THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEU NWhen You Need HelpCall on Your UniversityThe University of Chicago through its Boardof Vocational Guidance and Placement iswell prepared to counsel with employersregarding candidates for full-time and part-time positions. We serve students andgraduates, both new and old, and thereforecan assist in filling all types of positions.THE BOARD OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCEAND PLACEMENT*THE UNIVERSITY of CHICAGOTelephones: Midway 0800, Local 391THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILREUBEN FRODIN, '33Associate EditorCHARLTON T. BECK, '04Editor and Business ManagerBERN LUNDY, '37; WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD '22; DON MORRIS, '36; RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36Contributing EditorsN THIS ISSUETHE COVER: Gordon Jen- The article entitled "Alumni and schools on October 1, We wish therenings Laing, Professor Emeri- the University" contains news of Re- was room to print all of the addresses,tus of Latin, Dean Emeritus of union, the Alumni School and the some forty of them, but there ob-the Division of the Humanities, retir- various announcements made during viously is not. (So, come to theing General Editor of the University this crowded period pertaining to School next year if you did not thisPress — who is the new Alumni Dean University-Alumni relations and the year.)(see page 10). This new photograph Alumni Foundation. The photographs •of Mr. Laing was taken for the of Dean Laing and William V. Mor- Harald G. O. Hoick, '21, PhD '28,Magazine by Myron Davis. genstern, new Director of the Alumni wno writes a "profile" of his oldIt is with great pleasure that the Foundation, are by Myron Davis, friend and teacher, Anton J. Carlson,Magazine welcomes Dean Laing to The "stills" on pages 12 and 13 are is associate professor of pharmacologythe group of alumni workers. His taken from motion pictures taken by at the University of Nebraska Hisintellect and wit, his common sense Donald Bean, Executive Director of article was winner of fifth prize inand geniality, will make his per- the Fiftieth Anniversary. . this year's manuscript contest. Thesonality felt in the new work which • five prize-winning articles have beenhe is undertaking in behalf of the We are printing two of the many printed in the April, May and JuneUniversity. fine papers given at the fifth annual issues, and we hope to print some ofQ Alumni School by members of the the "honorable mention" manuscriptsPresident Hutchins, as has been faculty. One— Democracy— is by a next autumn.his custom since he assumed office -retiring member of the faculty, #eleven years ago, delivered the ad- Charles E. Merriam, Chairman of the In the past year and a half we hayedress to the June graduates at Con- Department of Political Science. The printed two articles on Who'svocation— the 200th in the Univev- other— on laboratory schools— is by Whosiana> one about members of thesity's fifty years. He spoke on what a newcomer, Stephen M. Corey, who faculty who were in WMs Who_^is perhaps the most important subject wl11 become Professor of Education compared witn other schools ; and an-of the day. He spoke on a level be- and Superintendent of the Laboratory other about alumni of the CoUege infitting his office; he called upon the — ~— — Who's Who. Now, fresh off thegraduating students to think, to think TABLE OF CONTENTS press is the 1940-41 issue. Brownleeabout what democracy means, and to JUNE, 1940 Haydon, '35, reports that 17.5% —think how we can make democracy T Pa§^ more than one in six — of the persons~. . - LvETTERS iv -1-effective. Books 3 m the new volume from the Chicago• Preparedness, Robert M. Hutchins... 5 metropolitan area are members of theThe Magazine is happy to be able John Matthews Manly, Robert M. University j print Robert Morss Lovett's ap- Lovett 8 fpreciation of John M. Manly in this Alumni and the University. 10 And s0 we come to the end ofissue. We wrote to Mr. Lovett in Democracy, Charles • E Merr, am 14 ^^ of tfae Maqa [ts, ^T. -. T , * r 1 • -. i Carlsoniana, Harald G. O. Hoick 16 . . ¦ Jthe Virgin Islands for the article ; and Laboratory school Responsibility, thirty-second. We ca 11 your attentionhis reply was prompt: "Of course." Stephen M. Corey 19 to the index of articles, authors andAs Professor James R. Hulbert wrote News of the Quadrangles, Bern book reviews in Volume 32. Ourthe Magazine after we asked him to Lundy 21 thanks to our contributors — regularlook over Mr. Lovett's proof: "He Athletics Don Morris •• ••••¦¦¦ 23, and occasional. The next issue,- in, , * Thinking It Over, Thomas t. Wood- n 'i -n • '±. • rnever writes so engagingly as he does iock 24 October, will inaugurate a series otwhen discussing Manly." News of the Glasses 29 Fiftieth Anniversary features.Published by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. atEllis Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the PostOffice at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group. Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of the University of Chicago Magazine.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESAILING ON 33,000-TON UNITED STATES FLAGS. S. BRAZIL S. S. URUGUAYS. S. ARGENTINASailing every other Friday from NewYork. Cruise rates $360tourist, $480 first class($550 certain seasons).Also 'Round South America Tours and Cruises.Consult your Travel Agent orMOOREJI^CORMACK/fitted5 BROADWAY NEW YORK POSTERITY CHEATEDTo the Associate Editor:Is it possible that Carl Beck's highlyentertaining and informative talk at theannual Alumni Reunion Assembly wastaken down in shorthand, so that thebrethren in the hinterlands could receive benefit from same, or is it lost toposterity ?Sincerely yours,John P. Howe, '27.Chicago[Unfortunately the Alumni Secretary's impromptu speech was not trans-scribed. Here is what he said Saturday morning to National Committeemenof the Alumni Foundation and Regional Advisers:"As one ambassador to another, Iwish to express my heartfelt gratitudeat the appointment of Dean Laing asAlumni Dean. The Alumni organization has long needed brains. In theAlumni office we try to furnish energyonly directly. This may prove to beof real moment to you as well as tome, and I can think of no man I wouldrather have representing the UniversityAlumni than Gordon Jennings Laing."I was to talk to you today about organization. You know, some years ago— five years ago, to be exact — -we organized the Alumni Committee on Information and Development. I'll letyou in on a secret — at the start wethought it was going to be a money-raising campaign. When we startedto organize, the Committee said: Tush,tush ! If we are gong to be a bunchof money-raisers only, we refuse toserve. There are more importantthings in this world than gettingmoney. First, we must interpret theUniversity to its Alumni ; secondly asimportant — if not a more importantphase — is that of persuading studentsof the right type to come to the Un-versity of Chicago. This is one responsibility of the Alumni. Then, andthen only, we may give a little thoughtto the raising of cash. So, if you cansee this in a broader way, we are willing to serve on the Committee.'"So we organized them and we divided the Committee into subdivisions.We had a subcommittee on interpretation of the University, and we had asubcommittee — we bated to use thatword 'recruiting,' it might not be academic — but a subcommittee on promoting of interests to the University withrespect to students . . . that sort ofcommittee : and third, a subcommitteeon alumni-giving."At this time I want to announce toyou that we are going to try to carry this organization out into all the villages of the country in whch we haveten or more alumni. In some cases, you— one person — will be the triumvirate.You will be the chairman of all threecommittees, but that will only be in thesmall towns. As opportunity grows,we will have three committeemen inthe town, and where the town is bigenough so there are enough alumni whoinsist upon having an Alumni Clubwe will have three, more or less, permanent representatives on that Club,appointed from Chicago, who will represent the University, the generalalumni organization and the local organization, as chairman in charge ofinterpretation, chairman in charge ofstudent promotion, and chairman incharge of Foundation affairs. Thesepeople will continue as long as theyare willing to assume the responsibilities of that work."]FROM ST. ANDREWSA few months ago Frederic Woodward, Director of the 50th AnniversaryCelebration, mailed announcements ofthe event to universities and colleges allover the world. (See cover, Magazine,February 1940.) Among the many acknowledgements was one from theUniversity of St. Andrews, Scotland.Translated from the Latin it reads :TO THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO THE UNIVERSITY OFST. ANDREWS SENDSGREETINGSNot unmindful, distinguished Sirs, inwhat great hope ever a new Universityis founded and to how many dangersit is exposed in its growth, we rejoicegreatly with you in that your University, having escaped all perils, now atlength after the lapse of fifty yearshas attained such splendid maturityand has realized the hope conceivedfrom its early years.(Continued on Page 28)70 Million Times a Daythe public tests BellSystem service. Themeasure of this serviceis not only its reliabilityand low cost, but thefriendly manner inwhich it is delivered.Bell Telephone aSystemTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBOOKSThe Chicago College Plan. ByChauncey Samuel BoucheY; Revisedand enlarged by A. J. Brumbaugh,Chicago : University of Chicago Press,'1940. $3.00.Not long ago I sat at a drugstorecounter beside a University student whowas hard at work on an assignment in"Soc. Sci." We fell into conversation."What are you learning from thecourse ?" I finally asked. "Two things,"he answered with directness. "I believeI know how to read a newspaper andI now can enter into an argument without losing my head." Then he amplified.He was excited. Obviously he was offon a new adventure.Dean Brumbaugh's revision of TheChicago College Plan substantiates thisstudent's reaction as typical of the general student attitude toward the socialscience course. One of the new chapters, "Student Evaluation of the Program," reports that the students haverated the social science course highestin the help it has given "to acquire habits of thought and methods of attackingproblems." To the question, "Shouldevery student be required to take thecourse?", the answer was 'yes' forninety per cent or more for the biologicalsciences, the humanities and the socialsciences, and seventy-nine per cent forthe physical sciences.This same chapter calls attention tothe increased interest in the biologicalsciences. In 1929, 9.5 per cent of thestudents entering the divisions from theCollege registered in the division of thebiological sciences ; in 1933, the percentage was 27 and in 1937, 27.5. The percentage distribution for the humanitieswas 26, 20, and 23.5; for the physicalsciences 15.5, 13 and 21 ; for the socialsciences 29, 40 and 28. This may be, asDean Brumbaugh points out, "a tendency toward equalization of registrationamong the divisions" but it may alsobe that this is a vindication of goodteaching since none of the four generalcourses seem to have the simplicity,compactness and clarity of the biological science course.Coming at the close of a decade'strial, the Dean's report has the perspective of experience not only of the ad-ministrational and instructional staff —who are gratified but not satisfied withthe enlarging experiment — but also ofstudents several years after their graduation. The many faceted presentationof the problems of the Plan such as comprehensive examinations, instructional material, personnel work is themain reason why the book is valuableto those of us engaged in scrutinizing,modifying, adapting, if not adopting,the Chicago plan in other institutions,both junior colleges and state universities.Since Dean Brumbaugh's special fieldis student personnel work, the reader isnot surprised to find cogent analysis ofthe general guidance problem and manyapt suggestions in the new chapter on"Student Guidance and PersonnelWork." The description is, of course,of the work carried on at the Universityof Chicago, but one feels that DeanBrumbaugh is no less concerned for thesuccess of advisers in other collegesacross the country. He gives us samplesof various record forms as well as casestudies, tabulations of results, instructors' analyses of individual students and— throughout — a generous sharing ofhis own insight.This is a volume for specialists ineducation. Just as teachers and ministers turned eagerly to Dr. Boucher'sfirst presentation of the Plan five yearsago, so will they study Dean Brumbaugh's enlarged report. Study, criticize, question, approve, dissent — butcontinue to discuss. However, The Chicago College Plan is more than a volume for specialists. It is provocative,and sometimes spirited, reading for anyman or woman intent upon understanding the matrix of American life. It doesnot concern itself with established habit-patterns of education but with establishing thought-processes which are notbound in a four -year frame. With ourappetites whetted by the new chaptersof this book, many of us will anticipatea further volume from Dean Brumbaughon the field of his special interest.Albin Bro,President.Frances Shimer College,Mt. Vernon, 111.A History of the Chicago Ladies'Garment Workers' Union. By Wilfred Carsel, '31, AM '32. Chicago:Normandie House, 1940. $2.50.This book, describing a group of Chicago union locals, is an interesting contribution to American labor history. Itfollows the collective biography of agroup of hard-working men and womenfor half a century, portrays their attempts to raise their material and cultural standards, and vividly carries thisstory through their varying tides offortune. The whole forms a good account of the historical evolution of aunion as a fighting organ, a businessorganization, a service and benefit institution, and an agency for civic improvement. Introduction by ProfessorPaul H. Douglas. SAN FRANCISCWORLD'S FA"• Here's your best vacationopportunity for 1940 — visit the SanFrancisco World's Fair and see the scenicwonderlands of the West on one trip.Chicago and North Western offers you tneluxurious comfort of its famous trains —the Streamliners for speed, the Challengersfor economy, the Pacific Limited for a thrill-ingly scenic ride. You have a wide choice ofroutes, including the short direct OverlandRoute (C. & N. W. - U. P. - S. P.) . Stopoversanywhere. Rail fares are low. Read thislist of bargain trips.SAN FRANCISCO and NEW YORKWorld's Fairs on one glorious circle trip,from any point in the United States, by anyroute you choose — round trip •__ __rail fare in coaches, only . . . *5J U.UUIn Pullmans (berth extra) .... $135.00For routine in one direction via the CanadianRockies, additional charge of $5.00 will apply.PACIFIC COAST — San Francisco, LosTHbiriU vWHOI Angeies pacific North-west. All the high spots of the West Coaston one grand circle tour. Round .__ __trip in coaches, from Chicago . *u5.UURAIIIDFR HAM— Lake Mead. En route toDUULUtlf VHHI or from California. Toursfrom Las Vegas, Nevada, at a nominal charge.fifll fiRAnfi — Sublime mountain vacation-UULUKAUU ,and overnight fromChicago, as low as *ol.lUYELL0WST0NE-Ma«ic *¥•* of geysers-,fc *"w,,"','"fc waterfalls, canyons.Round trip in Pullmans (berth - . _ _ftextra), from Chicago *4".3UZI0N, BRYCE, GRAND CANYON NAT'LPARKS — ^ee a three awe-inspiring wonder-lands on one tour. Round trip toCedar City in Pullmans (berth t__ __extra), from Chicago *50.bUBLACK HILLS, SO. Wkr™*S*east of the Rockies. Picturesque. Romantic.Site of Mt. Rushmore Memorial, m» mmfrom Chicago, as low as . . . *ZD.45SUN VALLEY, IDAHO ^T^S?^' tain resort onthe edge of America's "Last Wilderness."Round trip in coaches, from »_. __Chicago . . . *54.90CANADIAN ROCKIES v!anncff0LuaveLr°uienroute to or from the Pacific Coast.Round trip in coaches, from .__ __Chicago $65.00AUttM i2KSM2£S M05JH)NORTH WOODS MS^fcSKS— Forest playground of the Middle -ft __West, from Chicago, as low as . . *9.33r> — — -MAIL THIS COUPON- — — -iR. THOMSON, Passenger Traffic ManagerI Chicago & North Western Ry.Dept. 103—400 W. Madison St., Chicago, 111.Please send information about a trip to |I I| Name -- |I Address ID Also all-expense toursIf student, state grade Chicago and North WesternTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERALPH G. SANGER. Rolls r's, r2*s, r3's/~^NE of three members of the Univer-^-^ sity's faculty awarded $1,000 checksas the year's "best teachers," Ralph G.Sanger, 35, is a bushy-haired exponent ofmathematics with the pressure subtle butfull steam ahead. Stimulating students towork by kidding them when they fall down,Dr. Sanger exemplifies Informality, whichapparently is the one common denominatoramong the three "best teachers." Theyoung mathematician, working from theblackboard, speaks rapidly in a deep voice,makes his assignments a week in advance.One student said half the class disliked himhalf the time but all worked hard, learneda lot about mathematics. WINNERS OF $1000 AWARDSGIVEN ANNUALLY FOR "BEST"UNDERGRADUATE TEACHINGJAMES L. CATE, Makes 'em pop, saws 'em downA DVOCATE of a "modified" Socratic method of teaching the human-' ities, James L. Cate, 40, slight, reasoning deliberately in a plaintiveTexas drawl, likes a discussion class with at least one smart student whowill "pop off." In sawing down the popper Dr. Cate thinks this studentand the rest benefit more than by more saccharine handling. Onestudent said what she liked about young historian Cate was his sympathetic, conversational approach; the conscientious instructor, however, is inclined to regard himself as rather merciless. Aristotle andPlato were the books his instruction made more memorable, she thought.PAUL D. VOTH, Enthusiastic liverwort sprouterP NTHUSIASM for spreading botanical lore, which keeps him on a*— steady 1 2-hour schedule, sometimes runs it up to 48 hours, broughtthe teaching award to Dr. Paul D. Voth, introductory course mastermind, who like the other three winners is an alumnus of the University.Students watch him grow ecstatic over his plants, find it is infectious.Soon they are breeding tomatoes with the same zeal as their instructor.Round-faced, with a crew haircut, Dr. Voth, 35, believes in taking thestudents seriously. Ingenuity in experimenting with illustrative experiments, use when convenient of the Barnum touch (like Mimosa pudica),and exploitation of Chicago's fine but unappreciated facilities for personal contact with students make him effective. "We just can't keep'em out of the labs," he says.VOLUME XXXII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 9JUNE, 1940PREPAREDNESSConvocation Address: June 11, 1940I SHOULD like to talk this morning about preparedness. What I have to say comes down tothis : if you are going to prepare for war, you mustknow what you are willing to fight for. If you aregoing to defend territory, you must know what territory you are going to defend. If you are going todefend principles, you must know what your principlesare and wrhy you hold them. America's preparationsfor war, like the arguments of those who want the country to enter this one, seem directed to territorial problems, such as the imminent danger to the United Statesfrom an attack on the Dutch East Indies or Brazil.Though these issues are important, they are not as important as the issues of principle involved. We maybe faint-hearted, even in defense of our native land, ifwe believe that the enemy is just as right as we areor that we are just as wrong as he. The attention nowbeing lavished on territorial questions and the generalindifference to questions of principle suggest that thosewho talk of preparation for war either have no principles, or none they can communicate to others, or nosuch understanding of their principles as a life-and-deathstruggle for them would demand.We do not seem to get very far by talking aboutdemocracy. We know that Germany is not one. Shesays so. We know that Russia is not one, thoughStalin says she is one. We are not sure about someelements in the government of England and France. Weare not altogether sure about this Country. The reasonis, of course, that we do not know what a democracyis or grasp the fundamental notions on which it rests.We set out in the last war to make the world safe fordemocracy. We had, I think, no very definite idea ofwhat we meant. We seemed then to favor a parliamentary system. No matter what the system concealed,if the system was there, it was democracy, and we werefor it. Though Hitler is infinitely worse than theKaiser, though the danger to, the kind of government wethink we believe in is infinitely greater than in 1917, wehave less real, defensible conviction about democracynow than we had then. Too many so-called democracies have perished under the onslaught of an invaderwhose technical and organizing ability commands theadmiration of a people brought up to admire technicaland organizing skill. With our vague feeling thatdemocracy is just a way of life, a way of living pleas- • By ROBERT M. HUTCHINSantly in comparative peace with the world and oneanother, we may soon begin to wonder whether it canstand the strain of modern times, which, as our prophetsnever tire of telling us, are much more complicated thanany other times whatever.Is democracy a good form of government ? Is it worthdying for? Is the United States a democracy? If weare to prepare to defend democracy we must be able toanswer these questions. I repeat that our ability toanswer them is much more important than the quantityor quality of aeroplanes, bombs, tanks, flame-throwers,and miscellaneous munitions that we can hurl at theenemy. You may take it from Hitler himself. He saidto Rauschning : "Mental confusion, contradiction of feeling, indecisiveness, panic: these are our weapons. " Inview of the huge resources of this country, all that wehave to fear is that the moral and intellectual stamina ofthe defenders will not be equal to an attack upon it.Now democracy is not merely a good form of government; it is the best. As such it is worth dying for.Though the democratic ideal has long been cherishedin this country, it has never been attained. Nevertheless,it can be attained if we have the intelligence to understand it and the will to achieve it. We must achieve itif we would defend democracy. J. Middleton Murry,an Englishman, said of England a month ago : "Thiscountry, as it is, is incapable of winning a Christianvictory, because it simply is not Christian/ ' Withoutpassing on the specific application of this general principle, we can at least agree that the principle is soundand that no country can win a democratic victory unlessit is democratic.The reasons why democracy is the best form of government are absurdly simple. It is the only form ofgovernment that can combine three characteristics : law,equality, and justice. A totalitarian state has none ofthese, and hence, if it is a state at all, it is the worstof all possible states.I do not have to tell you at your age that men arenot angels. They have reason, but they do not alwaysuse it. They are swayed by emotions and desires thatmust be held in check. Law is an expression of theircollective rationality, by which they hope to educateand control themselves. Law is law only if it is anordinance of reason directed to the good of the com-56 THE 'UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmunity. It is not law if. it is an expression of passionor designed for the benefit of pressure groups. We havea government of men and not of laws when the causeof legislative enactments is anything but reason and itsobject anything but the common good.The equality of all men in the political organizationresults inexorably from the eminent dignity of everyindividual. Every man is an end; no man is a means.No man can be deprived of his participation in thepolitical society. He cannot be exploited or slaughteredto serve the ends of. others. We have no compunctionsabout refusing animals the ballot. We have few aboutexploiting or slaughtering them in our own interest. Butthe human animal is bound to recognize the humanquality of every other human animal. Since humanbeings, to achieve their fullest humanity, require politicalorganization and participation therein, other humanbeings cannot deny them those political rights whichhuman nature inevitably carries with it.These same considerations help us to understand thatthe state is not an end in itself, as the Nazis think, or amere referee, as the Liberty Leaguers used to say. Political organization's a means to the good of the community. And the common good itself is a means to thehappiness and well-being of the citizens. The commongood is peace, order, and justice, justice in all political,social, and economic relations. Justice is the good ofthe community. But what is the community? It iscertainly something more than an aggregation of peopleliving in the same area. A community implies thatpeople are working together, and