eriod R R,THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINENOVEMBERThe University of Chicago Press enters its 50thyear with fall books of wide general interestAMERICA IN CONTEMPORARY FICTIONBy Percy Holmes BoyntonPenetrating discussions of Canfield, Chase, Santayana and Marquand from New England; Herge-sheimer, Cabell, Stark Young, Faulkner and Caldwell from Central and Southern regions; Wolfe,Dos Passos and Farrell from metropolitan areas; Anderson, Dreiser, Cather and Lewis from the Middle West; and Rolvaag and Steinbeck from the Far West. Readv Dec. 3. $2.50TUBERCULOSIS AND GENIUSBy LEWIS J. MOORMAN, M.D.Here from a new and exciting viewpoint are the lives of Steven-son, Schiller, Bashkirtseff, Mansfield, Voltaire, Moliere, FrancisThompson, Shelley, Keats and St. Francis of Assisi. A dramaticbook by a well-known physician. 10 portrait illustrations. $2.50 THE AMERICAN EMPIREEdited by WILLIAM H. HAASWhat problems does this American Empire of ours present — notonly of defense but socially and economically? Ten expertsfrankly evaluate existing conditions in Puerto Rico, the VirginIslands, Canal Zone, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Philippines. 35illustrations. $4.00POETRY AND THE MODERN WORLDBy DAVID DAICHESFrom the decline of the Tennysonian tradition, the "esthetes" of the nineties, through the World War,to the "new" poetry of today, with particularly brilliant discussions of Yeats and Eliot. Another vigorous piece of criticism by the young author of The Novel and the Modern World which attracted anunusual amount of critical attention last fall. $2.50THE ORIGIN OF PRINTING INEUROPEBy PIERCE BUTLERAny understanding of our "typographical culture" must rest ona history of printing. Here is the relationship between printingand human history based on twenty years of research in European libraries. Of particular interest is the denial of the Gutenberg legend. Illustrated. $1.50 MEN ON THE MOVEBy NELS ANDERSONLike the Joads in The Grapes of Wrath, hundreds of thousandsof Americans are crossing the continent in search of jobs thatmay or may not exist. Here are concrete suggestions for treating the problem with its one solution, JOBS. The author isDirector of Labor Relations. WPA. 61 illustrations. $3.002 NEW BOOKS BY T. V. SMITHTHE LEGISLATIVE WAY OF LIFE. Deals with the problem of representative government, the necessity forcollective wisdom. A book for everyone who believes in or wonders about democracy. $1.50LINCOLN: LIVING LEGEND. Philosophic insight helps to explain Lincoln, the man and the myth, hissadness and humor. $1.00ARTHURIAN ROMANCE ANDMODERN POETRY AND MUSICBy WILLIAM A. NITZEIn the Idylls of Tennyson, the operas of Wagner, and the poetryof such moderns as Robinson and Eliot, a distinguished scholartraces the Arthurian legend, its historic basis and mutationsto fit varied folklores. Illustrated. $1.00 FOUNDATIONS OF A MORESTABLE WORLD ORDERHARRIS FOUNDATION LECTURES, 1940Schevill, Viner, Colby, Wright, Rippy and Laves attempt toclarify the long- and short-range factors in the achievement ofgreater stability among the nations of the world. Considerseconomics, law, shipping and the role of the United States. $2.509 'isoS YEARS OF ^ 1 HESE titles are just a few of the 61 published this fall by the University of Chicago Press.America's oldest University Press, from the point of continuous service, it has published morethan 3000 titles, many of them distinguished contributions to scholarship. Known to everyeducator is John Dewey's School and Society, published 1899; to every physicist, Millikan'sThe Electron, 1917; to every theologian and to a hundred thousand Bible readers, Smith andGoodspeed's The Bible. An American Translation, 1931. Known to a wide public are numerousbooks of genera] interest of which those listed above are a good sample.puBLisHiNG^Tjhe QmuersttB qf QhicajoEtesTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED. BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILREUBEN FRODIN, '33Associate EditorCHARLTON T. BECK, '04Editor and Business ManagerDAVID DAICHES; BERN LUND.Y, '37; DON MORRIS, '36; RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36Contributing EditorsTHE COVER: Dwight H.Green, '20, JD'22, Governor-elect of Illinois. Mr. Green,candidate of the Republican party,defeated his Democratic opponentHarry D. Hershey, JD'll, in theelection held November 5. In another election contest of interest toalumni of the University, Congressman-at-large T. V. Smith, PhD'22,was defeated for re-election by a majority of approximately 100,000.•Professor Harvey B. Lemon, '06,PhD' 12, contributes an article discussing the work being done by theDepartment of Physics at the University, contrasting today's department with the department he enteredtwenty-five years ago. It is the hopeof the Magazine that we can presentsimilar articles about other departments — which will form a "history ofthe University" from the viewpointof men engaged in the varied fieldsof endeavor represented on theQuadrangles. Obviously we cannotcover all of them, but we will try todo as many as we can.During the summer and early fall,the Quadrangle Club luncheon tableswere enlivened by the stories of Vice-.president Filbey about earlier days ofElwood, Indiana. The daily newspapers and the magazines exhaustedmost of early Elwood's history butthey did not touch upon what seemsto us the more interesting subject —that is, since November 5 — something about Emery T. Filbey. Mr.Filbey's reticence and modesty abouthimself are reflected in HowardHudson's "profile," which appearson page 9. THIS MONTHDavid Daiches, the brilliant young-instructor in the English Departmentwhose regular column for the Magazine was inaugurated in October,this month discusses "the future ofignorance." The University Presslate this month will publish his mostrecent book, Poetry and the ModemWorld, a companion volume to hisexcellent and well-received, TheNovel and the Modern World, whichappeared last year.As indicated last month on thispage, Hugh M. Cole, Instructor inthe Department of History, contributes a new column for alumnireaders. It is called "The ArmchairStrategist," and will deal with affairsof military interest which affect everycitizen. Two more articles are addedto the Magazine's reports on current developments in Mexico withTABLE OF CONTENTSNOVEMBER, 1940PAGELetters 2Books 3Physics in the University, HarveyB. Lemon 5A Man from Elwood, Hozvard P.Hudson 9Mobilizing Economic Strength ; . 10Notes For a Dilletante. DavidDaiches 13Interview with Cardenas, J oh nGunther 15Mexican Letter: 2, Ralph W. Nicholson 16Tribute to Manly, David H. Stevens 17The Armchair Strategist, Hugh M.Cole 19The Deceitful Dean 20-21News of the Quadrangles, BernLundy • 22Dr. Ames Retires, Winfred E. Garrison 23The Origin of Printing, Pierce Butler 24Athletics, Don Morris 25News of the Classes 30 John Gunther 's interview with President Cardenas and Ralph Nicholson'ssecond Mexican letter.•Saturday, November 9, was theday of the Autumn Alumni Assembly, and a big day it was. At lujjch-eon in the Quadrangle Club representatives of all of the fraternities enthe Midway participated in a discussion of fraternity affairs at the University. The principal speaker wasWilliam Randall, Assistant Dean ofStudents, in charge of fraternity relations. The result was a clarificationof the problems and the appointmentof several committees to continuecontacts with Mr. Randall.In the afternoon alumni attendeda symposium in Mandel Hall on thesubject of "America and the War."The speakers were Nathaniel Peffer,'11, Hilmar Baukhage '11, and Professor Bernadotte Schmitt. ValleeO. Appel, president of the Class of1911, was chairman. A transcript ofthe interesting speeches and comments wras made and, if possible, aselection of these will be printed inthe December issue of the Magazine.The Regional Advisers attended adinner-meeting addressed by President Hutchins, and other alumni gathered to dine in Hutchinson Commons. In the evening a streamlinedrevival of "The Deceitful Dean" wasput on the boards of Mandel Hall.Pictures of this comic classic takenby Paul Wagner, '38, appear onpages 20 and 21 of this issue. Theshow was produced in the interest ofthe University Settlement and Saturday night's performance was takenover by the Alumni Council and theAlumni Foundation.EllisOffice „., , -tising agency of the University of Chicago Magazine.2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESheer lazinessmakes Briggs richLong years of loafing in oaken casksbrings this Tobacco a wealth offlavor . . . a fortune in mellownessEVERYTHING comes to him whowaits!". . . should have been saidabout Briggs.Month after month (longer thanmany higher priced blends) the choicetobacco leaves, ear-marked for Briggs, just lie in great oaken casks doing lessthan nothing at all — while timemarches on. Just soaking up the fragrant southern summer air and pine-spiced winter wind. And what comesto this luxurious southern aristocrat? Just about everything that a tobacco (or you), could wish for!Full, deep, rich flavor! Tongue-kindsmoothness! And a gentle disposition,that makes it any pipe's best friend.At 1 5 cents a tin, Briggs is one luxury that any smoker can afford . . . andcan't afford to miss.CASK-MELLOWED Extra hong for Extra Flavor LETTERSCOMMENTS ON THE LAWTo the Editor :I can cooperate with no institutionwhose president supports and advocatesconscription. Mr. Hutchins' recentutterances have sickened me with theUniversity he ornaments. Please remove my name from your mailing listuntil the University has a president withguts enough to say to hell with Washington !Bernard Raymond, PhD. '20.Worthington, Ohio.[Mr. Hutchins in his annual report,The State of the University, says: "Ialso agree with the views expressed byMr. Roosevelt, who has said, 'Youngpeople should be advised that it is theirpatriotic duty to continue the normalcourse of their education unless anduntil they are called . . .' I go so faras to favor the prohibition of volunteering, on the ground that it interferes with« program of putting the right man inthe right place and permits hysteria andsocial pressure to determine the courseof many young people. On the otherhand, I do not favor any exemptionsfrom the draft for college and universitystudents as such." — Ed.]ABOUT RUNOVERSTo the Editor :In general I am thoroughly pleasedwith the high tone of your magazineand I feel that it reflects credit on theUniversity. I protest, however, againstyour aping magazines like Fortune andThe Saturday Evening Post in continuing your articles to back pages. Theother magazines have the excuse thatthey are run primarily as services foradvertisers.Perhaps I ought not permit myself tobe irritated by such a minor detail, butit is a fact that I am irritated to theextent that when I come to the instructions to turn to page so and so, I quitreading the article at that point. Thequestion whether I resume it when Ireach the proper page depends on howmuch I remember of the context at thattime. You will recognize that thispractice seriously interferes with mygetting the most out of the articles fnatare thus continued.I see no compensating advantage forthe present system other than the intangible one of superficial appearance.Herbert Bebb, JD '13.Chicago[There are several real problems ofmakeup involved. We attempt to keepthe number of stories which. run overto a minimum, and in the future willmake a greater effort. — Ed.]THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3BOOKSFather and Son. By James T. Farrell, '29. New York: Vanguard Press,1940. $2.75.James T. Farrell's matchless recordof life among the Chicago O'Neills,O'Flahertys, Sheehans, Gilhooleys andMuldoons is carried over into a thirdlarge volume, with Father and Son following No Star Is Lost by two yearsand A World I never Made by four.I don't know how many readers havebeen keeping up with the series. I daresay that it is anathema among theO'Neills, O'Flahertys, Sheehans, Gilhooleys and Muldoons themselves. Considered from one point of view, this isnatural enough, for no more candidgroup portrait has ever been drawn, andany one looking for compliments coulddiscover almost as many in a tract bythe Native Sons or the Ku Klux Klan.In some circles, no doubt, Mr. Farrellis regarded as a slanderer, anapostate orworse. He is not a pretty novelist, buthe is as sincere and conscientious a historian as can be found on the rolls of allthe Irish-American societies combined.As sincere and conscientious in hisfield, that is, and his particular field isthe world in which he grew up in Chicago, the world he never made butwhich made him and thousands of othersof his generation in cities like Newark,Cleveland, Boston, Pittsburgh and Baltimore. Though not exactly StudsI.onigan's world or Tpmmy Gallagher'seither, it includes and embraces themboth. Out of it have come Lonigans,Gallaghers, truckmen, statesmen, scholars, jurists — and young Danny O'Neill.In Father and Son, as in the earliervolumes of the series, Danny is the central figure. He has grown older (NoStar Is Lost covered the years 1914-15,when he was 10 or 11, while in Fatherand Son the time is 1918-23), but hisparents are still poor and he himself stilllives with his Grandmother O'Flahertyand his Aunt Peg and his Uncle Al. Hestill goes to school, at first to St. Patrick's, where the Sisters make him feelthat he has a vocation, then to St. Stanislaus, where the Fathers teach himI-atin and French and he is no longer sosure. He still attends mass and confession, still likes baseball and football, stillwears glasses and worries a great dealabout girls.His parents, Lizz and Jim O'Neill,have been getting along better, on thewhole, for Jim was promoted by the Express Company and can now afford topay $50 a month rent. But Lizz's tongueand teeth are about the same, and shestill lets the breakfast dishes pile up inthe sink, while Jim's health is nothing to what it used to be when he was driving a delivery wagon out of doors.Danny realizes as much when he goesaround to the Calumet Avenue flat fora visit, or if he happens to be at homewhen his mother and father drop in atthe O'Flahertys for a call. It doesn'tworry him especially; he is more worried the day Uncle Al has an operationfor appendicitis, or the evening beforethe St. Stanislaus-St. Basil game, or thefirst time he has dancing lessons andtakes Sheila Cullen to a fraternity ball.Mr. Farrell's story is focused on therelationship between Danny and Jim, theson coming up, the father going down.Partly because of this, it is less bitterthan the others have been, and in placesalmost tender, although the dominanttone, once again, is that of a dispassionate reporter telling what he has heardand describing what he has seen. Someof the things seen and heard might bereported verbatim in any press ; the complete text of a Christmas sermon atchurch or a play-by-play account of afootball game. Others are peculiarlyMr. Farrell's; the banter behind thecounter at Feinberg & O'Shaughnessy'sshoe store, where Danny works on Saturday afternoons, Lizz's sanctimonioustantrums and the drunken rampages ofpoor forsaken Aunt Peg.As fiction, all this may seem to haveits shortcomings. Unquestionably itdoes, if only because Mr. Farrell buildshis narrative out of chunks and blocksof words, almost any one of which couldbe omitted without dislocating the rest,and because there are no sharp conflictsof character except here and there, andbecause nothing particular "happens"for chapters at a time. But it is real,and not merely realistic; it is genuine,and genuine in a sense that novelists onthe order of, say, John Fante or Pietrodi Donato, writing about the Italian-American world, have not begun to understand, and that some one likeThomas Wolfe would not have understood had he lived to be a century old.Ralph Thompson.[From the New York Times.~\What's Past Is Prologue, Reflectionson My Industrial Experience. ByMary Barnett Gilson. New York:Harpers 1940. $3.00.In Search of Complications. By Eugene de Savitsch, MLTZS. New York :Simon and Schuster, 1940. $3.00.Transit U. S. A. By W. L. River. '25.New York : Stokes. $2.50.A History of Chicago. Vol. II: FromTown to City, 1848-1871. By BessieLouise Pierce, AM'\%. New York:A. A. Knopf. $4.50.Unresting Cells. By Ralph W. Ger-ard,'19,PhD'2\,MD'2S. New York:Harpers. $3.75.The Gentle Hertford. By Helen SardHughes, '10, PhLY\7. New York:Macmillan Co., 1940. $4.00. Two Candles Today-THEN FILMO MOVIE SCENES LIKETHIS WILL BE PRICELESS!• It seems a longtime until yourcurly-headed sonor daughter ofbarely two will goaway to college.But that day willsoon come! Whenit does — you would give anything for FilmoMovies of scenes like this.So don't put it off. Start now. It is soeasy . . .so inexpensive. Newsreel-lengthscenes made with the palm-size Filmo 8cost no more than snapshots. Loading issimple. Press the button— and youset, you get, in black-and-white or full,natural color.Precision-built by the makers of Hollywood's professional movie equipment,with provision for adding accessories asyour skill grows, Filmo 8 is a basic camerathat meets your present trnd future needs.You won't outgrow it. See it at your cameradealer's— or mail coupon for details. Bell& Howell Co., Chicago; New York; Holly-wood; Washington J).C; London. Est. 1907.Oil* a Filmo 8 oilers al these features• Lifetime guarantee/ • "Drop-in" threading ... no sprockets.• Built-in mechanism for slotv-TJ» motion and animated- cartoon$(1050 filming. • Automatic sealed lu-, .. , oiling. • Adapu*wilu7<£* aoility to grow with yonrsUILFor those who prefer 16 nun. films, Filmo AutoLoad, from $11}, depending upon lens selection.MAU COUPON FOR FREE MOVIE BOOKLETBELL & HOWELL COMPANY1839 Larch mon t Ave., Chicago, 111.Send free, 16-page booklet telling all about D Filmo8 mm. Movie Cameras; D new 16 mm. Filmo AutoLoad.Name Address .PR EC ISION-M A DE BYT/£&fJt3Effi!F77/A4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEArthur H. Compton, Distinguished Professor and Chairman ofthe Department of Physics; winner of the Nobel Prize. Arthur J. Dempster, Professor of Physics; discoverer of U235and other new isotopes of the chemical elements.Professor Robert S. Mulliken standing in front of his famous office blackboard, which few besides himself can decipher.VOLUME XXXII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 2NOVEMBER, 1940PHYSICS IN THE UNIVERSITYTwenty-five Years Ago and TodayTHESE are times when all the vaunted achievements of our so-called Western civilization seemto be crumbling about our ears. There is nolonger faith among nations. The weak are abandonedby the strong. A culture striving to become dominantis based on a philosophy of "unchaining volcanic passions, causing outbreaks of fury, setting masses of men on the march, organizing hate and suspicion with ice-cold calculation." So it happens thata natural question that many of us areasking is, "What's the use of anything?" To this defeatist attitude weshould take exception for at least tworeasons. First, its adoption rendersmore certain a defeat as yet only problematical. Second and far more important is the fact that, no matter whathappens anywhere, there is foreverspringing up anew among a relativelysmall residual of any population anundying faith in the results of a searchfor truth. This is a pursuit that constitutes the most satisfying thing in lifefor these individuals. It is somethingwhich apparently can never be stifled ;indeed, it thrives on adversity. Its collective attainments constitute mankind'ssupreme achievement. Thus there continue to come from isolated portions ofChina requests for old books and second-hand equipment to rebuild schoolsand laboratories. In not a few spotsin central Europe scholars are still quietly at work. Andof course throughout the length and breadth of theAmericas the pursuit of truth and the investigation ofnature still goes on with zeal not only unabated butperhaps even heightened, as a high light in contrast withthe deep shadows of the general picture.The new frontiers in physics that every week sees stillbeing crowded backward inch by inch are often unexpected in their outlines. They constitute in part therealization of far more than the wildest dreams eitherof the ancient alchemists or of the scholars of the lastgeneration. Terms now common describe processes thatwere undreamed of even a decade ago. The imagina-PHYSICIST LEMONDr. Lemon received his first appointment in the University as an Assistantin Physics in July, 1911. He became anspecial assistant to A. A. Michelson in1918. His long service in the Department makes the comparison of past andpresent particularly interesting. • By HARVEY B. LEMON, '06, PhD '12tion is staggered and the emotions of those who followthese paths today are stimulated even as they were in thedays of Galileo.In the space at our disposal we shall attempt to giveyou a brief perspective of the work of a single department in our university as it appears to one who haslived in the thick of it for over thirtyyears. In the "great old days" ofphysics under Michelson and Millikanthere were two main lines of investigation being pressed. Radiating from theformer, the University's first NobelLaureate, was a program in the fieldof optics, chiefly directed toward theend of increased precision of measurements of distance. The distances involved might be the distance betweentwo scratches on the standard, meterbar, the distance covered by a wavelength of light, or the diameter of thestar Antares. Astronomy even thenwas being subjected to the same experimental methods as physics andchemistry.Spectroscopy, the study of the lightemitted by the atoms of matter underthe disturbing impacts of high temperature or the disrupting characteristicsof an electrical discharge through them,was an infant science. Various elements and compounds had long beenknown to emit different and characteristic colors of light when so disturbed.The mapping of this great variety of patterns was proceeding apace, as a major research program. The stars,too, were being photographed and having their spectraclassified. The wisest among us, however, had not thefaintest conception as to how these incident disturbances,thermal or electrical, were transformed into the glowingrainbow tints of the emitted light.That atoms and molecules might have some underlying structure, was of course suspected. Their outershapes, however, were entirely unknown. That they hadan inner structure was not even dreamed. These werethe days indeed when atoms and molecules were regarded quantitatively as if they were minute spheres.56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMillikan's early work had been in optics. In the daysof which we