBr. de Valera and his colleagues — their insular standingon privilege, their insular view of the dangers of war,and their insular pride in their capacity to withstandattack. The one element in the situation which is quiteclear to the newsmen is that the possession of the Irishports by the Irish who are not able to defend themagainst German attacks constitutes a real danger to England — and therefore implicitly to Ireland, for they guessquite correctly that Irish independence would not betolerated for six months in a Nazi dominated Europe.The views of these news commentators seems to mecorrect at every point in the final appraisal of the situation. It is immeasurably stupid, immeasurably vain, andimmeasurably dangerous (for Ireland as well as England) to cling to the ports which they are not able to defend. But what the newspapermen don't see, because noneof them have known Irish politics intimately enough tosee, is that the motives which lie behind the refusal to surrender the ports are not those of treachery, compromiseand irresolution such as marked the conduct of Belgiumright up to the beginning of the war, or Sweden whenit refused passage to troops coming to the assistance ofFinland. The retention or cession of the Irish ports isa trump card in the game of Irish politics, and the tragedy of Ireland which will, we hope, not be the tragedyof something bigger than Ireland, is that the petty gameof internal politics is still important enough effectuallyto block the vision of major issues. De Valera oustedthe government of Cosgrave on a radical platform —discontinuation of Land Annuity payments to England,reorganization of the office of the British appointed governor-general, abolition of the oath to the British crownwhich was formerly taken by Irish officials. De Valeraand his party, Fianna Fail, claimed that they could takeall of these steps on the road to an independent IrishRepubic and still retain the advantages of a Dominion.And they succeeded — though the endeavor cost nearlyfour years of economic war with England. Finally, as itwere the close of a chapter of Anglo-Irish relations, camethe new Constitution adjusting these relations permanently on the basis of mutual respect and independence.And then Mr. Chamberlain— without any particularpressure from the Irish — gave back the ports hitherto occupied by the British navy. This was the crown of deValera's prestige — and by then he needed it, for hispopularity was somewhat on the decline for no special reason except that his party had been the government for nearly six years and were experiencing the inevitable disadvantages of being the men everybody knew.But the restoration of the ports put a seal on de Valera'spopular position. The extreme Nationalist party, thename of one section of which, I. R. A. (Irish RepublicanArmy), covers a multitude of sins, is not strong nornumerous in Ireland today. But de Valera was himselfone of that party, when Fianna Fail embraced all tingesof extreme nationalism and all tinges of socialism,as opposed to Cosgrave's party which embracedall shades of let's-forget-about-the-war-of-independencesentiment and all tinges of economic conservatism.So de Valera's policy since he came into power hasbeen directed by the need for fighting not the Right- Wingers whom he ousted, but the rump of the Left-Wingers, whom he quit. There is no information available to indicate that there is any growth in I. R. A. sentiment. But a very few enthusiastic I. R. A. men wouldsuffice to sell Ireland to Germany, and anything whichwould strengthen the movement is naturally avoided byde Valera. And there is no doubt whatever that thecession of the ports to England would provoke a stormof protest, and would very possible strengthen such disaffected elements as exist. Furthermore, — and perhapsmore important-— de Valera is a man of the war of independence. His entire psychology is conditioned by asense of .the economic and social importance of certaingains in the Anglo-Irish conflict, and the symbolic significance of certain others. It is quite impossible thathe should shed his political skin and see the issues likea statesman of a great European power instead of as aman who struggled for his country's independence foryears and having won it has made a valiant effort in ashort-sighted, narrow-minded, and yet honest and decent way to create the form of social order he and themajority of his fellow citizens desired. Consequently,conceding the justice of the criticism of almost all theAmerican correspondents (and particularly of the admirable Miss Kirkpatrick) who have written up the Irishsituation, it is unreasonable to demand a cession of theIrish treaty ports. It is just conceivable that an American guarantee of their return after the war might inducethe Irish to make the surrender. Conceivable, but notlikely.The other opinion common among Americans is thatthe Irish are acting as they do because of a traditionalenmity towards England. Some even go so far as todeclare that the Irish would rather have the GermanswTin than the English. This view is, I think, a misrepresentation of popular sentiment in Ireland. Its proponents forget what they would do well to remember, thatthe Irish volunteers who died fighting for the Allies inthe last war were nearly ten times more numerous thanthe count of those who died fighting against the Englishin both the 1916 and the 1919-21 rebellions; further,that at this moment the southern Irish who are fightingin the British army — men who have lived in Englandfor years but are surely at least as Irish as the bulk ofthe American Irish to whom no one will deny that title —are very many.Besides all this, it is an undoubted fact which no honest and experienced observer of affairs in Ireland willdeny for a minute, that amongst the people as a wholethere is no ill will against the English. There is a complete want of interest in the English. There is a mildfeeling- of satisfaction that they no longer have an armyon Irish soil. There is a certain amount of good humored pride in the fact that the English were made tomove out in 1921. But of hatred for the English there isnot a trace. In the West there is resentment, sometimes,against the old landlords, though they were more oftenIrishmen of the so-called Anglo-Irish stock, than English. But even there the feeling is not one of an opposition of race so much as a sensation of relief as an oppressed peasantry that lived under the most exactingfeudal conditions at last find themselves able, as independent proprietors, to get what little good can be gotTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfrom the stony soil of their rugged and beautiful country.In the fertile South and Midlands and in the townsthere is nowhere discoverable anti-English sentimentthat would be worth discussion. Still less is there inany of these places love or sympathy for the Germans.The Germans are a name which doesn't mean much toIreland. It means something to the relics of regimentsof world war days — the Dublin Fusileers and the SouthIrish Horse ; to the most of the population the Germansare the fellows who started the Shannon scheme for ruralelectrification. They are the fellows who did a little instructing in how to grow sugar beets in the late twenties,though the Belgians were perhaps more prominent inthis. The treatment of Catholics inside Germany andin Poland has caused considerable indignation. But, forthe most part, Ireland doesn't know and doesn't carewhat is happening in the war. She doesn't understandthe issues ; she doesn't know who represents what ; sheis mortally afraid of the transference of the scene of battle to Ireland — and that's about the limit of her positivepolitical reaction. Ireland is not a country inhabitedby people with a keen understanding of vital political issues, if such a country exists. The Irish understandonly political personalities. They will love a man oftheir own kind, they will follow him through thick andthin, and will usually destroy him. So it was withParnell, with Collins, with O'Higgins. Ireland, as JamesJoyce says, is an old sow who eats her farrow. In thepresent conflict the Irish are not interested. Even ifthe newspapers were not censored until no item of conceivable political importance is left, it is doubtful if thepolitical turmoil would rage around the issues of thiswar. But the Irish do look with truly pitiable earnestness and faith to Eamon de Valera not to get them intothe war. Americans should make no mistake. If theGermans landed anywhere the Irish would fight to thelast man, and de Valera would lead them. If the Englishseized the ports — well, the outcome is any man's guess.Personally, I doubt if the resistance would be effective,but it would certainly be hearty. All roads in Irishfeeling lead back to de Valera. If any one could convince him that he must surrender the ports to Englishprotection he would do it and face the political consequences. Whatever else may be laid to his charge, noone can deny his political courage. And so strong is hein what are the deepest affections of the Irish and soslight is the opposition he must face in point of suchpopularity that he might conceivably bring the rest ofIreland to see that the surrender of the ports was a goodthing for Ireland itself. Might, but no one can saysurely.There is one political problem, however, that interestsIreland deeply and that is the problem of Ulster. It israther striking for an Irishman, to notice that it is aproblem of which, for the most part, America knowsnothing. That is because the American-Irish are mostlyIrish who emigrated before the distinction betweenNorthern and Southern Ireland was made officially.Coming from both parts indiscriminately, they tended toremember rather their common land than their enormousmutual differences. Today there is less in common between an Ulster Protestant and a Southern Catholic than between any other two branches of a breed speaking thesame language. Ulster has had the ill luck for the lasttwenty years to be governed by a small narrowmindedclique of old men, with old bitter minds, a vast stock ofsentimentality and a very shrewd sense of self interest. IfBritain had not supported this government through thesetwenty years again and again, there would have been aunion of South and North long ago. At times it musthave seemed a dubious advantage to English statesmento buttress this tottering pillar of Empire — but they always did it. Thus the Ulster government lived on andon, and accentuated the differences, in religion, in socialand economic interest, in political organization betweenNorth and South. For if they had not done so therewould have been no jobs for Abercorn or Craigavon orAndrews. They wept tears of loyalty to the Union Jack,and put Ulster to be carried on the back of the Englishtaxpayer, who had to maintain a separate postal andgovernmental service for a population of eight hundredthousand people. They talked of the fears the Northerners might legitimately entertain of the bigotry andintolerance of Southern Irish Catholicism, if ever theChurch's sinister hold were to be imposed on the North,and on each successive twelfth of July the anti-Catholicriots numbered their dead by the score. When ViscountCraigavon died some months ago, there was a chancethat the English might do something to remedy the situation between North and South. If England would givesome guarantee that at the end of the war Ulster andSouthern Ireland might at least discuss terms of settlement without English support for the most Blimpish ofthe remaining Blimps — the Ulster Col. Blimp — it woulddo more to stop this running sore than anything else.There is a strong Catholic minority in the North. Thereis an even larger number of Protestant Ulstermen whoare decently anxious to make one Ireland with the South.But such still small voices are drowned in the bellowingof the