THE UNIVERSlTyOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEyu/avzeNEW design!NEW convenience features!NEW low prices!This year see the greatest Frigidaire of all time — at the lowestprice in history. See thrilling new beauty, new conveniencefeatures and new low prices that surpass anything ever offeredbefore. It's the crowning achievement of America's leadingmaker of refrigerators. No wonder those who have seen thenew models say, "FRIGIDAIRE Is The Year's Biggest Bargain in Home Refrigeration! "We've cut prices to the bone. Just imagine! You can own agenuine 6 cubic foot 1940 Frigidaire for a little more than $ 100!See your Frigidaire dealer for PROOF of greater value.See how the new 1940 Frigidaire keeps food safer and freezesice faster at the lowest cost in Frigidaire history. See thedozens of features that bring food-convenience to its highestlevel. See how Frigidaire includes many of its greatest de luxefeatures in even the new, lower priced models!Compare Frigidaire quality with that of any other refrigerator at any price . . . bar none! See for yourself why Frigidaire— the greatest name in refrigeration — shines with more brilliance than ever as the big, beautiful bargain of the year.The PROOF awaits you at your nearby Frigidaire dealer's¦ — step in and get it . . . today!FRIGIDAIRE DIVISIONGeneral Motors Sales Corporation, Dayton, OhioComplete New Series of FRIGIDAIRE COLD-WALL MODELSOnly Frigidaire has this famous new principle, which coolsthrough the walls, saves precious vitamins in foods — preservesthe freshness, flavor and color, days longer. And you don'teven have to cover food! Ask your Frigidaire dealer for a Cold-Wall demonstration.See Why FRIGIDAIRE IS a BETTER BUY!A WORD OF CAUTION. Some stores may use the name"frigidaire" loosely to identify other makes of refrigeratorsand thus confuse the public. Don't be fooled! If a refrigeratordoes not bear the "frigidaire' ' nameplate, it is notw frigidaireand will not offer the advantages set forth in th is advertisement.Frigidaire is the trade-mark of rhe refrigerator manufactured by the Frigidaire Divisionof General Motors— world-wide leaders in therefrigerator, range and motor car industries. Besure the store you go to sells frigidaire, madeonly by General Motors.'&f Double -Easy Quickube Trayscome loose and cubes popout instantly. No hacking,no melting under faucet.No "gadgets" to lose ormisplace. Greatest ice convenience ever offered. Glass - Topped Food Hydratorsguard freshness of fruits,vegetables, perishables, soamazingly you actually seedewy moisture on the glasscovers. Preserve color, flavor, for days longer. New Stainless Chromium Shelvesdramatize the beauty of theFrigidaire interiors withbright, mirror-smooth luster. Rustless and sanitary.Stay new and bright foryears. Cleaned in a jiffy.Extra -Large Meat Tender slidesout like a drawer. Savesmany food dollars everymonth by properly protecting all kinds of meat andfowl. Also stores up to 100%extra supply of ice cubes. One-Plece Steel Cabinet builtto last a generation, sealsin the insulation and prevents ' 'water-logging' ' thatdestroys cold-keeping efficiency. Easiest ofall cabinetsto keep spotlessly clean. i*nrMeter-Miser. . . simplest cold-making mechanism everbuilt. Self-oiling, self-cooling. Silent, efficient— usesless current than ever before. Exclusive F-114, safe,low-pressure refrigerant.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCHARLTON T. BECK, '04 REUBEN FRODIN, '33Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorWILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD "22; DON MORRIS, '36; RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36Contributing EditorsIN THIS ISSUETHE COVER: A birthday por- bought, but did not buy well." We Three articles starting on page 15trait of Anton Julius Carlson, point out here what Mr. Freeman should probably be read together:since 1904 a member of the fac- more obtusely says, the athletes have ( 1 ) Ralph Nicholson's re-examina-ulty of the University of Chicago. to have the same qualifications as the tion of the ideas behind the FiftiethThis picture of a distinguished physi- other students of Chicago in order to Anniversary gift, now being sub-ologist was taken by Robert Shuler. qualify for scholarships. We point scribed to by the alumni of the Uni-(See page 14.) out as the releases from the Big Ten versity; (2) the compilation of Chi-m Commissioner's Office did not, Chi- cago college alumni in Who's Who,Getting together a story about Chi- cago has more scholarships than other who comprise about one-ninth of thecago alumni in Washington is not an Big Ten schools by far. We point total listing of Chicago former stu-easy job because the roster of former out that state schools (eight in the dents in Who's Who; and (3) a fewUniversity student in the nation's ten) have no scholarships for ath- reflections upon reading the report ofcapitol is a long one indeed. Marie letes because there is low or no tui- President Conant of Harvard whichBerger, '35, JD'38, and Joan Good- tion. It did not point out that ath- emphasizes and takes up a numberman, '38, have done a good job in letes from out of the state must pay of arguments for maintaining pri-presenting in an interesting manner tuition at state schools unless they vately endowed institutions of highera Who's" Who of Chicago alumni in register as coming from within the education advanced by Mr. Hutchins.the government service. The authors state. The release did not point out £and the editors do not guarantee that the amount of loans which are can-everyone who should be mentioned is celled. The release did not point out The Magazine presents another inmentioned, but it cannot be said that that jobs and loans for athletes often an intermittent series of alumm pro-thev did not trv. come from persons not officially con- files as Helen Robblns Bitterman, '24.• nected with a school. " looks at William Lloyd Evans.In this issue of the Magazine • PhD'05' recent!.y elected President ofthere is printed the second half of the TABLE OF CONTENTS the Amencan Chemical Society. Mr.chapter on the great books from Mor- MARCH |940 Evans is the fourth of a group of Chi-timer T. Adler's new book, entitled 'pa°e ca8° faculty or alumm presidents otHow to Read a Book. For a review-- Letters 2 the Society. The others were Proof the book we will have to recom- BoOKS 3 fessor Alexander Smith in 1911, themend Time magazine for March 18 L\THE Government ¦ Service, Marie great Julius Stieglitz in 1917, Wil-and, Clifton Fadiman in the Mew _ Berff? md J°m G°° °"' V- r ° liam McPherson, Ph'D'99, lately Act-Ar \ ,,,'., , The Great Books: 2, Mortimer J. . ¦~ ¦. , , r ^1 • o^ ±. tt •xorker. W.e wish to express here Adler s mS President of Ohio State Univer-our appreciation to Mr. Adler and his The Scholarship Story, Martin J. sit}^ in 1930, and Dr. Evans in 1941.publishers, Simon and Schuster, for Freeman ll ^allowing the Magazine to print this The Way We Talk, Richard McKeon 12article and the one last month. Behind the Gift, Ralph W. Nichol- Many thanks to all who have sent£ son 15 manuscripts to the 1940 manuscriptReports appearing in the daily Who's Who-Again 16 contest, entries to which closed Marchpress with regard to scholarship The Problem 17 1 . The judges, Associate Professorawards, loans and jobs held by ath- °HI° Chemist, Helen Robbins Bitter- Frank O'Hara, Director of Press Rentes in Big Ten schools has focused J"™ 'n'\'' ''''''' " ' " ' lations William V. Morgenstern, and, , • v , r\E\vs of the Quadrangles, Bern TT , ^ tt^j^,, AcclcHnt FhV^attention on the subject of scholar- Lundy '. . ~ : 19 Howard P. Hudson, Assistant Dnec-ships. Critics of Chicago's decision to athletics, Don Morris. . 22 tor of the Fiftieth Anniversary Cele-drop football have cried : "You News of the Classes. 30 bration, are reading the manuscripts.r. I'uuiishcu bv the Alumni' Council of the University oi Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 4 02 ! Cobb Hall , 58th St ¦ axtllis Avenue. Chicaeo. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1 1934, at : the FostOffice at Chicago. Illinois, under the act of March 3. 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza. New York City, is the official advertising agrency of the University of Chicago Magazine.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELS THERE a littlerascal in your house? He, alone, is reasonenough for buying a Filmo personal moviecamera now, before he grows a day older.For a Filmo will keep alive forever eachtender memory of the "rascal" age — in full-color movies.The same sturdy Filmo is an ideal sportsman's camera, takes slow-motion sceneswithout extra gadgets, tucks away in topcoat pocket or purse for carefree vacationfilming.Built by the makers of Hollywood's professional equipment, Filmos are basiccameras to which extra lenses and special-purpose accessories can be added to keeppace with your skill. Yet operation is amazingly simple. What you see, you get — andwhat you get, you'll treasure! Only $49.50at better dealers' everywhere. Easy terms.Bell & Howell Com-?any, Chicago; Nework; Hollywood;London. Est. 1907.'makes movies atsnapshot costonly *4950FREE Movie BookletBELL & HOWELL COMPANY1839 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111.Okay! Send free, 16-page booklet M>'telling how easy and inexpensive it t-^^^Tis to make fine movies.Name Address -City .State IPRECISION-MADE BYBELL & HOWELL LETTERSCAIRO MEETINGTo the Editor :I am writing to give you news of agathering of alumni of the Universityof Chicago in Cairo, Egypt, on Wednesday evening, January 10. Advantagewas taken of the presence in Cairo oftwo alumni who live outside of Cairo.A pleasant evening was spent withmany anecdotes and recollections ofChicago. Those present were :John Fam, '29, Secretary of the Y. M.C. A., Minieh, Egypt; E. E. Grice (&Mrs.), AM '38, now on the faculty ofthe Evangelical Theological Seminary,Cairo; John Kirmiz, SM '31, GeneralSecretary of the Y. M. C. A., Alexandria; John Rizk, AM '38, member ofthe Division of Extension, AmericanUniversity at Cairo; H. W. Vandersall,SM '30, faculty of the American University at Cairo ; C. C. Adams, PhD '38,formerly president of the EvangelicalTheological Seminary at Cairo, sinceSeptember 1939, Dean of the School ofOriental Studies, American University.The wish was expressed that it mightbe possible for us here to be advisedbeforehand in regard to Chicago alumniwho plan to spend a longer or shortertime in Egypt so that, if possible, wemight be of any assistance to them, oron the other hand, might arrange tointroduce distinguished alumni or professors who might be visiting Egypt toinfluential people in Egypt and to themembers of tthe British and Americancommunities.Yours very sincerely,C. C. Adams, PhD '28.Cairo, Egypt.FROM