speak his interests were in the classicalkinetic theory studies of the physics, or rather the mechanics of these hard elastic molecules. The field hadbeen a swiftly developing one during the last half of thenineteenth century. A purely mechanical picture it was'of the gross phenomena of heat and temperature. Yetas a picture it was all completely unified, systematic andentirely unambiguous. This picture still endures todayas one of the greatest monuments to men's imagination,ingenuity and enterprise.Closely related to molecular physics were certain electrical phenomena. Some liquids conducted electricity,others did not. Even gases, normally non-conductors,had been found to be rendered conducting by flames, hotwires, X-rays, and other agents. Millikan's inquiringinterest played all over this region. Ultimately it ledhim to improve methods for isolating the charge on thethen recently discovered electron and measuring itsamount. Later in connection with certain curious relations between light and electricity, he verified experimentally a theory of Einstein's about this, and therebybrought to our laboratory its second Nobel Prize.There were besides these main endeavors quite a number of loose ends that no one seemed to be able quite tograsp. Michelson was talked reluctantly into an experimental attempt to prove up on relativity theory. But hesucceeded only in showing that the earth rotated on itsaxis, a fact of which Galileo as well as he previously hadbeen aware, and an outcome of this experiment whichhe had feared. This was one cause of his reluctance toinitiate it.Millikan pondered upon, and some of the rest of usexperimented with, some mysterious "penetrating radiation" that caused all our best electroscopes to leak alittle. We concluded traces of local radioactivity wereresponsible, never dreaming that it was cosmic rays atwork. Every spark that occurred in the building sent outradio signals, and by such means we used to ring bells at a distance as a classroom stunt. But the potentialities of our carbon lamps as vacuum tubes, and the radiotelephone resulting — could such ideas have been suggested they would have been regarded as the utmostlimit in fantasy and impossibility.Courses of instruction in science that were contemporary with these early beginnings, in so far as theywere based on anything at all, were built upon the assumption that every student in every field was aimingto be a research specialist in that field. From the mostelementary to the most advanced courses in physics ourprogram of study assumed that every victim was inherently adapted by heredity and environment to be aphysicist and could be endowed with no more consumingpassion than one directed to that end.THE OLD METHODSSuch patterns as then existed in textbooks and curricula were definitely modeled upon those developed inthis country and abroad as a result of the great revelations in science that the latter part of the eighteenthand the beginning of the nineteenth century had witnessed. It is true that subsequent developments, in asomewhat haphazard manner, were continually being incorporated into this older pattern. Furthermore it mustbe said that for the period, judging by the results, therewas not much to be criticized. College education inthose days was limited to relatively few who by fortunateaccidents of birth or unusual native endowment wereplanning professional careers. While not all college students of this generation were destined to be either lawyers, doctors, or ministers, the day in which higher education was exclusively for these groups was not longpast and the traditions of that day had carried over.Those were the days when any student who got Cgrades or better had a job awaiting him out of highschool and several even better ones when he came outof college. Our problem as teachers was not to findAssociate Professor William Zachariasen in his study, contemplating a crystalmodel. For every photograph taken of X-rays passing through a crystal, weeksand perhaps months of patient calculation must be done before such models asthis can be constructed — and used for further study. Associate Professor Samuel K. Allison in one ofhis "atom smashing" moods at the business end ofthe Cockroft^Walton circuit. For more about hiswork, see the February, 1940, Magazine.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7jobs for our students but to find students for the jobs.Most of us had three or four competitive offers withour doctorates. Fifteen to eighteen hundred 100 centdollars was the average starting pay. Surely the contrast of this picture of our social order with that whichexists today needs no elaboration or emphasis. It is thenew frontiers of physics that we wish to discuss. Theseare stranger than the wildest imaginings of Verne,Fazandie, or H. G. Wells more recently.Precision in optics is no longer worth mentioning except to Freshmen. Methods a millionfold more delicateand still quite as precise are now common. Mass andtime as well as distance now may be so ultramicroscop-ically divided.The mapping of all common spectra was completedyears ago. The results of hundreds of thousands ofpages of analysis have placed an astonishingly complexand dynamic system of nucleus and strangely patternedspheres of probability within the former hard elasticmolecule.From these detailed configurations an utterly newchemistry (electrochemistry) has arisen. The far infrared reveals the nature and number of vibrations of external molecular systems; the far ultraviolet, the deeplyburied properties of inner electron systems.The still more mysterious central controlling nucleusof each tiny system, up to ten years ago as inviolate as anebula, is now daily dissected and its component partsexamined, and sometimes' partially rearranged. Thusone element is transmuted into others artificially.The cosmic rays, finally unearthed as cause of theleaking scopes of 1900, have created a great publicfurore. Far-flung expeditions and the most heroic exploits are at times indulged in. Most of the importantinformation, however, is gleaned finally by scores ofpatient computers working months on end to the interminable clicking roll of electric calculating machines.COSMIC RAY BY-PRODUCTSBy the by-products of these investigations shall cosmicrays also be remembered.Only fifteen to twenty years ago the hard solid atomwas known to contain electrons and positive electricity,then electrons and protons. Today atomic systems giveevidence of having within, or related to them, electrons,protons, neutrons, positrons, neutrinos, and mesotrons,both negative and positive.Light — a wave phenomenon par excellence — now issimultaneously corpuscular; so we add photons to thelist. To be consistent and to conform to experimentalevidence we assign wave lengths likewise to all the otherparticles. From this idea originated the electron microscope — a thousand times more powerful than the bestoptical instrument.During the last three decades our own department ofphysics has been in the most distinguished thick of all ofthis. Today five great research institutes — severalpartially endowed temporarily by foundations — in fivegreat areas, are headed by names second to none in theserespective fields. These are the Michelsons and Milli-kans of today. Save for Arthur H. Compton, the firstNobel Laureate among them, their names are yetunknown outside the profession. For the two that THE LATE A. A. MICHELSON IN HIS LABORATORYhave left us we now have five : Compton, who first discovered and proved how light exhibited its corpuscularproperties — for which he won the prize — more recentlyand better known to the press and public by his work oncosmic rays ; Arthur J. Dempster, whose work with thatof Aston of Cambridge has increased the population ofthe atomic table from 92 to several hundred differentelements, several isotopic forms to each one. Includedamong these isotopes was the now famous one of uranium,U235, the most promising source of atomic energy shouldthis ever be unleashed upon an already too unhappyworld; Samuel K. Allison, now in charge of our newand yet uncompleted cyclotron, one type of atom smasher,is much more interested in a far more precise and (outside of the profession) entirely unknown type of atomdisintegrator, the so-called Cockroft-Walton circuit. Trueit produces only half a million volts instead of the five toeight millions available in cyclotrons. Sound progress inphysics, however, is never certain except on the basis ofprecision measurement. This precision is Allison's dearest aim. Already with inadequate condensers he hasincreased the precision of our knowledge of the energyreleased by disintegrations of Be8 and 9, of Li„, D,, andHe4 fifteenfold.When he can be provided with a few more condensershis stream of transmuted atoms will be enriched tenfoldand he can enlarge the number of precision experimentsto include perhaps a score of atoms instead of five. Withsuch additional condensers, furthermore, his present limitof 425 thousand volts could be pushed up to exceed thecritical 440 thousand needed for the Li + p reaction thatreleases 1/ millions volts of gamma rays.With this abundance of pure and quantitatively monochromatic radiation — the most energetic known to theory— photo-disintegration of nuclei of many kinds becomespossible, and the cruder forms of rough and ready cyclotrons are then displaced except for routine production ofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECosmic ray cloud chamber and magnet (right) and excitinggenerator (left). This and the new cyclotron are installed in theold power house behind the University Press.artificial radioactive materials important in biologicalwork.In Professor Robert Mulliken and Dr. Hans Beutlerour department has a team of two spectroscopists, onetheoretical and one experimental, each among the mostproductive of his generation. Recently endowed for threeyears with special funds, these men and a dozen-oddstudents are turning out widely diversified and fundamental investigations at a rate of about a score of papersannually. The extreme technicality of their methods indisclosing the detailed structures and properties ofmolecular systems through the study of spectra defiesany attempt at simple exposition.CRYSTALLOGRAPHYPerhaps least known, yet containing most importantpossibilities of a dramatic and practical sort, is the workof William Zachariasen and his group. This is the X-raycrystallographic unit.The scattering of X-rays by crystals first definitelyestablished, twenty-five years ago, the undulatory characteristics of X-rays as high-frequency radiation onethousand times shorter than ultraviolet light. In thequarter century since, increasing refinements of methodand development of theoretical knowledge has resulted ina very complete picture with all details of all the common crystalline materials. The nature of non-crystallineamorphous substances like glass remained unknown.One of the first achievements of the leader of thisgroup to attract great attention was a paper on "TheAtomic Arrangement of Glass," in October, 1932. Nowcrystalline quartz is a perfect, regularly ordered arrangement throughout of the various atoms. When quartzsand is melted into glass, however, Zachariasen findsthat one gets a disorderly array of the same identicalorderly units found in quartz. This disorderly order, ororder within disorder, gives glass its unique properties.As a corollary it was- found possible to predict completely and with precision exactly what metals and oxidesor other compounds could be combined into a glass andwhich could not. Of all the fluorides, for example, onlythat of Be can be made into glass. Empirical methodsand the trials and errors of generations of glass makerscompletely confirmed these conclusions — and thereby The Michelson Corner in the Demonstration Laboratory displaying, among other things, the Michelson interferometer andthe equipment used by the physicist to measure the speed of light.empiricism has been removed from this vast industry.Furthermore, it is suspected that the unique and almost uncanny properties assumed by many alloys, properties which are almost absent in the separate components, may likewise be due to the superposition of disorder upon order or analogous phenomena — accessible tothe methods and present techniques of this group.To inquire what dividends this work might pay in aworld today almost exclusively dependent on alloys isidle speculation. Such work cannot be prosecuted atpresent, however, for lack of funds.Meantime a comprehensive program of work on inorganic salts, requiring relatively simple equipment, hasbeen carried on with the result that we now have preciseinformation less than 1 per cent in error of the atomicradii (interionic distances) of well-nigh a hundred of themost common and important compounds.Finally, most intriguing to the imagination, is thethought of what may be revealed if ever this ingeniousand resourceful group are enabled to turn their attentionto biological problems — such as for example those borderline structures between the living and the non-living,the ten-thousand atomed molecules known as proteinswhen non-living or viruses when living.It would be far too rash to say that some clue to life'snature might be captured. Nevertheless the dreams ofscience seldom encompass and usually fall far short of therealized achievements even in a single generation. Suchwork as this so far our institution has not been able toinitiate.So much then for our Michelsons and Millikans oftoday — young, eager, striving with their undoubted rewards of success and maybe even fame and glory yetahead. Let us hope recognition as it comes to them willdo no damage — will leave them as simple and unspoiledand as serenely undiverted from their paths of highadventure as it did their first great predecessor,Michelson.But what about our students of today ?Thirty years ago, as we have indicated, the 60-oddstudents who began the study of physics with us assophomores studied an assigned number of pages of(Continued on Page 27)A MAN FROM ELWOODAMERICA did not discover Elwood, Indiana, untilWendell Willkie suddenly appeared at Philadelphia as Republican candidate for President. Now,thanks to the press and national magazines the intimatelife of every citizen in the Hoosier town is known tothousands.But, for many years at the University, another man has enjoyed ina less spectacular manner the respectof Elwood. He is Emery T. Filbey,since Frederic Woodward's retirement, the senior vice-president of theUniversity.Everybody knows, or thinks heknows, what the President of a University does. But the duties of avice-president at a large institutionlike Chicago are not generally understood. For one thing he does everything the President doesn't have timeto do. This is a large order in itself.In addition, Vice-President Filbey'sjob involves the administration of thebudget, a task which calls for financial wizardry in these days of diminishing returns and increasing needs.This implies a thorough knowledgeof each department, even each faculty member. Whichmeans, of course, an understanding of the requirementsof astronomers, zoologists, linguists, geologists plus anability to decide equitably which gets support and whichdoesn't.Where can a man obtain such a wide knowledge of allof the fields of learning? In this case in an Indianaone-room school house.Vice-President Filbey was born on a farm in FayetteCounty, Indiana. Later the family moved to a farmnear Elwood, which became the family's community.Many members of his family were interested in oralready participating in education. In addition, all hada mechanical bent. He attended the little red schoolhouse three months of the year and spent the rest ofthe time farming. When he reached eighth grade hebegan to study for the teachers' examinations. It wasthe custom then for the boys to stay home until -theywere 21. Filbey continued his studies and saved as besthe could from his salary of 75 cents a day plus board.At 21 he passed the teachers' examination and spent thenext five years teaching at another little school house.There wasn't a subject he didn't have to teach at onetime or other.He spent four years studying at the normal school inTerre Haute. Then he took work at Bradley andArmour before becoming supervisor of vocational workin Bluffton, Indiana. It was there that he met Dr.George Vincent who gave the commencement address.EMERY T. FILBEY • By HOWARD P. HUDSON, '35Vincent mentioned that Walter Sargent, famous teacherof fine and industrial arts, was giving a course at theUniversity of Chicago that summer. Filbey packed andheaded for Chicago, and he has been here ever since.Following his work with Sargent he accepted a job withthe Laboratory Schools teaching industrial art.During the War he headed thetechnical training division at the University. For nine months after, heserved in Washington in the juniordivision of the employment service.More study at Chicago gave him hisM.A. degree.Then, suddenly, the career of Filbey the teacher ended and becamethat of Filbey the administrator.Nathaniel Butler retired as Dean ofthe University College in 1923 andwas succeeded by Filbey. In 1925President Mason drafted him as hisassistant. Then followed three yearsas Director of the Meat Packers Institute and Professor of IndustrialRelations in the School of Business.When Hutchins came, Filbey oncemore became the President's assistant. This position soon developedinto Dean of Faculties. In 1937 this title was changedto vice-president.Filbey is a strong advocate of the Chicago plan. Muchof this belief was fostered by his own experience at Chicago. When he arrived, with a multitude of credits fromother institutions, he was forced under the old systemto repeat many of his courses. This waste motion because of fixed rules was a considerable irritation to onewith his background. He questioned the wisdom ofcourse credits dependent upon class attendance. Thefunction of a teacher, he thinks, is to stimulate the interest of the students and strive to test their capacities.If he cannot do this, the student should be able towalk out.The Vice-President, dealing with all types of peopleand all manner of requests, must be something of a diplomat. It is no surprise, therefore, that Filbey is reputed to be able to say no, without giving offense, betterthan anyone else in the administration.On the other hand, scores of faculty members are inhis debt because of his sympathetic handling of theirpersonal problems. Filbey interprets broadly his relation to the faculty. Without embarrassing inquisitive-ness he is remarkably well informed about family andpersonal situations.In his varied career he has taught almost every subject. At the University, originally trained in history andgeography, he has taught industrial art, education andindustrial relations. But if he had his choice, he'd likea try at physiology.9MOBILIZING ECONOMIC STRENGTHFamed Aiumni Are Participants in New York Forum[Last month in Manhattan, Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.,Chairman of General Motors Corporation, was host ata luncheon forum to discuss "Mobilizing America'sEconomic Strength:' Participants were Trustee PaulHoffman, 'u, President of the Studebaker Corporation;Charles E. Kettering, Vice President of General Motors;Harold G. Moulton, '07, PhD' 14, LLD'37, President ofthe Brookings Institution; and Sumner Slichter, PhDyi8, Professor of Economics at Harvard. George V.Denny of Town Hall served as Moderator. A shortenedtranscript of the forum follows:]oderator Denny : Dr. Slichter, I am going toask you what are the prime requisites for thecreation of a strong defense machine.Dr. Slighter: Men, material, machines, management, and, perhaps above all, enterprise. We shouldthink not only of our capacity but of our capacity to increase capacity. Roughly, one-tenth of our capacityserves that purpose. Fortunately we are better able toincrease our capacity today than we were forty yearsago because, while manufacturing output in that timehas risen roughly fourfold, our capacity to make machines has risen more than fivefold.Moderator: Dr. Moulton, just what do you economists mean by a strong national economy? Militarystrength is something you can see; it is men and tanksand guns and planes, but economic strength — what isthat?Dr. Moulton : The economic strength of a nation isfound in its productive power, the industry, plant andequipment, and other resources with which we turn outships, tanks, planes as well as the commodities of ordinary consumption. Economic power depends in the longrun upon scientific discoveries and their use by engineersand business managers in developing ever more efficientinstruments of production.Moderator: Mr. Hoffman, the next question is foryou. How do we stand on production today? Do youthink we have reached the limit of our ability to produce ?Mr. Hoffman : One fact answers both of those questions. We have millions of men able and willing to workwho are still unemployed. Until we have taken fulladvantage of that vital and basic resource we are obviously far below our potential capacity.Moderator: Will we soon have to stop producingbutter and concentrate on guns ?Mr. Hoffman : That phrase "butter and guns" camefrom Germany at a time when Germany was using herproductive capacity to the fullest. Men were workingsixty hours per week. If they wanted more guns, itmeant giving up not only butter, but many other requisites of normal life. Our situation is very different. Unless and until our defense program absorbs all of ourunemployed, we need stimulation rather than strangulation of our peacetime industries. Moderator : Dr. Slichter, do you agree ?Dr. Slichter: In the main. But whether existingliving standards can be maintained will depend on themagnitude of the defense effort which we plan for theimmediate future. In World War I, when we put one-fourth of our national output into war, it was necessaryto get 60 per cent of that production by reducing consumption. Present plans provide for putting roughlyabout one-seventh of our national output into defense atthe peak period. Theoretically, our 8,000,000 unemployed ought to be able to produce about $11,000,000,000of goods a year, which is more than we plan to spendon defense in any single year. The defense demand,however, will be concentrated upon the durable goodsindustries. It will probably require at least a 50 percent increase in their output by the fiscal year of 1941-42.That is a big order and there is not much time.Moderator: Dr. Moulton, do you agree with yourcolleague ?WAR DEMANDSDr. Moulton : I think it is well for us to bear inmind that there is a real difference between the situationnow