Orange Lodges. The one solid advantage thatthe English derive from the adhesion of Ulster to theircause is, the ability to keep enough troops in NorthernIreland to deal with any landing of German troops in theSouth. (Dublin is little more than a hundred miles fromBelfast, and the Border much nearer). For this reason,perhaps, the British are in no mood now to tell theUlster government with the necessary preemptorinessthat it must talk turkey to the parties in the South andNorth that want a united Ireland.It matters enormously that Americans should understand the facts about Ireland, for — it cannot be repeatedoften enough — Ireland depends more on the good will,understanding and good opinion of America than on anyfactor in the world outside of Ireland itself. If Americacan, and will play a hand in the relations between England, and Ireland, and Southern and Northern Ireland,there may be a settlement which will help England andall she stands for, in this war. If not, these issues willnot be settled, almost certainly. And maybe there willbe no fatal results. Maybe the Irish can stay out of thewar with no more consequences than the endurance ofa considerable discomfort and a little hunger. But ifthe Atlantic routes are as important as is usually supposed, a settlement of the Irish question would helpEngland most significantly.THE HOUSE IS ON FIRE• By MILTON S. MAYER"But 'when the house is on fire — "Excerpt from the Swelling Chorusof Statesmen, Journalists and University Presidents.YO UR house is on fire, and you are pouring wateron the flames, ruining the draperies and the petit-point but maybe saving the Liberty bonds thatyou sewed inside the mattress. People gather on thestreet, with or without the intention of assisting you,and they say, "Look — Jones is trying to put out thefire." Socrates, disguised as a person on the street, stepsup to them and says, "What is Jones trying to do?"And they reply, "Why, you old fool, he is trying to putout the fire."At the moment everybody is excited, and Socratesseems to be asking foolish questions, as usual. But whenthe fire is put out, or the house is burned down, Socrates comes up to you and says, "Come on over to myplace, Jones, and the little woman will make a cup ofhot coffee; you're cold and wet, and you're all in."You and Socrates sit down in the kitchen of his one-room flat, and Xantippe brews the coffee. Socrates asksyou what you were trying to do out there at the fire.You tell him you were trying to put out the fire, andhe asks you why, and when you tell him it was becauseyou wanted to go on living in the house, Socrates saysthat is what he suspected all along.He pours you another cup of coffee and asks you ifputting out the fire wasn't only a means to an end.When you say, "Sure," Socrates says he guesses thatif everybody hadn't been so excited when he asked whatJones was trying to do, everybody would have said,"Jones is trying to do something that will enable him togo on living in his house."Now that sounds reasonable, and Socrates scratcheshis whiskers a while. "Let's see where we are," he says."We agree that you weren't trying to put out the firejust to put out the fire.""That's right," you say, "I was trying to put out thefire so that I could go on living in the house.""There is something else," says Socrates, pouring hiscoffee into the saucer to cool it. "Let me ask you,Jones, whether you would go to the bother of fightingthat fire and catching your death of cold and then rebuilding the house if you knew it was going to burndown again next week?""Why, no," you say, "do you think I'm a fool?""That would be foolish," says Socrates, "wouldn't it?""Jones," says the old philosopher wiping his chin onthe sleeve of his tunic, "I heard the firemen say that.the fire was started by the spontaneous combustion of apile of oily rags in the basement."And you say, "Well, come to think of it, there wasa pile of oily rags in the basement."And Socrates says, "Jones, didn't you have a fire inthat house a little while ago?"And you say, "I certainly did, and it almost burned the house down, and, confound it, I didn't even get achance to rebuild it. before it caught fire again."Socrates says, "Jones, what caused the first fire inyour house?"You say, "Well, the firemen said it was spontaneouscombustion of a pile of oily rags in the basement.""Was it ?" says Socrates."Well," you say, "there was a pile of oily rags in thebasement."Jones," says Socrates, "what are you going to doabout those oily rags?""Well," you say, "I guess I've got to do something,but I wish you wouldn't bother me about them now,because I'm exhausted and tired and cold and wet andI need all my strength to start rebuilding the house.""And what about the oily rags?" says Socrates."Oh, I've got to remember to get rid of them sometime," you say, "but it's so hard to remember thingslike that when you've got to spend all your time puttingout fires and rebuilding the house."Socrates thought you were a wise man when you toldhim you were putting out the fire as a means to goingon living in the house, but he thinks you're a fool whenyou admit that the same thing that caused the last firecaused this one and it sounds to him as if you won'tget around to doing anything about those oily rags before the next fire. So he thinks you are a wise manand a fool, wise in your calm and considered choice ofends, foolish in your red-eyed absorption with means andyour consequent neglect of the ends you have chosen,and he figures that if you continue to be wise and foolish,you will continue to spend your life quenching and rebuilding, without ever a house to live in very long."Have another cup of coffee," says Socrates."No," you say, "thank you just the same, but I'vegot to rush off and start rebuilding my house. I'm nophilosopher, you know ; I can't live in a hovel like yours.I believe in taking advantage of progress. I've just installed air-conditioning, and the house is wonderful inthe summer months. You must come over.""I will," says Socrates, "if mine burns down."Now some of us are thinking and talking like Jonesin this matter of war aims. I don't accept the simplification that some of us are bad and some good. Jones wasgood, in the sense that he chose the right end; he wasfoolish, in the sense that he let the means obscure theend. And I can't see where he was bad at all. Socrates,on the other hand, was no better than Jones; he waswiser. And Socrates would be the first to admit thatit is better to be good than wise, if you have to choose.He would say, of course, that, if you only keep yourshirt on, and your blood pressure down, and your eyeon the ball, you don't have to choose.No, it looks to me as if the Joneses are pretty goodpeople. It looks to me as if there's some Jones in theRoosevelt family, and there may even be a Jones or twoin the Churchill genealogy somewhere. Let's give them1718 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe benefit of the doubt, anyway. Let's assume thatthey're really serious about getting rid of those oily rags,especially since the second fire started.But they're talking like Jones the red-eyed, who got soexcited that he thought he was putting out the fire inorder to put out the fire. Socrates, who may be a goodneighbor, and who may be a real estate shark who hopesto distract them from the fire so that the house willburn down, is saying to Churchill, "What are we fighting for?" and to Roosevelt, "What are we defending?"Churchill says, "We're fighting to beat Hitler," andRoosevelt says, "We're defending ourselves against Hitler."Now this is a bad tactic, it seems to me, apart fromgoodness and wisdom, because it is negative. Men fighthappily, eagerly, tirelessly, when they are fighting forsomething ; when they're fighting against something, theyfight fiercely or not so fiercely, depending on how muchor how little they've got to lose, but they don't fightjoyously or recklessly. They fight, as the expression goes,doggedly. So the men who are fighting for something,good or bad, usually have an edge on the men who arefighting against.But apart from tactics, what will happen to the goodends we ascribe to Churchill and Roosevelt if we allowChurchill and Roosevelt to lose track of them? Obviously it makes no sense, as Socrates demonstrated inhis conversation with Jones, to put out the fire andleave the rags in the basement. Even Jones, after he'dcooled off a little, saw the point there. But whenChurchill says he is fighting to beat Hitler, he is missing the point that Jones saw, and that you see, and thatI see. And that goes for Roosevelt, too.We want to beat Hitler in order to do something Hitlerwon't let us do if he beats us. What is it that we wantto do? Not, I hope, conquer the world, or oppress theGerman people, or seize the wealth and exploit the natives of South America, Asia and Africa. No, our aimsmust be different from Hitler's, I take it that what wewant to do is to live like human beings, peacefully, democratically, even religiously, in the brotherhood of man.Am I right?O. K., then. We don't want to beat Hitler just tobeat Hitler, because that doesn't make any sense; that'slike putting out the fire in order to put out the fire,and the next week the house is on fire again. Nor dowe want to beat Hitler in order to do what Hitler wantsto do, because we aren't like Hitler. We want to beatHitler in order to live like human beings, peacefully,democratically, even religiously, in the brotherhood ofman.Now, don't say, "Yes, but we've got to beat Hitlerin order to keep what little we've got." Half of us,over on Cabrini Street, down in Harlem, and out TobaccoRoad, can't see that we've got enough to justify ourkilling ourselves keeping it. And half of us, who havegot a lot that we'd like to keep, are beginning to getthe idea that what we've got includes the pile of oilyrags that started this fire and the last one and will someday start a fire that, as sure as God made U-235 andProfessor Dempster discovered it, will burn the housedown, draperies and petit-point, Liberty bonds and mattress, baby, cradle, and all. Churchill and Roosevelt have refused — not just neglected, but refused — to state their war aims and theirdefense aims respectively. Let's say that, in Roosevelt'scase, the refusal is simply a matter of not having gotaround to formulating them definitely enough to statethem. Let's say that nobody has demanded them ; HarryHopkins, according to the Chicago Daily News, toldChurchill that the demand for a statement of war aimsin America was confined to half a dozen intellectuals.That leaves out Jones. But the Joneses in England havebeen hollering their heads off for two years, hollering,"What are we fighting for?" hollering in the papers, inparliament, in the pulpit, in the pub. And Churchillsays, "Beat Hitler first."Well, we're getting somewhere. Churchill says, "BeatHitler first.'' Apparently there's something to be donesecond, and the first is to the second as a means to anend. Let's assume that Churchill refuses to state England's war aims because he assumes that everybodyknows what they are. But Jones doesn't know whatthey are. Jones wants to know whether England's waraims, after Hitler is beaten, are to establish socialism,fascism, good old imperialism, or democracy, or to preserve the shifting combination • of all these orders thatJones saw in England before the war. And Jones hadbetter want to know, because, if he loses sight of them,he will spend the rest of his, and his children's, and hisgrandchildren's lives alternately pouring water on thefire and rebuilding the house, without ever a house tolive in very long.And some fine day — and not such a fine day, either —Jones or his children or his grandchildren are going tosay, "What's the percentage in going on like this?What's there in it for us? Where do we get off at?"Axnd they will go berserk, or maybe give up and liedown, 'and, either way, it will