people cannot worktogether unless they have common principles and purposes. If half a crew of men are tearing down a houseas the other half are building it, we do not say they areworking together. If half a group of people are engaged in robbing, cheating, oppressing, and killing theother half, we should not say the group is a community.Common principles and purposes create a community;justice, by which we mean a fair allocation of functions,rewards, and punishments, in terms of the rights of manand the principles and purposes of the community, holdsit together.The state, then, is not merely conventional, representing a compromise of warring interests who havefinally decided that mutual sacrifices by subordinationto a central authority are preferable to mutual extermination. The state is necessary to achieve justice in thecommunity. And a just society is necessary to achievethe terrestrial ends of human life.With this background we can detect the error in theextreme pacifist position. Since the individual cannotexist without the community and the community cannot exist without the adherence of its members, theindividual must respond to the call of the communityand be prepared to surrender his goods, his temporalinterests, and even his life to defend the communityand the principles for which and through which it stands.These principles are the essence of the community.We see, then, that we are back where we started. Webegan with the importance of principles in defense. Wemust now add that without principles and commonprinciples clearly understood and deeply felt there can be no political community at all. There can be only aconglomeration of individuals wrestling with one another in the same geographical region.Let us inquire, then, into what is' needed if we are tounderstand clearly and feel deeply the principles onwhich democracy rests. What is the basis of these principles of law, equality, and justice? In the first place,in order to believe in these principles at all we mustbelieve that there is such a thing as truth and that inthese matters we can discover it. We are generallyready to concede that there is truth, at least of a provisional variety, in the natural sciences. But there canbe no experimental verification of the proposition thatlaw, equality, and justice are the essentials of a goodstate. If there is nothing true unless experiment makesit so, then what I have been saying is not true, for Ihave not relied on any experimental evidence. Butprinciples which are not true are certainly not worthfighting for. We must then agree that truth worthfighting for can be found outside the laboratory. Valuable as the truths are that may be found in it, truthsabout the ends of life and the aims of society are notsusceptible of laboratory investigation.Now truth is of two kinds, theoretical and practical.Theoretical truth tells us what is the case: Practicaltruth tells us what should be done. The test of theoretical truth is conformity to reality. A statement about thenature of man, for example, is true if it describes manas he actually is. The test of practical truth is the goodness of the end in view. The first principle in the practical order is that men should do good and avoid evil.The statement, for example, that men should lay downtheir lives in a just war is true, if the war is just. Thestatement that they should wage war to gain power orwealth or to display their virility is false.In order to believe in democracy, then, we must believe that there is a difference between truth and falsity,good and bad, right and wrong, and that truth, goodness, and right are objective standards even though theycannot be experimentally verified. They are not whims,prejudices, rationalizations, or Sunday school tags. Wemust believe that man can discover truth, goodness, andright by the exercise of his reason, and that he may doso even as to those problems which, in the nature of thecase, science can never solve.It follows, of course, that in order to believe thesethings we must believe that man has reason, that hedoes not act from instinct alone, and that all his conductcannot be explained in terms of his visceral reactions orhis emotional inheritance. As Gilbert Murray once putit, not all human activities are the efflorescence of man'sdespair at finding that by the law of his religion he maynot marry his grandmother. But in order to believe indemocracy we must believe something more. We mustsee that the moral and intellectual powers of men arethe powers which make them men and that their end onearth is the fullest development of these powers. Thisinvolves the assumption, once again, that there is a difference between good and bad and that man is a rationalanimal. There is no use talking about moral powersif there is no such thing as morals, and none in talkingabout intellectual powers if men do not possess them.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7Man's will is free to range over the good and the bad.What determines the will is habit. A man who is enslaved by bad habits is not free. The drunkard, thethief, and the ignoramus are not free. The moral and intellectual development of free men takes the form ofbringing them through the family, through law, andthrough education to good moral and intellectual habits.This is true freedom; there is no other.Since this freedom is the end of human life, everything else in life should be a means to it and should besubordinate to it as means must be to ends. This istrue of material goods, which are a means, and a verynecessary one, but not an end. It is true of the state,which is an indispensable means, but not an end. It istrue of all human activities and all human desires : theyare all ordered to and must be judged by the end ofmoral and intellectual development.The political organization must be tested by its conformity to these ideals. Its basis is moral. Its end isthe good for man. Only democracy has this basis. Onlydemocracy has this end. If we do not believe in thisbasis or this end, we do not believe in democracy. Theseare the principles which we must defend if we are todefend democracy.Are we prepared to defend these principles? Ofcourse not. For forty years and more our intellectualleaders have been telling us they are not true. Theyhave been telling us in fact that nothing is true whichcannot be subjected to experimental verification. In thewhole realm of social thought there can therefore benothing but opinion. Since there is nothing but opinion,everybody is entitled to his own opinion. There is nodifference between good and bad ; there is only the difference between expediency and inexpediency. We cannot even talk about good and bad states or good and badmen. There are no morals ; there are only the folkways.The test of action is its success, and even success is amatter of opinion. Man is no different from the otheranimals; human societies are no different from animalsocieties. The aim of animals and animal societies, ifthere is one, is subsistence. The aim of human beingsand human societies, if there is one, is material comfort.Freedom is simply doing what you please. The onlycommon principle that we are urged to have is that thereare no principles at all.All this results in a colossal confusion of means andends. Wealth and power becomes the ends of life. Menbecome merely means. Justice is the interest of thestronger. This, of course, splits the community in two.How can there be a community between exploited andexploiters, between those who work and do not own andthose who own and do not work, between our Negrofellow-citizens and those who have disfranchised them,between those who are weak and those who are strong?Moral and intellectual and artistic and spiritual development are not with us the aim of life ; they receive the fagends of our attention and our superfluous funds. Weno longer attempt to justify education by its contributionto moral, intellectual, artistic, and spiritual growth. Theonly argument that really tells is that college graduateshave a statistical probability of making more money and becoming more prominent than those who never hadtheir educational advantages.Thus we come much closer to Hitler than we maycare to admit. If everything is a matter of opinion, andif everybody is entitled to his own opinion, force becomes the only way of settling differences of opinion.And of course if success is the test of Tightness, right ison the side of the heavier battalions. In law school Ilearned that law was not concerned with reason or justice. Law was what the courts would do. Law, saysHitler, is what I do. There is little to choose betweenthe doctrine I learned in an American law school andthat which Hitler proclaims.Precisely here lies our unpreparedness against theonly enemy we may have to face. Such principles aswe have are not different enough from Hitler's to makeus very rugged in defending ours in preference to his.Moreover, we are not united and clear about such principles as we have. We are losing our moral principles.But the vestiges of them remain to bother us and to interfere with a thoroughgoing commitment to amoralprinciples. Hence we are like confused, divided, ineffective Hitlers. In a contest between Hitler and peoplewho are wondering why they shouldn't be Hitlers thefinished product is bound to win.To say we are democrats is not enough. To say weare humanitarians will not do, for the basis of any realhumanitarianism is a belief in the dignity of man andthe moral and spiritual values that follow from it. Democracy as a fighting faith can be only as strong as theconvictions which support it. If these are gone,democracy becomes simply one of many ways of organizing society, and must be tested by its efficiency. Todate democracy looks less efficient than dictatorship.Why should we fight for it? We must have a betteranswer than that it is a form of government we are usedto or one that we irrationally enjoy.Democracy is the best form of government. It isworth dying for. We can realize it in this country if wewill grasp the principles on which it rests and recognizethat unless we are devoted to them with our whole heartsdemocracy cannot prevail at home or abroad. In thegreat struggle that may lie ahead, truth, justice, andfreedom will conquer only if we know what they are andpay them the homage they deserve. This is the kind ofpreparedness most worth having, a kind without whichall other preparation is worthless. This kind of preparedness has escaped us so far. It is your duty to yourcountry to do your part to recapture and revitalize thoseprinciples which alone make life worth living or deathon the field of battle worth facing.The Human AdventureBeginning Saturday evening, June 22, the radio program, "The Human Adventure," produced by the University and the Columbia Broadcasting System, will beheard at a new time. The program — dramatizing theresearch achievements — will be heard Saturdays at8:30 P. M., Eastern Daylight Time, 7:30 P. M., CentralDaylight Time, 6:30 P. M., Central Standard Time, 5 :30P. M., Mountain Time and 4:30 P. M„ Pacific Time.JOHN MATTHEWS MANLYAn Appreciation• By ROBERT MORSS LOVETT*IN THE fall of 1888 I was a freshman at Harvard.There was another freshman there whom I did notmeet because he was in the graduate school. Twoyears later, at a meeting of the English Club I wasintroduced to a young man with whose slight figure, keen face and genial, almost jaunty manner Iwas to become intimate through many years. At thatfirst meeting I noticed the tone ofdeference with which he was addressed by members of the faculty asDoctor Manly. In those primitivedays the doctorate was not commonin modern language circles. No oneelse in the department had the degree— not Kittredge, nor Hill, nor Briggs,nor Wendell, nor Baker — only Professor Child. I fancy that we tendedto refer all questions to Doctor Manlyfor the pleasure of pronouncing thetitle. He was never at a loss for ananswer, and this readiness he carriedthrough life. He bore the deferencewhich was accorded liim with a nonchalance which relieved the depressingeffect of omniscience. It was alwayscharacteristic of Manly to carry hislearning easily.John Manly was then twenty-five,having been born in Sumter County,Alabama September 21, 1865. Hisgrandfather, a leading clergyman ofthe state, had offered an unsuccessful prayer at theinauguration of Jefferson Davis as president of theSouthern Confederacy. His father, also a clergyman,was president of Furman University, South Carolina,where John Manly became Master of Arts at the age ofnineteen. He went at once to William Jewell College.Missouri, as professor of Mathematics where he stayedfour years. Then he came to Harvard.Many years ago I wrote a piece about Professor Manlyfor a University publication, and because of the freshnessof the impression, I quote some paragraphs :"It is speaking within bounds to say that Manlyfounded the Harvard graduate school of modernlanguage. There were existing materials and parts ofsuch a school, but they had never been assembled. Professor Child was teaching Shakespeare and elementaryOld English; Professor Sheldon was instructor in elementary French; Professor Kittredge was reading"sophomore themes." But at the demand of a realstudent higher studies formulated themselves. Theyoung scholar had taken all knowledge as his province,and the university felt and responded to his challenge toits universality. When in 1890 Manly took his Ph.D."Professor Emeritus of English; Government Secretary, Virgin Islands.JOHN M. MANLY, 1865-1940degree, Harvard had a graduate school."The following autumn Manly was back at Harvard,as announced at the English Club, for a course of self-directed study and general reading. 'What is Dr. Manlygoing t6 read?' asked an obscure member. 'He's goingto read the Harvard Library,' replied Professor Hill.This was said cynically, but it came near being true.Where others measured their readingby pages, or chapters, or volumes,Manly read by the stack. He wasprobably between a third and halfwaythrough his task when shortly afterChristmas he was called to be head ofthe English department at BrownUniversity."He returned to Harvard the sameyear to teach Old English in the Summer School. The class consisted offour members : besides myself therewere W. T. Brewster, now professorof English at Columbia, and two ladies.The class period was two hours, andthe study period about ten. We allflunked every recitation, for though wegot to know a great deal more thanwhen we began, the disproportion between what we knew and what Manlycould prove we did not know remainedabout constant. He had no' concernwith what we had done or could do —not the 'petty done' but the 'undonevast' interested him."I learned of Dr. Manly 's appointment to the HeadProfessorship of English at the University of Chicagoin the spring of 1898, when I was reading at the BritishMuseum. I put on speed. It was still with some trepidation that I appeared on the campus in the autumn,wondering if Manly would remember me, hoping thathe^would not. As I walked toward Cobb Hall a cabpassed me, stopped, and out of it swung my new chiefwhose greeting immediately established a friendshipwhich lasted for forty years. In the schedule which hehad drawn up for the year he had included the coursesI had been preparing. Indeed, we all experienced thatautumn the characteristic that made Manly a head professor: — the understanding effort to give everyone theopportunity to do the best that he had in him. So longas he felt that a colleague or student was doing that hewas endlessly patient. Naturally, with all the respectthat we accorded him went affection and devotion.In these years I saw much of Manly out of school. Hejoined the Lake Zurich Golf Club to which a number offaculty men belonged, — Carpenter, Angell, Gale, Jordan,Laing, Bigelow and others —, and seldom did a week passwithout our quoting Surrey's line, "How glad I was thatTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9I had gotten out." We had a dining club called theWindbag, promoted by Herrick, with Manly, A. C.Miller, Schevill and Moody as members. Sometimescame William I. Thomas, who was Manly' s and my ownvery close friend. Yet with all his jovial spirit Manly hada deep underlying strain of pessimism, which showeditself in his lectures on Omar Khayyam, in whom hefound a kindred spirit.Manly came to Chicago with a reputation as a scholarbased chiefly on his edition of Macbeth and on two volumes of the Pre-Shakespearicm Drama. For a time itseemed that this would be his major field of activity.Shortly after coming to Chicago he wrote a slashingreview of Professor A. Brandl's edition of early Englishplays for the Journal of English and Germanic Philology.It was then that we realized Manly's extraordinary appetite for work, in which for weeks he would forget foodand sleep. President Harper, who enjoyed the samecapacity and began his day early, once proposed to seethe Head of the English Department at six a.m. "That'sa little past my bedtime," replied Manly, "but I'll situp for it."In those days scholarship seemed to be for Manly akind of game — the highest form of intellectual sportsmanship. This conception gave room for play of imagination, for happy guesses to be verified later by hardwork. A hint derived from an apparent hiatus in thetext of Piers Plowman led him to infer a lost leaf fromthe original manuscript, and thence a hypothesis rejecting the current theory of the three versions as the workof one author. This adventure led to a controversy withM. Jusserand. The mutation theory of Dr. Devries inspired Manly to apply the concept of the saltus to theevolution of literary forms, especially the mediaevaldrama. It was doubtless Manly's sporting instinct thatled him to accept an invitation from Colonel GeorgeFabyan to investigate the claims for the Baconian authorship of the plays commonly attributed to Shakespeare —and incidentally of most of the rest of Elizabethan literature — based on statements in cipher to be found in earlyprinted texts. The time spent in examining minutely andpatiently this aspect of an ancient controversy was notwasted. Two years later the United States was at warand Manly as an expert in the art of cipher readingjoined the Intelligence Division of the army with therank of Captain, and became the efficient head of thebureau of ciphers and code-reading. He recruited hisstaff largely from his pupils and colleagues who sharedthe combination of imagination and industry which characterized all Manly's work. To this bureau were referredintercepted code message and ciphers, and the record ofthe rapidity with which they were translated is aromantic chapter in the history of scholarship in war.I have been told by his co-workers that Manly couldalmost invariably tell by a cursory examination of aspecimen to what type it belonged, and indicate on whatlines the reading should proceed. I doubt if he wasever happier than in this work. Here he found abundantexercise for his faculty of guessing right, his sustainedmental energy, and his genius for working with othersand directing them.In addition to his scholarly work Manly took on manyadditional tasks, including a manual of style for the University of Chicago Press (with Mr. J. W. Powell).He was the first to conceive the plan of bringing sufficient material together in a single volume to give acomprehensive view of English literature as a whole,as in his English Prose and Poetry, with its incomparable Notes. W7ith his most distinguished pupil, MissEdith Rickert, he wrote text-books of English composition, and compiled the useful manuals of contemporaryEnglish and American authors.Manly's interest covered every period and every formof literature. His great reading made him a competentcritic of work in every field. As head of his departmenthe touched them all with vivifying influence. If I referto my own experience it is because I know that it istypical. One day he suggested to me a course in theEnglish drama of the 19th century. When I demurredon account of the barren literary character of the material, he remarked that M. Filon had written an interesting if rather thin volume on the subject, and that thevery mediocrity of the English playwrights laid themopen to foreign influences — Scribe, Augier, Dumas fils,Ibsen, Tolstoy. I did not care much for Milton, andhardly thought that Manly did until his speech in Londonon Milton's centenary came to us, with its strikingobservation that Milton, if living today, would be in thevan of every progressive movement save only that forthe advancement of women. Once when I told Manlythat I thought journalism rather than scholarship wasmy metier, and that I was more interested in socialvalues than in literature as such, he replied : "Why don'tyou take the nineteenth century as a journalist, a contemporary, who saw literature in just that way?"The last decade of his life Manly devoted in collaboration with Miss Rickert to his critical edition ofChaucer's Canterbury Tales, in the preparation of whichhe studied every manuscript making annual journeysto Europe, and setting up in Wieboldt Hall a laboratoryfor literary research which became a model. As alwayshe was interested not merely in special problems but inthe method, the technique, of literary scholarship in itsgeneral application. In these years Manly toiled at thetop of his strength, or beyond it. The spirit of sportsmanship was still with him, the delight in discovery, theimmediate aesthetic joy of the scientist in the work forits own sake, but more and more the responsibility forthe completion of an enterprise to which the Universityand its friends had given unstinted aid, weighed uponhim. The long illness and death of Miss Rickert werea loss which made his burden heavier. In those lastdays he struggled forward in what was literally a raceagainst a fate which he knew was inevitable. He sufferedfrom frequent stoppage of breath, leading to violentspasms of coughing— "A dozen times a day," he saidto me, "I do not know whether I have iivt minutes moreto live." In all this pressure of work and suffering heretained the courage born of stoicism and the perfectsweetness of spirit which more than ever inspired admiration and affection. It was his merited reward to seehis great work in its final form published by the University which he had served so long and with suchdistinction. Never was the title "Distinguished ServiceProfessor" more worthily bestowed, or more honorablyborne.ALUMNI AND THE UNIVERSITYONCE again — in this turbulent year of 1940 —alumni of the University returned to the Midway.Thousands of them came — to meet old friends andhave fun, to renew acquaintances with the faculty, andto participate in the instructive sessions of the AlumniSchool. The Alumni School, five years old now, nolonger needs an explanation. It is like the Universityitself — a program, on a scale fitting for a week's time —for understanding democracy and the University's rolein preserving it. Free discussion of problems, lectureson the results of free inquiry — these are the tenets of theprogram. Once again alumni and the University met oncommon ground.President Hutchins, in his annual Alumni Assemblyspeech, reminded his audience that in the days to come,because of the international crisis, they wCuld hearmore about the statements and attitudes of the student.Remember, he said, that there is no such thing as "thestudent attitude; there are student attitudes." I mustcrave your indulgence for the undergraduates. Theywill be most closely involved in whatever decisions aremade. They must have full and free discussion.""This is the darkest hour in history. Your AlmaMater asks you to join with her in keeping the torch oflearning burning in the hope that sometime, somehow itmay once again illumine the world."THE NEW ALUMNI DEANDuring the Reunion Week, held this year betweenJune 3 to 8 with an attendance of 8,000 alumni, the following announcements of interest to all former studentsof the University were made :1. President Hutchins announced the creation of anew University post, that of Alumni Dean. Gordon Jennings Laing, Dean Emeritus of the Division of Humanities and retiring Editor of the University Press, will fillthe new office.2. More than 5,000 alumni have already contributedover $250,000 to the Alumni Foundation.3. The Alumni Foundation will continue during thesummer its active solicitation for the Fiftieth Anniversary Gift."BILL" MATHER "BILL" MORGENSTERNRETIRING AND NEW FOUNDATION DIRECTORS The announcement of the Alumni Dean was made byPresident Hutchins at a joint meeting of Regional Advisers and Alumni Foundation chairmen. He pointedout that this was another step toward closer University-Alumni relations and a contribution to the developmentof a new concept of alumni relations in the United States.The new dean will be an ambassador-at-large for theUniversity. He will transmit to the University the ideas,sentiments, and particular information of alumni. Onthe other hand he will help to make the University's educational opportunities and its special knowledge available to the alumni in such a way that they can apply it intheir daily lives. President Hutchins remarked : "Ithink this means a new day