and that which existed in 1917. At the time of ourentrance into the World War, Europe had already beenat war for three years, and the economy of this countryhad been so stimulated by European demands that theslack in the industrial system had already been largelytaken up. It was, therefore, immediately necessary tothink in terms of shifting from normal to abnormal production ; not business as usual, but unusual business wasthe immediate paramount requirement. The present defense program does not necessitate, in my judgment, anysuch immediate drastic readjustment as was involvedin 1917-18.Moderator : Mr. Kettering, what do you think aboutthis phrase, "Business as usual" ?Mr. Kettering : You can go on for a while but youcertainly can't continue that. You have to rememberthe important thing is the defense, but I. think it wouldbe very foolish indeed if we got hysterical and tried tostop business as usual before we had the unusual business organized. You must get ready. In the meantime,there is no need to stop the regular production of goodsand services, and just stand around, wait and get nervous. Just keep on going until the thing gets properlyorganized and in the mills; then we will have to adjustourselves to meet the requirements as they are of theday, instead of trying to presuppose just what is goingto happen. In a war, the basis changes pretty rapidlyand what may be considered good things today maynext week have to be changed.Moderator: Now, Mr. Hoffman, in putting thesesurpluses to work, can we do so under our free enterprise system, or will it be necessary for us to commandeer money and men ? In other words, will we have toconscript labor and capital10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11Paul Hoffman, 'II, C. F. Kettering, George V. Denny, Alfred P. Sloan, Harold G. Moulton, '07, PhD '14, LLD '37,Sumner Slichter, PhD '18. Mr. Sloan set up the Foundation bearing his name which supports the University Round Table.Mr. Hoffman : Woodrow Wilson answered that onebetter than I can. He said, "The highest and best formof efficiency is the spontaneous cooperation of freepeople." I might add on my own that labor and capitalcan be conscripted, but you cannot conscript brains andenthusiasm.Moderator: Dr. Moulton, referring to the questionof basic raw materials, isn't our problem one of shortagesrather than surpluses?Dr. Moulton : On the whole, our raw material situation is very satisfactory. In most lines, we have surpluses at present, and there is no prospective earlyshortage. In a few cases, of course, we are so heavilydependent upon imports 'that our operations would beseriously impeded if foreign trade were cut off. Anillustration of that, of course, would be tin and rubber,and that problem has been thoroughly placed before theAdministration and plans already have been formulatedfor dealing with it.Moderator: Mr. Kettering, is there anything youwould like to add ?KETTERING ON SUBSTITUTESMr. Kettering: I don't think you need to worryabout surpluses, but I think on the shortages a greatdeal of work is being done on substitutes, synthetic products and things of that sort. At a recent meeting of theAmerican Chemical Society we had a symposium onthe socalled synthetic rubber, and I believe they showedthere that, if necessary, we could produce in thiscountry, a full supply of substitute rubber, but it certainly would not be desirable. It is interesting to note,however, that we have that ability. If prices of importedrubber got too high we could take care of the need. Onbearing metals and similar materials the same thing isbeing studied, and, while it may not always be as goodas the original article, it certainly is a very fair substitute.Moderator: Dr. Slichter, I wonder whether youhave made any studies of the labor supply as an important factor in this program?Dr. Slichter: Well, of course we have about8,000,000 unemployed. Back in 1930 we had roughly 6,000,000 skilled men. We have lost about 1,600,000 ofthese through death, retirement, promotion and transferinto other lines. Roughly, half of these losses have beenreplaced, leaving us with about 12 per cent fewer skilledmen than we had in 1930. It has been estimated thatone-third of the labor requirements of the defense program will be for skilled men. It doesn't follow that wemust train enough new skilled men to make up for theselosses since 1930. Of course, the more we can train thebetter, but the history of American industry has beenone of adapting our technique and our methods to thekind of labor supply which is available, so there is atwofold problem: One, the training, and the other theadaptation of the technique. Upon the speed with whichwe can accomplish these two things will depend therapidity with which we can put the 8,000,000 unemployed to work.Dr. Moulton : I should like to ask Dr. Slichterwhether he anticipates serious shortages of skilled laborin these defense lines and in the capital goods industriesgenerally, where the concentrated program has to bedeveloped.Dr. Slichter: Well, the more successful the defense program, the sooner and greater the shortages. Ifthe program does not move rapidly, there is less likelihood of shortages.Moderator: Dr. Slichter, have you any observationto make on increasing production ?Dr. Slichter : Increased production must come verylargely from those parts of industry which are not largeto begin with, because we have not been organized tosupport a large army or a large air force. That makesthe essential thing, it seems to me, in working this systemof private enterprise in a defense program, the willingness of private enterprise to be enterprising in a highdegree, because if private enterprise is not enterprising,some other kind of enterprise will come into the picture.It is encouraging to look back to World War I, whenthe steel industry in five years increased its capacity by35 per cent, despite the fact that never before 1914 hadit run as high as 80 per cent over any extended time.Willingness to add low-cost capacity at a time when12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEeconomic visibility is poor, in confidence that ingenuityand imagination will develop markets for that capacityafter the period of armament expansion is over, is themost important thing, it seems to me, in making thisdefense program a success under private enterprise.Moderator : Mr. Hoffman, I wonder if you wouldsuggest how the various groups who make up industrycan work together to give us a strong right arm and arugged constitution to back it up.Mr. Hoffman: That is an easy one. By subordinating group consciousness, remembering instead thatwe are Americans first and business men second, Americans first and labor leaders second, Americans first andpolitical office holders second, we have got to stop askinga nation to help us and start helping the nation.Moderator: Mr. Kettering, we have been talking,generally speaking, of how best to utilize the varioussurpluses to increase production. In the matter of research, you told me the other day that we need greatlyto increase these facilities which we have. Isn't it important, then, to devote those facilities at least for thenext year or so to defense needs exclusively?Mr. Kettering: You are absolutely right. However, there is quite a misconception about how rapidlyresearch works. Your research facilities of today willbe applicable only to our present-day problems on working out specific details, but we need to take a very muchbroader look at this relationship of research to industryduring the defense program.There is another phase to this which I think is veryimportant because during the rearmament program wewill have to expand our capacities for various things,and I think it is very important at this time for us totake a look as to what we are going to put in to take upthe hours of the man after this program has been filled.Otherwise, we will drop right back on the same sort oflevel we are on now. That means we have to have someresearch going through the whole of industry to workon problems, not after everything else is done but parallelto them. So that, as the defense program finishes up,we will have new products to put in place of the defensematerial. The possibilities for that kind of thing arealmost unlimited.Moderator: Dr. Moulton, let us drag out anotherdangerous word, "inflation." What about inflation inthis present emergency?Dr. Moulton : Since it involves credit and fiscal andwage policies as well as industrial policies, all I can dois to talk on one single phase of it. Certainly, I am notgoing to venture into predictions as to price trends but,by building on our preceding discussion, some light maybe thrown on the subject. Since in most lines we haveunused productive capacity, there does not seem to meto be any basic, underlying economic reason why wecannot carry through the defense program without ageneral inflation of prices. A fuller use of productivecapacity means, in terms of energy, greater efficiencyand lower unit costs of production. Spreading the overhead costs over a larger number of unit means, of course,a resulting increase in profit.Now, to be sure, this advantage may eventually benullified by higher wage costs or, in some cases, byhigher prices of materials. But in most lines this is not likely to be the case in the early stages of the wartimeexpansion. The temptation to advance prices the moment particular market situations appear to make itpossible should be resisted because of the unstabilizing effects upon the economy as well as because of the illusorycharacter of inflationary profits. My conclusion, then,is that if inflation occurs, it will be in consequence ofunsound credit, fiscal, wage and price policies rather thanbecause of any inherent economic necessity.Dr. Slichter : I should like to underline something-Mr. Kettering said. Certainly one of the most im-tant single ways of making the transition is the expansion of industrial research. It is not ordinarilyappreciated, I think, that there are about two million non-agricultural enterprises in this country. That is veryimportant in our productivity and also in our progressbecause it means there are two million centers at whichinnovation and experimentation can occur, two millionplaces where budgets are made and where authority totry an experiment does not have to go higher up.TRANSITION AND AFTERMATHWe are spending about seven times as much on industrial research today as in 1920, but it still reaches onlya small part of these two million enterprises. The morenew methods and new products we have ready to bringout when the defense program tapers off, the easier willbe the transition. Another important protection againstthe shocks and dislocations will be through financing alarge part of the defense program by means of real savings; that is, purchases of national defense bonds bymillions of small buyers. We shall probably generateconsiderable consumer income as a result of the defenseprogram during the next two years, and if all of thatconsumer income were to attempt to translate itself intoa higher standard of living at once, the inflation whichDr. Moulton has warned against would be very difficultto prevent.Moderator : I am going to try to summarize in asentence or two the progress that we have made so farand ask you gentlemen if you agree that this is a fairsummary of the case. As I understand it, while Industry's No. 1 job is, and will continue for some time tobe, production of defense materials, it cannot, while surpluses exist, neglect these elements in our economy fromwhich our defense productions draws its livelihood.You have pointed out that ours is an economy ofplenty based on the production of the greatest quantityof goods for the greatest number of people, that that iswhat has made us strong and that this is what will makepossible the quantity production of defense material. Youhold that it would indeed be foolish deliberately to slowdown this industrial system, that our task today is tobuild up and make more efficient the production machineand the whole economy and that upon a sound base wecan carry forward irresistibly a defense program thatwill provide a solid rampart for the production of ourdemocracy.Mr. Hoffman : I think our big job is to revive theold American spirit of team play. A team that won't bebeaten can't be beaten."Mr. Kettering : I think the future will be anythingwe think it ought to be.NOTES FOR A DILLETANTE'• By DAVID DAICHESII. THE FUTURE OF IGNORANCEArabobo ask'd "Who was P helms, Sir?"Obtuse Angle answer' d quickly, "He was the God ofPhysic, Painting, Perspective, Geometry, Geography,Astronomy, Cookery, Chymistry, Mechanics, Tactics,Pathology, Ohrascology, Theology, Mythology, Astronomy, Osteology, Somatology — in short, every art andscience adorn' d him as beads round his neck."Here Aradobo look'd astonished and asked if he understood Engraving.Obtuse Angle answer d indeed he did.William Blake, "An Island in the Moon/''Y FRIEND was talking to me of recent advances in Astro-physics. As he waved his armsabout in the autumn sunlight, casting long,thin shadows on the path behind him, his observationsbecame more and more unreal to me, and at last I hadto interrupt him."It's no use, M'Gilliecuddy," I said. "What you aresaying keeps on making beautiful and fantastic patternsin my mind but I can't honestly say that it means anything. Like an editorial in the — "And then he interrupted me. "If it doesn't mean anything to you," he said, and he sounded sad, "it's becauseyou don't know enough.""You mean I haven't kept up with recent advancesin Astro-physics?" I replied. "But of course I haven't.Who do you think I am. Aristotle ? Leonardo da Vinci ?Joe Schwab? Be reasonable.""But these things are important," he insisted. "Youought to know about them. Everybody ought to knowabout them. They are contributions to civilization."And he gave me a look that reminded me of the Hundred Best Books."Look here," I said. "Two can play at that game.Can you tell me if Bright's theory of the authorship ofPiers Plowman is still maintained by the most recentscholars, or whether A Midsummer Night's Dream aswe have it represents one revision or two, or whetherGreek drama originated in — ""Stop," he shouted, in his thin astronomical voice."Of course I can't tell you about that sort of thing.Those are specialized questions in the field of literature,and you know quite well that that isn't my field.""Tell me," I said, dropping my voice to a low andsinister hiss, "What is a specialized question ? What, forthat matter, is a field?"He shrugged his shoulders as though he were goingto fall apart. "Now you're just being funny," he muttered."Funny my foot !" I retorted. "Here you come alongexpecting me to know all the latest advances in yourbranch of study and when I return the compliment youdish up stuff about specialized questions and fields. Clearyour mind, young man, clear your mind. How much knowledge' do you expect the individual head to be ableto contain?""Now you're generalizing again," he said sullenly."I don't care two hoots about the individual head. ButAstro-physics is important and you ought to know something about it. Every educated person ought to knowsomething about it." And he walked off in the directionof Hanley's.As I followed slowly in the same direction reflectingon the obstinacy of my friend (though Erasmus M'Gilliecuddy was no fool) I became gradually more and moredistressed at the thought of my own ignorance. Howmany things there were that I didn't know the firstthing about! Not to mention Astro-physics, there wasMineralogy, Quantum Mechanics, Middle Assyrian,Physiological Genetics, Physiographic Ecology, Roentgenology — of these and a thousand and one other subjects I was totally and lamentably ignorant. In fact, themore I pondered the matter, the more appallingly ignorant I realized everybody was. There was such a tremendous lot of knowledge extant, divided among innumerable specialists. The Universal Genius was deadfor ever.The more knowledge there is in the world, the moreignorant the individual is, I reflected. Every new advance in science increases my own ignorance and thatof millions of other persons. So that we really kidourselves when we say that knowledge is progressing.In reality it is ignorance that is progressing, at a frightful speed. Increase of potential knowledge means increase of actual ignorance. As people have long sincegiven up any attempt to master the sum total of humanknowledge, it must be said in truth that everybody'signorance is increasing hugely with each generation, forhowever omniscient the individual may be in his ownbranch of study, there is an almost daily increase ofknowledge (among other specialized groups) outsidethat branch.Now this was not so, I reflected, in ancient times. Inthe Middle Ages, for example it was possible for theintelligent student to master the sum of extant knowledgein the western world. Indeed, the man who receivedhis master's degree from a medieval university probablyknew everything there, was to know in the arts and thesciences. But with increase of general knowledge hascome increase of individual ignorance. Today -the mostlearned among us only knows a fraction of what is tobe known, while a few hundred years ago the educatedman knew everything that could be known.And what of the future? I realized with a shockthat while we all talk of the future of education wehave ignored that far more important subject, the futureof ignorance. Was this the secret of the tree of whosefruit Adam and Eve ate, and is this the doom foretold,now slowly creeping upon us- — that each of us shouldgrow more ignorant in proportion as the sum total ofhuman knowledge increases? Goodbye Aristotle, I cried1314 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmentally, watching the Stagirite recede behind an everwidening gulf.I got no further with my speculations at the time, asat this point I overtook M'Gilliecuddy inside Hanley'sand our thoughts turned to more urgent matters. Butthere you have a pretty problem. Have you ever considered, gentle alumnus, that the ignorance of the individual today is greater than it has ever been in theworld's history, just because the amount of potentialknowledge is greater? Thomas Aquinas knew more orless all of what was to be known in the western worldin his day, and beside him Mortimer Adler wallows inunspeakable lack of information. The man who todayknows a hundred times as much as Aquinas did is stillan ignoramus when his knowledge is put beside the sumof possible knowledge available at the present time.Professor Burnet of St. Andrews pointed out sometwenty years ago that when his predecessor at that university, James Frederick Ferrier, invented the term"epistemology," denoting theory of knowledge, he hadat the same time evolved what he called an agnoiologyor theory of ignorance, which the world has thoughtproper to overlook. It is time that agnoiology got someattention. For the position today is a serious one, ifwe consider its implications carefully. It does not perhaps matter if we are all "ignorant" in the sense of being-unable to talk intelligibly with a man working in acompletely different department. The disadvantageshere are mainly social. But it does matter that as theamount of knowledge distributed among individuals increases, each individual knows less about the place whichhis particular field occupies in the map of human knowledge as a whole. And knowledge is only useful whenit can be seen in its relation to all other knowledge.Further, knowledge, however specialized, is eventuallyonly possible when it can be related to the parent stemfrom which it springs. No medical man working on aparticular problem in surgery can afford to specializeto the degree where he can know nothing of the generalanatomy of the human body but only one particular organ. The Tree of Knowledge is not an inept metaphor,for each leaf and branch must be connected with thetrunk if it is to remain alive. We must in any field ofresearch be able to relate our findings to the generalproblems in that field, and be able also to relate thatfield to other fields. But increase in knowledge necessarily brings — for the human mind is limited — increasein specialization, and increase in specialization, if carriedto its logical conclusion, must mean the separation ofthe leaf from the branch and of the branch from thetree.One can see this happening even in the universities.I have known — nay, examined — Ph. D.'s in English Literature who are wholly ignorant of the literature theyhave chosen to study outside the decade in which theyhave specialized. Yet they have learned a tremendousamount — and they are horribly ignorant. I rememberwhen I was working at the Huntington Library a gentleman studying there asked me what my field was, andwhen I replied (rather narrowly, I thought) "Literature," he said, "But I mean your field;" so I said, "English Literature," and he replied testily "But I mean yourfield," and ended up finally by explaining himself in DAICHESasking to what author I had devoted my life. When I reflectedon the implications of his questions I began to see somethingof the gravity of the problem ;the more we know the moreignorant we must become. Onecan try to remedy this at a university in some degree by postponing specialization to the lastpossible moment, but this,highly important though it be,is not the root of the problem.Still, we can help somewhat by insisting on maximumbreadth of knowledge in our students before allowingthem to remain for ever on one spot and dig. It is utterlymonstrous that anybody should be allowed to take aPh.D. degree before he is fifty. The Ph.D. has alreadybid fair to ruin American education. Every Ph.D. degree granted by a university to a man under fifty is ahatchet-stroke at the base of the tree of knowledge.But how can we deal with the problem of ignorancein its larger aspects? How are we to prevent the accumulation of knowledge from reaching such a pitch thatindividual researchers, each delving into some tiny special field of his own, will be unable to talk to each otherin the same language? For we are rapidly approachingthe point at which communication between men of learning ceases to be possible. Obviously we need somegeneral normative ideas to which each special branchof learning can be related. We need a theory of thefunction of knowledge to hold its parts together. Weneed to learn how to abstract and generalize, how topractice induction as well as deduction, how to build aknowledge of first principles which the individual researcher must always carry with him. We must consider, too, the function of imaginative literature and ofthe arts in general in keeping