be the end of Jones.Is there a pile of oily rags in the basement ? Is theresomething rotten in the state of Denmark, and in Holland and Belgium and Norway and Poland and Franceand England and America? Is there something wrongwith the world besides Hitler, something that sets upHitlers faster than we can knock them down? If thereis, there is no point in beating" Hitler, in shedding allthe blood and tears and sweat, in order to rebuild thehouse around the pile of oily rags in the basement.Does this make sense ? Or does it sound like impractical idealism?Rush ReunionThe Annual Rush Alumni Assembly will be held atRush Medical College on Friday and Saturday, June6 and 7.From 9 to 10 on these days members of the Rushfaculty will present clinics to small groups ; from 10 to 1each day members of the faculty will present topics ofgeneral and practical interest in short 10 to 15 minutetalks; and from 2 to 4 on Friday afternoon demonstrations with patients will be held.The annual faculty-alumni dinner will be held at theDrake Hotel on Saturday, June 7.A complete program will be mailed to every Rushgraduate shortly.NOTES FOR A DILETTANTE• By DAVID DAICHESVII. BRITISH WRITERS AND THE WAR (Cent.)First, when a city shall be as it were besieged and blockedabout, her navigable river infested, inroads and incursions round,defiance and battle oft rumored to be marching up, even to herwalls and suburb trenches; that then the people, or the greaterpart, more than at other times, wholly taken up with the studyof highst and most important matters to be reformed, shouldbe disputing, reasoning, reading, inventing, discoursing, even toa rarity and admiration, things not before discoursed and writtenof, argues first a singular good will, contentedness, and confidence in your prudent foresight, and safe government, lords andcommons; and from thence derives itself to a gallant bravery andivell-groumded contempt of their enemies. . . . Next, it is a livelyand cheerful presage of our happy success and victory. For asin a body when the blood- is fresh, the spirits pure and vigorous,not only to vital, but to rational faculties, and those in the acutestand the pert est operations of, wit and subtlety, it argues in whatgood plight and constitution the body is; so when the cheerfulness of the people is so sprightly up, as that it has not onlyzvherewith to guard well its own freedom and safety, but tospare, and to bestow upon the solidest and sublimest points ofcontroversy and new invention, it betokens us not degenerated,nor drooping to a fatal decay, but casting off the old and wrinkledskin of corruption to outlive these pangs, and wax young again,entering the glorious ways of truth and prosperous virtue, destined to become great and honorable in these later ages.John Milton, Areopagitica.AT the end of 1939 the first issue of a new quarterly review appeared in Edinburgh, Scotland.It was called The New Alliance, and to thosewho knew anything of Scottish history the title was aninteresting indication of an important trend in Scottishculture. The "auld alliance" was the Franco-Scottishentente, which existed both in a cultural and a politicalsense throughout the middle ages and was revived laterby the Jacobites and persisted in a sentimental sense inthe early years of the present century. People as diversein their views as Patrick Geddes and Agnes Muir Mackenzie still though in terms of the "auld alliance." Buthere was the new alliance, and it was Scotland and Ireland — the countries with a Gaelic tradition — pittedagainst the commercialism and drabness of middle-classAnglo-Saxondom. France did not come into the pictureat all, either as friend or foe. The subtitle of The NewAlliance, "a quarterly printing criiefly the work of Scottish and Irish writers and artists," made clear to readers that the magazine was accepting the view of Scottishculture that had been so eloquently expounded throughout the 1920's and 1930's by Hugh MacDiarmid— theview that the Gaelic tradition was an essential part ofScottish life and art and could not be dissociated fromthe Lowland Scots tradition. But the magazine showednone of MacDiarmid's internationalism. Its tone wasprovincial, aggressively provincial, with a great deal moreScottish than Irish material. It reflected one of the manyphases through which the Scottish Nationalist movement had passed in recent years, being more concernedwith culture than politics, combining a sophisticated provinciality in cultural questions with a political naivete.This was all to the good : the fact that the basis of themagazine's policy was emotional rather than intellectualor pseudo-intellectual made for a certain refreshingeclecticism and stimulated the free discussion of impor tant problems in Scottish culture. The gesture towardsIreland was on the whole perfunctory.The war challenged the existence of the new periodical,but the editors adapted themselves to the new circumstances and the magazine appeared in less ambitious format in March 1940 as a monthly. Its readers were expectant : how were these Scottish nationalists going toreact to the war ? The answer was provided by theleading article in the March issue, entitled "Autarky"by Colin Walkinshaw. "What do we really want out oflife?" Mr. Walkinshaw began by asking. He repliedthat one wanted personal liberty, security, enough to liveon and "work which is reasonably satisfying in itselfand which does not subject us constantly and arbitrarilyto the will of other people." Mr. Walkinshaw attackedthe 19th century ideal of. ever increasing material progress; "the Victorian dream of an illimitable future ofmaterial progress and a persistently expanding international trade" was roundly condemned. The alternativewas the small, free nation, economically self-sufficient,"contented wi' little an' canty wi' mair."The characteristic — one might say the ' 'natural" — economicunit_ of the 20th century should be the self-sumcient nation, notthe inflated colonial empire nor the world itself. And the characteristic unit within the nation should be the small farmer orcraftsman. Of course absolute autarky, national or local, is asimpractical as any other economic absolute. There will alwaysbe something to exchange, if it is only the ivory, apes and peacocks, cheese from Normandy and whisky from Banffshire. [Thecharming naivete of this almost takes one's breath away.] Butso .long as mankind sees no great advantage of turning a largepart ot the earth's surface into a desert, a considerable degree ofnational and local autarky is likely to be not only natural anddesirable but necessary.There follows an attack on Hitler and Mussolini forhaving exploited a natural and laudable desire on thepart of their peoples for peasant independence andturned it towards grandiose evil schemes that meant theextermination of all liberty and the establishment of anation of "industrial wage slaves." The moral is thatScotland should lead the way to the new world orderin repudiating her industrial past and becoming an independent, self-sufficient nation of small farmers and craftsmen. One supported the war, as Nazism and Fascismrepresented the vilest form of international slavery, butin the interests of national independence rather than ofthe British Empire. Thus The New Alliance, likeHorizon, supported the war while remaining highlycritical of the government, but critical for a very different reason. "The modest proposal that Scots M.P.sshould be allowed to discuss Scottish affairs in relationto the war has been bluntly turned down by Mr.Churchill." The complaint, voiced in the issue of January1941, is characteristic.American readers may be reminded by this programof the Southern Agrarian movement, with which it hassomething in common. There are echoes in it of both theextreme right and the extreme left : Chesterton andLenin, T. S. Eliot and Hugh MacDiarmid. The generaltone is reactionary, backward-looking, to constricting1920 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINErather than expanding horizons ; but the grievances ventilated are just and the problems raised are real. It isnot my intention to pass judgment on the movement. Iwant simply to point to the fact that this kind of discussion, too, is continuing with great liveliness in wartime. The New Alliance is still going strong, though itnow comes out every second month instead of monthlyand the Irish news is dropping out owing to communication difficulties.The creative work published by The New Alliance iswrorth noting. The tendency is to interpret aspects ofthe national life through careful realistic observation orquietly meditative verse. There is little direct referenceto the war. There is a fair amount of rather effectivedialect poetry, much of St in the lyrical tradition of CharlesMurray and William Soutar and the Hugh MacDiarmidof "Moonstruck" and "The Eemis Stane." It is thethoughtful but primarily lyrical literature of a peopleforced by events to consider its roots, but it is notpanicky :I thought this tide would rise and lip the grass,So that the waves would break among the trees,Spring flood of spirit soften our clenched massOf dry root tendrils ; burst in blooms a frieze ;Scotland's gapped forest, great boles tumbled, meetThe running tide that roared about its feet.Or consider Douglas Pringle's translation into Scots ofa lyric by a modern Gaelic poet:I dinna ken the sense o ma trauchlin,Pittin ma thochts in a deein leid,Noo that the hale whuredom o EuropeLoups up in a brulyie o sturt an dreid.Och, but a million o years is gien us,A wee bittock o the waefu space,The commonty's tholemudness and smeddum,An the rare ferry o a bonny face.The New Alliance also has critical articles on Scottishand Irish poetry of the past, articles and poems in Gaelic,and a friendly eye for new books by Scottish writers orabout matters Scottish. And there have been many suchbooks recently published, most notably Hugh Mac-Diarmid's new anthology of Scottish verse, an excellentselection with a characteristic fighting introduction, andJohn Spiers' historical essay, The Scots Literary Tradition. And so, in spite of or perhaps because of the war,the Scottish cultural scene continues to be livelier thanever.In discussing British reviews and periodicals onecannot pass over that old faithful, The New Statesmanand Nation, which is as vigorous today as it has everbeen. This paper is doing a magnificent job in ventilating abuses and grievances in a sane and responsible manner, printing careful accounts, such as those by RitchieCalder, of living conditions in bombed areas etc., drawling the government's attention to urgently needed reforms and actually getting things done about them,while maintaining at the same time a high standard of literary criticism and discussion and keeping its columnsopen to all kinds of constructive comment in the fieldof politics, sociology, philosophy and the arts. Its policyis support of the war as a necessary evil while holding aconstant watching brief for democracy. Its criticismof the government is always practical and forthright, itstone is never petulant or peevish. In "Sagittarius" it- has the finest writer of topical verse satire living inBritain today, and Sagittarius 's guns are turned as oftenon abuses at home as on the enemy abroad. The correspondence columns of the paper reflect intelligent opinionof all kinds on all subjects: looking through the issue ofFebruary 22, I see letters on "the future of the LabourParty" (three lengthy epistles), "bourgeois ethics,""free speech in Cambridge," "adult education," "theshape of things to come," and other topics. Nowhere hasthe question of peace aims been more thoroughly andcontinuously discussed. And the weekly competitionsgive that touch of calm humor which is a key to themorale of the people. A recent competition offeredprizes "for a conversation between two British soldierson first sighting the Invading Host in the Channel."And the prize offered for the best Black-out Bluesbrought forth this entry among others:Black-out blonde . . . gotta get that black-out blonde !Met her when the sirens sangMet her when the searchlights sprangInto the sky —O my, O my, O my-hy !Gotta get that black-out blonde.RightInto the depth of the nightA raider dropped a flare but I only saw her hairShining like the moon and sun . . .The 'mischief's done:Gotta get that black-out blonde !One can't think of that, somehow, in the German press.As for the new 'creative work that has been producedin Britain since the war began, there are several interesting points to be noted here. That search for roots thatI have mentioned in connection with the contributors toThe New Alliance has been manifesting itself in a greatnumber of books about the English character and theEnglish countryside. Robert Greenwood in Mr. Bunting has created a symbol of the ordinary British "littleman" which has an obvious connection with the mood ofwar-time Britain. Book about the countryside havebeen especially numerous. (Interest in and affection forthe countryside has, of course, been stimulated by thethreat of its destruction from the air. This is equallytrue of interest in the cities and in British topographygenerally). V. Sackville- West's Country Notes in Wartime has been selling well. Batsford's "Face of Britain"series (photographs with text) is being continually addedto and includes Thomas Burke's The Streets of London.Grahame Clark's Prehistoric England is in the sameseries. Robert Gibbings' Sweet Thames Run Softly (incidentally, a beautiful produced book) is a contemplativerecord of the exploration of people and things conceivedin the process of exploring the Thames in a punt.