in alumni relations in theUnited States. I hope you will avail yourselves of theopportunity to make known to the University what youwant in this respect and what you would like to see theUniversity do."Dean Laing is a graduate of the University of Torontoand of the Johns Hopkins University. He has been alecturer in Bryn Mawr College, Professor in the American Academy in Rome, Professor at the University ofCalifornia, Dean of the Faculty of Arts at McGill University (Montreal), Professor of Latin and Dean of theDivision of Humanities in the University from 1923 to1935. He was General Editor of the University Pressfrom 1908-1921, absent at McGill University for a year,and again Editor of the Press 1923-1940. He retiresfrom this position September 30, at which time he willassume his new duties as Alumni Dean.Dean Laing has been called the wittiest after-dinnerspeaker in Chicago. In the light of his academic andpersonal qualifications, probably no more popular or appropriate choice could have been made for this new office.Mr. Laing will work closely with Alumni SecretaryCharlton Beck, '04, whose chain of duties has increasedmany-fold since he took over the fourth floor of CobbHall twelve years ago, in "covering" the United Statesand continuing the program of speakers arranged duringthe past year. Associate Professor Carey Croneis willcarry on as director of the Speaker's Bureau.The alumni response to Dean Laing's appointment wasexpressed by Clifton M. Utley, '26, National Chairmanof the Alumni Foundation, at the breakfast for RegionalAdvisers and Foundation Chairmen Saturday morning,where the advance announcement was made. "The University needs the alumni more than ever before and thealumni need the University. Free institutions in thiscountry are going to be under increasingly heavy attack. It is not through conformity that the universitieshave made their contribution to the culture and civilization of America and the world. We are the ones who,knowing this and recognizing it, must be the first to go tothe defense of our universities when they are attacked, asthey inevitably will be in the period to come. I believe,that the* appointment of the Alumni Dean will help usdo so by bringing us closer to the University. ... Byhelping our University we are in the largest possible10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11sense helping ourselves, helping freedom, and the thingswhich made up our American life."PROGRESS OF ANNIVERSARY GIFTPresident Hutchins made the first announcement ofthe growth of the Fiftieth Anniversary Gift to a total ofmore than $250,000 at the same joint meeting of Regional Advisers and Alumni Foundation Chairmen. Insupport of the importance of the gift we cite what thePresident calls his "triple-headed syllogism" :The time when we need light most is when it is darkest, and it is darkest now — probably darker than at anyother time in history. The fate of the world dependsupon its intellectual and moral development. The futureof intellectual and moral development depends on education. The only place in which education is being conducted now is the United States. The fate of educationin the United States depends on the endowed universities. The fate of the endowed universities in the UnitedStates depends on the University of Chicago. Therefore,the fate of the world depends on the University ofChicago.President Hutchins at the same time paid tribute tothe work of the Regional Advisers. "The students whocome to the University because of the work of the Regional Advisers," he said, "are the best students that wereceive . . . But what seems to me to be more importantis that you have served as a center of influence in interpret the University to your communities. This you doconsciously while unconsciously you represent the standards for which the University strives."He also pointed out to the assembled Regional Advisers and Chairmen that the present international situationhas complicated the University's financial problem inasmuch as it discourages the giving of large gifts. "TheUniversity will have to depend more and more on income from students and on relatively small but relatively steady gifts from many sources." But as President Hutchins pointed out, this does not mean that theUniversity will allow its work in the field of alumni relations to become concentrated on financial matters. TheAlumni School is the best possible example of an alumniprogram that has no financial implications. The appointment of an Alumni Dean is another step toward attainingthe real goal of University-alumni relations — relationswhereby the alumni become educational outposts of theUniversity and whereby University and alumni bothprofit from the association.FOUNDATION WORK TO CONTINUEIn a separate session during the crowded week ofalumni activity, the Alumni Foundation Chairmen votedto continue their solicitation of pledges over the summer. The appointment of William V. Morgenstern, '20,JD '22, to succeed William J. Mather, '17, as Directorof the Alumni Foundation was also announced. Mr.Morgenstern has served as Director of Press Relationsfor the University since 1927. During the past year hehas been Director of Publicity for the Anniversary Celebration and for the Alumni Foundation. Mr. Matherhad been "borrowed" by the Foundation from his administrative post of University Bursar for six months.The Chairmen decided to continue their work over thesummer so that they could wind up their program of ALUMNI DEAN LAINGpersonal calls which has proved to be the most effectiveway of reaching the alumni. They intend to invite everyalumnus to participate in the Anniversary Gift. Goodwill for the University, increased loyalties, and a deeperunderstanding of the University — as well as pledges tothe gift fund — result from personal calls as these reportsmade by some of the National Committeemen indicate:Dr. D. H. Glomset, Des Moines: "This idea of soliciting money is a small part of the real purpose of theFoundation. We want alumni that will be heart andsoul for the University all the time . . . the Universityand alumni to realize that they are one body." WalterLybrand, Oklahoma City: "There has been not only anemphasis on money but on an interest in the University.When a dollar is given, that produces a stronger interest." Mrs. Charles Bassett, Kansas City: "We have ayoung university in Kansas City and a considerablenumber of the faculty are Chicago people — PhD's — andwe got almost 100 per cent contributions from them.They all think a great deal of the University."/. /. Walker, Macomb, Illinois: "I think the appointment of Dean Laing was a very good idea and I hopethe University will continue to circularize the alumniwith material such as they have been getting in the pastyear. I think we should continue the campaign and follow up our contacts with alumni." F. H. Fuller, Detroit: "I am for continuing the campaign — or missionarywork until the job is done. We aren't much more thanhalf done in Detroit and it would be a mistake to stop."William S. Harmon, Columbus, Ohio: "I approve ofcarrying on this campaign and, from my experience in12 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO M A G A Z I N EOur OwnMovie ReelTop to bottom: Business ManagerWilliam B. Harrell at the LaskerEstate; Speakers at the ChicagoClub dinner — Trustees MarshallField, Albert Lasker, Robert M.Hutchins, Edward L. Ryerson; Bot-torn: Lyndon Lesch, AssistantTreasurer, at the Lasker Estate. the field, I think if youspent every cent collectedin doing the work you arecarrying on it would stillbe worth while." CharlesV. Stansell, an editor onthe Kansas City Star: "Ido not think there is anydoubt whatsoever that weshould continue. The University should be kept before, not only the alumni,but the people." Mr. Stansell brought with him pageprdfjf of a page spread featuring pictures and thestory of the Universityand its Fiftieth Anniversary celebration. The University, he insisted, isdefinitely news. He recommended continuing thepolicy of releasing goodliterature and news storiesabout the University. Itwas this literature whichinspired the story for theSunday edition.REUNION WEEKReunion week and thefifth annual Alumni Schoolwere in themselves a five-ring affair. From thebasement of InternationalHouse to the roof of Ryerson Physical Laboratorythe week was crammedwith the most varied program ever offered foralumni consumption. Inaddition to classes in Man-del Hall, simultaneoussessions were held at Eckhart, Breasted, and Hutchinson halls and at International House. From hisheadquarters at MandelHall, Dean Paul V.Harper, '08, JD '13— withthe assistance of presidingofficers at the other points— supervised the week'sSchool activities, leavingLawrence H. Whiting,'13, free to superintendthe general reunion program. Susannah Riker,'22, of Osaka, Japan, acquired the distance recordamong those attending theSchool. The best-attended dinner meeting was Tuesday's whenMortimer J. Adler said: "Most adult education startswhere it finds people— as it should — but it leaves themwhere it finds them : amused for a while, better informed,but not mentally improved. My proposal is that adulteducation should be liberal education, achieved by reading and discussion of the great book. Such a programwill sharpen the mind and cultivate its insights." Themain dining hall of Hutchinson, two private diningrooms, and the Coffee Shop did not accommodate thecrowd — and the remainder overflowed into the Reynolds Club lounge for Dr. Adler's lecture on "AdultEducation."Following his talk on "Exploring the Universe," Walter Bartky, associate professor of astronomy, invitedthose few who wished to check upon his facts to the roofof Ryerson for a peek at the universe through the telescope there. Professor Bartky got only to the secondfloor of Ryerson before he encountered the beginning ofa line of more than two hundred alumni students whohad accepted his invitation, jamming the stairway to thefourth-floor entrance to the roof.The first afternoon of the School, Dean Edith Abbottof the School of Social Service Administration, introduced a dozen Chicago alumni who hold prominent socialservice positions in the nation. They had returned to thequadrangles at the invitation of Miss Abbott and theAlumni School dean to tell their fellow alumni the storyof American social work in 1940.Back into the past went the Music department for itsinstructive and entertaining matinee program. With astring ensemble, vocal quartet, and soloists, the Department brought to the "students" unsung and unplayedmusic of early generations to illustrate the informal talkby secretary of the department, Cecil Smith.Another new departure in this year's program was theThursday spent at International House. It included amorning tour through the building, and afternoon session in the lounge, at which students from numerous foreign countries expressed their views as to "what andwhy" their homelands were doing, a dinner, and an evening entertainment supplied by the various foreign student groups living in the House.Scientific scrutiny of the war talk occupied alumni insome Mandel Hall sessions. Dr. Louis Gottschalk saidin one lecture that Hitler-Napoleon comparisons are asinconclusive as the one which asserts they are alikebecause they were both corporals. Hitler was ; Napoleon,though famous as "the little corporal," was not. He wasnothing when he entered military school, a lieutenantwhen he left.Speak softly and carry a big stick (Theodore Roosevelt's motto) still seems good to me, said Charles E.Merriam, Professor of Political Science, Friday eveningwhen he spoke on "Democracy." "For my part I holdthat America will triumph through this, the greatest ordeal in modern times ; not merely in a material or a military sense but in the higher and finer values where lifereally dwells in its fullness." Professor Merriam's address is reproduced elsewhere in this issue of theMagazine.A new empire on the Amazon might well be devel-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13oped and any have-not fiation might welcome an opportunity to take charge of the region, according to RobertS. Platt professor of geography, who spoke at one ofthe sessions of the Alumni School. Though the countryside is almost 100 per cent habitable, its population is lessthan one person per square mile. But in this nationalistic world, Professor Platt said, "fences" have been erectedto protect established property rights ; Brazil is for theBrazilians and, even though Brazilians don't seem tocare about living in the Amazon basin, they also don'twant outsiders there.STAGG SURPRISES "C" MENSurprising the "C" men at their annual banquet inHutchinson Commons, AmOs Alonzo Stagg walked injust as they were about to sit down to dinner. A placeat the speaker's table was quickly made and the crowdeddining hall was filled with a cheer. In a short talk, Mr.Stagg said that he hoped and expected all "C" men to beloyal supporters of the University, and told of the satisfaction it gave him to look back on his own annual contributions to his alumni fund. Mr. Stagg was the guestof honor and principal speaker at a recent Los Angelesmeeting of Chicago alumni.President Hutchins told the "C" men that the footballdecisioa as having been made after the Board of Trusteeswere convinced that the University could not preservethe ideals left it by Stagg and remain in the intercollegiate game. If or when that time comes, the Presidentsaid, he was sure the Board would be more than willingto reconsider its action. In the meantime football, whichhe considered a good game, would be played by fraternities class and other groups on an intramural basis.THE ANNUAL ALUMNI ASSEMBLYThe most significant alumni accomplishments in thepast decade, according to Trustee John Nuveen, Jr., '18,chairman of both the Alumni Council and the AlumniFoundation, were outlined in his talk at the Saturdayafternoon Alumni Assembly:1. The Alumni Committee on Information and Development.2. The Alumni School, which has just completed itsfifth session.3. The Regional Adviser Plan (begun in 1937).4. The Reorganization Committee of the AlumniCouncil (1938).5. The Alumni Foundation (1939).The step that we are taking in 1940 — the creation ofthe post of Alumni Dean, said Mr. Nuveen in closing,"is to me of much more importance and significance thanany of these others. It represents distinctly a phase ofalumni work in which we will be largely pioneering andit offers, believe, the greatest potentialities to you andto me and to the University of any action effecting thealumni that has yet been taken."Here again the University has been quick to respondto our suggestion and to give us as complete cooperationas anyone could ask for. The rest remains with us.Speaking for the Alumni Council, I can only promiseyou that we will try to see that during the coming year the opportunity will not belacking to anyone who desires to make a constructive contribution to ourcommunity, nation, or thishectic world, with the talents which this Universityhas furnished him."HONOR ROLLThe list of. communitieshaving contributions from100 per cent of theiralumni continues to grow.The following havereached this goal since thelast issue of the Magazine :Pompano, FloridaCampbellsburg, IllinoisNebo, IllinoisPrinceville, IllinoisStickney, IllinoisOnsted, MichiganDenver, North CarolinaAmarillo, TexasThorsby, AlabamaMission Beach, CaliforniaManchester, ConnecticutWarehouse Point, Conn.Hudson Locks, ConnecticutWinsted, ConnecticutWilmington, DelawareHomerville, GeorgiaEdwardsville, IllinoisAnderson, IndianaStockwell, IndianaWinona Lake, IndianaMonticello, IowaStanford, KentuckyKennebunk, MaineBabson Park, Mass.Fitchburg, MassachusettsFoxboro, MassachusettsMilton, MassachusettsScituate, MassachusettsAlbion, MichiganGrand Beach, MichiganHarbor Beach, MichiganCarrollton, MississippiCamdenton, MissouriDanville, MissouriWelborn, MontanaCanaan, New HampshireHancock, New HampshireLincoln, New HampshireWestfield, New JerseyScaneateles, New YorkDundee, OhioGreenville, OhioIvorydale, OhioTroy, OhioWindsor, OhioCamp Sherman, OregonMcMinnville, OregonNew Salem, PennsylvaniaWichita Falls, Texas •16-*17 ClassPicnict *»>- r ¦1*<*»»• «I.ft 'mLfWte**The Classes of 1916 and 1917had their picnic at the LaskerEstate. Top to bottom: The mainhouse; John Moulds, not '1 6-' 1 7,looking at the camera; Isabel Mc-Murray Anderson, '16, and Mrs.Bernard Newman, '17; Mrs. Roderick Macpherson, '17; Mrs. andMr. Macpherson and friend; BruceMartin, '16, of Tulsa, at the pool,DEMOCRACYAn Alumni School Address• By CHARLES E. MERRIAMTHERE is no front page news in the statementthat democracy is under fire. It always has been.For a few years after the World War the attacksupon democratic organization died down and perhapsseemed to some ended, but this was only an intermission— a lull in the storm.For centuries upon centuries there have been two opposing assumptions about control in political society :1. That the control of the common affairs of thecommunity belongs in the few;2. That the control of the common affairs of thecommunity belongs in the many.As a student of politics I pass in review the long procession — winding down the paths of history — of despots,tyrants, autocrats, kings, emperors, robber barons, aristocrats, great and small oligarchs — enlightened and unenlightened — despotisms, shining and rusty, benevolentand malevolent rulers ruling by blood, by arms, by gold,by cunning, by fraud, by wisdom. Caesars, Augustus andotherwise, Neros, Genghis Kahns, Charlemagnes, Haps-burgs, Hohenzollerns, Tudors, Stuarts, Bourbons old andnew strutting round the globe. The procession of theirserfs, their slaves, their disinherited and exploitedwould wind many times around this world.And as a student of politics I see the struggles of theaverage man for recognition — in Greece, Rome, inmediaeval cities, on the hillsides of Switzerland, on thecoasts of Massachusetts and Virginia, in endless struggles in many lands.I see slavery and serfdom fade away, I see universaleducation, universal care, universal regard for the dignity of men, liberty and justice slowly emerging, andslipping back again from time to time in tragic cycles ofalternating hope and despair.The problem of the few has been :1. to find the superior;2. to continue the line;3. to insure their regard for and judgment of thecommon good;4. to bring about mass confidence in their intentionsand actions.Mirage, rainbow, illusion, are written on this record.The alternative is the government of common affairsby the community.The old charges against democracy may be summedup as follows :1 . It is adapted only to a very small state — a citystate — the hillsides of Switzerland;2. It must be the rule of the ignorant herd — abandoned now in the face of governments such as, say,Sweden;3. It must be a weak government incapable by itsvery nature of military survival.But now we may inquire what is the basis of the latestassault upon democratic society. Democracy has been attacked in recent years from theright and the left for diametrically opposite reasons.Marxians have held that democracy was the necessaryand inevitable tool of capitalism, while on the otherhand, right wingers have held that democracy is thehandy tool of socialistic trends and purposes. So therevolutionary wing of the Marxians attacked democracyby Bolshevism, although the social democracy wentalong with democracy. In Italy and in GermanyFascism and Nazism were conjured up as saviors of theworld from communism. These rapid fadeouts andcloseups may be a little confusing, but if you look atthem carefully with a slowed down reel, the confusiondisappears. For Democracy appears as a symbol forsomething that stands in the way of impatience for results, right or left wing.The newest invasion of our western democracies began a few years ago with the Fascist and Nazi revolutions. Hitler said he spit on democracy. He, and othersspit upon liberalism; he and others spit upon liberty;and upon equality; they spit upon tolerance, deliberation, conference. One might have thought their salivaryglands would run dry with expectoration upon the idealsof the last 100 years. They glorify violence, and decrythe virtues of reasonable discussion and decision. Theyspeak the language and in the tone of frustration, hate,ruthlessness. They shout indeed, rather than speak.The lack of a carefully thought out anti-democratictheory, for which I have searched diligently (as a student of the history of political ideas, it is my business tocollect all kinds of specimens), suggests that the basisof the anti-democratic view is found in the desire to setup a propaganda defense of militarism and national expansion.If you wish serious and well-considered critiques ofdemocracy, the best are made by democrats themselveswho alone can speak freely of their faults, such as Bryce.But are we prepared, intellectually and politically, onemay ask to undertake the task of adapting the means ofdemocracy to its ends ? We have vast resources, but theworld is more than gold. There is the sword. Thereis the cross. There is the world of science and reason.Allow me to quote an ancient passage:And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast muchgoods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat,drink, and be merry.But God said unto him, Thou fool ! this night thysoul shall be required of thee: then whose shall thosethings be, which thou hast provided?What are the assumptions of democracy?1. The dignity of man and the importance of treating personalities upon a fraternal rather than a differential basis;2. The perfectibility of man — the confidence in developing more fully the possibilities latent in human personalities — as against, caste, class and slave systems;14THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 153. The gains of civilization and of nations are essentially mass gains, the product of national effort — in warand in peace;4. Confidence in the consent of the governed, expressed in institutional forms, understandings and practices as the basis of authority ;5. The value of decisions arrived at by rationalprocesses, by common counsel, with the implications oftolerance and freedom of discussion, rather than violenceand brutality, normally.The implements of democracy are the suffrage, therepresentative council, the apparatus of civil liberties,and finally sound administrative organization and systems of adjudication.Much confusion has been caused by the entanglingof democracy with economic systems or with areas orunits of government. Democracy is a form of politicalassociation, not identified with any special form of economic organization, or with any special unit of aggregation, such as the city state, the national state or theworld state or the class state, or substitute for the state.Democracy as a form of political association disappears but does not die. It is a continuing type of political association which has its roots in the nature of thecommunity whose common affairs are decided by thecommunity. This is a basic principle of association, andin the long run whatever may happen in the interim,this principle will go on. The common good will be determined by the community.Even those who are hacking at democracy cannot escape its implications. Why do they not abolish thevote? Why do they not abolish the forms of representation and consultation? Why do they profess theirown superior capacity to reflect the people's will andinterest? Hitler speaks of a "true Germanic democracy" ;* Mussolini demands an "Italian proletariandemocracy ; the Soviets refer to a "socialistic democracy/'And this is done because the symbolisms of democracy, the attitudes of popular rule, the demands ofpopular welfare, are so deeply ingrained in the modernmind that they cannot safely be challenged, even bythose who seem to hold in their hands weapons that areirresistible for the moment.In the end the commonweal will be what the community wants, expressed in such forms and institutions asthe community chooses and supports.Let me make clear, however, some basic considerations before going farther. The most revolutionary factor in modern life is not Naziism or Fascism. It is theunparalleled growth of science, invention, technology.The National Resources Planning Board in its elaboratereport on research as a national resource showed that inthe United States alone there were 1,300,000 inventionsin the first third of this century and there will be morein the next third. What does this mean?1. Inventions in transportation and communicationhave upset the political boundaries of the whole world,dwarfing them all out of proportion and compellingbasically new adjustments.2. Increase of productivity has revolutionized theworld by making a transition from an economy of scarcity to an economy of abundance, necessitating reconsideration of traditional practices. The whole struggle over democracy is utterly blindwithout taking these factors into account, and withoutreckoning on the entrance of democracy into this newWorld.The age old struggle between the many and the fewis now cast upon another and a different stage. Whatever happens, new means are emerging for the attainment of the old ends, whether democratic