the bases of human experience constantly before men's minds. We must considerwhether the true function of a College might not bethat of providing a context within which even the narrowest and remotest researches will appear relevant andsignificant. There is more to this than the Hundred BestBooks and huge survey courses, for these will not necessarily give the desired "philosophia prima." We need atwo-fold ideal — a theoretical aim in terms of which therelevance of knowledge can be judged, and a practicalaim in terms of which we can determine its usefulness.These two aims do not contradict but on the other handsupplement each other. There is no use flying into arage at those who assert that knowledge must have apractical value. The important thing is to see that it isthe right practical value — that practice is based on theright theory. The search for truth must have a contextif it is not to become a parlor game. So many of mycolleagues have forgotten that.But you may disagree with my remedy if you will :you must admit the existence of the problem. You mustsee that individual ignorance increases with the growthof general knowledge, and that something must be doneabout it. Otherwise the leaves and branches of knowledge will gradually become separated from the trunk,and eventually the Tree of Knowledge itself will wither.INTERVIEW WITH CARDENAS• By JOHN GUNTHER, '22[Believing as it does that it is of the utmost importancefor citizens of the United States to keep abreast of eventsand first-hand impressions of Mexico, the Magazinethis month brings two more interesting dispatches fromour Southern Neighbor. — Ed.]Mexico City,October 27.I. HAVE just spent an hour in earnest talk with General Lazaro Cardenas, President of Mexico.The main points that General Cardenas madewere that the threat of fifth columnism in Mexico waslargely imaginary, but that it would be dealt with by theMexican Government with all appropriate steps if necessary; that relations between Mexico and the UnitedStates are now excellent, and that Mexico will cooperatewith the United States in hemisphere defense.He also pointed to the growth of education and landreform as the chief achievements of his six years in office,indicated his belief that his successor in the presidencywould follow his general program, and said he wouldretire from participation in public life after December 1.The President received me in his office in the NationalPalace. The visitor is whisked upward in a circularprivate elevator. No officer stands outside. No soldierasks to see your papers. No questions are asked, noformalities observed. From the elevator you passdirectly into the large cabinet room, where an aide is inattendance. Here massive green chairs surround a massive long table, below an immense map of Mexico againstthe wall. Beyond this is the entrance to the President'ssimply furnished study. The parquet floor is smoothas glass.About President Cardenas one could write volumes.In the words of a distinguished American here, he iscertainly the greatest Mexican since Juarez. His sixyears in office, now nearing their end, constitute a highcontroversial epoch in Mexican history. Senor Cardenasexpropriated foreign oil; he gave land back to thepeople ; he ameliorated the church dispute ; he built thousands of new schools; he began work on a tremendousprogram of economic reform, social rehabilitation anduplift for the Indians. Through it all, he retained implacable belief in the worth and goodness of his ownpeople.The President is a complex character. He talks little.He is hard to know. He works fourteen hours a day.He lives close to the land. He dislikes Mexico City andthe politicians. His travels have been unending, bringing him almost literally to every village in Mexico. Heis hated by most of the foreign colony, respected by thevast majority of Mexicans and worshipped by the peonsand villagers almost as Gandhi is worshipped in India.As to Fifth Columnism the President said :"Fifth columnism in Mexico has so far been largelyan imaginary question. It does not enter into actualpolitics. Mexico has always prided herself on the freedom of thought, freedom of speech and freedom of political organization that she permits. If at any timethese rights are abused, the Mexican Government is prepared to take the necessary steps. The Mexican Government will not tolerate treason by its citizens. Inregard to foreigners in Mexico, there exists a limitationto their activity other than treason. Foreigners shouldnot abuse Mexican hospitality by interfering in domesticpolitical affairs."The President proceeded to the question of Mexicanrelations with the United States, which he said were asgood as they have ever been :"Conditions in Europe and the Orient make all thecountries of America feel their mutual dependence morekeenly than ever before. Mexico will always be prepared and indeed willing to do her share in whatevercooperation may be required for hemisphere defense."Mexico will allow nothing to happen that mightprejudice her good relations with the United States."When I asked the President what made him happiest,looking back to his six strenuous years in office, he replied instantly : "Progress in education." Then he listedother achievements, as follows : Land distribution, bringing the Indians into participation in the political life ofthe country, public works, awakening of a true nationalspirit in Mexico, training for democracy.THE AGARIAN REFORMSPresident Cardenas has always been passionately interested in the agrarian question. He indicated thatvisitors often came to Mexico and said, "Oh, yes, yourland reform embodies a very high ideal, and you havedistributed millions of acres of land, but in fact has thereform really worked? Are the common people indeedbetter off?"To this the President would reply, first, the amountof land under cultivation in Mexico is greater than ithas ever been, and, second, the standard of living of the. villagers has obviously and undeniably risen, partly as aresult of increased consumption of grain.This does riot mean, the President implied, that theagrarian question is settled. Aside from the actual distribution of land, problems of credit and education remain. But the distribution of land is in itself a profoundeducational process. It gives the people a sense of freedom and of participation in public life."It is the Indian conception of life to have land ofone's own," he said. "For the Indian, land is life. AnIndian without land is an outcast. Land produces the-harmony between the individual and his environmentwhich is essential to life in Mexico."Finally I asked what assurance the President had thathis basic policies would be continued by his successor,General Manuel Avila Camacho."My successor comes from the same group as myself,from the same political party," he replied. "It is logicalto anticipate that he will follow the same general principles, modified of course — in detail — by his own per-1516 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F CHICAG O M A G AZINEsonal views. It is to be expected that he will add hisown personal touch to these policies. But the policieswill remain the same. The question is not one of men,nor of personalities, but of general principles accepted bya group."We feel that we have created a movement sufficientlystrong for self-defense. One million and a half heads offamilies have received land. They are ready to defend0 axaca, Mexico,October 17.ONE of the nice things about the Mexican politicalscene is that there is always something happening. The outsider is never quite sure at anyparticular time of the exact relationships which existamong political leaders — or what relationships are in themaking.Two rather important changes have occurred in thelast month. I wrote previously that dislike of labor-leader Vincente Lombardo Toledano in the present government bloc was the most consistent reason given forpreferring Almazan to Camacho for the office of President of Mexico. Toward the end of September, theoutsiders were all suddenly confronted with the newsin the Mexican papers that President-elect Camachopromised to remove Lombardo Toledano from power.The promise was almost immediately followed by thefact. Elections in the CTM (Confederation of MexicanWorkers) indicated that Lombardo Toledano no longerhad the support of the hundreds of confederated unions.A new leader for the CTM was indicated.Vincente Lombardo Toledano, then a young lawyer,came into power hard on the heels of the Six- Year Planissued in 1933 under President Rodriguez. This Plan,although almost entirely general in its statement of whatshould be achieved, was rather specific about labor.Although it is true that for the 16 years of the Revolution up to the time of the Plan, no phase of the Revolution had made any real sort of progress, still the labormovement seemed relatively worse off than the rest.Unionism had been retarded by political manipulationof the leaders. The rights of workers were not defined.Exploitation — that word so frequently encountered here— was the rule. Embittered by 16 years of half-heartedattempts at reform and whole-hearted reversals, the exponents of labor brought their force to bear on the Six-Year Plan Commission. The result was the adoptionby the Commission of a mandatory closed-shop clause.With that as a start the labor movement got under way.In the work of organizing laborers into sindicatos andsindicatos into the CTM, Lombardo Toledano conductedhimself with brilliant success.He .seems to have been tremendously popular forabout five years — although he did have minor skirmishes•with President Cardenas when he tried to hook organizations of peasants and rural workers onto the tail of their land. It is absurd to think that any one can everattempt to reestablish the old system. We have givenland to the people ; we have given labor freedom to organize ; we have stimulated the necessary spirit of cooperation. So we have created a force which can amplydefend itself."[Reprinted from a North American Newspaper Alliance dispatch to they New York Times.]• By RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36his confederation of city workers. Then suddenly hebecame unpopular. Why, I fear I shall never quiteunderstand. Probably because of stories of graft — trueor untrue. Probably because of resentment at the steadyflow of dues from local sindicato to confederation headquarters without immediate beneficial return. In anyevent, Lombardo Toledano is out, and those who opposeCamacho find one of their reasons taken from them.The second change has been that Camacho has statedsimply that he is "a believer" in the Roman Catholicchurch. At the same time he stated that his governmentwould not collaborate with communists and that hewould conduct the government in a democratic manner.These last two statements are the traditional statementsof Mexican presidents. It is only his saying he is "abeliever" that matters. Previously I wrote, that Almazanseemed to have the backing of the church. If that is so,perhaps the president-elect's statement can be taken asa skillful move to reduce still further the pressures thatmight otherwise have found release in a revolution.However, I cannot possibly know the intent of thestatement ; I can only guess. The explanation givenabove seems most probable to me.The church in Mexico has been interested in propertyand politics from the early days on this continent. Theearly friars tried to help the Indians and were loved bythem. Don Vasco de Quiroga, who came to PresidentCardenas' home state of Michoacan as its first bishop in1533, taught the Indians many of the arts they nowpractice — weaving, the use of lacquer among the moreimportant. He studied and encouraged the communaluse of land that had always been natural to the Tarascosamong whom he lived. (Communal use of land is stillnatural in Mexico. It is one of the basic assumptionsof the Revolution.) Don V7asco, by the way, in 1540established at Patzcuaro the College of Saint Nicholas —the first college on the continent. Now located inMorelia, Saint Nicholas, this year is celebrating its400th year of continuous existence — while we of theUniversity think of our 50th. For these and otherreasons, Don Vasco is still loved and venerated by theIndians. But such churchmen have been exceptions.In 1810 two humble priests, Hidalgo and Morelos,answered what they heard as the cry of the people andled the country in its War of Independence. The peoplethen had the unpleasant experience of watching thechurch excommunicate those two of its members — itsMEXICAN LETTER: 2THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17national heroes — who most nearly understood and appreciated them. To understand why that could be, youmust understand that at the time of the War of Independence the Church owned half the land and real property of the country — probably a much higher fraction ofthe arable land. (The Carmelites alone owned four-fifths of the property in the diocese of Puebla ; theirhaciendas stretched without break from Mexico City tothe gulf at Tampico.) Quite clearly the welfare of thepeople and the welfare of church property were incompatible. The church then and subsequently remainedinterested in its property. It naturally exerted itself toprevent such monuments of Mexican social reform asthe 1857 laws of Benito Juarez, the Constitution of 1917,and even the Six- Year Plan mentioned previously.However, in spite of the church's best efforts, in spiteof much bloodshed, the property of the church was gradually taken from it. By the time Cardenas becamepresident, the church had ceased to exist as a politicalpower. Because this was so and because so many otherTHE few of us gathered here today share withcountless others a lasting regard for JohnMatthews Manly. In being here, we take theirpart as well as our own. In bringing us together, ouruniversity once more illuminates the meaning of a university by doing honor to another of the distinguishedmen and women who created it. Beyond its present reference this ceremony has a larger significance. It is afulfillment of our belief in one another and in our institutions. It is a symbol of that protection and that freedom for thought without which neither school nor university lives.This, then, is something more than a tribute to himwho gives the occasion for it to us and to the universityin which he lived and worked. We can honor ProfessorManly very briefly and ineffectually in words. Theshare of his life of greatest value to us individually andto scholarly tradition generally will still be unexpressedwhen we have concluded. The real tribute will alwaysbe in ourselves and in others reached indirectly by hisinfluence. We know he himself would value that aboveall formal testimonials or even a full life history. If thereshould ever be such a biographical record, he would wishit exact and in true proportion. He would look forscrupulous accuracy. Yet he would think more highlyof a continuing influence upon others as a way to beknown in later times. He would prefer action reflectingthe effect of his example and thought showing the discipline of his intellectual practice. He would cherishmost the realization that he had added to the traditionof free intellectual endeavor.What touches us intimately in such relationships asours with him, is the presence and persistence of some- phases of the Revolution needed long-delayed attention,Cardenas saw fit to let the church go its own way —confident that it was politically powerless. Consequentlychurches were opened where they had long been closedand masses were sung where they had long gone unheard. For the past several years, church and state havegot along wTith perfect peace between them.Now the question is, does Camacho intend to improveon this situation? Perhaps by now, although you maywonder if Camacho's simple statement that he is "abeliever" can support all this speculation. Perhaps itcan't. Perhaps time will show that it was rather moreof an idle statement than anything else. But at themoment people in Mexico are taking it rather seriously.It has been the inspiration for at least one skit that Iknow of by Cantinflas, the idol of the Mexican FoliesBergere. And that's a good gauge of public opinion.It has won for Camacho the friendship of many of thereligious people, who prefer to read into what he saysa hope of still better times for themselves.• By DAVID H. STEVENS, PhD, '14thing more real and active than fact or matter. Santay-ana has described it, in The Realm of Spirit, as truthmade visible to us through others — truth that remains"as the rest of the man disappears ; as in reading a book,the material book is forgotten and the reader lives inrehearsing the author's thoughts without thinking of theauthor ... So in communion between spirits," he concludes, "the man or the god is rendered invisible bythe light he diffuses, and we are inwardly united onlywith so much of him as by his gifts or his grace can existalso beyond his person and become a part of ourselves.For the spirit therefore, the dead are still living, andthe living are present numina like the remembered dead."These words are true of all human relationships. Weknow from personal experience how aptly they describethe influence of a scholar and teacher of ProfessorManly 's capacities. We may not be aware of all theeffects of that influence. We may never pass beyond apoor form of emulation. Yet we can discern in others,if not in ourselves, traits and habits of thought that areidentified with his personality.One trait of his that is known to us all was an intensedirectness of approach to an idea. Trivial or abtruse, anyquestion had his complete attention immediately. Hethen applied all his knowledge toward its solution or,in lighter mood, to fresh expression of its meaning.In this I saw no change or lessening between the timewhen I first met him, in 1912, and the day of our lasttalk a year ago this spring. It was his habit to let theother person introduce the topic of discussion. I wasnever quite sure how much this practice was due tocuriosity, how much to his consideration for any idea orindividual coming his way. As in conversation he con-TRIBUTE TO MANLYNoted Scholar Honored at Memorial Service on October 1118 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEducted a class lecture as a kind of waiting for an interruption of his own thought. Then, through discussion,he would lead a fresh attack on whatever had been drivenfrom ambush by his questioner. At times I have heardother literary historians advise younger men to takefresh looks at accepted facts in the hope of disprovingthem with newly discovered truths. I never heard Professor Manly give that excellent advice, but I often sawhim put it to use. He taught not by admonition, but byexample, entering upon the pursuit of truth vigorouslyand objectively. That intensity of attack with a directedpurpose was his clearest outward sign of intellectualpower.Another of his traits, related to this and undoubtedlyat its source, was constant awareness of what had beendone on difficult literary problems. A retentive andexact memory was only one element of this awareness ;another was a great store of knowledge constantly increasing. The vital element was intensive thinking withwhat he remembered not merely about it. These aretwo very different conditions of mind. In a letter written six years ago he made this comment : "I have oftenfelt that while many of our first thoughts may be brilliant, we never learn the most important things that aproblem or mass of materials can yield until we havelived with it and rejected theory after theory that accounted for most (not all) of the phenomena." Thesewords are autobiographical, though cast in a generalization. They explain that intense directness of approachto an idea and the awareness that make the approacheffective.REGARDING EDUCATIONFrom this generalization of Professor Manly's onsolving a problem, we may deduce another generalization regarding education. It seems to explain our academic failure to develop judgment through the teachingof logic, our success when we turn free thought on astock of ideas. For the mind, like the spirit, grows bywhat it feeds on.Professor Manly also demonstrated that a power forsolving problems by surrounding them with tangible evidence can be transferred from one field of thought toanother. He proved this when he turned from literarypursuits to the analysis of military codes and ciphers.Without that developed power the tenacity which broughthim success would have been only conscientious effort.I agree with one comment on the period of his workfor the army, that it was among the happiest of his life.I could not accept the other assumption that his success in it was due to a happy faculty for guessing right.This was not true. There is no faculty of guessing. Hisknowledge of language and his understanding of probabilities supported a developed power of deduction. Therewas no magic in his operation of code and cipher evidence; it was an effect from long and constant exerciseof the tools of the mind, of fact and theory in incessantapplication.Those of us who worked with him in Washington hadthe same forces arousing us to emulation as here at theuniversity. One was that readiness to check our resultsand to suggest new ways of analysis; the other was thesight of his familiar figure bent over a collection of papers on his desk, hour after hour, until somethinghappened. It was during those days that he demonstrated most fully how he unwittingly gained the loyaltyof his students and colleagues. His task was to recruitand to train analysts while actively working to solvecode and cipher messages. I recall his remark on learning that a particular man of his own department herecould not come : "I preferred him to this other person,whom I know chiefly by reputation because I know howhis mind works."From letters written after his return to the universitywe have other remarks of lasting significance. On seeinga young American research student at work in London,he wrote in April, 1934 : "With most of our holders ofresearch fellowship, doesn't their feeling that they mustpublish results soon after their return home cause themto work while abroad at a speed and tension which, whilevery stimulative to one kind of thinking, interferes sadlywith sane, ripe judgment and clear recognition of issuesbroader than their own particular problems ?" A monthlater he said of his own work on Chaucer : "It wasperhaps too much to undertake both the text and therecord problems, but they were the two great Chaucerproblems admitting of definite — not speculative — results;and both were of wider significance