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21Gardening works, of which there has been a great hostrecently published, are of practical as well as sentimentalinterest, for growing as much of one's own food as onecan is an important aspect of wartime economy.Together with this observation of the British countryside and the attempt to come to grips with the Britishcharacter there has become obvious a tendency to objective reporting of the urban scene which is producinga new type of literary journalism in Britain. Theoriginal stimulus was probably the "mass observation"movement, founded some years before the war by TomHarrison and Charles Madge. This movement attemptedto enlist the help of voluntary observers in noting andrecording the behaviour of their fellowmen on streets,busses, tram-cars, trains, in pubs, drawing rooms, restaurants, waiting rooms. The result was some quite illuminating essays and a great deal of miscellaneous dataconcerning the behaviour of the Briton. It was asociological rather than a literary movement, but perhapsbecause its sponsors were themselves writers or poets, itproduced results that have been important 'for literaturetoo. The early reports of mass-observation were hardlyALTHOUGH it has been the contributions of morethan 20,000 Chicagoans that have made possiblethe University's preeminence in the arts and sciences, many Chicagoans have only general notion ofwhat the University is doing. Early this month the University set about to improve this situation by declaring"University Week," during which its friends might cometo the Quadrangles, visit classes and research projects,and generally make themselves more familiar with lifeand work on the Midway. It was a huge success.The festivities started on Palm Sunday when, for thefirst time in its history, the University of Chicago RoundTable was broadcast from before an audience. MaynardKrueger, T. V. Smith, and W. Lloyd Warner had beenscheduled to discuss "War Aims and Peace Aims," butbecause of the German invasion of Yugoslavia the program was changed overnight, and Hugh M. Cole, Instructor in history, Louis Gottschalk, Professor andChairman of the Department of History, and IrvingPflaum, '28, Chicago Times foreign editor, discussed the"Balkan Blitzkrieg" before the audience of 1,100 whojammed into Mandel Hall. After the broadcast the crowddivided, with 400 leading citizens attending a specialluncheon given by George A. Ranney, newly appointedchairman of the Citizens Board, in Hutchinson Commons. The other visitors poured into the Oriental Institute to see the. recently opened Iranian Hall and Dr.Erich F. Schmidt's beautiful color motion pictures ofthe Institute's Persepolis expedition. He had to givethree shows instead of the two originally scheduled.For the remainder of the week visitors attended lectures and toured exhibits in the Physical and Biological literature,, but the movement encouraged types of graphicreporting which have resulted in some fine sketches andshort stories appearing currently in British magazinesand reviews. Ritchie Calder's report of his tour of themost heavily bombed areas in England was a fine pieceof journalism as well as a basis for reform agitation.This is not the "socialist realism" of the young leftistwriters of the 1930s : it is something much less doctinaireand much more genuine. It looks as though it is goingto have an influence on the whole development of fictiontechnique in Britain.And what have the poets been doing? There hasbeen a great deal of "war poetry" produced in Britainsince the war began, but it has not been generally recognized as such because it is not what the public expectswar poetry to be : it is not trumpet-blowing or flag-waving or jingoistic or military. Nor is it savagelysatirical. It is on the whole descriptive and contemplative. But I must leave a discussion of it till nextmonth, when I shall discuss also other aspects of thecreative literature produced in Britain since the warbroke out.• By BERNARD LUNDY, "37Sciences, the Humanities and the Social Sciences. Sixhundred filled the International House Theater to seethe controversial motion picture, "Birth of a Baby," forwhich Fred L. Adair, Mary Campau Ryerson Professor and Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics andGynecology and Chief of Service of Lying-in Hospital,had been technical adviser. Anton J. Carlson, Frank P.Hixon Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus ofPhysiology, presented one of his famous Biological Sciences Survey lectures; Harold G. Moulton, '07, PhD'14, LLD '37, President of the Brookings Institution, addressed a near-capacity audience in Mandel Hall on"Economics for National Unity." His lecture was oneof the series being given under the auspices of the CharlesR. Walgreen Foundation. Two thousand people participated in the Holy Week service of Tenebrae in Rockefeller Memorial Chapel.The impression" made by University Week wassummed up by John F. Fennelley, Vice-Chairman of theCitizens Board, who said, "I have become a great enthusiast for the job being done by the University ofChicago. I consider it a privilege to have some smallpart in helping this institution, which I am already convinced is the greatest asset the city possesses."Before University Week began the Citizens Boardhad opened its drive for a million-and-a-half -dollar contribution to the Fiftieth Anniversary Fund, with a dinner at the Chicago Club. Mr. Hutchins, Mr. Swift, andMr. Ranney were the speakers., "The next ten years,"according to Chairman Ranney, are the only liabilitiesto be found on the "informal balance sheet" of the University's finances which he presented at that time. Call-NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES22 THE UNIVERSITY OFing the University "Chicago's child," Mr. Ranney declared that the best birthday gift Chicagoans could givethe University was a substantial contribution toward itsAnniversary Fund. "I believe we can get this gift," hesaid, "if we go out for it." Go out for it the Board members did, beginning their intensive drive the first of thismonth. By the end of the first week they had pledgesof $442,750. Biggest single contribution was a conditional gift of $250,000 by the Rosenwald Family Association.An added feature of the Anniversary Year was a seriesof Sunday afternoon 15-minute programs on WGN featuring prominent alumni of the University, discussingwith their favorite professors what they had got out oftheir college education. First participants were the Honorable Dwight H. Green, '20, JD '22, Governor of Illinois, and Frederic Woodward, Vice-President Emeritusand director of the Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration.Answering Mr. Woodward's question "Dfd you get anything from college you couldn't have got from experience in law or life?" Governor Green said, "What Ilearned from the Law School— aside from the obviousthings such as where to find a law and how to brief acase (and this is something I couldn't have learned outside) was a proper sense of what the law is, how it grew,and what it is designed to do for society ; that is, law asthe codification of wisdom, justice and human experience."On the following Sunday Leverett S. Lyon, '10, AM'18, PhD '21, now Chief Executive Officer of the Chicago Association of Commerce, was presented in an interview with Chester Wright, Professor of Economics.The third and final program of the series presented HugoM. Friend, '06, JD '08, Judge of the Illinois AppellateCourt, and Dean Harry A. Bigelow, Dean Emeritus ofthe Law School.TOM P. CROSS AND THE VALUABLE MANLY LIBRARYWHICH THE UNIVERSITY HAS ACQUIRED CHICAGO MAGAZINEMR. HUTCHINS AND THE PROFESSORSThe last Sunday in March and the first in April wereboth triple-feature days for the University from the radiostandpoint. In addition to the Round Table and thealumni broadcasts, two WGN broadcasts commandedwidespread attention. On Sunday, March 30, PresidentHutchins mounted the pulpit of Rockefeller MemorialChapel to tell the nation via the Mutual Network that"The Proposition Is Peace." Following Sunday fivefaculty members, over the same station, insisted "theissue is not peace and not war, but freedom." The mentaking part were Jerome G. Kerwin, Associate Professorof Political Science; Bernadotte Schmitt, Professor ofHistory; Richard P. McKeon, Dean of the Division ofthe Humanities ; William H. Spencer, Dean of the Schoolof Business; and Paul H. Douglas, Professor of Economics. Transcripts of these talks as well as Mr. Hutchins', are reprinted elsewhere in this Magazine.NATIONAL DEFENSEAttention of faculty and students to the present national defense emergency is reflected not only in non-academic courses dealing with military matters but inUniversity courses which directly or indirectly bear onthe problems of the United States in a warring world.New courses offered this spring, for example, includeone on "The Technique of Upper Air Observations,"under Michael Ference, Jr., Instructor in Physics, inthe recently-organized Institute of Meteorology. FredEggan, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, is conducting a course on South American anthropology ; TheodoreO. Yntema, Professor of Statistics and Director for theCowles Commission for Research in Economics, is chairman of a course on "Economic and Business Problemsin National Defense"; and Wilton M. Krogman, Associate Professor of Anatomy and Physical Anthropology,has inaugurated a course on "Races of Man," whichcompares modern races throughout the world.Dr. Carl G. A. Rossby, formerly head of the department of meteorology at the United States Weather Bureau in Washington, is giving his first course at theUniversity this quarter, as visiting Professor of Meteorology, on "Dynamic Meteorology." Another visitingprofessor this quarter is Dr. Herman Finer, of the London School of Economics and Political Science, who isvisiting Professor of Political Science.Dealing more directly with problems of the individualin the national defense program, the University's Athletic Department is repeating this Spring its pre-servicephysical conditioning course, which was offered for thefirst time last quarter. A number of the men who hadenrolled in the course then, according to Athletic Director Metcalf, have since left for the army. A markedimprovement in their strength, endurance, and generalphysical efficiency was noted. The program now includesself-defense instruction in boxing, wrestling, judo, jiu-jitsu, and combat games; swimming, life saving and firstaid ; basketball, handball, badminton, squash racquets andvolley-ball ; hiking, running, jumping and climbing work,and tumbling and apparatus gymnastics.