THE "OLD MAN"\In a letter to the Alumni Secretary,Mr. Stagg sends greetings to his Chicago friends :]Thanks very much for sending me adozen copies of the University ofChicago Magazine for January. I amenclosing a check.I have thought of you several timessince you were here and wondered howyou and the President enjoyed yourspeaking tour in Oklahoma and Texas.I hope you had a bully good time anddid a lot of good for the University.It is too bad that you could not staywith us longer. The almond trees arein blossom out here now and there willbe a continuous procession of blossoming fruit trees coming along as theweather and the sun are getting in theirgood work with Mother Earth.With a host of good wishes.Amos Alonzo Stagg.Stockton, Calif. WANTS DR. BUTLER STORIESTo the Editor :As I am much interested in the 50thAnniversary Celebration in 1941, I havethis in mind: I should like to compilethe cute sayings of the late NathanielButler, formerly dean of the School ofEducation. I used to assist in his office.Never a day passed but he told a storyto someone, always appropriate to thesituation.I remember once that he was chosento represent the University with otherprominent business men in Chicago, fora two weeks tour in the United Statesto help boost Chicago. Dean Butlerliad a new joke for every occasion. Ithink Butler's jokes would be veryappropriate for some phase of the program. I should be delighted to assistthe collection. His jokes would be anoutstanding feature and a deviationfrom the general routine when the bigcelebration comes off. If any friend orformer student of Dr. Butler's has anymaterial, please send it to the undersigned.Sincerely,Idella R. Berry, '14.4811 Washington Ave.,Newport News, Va.FROM MINNEAPOLISTo the Editor:I am moved to tell you what a delightful treat the Minneapolis group of Chicago Alumni had when Anton Carlsontalked to us. Mr. O. J. Arnold ['97]opened up his house and gave a teato which over ninety enthusiasticallycame. Dr. Carlson won his audienceby his sincerity, directness and his brilliant and keen analysis of the successiveadministrations at the University. Hemade the past live again, he helped usunderstand the present and he gave ushope and faith in the future.We appreciate the efforts of theAlumni Council to keep the Alumni intouch with the work of the Universityand we want you to know this is thekind of a message that arouses ourloyalty and makes us hold up our headswith pride.Elizabeth Wallace.Minneapolis, Minn.FOOTBALL FINALE[With regard to his article, Bye ByeFootball, printed in last month's Magazine, the author writes:']I will probably have to take a rain-check on my prophecy and extend it afew years, but nevertheless gladiatorialcollege football is on the way out and Ishall die saying it and repeat it sittingon the clouds or the smoke consumeras the case may be.William Allen White,Editor.Emporia Gazette,Emporia, Kansas.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3Golden Albion Calf, $20.00It's a four-star smash hit ! And we credit it to our single-mindedconcentration on shoes— no hats, no haberdashery— just shoes.The leather is Golden Albion Calf— a fabulous color that combines with sports and casual clothes— of so fine a texture yourfriends will want to stroke it with their hands, while you willfind its blucher style a joy to your feet.FIFTH AVENUE • 47th-48th Streets • NEW YORK225 OLIVER AVENUE— PITTSBURGH, PA. • 112 WEST ADAMS STREET, FIELD BUILDING— CHICAGO, ILL.Kodo, The Way of the Emperor. ByMary A. Nourse, '05. Indianapolis:The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1940. $3.50.Here at last is a short general historyof Japan, eminently readable and surprisingly complete. Miss Nourse, agraduate of the University of Chicago,has done a great service for teacherswho have long been searching for a texton this much neglected subject. Shehas done an equal service for those students who have found the classics ofMurdoch and Sansom almost indigestible without some previous generalknowledge. But she has done a greaterservice for that large section of theAmerican public, reared on the tireless(and sometimes tiresome) fantasy spinning of the press and Lafcadio Hearn,who still think of Japan in terms ofpretty girls in bright kimonos, Americans in white suits named Pinkerton,cherry blossoms and tough soldiers.Several basic criticisms must be made.The book is primarily a factual historyalthough the title, and the introduction,indicate that it is concerned with interpretation. One aspect of the "Wayof the Emperor" is undoubtedly the"way" of those who today rule Japan,yet there is only an inconsequential attempt to enumerate and evaluate thevarious influences in the home, theschool, in the temples and elsewherewhich go to form the peculiar psychology of the dominant military group."Way" here is used in the sense of theJapanese Do (from the Chinese Tao ofthe Taoist religion) and includes theentire causality of human action.The apparent indifference to causalityleads to a much more serious error.Miss Nourse has taken a great deal ofapologetics at face value and attributeda sincerity to the apologists which isnot there. For instance, the author willexplain a particularly overt revolutionary act in terms used by revolutionariesto excuse their action, such as "nationalspirit," "for the good of the Emperior,"etc. Many careful students of Japanknow that the language of religion,especially Emperor worship, is usedsystematically and consciously to coverwhat must be called power politics.Dr. Minobe, the eminent constitutional lawyer, was forced to resign fromParliament (and later he was nearlykilled by "patriotic" thugs) because hehad referred to the Emperor as an"organ of the State." The politicianswho accused Dr. Minobe of lese majesteand condemned him as a traitor andsubversive element were simply in needof some publicity and felt that the legal scholar would make an excellent scapegoat. This reviewer can rememberwhen all the seamen employed by oneof Japan's largest shipping concernswalked out on strike because the Emperor's flag was not flown on the Imperial birthday. Newspapers played upthis display of pure patriotism, thechairman of the company hired bodyguards, but nobody was fooled and thesailors got what they were originallyafter, i. e., shorter hours and more pay.Some may object to Miss Nourse'sconclusions as not supported by muchevidence. On page 315, for instance,she declares that the preoccupation ofRussia in Europe and the Russo-Japanese truce of September 15, 1939, indicate that Russia has turned her backon the Far East. Most observers in theOrient considered the truce to be simplya short armistice, and succeeding eventshave proved them correct.These criticisms do not detract fromthe fact that Miss Nourse's book is adefinite contribution to the field of FarEastern studies and fills a gap whichhas long existed. Scholars will find thebook a handy digest. The generalreader will discover a well-told story.Dennis McEvoy.[Mr. McEvoy, son of I. P. McEvoy,has spent four of the last seven years inthe Orient.']THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOCOooooLUUJ Reh earsalCh orusFinal<VOLUME XXXII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER bMARCH, 1940IN THE GOVERNMENT SERVICEA Glimpse of Chicago in WashingtonBy MARIE BERGER, '35' and JOAN GOODMAN, '38THE population of the Nation's Capitol would bedecreased by some six hundred if all the alumniof the University of Chicago should take leave ofthe District of Columbia. A Chicago group permeatesthe government, the press, the institutes of higher education and the business world. In the early days of aWashington career one can not bring himself to believehe is not on the Midway. A walk along Pennsylvania orConstitution Avenue always means a surprised exchangeof greetings with one or more fellow students from theUniversity.The Federal government employs most of the Chicagoalumni in Washington. On the floor of the House ofRepresentatives are silken-tongued T. V. Smith, PhD'22,of Illinois, and his colleagues, Jessie Sumner, '23, andLaurence Arnold, '27, of Illinois, and Frank O. Horton,ex'03, of Wyoming.Firebreathing Harold L. Ickes, '97, JD'07, heads theInterior Department and under him work a number ofhis fellow alumni. Chief Counsel for the Bureau ofReclamation is J. Kinnard Cheadle, '27, JD'29, who isbusy with the legal problems of the mammoth dam projects of the west such as Boulder, Grand Coulee andBonneville. Leona Graham, '20, heads the Washingtonoffice of the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration,which is bringing New Deal planning to tropical PuertoRico. Until recently John Finch, '99, was the Directorof the Bureau of Mines, advancing improvements inmethods of production of petroleum, natural gas, .heliumand explosives.Shy braintruster Benjamin V. Cohen, '14, JD'15, isChief Counsel for the Power Policy Committee. OnPresident Roosevelt's desk in a place of honor liesThomas Jefferson's Democracy, which has been effectively edited by Saul Padover/ AM'30, PhD'32, administrative assistant to Mr. Ickes. The younger fry are wellrepresented in the Solicitor's office ; Phineas Indritz, '36,JD'38, is becoming an expert on public land cases, KarlLachmann, JD'38, takes care of the legal problems of theIndians, and the author works on legal problems of theterritories and island possessions of the United States.Also in the field of law is Merritt Barton, LLB'30, attorney for the National Park Service. William Johnston,'21, Stephen Capps, '03, PhD '07, Albert Koschmann,'17, Ralph Leggette, '23, are busy investigating our natural resources and making maps for the GeologicalSurvey. The Director of Education for the IndianService is Willard Beatty, '22, who is bringing marooneducation to the redskins.By now you have thought of many persons whom wehave omitted from the roster of the Interior. We hadbetter warn you now that we are not acquainted withevery alumnus in Washington — there are over sixhundred of them — and shall probably leave out manyimportant people who have interesting positions. Wecan say nothing in our defense, but only hope that wemay have the pleasure of making their acquaintance inthe future.A torrid controversy has long been raging among lawschool alumni as to whether it was Ben Cohen or JeromeFrank, '12 JD '12, who graduated with the highest average ever given by the faculty of the Law School. Sincethe Nation has the benefit of both brains in steering thebusiness of the government, we needn't split hairs overacademic ratings. Forty percent of the Securities andExchange Commission (two of five), Chairman Frank,and Edward Eicher, '03, have to assist them in theregulation of Wall Street and LaSalle Street a largesquadron of University of Chicago legalights — includingBob O'Brien, LLB'33, head