than the resultsthemselves." Again, as he drew nearer to the end ofhis double task, in December, 1935, he wrote of thefuture: "My desire, as you know, is to devote the restof my life to research. How long I shall have, it is ofcourse impossible to predict, but there are several subjects I should like to undertake, one after another, aslong as I last." The familiar headings then enumeratedwere the drama in England before Shakespeare, the PiersPlowman problems, and the study of production and distribution of books in England before the invention ofprinting.And finally, from his sister's collection of his privatepapers, we have an item that describes the function ofa scholar and teacher in a university. I am sure thatnone of us can recall a formal homily from him on theplace of a university in society. If asked what are itsessential elements, he probably would have named menin this university whose work in administration, teaching, and research exemplifies its ideals and its productiveness. In this short but revealing statement regardinghimself he has described how to keep a university alive.It reads : "At Chicago I have worked in several fields,shifting from one to another as my students grow upand pushed me off the perch and took my place. Theconsequence has been that although I worked — and attimes hard — in Old English, Middle English, Chaucer,the Renaissance, the Medieval Drama Shakespeare, andGeneral Linguistics. I am not as good in any line as Imight have been had I not cared more for my department than for my own final position as a scholar. Iknow it will be naught. But I am not complaining. Iknew what I was doing when I did it. And I haveenjoyed every bit of my work and have had the loyalfriendship of students who have gone beyond me infields we trod together."To this nothing can be added to express his loyaltyto this university and to his idea of a university. Theyare good last words.THE ARMCHAIR STRATEGIST• By HUGH M. COLEA BELATED American realization of the spreadingworld crisis revealed numerous and importantitems in our military establishment which werescarce or lacking entirely. While we found a scarcityof planes, tanks and automatic rifles, we were engulfedby an over production of "military experts." The manin the street became overnight an amateur strategist andtactician.; while his spouse, who had been belting thedaylights out of social problems at the Wednesday Woman's Club, now prepared to branch forth with paperson military tactics and book reviews of the latest drillmanual. In fact, peace loving Americans became war-conscious during the months of the European campaigns,so that today the armchair strategist threatens to outrank the bridge table kibitzer. With this monthly column, therefore, the University of Chicago Magazinemakes a bow in the direction of those of its readers whohave finally succumbed to the practice of pushing redand blue thumb tacks through dots on the map, nearwords like "Oran," "Abbeville," etc.As an actual fact a democratic nation engaged in thebusiness of wholesale preparation for extensive military activity, even if that military activity be only intraining camps and not on battlefields, should encourageits citizens in the study of military institutions, techniques and events. During years of prosperity and peaceit was natural, perhaps, for the ordinary American togive little attention to his army and fail to speculateon its activities or potential efficacy. Today, the billions voted for the armed forces are in themselves sufficient reason for any amount of activity by the averagecitizen who has turned military expert. Since the citizen pays the bills, he has the right of inquiry into theonce esoteric field of military science. Moreover, sincethe citizen has now surrendered his immunity frommilitary authority in time of peace, he has every rightto concern himself with the leadership and the ideaswhich will determine his role in training camp and inbattle practice. Finally, as an interested observer atthe ringside, when Poland, Norway, Belgium, Hollandand France went down for the count, the average manor woman in this democracy may be pardoned if he orshe is somewhat dubious about letting the professionalsoldier do all the thinking that has to be done on questions of military preparation for national defense. Fewinformed Americans are likely to forget that the members of the officer caste in control of the French armywere universally regarded as the fitting heirs of Napoleon, the best professional military minds in the oldworld — before May 10, 1940! Many Americans havereason to remember the high cost of military blunderingin the leadership of the A. E. F. simply because they lostfriends or relatives in the wasteful and badly-managedgeneral offensive of October 14, 1918, in the Meuse-Argonne.It may be argued that the ordinary civilian cannotpossibly hope to understand the art and science of mod ern warfare, because of its exceedingly complex *char-acter, and must, therefore, resign himself to acceptingon blind faith, what he is told in press handouts by theWar Department. History has consistently shown thatmilitary leadership, of the professional and class-conscious variety, often fails to keep abreast of technologicaland revolutionary changes in the other fields where thecivilian has mastered intricate and complex processes.Therefore, it should be the business of the private citizen,in a democracy like ours, to be so informed and observant, in the military field, as to force military leadershipto keep itself alert and progressive. Those who wearbars or stars on their shoulder straps may overlook theindisputable fact that it is not necessary to be a horsein order to judge a horse show.NEED FOR "EXPERTS"The institution of a peace-time draft in this countryshould clinch the argument for a nation of armchairstrategists. It is true that over indulgence with ordnancemaps and army communiques may lead to a rather belligerent and militaristic hangover on the part of a fewindividuals who are well past the draft age. Yet itwould be as foolish to charge every civilian student oftactics and strategy with propagating militaristic ideasas to say that every doctor who studies typhoid epidemics is likely to be a Poison Mary. The ordinary private soldier, for example, has always shown that he is akeen critic of the tacticians and strategists who are hissuperiors. The French Zouave of 1854, who crouchedunder the bluff of the river at the Alma, cursed the highcommand no more feelingly than the American doughboyhuddled in a ditch on the road to Montfaucon. Such areaction may be, in part, an individualistic revulsionagainst extremes of military discipline. More likely,however, the common soldier is so critical a tactician because he knows that his life depends upon the red andblue lines drawn on maps at headquarters. In the sameway the filling station attendant, after October 29, 1940,may well give more thought to the techniques of theblitzkrieg than he did previously, simply because hisnumber was drawn early in the national lottery of thedraft. Tne bond salesman "roughing it" for a year in anarmy camp, while his daily life is made miserable by ahard boiled sergeant, is likely to ask whether this timehas been wasted because of old fashioned instruction inoutmoded tactical exercises of the vintage of 1918. Thecollege student training with an anti-tank gun of a typeand calibre which proved too light to stop German tanksin Flanders may rightly ask if The Army intends tosend him against heavy tanks with such a pea-shooter.Unless war intervenes, all these men will be returned tocivilian life, after their year of compulsory service, witha very real interest in contemporary military history.The results of this personal interest in military sciencemay well spread beyond the immediate family circle of(Continued on Page 28)1920 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHIC A G O M A G A Z 1 N E"Old-timers" in the audience, including Mrs. WilliamRainey Harper, were startled at the life-like characterizationof President Harper as portrayed by Dr. Paul C. Hodges,Professor of Roentgenology.(Below) Producer Howard P. Hudson, '35, former Associate Editor of the Magazine, who adapted "The DeceitfulDean" for 1940, Director "Doc" Yungmeyer, and Stage Manager Helen Lau settle a point (or three) at dress rehearsal.The backdrop for the show was a startlingly life-like representation of Cobb Hall. // THE DECEITFULDEAN" RETURNSTO. THE MIDWAYWhen Dr. George E. Vincent, PhD '96, LLD 'II, got theidea for the comic opera, 'The Deceitful Dean" back in 1899,he didn't think of the consequences. A most successful show(all male) it paved the way for the founding of Blackfriars,was revived in 1906 and brought back in revised form by theUniversity Settlement group on November 7, 8, and 9 of thismonth, climaxing the homecoming weekend. The originalauthors were James Weber Linn, '97, C. R. Barrett, '97,Marjorie Cooke, '99 and Elizabeth Wallace.Harold Heartbreaker, captain of the football team, andWinnifred Worthington, "Queen of the Quad," are betterknown as Professor William E. Scott and Jane Leonard. Thesweater was Walter Eckersall's, the pants belonged to AndyWyant, '97, and the bike, properly enough, belongs to theMuseum of Science and Industry.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21Dean Leon P. Smith, PhD '30, drewcheers for his tap dancing in "Happyand Glad" with Carroll Mason Russell,'19, wife of Trustee Paul S. Russell, '16. Marjorie Morgan, '23, the "MidwayNightingale," sang that sad ballad,"After the Ball," in "The Deceitful Dean." Robert V. Merrill, PhD '23, whodoubled as Marshal and an enthusiasticcollector of natural phenomena.(Right) Two learned scholars of Harper's cloistered quadrangle are not out of character. They are D. Jerome Fisher,'17, PhD '22, Associate Professor of Geology and Harry S.Everett, PhD '22, Professor of Mathematics.(Below) The Deceitful Dean himself was Ralph Gerard,'19, PhD '21, MD '25, eminent physiologist and expert onbrain waves. The lady is Miss Tabitha Teachem, Head ofMary Jane Hall, whom classmates of 1923 will recognize asAnna Gwin Pickens. (At the lower right) The Dean whointended to "stop all study at Chicago" gets his just desserts.NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By BERN LUNDY, '37BASIC sciences contributing to the study andteaching of medicine have long been among theUniversity's strongest departments. Universityscientists — like Anton J. Carlson — have fearlessly criticized dubious methods and unreproduceable results. Another scientist, Edwin Oakes Jordan, saw his work inbacteriology develop into a full-fledged branch of science.(Dr. Jordan, to supply a marginal note, was both abrilliant research worker and a practical man. His courttestimony, for example, saved the city of Chicago's$33,000,000 investment in the newly-constructed Drainage Canal by showing that the canal could not pollutethe water supply of St. Louis.)Basic research has made news for the University sincethe days of Jacques Loeb, physiologist and early studentof parthenogenesis; Charles O. Whitman, zoologist;Frank R. Lillie, zoologist and gland expert ; and HowardTaylor Ricketts, who discovered that the tick is responsible for transmitting Rocky Mountain spottedfever. (Dr. Hans Zinsser in his As I Remember Himcalls Ricketts "one of the most brilliant American bacteriologists.") The early greats have been capably succeeded by men such as Carl R. Moore, zoologist whospecializes in the study of factors controlling reproduction and hormone activity; Melvin H. Knisely, whosestudy of the circulatory system has, among other things,revealed new information on the anatomy and physiologyof the liver; Sewall Wright, geneticist who has furtherdeveloped the statistics of the Mendelian law, and PaulA. Weiss, zoologist whose research has revealed that anerve is not so much a telephone wire, carrying onlycertain types of messages but more like a radio antenna,sensitive to a wide range of impulses.RELATION OF SCIENCESContinued cooperation and understanding betweenthese basic sciences are, of course, necessary to the continued effectiveness of physicians and surgeons everywhere. A well-known physician put it better : "You cannot start any medical problem without coming up againsta world of fundamental knowledge which you yourselfdo not possess. You must do this work yourself or getsomeone else to do it. This is a strong reason for uniting the basic and medical sciences into a solid cooperating unit."The closely knit work of the Medical School on onehand and the basic sciences on the other means that onthese hundred acres the pure sciences support medicalresearch to a degree unparalleled in America. University biologists have in fact, President Hutchins said lastmonth, maintained the highest level of personnel andresearch to be found in any American institution.Such personnel and esprit, of course, require money —money for professors, for assistants and helpers, forequipment and adequate space in which to carry on theirwork. A substantial part of the money needed to maintain the high usefulness of the University's basic sciences was formally given to the University last month whentrustees of the Abbott estate and members of the Abbottfamily, trustees of the University, chairmen of departments in the Biological Sciences and others to the number of 300 attended a luncheon in Ida Noyes hall andthereafter inspected Abbott Memorial Hall (housingbiochemistry, pharmacology, and physiology), wheretablets honoring Dr. and Mrs. Wallace C. Abbott, donorsof $1,000,000 to the University, had been installed.The luncheon dedicated the newly named Abbott Halland the Abbott Memorial Fund for the endowment offundamental research in the biological sciences, result ofa gift from the estate of the late Clara A. Abbott, whosewill fifteen years ago provided that in 1939 one-half of* her estate should be distributed to charitable organizations in perpetuation of her husband's memory and forthe benefit of mankind, requesting the trustees, in theexercise of their discretion, to "benefit the cause of medical, chemical or surgical science." The Abbott trustees,Alfred W. Bays and Henry B. Shattuck, gave the University the million dollars last year with the understanding that half of it should be used to secure a conditionalgrant of $1,500,000 from the Rockefeller Foundation forsimilar work. This two million dollar fund has beendesignated as the Abbott fund. The remaining $500,000are free funds to be used for maintenance.Dr. Wallace C. Abbott came to Chicago in the 1880'sand began practising medicine in Ravenswood, now partof Chicago. A small room in that suburban home became what is now known as Abbott Laboratories. Aftera life of hard work (it is said he frequently arrived athis office at 4 in the morning, and had a whole day'swork done by the time his staff arrived), Dr. Abbottdied in 1921, leaving his entire estate to his widow.Speaking for the Abbott trustees at the Ida Noyesluncheon, Mr. Bays said, "We . . . have here at theUniversity of Chicago a splendidly endowed institution,with complete academic freedom, in which there has beenAt the Abbott luncheon: Alfred W. Bayes, Abbott estate trustee;Mrs. Alfred S. Burdick; Harold H. Swift; Mrs. Willis R. Ford, daughter of Dr. Abbott; President Hutchins; Mrs. Bayes.22THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23scholarly attainment and scientific research of notablecharacter. ... We know of the men who have workedhere whose reputations have been world-wide, and weknow that the faculties of the schools of the Universityare of first class caliber. ... Men and women of theUniversity of Chicago, we, of the funds entrusted to us,give you this gift, which we are able to make becausetwo servants of mankind, Dr. and Mrs. Wallace C.Abbott, lived on this earth for a brief span of years, andunder the benignant light that shines upon a free people,devoted themselves to the accomplishment of theirchosen tasks. In your hands this gift will be put to useswhich will help to set over against all the forces of evil,the things that are for the prosperity, the happiness andthe ennoblement of men.""THE GOVERNMENT OF CHICAGO"Dissatisfaction with municipal administration, evincedin the recent election, points to the need for betteracquaintance, for laymen as well as civil servants, withthe problems of city government. For this reason acourse being offered for the first time this quarter, byAlbert Lepawsky in University College, is a noteworthy for its timeliness and significance as well as itsnovelty. The tremendous amount of information oncivic affairs will be applied to the very problems fromwhich the researchers first drew their data.The new course, on "The Government of Chicago,"deals with the relationships between city and federal,state and county governments. Mr. Lepawsky, lecturerin political science, is eminently qualified in the field. Heis author of a number of works on Chicago : Governmentof the Metropolitan Region of Chicago, (with Merriamand Parratt), The Judicial System of Metropolitan Chicago, and Home Rule for Metropolitan Chicago; and iscurrently a member of the Chicago Plan Commission. MILL ROAD'S MUMS FOR THE MILLIONSEzra J. Kraus, Professor and Chairman of the department of botany, aids the federal government with important research on agricultural problems in the courseof which he may produce a superior fodder for cattle,contribute materially to a far-reaching agricultural andeconomic development. On the lighter side, ProfessorKraus is interested in producing flowers which even youand I can grow in our back yard. Last month six thousand Chicagoans thronged to the University's Mill RoadFarm, a magnificent gift to the University from TrusteeAlbert Lasker, to see a colorful array of chrysanthemums, able to bloom two months earlier than usual andable to withstand temperatures as low as 33 below zero(not, as a suburban paper reported, 330 degrees below).LAW SCHOOL APPOINTS TUTORSFive outstanding young lawyers have been appointedtutorial fellows in the Law School in an effort to combine the best features of American and British legal education, and further strengthen the already strong lawcurriculum, President Hutchins announced last month.The tutorial plan incorporates features of the law reviewtraining, developed in America, with the individualizedpreparation characteristic of English law schools. It isplanned to provide intensive work in legal writing andresearch; especially in the first year of study. Richie G.Davis, JD'39, editor that year of the Law Review, andDaniel C. Smith, JD'40, are among the five. Others are :Edward L. Friedman, Columbia 1940 graduate andeditor of the Columbia Law Review; Emerson C. Spies,who holds the B.A. and B.C.L. degrees in jurisprudencefrom Oxford ; and Jacobus tenBroek, University of California law graduate and last year a Brandeis ResearchFellow in the Harvard University Law School.DR. AMES RETIRESOLD residents of the University community willremember a curious little building which formerly stood on. the north-east corner of Fifty-seventh 'Street and University Avenue, diagonally acrossfrom Mitchell Tower and directly opposite the Quadrangle Club, but older than either of them. The onlyreason one might take it for a church was that it couldnot possibly be anything else. In that building, in1900, Edward Scribner Ames, PhD'95, began a pastorate which ended with his retirement in October, 1940.During the first thirty-five of those forty years he wasalso a member of the department of philosophy, rising-through the grades from instructor to professor andchairman of the department. During the last twelve hehas also been dean of the Disciples Divinity House, andthis connection still continues.Before that funny little building had been replaced bythe handsome stone structure that now stands upon thesame site and plays its part in making 57th Street and • By WINFRED E. GARRISON, PhD '99University Avenue "the best developed intersection inChicago" — with the athletic, the academic, the social andthe religious life represented on its four corners — thechurch has grown beyond the capacity of the edifice andthe ministry of its philosopher-preacher had attractedan extraordinary and varied membership, and the reputation of the pastor as at once a liberal thinker and aneffective minister had become national. The unity of thechurch in spite of the diverse backgrounds of its members has been a constant marvel to those who knew itsinner workings. Not a church quarrel in forty years !At the beginning of October the University Churchof Disciples of Christ reluctantly permitted Dr. Amesto retire. The completion of his forty years of servicewas celebrated with appropriate ceremonies, includingplacing in the church a bronze tablet bearing his portraitand the text of his own formulation of the principles ofthe church.THE ORIGIN OF PRINTINGBy PIERCE BUTLER[The year 1940-41 marks the Fiftieth Anniversary ofthe University of Chicago and signifies for the University of Chicago Press fifty years of scholarly publishing. More than 3,000 titles have been published bythe Press since it was organized, the first university pressof its kind. The story of these fifty years will be told ina later issue of the Magazine.Ninetc en-forty also marks five hundred years of printing — 1440 being the date assigned to Gutenberg's "invention" of movable type. Printers everywhere this yearhave celebrated the progress achieved by their craft.The University Press this month publishes a fascinatinglittle book by Professor Pierce Butler of the GraduateLibrary School which examines critically the knownfacts about the origin of printing in Europe. The following article represents Professor Butler's conclusions.