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23More than 600 men have already been trained in thebasic military training course which is being given bythe University in cooperation with the Fort Sheridan1940 Special Battalion, C.M.T.C. Association.STARDUSTStardust is more than just a tavern tenor's delight,according to Louis G. Henyey and Jesse L. Greenstein,astronomers at Yerkes Observatory. Last month thetwo men published the report of their findings aboutthe substance in the Astrophysical Journal. Stardustactually helps to light the earth, because it helps transmitabout two thirds of the light which strikes it, they found.This is almost the exact reverse of the manner in whichterrestrial dust, especially the dust in fog particles, wouldtransmit the light. Proof of this is seen in the way theheadlights of cars are reflected from fog so that theyshine more brightly at the driver than the headlights ofcars approaching from the opposite direction. INFECTIOUS DISEASES JOURNAL TO PRESSAn addition to the family of seventeen learned journals published by the University of Chicago Press wasannounced last month. Hereafter the Journal of Infectious Diseases, founded by the McCormick Institute forInfectious Diseases in 1904, will be published by thePress under a newly appointed board of editors headedby William H. Taliaferro, Professor and Chairman ofthe Department of Bacteriology and Parasitology andDean of the Division of the Biological Sciences. Dr.Francis B. Gordon of the University will become managing editor of the Journal. Advisory editors will be:William Burrows, Dr. Gail M. Dack, R. W. Harrison,Clay G. Huff, Stewart A. Koser, Dr. C. Philip Miller,and Dr. H. Gideon Wells, all of the University ; Karl F.Meyer, University of California, Director of the HooperFoundation; and Dr. F. G. Novy, University of Michigan.ATHLETICSWINTER QUARTER STANDINGSFencing No. 1Water Polo No. 2Gymnastics No. 3Swimming No. 7Wrestling Tied No. 7Track No. 9Basketball No. 10Chicago's victory by half a point in the Conferencefencing championships in Bartlett gym put the standingof Maroon winter contenders in 1941 slightly ahead oflast year. The spring quarter may see further advance,though not as much (it seems early to be certain, butthis department is certain) as the spring of 1942.PUSHING THE CHAMPS AROUNDOne reason this department is so cocksure is the memory of the performance turned in this month by BobSmidl, a tennis-playing freshman from Oak Park, whoteamed with Jimmy Evart, national junior indoor champion, to beat Don McNeill and Bobby Riggs 9 to 7 onthe wooden basketball court in the field house. Smidlhas what appears to be the hardest serve in the Big Tenand a plenty hard serve in any league. He served fourof the sixteen games against the national No. 1 and No.2 amateurs; the first two were love games won primarily on the Smidl service, and the second two werewon also primarily on service, though McNeill andRiggs picked up a couple of each. Smidl's gameat the net also looked very good, but his stroking wasa little sporadic. He entered the game cold ; the othershad all played two or three sets.One other item makes the 1942 tennis outlook unusually cheerful: John Jorgensen, brother of Art Jorgensen, who graduated last year, is likewise a memberof the freshman team, and may turn out to be a better • By DON MORRIS, '36player than his brother. Incidentally, both Smidl andJorgensen won their numerals as members of the freshman basketball team.Of course this year's team is of more immediate interest ; Captain Cal Sawyier — who has achieved that eminence though only a junior — is confident that Chicagowill recapture the Big Ten title from Northwestern. Theonly hitch may be that other Conference teams besidesthe Wildcats — notably Michigan — are expected to bestronger this year. This might mean that the Conferencemeet (which will be held on the Midway varsity courts)COURTNEY SHANKEN, CHICAGO'S NATIONALCHAMPION ALL-AROUND GYMNAST24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CIIICAGO MAGAZINEwill turn into a shambles which might be won by anyteam, including a group of Lascars from Mozambiquecarrying purple-tufted spears.At present — before the first meet — Walter Kemetickis slated to play No. 2, with Bob Lifton, Bill Self, DaveMartin, and Jim Hill completing the tentative first team.NORGREN AND McGILLIVRAY HONOREDThe University's staff was the recipient of somethingof a windfall in the coaching association elections. NelsNorgren was elected president of the National Association of Basketball Coaches, and Edward W. McGillivraywas elected president of the College Swimming Coachesof America. Norgren, one of Chicago's great athletes,won twelve major letters and captained the 1913 Conference championship football team before his graduationin 1914. He left for Utah, where he was basketballcoach from 1914 to 1917, his 1916 team winning thenational A. A. U. title. From 1917 to 1919, Norgrenwas a pursuit pilot in the army air service, with therank of first lieutenant. Returning to the Universityin 1921 as basketball coach, he now ranks among theBig Ten's veteran coaches. Coach McGillivray joinedthe Midway staff three years later, in 1924, after acareer which included ranking as one of the first starsof the Illinois Athletic Club and the national breaststroke championship for three years. He was appointedcoach at Chicago after the death of the veteran JoeWhite, and, although his swimming teams have notbeen among the Big Ten leaders, the Maroon water polo teams have never finished lower than second placein the Conference.TWO GYMNASTS, THREE TITLESChicago's Shanken twins, Earl and Courtney, didthemselves proud in the N. C. A. A. meet this monthin Bartlett gym. Earl was the only one of five defendingindividual champions to retain his title in an eveningof upsets. He still is the nation's best long horse performer. Courtney had no title to defend, but he wontwo; he snatched the all-around honors from Paul Fina,of Illinois, and he won the rope climb crown, vacatedby Midshipman Stan Ellison, who did not compete, scaling the twenty-five feet of hawser in 0:07.5. Chicagowas a good third in the meet, primarily liecause of theslightly built twins who now own three of the eightnational collegiate titles. Earl, incidentally, now thatthe gym meet is past, is regular shortstop on the Maroonbaseball nine.The Vice President of the United States, Henry A.Wallace, played a good game of tennis in the field houselast month, it was reported to this department by YanceyT. Blade, inveterate Maroon bystander, who feels thatthe only things standing between him and the nationaltennis title are his stroking, his serve, his grip, his footwork, his timing, his net play, and his volleying. Hisnerve is like steel. Wallace paired with Max Davidson,captain of the Maroon team in 1934 and at that timeConference singles champion, to beat Coach Walter Hebert and Wallace's own sidekick. Spiegler, in four sets.• It's true— you can prepare a satisfying ^mmSpring supper, made up of Swift's Premium ^^^Table-Ready Meats, "from scratch" in I0£j,^8E^minutes! Delicious . . . effortless . . . just™!*,-get a tempting assortment of Swift'sPremium Table-Ready Meats— they 're thefinest you've ever tasted, made only ofbest selected ingredients combined in realhome-type recipes. Serve a wholesome supper of Swift's PremiumTable-Ready Meats tonightSwifts PremiumSwill'sPremiumFot Roast of Beef Swift'sPremiumCervelatAND 11 OTHER VARIETIESNEWS OF THE CLASSESDrag Stromback, Professor of Scandinavian Literature at the Universityin 1937-39. and now Director of theUniversity of Uppsala's Institute forDialect and Folklore Research inUppsala, Sweden, has just finished editing (with an Introduction in English)an old Icelandic Manuscript that tellsof the first discovery of America by theNorsemen in about 1000 AD.1895Gordon Ferrie Hull is a Professorof Physics at Dartmouth College.1896Grace Freeman is the Director ofthe Aurora Woman's Club in Aurora,Illinois.|897Last week Time had this to say aboutSecretary of the Interior Ickes, JD '07 :"When two slick fellows wrote himoffering to trace his ancestry for $2,Secretary Harold L. Ickes sent the $2.Back came not only genealogical tablesbut a nice coat of arms. Having established after a four-way check that thereis no Ickes coat of arms, Honest AngryHarold turned the tables over to theDepartment of Justice, had the menarrested for using the mails to defraud."William Harvey Allen, author ofmany books on political problems, is onthe staff of the Bureau of MunicipalResearch in New York City.1899Ainsworth Whitney Clark is partowner and manager of the Pinney-Clark Farms, Westville, Indiana.1900Henry M. Herrick operates a Language Studio at 309 Whitman St.,Rockford, Illinois.Charles W. Chase, for the pastnine years head of the IndianapolisRailways, has been elected President ofthe Chicago Surface Lines, effective at1901Coe Hayne, Recording Secretary ofthe American Baptist Home MissionSociety, writes that he and his wife(Ethel M. Shandrew, '07) becamegrandparents of two grandsons in February of this year.1902Robert Llewellyn Henry, Jr., isTudge of Mixed Courts at Alexandria,1903Frank McNair left Chicago March17, on a tour of South America, mostlyby air, which is being sponsored by theNational Research Council for purposesof industrial exploration.1904Edward C. Eicher, appointed three.years ago to the S. E. C. after serving EDWARD C. EICHERas a representative from Iowa, has beenelected Chairman, succeeding Jerome N.Frank, '12, JD '13, who will become afederal judge.1906Delbert W. Smith is Vice Presidentof the Simmons Boardman ' PublishingCorporation in Chicago.1908Clarence A. Dykstra, former graduate student at the University, got hisnew National Defense Mediation Boardinto action recently when Secretary ofLabor Pekins certified to it four strikesout of nineteen affecting Army orders.1909On January 1 of this year Frank N.Richman, JD '09, became a member ofthe Indiana Supreme Court.Guy Van Schaick, JD '09, formerlyTrial Examiner for the National LaborRelations Board, has become affiliatedwith Essington, Beebe & Pratt, 231 S.LaSalle St., Chicago.1911Once again Cyrus Le Roy Baldridgehas distinguished himself as an artist inhis beautifully illustrated edition ofArthur Waley's poems, "Translationsfrom the Chinese," published by Knopf.1915Hubert Smith Conover has beenmade a partner of Brailsford & Co.,25 Chicago, where he will be in charge ofsales.1916H. Nathan Swaim, JD '16, is ChiefJustice of the Indiana Supreme Court.Marie Tinsley is a librarian at thePublic Library in San Leandro, California.Joseph K. Calvin, MD '18, is amember of the Pediatrics Departmentof Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago.1917John W. Elliott, AM '17, is President of Alderson-Broadus College inPhilippi, West Virginia.1918Isaac Albert Barnett, PhD '18, Associate Professor of Mathematics at theUniversity of Cincinnati, writes that heand his wife (Fannie Reisler, '15),have two daughter, one in high schooland one who attends the University ofCincinnati.Donald Warner Johnson, MDRush '23, is practicing surgery in Fairmont, Minnesota.1919Charles H. Behre, Jr., PhD '25,William Deering Professor of Economic Geology, Northwestern University, has been appointed Professor ofGeology at Columbia University, effective in September.Clair Maxwell is Associate Manager of