of the Public Utilities Division, Bernard Calm, LLB'33, of the ReorganizationDivision and Bob Barnes, '19, of the RegistrationDivision. Recent graduates who are learning tojoust with corporation lawyers are Jerome Alper, JD'37,Sheldon Bernstein, '36, JD'38, Robert Haythorne, '36,JD'38, Bernard Meltzer, '35, JD'37, and Edward Friedman, '35, JD'37.This is Census year for the United States and PhilHauser, '29, AM'33, PhD'38, and Halbert Dunn, '20,of the Commerce Department are directing the countingof pianos, babies and all those other interesting facts thatcome within the realm of statistics. Although HenryHill, '36, JD'38, is with the Civil Aeronautics Authority,he has both feet on the ground wrestling with the legalproblems of the division. The Bureau of Standardsboasts an able quartet .4of Midway scientists : SolomonAcree, PhD'02, Elnier Bunting, '15, PhD'18, HerbertCummings, SM'15, and Archibald McPherson, PhD'23..Professor Marshall Dimock, absent on leave from theMidway, is Assistant Secretary in the Labor Depart-5THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEment. Rufus G. Poole, LLB'27, is Chief Counsel of theWages and Hours Division. In the Labor StandardsDivision is Mollie Ray Carroll, Tl, AMT5, PhD'20,formerly of U. of C. Settlement fame, and taking careof the feminine angle in the Women's Bureau are Elizabeth Benham, T6, and Ethel Erickson, AM'23. Thepersonnel of the Children's Bureau reads like a pagefrom the Alumni Director, with Georgia Ball, AM '31,Aleta Brownlee, AM'30, Edith Scott Gray, '18, WilliamMaynard, AM'29, Florence Sullivan, AM'32, and HenryWaltz, AM'36, among its members.Hubert Will, '35, JD'37, is in the Office of the General Counsel of the Treasury Department. Our Latin-American neighbors have the expert advice of two of ouralumni to aid them in financial problems. EconomistOrvis Schmidt, '36, is in Venezuela and finance wizardHarold Spiegel, '35, has just returned from Guatemala.The President of the Washington University of ChicagoAlumni Club, Al O'Donnell, PhD'38, is Assistant Director of the Division of Research and Statistics in theTreasury Department.In the two blocks square stone building housing theDepartment of Agriculture is Philip Glick, '29, JD'30,Chief of the Land Policy Division of the Solicitor'sOffice, who irons out the legal problems arising from theAdministration's soil conservation efforts. Earl Smith,JD'09, Chief Attorney of the Marketing Division, untangles the legal snarls involved in the policing of theBoards of Trade and Commodity Exchanges throughoutthe country. Sam Herman, '29, JD'31, who hasn't sleptfor a month, is wrapped up in the legal complications ofhis child, the Food Stamp Plan. (Since first writingthis, Sam has left the government to take up a new postat the request of Governor Horner as legal director of Tax Enforcement and Research Activities in his homestate of Illinois.) In the personnel division Bob Oshins,'36, is fast becoming the Government's Dr. Gallup, discovering what the department thinks about.In Pete Schneider, '38, JD'39, who breakfasts daily onpublic enemies, we have an honest-to-goodness G-man ofthe Federal Bureau of Investigation in the Departmentof Justice. Al Teton, '35, JD'36, of the Criminal Division has been cleaning up that mess you've been hearingabout in New Orleans. Edith Lowenstein, JD'39, isprotecting civil liberties in her work for the CriminalDivision, and Trustbusters Irving Axelrad, '37, JD'39,and Kurt Borchardt, '35, JD'37, work on monopolies.Quiet, effective Joseph Warren Madden, JDT4, isChairman of the National Labor Relations Board. Arguing cases for the National Labor Relations Board in theCircuit Court of Appeals is Ruth Weyand, '30, JD'32.First Assistant Trial Examiner of the National LaborRelations Board, Frank Bloom, LLB'28, is concernedwith directing the hearing of evidence on labor controversies. Sol Lippman, '34, JD'36, represents the youngergeneration of Law School graduates in the OpinionDivision of the Board.Representing the University in the Federal SecurityAgency are Alvin Roseman, AM'35, who is Assistantto the Director of the Division of Grants-in-Aid andClarence Cade, '34, who in the personnel division interviews wide-eyed applicants for government jobs.The National Resources Committee is served by noneother than the "Chief" of the University's PoliticalScience Department, Charles E. Merriam. Directing itsbusiness activity is tycoon Beardsley Ruml, '17, ofMacy's, former dean at Chicago. A former "big man oncampus," Gilbert White, '32, SM'34, heads the WaterResources and Land Use Planning Committees, layingBEN COHENPolicy WALTER SPLAWNInterstate Commerce J. WARREN MADDENLaborTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEout blue prints for future flood-control projects, utilization of power resources and soil conservation. A counselfor the Board is Sheldon Klein, LLB'38.The United States Housing Administration rests itslegal problems on the shoulders of David Krooth, '28,JD'30, Director of the Legal Division. Ed Duerbeck,'34, AM'35, helps to plan the housing program. Jolly,bluff George Van der Hoef, '32, spends most of his timeworking up movies for the Federal Housing Administration. Raymond B. Coulter, '13, is with the PublicWorks Administration.Henry P. Chandler, JD'06, former president of theChicago Bar Association, has just taken over his dutiesas the first administrative officer of the federal courts(noted in the December Magazine) .On the historical side of Washington life are JackSouhami, '37, and Joseph P. E. Morrison, '26. Souhamiguards the venerable documents of the National Archivesand Morrison is with the United States NationalMuseum. Ernest P. Krick, '33, is at the American RedCross Headquarters. Arthur Davis, SM'22, is in theNavy Department. Both John C. Hammond, SM'97, andWilliam Markowitz, '27, SM'29, PhD'31, can be foundon any clear night, star-gazing from the United StatesNaval Observatory.Over at the Interstate Commerce Commission areWalter Splawn, PhD'21, a commissioner, and Asa J.Merrill, JD'30. Guarding and regulating the country'scommercial interests is Merle Lyon, JD'21, at the Federal Trade Commission. Marion Richardson, PhD'36,is streamlining Civil Service Examinations in accordance with techniques developed in grading comprehensives under the New Plan.Robert E. Bondy, '17, is Director of Public Welfare HAROLD L ICKESPublic Works — Natural Resourcesof the District of Columbia, as was reported in tlie December Magazine. Fay Louise Bentley, '18, is judgeof Washington's Juvenile Court.Since there is a limit to what you can do with names,we will have to save the non-governmental alumni foranother survey some time.EDWARD EICHERSecurities SEC CHAIRMAN JEROME FRANK AcmeCommissioner Henderson (left) and Attorney General Jackson (right)THE GREAT BOOKS: 2• By MORTIMER J. ADLERTHIS is the second half of Chapter Sixteen of Professor Adler s new book, How to Read a Book, published by Simon and Schuster on March 5 at $2. jo. Anappendix listing more than one hundred important, or"great" books, compiled by Mr. Adler from varioussources, starts on Page 26. The first half of this articlewas printed in the February issue of the Magazine.I SAID before that I was going to make smaller groupings of books according as their authors appearedto be talking about the same problems, and conversing with one another. Let's begin at once. The easiestway to begin is with the themes that dominate our dailyconversation. The newspapers and radio will not letus forget about the world crisis and our national role init. We talk at table and in the evening, as well as probably during office hours, about war and peace, aboutdemocracy against the totalitarian regimes, about plannedeconomies, about Fascism and Communism, about thenext national election, and hence about the Constitution,which both parties are going to use as a platform andas a plank with which to hit the other fellow over thehead.If we do more than look at the newspapers or listento the radio, we may have read such books as WalterLippmann's The Good Society or James Marshall'sSwords and Symbols. We may even have been inducedby these books, and other considerations, to look at theConstitution itself. If the political problems with whichcurrent books deal interest us, there is more reading forus to do in relation to them and the Constitution. Thesecontemporary authors probably read some of the greatbooks, and the men who wrote the Constitution certainlydid. All we have to do is to follow the lead, and thetrail will unwind by v itself.First, let us go to the other writings of the men whodrafted the Constitution. Most obvious of all is thecollection of pieces, arguing for the ratification of theConstitution, published weekly in The Independent Journal and elsewhere by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Tounderstand The Federalist Papers, you should read notonly the Articles of Confederation, which the Constitution was intended to supplant, but also the writings ofthe Federalists' major opponent on many issues, ThomasJefferson. A selection of his political utterances has recently been made and published.Unfortunately, it is more difficult to get the writingsof another great participant in the argument, JohnAdams; but you will find his collected works in the library. Look especially at his Defense of the Constitutions of Government of the United States, written inanswer to an attack by the French economist and statesman, Turgot ; and also at his Discourses on D avila. Thewritings of Tom Paine are available in many editions.His Common Sense and his Rights of Man throw light on the issues of the day and the ideologies which controlled the opponents.BOOKS THE FOUNDING FATHERS READThese writers, because they were readers as well, leadus to the books which influenced them. They are usingideas wrhose more extended and disinterested expositionis to be found elsewhere. The pages of The FederalistPapers, and the writings of Jefferson, Adams, and Paine,refer us to the great political thinkers of the eighteenthand late seventeenth century in Europe. We should readMontesquieu's Spirit of the Laws, Locke's essays OfCivil Government, Rousseau's Social Contract. To savorthe rationalism of this Age of Reason, we must alsoread here and there in the voluminous papers of Voltaire.You may suppose that the laissez-faire individualismof Adam Smith also belongs in our revolutionary background, but remember that The Wealth of Nations wasfirst published in 1776. The founding fathers wereinfluenced, in their ideas about property, agrarianism,and free trade, by John Locke and the French economistsagainst whom Adam Smith wrote.Our founding fathers were well read in ancient history. They drew upon the annals of Greece and Romefor many of their political examples. They