—Ed.]IN the transition from medieval to modern culturethe need of mechanical aids in the scribal processbecame acute. This would create a spontaneousinterest in the problem and inspire many independentattempts to solve it. The bulk of early printed materialactually represented by surviving specimens is so greatthat one must believe many men in many places contributed to their production. The range of technologicaldifferences exhibited by this material indicates a progressive development which would imply that many mindswere occupied in trial-and-error experiments over along period. The earliest recorded opinions concerning the invention are confused in their concepts, vaguein their expression, and mutually irreconcilable. Aconsiderable time elapsed before any concensus on asingle theory emerged from the chaos, but, when thisdid, it was gradually elaborated with ever more circumstantial details and ever deeper local pride until it became, in effect, a secular saint's legend.All this is in exact conformity to what has happenedin connection with other and better-documented inventions. In modern times many mechanisms — the steamengine, the telegraph, and the telephone, to name but afew — were independently invented by different personswhen, as we say, "the time were ripe." And in eachof these instances the original invention passed throughan evolutionary metamorphosis in the hands of manymen before it attained a practical perfection. Moreover, in the case of each of these multiple and cumulative inventions, every nation thatclaims the honor for its compatriotdoes so with far more patriotismthan candor.Likewise, even in our ownperiod we confuse ideas and useterms loosely iii reference to themost reecnt inventions. Within thelifetime of persons still middle1940FIVE HUNDREDYEARS OFPRINTING aged, three revolutionary mechanisms have been invented and perfected — the automobile, the airplane, andthe radio. Of such important achievements a people assophisticated as we might be expected to hold accuratefactual knowledge and express it clearly. Actually, evenhighly educated persons can do neither. They sharethe popular inclination to explain the automobile by aFord legend, while even experts cannot talk amicablyamong themselves about the inventors of the airplaneand the radio, unless they first compromise upon theirmeaning of the word "invention."The technological difference between the cruder blockbooks and the Mainz Psalter of 1457 is comparableto the difference between the horseless carriage of 1905and an ordinary passanger car of today. Presumably,the first transition, during the late Middle Ages, wouldhave taken much longer than did the other in our highlydeveloped mechanical culture. Nor in either case doesit seem possible that a single individual could have conceived the germinal idea and carried it to practical perfection in his own lifetime.Printing in Europe similarly originated by a slowand gradual process. Starting at several places and inseveral forms, it developed along different lines whichnow came together and now separated. Early in thefifteenth century its products became sufficiently numerous for a few fragmentary specimens of them to surviveinto our own period. Apparently at Mainz and probably soon after 1440 the new trade was first organizedinto an industry. We cannot know whether the administrative, genius who effected this was John Fust orsome nameless predecessor whose business was later acquired by Fust. The Indulgences and the two editionsof the Bible, all of which are typographically relatedto each other, certainly imply an establishment whichcombined technical skill with commercial and organizingtalent. Moreover, this establishment is connected bythe material it used with the successful firm of Fustand Shoeffer which produced the Psalter.Nothing in this theory is incompatible with what weactually know concerning Gutenberg. He was an inventor in the field of printing, as the documents wehave examined clearly prove. For a time he workedwith Fust, and within three years after his death PeterSchoeffer, Fust's son-in-law and successor, published astatement which can be superficially interpreted in termsfavorable to the modern Gutenberg legend. Moreover.within a few decades he had come to be almost universally regarded as the sole and original inventor oftypography.Everything favored the growth of this opinion. Itwas not a case of accepting the claims for Gutenbergagainst those of the true inventor. Printing was notreally invented at any particular time or by any particular person but evolved slowly as many men workedon the problem. But in that unhistorical age the idea24THE .UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25of gradual development was unknown, and the conceptof invention was even more vague and confused thanit is now. Yet there was also an almost irresistibleimpulse to personalize every cultural process, by inventing a story to explain its origin and a name forits inventor.Gutenberg was, no doubt, a well-known man in bothStrassburg and Mainz. In the latter city his family hadlong been eminent. His own name was repeatedlybrought to public notice by his quarrels over financialmatters and several lawsuits. One, and perhaps two,of these lawsuits involved his activities in typography.After his quarrel with Fust, the success of the latter'sundertaking must have left Gutenberg bitter and resentful. One may imagine him in his old age garrulouslyrepeating the tale of his wrongs and the importance ofhis contribution. Schoeffer, and Schoeffer's son afterhim, continued to tell in print how Gutenberg broughtthe original idea "to what they were trying to do,"although Peter was the first to give it a practical application. But, as we have seen, "what they were tryingATHLETICSTHE man who said he couldn't imagine what sortof football would be played at the University ofChicago after its withdrawal from the game on anintercollegiate basis probably was entirely right. Withthe spotlight withdrawn from Midway football, severalhighlights, sidelights, and assorted glowing spots haveappeared which, and I originally intended no pun, furnish opportunity for reflection. Excepting, as is proper,intramural touchball, which is played by some 450students organized into thirty-nine teams which averagetogether twenty games a week, there still is plenty offootball, on the unmanicured practice field as well as onStagg Field's well-combed grass. (The exception of intramural touch football is proper, since Chicago, likemost universities, has sponsored it for years. Seven-man football, we shall call it,, to distinguish the otherkinds — six-man and eleven-man football.) Both of theselatter exist this fall, if not in profusion, at least in sufficient quantity to startle the man who said he couldn'timagine, etc.FASTER THAN FRANCKFor instance, take the case of Winston Bostick, inwhich I can't help being interested. Bostick, a husky,pleasant-faced chap who a few years ago was a varsitydiver, now is a graduate student in physics. One of thefive University research scientists who recently returnedfrom the cosmic ray station on top of Mt. Evans, inColorado, bearing prized photographs of mesotrons disintegrating, Bostick is limping a bit these days in hisperegrinations among the laboratories in Eckhart basement. He got bunged up in a six-man football gamebetween his team, the Gophers, and the Red Devils. Hismesotrons plummet through the air with a speed almost to do" was not to accomplish the first successful printing with movable type. That had long since been doneby others. More probably their effort was to reproduceby a press the decorative features of the manuscript.Gutenberg may have originated the first idea of a successful method for printing initial letters in color, butthere is little warrant except late tradition for ascribingto him a higher honor.Yet upon this slender basis of fact a Gutenberg legendhas been erected, which is probably the purest example of folklore ever developed in modern times. Abirthday has been assigned to him which is celebratedwith elaborate formalities. Even his personal appearance has been established in a conventional fiction, untilevery German schoolboy can recognize a portrait ofstatue of Gutenberg as readily as he can one of SantaClaus — and with as little basis in actual fact. It maybe very convenient for printers when they celebrate theircraft to use the name of Gutenberg as a symbol, but foranyone to transfer the fiction to the sober realm ofhistory can only be stultifying.• By DON MORRIS, '36as high as the speed of light and a great deal faster than,say, even George Franck. Bostick's pace on the footballfield is slower ; "lumbering" is a word which describesit well. But he enjoys the game.Bob Stein, a team mate of Bostick's, by the way, fallsinto the same rather unorthodox category of footballtalent. Last year he was drafted from his position as theswimming team's best backstroker to play football forChicago. (It will be recalled that Dick Lounsbury andRalph Richardson were likewise moved over, from thebasketball squad.) Stein this year is a graduate studentin medicine — and a six-man football enthusiast.ROSTER EXPANDS, DIVERSIFIESWallie Bock, who this year succeeded tart-tonguedWilliam (Mac) McCarthy as clean of the field houselocker room (more of this later), tallies the sets of football equipment he has issued this year at sixty-six. Sincelast month the number stood at forty, there has been,obviously, a gain in the roster of better than 62 per cent.What this means is that some new developments haveoccurred, unsuspected by even that clairvoyant oldsnitcher of towels, Yancy T. Blade, who picks 'em rightif he can, but, right or wrong, picks 'em.After the first few football sessions this fall it becameapparent that the squad would have to be divided intotwo leagues, because of inequalities in playing experience. Some of the boys, members either of last year'svarsity or freshman teams, knew how to handle themselves in play, and might inadvertently have battenedclown the ears of some of the inexperienced players like,say, Bostick and/or Stein. Consequently two leagueswere formed: an "A" league, of seasoned boys, and a26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"B" league. The "B" league, now comprising half ofthe total squad, has been playing a lot of six-man football. The "A" league players have been working on theregulation eleven-man game. Because that game requires larger units of players, the boys have been scrimmaging with themselves and also against several teamsrepresenting other institutions.As indicated, this competition in eleven-man footballstartled some observers, including Y. Blade, despite thefact that President Hutchins had announced before thestart of the season that there would be "competition inregular American football" in addition to the touch andsix-man variations.SIX-MAN LEAGUE STANDINGSW LP OP Pet.Red Devils 5 1 80 63 .833Gophers 3 2 100 35 .600Unexpecteds 3 2 81 69 .600Bears 0 6 36 138 .000When I asserted last month that six-man football is awide-open, rip-snorting game, I did not err. The allegation has been borne out in part by the scoring in theeleven games constituting the first half of the schedule,tabulated above. As has been said of football in someother leagues, it is "at this stage impossible to pick thechampion, in a close race," though the Bears probablycan be eliminated. As a "carry-over" sport, six-manfootball, according to Blade, ranks higher than the eleven-man game, since the inexperience of the players preventsteam play from being very smooth. The sport's carryover value would seem. to lie in its provision of a goodbackground for bucking the rush hour pedestrian trafficat the Randolph street I. C. station, at any one of"world's busiest corners," in the Loop, or in front ofCobb Hall. The enthusiasm for the game is, however,reflected by the roster enlargement since it was started:the Unexpecteds, an entire team, reported after practicewras well under way — hence the name.FOUR TRIUMPHS AFTER A PASTINGThe "A" league players of eleven man football alsohave been enjoying themselves, and though their scrimmages distinctly have not constituted games, it has beenpossible to compare their brand of football with that oftheir opponents. Even in a scrimmage a touchdown isoccasionally made. And Chicago boys, in five scrimmage sessions against three teams, have made fourteentouchdowns and a safety. Members of opposing teamshave scored three.The first extramural scrimmage, against the darkhorse American College of Physical Education, was theonly one in which Chicago was outpointed; the Maroonplayers (who for some reason have reverted to thestriped 1938 jerseys) have outpointed — and outplayed —their opponents in the other three. The Physical Education students, it ought also to be said, had played onegame and held the usual number of practices, whereasthe Chicago eleven had not once even run signals. (Allthe plays were run off one formation, on one set ofsignals.) Physical Education scored two touchdowns,but near the end of the game Bob Meyer, playing quarter for Chicago, intercepted, returning the ball to PhysicalEducation's 40 yard line. Chuck Boyd, who was anoutstanding freshman halfback last year, passed to BillOostenbrug (correct) on the goal line, and he scored.Dominic Parisi's kick was good. Oostenbrug's name,incidentally, never yet has been spelled correctly by anewspaper, with the possible exception of the DailyMaroon, in which the students earnestly endeavor to calla "Brug" a "Brug."Gathering momentum with more adequate practice,Chicago twice outpointed Wilson Junior College in thenext pair of scrimmages, holding the Wilson playersscoreless both times and recording two touchdowns inthe first ; and two more plus a safety in second encounter.In the fourth extramural scrimmage Chicago scored f ourtouchdowns against Illinois Institute of Technology, theproduct of the recent Armour-Tech-Lewis-Institutemerger. (Armour had played Coach Stagg's teams priorto 1898 but dropped the game in 1906.) The Armourstudents, however, had played a fair amount of sandlotball and managed to record only one heroic touchdown,to the four garnered by Chicago players. Boyd scoredfirst for Chicago, on a line smash. Adam Kosacz pickedhis way across the line from the five yard strip, for thesecond score. Bob Harlan sliced around end for fouryards and the third, and Boyd crashed through againfor the fourth, after the lone Tech touchdown. In thesecond Tech scrimmage Boyd, Kosacz, Basich, AllenBurris, and Harlan scored. Parisi drop kicked. Thesescrimmage touchdowns, if translated into points, giveChicago 88 points to 18 by the combined opponents, ahealthy margin.BRIEFS AND BRIEFSMac, all who have been Chicago athletes will be sorryto learn, retired this summer, after twenty-three yearsof firm rule in the Bartlett and field house locker rooms,because of a liver complaint. Flired in 1917 by CoachStagg, as "someone the boys couldn't run," Mac wasone of the old guard, of which only one is left on theMidway's athletic scene. Coach Stagg's departure forStockton, and the death of the revered Jimmy Twohigleft only two. Now only Alex Kreydich, the mighty manof the grounds, is left.Notes on the back of a towel card : the Yacht Club isabout ready to acquire a third dinghy, presumably to bechristened "Gamma." . . . Dave Wiedemann III, footballman par excellence, has chosen basketball this year . . .so has Cal Sawyier, captain of the tennis team. . . . PaulZimmermann, last year's sophomore basketball flash,won't be back; he is waiting for his call to the army aircorps . . . basketball by the way will be radically different this year; Coach Norgren is abandoning zone defense. ... Chicago has been the only Big Ten team touse it in recent years, a source of some advantages, somedisadvantages; but man-to-man is definitely better withthis year's small-sized "team. . . . Captain Willis Littleford, of the wrestling team, thinks he may have something for the Conference meet this year . . . that lonelyparade in Washington Park November 18 will be theBig Ten cross country meet. . . . Chicago will be enteredthis year, and of the Maroon contestants Ray Randall isthe one to watch.TPFE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27Physics in the University (Continued from Page 8)proofs and problems, came to class and recited back theproofs they had memorized, and went to the blackboardto work out their problems in front of the class. In thelaboratory on certain days they worked at a prearrangedschedule of complex two-hour experiments and at homewrote out elaborate reports as to purpose, description ofequipment, full details of observations, computations, andconclusions. It often happened that this process essentially consisted of transferring textbook or manual material from the book to the O. K.'d report form withoutits content having passed in any way through thethoughts of either instructor or student. As a matter offact, in those days nothing was thought of failing one-third to one-half of every class. Thus we solved the caseof the pre-medics who didn't ever like the course, anyway. During the decade from 1920 to 1930, however, itdawned on some of us that our students were being deprived of any contact with the vast array of aestheticallybeautiful and intellectually challenging experiments thathad drawn us ourselves into this field and made physicistsof us. As a result the demonstration lecture was evolvedand perfected and today in elementary classes all lecturesare of this type. Cases housing material for about 1500experiments over the entire field adjoin our lecturerooms.With the advent of the "new plan" and the many challenges and new problems then to be faced it appearedthat all students were to be expected to know somethingabout the physical sciences. This finally brought hometo us that not every student was to be a professionalphysicist after all — how humiliating! Some few die-hards still can't believe it ! The necessity of doing something decent and worthy of our institution's standardsfor almost a thousand students every year instead of ascant hundred has brought forth during the last decadea wealth of invention of new tools and methods.A new type of textbook was pioneered in physics —subsequently eight more have been produced by colleagues in the other sciences. One or two of these becameovernight "best sellers" in their fields.Talking moving pictures can show experiments impossible otherwise to bring before a class. By the artand skill of the animator, one can watch processes everto be invisible to mortal eye — for example, what occursamong the atoms of a gas, or within a current-carryingsolution, or in the blood stream of a healthy human.Eighteen such movies have been produced, in the physical sciences alone — a dozen odd more in the biologicalfield.Quickly snatched up by the new testing methods thathave recently developed, we no longer have to guess thatthese tools are useful. Coefficients that roughly indicatethe learning produced by topic after topic are available.Indeed it was embarrassing to find some topics that confused the student; i.e., that he knew less about someaspects of the subject after seeing the picture than he didbefore. However, films made by others outside andcompeting against our own group and by men withoutadequate experience are found to be 75 to 80 per centmisinforming or confusing. In the worst University of Chicago film to be tested there are 5 items out of 55 thatmay confuse.Finally, within the last two years has taken form thenew Demonstration Laboratory — an embodiment, stillgrowing and developing, of ideas tried experimentally ina so-called Physics Museum for six years preceding.Here a library of phenomena, containing 300 experiments, is available for instant reference by student orvisitor. The fundamentals of every field in physics fromGalileo's first experiment on pendulums and inclinedplanes to the latest design of cosmic ray telescope arethere. These rooms are always open when there is anyneed. Students may come in by appointment or whenthe laboratory is open and sign up with the "librarian"attendant to measure the speed of light, the charge ormass of the electron, the diffraction effects of supersonicsound waves, or the variations in the intensities of cosmicrays with altitude.TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMIn response to continually increasing pressure the enterprise of teacher training has been entirely rebuiltduring the last ten years as well. The widespread andentirely uncritical adoption of the use of demonstration lectures, survey courses, the new plan texts, talking-pictures, and now of demonstration laboratories throughout the country is testimony of recognition of Chicago'sleadership. However, unless the administrations andfaculties of these institutions are thoroughly informed asto the raison d'etre and underlying necessity for thesetools in our institution and have some training in theiruse, results may be disastrous.Hence throughout the year and especially in summerquarters, group conferences, lectures and courses for theprofession, both administrative and technical, are being-offered and built up.So important is this problem of beginning now totrain the teachers with whom the youth of future generations is to be entrusted in this swiftly developing andchanging world that several great foundations have beenstudying this problem. In this field perhaps more thanany other today, we have been receiving nation-widerecognition as being in a class entirely by ourselves.Naturally during such drastic and rapid evolutionarychanges as we have been going through in the lastdecade, there are not a few things that are incomplete.There are some trends that seem unsound and mayprove to be so. We certainly, as individuals, are notsuperhuman or even much above average. Sins of omission and sins of commission may even be too numerousto set down. We are not unaware of this. Probablywe know what these things are far better than our mostcarping critics. However, we prefer to spend the mainforce of our collective creative efforts in forging aheadand building a new structure with the certainty that aserrors become obvious, and losses, waste motion, andprogress in the wrong direction apparent, many of thesethings automatically will be corrected in our stride aswe proceed.