Life Magazine in New YorkCity.Mabel Speer Becker is Principal ofKing School, 2420 Harrison St., Chicago.1920George M. Curtis, MD Rush '20,Professor of Research Surgery at OhioState University, was elected Secretaryof the Central Surgical Association atits first annual meeting in Ann Arboron February 28.1921James L. McCartney, MD '23, hasbeen appointed Medical Director ofWilliam R. Warner & Co., Inc., NewYork City.HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERSSINCE 1906 + WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES ++ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ++ ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE +IRAYNER;DAL HUM &CO.2054 W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBUSINESSDIRECTORY•AMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAUTO LIVERYAuto LiveryiLarge Limousines5 Passenger Sedans $3 Per Hour$2 Per HourSpecial rates for out of townEMERY-DREXEL LIVERY INC.5547 S. HARPER AVE.FAirfax 6400AUTOMOBILESFRED W. REMBOLD. INC.6130 Cottage Grove Ave.DODGE and PLYMOUTHDirect Factory DealersSales and ServiceDependable Used CarsPhone Midway 0506AWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIRand WELDING CORP.DAY AND NIGHT PHONE CAN. 6071-0324 HOUR SERVICEQUALIFIED LICENSED CONTRACTOR1404-08 S. Western Ave., Chicago 1922Nellie Evers (now Mother Ilena)has entered a Religious Order and islocated at Englefield Green, Egham Surrey, England, where her time, whichbefore the war was spent translatingfrom the Spanish, has since the warbeen given over to the teaching ofyoung children.Arthur E. Fath, PhD '22, until recently with the Socony Oil Company inCairo, Egypt, has been transferred tothat firm's New York City office.Cynthia M. Jones has retired fromteaching and is spending her time incivic activities.Lennox Grey, '23, PhD '35, has beenmade a full professor of English atTeachers College, Columbia University.1924Edwin E. Willoughby, AM '24,PhD '32, Chief Bibliographer at FolgerShakespeare Library in Washington,D. C, received a Litt, D. degree fromDickinson College in June, 1940.Carol Barnes is living in Peoria,Illinois, where she is affiliated with theIllinois State Employment Service inthe capacity of Personnel Counsellor.Austin Carl Cleveland, MA '24, isProfessor of Psychology at OklahomaCity University.The appointment of Harold H.Young, Dallas attorney, as special assistant to Vice President Wallace hasbeen announced. The duties incumbentupon such a post were not revealed, but,if Mr. Wallace vitalizes the vice presidency, as has been anticipated, Mr.Young's place will probably be one highin the administration.Ray M. Lawless, AM '24, PhD '40,teaches English at the Kansas CityJunior College in Kansas City, Missouri.Mrs. Frederick H. Muller (EmmaFleer) is director of Personnel atChicago Teachers College in Chicago.1925Hal Baird, MA '28, has taken a position as Instructor of History at MaryWashington College, Fredericksburg,Virginia.A. C. Droegemueller has become aresident partner of the Chicago officeof Frazer and Torbet, certified publicaccountants.Joseph S. Hicks, SM '25, PhD '27,is now Laboratory Control Engineer forthe Industrial Tape Corporation in NewBrunswick, New Jersey.1926A Guggenheim Fellowship has beenawarded to William ChristianKrumbein, SM '30, PhD '32, AssistantProfessor of Geology at the Universityand co-author of "Down to Earth" and"Manuel of Sedimentary Petrography,"in recognition of his investigations ofthe dynamic processes by which sedimentary particles are changed andsorted.M. Lucile Harrison, AM '33, coauthor of the Language for MeaningSeries, elementary text books in lan guage, is Associate Professor of Elementary Education at Colorado StateCollege of Education, Greeley, Colorado.George William Lyndon representsthe Holland Furnace Company inHamilton, Ohio, where he and his wifelive at 116 Hueston St.1927Stewart P. Mulvthill, JD '28, isAssistant Attorney-General of the Stateof Illinois.Roy A. Tower has joined the CollegeDepartment of the Thomas Y. CrowellCompany of New York City.On February 1 the Rev. BenjaminVan Cleve Andrews assumed the postof Executive Secretary of Christianeducation for the Presbyterian Synodof Indiana.1929"No man is important enough to justifiably place himself above the interestsof his city ... I shall . . . subordinatemy own aspirations to the commongood," said Sam Street Hughes, JD'29, Judge of Lansing's ¦ MunicipalCourt, when recently elected Mayor ofLansing, Michigan, by an overwhelming majority vote.George E. Ziegler, SM '30, PhD '32,is in charge of research in light atArmour Research Foundation in Chicago. •1930Dorothy Cahill, AM M0, nowteaching French at Roycemore Schoolin Evanston, recently visited her sisterand brother-in-law, Marjorie CahillVane, '31, and Ray Vane, '32, in Pasadena, California, where they live withtheir two and a half year old daughter,Amy.Ferdinand F. Schwartz, MD '30,who has a Clinic in Painesville, Ohio,witnessed the killing of Balderas whiletraveling in Mexico last year.1931Donald Vincent Shuhart, PhD'31, Soil Conservationist, lives in Ft.Worth, Texas, where he is affiliatedwith the Regional Office of the SoilConservation Service.Mrs. Edward Carter (Garnetta Carlisle) teaches at Du Sable High Schoolin Chicago.1932To Luis Alvarez, SM '34, PhD '36,Assistant Professor of Physics at theUniversity of California, went thisyear's Distinguished Service AwardKey of the California State JuniorChamber of Commerce for his manyachievements in the field of physicswhich include his discovery of radioactive super-heavy helium and of lighthelium.Margaret McNall serves as Educational Director of the Augustana Hospital School of Nursing in Chicago, buthas found time to complete her workfor the Master degree which she willobtain this year at Northwestern University.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 271933Father Harold Rigney, SM '33,PhD '37, is teaching, among other subjects, Geology, in the EngineeringSchool of Achimota College at Achi-mota (Accra) Gold Coast, British WestAfrica.Richard F. Friedeman, who marriedElizabeth Walker in 1940, is a realtorin Chicago.Duncan McConnell is a Mineralogist and Mineral Economist at the U. S.Bureau of Mines in the national capital.1934Anna McPherson, PhD '34, is engaged as a demonstration lecturer atMcGill University in Montreal.Ramon B. Perez is teaching Spanishat the Illinois Institute of Technologyin Chicago.1935Julia F. Tear, SM '35, is AssociateProfessor of Home Economics at Michigan State College, East Lansing, Michigan.Robert Lenzen Schmitz, MD '38,works on the staff of the Mayo Clinic inRochester, Minnesota.1936Robert Storer, producer of the famous Blackfriars show, "In Brains WeTrust," is now a clergyman in Dorchester, Massachusetts.George Pendleton Kendall is Communications Engineer on the staff ofthe Automatic Electric Company, 1033West Van Buren St., Chicago.James Stewart Martin, JD '38, ison the Faculty of St. Johns College,Annapolis.Roy Ringo, PhD '40, is at the UnitedStates Rubber Company in Providence,Rhode Island.Richard J. Stevens, JD '38, andErwin J. Askow, JD '38, hav.e formeda new law firm at 105 W. Monroe St.,Chicago.John Coburn Whittier, MD '39, isResident Surgeon at New York PostGraduate Hospital in New York City.Joan Kain, AM '38, writes that shehas been stationed in the northeasternpart of Oregon as a Regional Consultant in Child Welfare Services.Edith McCarthy Maltman is directing the Mary Crane Nursery Schoolat Hull House in Chicago.On February 31 Ruth L. Daum, SM'41, assumed the post of Instructor ofNutrition and Clothing at Florida StateCollege for Women, in Tallahassee.Leonard Miller, SM '38, PhD '40,works in the Bureau of Standards high-voltage X-ray laboratory.The January 19 meeting of the Hartford, Connecticut, Alumni Club washeld at the home of Doroty Ulrich,whose verse and stories have recentlybeen published by The New YorkTimes, The American Mercury and TheChristian Science Monitor. This Half an J-Half SkIs On You! oe"We like your regular moccasins for sportswear," our customers told us, "but give us a moccasin shape that can beworn to the office." Gentlemen, here it is! Unmistakably unpretentious — with a sports slant, yet sufficiently business-liketo be worn from nine to five.How did we do it? We started by refining the regularmoccasin model, stripping it down. Instead of a blunt toe,we made an easy curve. We put in small hand-stitching,instead of the typical moccasin whipstitch. Specifiedlight leather linings, brass eyelets, and narrow leather lacesinstead of the usual thongs. Worked out a nice bluchermodel, on the Olympic last.But our master stroke was in selecting the leather forthe upper. We chose tan Forest Calfskin ... a soft, pliable skin,in a shade that, like the style, is also half-and-half — not toolight, not too dark, sotnehow just right for almost any suit youwant to wear.We can't let you go without a final word about FrankBrothers shoemaking. It is the finest we know . . . everyimportant operation that should be done by hand, is doneby hand . . . done by unhurried craftsmen who take pride intheir work . . . using only the finest leathers and the finestaccessories. As you will learn, once you wear our shoes, theyare built to last. Our problem is, they usually last too long,which is why we say these shoes are truly economical. *16.75jfranfe Protfjer*MEN'S SHOPFIFTH AVENUE— 47th-48th Streets— NEW YORK641 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE— CHICAGOIf you can't come in, write for date of Frank Brothers Exhibition in your city28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBOOK BINDERSBOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeBUTTER & EGGSMURPHY BUTTER and EGG CO.2016 CALUMET AVE.CHURNERS OF FANCY CREAMERY BUTTERFINEST WISCONSIN EGGSAlways UniformChurned Fresh DailyPhone CALumet 5731CAMPGlen Eyrie FarmFOR CHILDRENDELAVAN LAKE, WISCONSINBOYS and GIRLS 7—12Farm experience besides camp activities including swimming and boating.June 25 to September 3Send for story of the Farm.VIRGINIA HINKINS BUZZELL, '13Glen Eyrie Farm, Delavan Lake, Wis.CATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CEMENT CONTRACTORST. A. REHNQUIST CO.V ._ „ / CONCRETEFLOORSV-//\v\f SIDEWALKS\\ V MACHINE FOUNDATIONSw MASTIC FLOORSV ALL PHONESEST. 