had readPlutarch's Lives and Thucydides' History of the Pelo-ponnesian War — the war between Sparta and Athensand their allies. They followed the fortunes of the various Greek federations for what light they might throwon the enterprise they were about to undertake. Theywere not only learned in history and political thought,but they went to school with the ancient orators. Theyreveal the influence of Cicero's orations. As a result,their political propaganda is not only magnificentlyturned, but amazingly effective even today. With theexception of Lincoln (who had read a few great booksvery well), American statesmen of a later day neitherspeak nor write so well.The trail leads further. The writers of the eighteenthcentury had been influenced in turn by their immediateforebears in political thought. The Leviathan of ThomasHobbes and the political tracts of Spinoza deal with thesame problems of government — the formation of societyby contract, the justifications of monarchy, oligarchy,and democracy, the right of rebellion against tyranny.Locke, Spinoza, and Hobbes are, in a sense, involved ina conversation with one another. Locke and Spinozahad read Hobbes. Spinoza, moreover, had read Machia-velli's Prince, and Locke everywhere refers to and quotes"the judicious Hooker," the Richard Hooker who wrotea book about Ecclesiastical Government at the end of thesixteenth century, and of whom Isaak Walton, the fisherman, wrote a life.I mention Hooker because he, more than the men of alater generation, had read the ancients well, especiallythe Ethics and Politics of Aristotle. He had certainly8THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9read them better than Thomas Hobbes, if we can judgeby the references in the latter's work. Hooker's influence on Locke partly accounts for the difference between Locke and Hobbes on many political questions.One other stream of influence upon our foundingfathers came through a Catholic political thinker of thesixteenth century, Robert Bellarmine. Like Locke, heopposed the theory of the divine right of kings. Madisonand Jefferson were acquainted with Bellarmine's arguments. I mention Bellarmine for the same reason Imentioned Hooker, because it was through him thatother books enter the picture. Bellarmine reflected thegreat medieval works on political theory, especially thewritings of Thomas Aquinas, who was an upholder ofpopular sovereignty and the natural rights of man.The conversation about current political issues thusenlarges itself to take in the whole of European politicalthought. If wre go back to the Constitution and the writings of '76, we are inevitably led further, as each writerreveals himself to be a reader in turn. Little has beenleft out. If we add Plato's Republic and Laws whichAristotle read and answered, and Cicero's Republic andLaws which influenced the course of Roman law throughout medieval Europe, almost all the great political bookshave been drawn in.BOOKS BEHIND THE HEADLINESThat is not quite true. By returning to the originalconversation, and taking a fresh start, we may discoverthe few major omissions. Suppose there is a Nazi inour midst, and he quotes Mein Kampf at us. Since itis not clear that Hitler ever read the great books, thepolitical utterances of Mussolini might be more productive of leads. Let's shift to Fascism. We may be ableto detect the influence of the French philosopher, Sorel,who wrote Reflections on Violence. We may rememberthat Mussolini was once a socialist. If we pursue theselines in all their ramifications, other books inevitablyfind their way into the conversation.There would be Hegel's Philosophy of History andPhilosophy of Right. Here we would find the justifications of state absolutism, the deification of the state.There would also be the writings of Nietzsche, especially such books as Thus Spake Zarathustra, BeyondGood and Evil, and The Will to Power! Here we wouldfind the theory of the superman as above the canons ofright and wrong, the theory of a successful use of mightas its own ultimate justification. And behind Hegel, onthe one hand, and Nietzsche, on the other — in the lattercase through the influence of Schopenhauer — would bethe greatest of German thinkers, Immanuel Kant. Anyone who reads Kant's Philosophy of Law will see thathe cannot be held responsible for the positions of hiscurrently more influential followers.There might also be a Communist at our table, eitherTrotskyite or Stalinist. Both sorts swear by the samebook. The conversation would not get very far without Karl Marx being mentioned. His great work, DasCapital, would also be mentioned, even though no onehad read it, not even the Communist. But if anyonehad read Das Kapital, and other literature of revolution,he would have found a trail which led, on the one hand, to Hegel again — a starting point for both Communismand Fascism— and, on the other hand, to the great economic and social theorists of England and France: toAdam Smith's Wealth of Nations, to Ricardo's Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, and Proudhon'sPhilosophy of Poverty.A lawyer present might turn the discussion away fromeconomic theory by turning it to the legal aspects ofbusiness and government. He may have just read Mr.Thurman Arnold's book on The Folklore of Capitalism,or his earlier one on The Symbols of Government. Thatmight remind someone that Mr. Jerome Frank had alsowritten a book called Lazv and the Modern Mind. Thesebooks would bring others in their train, if they had beenread with an eye on the books hidden in their backgrounds.Becoming interested in these legal matters, we mightsoon leave Arnold and Frank for the company of thelate Justice Holmes and that great English law reformer,Jeremy Bentham. We would go especially to Bentham'sTheory of Legislation and his Theory of Fictions. Bentham would recall the whole utilitarian movement andhis prize students, John Austin and John Stuart Mill.Austin's Jurisprudence and Mill's essays on Liberty andon Representative Government are being paraphrasedevery day, with approval or disapproval, by men whohave not read them, so much have they become a part ofcontemporary controversy about liberalism. Benthammight also revive Blackstone, and with him the basicissues of the common law.Blackstone, you remember, wrote the Commentarieson the Laws of England, which Lincoln studied so carefully. Bentham attacked him unmercifully in a bookcalled Comment on The Commentaries. If this line werepursued further, we would go back to Hobbe's Dialogueof the Common Laws and to the great medieval and ancient writings on law and justice. Again we would findPlato and Aristotle, Cicero and Aquinas, in the background.Our interest in Mr. Frank's book might lead in stillanother direction. Mr. Frank has a great deal to sayabout the neuroses of the lawmakers and judges. Hehad read Freud, and if we started on that, the wholehistory of psychology might unfold in another list ofgreat books including Pavlov's work on The ConditionedReflexes, William James's Principles of Psychology,Hartmann's Philosophy of the Unconscious, Schopenhauer's World as Will and Idea, Hume's Treatise onHuman Nature, Descartes' work on The Passions of theSoul, and so forth.If we followed Mr. Arnold to his sources, we would gooff on a different tangent. He is not only influenced byBentham as a lawyer, but by Bentham's theory of language and symbols. Bentham, you will recall, is thefather of the present-day semanticists, Ogden and Richards, Korzybski and Stuart Chase. If we pursued thatinterest, all the great works in the liberal arts wouldeventually have to be rediscovered, for the modern worksare insufficient as an analysis of language and the artsof communication.A list of required readings for amateur semanticistswould include Locke's Essay on Human Understanding,especially Book III on language; Hobbe's Leviathan,10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEespecially the first book, and his Rhetoric, which closelyfollows Aristotle's Rhetoric. It should include alsoPlato's dialogues about language and oratory (the Cra-tylus, Gorgias, and Phaedrus especially), and two greatmedieval works on teaching and being taught, one bySt. Augustine and one by St. Thomas, both called Ofthe Teacher. I dare not start on logical works, becausethe list might be too long, but John Stuart Mill's Systemof Logic, Boole's Laws of Thought, Bacon's NovumOrganum, and Aristotle's Organon must be mentioned.One other direction is possible. The consideration ofpolitical and economic issues tends to raise the basic ethical problems about pleasure and virtue, about happiness,the ends of life, and the means thereto. Someone mayhave read Jacques Maritain's Freedom in the ModernWorld and noticed what this living follower of Aristotleand Aquinas had to say about contemporary problems,especially the moral aspects of current political and economic issues. That would not only lead us back to thegreat moral treatises of the past — Aristotle's Ethicsand the second part of Aquinas's Summa Theologica —but it might also get us into a many-sided dispute. Tosee it through, we would have to consult Mill's Utilitarianism, Kant's Critique of Practical Reason, and Spinoza's Ethics. We might even return to the Romanstoics and epicureans, to the. Meditations of Marcus Au-relius, and Lucretius' On the Nature of Things.METAPHYSICS AND SCIENCEYou should have observed a number of things in thisramification of conversation or reflection about currentproblems. Not only does one book lead to another, buteach contain's implicitly a large diversity of leads. Ourconversation or thought can branch out in many directions, and each time it does another group of books seemsto be drawn in. Notice, furthermore, that the sameauthors are often represented in different connections,for they have usually written about many of these relatedtopics, sometimes in different books, but often in thesame work.Nor is it surprising that, as one goes back to the medieval and ancient worlds, the same names are repeatedmany times. Aristotle and Plato, Cicero and Aquinas,for instance, stand at the fountainhead. They have beenread and discussed, agreed with and disagreed with, bythe writers of modern times. And when they have notbeen read, their doctrines have filtered down in manyindirect ways, as through such men as Hooker andBellarmine.So far we have dealt mainly with practical matters —politics, economics, morals — although you probably observed a tendency to get theoretical. We turned to psychology by way of Freud's influence on the lawyers. Ifthe ethical controversy had been followed a bit further,wre would soon have been in metaphysics. In fact, wewere, with Maritain's discussion of free will and withSpinoza's Ethics, Kant's Critique of Practical Reasonmight have led us