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Armchair Strategist (Continued from Page 19)the drafted man and perhaps here in this democracy wemay be the first to create a real "people's" army. Ifsuch an army is ever forthcoming all our citizens maywell join the ranks of the armchair strategists.The recent sales-campaign to make a peace time program of compulsory military training palatable to theAmerican public drew very extensively upon the past inorder to give some historical sanction to the scheme.The first numbers for the draft were drawn from thebowl used in Washington during the World War, andthe ceremony of the earlier drawing was repeated in1940 with great attention to historic detail. In his proclamation to those registering for the draft, PresidentRoosevelt spoke solemnly of the three hundred year oldpractice of "mustering" for military service. While norecourse to the past could obscure the fact that obligatorymilitary service in peace-time was an unknown quantity in American experience, the very manner in whichwe accepted such an innovation makes the re-reading ofhistory valuable.The idea that all members of the body politic had aduty to bear arms is not so very old — certainly it is muchyounger than the use of firearms in warfare. So late asthe 18th Century the majority of European populationsstill regarded the practice of arms as something best leftto the royal court, the nobility and the professional army,which contracted to sell its blood for the benefit of thereigning house. It is true that press gangs might seizethe butcher, baker or candle-stick maker and clap himinto uniform — more euphemistically the "king's coat" —but the community all regarded such acts as oppressiveand contrary to the badly defined and worse clef endedrights of the subject. After all, the nobility had forhundreds of years enjoyed property and privilege because in theory, and sometimes in fact, the noblemanwas the warrior who defended the common people.THE OLD STANDING ARMYThen, of course, there was the more modern institution of the standing army, which existed solely for fighting. The place occupied by the army in the stratifications of society speaks volumes of the attitude towardsthe military profession in this century. When an individual joined the army he had taken the last step downward — suicide or death on the battlefield was the logicalsequence of such a move. To join the fighting forceswas dishonorable — unless one were a gentleman and,therefore, an officer. A Prussian edict of the time ofFrederick II says that the distinguishing character ofthe officer class is the possession of "honor" by its members. For the bourgeoise and lower classes, therefore,military service was not universally accepted as an obligation nor ever made possible as an honorable profession. A few attempts were made to remedy this situation. In 1733 a royal edict divided Prussia into districtsor cantons from which a certain fixed proportion of thepopulation might be drafted for the expanding army.Although German military historians celebrate this dateas the origin of the principle of universal, compulsory military service, the canton system was nothing of thekind. All "gentlemen" were automatically exempted, aswere all divines and divinity students, all city dwellersand persons paying a certain amount of tax money. Ineffect the regulations of 1733 simply divided the poorand the peasantry into lots so as to make the work ofthe press gangs easier.The revaluation of the individual, during the periodof intellectual ferment at the end of the 18th century,and the subsequent restatement of his relationship to thestate and society, in the American and French revolutions, first produced the universal obligation of the citizen to bear arms. In the newly independent UnitedStates the founding fathers introduced legislation lookingtowards the creation of a potential nation in arms. Thefirst militia law in 1792, provided for the enrollment ofevery able bodied male, between the ages of eighteenand forty-five, in the armed forces of the individualstates. This act of 1792 remained the basis of our citizen army until the re-organization of the state militiasystem in 1903. But it was not until 1808 that legislation was provided to make funds available for theelementary step of enrolling the soldier material available. In the decades that followed most American statesmen recalled General George Washington's words thata militia army was worse than useless; and in time oftrouble the regular, professional fighting forces, backedup with volunteers from the frontier settlements, didthe job. So late as the American Civil War, a realnational army was lacking. Volunteers and professionalscarried the burden for both the North and the Southduring the first months of war and it wras with extremereluctance that both sides adopted the draft. All thearguments heard pro and con in 1940 were used whenLincoln finally promulgated the draft law of 1862. TheLondon Times sneeringly compared Lincoln with theRussian Tsars in his autocratic destruction of liberty andindividual freedom. The American people, said theTimes, had already lost their republic in the despoticseizure of its citizens. Politicians and preachers askedoratorically how the huge armies of drafted men werefinally going to be disbanded without a military coupd'etat to overthrow the state. Employers said that theycould not find men to wield axes or follow the plow, andtherefore the economy of the republic would collapse inruins, as a result of such iniquitous legislation. In spiteof all this furore the draft of 1862 was hardly universalin its application. Draft dodging was ludicrously easy.Wives took their straight lacecl husbands, pillars of thechurch, down to the local draft board and certified themas exempt on the grounds of chronic alcoholism. For afew dollars some down-and-outer or callow country boycould be secured to take the draftee's place in the ranks.Not until 1917 would the United States see the principleof compulsory universal military service operating as afact. Even then, it must be remembered, certain partsof the male population wTithin the designated age groupswere classified as "exempt" from the obligation to servewith the colors.T H E UNIVERSITY OFTHE EUROPEAN EXPERIENCEIt is not here but rather on the European continentthat one may study the long time development of the"nation in arms." The destruction of royal power, during the early years of the French Revolution, made areconstruction necessary in the military institutions *ofFrance. The establishment of the First Republic, in1792, saw the creation of an electoral law granting universal suffrage to all adult males. This was a very important step since the right to the ballot was to go handin hand with the obligation to bear arms as a voting-citizen. The abolition of the Crown also created a newkind of allegiance for the French citizen, making himmore willing to become a soldier. In 1792 when someof the old royalist officers asked the Convention whatthey should fight for, now that the king was gone, theMinister of War, Prieur answered in what has becomea classic definition of the citizen-soldier's obligation :"You must fight for your hearths, your wives and children; for the nation, for the Republic."Surrounded by enemies and deserted by many of itsprofessional soldiers the Republic of 1792 was finallyforced to conscript an army large enough to defend thestate. The adoption of this plan was vigorously debated,in phraseology not unknown to us in 1940. Having sorecently freed the individual from the despotic rule ofthe monarch, was it right for "free men" to be placedunder military discipline and constraint? How couldFrance be sure that its conscripted soldiers would notbecome so used to the habit of obedience that they wouldblindly follow a Dictator, if he wore an officer's epaulets ?Would it not be better to concentrate upon the necessarysocial reforms of the new order and let a small professional army continue to defend the geographical frontiers ? France answered these questions under the threatof foreign arms and instituted the "nation in arms" bythe famous levee en masse of August 23, 1793. Mostof our ideas on the military obligation of the citizen areborrowed from this French proto-type. The conscriptsof 1793 were for the first time legally honored by tl\ename "citizen-soldiers." Such compulsory service wasnow made "honorable," by specific legislation. AndDubois-Crance, the old soldier who had planned thelevee en masse, told the French people that theirarmy was now "nationalized." Exemptions were hardlyallowed by the laws of 1793 and there was certainly akind of groping toward a "total" mobilization of theenergies of the state.The question has been asked, rather widely, as towhether the United States really needs so large an armyas that constituted with the draft. This question hasoften been raised when the costs of a large militaryestablishment have been dramatically brought home tothe public consciousness, as the result of a long war orhuge peace time budgets for the armed forces. Probablythis fond dream of a small (and therefore inexpensive)professional army, which will be good enough to whipa much larger army, is as old as Alexander's marchthrough the huge Persian empire with a handful of welltrained Greek mercenaries. Generally, the idea of thesmall, highly specialized, professional army is the resultof one of the following circumstances. The state, inquestion, is too poor in man power and money to sup- CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29port a large army. Perhaps, also, its industrial establishment depends so much upon hand labor that mencannot be released for military service and still maintainthe production of war materials. In other cases, likeEngland and Norway, the answer may be found in thenational defenses created by geography. Perhaps thereis some legal constraint on large scale mobilization ofman power such as that imposed on the German Republic by the Peace of Versailles. None of these reasonsfor reliance upon a small army adequately apply to theposition of the United States in 1940. Even the argument from geographical barriers fails if one considersthe sizeable task of hemisphere defense.W^e should not be led astray by the specious argument that the German victories, to date, have been wonby small armies with masses of tanks, planes and guns.This is far from the case. In Poland the blitzkrieg wasprepared to exercise a superiority of two or three to oneover the Polish soldiers in the field. Such a superioritywas not required, but from thirty to forty German infantry divisions were on the Eastern front, in reserve,had Polish resistance stiffened too much. In the Flanders campaign and in the Battle of France the Germanwar machine had a decided numerical superiority in manpowrer, wherever it was needed— perhaps so much asforty divisions more than the Allied forces on the Western front. If we learned anything from German successes in 1940, it was simply this : that an army can windecisively when it has superior morale, superior manpower, superior machines, superior mobility and a highlysuperior command.America — AwakeBREAK fire from the forge — Oh AmericaStrike into the iron a new song'Til it flames in the white-heat of passionTo build wide — to build deep — to build strong.Come up from the fields — Oh AmericaCome from mine — come from mart — come from mill ;Bring forth the old might of your fathersAnd rise in their deeds and their will.Secure your vast shores — Oh AmericaMake safe for your sails the broad main;'So gird you around for tomorrowThat your yesterday — was not in vain.Make keels for your seas — Oil AmericaMake haste that they burden the tide ;Make stanch the far-challenging fortress ;Make sure that your oceans be wide.Come ! Bare your bronzed arm — Oh AmericaGive youth to your wings and your sky ;"Gainst the heights of your sons' granite manhoodLet the breakers of tyranny die.Strike iron upon iron — -Oli AmericaLet mountain fling back to the seaThe song of a nation triumphant :"We are one— we are strong — we are free!"Horace Lozier, '94.[Reprinted from the Chicago Daily News]NEWS OF THE CLASSESBEVERLY GLENNThe Chicago Alumnae Club hasawarded its two-year scholarship for theyears 1940-42 to Beverly Glenn of Winnetka who is now in residence on campus — in Beecher Hall — and busy in herfirst quarter's work.She was selected by the Club's Committee on Scholarships, headed byGladys Finn, '24 of the Dean of Students Office, for her outstanding qualities which were shown by her academicstanding at New Trier High School inall four years and by her wide extracurricular interests.In addition to serving on many student committees and contributing to thevarious school publications, she was active in sports, dramatics and the choirand opera groups. In her senior yearshe was president of the Girls AthleticAssociation, vice-president of "Scrib-lerus," a writing group selected by invitation, a member of the HonorSociety and of T. N. T. whose membership is selected for achievements in extra-curricular activities, and played thefeminine lead in the Senior play "ThePoor Nut." From childhood she hashad her head and heart set on becominga lawyer, and she is now workingtoward that goal.1909It is with deep regret that we announce the death in Indianapolis onOctober 7 of Harry W. Evard, husbandof Helen Jacoby Evard. The Evardsin midsummer had purchased a newhome at 3522 Central Avenue whereMrs. Evard will continue to reside withher step-children, Jack, Harry, Jr., andBetty.1912While on a trip through the east thissummer, Nell Henry, SM '15, visited with Helen Olson, '17, manager of theNew York office of the De Both HomeMakers School and then later metHelen's sister, Lois Olson, '21, SM '27,who was vacationing on. a farm nearNew Milford, Connecticut. Lois is inthe Erosion Department of the Department of Agriculture in Washington,D. C.Mrs. Richard Myers (Alice LeeHerrick) gave her pet meal and discussed menu variety in one of the columns of the New York Herald Tribunenot so long ago. Mrs. Myers says :"Fifteen years cooking and eating inFrance and skipping with gastronomicgayety all over the Continent, stickingmy nose into every kitchen I could find,I have naturally picked up a little information and a few pounds. But themost important things I have learnedcame out of France."1921Mrs. Martha Tow Gereke of CedarRapids, Iowa, has been appointed general secretary of the Highland ParkBranch of the Y. W. C. A. in Detroit.1922Nicholas B. Clinch, Jr., has leftCincinnati and his new residence is inDallas, Texas, 6225 Lemmon Avenue.Third and fourth volumes of a seriesof high school English books entitledEnjoying English came off the presslast month. The books were writtenby Ellen M. Geyer, professor of English and education at the University ofPittsburgh and Don M. Wolfe.1923Charles M. Anderson is filling theposition of professor of economics ' atOglethorpe University in Oglethorpe,Georgia, for the current school year.Since graduation Daniel Cohn hasbeen buying real-estate mortgages forCommonwealth, Inc. ; first in Chicagoand now in Portland, Oregon. BuyerCohn writes enthusiastically about Oregon's year-around fishing and states:"In fact the winter fishing for steel-head in frost white water from a boatis the most thrilling sport imaginable."1924A. Q. Burns of the educational staffof the Readers Digest is manager of theWestern Division of same and lives inLos Angeles, California. Mr. Burns isoften seen shooting pictures of policedogs or at any rate enjoys both photography and police dogs.Rev. Elmer E. Flack, AM, nativeof Mendon, 111., became dean of HammaDivinity School on the WittenbergCollege campus last month. In 1937Rev. Flack was sent as a delegate representing the United Lutheran Churchin America to the Edinburgh (Scotland) conference.Chester R. Powers, AM '26, hasbeen appointed registrar of EnglewoodEvening Junior College. Mr. Powersalso will teach physics at Gage Parkhigh school in Chicago this comingschool year.Maurice T. Price, PhD, is a visiting lecturer in sociology at the Universityof Illinois in Urbana this year.Trustee for the Village of Riverside,Illinois, Adolph J. Radosta, Jr., JD'25, is associated with the law firm ofKnapp, Allen and Gushing, located at208 S. La" Salle St., Chicago. Mr.Radosta links aviation and travel as hisleisure time achievements.R. B. Robins, AM, MD '25, who isconnected with the Robins Clinic inGamden, Arkansas, has been electedChairman of the Council of the Arkansas Medical Society and Governor ofDistrict 7B International Lions Clubs.Herman L. Ylvisaker, AM, hasbeen made principal of the Communityhigh school in Franklin Park, Illinois.Mr. Ylvisaker taught last year at theHinsdale township high school in Hinsdale.Philip George Worcester, PhD,professor of geology, has been head ofthe geology department since 1934 atthe University of Colorado. Mr. Worcester is a member of Sigma Xi and ofthe Geology Society of America.1925Dr. Harold A. Blaine, assistant professor of English of Adelbert College,who has part-time leave of absence fromteaching to organize the new work atWestern Reserve University, has beenappointed director of the Committee onPrivate Research at Western Reserve,for which a grant of $10,000 from theCarnegie Corporation was made. Onthe staff of the Committee is WilliamS. Dix, formerly of the faculty of theDarlington School for Boys in Rome,Georgia, as research associate.1927Ivan G. Grimshaw, AM, was appointed professor of the bible atthe American International College inSpringfield, Mass.Ethel Mary Pate, AM, has movedfrom Kansas to Seagoville, Texas,where she holds the job of Junior Custodial Officer in the Federal Reformatory for Women.Roger S. Strout, AM, who was formerly an instructor in a Junior collegein Stockton, California, is now instructor of physics, aeronautics, machineshop and welding at Marin Junior College in Kentfield, Calif.1928Joseph Cedayco, AM, has moved toUrbana, Illinois, to fill his new positionof Spanish instructor at the Universityof Illinois.Arthur E. DbSgs, MD, of Chicagois the surgeon 'for the Presbyterianhospital and the Children's Memorialhospital. Dr. Diggs has served as regimental surgeon for the 202 CoaslArtillery. ^Robert J. Graf, Jr., AM '33, andMrs. Graf are now the owners of the ElCorral Cafe, located on River road, inthe heart of the Catalina Foothills nearTucson, Arizona. El Corral was to beopened on the first of November.30THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 311932Spencer D. Albright, AM, of Lubbock, Texas, is an instructor of politicalscience in Reed College in Portland,Oregon, for the 1st semester of thepresent school year.Bernice Hopper, SM, is working forthe State Board of Health in Nashville,Tennessee as nutrition consultant.Philip Kolb., AM, has accepted aninstructorship in the Romance Language Department at Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tenn.Earl R. Moses, AM, has been appointed by Governor Herbert R. O'Con-or, Maryland, as a member of the Governor's Commission on Child Delinquency.1933E. Elizabeth Vickland, AM, wasappointed professor of English anddrama in Schauffler College in Cleveland, Ohio, last September.1934Marion L. Davis, AM, heads theMathematic Department at the Faulkner School in Chicago.Henry Lyon Duncombe, Jr., was appointed Assistant Dean of the TuckSchool at Dartmouth this year ; he alsoteaches Business Statistics.Alice C. Ferguson, PhD, was appointed associate professor of Greek,German, and French at Ashland Collegein Ashland, Ohio, last summer.John D. Scheffer, PhD, has goneacross the line from Montana to NorthDakota to become professor and chairman of the Department of English inthe State Teachers College in Minot. s omething New Underfoot!If you can't come in, writefor date of Frank BrothersExhibition in your city.115.75A happy combination of Cordovan leather upper, in a rich deepshade . . . and a resilient crepe rubber sole. It's one for the book—giving you the double benefits of style and ease. This is justone of the new things underfoot in Frank Brothers Men's Shoes. . . see this and twenty-three more models in the newly revisedFrank Brothers booklet which will be sent you on request.FIFTH AVENUE • 47th-48th Streets • NEW YORK225 OLIVER AVENUE— PITTSBURGH, PA. • 1 12 WEST ADAMS STREET, FIELD BUILDING— CHICAGO, ILL.America VotesSWIFT'S PREMIUMthe best ham of all!For easy cookjng{Blue Label)Ready toeat(RedLabel) • In the homes of America, what brand of hamis preferred? To find out, an independent research agency made a nation-wide poll. It interviewed thousands and thousands of women;asked simply "What brand of ham do you thinkis best?"SWIFT'S PREMIUM Ham won decisively! Itactually got more votes than the next three mentioned brands combined.No other ham has such rich mildness, whichcomes from Swift's secret Brown Sugar Cure.No other has its mellow tang, from specialsmoking in Ovens. Ask for SWIFT'S PREMIUM.REMEMBER, THE MEAT MAKES THE MEAL!32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobert A. Walker, PhD ''40, andMrs. Walker, '35, have gone to Washington, where Mr. Walker has a position in the office of Budget & Financeof the United States Department ofAgriculture.1935Beth Hopp, is out at Alton, Illinois,this year teaching business at ShurtlerrCollege.Walter W. RicilardSj AM, has accepted the position of principal of theLincoln School in Mill Creek, Indiana.1936Mildred E. Barnes, AM, formerly ofThe Biblical Seminary in New YorkCity is now with the Yale UniversityLibrary, Department of Missions, NewHaven, Connecticut.Elizabeth Davis, AM, is a memberof the Madison College faculty in Harrisonburg, Virginia.W. Edgar Gregory took up his dutiesas 1st Lieutenant in the Chaplains' Reserve in the United States' Army, stationed at Fort Knox, Kentucky, lastAugust.Norman Masterson is confined toLa Vina Sanatorium, La Vina, California, for an indefinite period, having resigned from KFOX and the CaliforniaRadio System due to illness. He wouldappreciate hearing from classmateswhom he has lost track of.James T. McBroom, AM '39, residesin Albuquerque, New Mexico, where heis in land use survey on the Indian Reservation to determine what lands areirrigable.1937Alice Armfield, AM, who formerlytaught at Olivet College in Olivet, Michigan, is now an instructor of Frenchand Latin at Gulf Park College in Gulf-port, Miss.James Elmo Black, AM, who lectured on psychology at the Universityof Manitoba in Ft. Garry until last July,has gone to Regina, Saskatchewan,Canada, to teach mathematics at ReginaCollegiate.Paul J. Brand, SM, is a graduate assistant instructor at the University ofWisconsin in Madison.Dalai Brenes, AM, former Spanishteacher af Penn State College, is teaching Spanish at the Central YMCA College in Chicago.Frederic J. Bright, AM '40, has accepted the position of English teacher atThornton Township high school in Harvey, Illinois.Allan B. Cole, AM '37, PhD '40,former resident of Chicago, has goneto the University of Texas to instruct inhistory and Far Eastern internationalrelations.Carrol Hall, AM, has gone to LosAngeles, California, on an exchange instructorship in chemistry. Miss Hallwas formerly a resident of Springfield,Illinois.Marian B. Lippitt, AM, has leftBlue Island, Illinois, and is living inMaryville, Missouri, where she is director of personnel for women at the Northwest Missouri State Teachers College.Raymond Litwiller, PhD, whoformerly taught at the Bradley Institutein Peoria, teaches biology at WilsonJunior College in Chicago now.Virgil P. Puzzo, AM, is a memberof the personnel staff at Wilson JuniorCollege in Chicago at the present time.Last month Clifford G. Robertson,AM, went to Montreal, Quebec, Canada,to become assistant professor of economics in the Sir George Williams College.1938Mary M. Gillespie, AM, has accepted an instructorship of Latin andFrench at Ohio Northern University inAda, Ohio.Laurel N. Jackson, AM, superintends the public schools