or autocratic.The old assumptions of democracy are still good, butits programs and practices must be adapted to a newworld ; and the same is true of the assumptions of aristocracy and autocracy. We are not going backward, butforward.What shall we do with world order? What shall wedo with our vast machinery of production ? How shallwe spell out the meaning of democracy in the daily livesof men and women? Are war and unemployment theonly alternatives? Are we prepared to consider theends of democracy and its means at any given time, andto adjust accordingly?Democracy must have not merely a past, but a future; not merely tradition, but invention.In the confusion of a transition period, here are sometypical examples of an intellectual unpreparedness :1. Dictators. The socalled dictators of the modernday are not dictators at all, but are despots or autocrats.They do not even call themselves dictators, but Duceand Fuehrer. Dictatorship is an historical democraticdevice. In the days of the Roman Republic a dictatorwas appointed for a short and specific time to save thestate. At the end of the time he returned to his plowor wherever he was before. The present day autocrat,on the other hand, did not obtain his power from thepeople, nor does he intend to return it at any time.Daladier had dictatorial powers but was removedfrom office in the middle of his career. Chamberlain hadbroad powers but left office even when he had a majority of eighty, because of public criticism. Clemenceaunever attained the Presidency of France. Lloyd Georgebecame a voice crying in the wilderness.I was horrified to see headlines the other day, statingthat England had surrendered its liberty in order to defeat Hitler. Nothing could be more inaccurate. Thesweeping powers to which reference was made weregranted by an elected representative body, which couldrecall these powers at will.I do not know of any real student of democracy whoever maintained that a democracy could not defend itself in a moment of crisis. The real question is, are thepowers granted to be returned, and is there a workingmechanism for that purpose, and a working general understanding.In my volume on The New Democracy and the NewDespotism I undertook to distinguish between dictatorsand despots, and I now renew my effort. In Nazi andFascist theory the power of the autocrat is permanentand irresponsible — a normal system, not for an emergency.2. Decisionism. The charge that democracy is incapable of decisionism and decisiveness is a favorite assertion of its critics, and this is sometimes conceded(Continued on Page 25)CARLSONIANAFifth Prize in the Manuscript Contest• By HARALD G. O. HOLCK, '21, PhD' 28WHEN one emigrates to this country as an adult,without a definite trade or profession, the learning of good idiomatic English and ascertainingwhat may be most worth while to do seem to be the twoobjects of paramount interest. While groping my waythrough the first three years in the States, I finished ayear in high school, at the same time working in a factory, as a typist, and in a hotel. The fact that trie ChicagoTribune had accepted a small contribution of mine forone of its contests had vivified the struggles of Jack London's Martin Eden, especially so, because I was unable toplace several small stories. My first inclination, then, wastowards journalism; my second was toward medicalstudies. Under such conditions, it was but natural thatevery time I passed the Midway the Gray Towers ofthe University of Chicago should hold the same fascination for me, that Christminster had held for youngJude Fawley and that there should be a passionate longingto be among the fortunate who were privileged to learnunder the guidance of men whose reputations I knewto be world-wide. Finally, in the fall of 1917, at theage of thirty-one, I made the momentous decision to startupon a university career. After one quarter as unclassified, I chose medicine as my life-work.The proximity of Hitchcock Hall to the PhysiologyBuilding, and an introductory course in physiology mademe see somewhat more of the men in that department atclose range. The story of how Professor A. J. Carlsonhad been a shepherd boy in Sweden, had come to thiscountry as a youth, and had risen to the headship of adepartment in our University, made a deep impressionon me. I had come from the neighboring country, Denmark. However, there was, during these first years,apparently no opportunity to know Doctor Carlson moreintimately. There was perhaps something forbiddingin trying any closer approach. For as I passed hisdingy, crowded office, when the door was ajar, he waseither in conference or intensely occupied in reading,even to such an extent that the ubiquitous pipe failed toshow smoke. And when he went from one laboratoryto another it always seemed, to judge by his seriousexpression and quick stride, that he was bent upon someimportant mission ; and rumors were rampant of "blooming idiot" and other suitable expressions exploded atsome student or other who had set up the apparatusimproperly in the laboratory. Moreover, at a meetingwhich I attended when I began medical physiology in1922, I had heard him lambast some poor sinner, who,from rather meager data, had postulated far-fetched theories that would not fit in with experiments that Carlsonfelt free to quote from the literature of twenty-five yearsbefore.In the spring of 1922 I was presented with an opportunity to go back to Denmark for the summer in company with an old doctor friend, Axel Trolle, then ship- physician on the S. S. Hellig Olav, provided I couldleave three weeks before the final examinations. Although I was then taking my first course under Carlson,it was somehow with considerable trepidation that Ientered his office. Having heard the case, he counteredwith: "Vouldn't it be better to take the test in thefall?" Fortunately, he admitted, after a moment, thatIt would be a poor vacation if. I had to ponder uponphysiology all summer long, and he decided there couldbe no harm in giving me a chance at a final examinationahead of time; and so a date was set. At the examination he pulled out one of the good long three hourtest papers from his files, despite the fact that the University had changed the time to two hours! And although the "boys" in Hitchcock Hall had spirited mytrunk away twice, and the night before the test had putfour sparrows through the transom of my room, Isucceeded in passing the test. Thus the summer wassaved for the best vacation ever in Denmark, the lastopportunity to meet all of the folks in good health.My late start in college naturally made me desirousof maintaining my vitality beyond the usual span ofyears. Notwithstanding President Hutchins' claim ofthe uniqueness of finding present-day U. of C. studentsin good numbers in the libraries during vacations andspare hours, there seemed even in my days to be a fairnumber of us who frequented the libraries. But although the ABZ of Nutrition by Horace Fletcher andthe old report on the Sober Life by the CentenarianLuigi Cornaro had greatly fascinated me, I had enoughof the "I'm from Missouri" stuff in me to desire toput any actual trial of such dietary schemes into experimental form.Late in 1922, therefore, I again approached Dr. Carlson. This time a decision was unhesitatingly made, andwithin half an hour a plan was laid out for several yearsof trial to find whether or not thorough mastication andguidance by hunger and appetite in regard to meal hourswould accomplish all that had been claimed for it. Extensive physiological, biochemical, and psychological testing was to be recorded. This second interview withDr. Carlson came to furnish a great opportunity to learnintimately of him as a scholar and teacher, a man anda friend.This privilege was further extended when in the middle of the following spring Professor Carlson came tome rather brusquely and with a more serious mien thanusual urged: "I'd like to relieve Dr. Luckhardt of alaboratory section in Physiology 13 ; will you take it? Ican give you a hundred dollars." Of course I would,and that minute of conversation became a further stepaway from medicine into physiology and pharmacology.Moreover, it paved the way to permanent and cherishedfriendships with other men in the Department, especiallywith Professors Arno B. Luckhardt and N. Kleitman,16THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17and also F. C. Koch of the Department of Biochemistry,notwithstanding a little skirmish with the former during the first laboratory period at which I had to assisthim. Twice I had to go to the store-room for accessories to the demonstration that an inflated balloon inthe stomach becomes compressed when the diaphragmpresses upon the stomach during inspiration, whereas the reverse holds true when the balloon is inthe esophagus. * Though Doctor Luckhardt kept talking to the students I had no difficulty in diagnosing hisimpatience. Upon leaving the laboratory he curtly remarked : "Next time everything is ready !" That littlehint forced me to think through each demonstration inadvance, and I do not recall that he ever found anything missing again. And it was really delightful totry to outballoon Luckhardt: With the aid of rubbercement I succeeded in arranging for swallowing twoballoons simultaneously so that one would be in thestomach, the other in the gullet above the diaphragm,thus giving a simultaneous recording of the breathingeffects instead of alternating them.In a short article like this it is only possible to selectinstances from Doctor Carlson's teaching methods, but Ihope that the reader's imagination may envision his qualifications from these. During the autumn of 1923 Iaudited one of his advanced courses in which "Hourswere to be arranged." "Is there anyone that cannotcome at 8, 9, 10, and so on along the hours of the day ?"Always some one had a conflict. "At 7 in the morning?""Veil, ve vill make it seven !" To my knowledge everybody had sufficient ambition to stay in this and othersimilar courses, though some lived at a good distancefrom the University. A few summers later, in a courseon endocrines, of which Luckhardt handled the firsthalf, the hours were set for 7 on one day of the week, 10on a second, and 1 :30 on a third day ; no sooner hadCarlson taken over this class than his "conditioned reflexes" got all tangled up and the hour was promptlychanged to 7 on all three days.In another one of these divided courses, that of thephysiology of the nervous system, Dr. Carlson waxedso enthusiastic about what the different methods of "stimulation" really stood for, that he spent several lectureson that subject alone. When I asked him how he wasgoing to finish his topics in six short weeks he lookedat me over his eye-glasses and retorted a bit impatiently ;"Of course by assigning some chapters to the students;that other stuff they can get in any text, but they needmore about stimulation." Whether the majority ofthe students appreciated such an assignment of sectionsof the text apparently never entered the picture. Thedoctor expressed his belief to the students of this classthat most likely all action was really reflex, so thatif he knew enough about any person he could predictwhat his reaction would be to any problem. To illustrate he casually asked some student to open a windowa little; when the student had complied, Carlson saidthat he could have predicted that any student would doso under the circumstances of the request.(Owing to the strain of the prolonged self-experimentation, teaching, studying, playing on the Universitychess team and finally being engulfed in the cross-wordcraze, a rest was taken during the summer of 1925, dur- AUTHOR HOLCK SUBJECT CARLSONing which I was married in Denmark. I resumed myregular duties in the fall, including the diet experiments.)During the following winter on one of these bleak,piercingly cold winter mornings I found the "Chief," asusual, in his office shortly after six, organizing his material for the seven-o'clock lecture and looking up somerecent references in nutrition. "Where is your neck-tietoday?" I inquired. The doctor somewhat embarrassedlyfelt for it. "Veil, I must have forgotten it ; but it doesnot matter." From the inside of his closet door hequickly snapped on a ready-made tie, apparently keptthere for just such an emergency, which admittedly occurred about twice a year. Back in 1918, while stillan undergraduate, I had heard about this famous coursein nutrition, specially that no one was eligible who couldnot starve five days. I had then and there made up mymind to take this course and during the September vacation I went into practice for the future ordeal. But Ihad scarcely begun starving myself when the Swedishlandlady decided to make preserves. On the third daythe tantalizing odor of raspberries almost overwhelmedme; I decided to attend a movie to get away from it.Without thinking about history I went in to see "AnneBoleyn." I wonder if ever a film was produced in whichmore eating occurred ? Henry VIII had as many coursescarried around as the order of his name, and whole legsof animals were torn loose and devoured. When Ifinally emerged from the theatre I went straight for abig cheese sandwich — after a starvation of a mere fifty-six hours! However, the true test of starving for fivedays never had to be taken because my own diet experiment could not be interrupted. While Carlson was reading the final examination papers of this course, I happened into his office. He heaved a sigh and exclaimed :"Isn't it strange that only two students knew that meatsand grains tend to produce acidosis? I did not tellthem, because I thought every physiology student knewthat."When Doctor Carlson found time to keep up withscientific literature was always a mystery to me, butsomehow he did. Usually someone was waiting to seehim when I came into his ante-room, and all day long18 THE UNIVERSITY OF .CHICAGO MAGAZINEa procession seemed to be going into and coming outof his office. I once asked him how much he studiedphysiology at home during evenings. "Vhy, I vouldgo crazy if I had to read that stuff at night too! Iread history or something like that in the evenings,"the doctor informed me.Of course, there were times when we felt it betternot to intrude, as when we heard him walking up anddown the floor of his office and we surmised he wasagitated by budget cuts, antivivisection drives, perhapseven disappointment in some graduate student, for outside of his immediate family he lived largely for hisstudents. The welfare of his students naturally includedthe proper guidance of their thoughts. Once I wentto a professor in another department — a man no longerin the University — asking his opinion about some scientific point. "Have you read the article by Doe lastmonth?" he at once cornered me. I had not. "Youought to have!" came the second retort. I went awaywithout asking for more information. Somehow, itseemed a bit unreasonable to expect one to read everything, and I have since found several great pharmacologists appreciate having their attention called to articleswhich they "ought to have read !" It was shortly afterthis that I asked Carlson a question on specific dynamicaction of certain foods; he pondered a bit before heturned towards me and blandly counter-questioned:"How vould your idea agree with the second law ofthermodynamics?" By directing my thoughts towards afundamental principle I am certain that he helped memore than by calling my attention to several articles.Of course, during the years of my stay, other studieshad gone ahead in the Department. The most fascinating one was that of. the development of ethylene anesthesia by Luckhardt and Carter. This development hadstarted as an investigation of carnation poisoning by agas leak in a green-house ; however, incidental study ofthe suspected gas constituent, ethylene, upon lower animals had indicated its high usefulness as an anestheticfor man. One day President Max Mason, with theboard of trustees, came over to the new physiology building to witness a demonstration of this new anesthetic.Dr. Carlson volunteered to be the "guinea-pig" and wasput on a table ; while he was holding up one hand, Luckhardt administered the gas ; in a minute the arm camedown. To show that real anesthesia existed, DoctorLuckhardt began to prick the victim with pins in theforearm. I was standing in the door- way when one ofthe trustees hurriedly passed me out into the corridor,pale and with a much disturbed expression. "What isthe matter, sir?" I inquired. "Well, I am not going tosee anyone killed right before my eyes," he replied, notknowing that during the first year of country-wide demonstrations Luckhardt had recovered from the anestheticwithin a few minutes about once a week.What unfortunate experience Carlson may have hadwith married physiology students, who, before graduation, were expecting babies I do not know; but whenin the spring of 1927 I brought him the news that weprobably were expecting one, I must have looked somewhat perplexed. At least his prompt answer was :"Don't you do a thing about that ! My budget is made up for next year, but I need an assistant during thesummer and I think you are due for a promotion theyear after next. Anyway, babies don't need much during the first year." And so our first-born son cameinto the world with the assurance that the man whohad become like an American father to me would bidhim welcome. Knowing that Doctor Carlson would comeover to see Mrs. Hoick that evening we made certain tohave a good-sized tin of Swedish herring tidbits in thelarder, because the sight of these usually excited histastebuds to such an extent that with the aid of a fewslices of pumpernickel bread he could easily take careof most of the contents all by himself.During the several years used to establish records withthe ordinary mode of living before beginning actualFletcherizing, I took brief vacations during Septembers.During one September I was fortunate to be invited byDoctor Carlson to share with him the cabin that hehad built at Elk Lake in Northern Michigan. And during another September both Mrs. Hoick and I were soinvited. The Carlson up there seemed in many important ways an entirely different person from the oneat work in the department. The only correspondenceI ever saw him attend to was limited to that with Mrs.Carlson, who was in Chicago preparing the children forthe opening of school.Doctors Lester Dragstedt and Luckhardt had interested Carlson in a long, wooded tract of land overlookingthis beautiful lake, reminiscent of old Sweden, and hehad become one of the leading spirits in organizing acolony where colleagues and friends could build summer homes. Roads and paths had to be made, a number of trees cut down and underbrush cleared out. Hisoutdoor life as a youth in Sweden had made Carlsonfully familiar with nature, and all day long he wouldbe personally engaged in these tasks, or, with his son,Robert, in putting a porch on the roomy house that thetwo had built from the ground up. Apparently hereally enjoyed swimming in the lake late in Septemberand he chided me for preferring the water temperaturesof July and August. In fact, at one time in his office,it was with considerable glee that he showed us snapshots of holes in the ice with himself, or Viking friendIvy, diving into the icy water during a brief stay upthere one March. He also enjoyed cooking. An earlyriser, he would often have the hot cakes ready for usfor breakfast with immense dishes of one of his favoritefoods, clabbered milk. And at supper his fried porkchops or fish were mighty appetizing after a long dayon the lake or river. On occasions when I had notcaught enough fish it usually did not take Carlson longto find a spot where they were biting, and it seemedthat they would even bite better at the end of the boatfrom which he was angling!At last the rather tedious five-year experiment wasnearing completion and hopes of getting a doctoratecame into near prospect in 1928. The thesis had beenpresented during two seminars and the final examinationwas scheduled for the end of the summer. How oftenLuckhardt felt disappointed in a candidate's knowledgeof the physiology of the eye! I had hoped to demon-(Continued on Page 24)LABORATORYSCHOOLRESPONSIBIUTYAn Alumni School AddressIT IS NOT possible to make any clean cut distinctionbetween various aspects of the child's growth. Hedevelops as an organism, as a unit. His mind cannot be separated from his body or his endocrine glandsfrom his personality. This emphasis in modern childpsychology is commendable and has an important implication for educational practitioners : — they cannot beoblivious to any phase of the child'sgrowth. At the same time that ayoungster is struggling to gain insight into the intricacies of long division, he may be acquiring fixed attitudes toward his teacher, his stomachmay be upset because he is afraid ofwhat may happen to him during recess, and he might be acquiring badhabits of copying his neighbor's work.Each of these aspects of his experience is important. The purpose ofthis paper, however, is to suggestthat each is not equally important sofar as formal schooling is concerned.As Mr. Judd [Charles H. Judd, Professor Emeritus of Education] haswarned, we should not assume thatbecause a child must digest his foodproperly, the school is as responsiblefor training the digestion as for promoting arithmetical thinking.This suggestion that educatorsshould single out for greater emphasiscertain types of learning — certainphases of child growth — meets theoretical opposition. If it is true STEPHENthat the child does develop as awhole, the questions are asked : "Can we attend toanything less than this well rounded development? Canwe or should we try to maneuver pedagogically, andchoose school experiences in terms of their contribution to certain types of growth?" These questionshave fascinating implications, and they are interesting to debate. Practically, however, even those psychologists who are most convinced that the child develops as a total individual, do themselves study and observe certain aspects of this growth process. They speakfrequently of the relationship between varieties of learning. Even the layman has no difficulty under many circumstances in recognizing the type of development thatfor the time being is receiving most emphasis. A childwho is intent upon The Origin of Species of CharlesDarwin may be having identifiable emotional experi-*Mr. Corey, Professor of Education and Assistant Dean of the Gradua-ate School of the University of Wisconsin, has been appointed Professorof Education and Superintendent of the Laboratory Schools at the University, effective October 1. This article is a transcript of his remarks tothe Alumni School on June 5. • By STEPHEN M. COREY*ences, and his personality may be undergoing changes,but the most evident type of development is in the areaof concept formation. His ideas are multiplying andtheir interrelationships are becoming richer.Similarly, the seventeen-year-old boy admiring aGinger Rogers movie is undoubtedly active physically,and he may be gaining insights that later will stand himin good stead, but his emotional experiences are most evident and real.The youngster playing "Black Man"on the playground is learning something about his fellows but the chiefcontribution this game makes is tohis physical well-being. He runsrapidly and breathes deeply and exercises all of his muscles. This isfine for him, and the school shouldmake provisions for such activity.We should never, however, lose sightof the fact that the school's big business is to stimulate the development of children in understanding.As a result of their school environment young people should acquirethe ability to make better inferences,the ability to see the bearing of onephenomenon on others, the willingness and ability to criticize intelligently and to experiment and to express thoughts clearly and well, andso on almost interminably. Whenthe school consciously tries to attendfirst to these purposes, pupils are ex-M. COREY pected to ask questions continuously,— they experiment, and test hypotheses, and study critically all sorts of evidence. Curiosityand the refusal to be swayed appreciably by authorityalone is rewarded from the nursery school on.Many of you doubtlessly are saying to yourselves,"But the schools have always emphasized the mind —the understanding. That has been their historical function." From a certain point of view this is true.Mental development, in a narrow sense, has more orless occupied the center of the stage in many schools.By "narrow sense" is meant mental development whichfor all practical purposes is synonymous with memorization. The degree to which some teachers confusememorization with mental development is very evident in the questions they ask. No matter how vigorously a teacher insists that his aim is to get pupils tothinking, if his questions require none, the pupils dolittle. Any unbiased visitor in a typical schoolroommust wonder why it is that we teachers ask most ofthe questions. It is not because a large number of- us1920 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEemploy the Socratic method. It is because we wantback from our