to his Critique of Pure Reason, andall the theoretic questions about the nature of knowledgeand experience.Suppose we consider briefly some theoretical questions. We have been concerned with education throughout this book. Someone who had read Mr. Hutchins' book about The Higher Learning in America or CardinalNewman's Idea of a University might raise a questionabout metaphysics and its place in higher education. Thatusually starts a discussion about what metaphysics is.And usually someone says there is no such thing. Wewould probably be referred to John Dewey's Democracyand Education and his Quest for Certainty to see thatall valid knowledge is scientific or experimental. If allthe leads therein were followed, we might soon find our-selves back to the sources of the current antimetaphysicaltrend : Auguste Comte's Positive Philosophy and Hume'sEnquiry Concerning Fluman Understanding, and perhaps even Kant's Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics.Someone, who had read such recent books by Whitehead as his Process and Realty and his Science and theModern World, or Santayana's Realm- of Essence andRealm of Matter, or Maritain's Degrees of Knowledge,might object to the dismissal of metaphysics. The protagonist might defend the claims of theoretic philosophyto give us knowledge about the nature of things, of adifferent sort and apart from science. If he had readthose books well, he would have been led back to thegreat speculative works of modern and ancient times : toHegel's Phenomenology of Spirit; to Spinoza's Ethics,Descartes' Principles of Philosophy, Leibnitz's Discourseon Metaphysics and his Monadology; to Aquinas' littlework on Being and Essence ; to Aristotle's Metaphysics,and to Plato's dialogues, the Thnaeus, the Parmenides,and the Sophist.Or let us suppose that our theoretic interests turn tothe natural sciences, rather than to philosophy. I havealready mentioned Freud and Pavlov. The problems ofhuman behavior and human nature open into a lot ofother questions, of the sort recently treated by AlexisCarrel and J. B. S. Haldane. Not only man's nature buthis place in nature would concern us. All these roadslead to Darwin's Origin of Species and thence, on bypaths, to Lyell's Antiquity of Man and Malthus's Essayon Population.Recently, as you know, there have been a lot of booksabout the practice of medicine, and a few about thetheory of it. Man's normal hypochondria makes himabnormally interested in doctors, health, and the functioning of his own body. Here there are many routesin reading, but they would all probably go throughClaude Bernard's Introduction to Experimental Medicine and Harvey's book on The Motion of the Heart, aftthe way back to Galen's Natural Faculties and Hippocrates' amazing formulations of Greek medicine.Einstein and Infeld's recent book on The Evolution ofPhysics refers us to the great milestones in the development of man's experimental knowledge. Here our reading would be deepened if we looked into Poincare'sFoundations of Science and Clifford's Common Senseof the Exact Sciences. They, in turn, would take us tosuch works as Faraday's Experimental Researches intoElectricity and Boyle's Skeptical Chymist; perhaps evento Newrton's Opticks, Galileo's Tzvo New Sciences, andLeonardo's Notebooks.The most exact sciences are not only the most experimental but also the most mathematical ones. If we are{Continued on Page 25)THE SCHOLARSHIP STORYHOW many students apply each year for scholarships at the University ? How many of thosewho apply receive scholarships? What kinds ofscholarships do they receive? What chance is there thata good student, receiving a scholarship as a Freshman,will receive aid in later years, provided he does outstanding work in college? Answers to these and other questions about scholarships presented herel^m^t^t^t^mare based on the latest complete reports.The latest complete report of the Committee on Fellowships and Scholarships —that for 1938-39— shows that of the12,468 students registered for residentcourses for the four quarters beginningwith the Summer Quarter of 1938, scholarship awards or grants-in-aid were madeto 2.281 students, for a total amount of$402,722.80 (A scholarship is awardedprimarily for outstandng achievement instudies Grants-in-aid are awarded tooutstanding students who cannot meetformal scholarship requirements, and toneedy students, good, but not quite goodenough to merit scholarship awards. ) Themajor portion of the total, $355,231.74,was distributed by the Committee among1,975 students. Direct awards by Professional School and grants-in-aid fromspecial funds not administered by the Committee makeup the remainder. The average amount per studentaided was $176.55Of the total, $49,101.29 came from the La VerneNoyes Foundation, proceeds of which are divided amongWorld War veterans and their descendants attendingthe University. Ths sum was shared by 572 applicantslast year. The Noyes scholarships should, perhaps,really be regarded as "grants-in-aid," as the only qualifications required of applicants have been that they beeligible for admission, be qualified"^ to their ancestors'military service, and be good enough students to stayin the University. Because of the increasing demandfor this type of aid — there are still some veterans benefiting from the fund, and at the same time grandchildren of veterans are beginning to seek this aid in increasing numbers — the Committee will hereafter apply morerigid qualifications. Applicants will be expected to giveevidence of need, and greater emphasis will be placed onservice overseas and before the Armistice. As always,spcial consideration will be shown to the descendants ofdeceased or disabled veterans.How are the awards divided among graduates andundergraduates? Students entering as freshmen re?-ceived $62,557.65 in scholarships and grants-in-aid. Ofall students enrolled for the four quarters, undergraduates comprised 37 percent, yet received 42 percent of thescholarship and remission funds. (It should be remembered that figures given are for the four quarters includ-M. J. FREEMANEntrance Counsellor • By MARTIN J. FREEMAN, PhD '34ing the Summer Quarter with its preponderance of graduate students. Except for some recipients of Noyesawards, and a few graduate students, who elect theSummer Quarter as one of the three to which theirscholarships apply, and a few recipients of half-scholarships, no scholarships are awarded to Summer Quarterstudents. It should be remembered, too, that outside^^^^^^^ the Summer Quarter more than half thestudents at the University are undergraduates.)Probably no other question aboutscholarships is asked as often as "Whatis the chance for a student who enterswith a scholarship as a Freshman to receive a continuation of that aid, providedhe does outstanding work?" The affirmative answer has been given in partabove. Further evidence is provided inthe report, which shows that the Divisions, with approximately 46 percent ofthe enrolment, receive approximately 44percent of the available scholarships andother aids, and the Professional Schools,with approximately 29 percent of the total enrolment, receive slightly more than29 percent of the aid awarded. More specifically, one thousand and twenty-nineundergraduates received aid. Of these,610 were in College, the others in Divisions and Professional Schools. Nine hundred and thirty-six graduatestudents received one or another type of aid.In 1938-39 scholarships totalled $198,554.88 or about49 percent of the total awards. Fellowships and graduate service scholarships amounted to $117,261.66 or 29percent of total awards. Tuition awards to needy students on a remission basis and grants-in-aid totalling$37,804.97 were 9 percent of the total. Noyes scholarship grants made up the balance.How many students applied for scholarship aid? Thetotal, from both within and without the University, was2,867. Of these, 697 were prospective Freshmen (almosthalf of those seeking admission to the Freshman class) ;111 were junior college graduates; 178 had completedone year of work in our College, and 185 had completedthe two-year College program. From the Division, 148students applied for scholarship aid. There were 1,598applicants for graduate aid-fellowships and scholarships.Most of these were from other colleges and universities.Beyond this, 958 students competed in the high-schoolcompetitive scholarship examinations (many of thesewere also among the 697 who applied for Honor Entrance scholarships), and 219 junior college graduatestook the junior college competitive examinations. (Thefollowing year the number of contestants in the high-school examination jumped 50 percent, to more than1400, as a result of a change in type of examination.)(Continued on Page 24)11THE WAY WE TALK'• By RICHARD McKEONIT is the custom, hallowed by long tradition, to talkon occasions like this of life, education, values,ideals, and the future. So sheltered is the traditionof academic ritual that such talks have been all but uninfluenced by a subtle change which has appeared in thediscussion of life and ideals at other times than thoserendered solemn by convocation exercises. We havegrown a little shame-faced and self-conscious in the examination and discussion of ideals, but by way of compensation we have put great enthusiasm into the examination of how we talk about ideals.Words have become increasingly important in all inquiries and in all activities. There have been analysesof the language of science, analyses of the language ofpoetry, analyses of the language of propaganda. Theseinquiries have differed from most previous investigationsof words and their meanings, in that they turn not onquestions of correctness, propriety, or truth in words,but on the discovery that words are ambiguous and arepotential instruments of deception. The recognition ofthe phenomenon of ambiguity in words has affected everyhuman discipline in so far as it depends on the use ofwords, but its effect has been particularly disastrous inapplication to what we say about ideals and in explanation of the use of words to persuade men to an opinionor to a course of action.We should try to rid science of ambiguity : that canbe done, it would seem, by cautioning scientists to useonly words that signify facts and things. The poet onthe other hand may be permitted his ambiguities ; indeedhe should apparently be encouraged to give his words asmany meanings as possible, since it would seem, according to the tenets of some schools of semantics, that theappreciation of poetry is closely allied to the simpleawareness of ambiguity. But in the case of words usedto persuade to action, words in a practical context, weare faced by a dilemma. We cannot be scientific aboutideals, since being ideals they are not facts that can bepointed to, yet