1929 Wentworth 44226639 So. Vernon Ave. 1937John G. Morris and his wife (MaryAdele Crosby, '39) and baby, MaryHeather, are living in New York, whereJohn is on the staff of Life magazine.John M. Sellers, PhD '37, is Superintendent of Walkerton-Lincoln Township Schools in Walkerton, Indiana.Stanley Reynolds is now Engineerfor the University's radio station.Cecil LeBoy, of Oak Park who waswith the United Press in Chicago andSaint Louis is now covering two policestations and points between at all hoursof the night for the City News Bureau,which gathers news for Chicago papers.Robert S. Teague, MD '37, PhD '39,Instructor in Pharmacology at TulaneUniversity, has been awarded the CassLedyard, Jr., Fellowship for medicalresearch, which provides $4,000 annually for a young physician or surgeondemonstrating "fitness to carry on original research of high order."Leonard N. Lieberman, SM '38,PhD '40, is on the Faculty of Washington University in St. Louis.John A. Vieg, PhD '37, is AssociateProfessor of Government at Iowa StateCollege in Ames, Iowa, where John liveswith his wife and two children.Eleanor Lauer is now Instructor ofDancing at Mills College, California.Mrs. M. M. Heller (DorothySprung, AM '37) is doing public welfare work for the Social Security Boardin Birmingham, Alabama.1938Volney Colvin Wilson, PhD '38,Instructor of Physics at the University,has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in recognition of his work inthe development of machinery for theproduction of high energy X-rays.Leslie Sanford, JD '40, has his Lawoffice at 30 West Washington St., Chicago.Jerome Moritz, JD '41, is now associated with Brown, Fox & Blumberg,231 S. LaSalle Street, in Chicago.Thomas Megan, JD '38, formerly ofNew York City, is now located in theWar Department, Chicago OrdnanceDistrict, Chicago.Fred Ash, JD '40, is now affiliatedwith Healy & Stickler, 208 S. LaSalleSt., Chicago.Alfred Weisdorf is located at theIndiana Ordnance Works, Charlestown,Indiana, as a civilian employee of theWar Department.Catlierine Selzer, AM '3S, is teaching in the Chicago Public Schools.Henry Billings, MBA '38, is withPrice and Waterhouse, accountants, inChicago.Louis Shattuck Baer, MD '38, Instructor in Medicine at the Universityof Michigan, is awaiting his commission in the Medical Corps.Edgar W. Mills, AM '38, finds timefor work in child welfare legislationbesides being Principal of the WilliamMcKinley School in East Chicago, Indiana.Ralpli E. Meagher is EngineeringPhysicist for the Electronic ResearchCorporation in Newark, Ohio. CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '1.2B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 190?YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wesson DoesCOFFEE-TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston — New York — Philadelphia — SyracuseELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER CONSTRUCTION600 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Seeley 2788EMPLOYMENTCOLOREDDOMESTIC HELPFurnishedDay or NightReferences investigated.Englewood Employment Agency5530 S. State Phone-Englewood 3181-3182Street Night-Englewood 3181Established 20 yearsFLOWERS, Jftf CHICAGOj{^ Established 1865FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 64451 645 E. 55th StreetTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29GRAPHIC ARTSTHE SCRIPTORIUMScribes • Illuminators • BindersC L RICKETTS JASPER S KINGIf it is said to last a lifetime or longer, sayit sincerely with well-chosen words in beautiful, imperishable designMESSAGES OF APPRECIATION, RESOLUTIONS, ILLUMINATED INSCRIPTIONS,MEMORIALS; BIRTHDAY, CHRISTMASAND GUEST BOOKS; CRESTS, COATSOF ARMS, TITLE PAGES•DIPLOMAS, CITATIONS,HONORARY DEGREES, CHARTERSValued papers and letters restoredand bound38 SOUTH DEARBORN STREETDEARBORN 0001 CHICAGOGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2DAWN FRESH FROSTED FOODSCENTRELLAFRUITS AND VEGETABLESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoLITHOGRAPHERL C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182OFFICE FURNITURE5TEELCA5EBusiness Ecjtxipm&Trt \FILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co.__^ Grand Rapids, Michigan Juan Homs is now managing theSeattle passenger office of Pan American Airways.Saul Stern, JD '40, has been engaged by the Surplus Market Administration in Chicago.'1939John E. Newby, Jr., JD '39, formerly of Chicago, is now with the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Washington, D. C.Ole G. Landsverk, PhD '39, isteaching at the Virginia Junior College,Virginia, Minnesota.Opal Foster, AM '39, writer of childrens' books, is First Grade Supervisorat Winona State Teachers College inWinona, Minnesota.Virgil N. Robinson, who marriedLouise Wesley in 1936, is teachingMathematics at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge.Julius E. Eitington, AM '40, servesas a field agent for the Bureau of Census in Washington, D. C.David L. Moonie, MBA '39, is a staffaccountant for Haskins & Sells, Certified Public Accountants in Dallas,Texas.Donald Junkin McGiffin is an advertising solicitor for The Daily Ledgerin Fairfield, Iowa.Daniel J. Davitt, MBA '39, teachesRelated Mathematics and Drawing atthe Highland Park High School inHighland Park, Illinois, where he isvery active in civic affairs.Rosemary Bach recently completedthe preclinic term at the Frances PayneBolton School of Nursing of WesternReserve University in Cleveland.Alice Metta Johnson is serving asField Representative for the AmericanRed Cross in Washington, D. C.James A. Lytle is affiliated withBoggs Richard & King, a plio-film company in New York.1940Raymond Pepinsky, PhD '40, hasaccepted a position with the UnitedStates Rubber Company, Providence,Rhode Island.Daniel Fortmann, MD '40, PhiBeta Kappa pro-football player, managed to complete his fifth season withthe Chicago Bears this year while onleave of absence from his internship atHarper Hospital in Detroit.George Leland Bach, PhD '40, hasbeen appointed Special Assistant to theBoard of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, D. C.Willis L. Miller, PhD '40, becameSupervisor of Student Teaching at Chicago Teachers College in Chicago onFebruary 1.William Joseph Boehner, Jr., is atraveling raw fur buyer and AssistantExecutive Secretary for W. J. Boehner& Company in New York City.SOCIAL SERVICEElizabeth Sessoms, AM '41, andWanda Morgenthaler, AM '41, areboth doing medical social work at CookCounty Hospital in Chicago.Esther Katz, AM '41, is now on the staff of the Chicago Relief Administration.Morris Fox, AM '41, is on the staffof the Department of Social Securityin Honolulu.Lexie Cotton, AM '41, is in the Department of Public Welfare in SanFrancisco.Marjorie Smith, AM '41, holds thetitle of Chief Social Worker in the Social Service Department of the PeoriaState Hospital, Peoria, Illinois.Anita Reece, AM '41, is now at theInstitute for Juvenile Research in Chicago.Florence Keen, AM '41, has accepted an appointment in the JewishVocational Service, Chicago.Naomi Harward, AM '41, is in theResearch Division of the Council ofSocial Agencies in Chicago.John Edwin Hacker, AM '41, hasa position with the Family Service Society in Duluth.Jennie Ching, AM '41, is with theMedical Hygiene Bureau, Queen's Hospital, Honolulu.Ruth Chatfield, AM '41, is working for the United Charities in Chicago.Elizabeth Parmalee, AM '41, iswith the American Red Cross in ElPaso, Texas, where she is doing medicalsocial work.Amelia Baer, AM '41, is with theCommunity Service Society in NewYork City.Margaret Williamson, AM '41, andAnne Gussack, AM '41, have acceptedpositions as medical social workers atMichael Reese Hospital in Chicago.Anita J. Mackey, AM '41, is doingmedical social work at Provident Hospital in Chicago.Zdenka Buben, AM '41, is Directorof the Bureau of Medical Social Servicein the East Los Angeles Health Center.Jack Wakayama, AM '41, is doingchild welfare work in the Departmentof Public Welfare, Flonolulu.Maud Lois Rice, AM '41, is with theIllinois Children's Home and Aid Society in Chicago.Catherine Plunkett, AM '41, isrendering child welfare services in theDepartment of Public Welfare, Austin,Texas.Elizabeth Marcus, AM '41, is nowaffiliated with the Foster Home Bureauof New York City.Dorothy Marchand, AM '41, is acase worker for the Illinois Children'sHome and Aid Society in Bloomington.Helen Malone, AM '41, is doingcase work for the Children's and Minors' Service of Chicago.Jean Brown, AM '41, is now a childwelfare worker in the Utah State Department of Public Welfare.Frank Breul, AM '41, has beenmade a child welfare worker in theMarion County Child Welfare Services,Salem,, Illinois.Floyd Hunter has been made Director of the Council of Social Agenciesin Indianapolis.Rutli Hopkins, AM '40, is a caseworker with the Brooklyn Bureau ofCharities.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE OPTICIANSNELSON OPTICAL CO.PAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86E. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 3192PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions" ^ Olive Kestin, AM '40, has left theSocial Service Department of the NewHaven Hospital in New Haven to become the Director of Social Service inBeth Moses Hospital in Brooklyn.Professor R. Clyde White recentlyconducted an Institute at the TexasState Conference of Social Work.Duane Christy, AM '35, has become Assistant Executive Secretary ofthe Council of Social Agencies in Cincinnati.Professor Wayne McMillen recently conducted an Institute at theState Conference of Social Work heldin Chattanooga, Tennessee, and alsospoke in Nashville to the TennesseeChapter of the American Association ofSocial Workers prior to the Conference.Sarah Post Scott, AM '38, has accepted the post of Medical SocialWorker in the Anne Arundel CountyDepartment of Public Welfare, Annapolis, Maryland.Morton Friedman, AM '39, has beenappointed Research Assistant with theIllinois Board of Public Welfare Commissioners.Irving Bass, AM M0, is now locatedin the Wage and Hours AdministrationOffice in New York City.Dorothy Chausse, AM '40, willhave her headquarters in Minneapolishenceforth, having accepted a positionin the Regional Office of the PublicAssistance Division of the Social Security Board.Marjorie J. Smith, AM '38, Instructor of Social Work at the State Collegeof Washington, is co-author of "Lawsof the State of Washington Relating toChildren."^ Bernice Scroggie, AM '34, is Supervisor of the Division for Children inthe State of Washington's Departmentof Social Security.IN THE SERVICEJohn Barden, '35, JD '38, is nowlocated at the 1st Squadron Headquarters, 101st Cavalry, Fort Devens, Massachusetts.Robert Jacques Willis, '40, hasbeen on active duty with the U. S. Battle Fleet since December.Lincoln Clark is a First Lieutenant,F. A. R., at Fort Stotsinburg, Philippine Islands.Edward J. Blume is in the 701stM. P. Battalion at Fort Snelling, Minnesota.George Barr Wemple, '36, holds therank of First Lieutenant in the Ordnance Division of the U. S. Army atWashington, D. CRalph Meredith McComas, MD'31, is serving as Medical Officer at theNaval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia.First Lieutenant Louis PatersonHunter, '35, is stationed at Fort Sill,Oklahoma.Sidney B. Cutright, Jr., '36, is aFlying Cadet stationed at Dallas Aviation College, Brady, Texas. William Hughes is now a FirstLieutenant attached to the 4th Cavalryat Fort Meade, S. Dakota.Robert Cassells, '39, is with theArmy Air Corps at Randolph Field,near San Antonio, Texas.Mark T. Goldstine, Jr., '31, AM'37, an officer of the U. S. army, is nowstationed at Fort Sheridan, Illinois.Martin D. Miller, '39, is with the24th F. A. at Camp Tullahoma, Tennessee.Ralph Bennett, PhD '25, is a Lieutenant Commander in the Navy.Leonard B. Loet, PhD '16, Commander in the U. S. Navy, is locatedat the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia.Morris A. Schonholz, '31, JD '33,is stationed at the F. A. ReplacementCenter, Fort Sill, Oklahoma, where heholds the rank of First Lieutenant.William Cassels, '33, formerly withhis father's law firm at 209 South LaSalle St., in Chicago, has gone to theQuartermaster Replacements Corps atCamp Lee, Virginia.Lieutenant Colonel Richard H.Jeschke, '17, is the Chief of Staff ofthe Paris Island (South Carolina) Marine Corps Station.Lieutenant Colonel John Huling,Jr., '17, and Mrs. Huling (Helen Mof-fet, '20) are living in Morgantown,West Virginia where Colonel Hulingis Commanding Officer and Constructing Quartermaster of the newly established Morgantown Ordnance Works.Martin Miller '39, of Chicago, is atthe 33d Division, Camp Forrest, Tullahoma, Tennessee and has just been promoted from Private to Top Sergeant.Frank G. Todd, '35, who had beenin the Social Security Division of Swift& Company in Chicago until April 7, isnow a Private at Battery D, SecondBattalion, First C. A., T. N. 6 Group,Fort Eustis, Virginia and writes thatthe post is fortified with new barracks.BORNTo Lewis E. Haskin, '39, and Mrs.Haskins (Marion L, Pearson, '39) ofBridgeville, Delaware, a son, MarlewJohn.To C. Olin Sethness, III, '35, JD'37, and Mrs. Sethness, a son, C. OlinSethness, IV, on February 24, 1941, inEvanston.To Knox Hill, '36, and Mrs. Hill(Pauline Willis, '38), a daughter,Virginia Jean, in Chicago on September 6.To Donald F. Mulvihill, AM '37,and Ruth C6pe Mulvihill, AM '30,a son, William Cope, on May 24, 1940,in Tuscalloosa, Alabama, where Donaldis Instructor in Business Correspondence at the University of Alabama.To Matthew A. Bowers, '22, andMrs. Bowers, a son, Thomas Adonijah,on April 1, in Chicago.To Rabbi and Mrs. Abram VossenGoodman (May Friend, '30), a daughter, Judith Elinor, on December 3, inAustin, Texas.