pupils, in unbroken packages, items ofinformation they have memorized.But even if it is granted that, hitherto, emphasis hasbeen placed upon a certain sort of intellectual growth,we face, today, a clamor for the schools to do everything. Children are fed, clothed, bathed, and nursedwhen ill, within the school building. An increasingnumber of persons is insisting that the school must accept almost complete responsibility for growth on allfronts. The evidence demonstrating this trend could bepiled high, but most of you need no such proof. Youare aware already of the interest in "totalitarian schooling" to which I refer.There are many reasons which contribute to an explanation of this broadened school program. One ofthem has been noted already. Because of the accurateobservation that the child develops as an entire organism — that his mind cannot be separated from his bodyor his soul from his mind — some educators have leapedto the conclusion that any distinction between variousaspects of development is invalid, and that the schoolmust try to supervise and stimulate growth in every direction. This illustrates a sound psychological observation carried to an unsound pedagogical extreme.A second reason for this expansion of the school program results from a special case of widespread institutional disintegration. Because of many economic andsociological influences the home is not what it was — andneither are parents. There has been an increase in theresponsibility which the state through its various subdivisions is willing to assume for functions heretofore fulfilled in the home. For many fathers and mothers themost serious single consequence of the removal of schoolfacilities would be the realization that their childrenwould then have to be cared for elsewhere. Such peopleare apt to recommend most enthusiastically the afterschool play program because of its convenient custodialfunction. Parents tend more and more to hold schools,even colleges, responsible for general supervision overthe moral and physical, as well as the intellectual development, of their offspring. The impression is frequently given by some fathers and mothers that theyconsider mental growth to be at least important.There probably is not a great deal that educators cando about the decrease in influence of the home. And itprobably is true that, for the good of posterity, childrenmust be given food in school if they cannot get it elsewhere. But certainly we educators should not be supineas these more or less irrelevant responsibilities are thrustupon us. And most certainly we should not go out onthe highways ever seeking new and different things todo until we have some evidence that our big job — promoting the intellectual development of children — is fairlyadequately taken care of. That day has not yet come.A third reason for our willingness — even anxiousnessin some quarters — to assume responsibilities not necessarily germane to what seem to be our prior and morevalid function, is that the fruits of some of these neweractivities are more immediately noticeable. The impressions made by a playground full of active youngsters, ora, .clinic, or a school cafeteria with bottle after bottle of milk on display, are more vivid and dramatic to thosewho support the schools than is anything that goes onin the classroom or the laboratory or the library or on afield trip. It is as easy to understand this attitude as itis important to combat it. Maybe good health is moreimportant than understanding, but the responsibility ofthe school for good health per se should be ancillary toits more basic responsibility for intellectual development.Still another reason for the inclusiveness of the program of formal education, and it is the last that will bementioned, is related to what we have learned about thefailure of many schools to contribute much to intellectual development, no matter how defined. During thepast eight or ten years numerous efforts have been madeto determine, as objectively as possible, what specificcontribution schools have made to pupils' understanding.Many of these attempts at evaluation have led to conclusions which are discouraging. While formal educationhas frequently resulted in an ability to recognize a bodyof more or less unintegrated factual information, there islittle evidence of any substantial progress in understanding or applying the things learned. These revelationshave had a peculiar effect upon a large group of educators. Their reasoning, often implicit, must be somethinglike this:"My, that's pretty discouraging. Maybe we are pursuing a chimera. We are trying to bring about changesin pupils that apparently cannot be brought about. Theevidence is rather damning. We had better turn toother things- — the child's personality, or his health, orhis adjustment — or perhaps vocational training."This position, too, is not difficult to understand. Inorder to justify continued support, formal educationmust have some recognizable consequences. The errorin the argument is the assumption that because schoolshave not contributed greatly to understanding, they cannot. This assumption is not justified. Some school experiences, and we all have had them if only rarely, domake for intellectual maturity. These should and couldbe multiplied.Because any insistence that the school should concentrate on mental growth is quite apt to be misunderstood,I wish to clarify the position a bit further. It is not denied,- rather it is affirmed, that any analysis of the child'sgrowth into water tight compartments is impossible. Onemight agree too, if pushed, that a child's health or personality or character, in the limited degree that they canbe considered separately, may be of greater significanceto society than his understanding and his ability to thinkindependently. But, the school cannot and should nottry to do everything. It must discriminate amongpossible functions, and that one which should be singledout for greatest emphasis is the responsibility for promoting the understanding.If the faculty of any school should arrive at a similarconclusion, numerous practical problems would becomeless troublesome. Decisions regarding personnel, learning experiences, both curricular and extra-curricular,administrative procedures, equipment and guidancewould be made in terms of their promise of contribution to the pupil's intellectual development. This would(Continued on Page 28)NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESTWO departments of the University were strengthened during the past month with the appointmentof Dr. Robert J. Havighurst and Dr. Stephen M.Corey to the department of education, and Dr. Walthervon Wartburg to the Division of Humanities.Dr. Havighurst, whose appointment is effective January 1, 1941, is director for general education and head ofthe child growth and development work of the GeneralEducation Board. He will become secretary of the University's Committee on Child Development, integratingthe findings of the sixteen experts on the committee, andteaching courses leading to higher degrees in Child development. He taught at Miami University in Oxford,Ohio, the University of Wisconsin, and Ohio StateUniversity before he joined the General EducationBoard in 1934.Dr. Corey, now professor of education and assistantdean of the graduate school of the University of Wisconsin, will come to the University on October 1. He willbe professor of education and superintendent of the University's laboratory schools, succeeding ProfessorReavis, who will devote his time to developing morecomprehensive field services in the department. Dr.Corey taught at De Pauw University and the University of Nebraska before joining the University of Wisconsin four years ago. He is a fellow of the AmericanAssociation for the Advancement of Science, a memberof four scientific and' professional fraternities, contributing editor of the Journal of Experimental Education,and associate editor of the Journal of ExperimentalPsychology. Dr. Corey's speech to the Alumni Schoolthis month is reproduced elsewhere in this issue of theMagazine.Dr. von Wartburg's appointment to the Division ofthe Humanities was made permanent last month. Bornin Switzerland, Dr. von Wartburg has been teaching inthe University of Leipsig. He is regarded as the greatest living authority on the French language, specializingin the evolution of the language.^ His etymological dictionary of French is the only book published outsideFrance to receive the Volney award of the French academy. Other books of his are "The Rise of the RomancePeoples," "The Position of the Italian Language in theRomance Languages," and a two-volume dictionary ofmodern French words.Last fall the German government allowed the scholarto use two freight cars— despite their need for rollingstock for troop transportation — to remove volumes of hisresearch material, including two million data cards, fromthe University of Leipsig. Dr. von Wartburg is eagerto use the source material on languages in the University libraries, and in the Newberry library's Buonaparte collection.Professor Jacob Viner and Dr. Fred C. Koch wereappointed to distinguished service professorships. Professor Viner will become the Morton D. Hull Distinguished Service Professor of Economics, while Dr. Koch • By BERN LUNDY, '37will become Frank P. Hixon Distinguished Service Professor of Biochemistry. Dr. Viner has been with the University since 1916, and has served as consultant to theTreasury department, the U. S. Tariff Commission staff,and the U. S. Shipping Board. Dr. Koch is internationally known for his research in the field of hormones,enzymes and vitamins. Both appointments are effectiveOctober 1 of this year.Dr. Anton J. Carlson and Professor Charles E. Merriam will retire this month, their distinguished serviceprofessorships passing respectively to Dr. Koch andProfessor Viner. Also slated for retirement are DeanGale, to be succeeded by Professor Compton; Henry W?Prescott, philologist, Preston Kyes, authority on anat-.omy and pathology; and Rolla M. Tyron, specialist inthe teaching of history.200TH CONVOCATIONPresident Hutchins awarded 732 degrees at the 200thConvocation in Rockefeller Memorial this month. Sevenhundred and thirty-one went to students ; the 732nd, anhonorary Doctor of Science degree, went to Dr. LudvigHektoen, the eminent pathologist who is now professoremeritus and former chairman of the department ofpathology, and director of the John McCormick Insti-tue for Infectious Diseases, "in recognition of his scholarly achievements in basic science and his distinguishedservice to the University and to medicine as a greatteacher, editor, and administrator."Dr. Hektoen has often been honored by members ofhis profession. Prior to the University's award, he hadreceived no less than six honorary degrees— from theUniversity of Norway, Western Reserve, Michigan,Wisconsin, Cincinnati, and Luther College. He hasserved as chairman of the National Research Council'smedical sciences division, and as chairman of the Council; was president of the Chicago Medical Society, Chicago Pathological Society, Association of AmericanPathologists and Bacteriologists, Society of Immunolo-gists, the Institute of Medicine of Chicago, and vice-president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.In addition, Dr. Hektoen was decorated a member ofthe Order of St. Olaf by Norway; he is a member ofthe Norwegian Academy of Science, the Swedish Medical Society, the Vienna Microbiologic Society, AmericanSociety of Clinical Biologists, the Academy of Medicine,and the American Society of Bacteriologists.Dr. Hektoen graduated from the Chicago College ofPhysicians and Surgeons in 1887 at the age of twenty-four, joined Rush Medical staff in 1890 as lecturer inpathology, and became professor of morbid anatomy atRush in 1895, following service in the Chicago coroner'soffice and on the faculty of the College of Physiciansand Surgeons. He was made professor in the University's department of pathology in 1901.2122 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAWARDS% To Thomas E. Wilson, chairman of Wilson & Co.(meat packers), the Rosenberger medal, awarded "inrecognition of distinguished achievement in the advancement of learning or for notable great service in the promotion of human welfare." Specific work: "extendingthe program, membership, and influence of 4-H clubs."If To Dr. Harold R. Reames, a student of Dr. FrancisB. Gordon in the department of bacteriology and parasitology, the Howard Taylor Ricketts prize, establishedin memory of the University bacteriologists who discovered the typhus germ and died, a martyr to his discovery, twenty years ago. Basis of the award: Dr.Reames' work on virus diseases in rats, similar to several virus diseases which affect humans.If To Sidney Smith, undergraduate medical student, theHarry Ginsburg Memorial Prize, for his developmentof an improvement in blood-vessel surgery, in whichsugar rods are used as darning eggs in sewing rupturedblood vessels.If To Raymond Marshall Norton, the David Blair McLaughlin Prize for his essay, "The Second Rome-BerlinAxis."5f To Richard Amacher for his poem, "The Cyclotron,"and John F. Nims for his poem, "The Stranger," theJohn Billings Fiske poetry prize, shared this year forthe first time in the history of the competition. Someof the former winners are Sterling North, literaryeditor of the Chicago Daily News; Elizabeth MadoxRoberts, author of " Black is My True Love's Hair";George Dillon, editor of Poetry magazine. As the jurydeliberated, Horace Spencer Fiske, who established theFiske prize in 1920 in memory of his father, died. Hehad been associated with the University since 1894,when he joined the staff as a University extension lecturer, until he retired in 1930 at the age of seventy.If To Dr. Alexander Rush, the Arno B. Luckhardt Fellowship in physiology. Dr. Rush is great-great-grandson of Dr. Benjamin Rush, surgeon-general of thearmies of the Middle Department during the Revolutionary War and signer of the Declaration of Independence, for whom Rush Graduate School of Medicineis named.The three $1,000 teaching awards for the best teaching of undergraduates went this year to James L, Cate,assistant professor of medieval history; Ralph W.Sanger, instructor in mathematics, and Paul D. Voth,instructor in botany. President Hutchins made theawards — on the advice of a committee of deans — to menwho have taught "not only scholars and research workers, but also young men and women for intelligent andpublic spirited participation and leadership in business,civic, and professional life."Dean William H. Taliaferro of the biological sciencesdivision and Rollin T. Chamberlin, professor of geology,were elected to membership in the National Academy ofSciences last month. Composed of 300 of the leadingscientists in the country, the Academy is regarded byUniversity scientists as one of the highest marks of recognition for scientific achievement. Election of DeanTaliaferro and Professor Chamberlin brings the total ofUniversity faculty members (active and emeriti) to 19.Others who have been elected are : Frank Rattray Lillie, dean emeritus of the biological sciences division; GilbertA. Bliss, Martin A. Ryerson Distinguished Service Professor and chairman of the department of mathematics;Norman Bowen, Charles L. Hutchinson DistinguishedService professor of geology; Anton J. Carlson, FrankP. Hixon Distinguished Service professor and chairmanof the department of physiology ; Charles M. Child, professor emeritus of zoology ; Arthur H. Compton, CharlesH. Swift Distinguished Service professor of physics;Arthur J. Dempster, professor of physics ; Leonard Dickson, Eliakim H. Moore Distinguished Service professoremeritus of mathematics; William D. Harkins, AndrewMacLeish Distinguished Service professor emeritus ofchemistry; Ludvig Hektoen, professor and chairmanemeritus of the department of pathology of Rush Graduate School of Medicine; C. Judson Herrick, professoremeritus of neurology; Robert S. Mulliken, professor ofphysics; H. Gideon Wells, professor and chairman ofthe department of pathology and director of the Otto S.A. Sprague Memorial Institute; Frank Ross, professoremeritus of practical astronomy; Otto Struve, professorof astrophysics and director of Yerkes Observatory andMt. Locke Observatory; and Sewall Wright, Ernest D.Burton Distinguished Service professor of zoology.ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTESFive thousand years ago, a healthy young native girlof Karachi, India, died — or was offered as a ceremonialsacrifice. Her head was placed in a jar. Severalmonths ago excavators of the Boston Museum of FineArts discovered the jar, sent it and its contents to Dr.Wilton Krogman, associate professor of anatomy andphysical anthropology.The only ancient skull ever to leave India informedDr. Krogman, after his examination of it, that the modern Mediterranean race, of which this girl was onegreat-great-great-grandmother, once held a mixture ofNegroid blood, because while her close-set eyes, narrownasal bones, semi-parabolic palate and small teeth indicated her proto-Mediterranean race, the flattened vaultof her head, broad nose and low eye-sockets ticketed heras part Negroid."The Chanhu-daro skull represents a proto-Mediterranean type in which ancestral Negroid traits have manifested themselves," Dr. Krogman said. "The early history of the Mediterranean type is somehow linked withthe emergence of the Negroid type. Whether it istraceable to common origin or early intermixture wecannot say. In Neolithic Spain, Portugal, and Italy —the Northern fringe of African influence — there arecranial types that combine in almost equal degree Cau-casic and Negroid features. With time, apparently, thelatter features were bred out to leave a purely CaucasicMediterranean type."NEW CAA FLIGHT COURSE OPENSA new ground school and fight training course,planned to qualify 45 students for their private pilot'slicense (minimum of seventeen hours dual and eighteenhours solo instruction), was announced this month byDean Gale. Providing 15 hours' ground school instruction and six hours flying each wTeek, the course will beopen without charge to students between the ages of 18and 25 who have completed their freshman year.ATHLETICS• By DON MORRIS, '36NONE of the three alumni in the office where Iwork is an athlete. Sometimes we all find ourselves loosening our typewriter keys by battingthem too hard, and once in a while we get together andmove a desk around. But none of us is what a typicalGallup poll man thinks of when he tabulates a typicalathlete, even with Yancey T. Blade acting as a sort ofcoxswain.Alumnus A, however, is trying to organize a softballteam in the office. He likes to play and is a fair righthanded pitcher. He played intramural softball with hisfraternity team when he was a student.Alumnus B was a track man a few years ago, and although he never developed into a great hurdler he wasa member of a Maroon team. Today, although he isconsidered a bit eccentric for it, he runs instead of walking on many occasions. He does this not only when heis in a hurry but also when he "feels good."Alumnus C, who went out for freshman tennis andalso swam in the Bartlett tank frequently in his studentdays, still plays tennis and swims, in the summer months,although he could scarcely be considered competition forRiggs or Medica.These cases are not proposed as ideal examples ofwhat Chicago's "athletics for all" policy is aiming at,but I believe they are typical. The trio is chosen as representative of the theory that one positive value in college sports is the "carryover" nature of these sports. Ifa program of athletics is directed primarily to producinga healthy citizenry, physically capable of making its intellectual development effective, it is more importantthat it produce a quantity of cases A, B, and C than afew great athletes. Few would contend that a grouporganized to familiarize young men with musical mattersshould be expected to compete successfully with the"record-breaking" great philharmonic societies ; itwould be equally unfair to ask of an "athletics for all"program that it provide more than a reasonable competence in and familiarity with athletics.Chicago's universal participation plan has not yetreached the one hundred per cent stage, but it seems tobe getting there."The University proposes to continue all intercollegiate sports it now sponsors and is considering enlargingtheir number. The University proposes to continue andto expand its intramural program," President Hutchinshas said."The University believes that athletic competition,properly conducted, is a desirable experience for collegestudents and encourages students to participate in thisprogram. It aims to provide every student withan opportunity to participate in the type of play that willdo him the most good," Director of Athletics NelsonMetcalf has said.Implementation of the wisdom of encouraging and assisting every student to engage in some form of athleticsmay be found in a statement by Dr. Charles B. Cong- don, of the University's Student Health Service."An interesting observation made at the StudentHealth Service after a period of ten years is that there isno record of a serious breakdown in a student who hasconsistently maintained some interest in athletics,said. "This may be interpreted in several ways ; we cansay that there are therapeutic values in athletics ; we cansay that the student who has some interest in sports isat the outset a well-adjusted person. Obviously no oneexplanation of the phenomenon covers all the facts."In Intercollegiate Conference competition in theacademic year just closed Chicago retained just one ofthe three championships it was defending, took a coupleof seconds and a third place, and scattered the finalstandings of its other teams from fourth position totenth. Further, the Board of Trustees announced thatbeginning with the autumn of 1940 Chicago would notcompete in intercollegiate football.But, speaking from the standpoint of athletics, Chicago had the biggest and most productive of a series ofincreasingly large and productive years. Enrollment inintramural athletics, and physical education classes continued to climb, so that the percentage approaches theUniversity's "athletics for all" ideal. Yancey Blade, dispatched to get the actual figures on participation in allsports, discovered he could only approximate the numbers, since it is almost impossible to eliminate duplications, at least to the point of perfection demanded bythat earnest Maroon fact searcher, whose left foot- isslowly nearing the grave.Suffice it to say that, on the one hand there were some3,500 men enrolled, of whom fifty-two per cent wereundergraduates. On the other hand, participating inintramural sports were more than 2,100, in physical education classes 800, and in intercollegiate sports anotherhundred or more. Allowing a generous margin for duplications, the number of boys who took part in no formof physical competition seems to be small.As far as relative figures go, the intramurals figurehas gone up ten per cent in the last ten years ; the physical education attendance is up thirty per cent since 1933.Use of the tennis courts has shown a 350 per cent gainin the last five years.The two new sports added to the calendar in the pastyear, yachting and skiing, undoubtedly will raise thenumbers farther when they have become established andare properly equipped to handle students interested. Thetwo added forms of athletic competition give students theopportunity to indulge in almost any form of physicalrecreation known to civilized man.Demand on the part of the students, incidentally,seems to be waxing high for intramural sports. Figuresrecently presented to the trustees show that more thanforty-nine per cent of the students think intramural competition need more emphasis, whereas only twenty-fiveper cent think emphasis on intercollegiate opportunitiesshould be increased.23THINKING IT OVERIn The Wall Street Journal*• By THOMAS F. WOODLOCKONE of the most curious paradoxes in these disorderly days is the notion that the kind of "Education for Democracy" /which is advocated by the"John Dewey Society" group of Teachers College of Columbia University in New York is really education fordemocracy, while the theory of education, represented,for instance, by President Hutchins of the University ofChicago is fascistic in its trend. The truth is preciselycontrary. It is the Dewey Society theory which is totalitarian in its trend and it is the Hutchins theory whichmakes for democracy in the sense of freedom for the person. This can be very simply demonstrated. It all turnson the concept of the person.For the Dewey Society the person is merely a cell inthe social organism. The Society conceives the community as a true organism in which the cells exist forthe sake of the whole. Its theory of education is that individual cells should be trained to play their part ascells and its concepts of "personality" and "character"are cell-concepts. It is a cell-personality and a cell-character that it visualizes. It is as a cell that the individual is expected to realize his personality and buildhis character. All the rhetoric in the world as to