it is dangerous to guide our actions bywords that are ambiguous — we shall surely be duped ifwe are influenced by poets, and we shall probably be nobetter off if we take philosophers seriously, for idealsderived from them may be manipulated shrewdly to theends of classes or groups.As a result there has been a great deal of talk, intended as realistic, hard-headed and practical, aboutwords like "democracy" and "freedom." What can "democracy" mean ? Where can one point ? To the UnitedStates ? To England, France or Russia ? How can wretake talk about "freedom" seriously when the word isused to mean not only what we pursue, and what democratic states in such wTide variety profess to pursue, butwhat totalitarian statesmen talk of as their peculiar possession and pursuit?I propose to take advantage of the spirit of this occa-*Delivered as Convocation Address, December 19, 1939. sion, which celebrates the departure of many of you to aworld in which words are held in greater suspicion thanyou have probably encountered in the academic environment you are leaving, to talk about ideals. Intelligentconcerted action is possible only under the guidance ofsound and inspiring ideals. Yet it is difficult to talk complacently of ideals, if the examination of how we talkof ideals discloses that they are usually empty words devoid of meaning, and often dangerous implements whenused for action. I propose therefore to talk of ideals incautious circumlocution by talking about what happensto ideals when we talk about how we talk.The initial knowledge that words are ambiguous apparently gives the one who possesses that knowledge agreat advantage over any one who thinks that wordsmay be precise and who concerns himself with exactmeanings, valid demonstration, and communicable truth.If one knows that words are the vehicles of error, andthe instruments of deception and self-interest, there isno need to prove that arguments or distinctions are falseor irrelevant. We no longer try, at least in discussionsthat have a practical bearing, to refute arguments, sinceit is simpler and more expeditious to see through them.If a man belongs to the wrong party, the wrong class,the wrong race, the wrong religion, the wrong historicalperiod, his arguments, since they are conditioned by thosefacts and therefore false, need not be examined. Wordslike "rationalization," "ideology," and "experience" willsave one the intellectual labor of following the intricaciesof rational processes. We need no longer suppose thatwe think with our minds and so attain to objective truth.There are many alternatives — we may think with ourblood, or with our nervous system, or with our subconscious, our emotions, or our class interests.The embattled defense of liberal ideals is easy to identify, whether that defense be wise or not, in the terms ofthese new oppositions. Among the proponents of rela-tivistic truths, two groups are sharply opposed: thosewho think that truth is relative to the thinker and to bedetermined by the peculiarities of a race, or a class, ora nation, and those who think that truth is relative tothings and to be purified by excluding all spurious additions of mind, or thought, or emotion.As a result the fight of liberals has been a strugglewith ghosts. Our ancestors who wrote our instrumentsof government, elaborated our religions, and gave expression to the ideals we still defend, did not confinethemselves to what we think of as facts. They talkedof mind as well as matter, being as well as becoming,God as well as the universe, and they encumbered theirexpression of ideals with words like spirit, reality, andtruth. All these words have been misused ; philosophershave worked to eliminate many of them, and moralistshave tried to make them ineffective by exposing theabuses to which they are liable.Yet the new universe which we have constructed withsuch laudable intentions has serious limitations, which12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13might even impede the effectiveness of the practical devices which it was constructed to justify. There remainin the simplified world of students of semantics and analysts of propaganda only two ingredients, words andthings. There are therefore two kinds of language:scientific language, which points only to individual thingsand denotes only facts, and all other language in whichfacts are mixed with emotions, illusions, and points ofview, or in which what goes on in the world is confusedwith what goes on in the mind.One of the popularizers of semantics was recentlyasked what kind of America he hoped his grandchildrenwould live in "along about 1975." The great boon heasked for in their name was ideological immunity andrealistic thinking, and this would be achieved by establishing a direct connection between word and thingwithout intervention of emotion or intellect. "I hope,"he put it succinctly,1 "they will think so straight fromword to thing that the ghosts will fall down flat." It isa wise caution, as well as an essential part of the magical rite, to identify ghosts before exorcising them. Weare familiar with the foreign spectres which we fight inpropaganda, but we are apt in our terror of them to forget our own household gods and familiar spirits.One need not go far back in the tradition of Americanthought to find wholehearted and generous statements ofideals, frequently joined with a fascinated interest, equalto our own, in the problems of language and the significance of Nature. Emerson, to choose one form of thatinterest, could analyze the operations of language andyet justify soaring aspirations. He used almost thelanguage of present day investigators in expounding hisdoctrine that words are the signs of natural facts. Butaccording to Emerson the analysis need not stop at thatstage, since natural facts are themselves symbolic. Wordsassume broad meanings, and slip from meaning to meaning, not because words are vague, but because thingsare emblematic. Things have likenesses to other things,and these likenesses run through the whole of nature,binding it together and relating it to mind. Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact."The world is emblematic," Emerson says. "Parts ofspeech are metaphors because the whole of nature is ametaphor of the human mind. Thejaws of moral natureanswer to those of matter as face to face in a glass."2These are ghosts by later standards, yet if ghosts walkin the philosophy of Emerson, it is not because he failedto realize that words apply to natural things and to natural facts, but because he saw, and strove to preserve, acomplexity in the relation of words and facts which laterAmerican logicians have ignored. What things are, "how-"ever, is a theoretic question, and we are impatient oftheory today, even when we are convinced that ourtheory is correct. But these opposed theories have consequences in practice. Emerson was fond of repeatingthat a single word may be made to symbolize the wholeMyriad significance of the interrelated facts of nature:when he examines words it is to discover devices byberStsUanoo^ha|>e- . 7Tdeologi~al Immunity>" ^ The New Republic. Novem-2««\ 1939» Part H> p. 86.iQno Mature," in Nature: Addresses and Lectures.ia°3, p. 32. Cambridge ( Mass. ) , which to bring out that richness of significance.3 Wehave learned on the contrary that words are ambiguous :since they may mean many things we devote ourselvesto an unusually persistent effort to limit the valid anddependable significances of words to things which canbe pointed out and which exist in time and space — allother meanings are dangerous and deceptive, empty verbalisms, and vain imaginations. Emerson envisaged theproblems of language in positive terms of many meanings employed and his treatment of the problem is to theend that we may understand; we have found the problem of language in its ambiguity rather than in its richness, and we pursue a chastened negative objective ofsimplified meanings that we may avoid being deceived.Even if we think it wise to abandon theoretic considerations under the press of practical problems, it is wellto consider how our practical devices will work. Ifwe are content with a bare philosophy, and think thatthere is something to be gained by foresaking or forestalling speculation, we have still to consider how weshall denude words of intellectual significance and emotional connotation and to speculate, though we abandonspeculation, on the effects of that simplification on lifeand action.The statement of the problem is simple enough. Wordslike "democracy" and "equality," if definition is restrictedto pointing, are difficult to define. If you ask 100 mento write down what they mean by "capitalism," "socialism," "idealism," you will probably get 100 answers.The problem is not new, but the manner of treating ithas recently changed. All hope of solution, in the past,was made to depend on intellectual effort devoted tothe analysis of these terms, the separation of true fromfalse, good from bad, and the spreading of what is trueby means of education and persuasion. But we havegrown suspicious of the success or even the good intention of intellectual enterprises, and have become convinced that words like these, which have been influentialon action in the past, can be controlled in the future onlyby determining what things, if any, they stand for orinvolve.Whatever the merits of the latter solution it is purelynegative. Since the word "liberty" has been misused, weshall educate men not to act on impulse when the word3 Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. by E. W. Emerson (Boston1911), vol. VI, pp. 18-19 (1841). "The metamorphosis of Nature showsitself in nothing more than this, that there is no word in our languagethat cannot become typical to us of Nature by giving it emphasis. TheW0£lcUs a Dancer; it: is a Rosary; it is a Torrent; it is a Boat; a Mist;a Spider's Snare; it is what you will; and the metanhor will hold, a™dit will give the imagination keen pleasure. Swifter than light the worldconverts itself into that thing you name, and all things find their rightplace under this new and capricious classification. There is nothing smallor mean to the soul. It derives as grand a joy from symbolizing theGodhead or his universe under the form of a moth or a gnat as of aLord of Hosts. Must I call the heaven and the earth a maypole andcountry fair with booths, or an anthill, or an old coat, in order to giveyou the shock of pleasure which the imagination loves and the sense ofspiritual greatness? Call it a blossom, a rod, a wreath of parsley, atamarisk-crown, a cock, a sparrow, the ear instantly hears and the spiritleaps to the trope." Cf. also p. 139. "Every word we speak is million-faced, or convertible to an indefinite number of applications. If it werenot so, we could