in Yoder,Colorado.Ruth Clare Jackson, AM, accepteda position as French teacher in theJunior College in Britt, Iowa, this pastsummer.Casey W. Kunkel, MBA, formerlyof Charleston, South Carolina, was appointed assistant professor of economicsat Simpson College in Indianola, Iowa,last summer.Robert L. Nicholson, PhD, headsthe history department at Alfred Hol-brook College in Manchester, Ohio, beginning this year.Allen D. Walters, AM, has beenassociated with Sears-Roebuck & Company as industrial engineer since lastAugust.1939Another economist has left the Middle West for Washington and she isGladys L. Baker, PhD, who formerylived in Beaconsfield, Iowa. MissBaker now holds the title of AssociateSocial Science Analyst in the UnitedStates Government National DefenseCommission.Robert L. Brackenbury, AM, formerly of Rhodes, Iowa, has moved toBedford, Iowa, and is teaching historyin the high school.Roy Brener, PhD, who was a teacherand clinical psychologist in Chicagoprevious to last July, is psychologist atSt. Charles School for Boys in St.Charles, Illinois, this year.Burr C. Brundage, PhD, has beenappointed instructor of French and history at MacMurray College in Jacksonville, Illinois.Henry Owen Cubbon, AM, hastaken a position as biology instructorat Carroll College in Waukesha, Wisconsin.Dorothy Culp, PhD, went to SilverCity, New Mexico, last September toteach history and social science at theNew Mexico State Teachers College.Louise Fletemeyer has accepted theposition of office manager at Iowa StateCollege in Ames for this year.Mary E. Giffin, PhD, was appointedDean and professor of English for theLake Erie College in Painesville, Ohio.Claude E. Hawley, PhD, has resigned at the University of Missouri and is now assistant professor of political science at the University of Florida in Gainesville.Robert Lee Jack, AM, began hiswork as assistant professor of Englishat Alcorn A. & M. College in Alcorn,Mississippi last month.Geraldine Mary Johnston, AM,has taken a position on the Bureau ofChild Study on the Chicago Board ofEducation.Max Johnson, AM, formerly of Mt.Vernon, Illinois, is teaching at MorganPark Military Academy in Chicago during 1940-41.Lenore Lindsay is now teaching thethird grade at Lincoln School in Cairo111.Donald K. Marshall is teaching-philosophy at the Chicago TeachersCollege this year.Richard P. Metcalf, PhD, formerlyof Columbus, Ohio, is now a memberof the faculty of the Western Maryland College in Westminster, Maryland.Since last July Burton B. Moyer,Jr., has been in Washington, D. C, asa junior rating, board examiner for theInvestigations Division of the CivilService Commission.Russell T. Nichols has been inWashington, D. C, since last July aseconomist on the Advisory Commissionto the Council of National Defense.Ruth E. Parker, AM, is an assistantprofessor of home economics- at Washburn College in Topeka, Kansas, sinceher appointment last summer.Rose M. Perez, AM, resident of SanDiego, California, teaches the 1st gradein the Outdoor Nursery School.Charles J. Shohan, PhD, has leftIowa State College to go to Washington, D. C, to work as associate agriculture economist in the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in the Department of Agriculture.John S. Winston, AM, heads theMathematic Department at the TerrillPreparatory School & Junior Collegein Dallas, Texas, beginning this year.1940Luton Ackerson is the visiting assistant professor of psychology at NewYork University this year.John C. Adams is an instructor inthe Political Science Department of theUniversity of Buffalo in Buffalo, NewYork.John W. Atherton, AM, who livedin Geneva, Illinois, until this summer,has moved to Ames, Iowa, where he isteaching English, at the Iowa State College.Bernard Brodie, PhD, is now busyas research associate in InternationalRelations at the Institute of AdvancedStudy, in Princeton, N. J.Elizabeth L. Conard, AM, has goneto Hillrose, Colorado, to teach sciencein the high school there.Edward J. Cronin, AM, is teaching-commercial English at the Bryant &Stratton Business College in Chicago.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33BUSINESSDIRECTORYAMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park AwningINC. Co.,Awnings and Canopies for All 9urposes4508 Cottage Grove Aven ueBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIRand WELDING CORP.DAY AND NIGHT PHONE CAN. 6071-0324 HOUR SERVICEQUALIFIED LICENSED CONTRACTOR1404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoRnnir RiNntQSBOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Re+oil Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882 Frank L. Esterquest, PhD, willteach for three months at the MinnesotaState Teachers College in Moorhead,Minnesota, this year.Pauline Ann Hackbarth of Brookings, South Dakota, is teaching psychology and history in the South DakotaState College.Jerome Kloucek, AM, came to Chicago last September to teach Englishin Morgan Park Military Academy.William D. McCuaig took up hisduties as headmaster of the BrandesSchool in Tucson, Arizona, last September.William F. Read is teaching geology and anthropology at West TexasState Teachers College in Canyon,Texas, this year.ISABELL S. RENOWDEN, AM, IS tillEnglish instructor at the Milwaukee-Downer Seminary in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, at the present time.Robert M. Strozier was appointedassistant professor of French and assistant Dean of Men at the Universityof Georgia in Athens last summer.Thelma M. Weber supervises thefood for the Colonnade Company in Detroit, Michigan, beginning this month.SOCIAL SERVICEA. Wayne McMillen, PhD '31,Professor of Social Service Administration, has been elected president ofthe American Association of SocialWorkers.Erma Wainner, AM '29, is resigning her position as Director of PublicAssistance, Department of Assistanceand Child Welfare in Nebraska, to accept a position with the Social SecurityBoard.Leona Massoth, AM '34, AssistantProfessor of Social Work, TrainingCourse for Social Work, Indiana University, and Genevieve Gabower, AM'36, Director of Social Work, JuvenileCourt, Washington, D. C, are both inresidence at the School during the FallQuarter. Miss Massoth is having hersabbatical year which she expects tospend at the School working toward thePhD. degree.Ruth Jackson, AM '35, has been appointed Adjustment Teacher at the Du-Sable High School in Chicago.Miriam Leavitt, AM '36, has beenmade Chief Psychiatric Social Workerat the Psychiatric Institute of the Municipal Court of Chicago.Dale Andrews, AM '39, has recentlybeen appointed Supervisor of MedicalSocial Work Field Work at the Schoolof Social Work, University of California, at Berkeley.Helen McManus, AM '39, has recently accepted the appointment ofCounty Secretary of the SchuylkillCounty Child Welfare Services, Pottsville, Pennsylvania.John Conrad, AM '40, has accepteda Case Work position with the Childand Family Services in Peoria, Illinois.Sarah Hallock, AM '40, has joinedthe staff of the Family Service Association in Washington, D. C. CEMENT CONTRACTORST. A. REHNQUIST CO.V™ 7 CONCRETEFLOORSSIDEWALKSSHINE FOUNDATIONSREPAIRSALL PHONESBEVerly 08906639 So. VernonWu*EST. 1929Yard:CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris. '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNGENERAL OFFICES342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wesson DoesCOFFEE -TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston— New York— Philadelphia— SyraeuteDENTISTDR. BERNARD R. LITZa graduate of the University of Illinois '39ANNOUNCESThe Opening of His Office forthe Practice of Dentistryat theGladstone Hotel, 6200 S. Kenwood Ave.Hyde Park 4100You are cordially invited to obtain dental service ona yearly budget system that is now available.EMPLOYMENTCOLOREDDOMESTIC HELPFurnishedDay or NightReferences investigated.Englewood Employment Agency5530 S. State Phone-Englewood 3 1 8 1 -3 1 82Street Night-Englewood 3181Established 20 years34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFLOWERS. jfl/} CHICAGOj{2^ Established 1865FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 64451645 E. 55th StreetGRAPHIC ARTSTHE SCRIPTORIUMScribes * Illuminators • BindersC L RICKETTS JASPER S KING// it is said to last a lifetime or longer, sayit sincerely with well-chosen words in beautiful, imperishable design.MESSAGES OF APPRECIATION, RESOLUTIONS, ILLUMINATED INSCRIPTIONS,MEMORIALS; BIRTHDAY, CHRISTMASAND GIFT BOOKS; CRESTS, COATS OFARMS, TITLE PAGES.DIPLOMAS, CITATIONS,HONORARY DEGREES, CHARTERSValued papers and letters restoredand bound38 SOUTH DEARBORN STREETDEARBORN 0001 CHICAGOGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9 1 00- 1-2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110LITHOGRAPHERLETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoL. C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph— Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182 Dayid Hunter, AM '40, has beenmade the Assistant to the Director ofthe City Department of Public Welfarein Dallas, Texas.Some of the students who receivedthe Master's Degree at the August,1940, Convocation, and their positions,are Letty Grossberg and Edward Stan-wood, Chicago Relief Administration;Mary Allen, Child Welfare Worker,County Department of Public Welfare,Charleston, South Carolina; MargaretLumpkin, Medical Social Worker,Washington University Clinics, St.Louis ; Ruth Mayer, Supervisor of Children's State Aid Division, Santa ClaraCounty, Santa Clara, California; Virginia McGregor, Y. W. C. A., Chicago;Arthur Potts, District Representative,Indiana Department of Public Welfare;Arthur Snyder, Parole Officers, Boys'Industrial School, Lancaster, Ohio; La-Rue Spiker, Child Welfare Worker,Saline County, Harrisburg, Illinois ;Kermit Wiltse, Case Consultant, CassCounty Welfare Board, Fargo, NorthDakota; and Robert Wymer, AmericanRed Cross, St. Louis.We are very glad to have AliceShaffer, AM '35, back at the University beginning with the Fall Quarter.Miss Shaffer has been on leave fromour Field Work supervisory staff forthe past year with the Friends' ServiceCommittee for Refugee Children inBerlin.Ruth Endicott Read, AM '33, hasalso returned to the University to supervise students for us in Family Welfare.Three new supervisors in the FamilyWelfare field are Elsie Parker, AM,Western Reserve University, Mrs. Lyn-dell Scott, and Marjorie Drury, PhD,Columbia University. Mrs. MargaretWilliams, who has supervised studentsfor us in Child Welfare has left to takea position at the Bliss Hospital in St.Louis. Louise Cuddy, formerly Director of Child Welfare Services in Idaho,will supervise students in Child Welfare.We have administered at the SchoolCivil Service examinations for severalstates within the last few months.- Examinations have been given to studentsfrom New Mexico, Florida, Georgia,Idaho, Texas and Tennessee.Eda Houwink, Field Work Supervisor on our staff, has recently spokenat the State Conferences of SocialWork in Nebraska and Wisconsin.BORNTo Luis Walter Alvarez, '32, SM'34, PhD '36, and Mrs. Alvarez (Ger-aldine Smithwick, '34) on October3, 1940, a son, Walter Smithwick, inBerkeley, California.To Walter E. Mochel, SM '35,PhD '37, and Mrs. Mochel (MurielGraff, '35) on August 17, 1940, adaughter, Beverly, Washington, Delaware.To Horace S. Strong, '25, and Mrs.Strong, a daughter, Pamela Christine,on October 19, 1940, in Providence,Rhode Island. OFFICE FURNITURE5TEELCA5Elousiness Equipment \FILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co* Grand Rapids, MichiganOPTICIANSNELSON OPTICAL CO.1138 East63 rd StreetHyde Park5352Dr. Nels R. Nelson, OptometristPAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3186E. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3192PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 35PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Goad Printing of All Descriptions"HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS SINCE 1906 WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES 4+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ++ ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE ?JRAYNEm* DALHEIM &CO. J205* W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO.PUBLISHERSPUBLISHERS € N G RAV I N C CO.MICHIGAN AVE. AT 20TH STREETRESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South Sidei**K(*i*hk«i PAetU_bji:i4i**i*]ijCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 WoodJawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324RUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1fi2lOriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6 MARRIEDRuth Helene Abells, '32, SM '35,to Herbert B. Douglas on November 1,1940, Chicago. Mr. and Mrs. Douglasare living at The Ruxton in New YorkCity.Ruth Marie Ketchie to John Post,'32, MD '37, on September 11, 1940.Dr. Post and his wife are at home inEl Paso, Texas, where he is stationed.Ruth Endicott, AM '33, to StanleyRead of Chicago in September, 1940,Chicago.Elizabeth B. Gardner, '33, to FrankHouseholder on June 21, 1940, Kalamazoo, Michigan.Jane E. Cavanagh, '34, to FrankP. Crowe, '32, JD '35, on July 27, 1940.Mr. and Mrs. Crowe are living at 656N. 40th Street, East St. Louis, Illinois.Philomela Baker, '38, to Jay Berwanger, '36, on October 12, 1940, inBond chapel on the University campus.Eliza Griffin, AM '36, to O. G.Kunkle in August, 1940.Mary Jane Hector, '38, to ErnestH. Dix, '36, on October 5, 1940, inHilton chapel on the University campus.Mr. and Mrs. Dix are living at 7613Kingston Ave., Chicago.Lexie Jane Harter to Frank Mancina, '36, MBA '38, on September 4,1940, in Rhinelander, Wisconsin.Hazel M. Kruse to Donald CharlesCarner, '39, on September 21, 1940, inChicago. Mr. and Mrs. Carner are athome at 6800 Normal Blvd, Chicago.Rayna Louis De Costa, '39, SM '40,to Arthur Loewy, '40, on September5 1940, Chicago.Mildred Brewer to John W. Kriet-enstein, '39, on September 28. Mr.and Mrs. Krietenstein are living at 1818E. 72nd Street Chicago.Mary E. Smith, '39, to Cyril JohnLauer on October 5 at St. Edward'sChurch. After a motor trip, the couplewill make their home in Des Plaines,111.Adele Meriam, AM '40, to CharlesThomson in August, 1940.Frances Greenfield, '39, AM '40, toSeymour Tabin, '38, JD '40, on Saturday, October 26, 1940, in Chicago.Mr. and Mrs. Tabin are at home at6728 Chappel Avenue, Chicago.John P. Vergoth, '40, to J. Bat-tersby, on August 29, 1940. Mr. andMrs. Vergoth are living in Cambridge,Massachusetts, where John is attendingHarvard UniversityEvlyn June Cover, '40, to DavidGraham Wylie, '40, on August 15,1940. Mr. and Mrs. Wylie are livingat 6730 Chappel Ave., Chicago.DIEDArthur West Allen, MD '85, onMay 6, 1940, Austin, Minnesota.Louise M. Kueffner Avery, PhD'09, in September, 1940, in New YorkCity. She had taught at Vassar andHunter Colleges since 1909. A posthumous volume of her poetry will appearsoon.Andrew M. Boggess, '23, on May 24,1940, in Seattle, Washington.Natalie E. Chapman, '22, AM '39, COMMERCIAL SCHOOLSINTENSIVE¦ STENOGRAPHIC COURSEfor College People OnlySuperior training for practical, personal use or profitable employment. Course gives you dictation speed of100 words a minute in 100 days. Classes begin January.April. July and October. Enroll Now. Write or phonefor bulletin.BRYANT & STRATTON College18 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago Tel: RAN. 1575MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by tbe National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130SCHOOL— SHORTHANDYour whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.For more particulars call, write,or telephone.THE GREGG COLLEGE6 North Michigan Avenue, ChicagoState 1881ROOFERSESTABLISHED 1908GROVEROOFINGFAirfax3206filft.LII.AN06644C0TTA6E6R0VEAv7'ROOFING and INSULATINGSHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing•1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893STOCKS— BONDS— COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, 'II. H. I. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W. Davis, '16 F. B. Evans, 'IIPaul H. Davis & Co.MembersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock ExchangeChicago Board of Trade10 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622TEACHERS' AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOMAGAZINEAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teacheri' College department! forDoctora and Matter, ; forty per cent of ourbuainesi. Critic and Grade Supervisor, forNormal Schoola placed every year in largenumber,; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One FeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY, MO. SPOKANENEW YORKHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesGenerally recognized as one of the leading Teacher.Agencies ot the United States.TEACHER'S SERVICEBUREAU4522 N. Knox Ave.Chicago, III.UNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492VENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767 high school teacher in Chicago, on August 25, 1940, Chicago.Frank Lorenzo Cummings, '05, AM'11, at Oroville, California.Spencer D. Guy, MD '17, on October 26, 1940, in Lansing, Michigan.John E. Northrup, '96, for manyyears a leading Chicago attorney andwho gained additional prominence as afederal and state prosecutor, on October10, 1940, Chicago.Charles Walter Paltzer, '06, JD'09, on September 1, 1940, Chicago.John William Roberts, '22, on June26, 1940, Penney Farms, Florida.Homer G. Rosenberger, MD '07, onAugust 14, 1940, in Whittier, California.Robert G. Sayle, MD '85, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on August 1, 1940.Clara D. Severin, '12, on October 1,in Cleveland, Ohio.Emory H. Skinner, MBA, '38, lecturer in the School of Business, on August 2, 1940, Chicago.Collin Henley Wilcox, MD '88, onSeptember 8, 1940, Daytona Beach,Florida.Eliza Gregory Wilkins, PhD '16,for fourteen years a member of theHood College Faculty as head of theDepartment of Classical Languages andLiterature, on August 31, 1940, in Frederick, Maryland.Joseph H. Hall, MD 78, of Platts-mouth, Nebraska, at the age of 86 onFebruary 28, 1940.John Prentiss Lord, MD '83, onMarch 3, 1940, in Omaha, Nebraska.Dr. Lord was professor of orthopedicsurgery for 21 years in Creighton Medical College and for 13 years at the University of Nebraska.David William Bolles, MD '84, onFebruary 9, 1940, in Long Beach, California.James Harrison Murphy, MD '85,on March 10, 1940, in Kansas City, Mo.Wallace Marsh Waterman, MD'87, on March 6, 1940, in Oak Park, 111.Maskel Lee, MD '88, on January 8,1940, in Atlanta, 111.Joseph Clement Langan, MD '91,on February 7, 1940, in Clinton, Ia.Daniel M. Kelly, MD '92, on February 27, 1940 in Baraboo, Wis. Dr.Kelly was on the staff of St. Mary'sRingling Hospital.Robert, MD '94, on February 3, 1940, in Madison, Wis.Daniel Roberts Brower, MD '02,on March 12, 1940, in Mercedes, Texas.Adam J. Dauer, MD '03, on February 24, 1940, in Toledo, Ohio.Martin Wm. Fitzpatrick, MD '03,on March 22, 1940, in Decatur, 111.Formerly Dr. Fitzpatrick was on thestaff of St. Mary's Hospital in Decatur.David Nathaniel Roberg, MD '08,on February 20, 1940, in San Jose, Calif.Dr. Roberg was a member of the California Medical Association on thePacific Coast Oto-OphthalmologicalSociety. BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaxe 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorPETERSONFireproof WarehouseSTORAGE — MOVINGForeign — DomesticShipments55th & Ellis Phone, MID 9700HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE_ AFTER19 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseALSOELECTROLYSIS EXPERTMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of Hair from Face,Eyebrows, Back of Neck or any partof Body; destroys 200 to 600 Hair Rootsper hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Attn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone. FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.1 7 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in Beauty*35^pjt0jrr^S*A1 1 i4°<»- To giue yo« a candid view of itself, this telephone wears a transparent dress. Shown cut away,so you can see still more detail,are the transmitter (the partyou talk into) and the receiver{the part with which you listen).A°°k MSIDE you* ie\?$,V°sC*eYou'd never guess thisone. It says our telephone has 248 parts."3K' "And think howseldom it gets outof order! " J. o Americans, telephoning is second nature.They do it 94,000,000 times a day. To them,who thus conquer space and time, telephonesare a commonplace — these familiar instruments, gateways to 21,000,000 others in thehomes and offices of this land.Making Bell telephones so well that youtake them for granted, is the achievement ofWestern Electric craftsmen. It's what they havelearned in doing that job for 58 years. It's theway they make cable, switchboards, vacuumtubes, all the 43,000 designs of apparatus forthe Bell System. The excellence of their workmanship thus plays a part in your daily life.Western Etectric ... is back of yourBell Telephone serviceOT Europe, not eventhose outlying naval bases thatprotect our shores — -America'sfirst line of defense is Americanindustry. It is to industry thatthe nation looks today for thearmaments to protect America'shigh living standards, to defend the American way of life.In the last two generationsAmerican industry has built agreat nation. Its workmen, scientists, and engineers have helpedproduce and put to work morethan one-third of the world'selectric power and one-half ofits mechanical energy. They have given us electric lightsin 24 million American homes and electric refrigeratorsin 13 million— conveniences which represent the higheststandard of living and the greatest industrial achievement in the world. And the manpower, the inventiveand manufacturing genius, the experience, the daringto tackle difficult tasks — assets which have helped toproduce this high standard of living — are among Amer-Not a cannon, but the 130,000-pound shaft for a great electric generatorbeing built in the General Electric shops in Schenectady. When completed,the generator will deliver 75,000 horsepower of electricity.Industry today undertakes the task of building, notonly armaments, but, equally important, the machinesthat can be used to manufacture these armaments inquantity sufficient for any emergency. And GeneralElectric scientists, engineers, and workmen, who formore than 60 years have been putting electricity towork in America's peacetime pursuits, are today turningto the new job— the job of defending the benefits electricity has helped to create.ica's strongest resources today.G-E research and engineering have saved the public from ten to one hundred dollarsfor every dollar they have earned for General ElectricGENERAL H ELECTRIC