thepossibilities for personality and character within such aconcept of both cannot disguise the totalitarianism of theconcept of the relation between the individual and society.Against this is the concept of man that is the root ofthe educational theory of Dr. Hutchins. There is a complete dichotomy. The Dewey Society philosophy asserts— its logic must assert — that man exists for society. TheHutchins philosophy asserts that society exists for man.On this rests everything else. The distinction is fundamental and rests upon a metaphysical truth. It is herethat the final difference lies. The Dewey Society "philosophy" (if one can so call it) denies — must deny — thevery existence of metaphysics. For Dr. Hutchins everything roots in it. "I may as well make a clear breast ofit," he says (Commonweal, May 31), "I am interested ineducation, in morals, in intellect and in metaphysics. Ieven go so far as to hold that there is a necessary relation among all these things." And it is to "bad metaphysics" that he ascribes all the evils of modern education which he describes as follows :"Today the young American comprehends the intellectual tradition in which he must live only by accident,for its scattered and disjointed fragments are strewnfrom one end of the campus to the other. Our graduateshave far more information and far less understandingthan in the colonial days. And our universities presentthemselves to our people in this crisis either as rather ineffectual trade schools or as places where nice boys havea nice time under the supervision of nice men in a niceenvironment." In the same article he tells us that forty-two students enrolled in a short course for drum majorsat an Oklahoma college and that a university in Califor-*Reprinted with permission from Wall Street Journal, June 3, 1940. nia announced a course in cosmetology, saying: "Theprofession of beautician is the fastest growing in thisstate."The metaphysical concept of the person is completelyincompatible with a totalitarian concept of the communitybecause there is no true analogy between the concept ofperson and the concept of cell. Many people play withthis analogy, but it is fallacious at the root. Similarly,the concept of the community as a true organism is incompatible with the concept of true personality. Theessence of true democracy derives from the essence oftrue personality, and the theory of really liberal education derives directly from the same root.This is why the "Dewey Society" theory of educationleads inevitably to the very thing against which its proponents so constantly and vociferously rave — namely,totalitarianism, for that is what they mean when theytalk of "fascism." And this is why any and all theoriesof educating the individual which do not base upon themetaphysical concept of human personality will all endsooner or later in the same way. Any such theory reallyconstitutes a dangerous "fifth column" in the nation's life.Carlsoniana(Continued from Page 18)strate at least a fair knowledge of this topic. But vacation at Elk Lake was more tempting to him than a returnto the examination room! Apparently having satisfied Kleitman and Gerard as to my general knowledgeof physiology, I then had to face Doctor Carlson. Igot by the intricacies of the precautions of basal metabolism tests and one or two other matters when the inquisitor wanted to know what Helmholtz' most fundamental contribution to physiology had been. To each ofmy first three answers came the monotonous query:"Something more fundamental?" Finally it dawnedupon me that it was the law of the conservation of energythat the doctor was "pumping" me for. Fifteen minuteslater I was unofficially pronounced a doctor.During the following year I was making a trip fromPhiladelphia to Cleveland to get better acquainted withteaching methods in pharmacology — my new chosen field— before going to Syria. I happened to mention thisin a letter; one of Doctor Carlson's inimitable terse notesarrived promptly: "If you wish to spend a few daysonce more with old friends before going on your longjourney, I think we can find a place here for you tostay." Thus, before going away for a number of years,I was glad to have one more opportunity to look into theruddy, determined, yet kind face of the man that hadbeen not merely my teacher, but also a fatherly friend,the man whose spoken promise to me had always beenas good as gold.24THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEDemocracy (Continued from Page 15)unnecessarily by its friends. Democracy can neither conduct a war, it is charged, nor organize internal socialprograms adapted to our time.That democracy cannot make the preparations or decisions incidental to war is not sustained by cold historic facts. The British navy has been traditionallypowerful ; the French army is a great war machine ; theAmerican army in 1865 was the most powerful in theworld. And our air force will be, I predict. Themechanized force of present day Germany is not a thingthat a democracy could not have constructed, had itwished for war and paid the price in national standardsof living. The present gorilla warfare came on becausethe gentleman with the umbrella thought he was dealingwith likeminded gentlemen.When the parliamentary chamber is silent as in Germany there is always an ante chamber where discussion,conflict and intrigue have their way. Often there is discord and delay. Our debates are in the open, but if weknew what went on behind the scenes of autocracy, wemight be amused. There is plenty of history to illustrate this since the days when the Roman Emperormade one of his horses a Knight. There is no guarantyeven that an autocrat will be decisive unless he has thatkind of a mind. He may be a moron or indecisive inhis very nature.The effective basis of decisionism in any governmentis not arbitrariness, but rests on cooperation soundly organized for action.3. Inefficiency. Friends say to me at times, "Well,Merriam, of course it must be admitted that democraciesare not and cannot be as well organized or as efficientas autocracies." My reply is, "Who told you that, astudent of organization and efficiency, understandingeither public or private management — either administration or politics ?"The laboratory of history furnishes many illustrationsof inefficient democracies and also of inefficient non-democracies. As far as I know or have read or observed, there is nothing in the science of managementto indicate that a democratic board of directors responsible to a body of owners cannot set up a form of policydetermination and forms of administration which willwork effectively in a wide variety of situations, normaland crises. The growth of the art and science of public administration in modern times makes it more feasible than before to organize control in last analysis andworking management. Modern democracy has openedadministration to the democracy, instead of restrictingit to a class.May I remind you that we have on the campus ofthe University of Chicago at "Thirteen-Thirteen"1 thefinest example of such administrative service on a democratic basis to be found anywhere in the world. I invite you to visit "Thirteen-Thirteen" while you are renewing your acquaintance with the University. You^The activities of the organizations at "Thirteen-Thirteen" were described in the February, 1940 issue of The Magazine. — Ed. will find that many competent administrators fromAmerica and elsewhere have preceded you.I have myself been interested in observing administrative management here and elsewhere, in many landsfor many years, and I draw the conclusion that the obstacles to management here or abroad are not peculiarto democracy or any other form of government, butarose from local tradition, from the opposition of specialgroups, partisan or other, who were or thought theywere adversely affected by administrative change. InAmerica the merit system, the budget bureau, administrative reorganization in Illinois and Washington, haveall been attacked in the public forum of debate, but Iwas unable to discover that this had anything to do withdemocracy, except properly to be a part of general debate.Underneath all the controversy of parties, factionsand even of forms of government, an observer cannotescape seeing the immense advances of scientific, expertadministrative service. This does not mean that all government will land in the hands of experts, but that theadministration of plans predetermined by the communitywill rest in the hands of expert, technical, competentpublic servants. This is one of the great guaranties ofhuman progress in governmental affairs, and especiallyin democracy.On the political side of the state, democracy makespossible the higher development of morale — an intangible factor that often wins wars and enlarges productivecapacity in peace.A democratic government may be as weak or asstrong as the emergency or the temper and custom ofthe people desire and demand. Dicey, the great commentator on the British constitution, once said, "TheBritish Parliament can legally declare that all blue-eyedbabies be put to death." Carl Sandburg informed usthe other night that Lincoln had said the Constitutionmight have rough riding for a while. It did not occurto him that Lincoln was not ruled out as a democrateven though Congress was not called for months afterthe insurrection began.4. Fear of Planning. Two traps are set here forboobs. Trap one, that all must be planned. Trap two,that nothing can be planned. There are those who contend somewdiat noisily at times that no subsbtantialadvance can be made toward the readjustment of ourinternal social problems unless all is planned in totalitarian style and that by violence and revolution. Progress through catastrophe we call this doctrine. It isproclaimed alike by the left wing of the socialistic movement and by the new autocrats. Nothing but a seriesof surgical operations can save the patient, they seemto say. Or in the old biblical language, "Without theshedding of blood there is no remission of sins." EvenProfessor Laski seems to hold that democracies cannotreorganize their affairs without a strong purge by thesalts of revolution.On the other hand, there are those who cling to theconviction that all governmental "intervention" or "reg-26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEulation" or control or guidance is either superfluous ordangerous. I hear otherwise sane men declaring thatevery tax dollar is lost even if spent for schools or firedepartments. I hear all government smeared as bureaucracy. I hear that all planning by the same logic isunwise and even subversive — well, perhaps not cityplanning or county planning. But in general theassumption is that all government planning is suspect.All this reckons without the complexities of modern lifeand the swift pace of mechanized industry. We canplan for peace as well as for war.We can solve the basic problem of national production, the problem of unemployment, the problems ofsocial security, if we have the will and vision to makea common effort worthy of the emergency in which wefind ourselves. Our economy is not a closed one. Wecan make our 68 billion income 80 billions and fromthat go on to 100 or whatever the optimum figure maybe. And within the framework of free industry andfree government.This will involve planning, as will our whole worldsituation, but planning within the boundaries of freesociety, industrial and political. The unplanned societyin our day wTill not survive the competition of our time.Some seem to forget that we can plan to be free as wellas plan to be unfree. Planning nothing is the directroad to planning everything.5. Violence. There are those who strike from theirlexicon the word "violence." They find refuge andsolace in the Oxford oath — that was before the bombings began. I hate violence and I hate war as an institution. And I work for a world from which they areexiled. But, my ancestors told me, modestly, that thefirst victory of the Revolutionary War was won atMeriam's Corners.We must concern ourselves with force in order thatwe may be able to reason — in order that we may carryon the pursuits in which we wish to engage. We mustset up a world in which the values we cherish may liveand grow and come to their special forms of perfection.What we call "violence" is indeed an inferior formof organization itself. It is the task of reason to examine this organization, to understand it, to inventforms of reorganization which are superior in type andwhich may come into general acceptance as we go along.Violence is really the inferior organization of vital life-forces. We do not seek to abolish energies : we aim attheir reasonable control.The difficulty is not with the high explosive per sebut with the purpose to which it is devoted in a givensituation. The organization of violence is a technicalquestion, to answer which men of reason will be called.There is no reason why bandits and gangsters andgorillas should be given the secrets of the laboratory,of management, of psychology, of medicine, for theirbandit purposes alone.Reason must yield to force, some say, in this eraof open assertion that might makes right, within thestate and without. No, the answer is that reason itselfis the greatest force, and in the end it will prevail. Thegreat work of politics is to promote the commonweal asseen by reason and applied by reasonable measures through reasonable men. But reason must be alliedwith will, with faith, with hope, with practical judgment, and must be set as the jewel in organization andmanagement. It is one of the very greatest tasks ofpolitics, nowT and always, to bring about the fusion ofthese factors — their union and their expression — in therichest forms of social and political life.Men of reason and good will need not fear any finaltriumph of gangsters at home or abroad. The G-menconducted the king of Chicago gangsters to a placecalled Alcatraz; in earlier times Napoleon landed on St.Helena. Those who spit in reason's face must reach forthe guns and explosives that reason made, hoping thatthe irrational use of reason will waft them to the skies.Well, we, too, can will; we, too, can act; we, too, canendure ; we, too, can trust, obey and fight but in the lightof reason and in the spirit of good will.6. The Ostrich View. It is maintained that Americahas no part in the jural organization of the world. Orthat democracy has no concern with it.Well, have we lived a hermit life thus far? We defeated the British in alliance with the French; then weprepared to fight the great Napoleon; we chastised theTripolitan pirates several miles away from us ; wefought the British again : with one sweep we proclaimedthe Monroe doctrine covering a territory as far southas Patagonia. After fighting each other through fourbloody years, we beckoned France to come out ofMexico. We bearded the British and the Germans inSouth America; we bought Alaska and Hawaii; weswept into the Philippines and Porto Rico. We crossedthe seas to aid the Allies and then walked out on thepeace terms we had helped to make.Now science has dwarfed the world to incredibly smalldimensions in time, and the process is still going on.There are no more islands, it is said, and the modernseas are highways, Walter Lippmann says.We are assured by some well-known counsellors thatAmerica may well remain tranquil and view the rest ofthe world without undue alarm. We are warned againstemotional excitement and the dangers of high bloodpressure. In our own little nest we are entirely secure,it is said. We can take care of the Philippines, sixthousand miles west, and Patagonia, six thousand milesto the south, and perhaps Greenland, 1700 miles northeast. The affairs of the rest of the world, say 3,000miles away, we may well forget. Let them stew in theirown juice; we may safely pass by on the other side.For my part I decline to accept at face value thesigned personal assurances of America's safety alone,either those issued by Mr. Charles Beard or any oneelse. I admire Colonel Lindbergh as an aviator, but heis no better as a pilot in political theory than I wouldbe in a plane.I recall that Daniel came safely from the lion's den,and that three men came out of the burning fiery furnacewithout even the smell of fire upon their garments, butwe have no guaranty of supernatural intervention inour case.For myself, I feel uneasy in a world of fast-flyingplanes and high explosives. I do not confide in theheavily armed leaders who love the gun and believe theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27sword is mightier than the pen. Mr. Chamberlain maypraise the signed and sealed promises of Mr. Hitler.Out in the West in poker games, either all guns wereleft outside, or men were ready to draw — quickly.It is not my assignment or opportunity upon thisoccasion to essay a program of American action in thisemergency. But I can speak of two points:1. Speak softly and carry a big stick was the oldmotto of Theodore Roosevelt which still seems good tome. Machiavelli said much earlier, "The armed prophetsare likely to overcome the prophets who are unarmed."But what is the best defense in days when the warof position seems to be whirling around?2. We must be prepared to cooperate in the organization of a jural order of the world, in an effort to endinternational anarchy and construct some form of international justice and order. I do not undertake to saywhat the form of such an association should be, and inany case the end is more important at this moment thanthe precise delineation of means in a period of transition.If America watches the allied powers go down, wemust then be prepared to take up the burdens of protecting and policing the world of democratic ideals andinstitutions, along with our national industrial and material interests.I do not propose to state the solution to this problemhere, but to state the problem itself: What role shallAmerica play in the new order of the world now emerging? For all I know the events of the next few weeksor months may give an answer.But I am sure the world will never be the sameagain. We have said goodbye to an era. We must nowtake a position which will have behind it the unity ofthe nation and the power of the American democracy.In a crisis, a nation may prove to be a rope of sand, ora ring of fire. Whatever we choose, our course willrequire broad modifications in our attitudes and in ourpractices. We are not going back — but forward.In our drive for preparedness, I do not underestimatethe dangers from hostile military manoeuvers or fromorganized espionage and treason within.But a very great danger arises, not merely fromhostile ideas or organizations, but from the baser sideof ourselves. Do you know any here who worshipsuccess at any price in whatever hateful and ruthlessform ? By graft, violence, corruption ?Do you know any who believe that might makesright ?Do you know any who sneer at human fraternity andfellowship and rail at great groups of their fellow men?Do you know any who believe in the innate superiority and rights of the few to rule the rest of mankind?Do you know any who are willing to sell democracydown the river for a mess of pottage such as Thyssenwas awarded?Do you know any who rate the people as a herd, amob, the booboisie, and sneer at its possibilities?Do you know any who hope that in a general catastrophe their own fortunes and position might be advanced by skillful submission, surrender, deals andtrades ?This is the underside of patriotism, the underside ofhuman nature indeed, but it cannot be ignored in studying the preparedness of any community. There is something of this in all of us and much in a few — in timesof stress.Police and force can do little against these unseenfoes. In moments of strain such streaks of dispositionmay weaken the hand or poison the will of the state.For my part, I hold that America will come triumphant through this the greatest ordeal of modern times— triumphant not merely in a material or in a militarysense, but triumphant in the higher and finer valueswhere life really dwells in its fullness.America will take its place and assume its share ofresponsibility in shaping and maintaining a jural orderof the world, in lifting human relations to new levels oforder and justice. "Am I my brother's keeper" is aphrase that has echoed and re-echoed in human historyas a justification for selfish gain, but there is a higherideal expressed in the loftier words, "No man livethunto himself alone."America will work out a program, built upon nationalunity, which will raise the volume of national production and at the same time raise the standards of livingin accordance with the principles of social justice. Ourvast national resources, our dynamic energy, our inventiveness and resourcefulness, our organizing ability, ourhuge economy with its rich powers of expansion, makethis a possibility. But this is not the task of soft heartsalone but of hard heads and tough temper. Americawill maintain its free society, industrial and political,stream-lined to meet the changing conditions of modernlife.If we are prepared in America, then those of feeblefaith and weakening will and fumbling judgment canbe disregarded. Those will carry forward the torch ofdemocratic ideals whose stout hearts are unterrified andunintimidated by threats, scowls and blows. Men withclear eyes can discern and point out the sounder courses,and America can advance to the destiny that spreadsbefore a people with the richest possibilities ever withinthe grasp of man.But all this cannot and will not come to pass withoutmuch searching of mind, heart and soul in readiness forone of the greatest tests in recorded time.Are you prepared, alumni of the University of Chicago, not only to celebrate the past — the fifty years ofChicago's achievement and of America's advance — butare you prepared to face the next years or weeks evenwith their burdens of struggle, sacrifice, adjustment,achievement in a new era? Can you carry the flamingtorch of democratic ideals? Can you face an emergingmodern program? Can you steel your will to meetwithout flinching whatever comes on whatever field?Are you ready for the sacrifices which must be madein whatever field to build in the new, New World anew and finer form of American democratic state, aloftier realm to which human personality may wing itsway and find its home?28 THE UNIVERSITY OFLaboratory School Responsibility(Continued from Page 20)be the first, but not necessarily the only criterion. Anyschool activity, however, which could not contribute ina major fashion to the growth of pupils in understanding would be suspect. Frequently, if not usually, theinsistence that an activity, first of all be justified interms of its contribution to intellectual maturity, hasmore sweeping implications for "method" than for "content." These terms are used in a very conventionalsense.The question comes immediately to mind— what sortof school is best for hastening intellectual maturity? Noone knows the answer in any detail. Our operations inthe past have been based to a large extent upon hunchesclothed in seductive language. Our certainty regardingthe value of school practices decreases very rapidly aschildren ascend the educational ladder. Careful studyhas contributed much to the improvement of instructionin the primary grades but from there on we proceedlargely by intuition. But the question regarding thenature of school experiences which contribute most tointellectual maturity may have an answer. To seek thisanswer is one of the chief responsibilities of a laboratoryschool^ staff. Some generalizations about the conditionsattending higher mental activity have already beenrather well established. One of them is to the effectthat mental growth is most rapid when a child dealswith problems that have significance to him completelyapart from any threat to his scholastic reputation. Thisprinciple has devastating implications for traditionalacademic curricula.The Laboratory Schools of the University of Chicagoare private schools. In the long run, privately supported schools are more apt to go far in the wrong direction than are public schools. Schools in a democracyexist for people and the closer they are to the peoplethey serve, the better the service will be. Publicly supported schools are very close to their constituents, soclose at times that the taxpayers do not have perspective. They are often forced to judge in terms of thatphase of educational activity which can be seen mostclearly with the naked eye. This is regrettable. Theprivate institutions, on the other hand, while facingthe tremendous danger of missing the point completelyand going in search of some Holy Grail that no one elsevalues, are also in a peculiarly advantageous position.They can back away far enough from the eddies andcurrents of the stream to note its direction.To relate this advantage to the problem being discussed, it would seem that the need for privately supported educational facilities is great at the presentmoment. Professional pedagogues and a considerablebody of those who support our public schools have developed much momentum in the wrong direction. TheZeitgeist is: "Let the schools do it." I quote from apopular educational text a generally accepted description of the objectives of formal education:"To provide for each individual student that patternof training which is most nearly consonant with his CHICAGO MAGAZINEabilities, interests, background and needs; to providesuch training not only in the realm of occupational activity, but also in the total realm of life adjustments — -in citizenship, in marital and social relations, in avoca-tional and cultural activities, in physical and mentalhealth "This program of training represents considerablymore than any institution, public or private, can orshould undertake. Or to state this position a bit moreaccurately, this definition implies a school program sobroad as to be too thin. To try everything usuallymeans to accomplish little.In conclusion, it seems unnecessary to elaborate atlength upon the importance of an emphasis upon theintellectual attributes. We have seen what happens inother countries when their schools single out for greatest attention some other aspect of the child's development. Darkness settles down. And those who benefitfrom darkness have learned that the best time to makeconverts is when they are young. Let us profit by thisexample. If. we wish to perpetuate a way of life thatdepends for its existence upon an enlightened and intellectually independent citizenry, we cannot work towardthese ends too rapidly or begin too soon. If we are notcertain what to do, we had better find out quickly.The Laboratory Schools of the University of Chicagocan lead the way. Supported by wise parents whoconsistently refuse to sacrifice the ultimate welfare oftheir children for any immediate convenience, the staffof the Schools can concentrate on the study and stimulation of growth in understanding. No single activityholds more promise for American education.From St Andrews(Continued from Page 2)May those men never pass into oblivion who gave thefirst impulse to an undertaking so favored by fortune,of whom the one, John D. Rockefeller, with magnificentgenerosity provided, so to speak, for the building of theship, and the other, William R. Harper, with remarkableskill for so long held the wheel as chief pilot. Their successors inspired by their achievement and their example,devoted to the pursuit of wisdom and all the liberal arts,have furthered knowledge with unremitting labor andcontributed significantly to the welfare of mankind.Therefore we congratulate you and we cherish thefond hope that your University, starting from suchauspicious beginnings, may never falter in its undertaking, ever mindful that the more widely we advance thebounds of the search for truth, the more widespread istruth itself.Your fame spreading from those western plains so richin soil even to our northern shores and almost to remotest Thule has long flourished among men : that it mayever flourish, that your undertaking auspiciously renewedagain this year may grow in power from day to day withincreasing fortune is our wholehearted prayer.