read no book. Your remark would only fit your case,not mine. And Dante, who described his circumstance, would be unintelligible now. But a thousand readers in a thousand different years shallread his story and find it a picture of their story by making, of course.a r^ew application of every word." Cf. Journals, vol. Ill, pp. 491-92(1825). "There is every degree of remoteness from the line of things inu i?e °~ worcJs: ^y and by comes a word true and closely embracingthe thing. That is not Latin, nor English, nor any language but thought.The aim of the author is not to tell truth — that he cannot do, but tosuggest it. He has only approximated it himself and hence his cumbrous,embarrassed speech: he uses many words, hoping that one, if not another,will bring you as near to the fact as he is." Cf. also Journals vol V. r>254 (1839), and vol. VI, pp. 274-75 (1842).14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEliberty is pronounced. But we have not set up devicesby which to determine what we should mean by libertyor to indicate when we must act in the name of libertylest we lose all that we are trying to preserve. Ourpractical analysis of propaganda seldom rises above thecomplexity of the idyllic situation depicted in Sandburg'spoem, Elephants Mean Different Things to DifferentPeople. After presenting three views of three men in azoo, Sandburg is content to close his poem in praise of anegative ideal:"They didn't put up any arguments.They didn't throw anything in each other's faces.Three men saw the elephant three waysAnd let it go at that,They didn't spoil a sunny Sunday afternoon ;'Sunday comes only once a week,' they told each other."4Weekday problems are not settled by the recognitionthat there are many ways of looking at them. There isno evidence that they are well settled by getting thepeople who agree with us to use pressure in securingwhat we want, or that opponents are effectively quietedby arguing that the statement of views other than ourown is propaganda. Nor is there good reason to supposethat the perfect way of life or the sufficient basis for agood society is to be found by avoiding discussion orthe statement of opposition. And practical issues, finally,are seldom on exhibition to be pointed to like elephantsin a zoo.Words are dangerous. But to recognize their dangeris only half the task, and even that half is badly executedif we do not recognize that the most dangerous wordsare also the most useful words. We need protectionfrom propaganda, but if we can only point out, in themanner of our institutes for propaganda analysis, thata man is calling names or indulging in glittering generalities, we are using propaganda not analyzing it, andwe are inviting our opponent to apply our methods onour own statements. To label an argument propagandais one of the more common forms of propaganda.Man has been led to his greatest errors by his intellectand his emotions, but he has been led to no ideal objective without emotional attachment to conclusions arrivedat with some thought. We have been deceived by words.But if we think to banish our philosophers, let us notforget that those practical philosophers who direct business enterprises, run for political office, and modernizeeducation, also spin deceptive webs of argument. Ifwe think to expose propagandists, let us not neglect toconsider how the propagandists who spread the doctrinewith which we agree, play on the emotions. The retreatfrom' intellect and from the effects of emotion has neverbeen successful in banishing the distinction between goodand bad, however difficult and dangerous the applicationof that distinction may be, but it has frequently made mentimid in the pursuit and overcautious in the conceptionof ideals.I hope that the education which you have received atthe University of Chicago has increased your resistanceto propaganda. But that end will have been effected, notby any suspicion of words induced by the words youhave heard, but only in the degree that you have acquired'Modern American Poetry: A Critical Anthologv. Edited by LouisUntermeyer. 5th ed. New York, 1936, p. 249. means by which to distinguish good from bad argumentsand cogent from improper uses of words.Men have been betrayed by words, but they have alsostated their highest aspirations and ideals and theirsolidest truths in words. They have died miserably because they have been duped by words, but they havealso lived gloriously and courageously in the pursuit ofideals, conscious that they were ideals precisely becausethey had not yet received realistic embodiment in things,but had been expressed in moving words. It has beensuggested in many contexts and in many forms that aman may gain the world without profit — part of theproblem of how we talk lies in the danger that man maybe betrayed by words to lose the world, but part of theproblem lies in the hope that he may be guided by words,if he learns to control them, to understand them, and tojudge them, to aspirations which will give his conquestof the world significance.Two BirthdaysDR. ANTON J. CARLSON, whose picture is onthe cover of this month's Magazine, is rounding out a full career as a great scientist. On his65th birthday his students had an informal party forthe Swedish-born scientist in the Physiology Building.Dr. Carlson has been an energetic and willing workerin the Fiftieth Anniversary drive of the Alumni Foundation. The variety of his talk is appealing; his dissection of the University history is amazing; and his understanding of all kinds of problems at the University winsthe admiration of all his listeners. A letter about Dr.Carlson in the Letters column is only a sample.Another great scientist had a birthday recently, hisfiftieth. He is Sewall Wright, Ernest DeWitt BurtonDistinguished Service Professor of Zoology. His experiments in mutation, inbreeding, cross breeding andselection mark him as one of the world's great scientists.The picture below, taken by Joseph Schwab, shows Professor Wright, honored by his students with an informalbirthday party.BEHIND THE GIFTA Re-Examination of the Alumni Foundation Objectives• By RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36WITH pledges of gifts to the Fiftieth AnniversaryGift already flowing steadily from alumni inChicago and in the 343 cities where the AlumniFoundation is organized, perhaps we should pause andre-examine the fundamental objectives of the Foundation.As John Nuveen, Jr., '18, pointed out in the announcement that the Alumni Council had established a permanent Alumni Foundation, the University will have in1941 for the first time a mature alumni body. Fiftyyears of graduating classes plus the not-at-all-unusualgraduating age of 20 gives the alumni body a life spanfulfilling the Biblical standard of three-score and ten.This maturing of the alumni body marks a turning pointin the University's development. For one thing, Chicagograduates and former students now have the age andexperience that, given ability, entitle them to positionsof honor and importance.1 The number of Chicagoalumni with age and experience will increase as thelarger graduating classes of the middle years of theUniversity's life come into their own.The maturing of the alumni body also means that, except for minor variations, from 1941 on the number ofliving alumni will be constant, or increase slightly. Instrength and numbers, then, Chicago alumni will be comparable to any alumni body of comparable universitiesin the country. Now is the time to plan for taking thefull advantage and assuming the full responsibility thatgo with maturity.The Alumni Foundation has been organized to enablethe alumni to do both. The Alumni Foundation is notintended simply to raise a Fiftieth Anniversary Gift andto sponsor annual alumni giving. More than that it desires to bring about closer relationships between thealumni and their university.Outstanding men from the University have been activein re-establishing the intellectual bond between the University and the alumni. To make this point clear, onehas simply to recall the speakers who have appearedbefore the alumni in the last few months — PresidentHutchins ; Vice-president Emeritus Frederic Woodward ;Anton J. Carlson, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Physiology, whose birthday picture is on thecover of this Magazine; Arthur H. Compton, NobelPrize winner and Charles H. Swift, Distinguished ServiceProfessor of Physics; Richard McKeon, Professor ofGreek and Philosophy and Dean of the Division of Humanities ; John A. Wilson, PhD'26, Professor of Egyptology, Chairman of the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures, and Director of the Oriental Institute; Carl R. Moore, PhD' 16, Professor and Chairmanof the Department of Zoology; Wilber G. Katz, Dean ofxSee Who's Who — Again in this issue for a discussion of one phase ofthis development. the Law School; T. V. Smith, PhD'22, Professor of Philosophy and Congressman from Illinois; Gordon J.Laing, Professor Emeritus of Latin and Editor of theUniversity of Chicago Press; Shailer Mathews, DeanEmeritus of the Divinity School; Charles Gilkey, Deanof the Chapel and Associate Dean of the Divinity School ;and Fay-Cooper Cole, Professor and Chairman of theDepartment of Anthropology.This list does little more than begin the roll call ofmembers of the faculty who have appeared before alumnito discuss their own wTork and that of the University.But of even more significance than the number and importance of recent meetings between alumni and University faculty members is the permanent provision thatsuch meetings will continue. The Speakers Bureau, under the direction of Carey-Groneis, Associate Professor ofGeology, supplements the work of the Alumni Council inproviding top-notch University speakers for alumnimeetings. The fact that alumni want to listen to facultyspeakers, together with the fact that interest and attendance at the Alumni School has increased each year sincethe school was started, indicates that Chicago alumni arerapidly evolving a new idea about the place alma materserves in the lives of its graduates.To bring the University closer to the alumni, Mirror,University women's musical show, on February 29 presented its 1940 production in a special preview performance for 1,200 alumni, who filled every seat in MandelHall. With its three regular radio programs — Sundayreligious services from Rockefeller Memorial Chapel ; theRound Table (NBC), which presents practical aspects ofthe individual American's position in the economic andpolitical world about him; the Human Adventure(CBS), which dramatizes the value of university research — Chicago from day to day gives its alumni andthe general public a chance to share its life and learning.Just as the Alumni Foundation is preparing to serveas a permanent