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31RESIDENTIAL HOTELSBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorRESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South Sideg&aSMlHHttl: Metfa¦*i:i4M*i*]»iCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324ROOFERSESTABLISHED 1908GROVEROOFINGFAirfax3206tiiLMLAND6644 COTTAGE GROVE AvTROOFING and INSULATINGRUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1928Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone RegentCOMMERCIAL SCHOOLSINTENSIVE1 STENOGRAPHIC COURSEfor College People OnlySuperior training for practical, personal use or profitable employment. Course gives you dictation speed of100 words a minute in 100 days. Classes beginJanuary, April, July and October. Enroll Now.Write or phono for bulletin.BRYANT & STRATTON College18 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago Tels RAN. 1575MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and Secretarialj TrainingDAY ANjb EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130 To Arch Cooper, '36, and Mrs.Cooper (Elizabeth Marriott, '36),their second daughter, Barbara, onJanuary 17, in Chicago.To Harleigh B. Trecker, AM '38,and Mrs. Trecker, a son, Jerrold Bradley, on July 21, 1940, in Chicago, whereHarleigh is Director of Field Work atGeorge Williams College.To Dr. Willard Carter Goodpasture, MD '37, and Mrs. Goodpasture,a daughter, Dorothea Simrall, on March13, in Chicago.To Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence De Leu-rere (Margaret Ravenscroft, '33, AM'35), a son, George Harley, on October10, 1940. The De Leureres are livingat 444 Monroe St., Gary, Indiana.To Mr. and Mrs. Harold Goldman(Dorothy Levinson, '34), a son, BruceDale, on December 11, 1940. The Gold-mans live at 1900 W. 11th St., Gary.To Louise Graver Walker, '35, andRobert A. Walker, '34, Ph.D '40, ason, Robert Allan, on March 1, inArlington, Virginia.To Paul Cameron Foster, MD '37,and Mrs. Foster, a son, Theodore Standing, on March 1.To Elizabeth Parker Mills, AM'34, and John Mills, a son, John, onMay 31, 1940.ENGAGEDBetty Marks to David Kutner, [35.Elizabeth Barden, '38, to BlairMorrissey of New York.Elise Young, SB '40, to Jack JayCarlson, AB '40. The marriage isplanned for July.Joanne Bolger, '36, to David HenryClegg of Salt Lake City, Utah. Themarriage will take place on April 5 inChicago.Elizabeth M. Brown to Dudley F.Jessopp, '22, JD '25. The wedding willtake place late in the spring.Shirley Miller to Leonard Lieber-mann, '37, SM '38, PhD '40, who isnow on the Faculty of Washington University, St. Louis.Katherine Bethke, '40, to LowellC. Doak, former graduate student.Barbara Wilder, '37, to James Sutherland of Glencoe, Illinois.Consuelo Hamilton, '39, AM '40, toM. John Wagner, '39, AM '40.Eleanor Banducci, graduate student, '40, to William H. MacDonald,MD Rush '36, of Bakersfield, California.Evelyn Kipnis, of Chicago to Le RoyKrein, '33, JD '35.MARRIEDDorothy J. Wager to William Mellon Cruickshank, AM '39, ResearchFellow at the University of Michigan'sSchool of Education, on December 26,1940., Frances K. Burns, '38, to BrysonP. Burnham, '38, JD '40, on February8, in Thorndyke Hilton Chapel. Athome, 3008 East Sheltenham Place, Chicago.Mary Letty Green, '39, to RobertC. Upton, '38, on February 22. Athome, 5639 Kenwood Avenue, Chicago. SCHOOL— SHORTHANDYour whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.For more particulars call, write,or telephone.THE GREGG COLLEGE6 North Michigan Avenue, ChicagoState 1881SHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKSGalvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing•1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893STOCKS— BONDS— COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, *l I. H. I. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W Davis, BI6. F. B. Evans, °HPaul H. Davis & Co ¦MembersNew York StocGChicago StockChicago Board ExchangeExchangeof Trade10 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622TEACHERS' AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. JACKSON BOULEVARDCHICAGOA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One FeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY, MO. SPOKANENEW YORKTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETEACHERS' AGENCIESHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized as on© of the. leading TeachersAgencies of the United States.UNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492VENETIAN BLINDSQUEENS VENETIAN BLINDPHONE CENTRAL 4516Flexible steel slats orseasoned basswood A Atwo-tone tapes or solid m U pcolors. Any size blinds. # f\ "Per square foot £¦. ^JAfter 5 P. M. Plaza 3698VENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767 Eula Snyder, Secretary of the Department of Physics, to Alan T.Wager, graduate student in the Department and Faculty member of GeorgeWilliams College in Chicago.Mary Burnham Peck to Henry Allen Reese, '37, of Upland, California.Phyllis Chow, AM '37, to WilliamChun on June 10, 1940, in Honolulu.Mrs. Chun is engaged in case work forthe Child Welfare Division of the OakuDepartment of Social Security in Honolulu.Susan Lawrence of Western, Massachusetts, to John N. Hazard, JSD '39.Gerda T. Lindheimer, '39, SM '40,to Stanley Siegel, '36, SM '38, Research Assistant in the Department ofPhysics of Duke University, on December 29, 1940. The Siegels are living at818 Second Street, Durham, N. C.Phyllis Elaine Miller of Madison,Wisconsin, to William James Moore,MD '38, of Hanover, Illinois, on March22, in Thorndike Hilton Chapel.Ruthadele B. La Tourrette, AM'39, to Charles C. Hauch, '34, AM'36, on January 1, in Cindad Trujillo,Dominican Republic, West Indies, wherethey will live for a year.Hester Hempstead, daughter of Mr.and Mrs. Joseph L. Hempstead (HesterRidlon, '03), to Edward Duffield, onMarch 8, in Dowagiac, Michigan.DIEDFrank C. Jordan, PhD '14, Directorof the Alleghany Observatory, and Mrs.Jordan, on February 15 when a fire,breaking out in their home in Pittsburgh, spread so rapidly that they wereunable to escape.Mrs. George W. Carr (Helen D.Taylor, '00) on November 21, 1940.Myrtle Judson, '07 (Mrs. R. T. W.Duke), on March 23, in Hyattsville,Maryland.William G. Smiley, graduate student in the late nineties and pioneereducator of Texas, on February 21, inHouston.Ernest W. Clbment, '80, author,editor and long time teacher, in Japanwhere he served as interpreter at theUnited States Legation in Tokio, onMarch 11, in Floral Park, New York._ Susan Orvis, AM '16, long time missionary in Turkey, after a lingeringillness, on January 10, in Earlville,Iowa.Harold Foster Reed, '33, late masterin DeVaux School, Niagara Falls, onFebruary 1, 1940.Elizabeth Madox Roberts, '21, well-known novelist and short story writer,of anemia, on March 13, in Orlando,Florida.Elizabeth Crowther, PhB '99, onMarch 23, in Amherst, Massachusetts.Arthur Whipple Smith, BS (cumlaude), '98, PhD (cum laude), '04, Professor of Mathematics at Colgate University, Hamilton, New York, on February 11, 1940.Salmon O. Levinson of the OldUniversity, on February 2, in Chicago.Henry Raymond Brush, PhD '11, Chairman of the French DepartmentUniversity of California, on January31, in Los Angeles.Charles B. Newby, '94, on December30, 1940, in Converse, Indiana.Beth Keenan, '25 (Mrs. S. A. Underwood), on January 21, in Gary, Indiana.Ralph Van Carpenter, MD '26, onDecember 13, 1940, in Denver.Daniel W. Morehouse, '03, President of Drake University; on January21, from heart failure.Alma G. Rice, '27, on August 19,1940, in Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania.Joseph Jenkins, DB '98, on April 1,in Jerseyville, Illinois.Albert Summerfield Welch, '19,MD Rush '22, on February 7, in KansasCity, Missouri of pneumonia.Eleanor McDowall, '25, AM '37,noted French scholar and head of theFrench Department of Milwaukee University School in Milwaukee, on April12, at the home of her parents in OakPark, Illinois.Jacob Zachary Felsher, '25, onFebruary 4.Willis S. Hilpert, SB '03, PhD '06,Associate Director of the Miner Laboratories of Chicago, on March 19, inWinnetka.McKeen Morrow, JD '12, on January 21.Mrs. Maurice Mandeville (LeonaCanterbury, '02), on April 3, in LakeBluff, Illinois.Floyd E. Harper, '04, JD '06, onMarch 19, at his farm home near Me-chanicsburgh, Illinois. Floyd Harperwas one of the great athletes of theearly 1900's and later became assistantto Coach Stagg.scholarship benefitThe Sigma Alumnae have arrangedfor a program to be presented in Man-del Hall on the evening of May 14, byCornelia Otis Skinner. The programwill consist entirely of new dramaticsketches. The proceeds of the eveningwill be contributed to the Alumni Foundation for the Sigma Alumnae Scholarship Fund and tickets can be obtainedat the University Information Bureau inthe Press Building.Ifou've neverread a book likethis before!^^^S#*N#S*^^^^>#>*S#^^^*«*^^*^^^^^#^^^S»^*^h***#^»#»#^^*«*>#*l^l#*l*#1**l#^#,^^#,#NO one else would have dared write it . . .and no one else could have written it.It's the anatomy of a college class ... apanoramontage of alumni in undress ... a wide-eyed, barefaced tale of heroes and heroics, of villains and fools and humans.And let's not forget the women, those lush andamiable ladies (some were neither) who helped ordragged the men along. You'll enjoy their anticsor puzzle over their ethics as much as their men did.This is a total book about college grads . . .nothing is left unsaid, nothing could be more outspoken. It's a unique story . . . jampacked withlaughs and thrills and tragic moments. There'snothing sober or conventional about it.If you want to know what makes a college mantick, this yarn will tell you. It's a revealing story,told tenderly, without strain and without restraint.You'll recognize every one of these men— you'vemet them, worked with them, envied them, admiredthem, hated them, learned to avoid them, or havealways wanted to know them better. Here they are—all sixty of them— in all their grime and glory . . .a college class, twenty-five years after graduation,as pinned to the board by an uninhibited class secretary in revolt. It's a "just listen to this" kind ofbook. Everybody who reads it wants to quote it!Don't let your friends spoil it for you . . . get acopy of your own, now. 343 pages, $ Three OpinionsJOHN KIERAN (who knows a thing or two and neverhesitates to tell it): "I enjoyed it no end."TIFFANY THAYER (who has written many best-sellershimself): "There's enough swell material here for adozen novels. Smith sure packs a lot of story into343 pages!"VIRGINIA KIRKUS (who is paid by booksellers to tellthem what good books to buy): "Here is the book on'men we have known'. Should go by word of mouth . . .everyone who reads it has an overwhelming yen toshare bits of it with any receptive listener, and immediately!"he Gang's All HereThis coupon guarantees you a grand time!PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS.Princeton, N. J. Dept. CHI.TJLEASE send me a personal copy*of THE GANG S ALL HEREby Harvey Smith at $2.50. I wantto read it before my (wife? sweetheart?) dues.BYHarveySmith NAMEADDRESS? Send C.O.D. (postage extra)D Remittance herewithlEtf* VJtt^ y&$&>to Al"*vl tectum? tacivl"\VisSCO ui^vvrbas theoVonc ecy»?.-tu^-' Rt U^•A"' ,\coiv\eoty besttheolfc. tev wavc; : ^ VN'WW ot :\d ities an«-tu Ajuv'^S offt an'vi avion-V-anoA\ eo&*» itV»nit tot the bo^ ar •'w ^^etoev.cty -day nee a*0'tt«o\\ioossot the V. as ¦stcusets • . \\ itatejep^booe ^ cmething tos?^ot the axe':\\Svs'tern sotoe"eocies-Has £\cct«c thistw< roV\cVhaV tot' tobasaoetits bene Rt* beet*adott-bee« (.H* k\tfev etso c\eattbttv^days- >l s«oectaVa\ va Auebas esp etie thesencedi as oft,btti»xN'¦#cX^ r*l** HOl»E s^s,Tfc>1i" RTIII" (F.I-1' ,TE M >¦ is i ri<» ,n- ,i;i . i inENS«N I RV • K<>' .!<