(Signed) James C. Irvine,St. Andrews Vice Chancellor, Secretary.7 May, 1940NEWS OF THE CLASSES1897Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge,PhM, PhD '01, JD '04, Samuel Deutsch,Professor Emeritus of Public WelfareAdministration at the University of Chicago, received the only honorary degreeawarded at the University of Louisvillethis year. Her degree was voted twoyears ago, but until this year Dr.Breckinridge has been unable to attendexercises. She has taught at the University of Chicago since 1902 and hasbeen active in civic and philanthropicwork for over thirty years. Her especial interest has been the status ofwomen in industry and world affairs.In 1925 she represented Kentucky at theInternational Prison Congress in London. Five years later she representedIllinois at the same conference held inPrague, Czecho-Slovakia. She was thefirst woman delegate to attend a Pan-American Congress, when she went toSouth America with Cordell Hull in1933 to act as a representative in conferences on Pan-American relations.Charles Joseph Chamberlain,PhD, professor emeritus of botany,claims chess and rifle markmanship ashobbies. Dr. Chamberlain has writtenthree books, numerous articles and hasserved as president and secretary onthe Botanical Society of America.1898Richard M. Vaughan, DB, has retired from his professorship of Christian Theology at the Newton Theological Institution and has accepted thepastorate of the Community Church atBabson Park, Florida and the Chap-lainry of Webber College, locatedthere.1899Lee Byrne, AM, AM '17, of Chicago, plans to visit University of Illinois this summer session as Professorof Education, giving graduate coursesin Philosophy of Education. Mr. Byrnehas written a number of articles on Education.Henry M. Shouse, DB, of Danville,Kentucky, has begun a new pastorateat the Harris Creek Baptist Church.Mr. Shouse informs us that he isseventy-two years of age and preachesevery Sunday.1900The retirement of William HarveyFuller, DB, on February 1, 1940, fromhis pastorate of the Alpine CommunityChurch, California, marks for him thecompletion of a half-century as apreacher. Mr. Fuller serves now aspastor's assistant of Plymouth Congregational Church in San Diego. 1902Stephen W. Ranson, PhD'06, wasrecently elected to the National Academy of Science. Mr. Ranson is Director of the Neurological Institute ofNorthwestern University and is the author of more than 20 articles on neurology. Professor Ranson is also a member of Sigma Xi. Two University ofChicago faculty members were electedto NAS. (See News of the Quadrangles).1903Ethel L. Dewey is a member of thestaff in the department of adult education at Hull-House in Chicago.1904Henry E. Sampson, JD'05, of DesMoines, Iowa, who has served in numerous public offices in Des Moines,found his name added to Who's Who inAmerica in the 1940 edition, whichwas published in May.1909Herman G. James, JD, president ofOhio University, gave the convocationaddress to the June graduating class ofthe University of Illinois.1910Warder C. Allee, SM, PhD, '12,professor of zoology at the Universityof Chicago, received recently an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Earlham college, his alma mater, in Richmond, Indiana.1911Edgar John Phillips, who holds anLLB from the University, was admittedrecently to the law firm of Hartshorn,Thomas, Abele and Edelman in Cleveland, Ohio.Mrs. John Seidenfuss of Blue Island, Illinois, writes that she is a combination of wife, mother, homemaker,business-woman, student and in addition, she is most interested in our present day history-making.Raymond H. Schultz is associatedwith the law firm, Bluford, Krinsley,Schultz & Voorheis, which has recentlybeen reorganized, located in the FirstNational Bank Building in Chicago.1912Nell Henry, SM '15, is now president of the Greater Cleveland BiologySociety while Villa B. Smith, '09, ischairman of the program committee,and Pauline Sabadosh, '31, is chairman of the membership committee.Wright Houghland of Richmond,Va., recently won the Barter TheaterScholarship (in that city) for his three-act play, Every Man's Hand, in a contest conducted by the Southern LiteraryMessenger. 1913John T. Lister, AM '16, PhD '19,retires this year from the faculty of theCollege of Wooster. Dr. Lister beganhis professorship of Spanish and German in 1919.Roger David Long directs the Research Committee on Advertising ofNational Publishers Association in NewYork City.1914The many University of Chicagofriends of Miss Frances Angus formerly of the French department of theUniversity high school will welcomeeagerly her new volume of poetry AsWe Are just off the press, BruceHumphries Inc., Boston, 1940, $2.00.Charles O. Parker, JD '15, announces the removal of his law officesto suite 1140, 7 South Dearborn Street,Chicago.C. C. McCown, PhD, professor atthe Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley, California, was elected to two presidencies for 1940 — that of the Philological Association of the Pacific Coastand of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis.After leaving Mississippi State College, where he was Head of the Geology Department from 1918 to 1934,William C. Morse became Head of asimilar department at the University ofMississippi, as well as Director of theMississippi State Geological Survey.Many of the students whom Dr. Morsetrained in petroleum geology have beenresponsible for major oil discoveries inMississippi.Genevieve Bishop Stone, formerlyconnected with the University of Michigan, is now Director of the AmericanLegion Welfare Office for the Districtof Columbia, Washington, D. C.1915Andrew R. Juhl, AM, of Fresno,Calif., is teaching German and geometry at Roosevelt high school in Fresno.1916How to Keep America Out of War isthe title of a pamphlet by Kirby Page,published a short time ago by theAmerican Friends Service Committee.Mr. Page's new address is Box 247,La Habra, California.1920Walter F. Loehwing, SM'21,PhD'25, Professor of Plant Physiology in Iowa State University, has beenappointed Head of the Department ofBotany to succeed Dr. Robert B.Wylie, PhD'04, who is retiring, atIowa State.Edith Spangler of Cleveland received her Master of Arts degree fromthe Graduate School of Western Reserve University in Cleveland on June12, 1940.2930 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1923L. Foster Wood, PhD, of New YorkCity, prepared a study course of eightchapters on Spiritual Values in FamilyLife for the General Federation ofWomen's Clubs Headquarters in Washington, D. C, which was published inMay.Benjamin F. Yanney, PhD, an authority on astronomy, retires aftertwenty-nine years as professor in mathematics at the College of Wooster inWooster, Ohio, at the close of thisschool year.1924Lorimer V. Cavins, PhD, researchspecialist working on the State Boardof School Finance in Charleston, W.Virginia, is the editor in chief of TheWonderland of Knowledge, a 15 volumeencyclopedia.Ralph R. Pickett, AM, PhD '30,has accepted the appointment of exchange Professor of economics at theCity College in New York City, whichposition will begin in July.Hessel W. Tenhave, SM, '29, whoteaches in the High School at RoyalOak, Michigan, is sponsor of the RoyalOak High School Forestry Club; inthe summer he has charge also of thenature study work at the Detroit FortSt. Presbyterian Church Camp. Hefinds time to be one of the boy scoutcommissioners of his district, and at theMichigan Schoolmaster's Club meetingat Ann Arbor he was re-elected secretary of the Biological Conference. Heserved until recently as president of theDetroit Biology Club.1925William J. Breit, AM, serves asstate supervisor of Trade and IndustrialEducation. Mr. Breit has been connected with such work for fourteen andone-half years except for summerteaching at the University of Florida in1937 and 1938.Pictures and brief biographicalsketches of Benjamin Elija Mays,AM '25, PhD '35 and Robert WilliamBrooks, AM '18, DB '19, appeared inthe January, 1940 issue of the HowardUniversity School of Religion bulletin,The News. Mr. Mays is the author ofnumerous books and articles, while Mr.Brooks has been active as a member ofmany national church and social servicecommittees and boards.1927Dorothea K. Adolph of Rockford,Illinois was awarded her Master's degree from the Graduate School of Western Reserve University in Cleveland onJune 12.Beginning next September A. S. Mc-Ilwaine, AM, PhD '37, will hold theposition of Professor of English at NewYork State College for Teachers inAlbany. John Richmond Russell of Rochester, New York, is librarian at theUniversity of Rochester."As long as we have rice, we canresist," write Lewis Smythe, AM,PhD '28, and Margaret Smythe fromthe University of Nanking, ChengtuSzechwan, China. It was while ReyScott was in Chengtu taking movingpictures of Mme. Chiang Kai-sheck andstaying at the home of the Smythe'sthat the panda which he brought to theChicago zoo "literally fell into hislap."1928While serving as dean of the YihWen Commercial College, Chefoo,Shantung, China, William C. Booth,AM, is teaching stenography in Chinese and English, office training forstenographers, and salesmanship. Heis in charge of the alumni promotionoffice of the School and is vice-chairman of the Shantung Mission of Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions.He is also author of a book, A systemof Shorthand for the Chinese Language.Charles D. Flory, AM, PhD '33,will teach this summer in Denton,Texas, at the Northern Texas St.Teachers College.Raymond E. Hayes, has been teaching American history, since his graduation, in Arlington Heights, 111., and forthe past five years has been coachingbasketball and baseball.Grace Heller, MD Rush, has beenCollege physician at Goucher College inBaltimore, Maryland since 1934.Leslie George Templin, AM '28,Methodist Mission in Nadiad, DistrictKaira, India, is supervisor of the village educational service in Nadiadwhich comprises 103 village primaryschools. Mr. Templin was principalof the Methodist Boys' high school ofBaroda for thirteen years, this schoolis but 25 years old.Josephine Joslyn Turner of Brooklyn, New York, holds the position ofhead laboratory technician in St. JohnsHospital.1929Dwight S. Brown is no longer connected with the Illinois Zinc Companyin Chicago but is President of the Sumner Theatre Corporation in Berwyn,Illinois. Mr. Brown's new address is6817 W. Roosevelt Road in Berwyn.Harry G. Guthmann, PhD, professor of finance at Northwestern University, has published a book with his colleague, H. E. Dougall on CorporateFinancial Policy, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,New York.Or a O. McFadden of South Euclid,Ohio, received her Master of Arts de gree from the Graduate School of Western Reserve University in Cleveland onJune 12.Gregory Vlastos, AM, associateprofessor of philosophy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, isauthor of a new book entitled Christian Faith and Democracy.1930Harold Walter Boesel of Toledo,Ohio, is connected with the Pure OilCompany as resident chemist.Harry D. Edgren, AM '35, associateprofessor of physical education atGeorge Williams College is working ona new book to be entitled Recreationand Hobbies of Junior and Senior highschool students.John Skok, SM, has a position atpresent in Woodrow Wilson JuniorCollege, Chicago, Illinois. He assistsin the laboratory work in the divisionof Biological Sciences and also continues his work in the Department ofBotany at the University.Chi-Tung Yung, PhD, who formerly was stationed at Shanghai, China,has been transferred and is now at 24Kai Tack Road, Kowloon, China. Heteaches botany at Lingnan University,and is attempting to overcome the manydifficulties incident to war conditions.He was married to Miss Mary Ho onAugust 22, 1939.1931Emily Glendora Bacon, AM, assistant professor of mathematics in theCollege of Education, University ofWyoming, completed a trip around theworld this last January. Miss Bacon setout upon her journey in July, 1939.Verne O. Graham, PhD, Principalof Norwood School in Chicago, is alsoSecretary of the Board of Trustees ofthe Chicago Academy of Science.Daniel Russell, AM, now teachingat Texas A & M was recently electedPresident of the Texas Social WelfareAssociation.Lewis M. Turner, PhD, formerlyconnected with the University of Arkansas, has been with the SouthernForest Experiment Station at New Orleans during the last two years. Hehas been promoted twice, and now hasthe rank of Forester. He has supervision of the flood control program ofthe Southern Station, west of the Mississippi River. Dr. Turner was alsodelegated by the Forest Service to attend a three- week Seminar on ForestInfluences, which was held at the SanDimas branch of the California Forestand Range Experiment Station, nearLos Angeles.1932Ruth H. Abells, SM '35, is teaching psychology at the Morgan ParkTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31Junior College and also is serving asDirector of Student Personnel, Chicago.Milton O. Beebe, AM, has writtenus that his son, Milton O. Beebe, Jr.,who graduated from Rush College ofMedicine this spring, has been grantedan interneship in an Army hospital tobegin July 1, 1940.Gerald B. Switzer, PhD, pastor ofthe West Point Grey United Church inVancouver, B. C, has resigned to accept a position as professor of churchhistory and religious education atUnion College in Vancouver.1933The new address of John D. Montgomery, DB, formerly of Buenos Aires,Argentina, is 130 Vernon Avenue,Lynchburg, Virginia.Maurine Stauffer, AM '39, took uphis duties as placement clerk of the Zin-ser Personnel Service in Chicago onApril 19, 1940.One of the 63 fellowships and scholarships in the Graduate School of Cornell University for the academic year1940-41 was given to Georgie MayWall, AM, of Hantsport, Nova Scotia.Miss Wall received the Graduate Scholarship in Greek and Latin.1934Waldo A. Rigal's name appeared inRipley's Believe It or Not with the following comment : "Waldo A. Rigal,Chicago, Received His Degree of Bachelor of Philosophy Before He Took HisExamination." The examination wason the subject "How to Teach English."Robert L. Scranton, AM, PhD. '39,will become instructor in Greek, Greekart, and Archaeology at Vassar Collegein Poughkeepsie, New York, next September.1935Conrad J. Holmberg, MD, is nowlocated at Minneapolis, Minn., workingwith Dr. H. Newhart and Dr. E. W.Hansen, both of which are head specialists.Aaron Syvetz, PhD '39, will be connected part time with the School of Design in Chicago beginning next September.1936Martha Fields, who at present is astudent in the graduate School of Western Reserve University in Cleveland,was a member of the cast for the playwhich was presented by the UniversityPlayers on the campus on May 16. MissFields' home is in South Bend, Indiana.She received her Master's degree fromWestern Reserve University in Cleveland on June 12. By the makers ofSwift's PremiumWHAT LUCK! PR EM'SA THRIFTY MEAT ANDMY FAMILYLOVES IT/A delicious meat allready to eat... madeof genuinesugar-cured pork!• Just chill and serve — PREM tastes grand.Or slice it and fry, for breakfast or overthe campfire. And don't overlook PREMsandwiches. However you serve it, you'llagree — PREM has that extra goodness youexpect from Swift! HamMartell Gladstone, PhD, resignedhis Doctorate Fellowship at the University of Chicago and is now doing research in the laboratories of the Emul-sol Corporation in Chicago.Oscar Waldemar Junek, AM, whoreturned from England on the S. S.Roosevelt recently, is writing a book onfolk songs, which is an analysis of folksongs, an untouched field to date.Ruth E. Moulton Flory, MD, '39,has completed her interning at the Cincinnati General Hospital recently andwill be resident at New York Psychia tric Institute beginning July, 1940. Dr.Curtis Flory, '35, will leave Billingsand go to New York with Dr. RuthFlory.Joseph Perlson, MD Rush, who isJunior Medical Officer in St. Elizabeth'sHospital in Washington, D. C, internedin Los Angeles, served as resident physician at Utah State Hospital in Provo,Utah, and held the position of staff physician at Logansport State Hospital inLogansport, Ind., all within the last fiveyears.Dorothy Ulrich 's illustrated pam-32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBUSINESSDIRECTORYGlen Eyrie FarmFOR CHILDRENDELAVAN LAKE. WISCONSINBOYS and GIRLS 7—12Farm experience besides camp activities including swimming and boating.JUNE 23 to SEPTEMBER 1Send for story of the Farm.VIRGINIA HINKINS BUZZELL. ' 13Glen Eyrie Farm. Delavan Lake, Wis.AMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIRand WELDING CORP.DAY AND NIGHT PHONE CAN. 6071-0324 HOUR SERVICEQUALIFIED LICENSED CONTRACTOR1404-08 S. Western Ave., ChicagoBOOK BINDERSBOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Conqress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical College phlet on Edwin Arlington Robinson,reprinted from "Avocations/' will besold at the poet's birthplace in HeadTide, Maine, when it opens as a memorial this summer. Miss Ulrich's"Epitaph" was in "The American Mercury" for April and other poems havebeen appearing regularly in "The NewYork Times" and "The ChristianScience Monitor."1937John B. Biesanz will teach economics, political science and sociology atWinona State Teachers College inWinona, Minnesota next fall.Horace Byron Eay, Jr., received hisJD on June 12 from Western ReserveUniversity in Cleveland.Theodore A. Fox, MD '37, has recently received an appointment as Resident Surgeon at Mt. Sinai hospital inNew York City. Dr. Fox was formerlyconnected with the Cook County Hospital in Chicago.From Conway, Arkansas we hearfrom Hubert L. Minton, PhD, who isDirector of the Department of PublicRelations at Arkansas State TeachersCollege and head of the Department ofGeography. Mr. Minton is NationalVice-President of the Sigma TauGamma Social Fraternity and has completed this year his term as NationalPresident of the Teachers College Extension Association.James C. Shelburne, AM, will takeup his duties as Dean of Shurtleff College in Alton, Illinois, this coming September.Mildred Jennings Stacy becameAssistant Principal of the John CookSchool in Chicago recently. Somewhatrecently, August 12, 1939, she became¦ the wife of Edward Stacy.Geraldine Whiting, PhD, Assistant Professor of Botany at Smith College 1938-1939, is attending the LibrarySchool of Columbia University.1938Taylor Alexander, SM, who spenta year of graduate work at the University of Maryland, returned to theUniversity of Chicago at the beginningof the winter quarter, 1940, to continuehis work for the doctorate. Duringthe autumn quarter he was at his homein Hope, Arkansas.Ruth Ambrose, SM, teaches at Virginia, Minnesota. Her address is LaSalle Apts., Virginia, Minnesota.Wallace S. Baldinger, PhD, hasaccepted a position at Lawrence College in Appleton, Wisconsin as associate professor of art, which will beginin September, 1940.On August 9 of this year Earl C.Dahlstrom will sail for Hongkong, CATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup 0900 —0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Serwce Since 16*6*2CEMENT CONTRACTORST. A. REHNQUIST CO. 7 CONCRETEFLOORS\\->/\rvr SIDEWALKS\\V MACHINE FOUNDATIONS\\ REPAIRSv ALL PHONESVEST. I9» BEVerly 0890Yard 6639 So. VernonCHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, 71Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 1902YARDS ALL OVER TOWNMAIN OFFICE342 N. Oakley Blvd.Telephone Seeley 4488Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co,6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wesson DoesCOFFEE -TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE.. CHICAGOat Lake and Canal SttPhone State 1350Boston— New York — Philadelphia — SyracuseDR. BERNARD R. LITZa graduate of the University of Illinois '39ANNOUNCESThe Opening of His Office forthe Practice of Dentistryat theGLADSTONE HOTEL6200 S. Kenwood AvenueYou are cordially invited to obtain- dental service ona yearly budget system that is now available.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER WIRING600W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneSeeley 2788FLOWERS>^^*r mi/Vi 7 CHICAGO<°w* Established 186SOJ/j^ FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 64451645 E. 55th StreetGRAPHIC ARTSTHE SCRIPTORIUMScribes • Illuminators • BindersC L RICKETTS JASPER S KINGTITLE PAGES; ANNIVERSARY, CHRISTMAS, WEDDING and GUEST BOOKS;COATS OF ARMSGENEALOGIES, MEMORIALS,RESOLUTIONS, BOOK PLATES•DIPLOMAS, AWARDS, HONORARY DEGREES, CHARTERSValued papers and letters restoredand bound38 SOUTH DEARBORN STREETDEARBORN 0001 CHICAGOGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY «nd MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL LAUNDRY SERVICESAlsoZone System ol Cleaning- : - Odorless Quality Cleaning - : -Phone Oakland 1383 where he will be high-school instructorin the Amercan School of Kikungshan,under the auspices of the EvangelicalMission Covenant. He plans to bethere for at least two years.Esmond P. Hersberger, AM, teachescommercial law in Chicago public highschools.Siam in Transition is the title of abook published in 1939 by KennethPerry Landon, PhD, assistant professor of philosophy at Earlham Collegein Richmond, Indiana. A book-lengthreport on Chinese in Thailand, writtenby Mr. Landon for the Institute of Pacific Relations, will be published soon.He is a regular contributor for theAsia magazine.Lois E. Leavitt, AM, of Lincoln,Nebraska, is still assistant professor ofeducation at Nebraska Wesleyan University.Dale Noble of Ann Arbor, Michigan, is personnel technician on the staffof the Municipal Personnel Service, adivision of the Michigan MunicipalLeague.Frederic Wickert, PhD, beganworking for the Commonwealth EdisonCompany in Chicago on June 17 asInterviewer.1939Bernard Drell, PhD, taught lastFall at Superior State Teachers College, Superior, Wis. He has just completed a study of coal mining and hasbeen intrigued to find himself locatedin the heart of the iron mining regionand has made several excursions tolearn how iron is mined and transported.Fred S. Hill, SM, was promoted tothe position of Chief Chemist at the E.I. du Pont de Nemours and CompanyPlant at Speller, West Virginia.Robert C. Lindner, PhD, has entered the government service at We-natchee, Washington. His work atpresent deals with the physiology ofthe apple tree, one problem dealing withmineral nutrition, and another with theinitiation of flower buds. Potassium isto be studied carefully to see what it isdoing in the apple tree. He finds hisnew work full of absorbing interest.William J. Risteau recently accepted an appointment with the IllinoisZinc Company in Chicago.Henri G. Stegemeier, PhD, who hasbeen connected with the German department here at the Universitv forsome time, will teach German at MountHolyoke College in South Hadley,Massachusetts this next school year.Alice Irene Stone, AM, will beginteaching at Township community highschool in Niles Center, 111., next September.Clarence G. Van Arman recentlyresigned his position with the Price Ex- LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoLITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead 21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182OFFICE FURNITUREBTEELCASEloI3izs£n&&S! Equipment \FILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co.Grand Rapid*, MichiganPAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123Lake Street PhoneKedzie 3 1 86E. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4*04RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3192PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C ALUMNI34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions**HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESDALHEIM &CO.2 OS* W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO.PUBLISHERSRESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 WoodJawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324 tract Company and is nowwith the G.B. Searle Company (Pharmaceuticals).Leonard Weiss of Oak Park, Illinois recently received a fellowshipaward from Fletcher School of Lawand Diplomacy. This will be Mr.Weiss' second year of study at theFletcher School.1940Wade W. Allen, SM, has beenplaced with the Portland Cement Association in Chicago.Barney B. Cohen, SM, formerly atthe LeMoyne School, has been transferred to Von Steuben High School.He is instructor in the general sciencecourse.Robert S. Miner will begin his duties on July 15 with Merck and Company in Rahway, New Jersey.Another chemistry graduate, William L. Rittschof, SM, has beenplaced in the Research Department ofthe Standard Oil Company at Whiting,Ind.SOCIAL SERVICEThe first volume of Dean Abbott'sbook, Public Assistance: AmericanPrinciples and Policies, has just beenpublished by the University of ChicagoPress. The second volume will shortlyfollow the present volume.Wen-Hsien Chen, PhD '40, is onthe way back from Chicago to a position at the University of Nanking.Annie Laurie Baker, AM '31, hasbeen made the Executive of the Bureauof Aid to the Blind in the State Divisionof Public Welfare in Minnesota.Miriam Flexner, AM '34, has beenappointed Head Medical Worker in theNational Refugee Service of New YorkCity.Roger Cumming, AM '36, has lefthis position as District Representativein the Minnesota Department of SocialSecurity to become Supervisor of StaffDevelopment and In-Service Training.Ruth Gaunt, AM '37, has accepteda position as Children's Worker in theCatholic Social Welfare Bureau in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Helen Meinzer, AM '37, has left theNew Jersey Board of Children's Guardians to- take a position with the FamilyWelfare organization of Allentown,Pennsylvania.Sara Ruth Cox, AM '38, has takena position with the Henry WatsonChildren's Aid Society of Baltimore.Lester Herman, AM '38, has accepted the position of Field Representative in the Louisiana Department ofPublic Welfare. RUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1021Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000For RentFurnished Cabins on ShoreLake Michigan 40 miles northMuskegon.$150 July &; August.L. Seymour, Mears, MichiganCOMMERCIAL SCHOOLSINTENSIVE¦ STENOGRAPHIC COURSEfor College People OnlySuperior training for practical, personal use or profitable employment. Course gives you dictation speed of100 words a minute in 100 days. Classes begin January.April. July and October. Enroll Now. Write or phonefor bulletin.BRYANT & STRATTON College18 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago Tel: RAN. 1575MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by tbe National Aisoeiatloa of Accredited Commercial 8cnool*.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130RABINOVITCH is the teacher of DmitriKessel, The Grand Duchess Marie, Esther Born,Ernest Born, Curtis Reider, Robert Boutet-Scallan,Saxon & Viles, Ben Schnall, etc., in recent and veryrecent years.Studio-Workshop-School of PHOTOGRAPHYis an intentionally small X "V1VU1WU H*school and a very personal one for those who see.differently and wish to make individual pictures.Professional and non-professional. Day and evening.20th year. Now enrolling Sept. class. Write forCatalog G, 40 West 56th St., New Yerk.SCHOOL— SHORTHANDYour whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.For more particulars call, write,or telephone.THE GREGG COLLEGE6 North Michigan Avenue, ChicagoState 1881ROOFERSESTABLISHED 1908GROVEROOFINGFAirfax3206ClLLILAND6644C0T1A6E«0VEAv7ROOFING and INSULATINGTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 35Sllfctl METAL WUKHSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKSeGalvaniied Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofinge1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893STOCKS— BONDS-COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, 'II. H. \. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W. Davis, '16 F. B. Evans. 'IIPaul H. Davis & Co.Mmmbcr*New York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock ExchangeChicago Board of Trade10 So. La Salle St. Franklin 1622TEACHERS' AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with tho Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One FeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY, MO. SPOKANENEW YORKHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 b. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, IILMember National Associationof Teachers AaenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School. Normal School,College and University Patronage Ethel Mahoney, AM '38, has leftthe California Relief Arministration towork with the Crippled Children's Division in the Utah State Board of PublicWelfare.Alice Overton, AM '38, has beenappointed Juvenile Probation Officer inSt. Louis County, Missouri.Anne Rausci-ier Scholz, AM '38,has accepted the position of FieldWorker in the Children's ProtectiveAssociation in Washington, D. C.Lois Warren Gallagher, AM '38,has left the Old Age Assistance Division of the State Department in Illinoisto accept a position with the SocialSecurity Board in Washington.Richard Guilford, AM '39, has leftthe Illinois Children's Home and AidSociety to become a District Supervisorin the Minnesota Department of SocialSecurity.Alice Johnson, AM '39, is servingas Acting Assistant Director of theCrippled Children's Services in the Public Health Division of Idaho.Eloise Clarke, AM '39, has recentlytaken a position with the Family ServiceSociety of New Orleans.Martha McLane, AM '39, is working in the Child Welfare Services program in the New Hampshire Department of Public Welfare at Laconia.Francis Okita, AM '39, has beenappointed Senior Social Case Workerwith the Department of Social Securityof the Territorial Government ofHawaii.Sidney Speiglman, AM '39, has accepted a position as Case Worker in theUnited Jewish Charities in Kansas City,Missouri.Irene Buckley, AM '40, has beenmade the Associate Director of Day-Time program and Supervisor of Counselling at the Central Branch of theY.W.C.A. in New York City.Miss Abbott recently spoke at theAnnual Meeting of the Alumni Association of Simmons College, School ofSocial Work; and also lectured to thepresent students of the Simmons School.Eunice Robinson, Lecturer in CaseWork, recently conducted an instituteat the Texas State Conference of SocialWork.New Social Service publications include a study of the Illinois EmergencyRelief Commission by Frank Glick,PhD '39, who is now Director of theSchool of Social Work at the Universityof Nebraska and was formerly AssistantDirector of the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission.The James Leake Student Loan Fundhas been established by Mrs. Leake inmemory of her husband, James Leakewas one of the best known of the TEACHER'S SERVICEBUREAU4522 N. Knox Ave.Chicago, III.UNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottaqe Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492VENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767School's staff of Field Work Supervisors. To* students and also socialworkers of experience, he was a guideand friend. His death is a great lossto the School.ENGAGEDMarilyn Joslit to Dr. HowardLaufman '32, MD '37, who has returned to Chicago from London, England, where he did post-graduate workin surgery. Miss Joslit plans to study atthe University next year.Muriel Gladys Wilson, '40, to Dr.Harold J. W7erber of Milwaukee.Philomela Baker, '38, who has beenworking with Regional Advisers formore than a year, to Jay Berwanger,'36, who is connected with the Featheredge Rubber Company of Chicago, onMay 21, 1940, Chicago.MARRIEDHelen Eaton Jacoby, '09, to HarryWright Evard on June 12, 1940, in Indianapolis, Ind.Marcella Bogan, '28, to John LesterBishop, on April 27 in Chicago.Hazel R. Jackson to David E. Wilcox, '28, on May 18 in Marlette, Michigan.Grace Jeanetta Gowens, '29, toFrank George Leaf on June 29 in Washington, D. C. Mrs. Leaf will continue her work in Washington as research associate with the Children's Bu-Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.36 THE UKBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin th*University of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaxa 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorPETERSONFireproof WarehouseSTORAGE — MOVINGForeign — DomesticShipments55th & Ellis Phone. MID 9700HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE_ AFTEM19 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseALSOELECTROLYSIS EXPERTMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of Hair from Face,Eyebrows, Back of Neck or any partof Body; destroys 200 to 600 Hair Rootsper hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member Amerlean Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldq.1 7 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in Beauty VERSITY OF CHICAGOreau, Department of Labor until thefirst of October and will be at home atBala Cynvvyd. Pennsylvania, some timeshortly thereafter.Mary-Morris Van Schaick, '30, toJack Arthur Diamond on April 18, 1940,in Chicago. Mr. and Mrs. Jack Diamond are living at the Shoreland Ho-Patricia Bonner, '34, to John R.Tomlinson, on May 30, in Chicago.Dorothy Bangs, '36, to Dr. WillardCarter Goodpasture. MD '37, on May4, 1940, at Salina, Kansas. Dr. andMrs. Coodpasture are living at 5419University Ave., Chicago.Elizabeth Strong to Ben MartinHauserman. '37, on June 8, 1940 inCleveland, Ohio.Jean Scheps to Melvin A. Robin,37, on May 5, 1940, in Chicago, 111.Mr. and Mrs. Robin will live in Nashville, Tenn.Anne Watkins to William MuirTaliaferro, '37, on June 29 in SaintMark's Church in Grand Rapids, Michigan.Robert S. Brumbaugh, '38, AM '38,to Ada Z. Steele, '40, on June 5, 1940.Mr. and Mrs. Brumbaugh are living at5723 S. Dorchester Ave., Chicago.Doris Gentzler, '39, to Arthur M.Dean, Jr., '38, on May 30, in Chicago.Lavinia Howells, AM '39, to Dr.Everett Strohl, on April 20, 1940, NewYork City.Thelma L. Brook. JD '40, to Har-i old Simon on April 21 in Chicago, Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Simon are livingat 523 Brompton Place, Chicago.BORNTo Katherine O'Neill Anderson,AM '35, and J. B. Anderson, a son,John Stephen, on March 23, 1940, Chicago, 111.To John Bracken and Mrs. Bracken(Mary E. Bassett '31) on May 1,1940, a son, James Scott, in WesternSprings, 111.To John DeWitt, nephew of Mrs.lames Weber Linn, and Mrs. DeWitt(Marian Voigt '35), on April 3, 1940,a daughter, Abigail Lee, in Chicago,Illinois.To Livingston Hall, '23, and Mrs.Hall, on April 14 a son, John Kendrick,in Cambridge, Massachusetts.To T- Parker Hall, '27, and FrancesFerris Hall, on May 22, 1940, a boy,Robert Rumsey, Cambridge, Massachusetts.To Alton A. Linford, AM '38, andMrs. Linford. a son, Toseph Russell, onMay 20, 1940, Chicago, 111.To John J. J. Staunton and Mrs. MAGAZINEStaunton (Eileen Humiston '33) adaughter, Susan Marv, on Mav 221940, in Maywood, 111.'DIEDElsie Lillian Belsciiner, '17,teacher, on May 24, 1940, Omaha, Nebraska.Emma Kirkland Clark, AM '00,teacher, in Brookline, Mass., on February 17, 1940.Dr. J. T. Corr, Rush MD '96„ onJune 5, 1940, in Racine, Wis.John A. Dales, Rush MD '90, onMay 12, 1940, Sioux City, Iowa.Adam J. Dauer, Rush MD '03, ofToledo, Ohio, on February 24, 1940.Benjamin F. Condray, '04, retiredprofessor, on May 4 in Arkadelphia,Arkansas.John H. Donovan, '31, on February8, 1940, in Chicago.Edith M. Fenton, of Denver, Colo.on April 10, 1940.Eva Griswold, '14, for 32 years ateacher in the Chicago public schools,on May 13, 1940, in Chicago, 111.Francis Hunter, '35, MD '36, onApril 24. 1940. in San Diego, Calif.Frank Sherman Kilson, MD '95,on April 25, 1940, in North Manchester,Ind.William McCracken, PhD '05, retired Professor of Chemistry at WesternState Teachers College, on June 13,1940, in Kalamazoo, Mich., at the ageof 76 years.Professor Roderick D. McKenzie,PhD '21, chairman of the University ofMichigan's Department of "Sociologysince 1930, on May 7, 1940, in Ann Arbor, Mich.Richard Grier Peoples, AM '32, onDecember 11, 1939, in Fulton, Mo.Rufus Maynard Reed, '99, Presidentof Western Drv Color Co., on April 13,1940, Chicago.'Jefferson Davis Sandefer, '07,teacher, at Hardin-Simmons University, on March 22, 1940 in Abilene,Texas.Charles Ford Sangster, AM '32,teacher, on May 5, 1940, in Great Bend,Kansas.Charles E. Shultz, Rush MD '00.on March 2, 1940, in Bloomington, 111.Lyman Allen Steffen, MD '12, onApril 10, 1940, in Antigo, Wisconsinwhere Dr. Steffen has been districtsurgeon for twenty-six years.Renee B. Stern, '03, editor andwriter on May 19, 1940, in Philadelphia,Pa.Charles F. Webb, AM '23, Franklin Life Insurance Co., on Alay .2, Fort Worth, Texas.INDEX FOR VOLUME 32 (1939-40)ARTICLESMonth — PageAll Things Considered, Howard Vincent O'Brien. ... .Feb. 19Alonzo the Magnificent, Allison Danzig Jan. 9Alumni and the 50th, The, Ralph W. Nicholson Oct. 7Alumni and the University June 10Are We Ready for Peace?, Jerome G. Kerwin. Nov. 15Athletics, Don Morris Oct. 23, Nov. 23,Dec. 24, Jan. 27, Feb. 24, Mar. 22, Apr. 23, May 23. June 23Baldridge '11, William V. Morgenstern Feb. 12Behind the Gift, Ralph W. Nicholson Mar. 15Better Theological Education, Ernest C. Colwell May 11Between Wars, John A. Wilson.-. Nov. 5Bye Bye. Football !, William Allen White Feb. 17Carl Sandburg, Yes, William P. Schenk May 5Carlsoniana, Harold G. O. Hoick June 16Chaucer on the Air Oct. 14Democracy, Charles E. Merriam .June 14Education in Art, Harold Haydon Dec. 12Essence of Fascism, The, G. A. Borgese Dec. 5Football, 1892-1939 Jan. 5Foundation Progress, Ralph W. Nicholson Dec. 19Four Issues Ahead, William F. Ogburn Apr. 18Great Books, The, Mortimer J. Adler Feb. 10, Mar. 8How I Lost My Pants in K.C., Philip S. Allen Dec. 14Humanities and Humanisms, The, Richard McKeon. .Dec. 10I Had a Wonderful Time, But —, A Former Student. . .Feb. 14In the Government Service, Marie Berger and Joan Goodman Mar. 5In the Service of Society, Henry Bruere Jan. 17Its Meaning to Its Alumni, Merle E. Irwin May 15James Weber Linn, Frank P. Breckinridge Oct. 8John Matthews Manly, Robert Morss Lovett.... June 8Labor Front, The, William H. Spencer. .. Apr. 5Laboratory School Responsibility, Stephen M. Corey. .June 19Mr. Linn and Mr. Aldis' Shirt, George Morgenstern. .Oct. 10March 10, 1940, Robert M. Hutchins Apr. 8My Most Interesting Decisions, Philip S. Allen Nov. 19Motion Pictures as an Art? Monta Bell Dec. 16National Institution, A, Ralph W. Nicholson Jan. 23New Plays and Old Labels, Frank Hurburt O'Hara.. Nov. 12News of the Quadrangles, Bern Lundy Mar. 19, Apr. 20, May 20, June 21News of the Quadrangles, William V. Morgenstern.. Oct. 19, Nov. 24, Dec. 22, Jan. 24News of the Quadrangles, Don Morris Feb. 20Ohio Chemist, Helen Robbins Bitterman Mar. 18Oil and Mexican Nationalism, Harold E. Davis Nov. 17Old Law in the New Land, The, Florence E. Allen. . . .Jan. 20Only 529 Days, Howard P. Hudson. Apr. 16Out of Nowhere, Ralph W. Gerard Jan. 14Past the Ides of March, Ralph W. Nicholson Apr. 17People, Phillip S. Allen Jan. 13Preparedness, Robert M. Hutchins June 5Problem, The Mar. 17Progress Report, Ralph W. Nicholson May 22Quinquagenary, Howard P. Hudson Oct. 5Scholarship Story, The, Martin J. Freeman Mar. 11Scientific Research, Harold G. Moulton Oct. 11Social Science Objective,, A, John Nef Nov. 10Students and Music, Cecil M. Smith Jan. 26Table Talk on Atoms, Cody Pfanstiehl Feb. 16Thinking It Over, Thomas F. Woodlock June 24Thirteen-Thirteen, Albert Lepawsky Feb. 7This Was Germany, Katherine Buxbaum Oct. 13Traditions at the University, Philip S. Allen Feb. 22Training Soldiers for Democracy, Gertrude G. Stutz..Oct. 17University and American Life, The, Lee Hamilton. .Apr. 12University's Finances, The, Harvey C. Daines Jan. 10View 40 Years in Making, A, Gertrude G. Stutz May 13Way We Talk, The, Richard McKeon Mar. 12Who's Who — Again Mar. 16William E. Dodd, Avery O. Craven May 7William E. Dodd, Marcus W. Jernegan May 10William E. Dodd, Charles E. Merriam May 8Why I Came; What I Got, Gladis M. Castle Apr. 15With the Alumni, Ralph W. Nicholson Feb. 18Your University — Its Future Dec. 8AUTHORSAdler, Mortimer J., The Great Books Feb. 10, Mar. 8Allen, Florence E., The Old Law in the New Land .... Tan. 20Allen, Philip S., How I Lost My Pants in K.C Dec. 14, My Most Interesting Decisions Nov. 19— , People Jan. 13 , Traditions at the University Feb. 22Bell, Monta, Motion Pictures as an Art? Dec. 16Berger, Marie, and Joan Goodman, In the GovernmentService Mar. 5 Month — PageBitterman, Helen Robbins, Ohio Chemist Mar ISBorgese, G. A., The Essence of Fascism Dec. 5Breckinridge, Frank P., James Weber Linn Oct. 8Bruere, Henry, In the Service of Society Jan. 17Buxbaum, Katherine, This Was Germany Oct. 13Castle, Gladis M., Why I Came; What I Got Apr. 15Colwell, Ernest C, Better Theological Education May 11Corey, Stephen M., Laboratory School Responsibility. June 19Craven, Avery O., William E. Dodd May 7Daines, Harvey C, The University's Finances Jan. 10Danzig, Allison, Alonzo the Magnificent Jan. 9Davis, Harold E., Oil and Mexican Nationalism Nov. 17Freeman, Martin J., The Scholarship Story.. Mar. 11Gerard, Ralph W., Out of the Nowhere Jan. 14Goodman, Joan, and Marie Berger, In the GovernmentService Mar. 5Hamilton, D. Lee, The University and American Life. Apr. 12Haydon, Harold, Education in Art Dec. 12Hoick, Harald, G. O., Carlsoniana June 16Hudson, Howard P., Only 529 Days Apr. 16, Quinquagenary Oct. 5Hutchins, Robert M., March 10, 1940 Apr. 8, Preparedness June 5Irwin, Merle E,, Its Meaning to Its Alumni May 15Jernegan, Marcus W., William E. Dodd May 10Kerwin, Jerome G., Are We Ready for Peace? Nov. 15Lepawsky, Albert, Thirteen-Thirteen Feb. 7Lundy, Bern, News of the Quadrangles Mar. 19, Apr. 20, May 20, June 21McKeon, Richard, The Humanities and Humanisms. .Dec. 10 , The Way We Talk Mar. 12Merriam, Charles E., Democracy June 14, William E. Dodd May 8Morgenstern, George, Mr. Linn and Mr. Aldis' Shirt.. Oct. 10Morgenstern, William V., Baldridge '11 Feb. 12, News of the Quadrangles Oct. 19, Nov. 24, Dec. 22, Jan. 24Morris, Don, Athletics Oct. 23, Nov. 23,Dec. 24, Jan. 27, Feb. 24, Mar. 22, Apr. 23, May 23, June 23, News of the Quadrangles .Feb. 20Moulton, Harold G., Scientific Research Oct. 11Nef, John, A Social Science Objective Nov. 10Nicholson, Ralph W., The Alumni and The 50th Oct. 7, Behind the Gift Mar. 15, Foundation Progress Dec. 19, A National Institution Jan. 23, Past the Ides of March Apr. 17, Progress Report May 22, With the Alumni Feb. 18O'Brien, Howard Vincent, All Things Considered Feb. 19Ogburn, William F., Four Issues Ahead. Apr. 18O'Hara, Frank Hurburt, New Plays and Old Labels . . Nov. 12Pfanstiehl, Cody, Table Talk on Atoms Feb. 16Schenk, William P., Carl Sandburg, Yes May 5Smith, Cecil M., Students and Music Jan. 26Spencer, William H., The Labor Front Apr. 5Stutz, Gertrude G., A View 40 Years in Making May 13, Training Soldiers for Democracy Oct. 17Unsigned, Alumni and the University June 10, Chaucer on the Air Oct. 14, Football, 1892-1939 Jan. 5 , I Had a Wonderful Time, But — Feb. 14 — , Problem, The Mar. 17, Your University — Its Future Dec. 8 , Who's Wtho — Again Mar 16White, William Allen, Bye, Bye Football ! Feb. 17Wilson, John A., Between Wars Nov. 5Woodlock, Thomas F., Thinking It Over June 24BOOK REVIEWSChauncey S. Boucher and A. J. Brumbaugh: The ChicagoCollege Plan (Albin Bro.) June 3David Daiches : The Novel and the Modern World (Rebecca Hayward Frodin) Jan. 3Leonard E, Dickson: Modern Elementary Theory of Numbers (Ralph Hull) Dec. 3Vardis Fisher : Children of God (Napier Wilt) Oct. 3Helen MacGill Hughes : News and the Human InterestStory (G.M.) Apr. 3A^Ieyer Levin: Citizens (Malcolm P. Sharp) May 3Charles E. Merriam: Prologue to Politics (Morey S. Mosk) .Feb. 4Mary A. Nourse : Kodo, the Way of the Emperor (DennisMcEvoy) Mar. 3Malcolm Sharp and Charles O. Gregory : Social Change andLabor Law (Philip M. Glick) Jan. 3Stanley Young: Sons Without Anger (Howard Hudson) Nov. 2THE ALUMNI COUNCILOFTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOChairman, JOHN NUVEEN, JR., '18Secretary and Editor, CHARLTON T. BECK, '04The Council for 1939-40 is composed of the following delegates:From the College Association: Josephine T, Allin, '99; Arthur C. Cody, '24; Charles C.Greene, '19, JD'21; Olive Greensfelder, '16; Huntington Henry, '06; Frances HendersonHiggins, '20; J. Kenneth Laird, '25; Frank J. Madden, '20, JD'22; Herbert I. Markham,'05; Robert T. McKinlay, '29, JD'32; Frank McNair, '03; Helen Norris, '07; John Nuveen,Jr., '18; Keith I. Parsons, '33; JD'37; Elizabeth Sayler, '35; Katharine Slaught, '09; Clifton Utley, -'26; Helen Wells, '24.From the Doctors of Philosophy Association: Leon P. Smith, AM'28, PhD'30; Eleanor Conway, PhD'36; Paul R. Cannon, PhD'24.From the Divinity Association: Charles L. Calkins, AM'22; Laird T. Hites, AM'16, DB'17,PhD'25; Sylvester Jones, DB'07.From the Law School Association: Charles F. McElroy, AM'06, JD'15; Charles P. Schwartz,'08, JD'09; Sidney S. Gorham, Jr., '28, JD'30.From the Education Association: Harold A. Anderson, '24, AM'26; Paul M. Cook, AM'27;Robert C. Woellner, AM'24.From the School of Business Association: George W. Benjamin, '35; Louise Forsyth, '30;Neil F. Sammons, '17.From the School of Social Service Administration: Anna Sexton Mitchell, AM'30; MarionSchafTner, '11; Richard Eddy, AM'34.From the Rush Medical College Association: C. J. Lundy, '24, MD'27; William A. Thomas,'12, MD'16; R. W. Watkins, MD'25.From the Association of the School of Medicine in the Division of the BiologicalSciences: Alf T. Haerem, MD'37; John Van Prohaska, '28, MD'34; B. G. Sarnat, '33,MD'37.From the Chicago Alumnae Club: Mrs. Jasper S. King, '18; Mrs. George Simpson, '18;Damaris Ames Schmitt '22.From the Chicago Alumni Club: John J. Schommer, '09; Wrisley B. Oleson, '18; John William Chapman, '15, JD'17.From the University: John F. Moulds, '07. ¦ "Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Association: President, John Nuveen, Jr., '18; Secretary, Charlton T.Beck, '04, University of Chicago.Doctors of Philosophy Association: President, Fred J. Rippy; Secretary, Eleanor Conway,PhD'36, Department of Anatomy, University of Chicago.Divinity School Association: President, William F. Rothenberger, DB'07; Secretary, CharlesT. Holman, DB'16, University of Chicago.Law School Association: President, George M. Morris, JD'15; Secretary, Charles F. McElroy, AM'06, JD'15, 29 S. LaSalle Street, Chicago.School of Education Association: President, Aaron J. Brumbaugh, PhD'29; Secretary, Le-nore John, AM'27, 6009 Kimbark Avenue, Chicago.School of Business Association: President, John Cornyn,, AM'36; Secretary, Sarah Hicks, '36,6656 Stewart Ave., Chicago.Rush Medical College Association: President, Frederick B. Moorehead, MD'06; Secretary, CarlO. Rinder, '11, MD'13, 122 S. Michigan Avenue, Chicago.School of Social Service Administration Association: President, Mrs. E. J. Lewis, '25,AM'37; Secretary, Alice Voiland, AM'36, 5654 Kenwood Avenue, Chicago.Association of the Medical School of the Division of Biological Sciences: President,Ormand Julian, '34, MD'37; Secretary, Gail Dack, PhD'27, MD'33.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the Alumni Council,Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in any one of the Associations namedabove, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, are $2.00 per year. A holderof more than one Degree from the University of Chicago may be a member of more than one Association;in such instances the dues are divided and shared equally by the Association involved.