organization to bring the alumni and theUniversity closer together, so the alumni seem to beorganizing locally for new activity as former studentsof the University of Chicago. During the last month,the following new Chicago Alumni Clubs were formed:Lafayette, Ind. After a dinner meeting at which themovie, "Midway Memories," was screened and the record of a "bull-session" was played starring C. LeRoyBaldridge, '11 (on campus to write and illustrate hisimpressions of undergraduate life for the current AlumniBulletin), and four students, the alumni present voted toform an Alumni Club with Fred Holmes, '13, alreadycommitteeman for the Alumni Foundation, as president.Fox Valley, Wisconsin. Clifton Utley, '26, Vice-chairman of the Alumni Foundation, addressed Chicagoalumni in Oshkosh on February 20. At the close of the(Continued on Page 24)15WHO'S WHO -AGAINUNDER the title "The Colleges' Contribution toIntellectual Leadership," School and Society recently presented a new study of college graduates listed in Who's Who in America. This study islimited to holders of bachelor's degrees, each collegebeing credited only with those who received their firstdegree from that institution.Chicago is credited with having 2791 holders ofbachelor's degrees in the 1938-39 Who's Who, and isranked 10th. In the 1928 edition, Chicago was creditedwith 170 and ranked 20th.Of the 224 colleges listed (all those with 15 or morerepresentatives) Chicago had the largest numerical gainduring the 10-year period 1928-38 — a total gain of 109.Chicago had the largest percentage gain among the top70 institutions— 64.1 per cent.In the May, 1939 issue of the Magazine, Roy TempleHouse, PhD '17, chairman of the Department of Romance Languages at the University of Oklahoma, presented a study of the men and women listed in Who'sWho in America who were on the faculties of Americancolleges and universities. The ratio of faculty members in Who's Who for various colleges of various sizesfurnished the basis for comparison. Alumnus Housepresented his Grand Prize for universities to the University of Chicago ; second Grand Prize to Princeton.If listing in Who's Who is a valid measure of excellence, apparently University of Chicago alumni with thebachelor's degree are rapidly proving the value of theireducation. As the alumni body continues to mature andas a greater number of alumni become eligible throughage and experience for positions that bring them recognition in Who's Who, the volume of proof can be expected to increase.Apparently, too, since the Chicago faculty is the bestrepresented among university faculties in Who's Who,the quality of training provided will be reflected in thequality of degree holders turned out.A number of criticisms can be leveled against anyattempt to evaluate colleges and universities accordingto their showing in Who's Who. As Professor Housepointed out, however, "the only competitive rating on abasis of solid statistics which is regularly applied tocolleges is the standing of their athletic teams." Inother words, any other evaluation, even though imperfectin itself, is a step in the right direction.The authors of the School and Society report, B. W.Kunkel of Lafayette College and E. B. Prentice of RosePolytechnic Institute, state that they are measuring intangibles. "But," they say, "intangibles have yielded inthe past to calculations and methods used by the objectiveinvestigator, and we make the modest claim that ourmethod has the merit of objectivity. The character ofleadership represented by the persons included in Who'sWho has been regarded by some as entirely too narrowi-These 279 are part of the 2,015 holders of all Chicago degrees (bachelor's, professional and advanced) listed in Who's Who. (The 2,015 countis from the 1936-37 volume.) to form an adequate basis for measuring the collegeproduct. . . . Those eligible (for listing) fall into twoclasses : ( 1 ) those who are selected on account of specialprominence in creditable lines of effort, and (2) thosewho are arbitrarily included on account of their officialpositions. No effort has been made to ascertain howmany are included in this second category, but inasmuchas this list includes authors of books, it must be fairlyextensive. At all events, by reason of the inclusivenessof the ex officio list, there is no other list of names whichapproaches this one for breadth and general significance.The criterion, we believe, is a valid one for the recognition of intellectual leadership."The authors of the School and Society report sharethe conclusion of the editor of Who's Who on the valueof a college education. The percentage of college anduniversity alumni listed has increased steadily from thetime the first educational tabulations were made up until1934-5 (the year of the last complete tabulation) when86.56 per cent of those listed had an academic degree.The total number of baccalaureates in the 1938 volumewas 14.5 per cent greater than in 1928. A comparisonof the various types of institutions and the increases theyhave enjoyed is interesting. A group of nine privatelyendowed universities, each having more than 200 representatives in Who's Who and comprising Harvard, Yale,Princeton, Columbia, Cornell, Pennsylvania, Chicago,Brown, and Stanford, have gained 8.4 per cent as against14.5 for all institutions. A second group of five privatelyendowed institutions, each with from 100 to 200 representatives (Hopkins, Syracuse, DePauw, Northwestern,and Vanderbilt) have gained nearly 33 per cent. Athird group of seven privately endowed institutionsgained 3.8 per cent.There are 29 state supported universities and collegesrepresented 10 years ago by at least 20 names each. Theyhave enjoyed a gain of 18.5 per cent. A list of 71 liberalarts colleges which had at least 20 names each ten yearsago shows a gain of 21.2 per cent.Technical schools and women's colleges, like the largeprivately endowed universities, failed to gain at the samerate as the general average. Among the large privatelyendowed institutions, Chicago showed the most substantial gain (64.1 per cent). Among the second group offive endowed institutions, Northwestern suffered theonly decrease ( — 7.4 per cent) and dropped from 26thplace to 36th.Given below are the fourteen leaders, the number ofholders of the bachelor's degrees from each, and the percent increase or decrease since 1928:% loHarvard 1409 2.5 California 290 56.8Yale ......... 1006 7.5 Pennsylvania . . 288 10.3Princeton 515 7.3 Chicago 279 64.1Columbia 461 14.7 Amherst ...... 267 —9$Michigan 454 —3.4 Brown 246 —8.2Cornell 413 3.0 Dartmouth .... 231 4.1Wisconsin 342 19.1 M. I. T 229 —9316THE PROBLEMUpon Reading the Report of President Conant of HarvardTHE problems facing endowed universities in America seem to be the same in the East as in theMidwest. President James Bryant Conant, inhis report for the year. 1938-39 to the Board of Overseersof Harvard University, lays down two fundamental assumptions which he accepts as guiding principles forthe immediate future.President Conant finds in the first place that, measured by every quantitative consideration, the state-supported institutions have gained and will hold an ascendancy over those supported by private gifts andendowments. In the second place the time is not right— and here President Conant refers to Harvard specifically — for any rapid growth in numbers, in endowsment, or in the multiplication of schools and departments.The conclusions drawn from these premises as theyare given in the report to the Overseers are not simplynegative. President Conant, like President Hutchins,finds that the private university will still have a specialrole to play as an institution of national rather thanlocal influence and as an experiment station in highereducation, relatively independent of the immediate sentiments and opinions of the public.As an example of the flexibility of the privately endowed university, President Conant points to the trendat Harvard toward inter-departmental cooperation,examples of which are cited as demonstrating the meaning of the university as a genuine community of scholars. Chicago inaugurated this kind of cooperation 10years ago when it introduced the divisional plan oforganization, and has since made progress with suchcommittees as those concerned with the preparation ofteachers and problems of cancer research.The problem of providing a "liberal education" isgiven attention in the report. Apparently the undergraduates, the faculty, and the administration at Harvard now feel, as similar groups at Chicago have longfelt, that recent developments have 'gone • too far in thedirection of specialization. President Conant does notcommit himself to any policy, but suggests that insteadof providing certain courses that will specialize in liberality, such as survey or orientation courses, all levelsof instruction — rcollege, professional, and graduate —should be liberalized. In doing so a student's years inthe college and in a professional school — or in the collegeand in a graduate school — should be considered as a unit.He also suggests broader education for professional men—a task which has been undertaken at Chicago, particularly in the reorganized Law School.' Excerpts from President Conant's report follow :'During the next twenty years a great majority ofthe students will probably attend institutions supportedlargely by taxes and controlled by a state or municipally. But this does not mean that the day of the privately endowed universities is over. On the contrary, thereis good reason to believe that there are a number oftasks for which they are peculiarly adapted — certainduties they should perform. The first of these is surelyto serve as truly national centers of higher education,drawing students from every section of the land. . Thesecond is to take advantage of their opportunity to limitboth the size of the student body and the range of theinstitution's activity, and by so doing to concentrateeffort on those endeavors which give the greatest promise of making a contribution to the educational progressof the country. If properly managed, there should bemore^ flexibility in the privately supported universitythan in the state-controlled. And in the academic worldflexibility spells opportunity — opportunity to reshapeoutworn educational procedures and to experiment withthe new.""Whether judged by enrollment figures, endowment,or the annual budget, the decade of the 1930's has beenmarked in this University [Harvard] by a growth, slowas contrasted with the previous ten-year interval.Though it is a bold man who will speak with any confidence, it appears that another period of rapid expansionis not in sight. To say this is not to succumb to defeatism or to indicate that a merely static University is tobe expected."^ "We are not now facing in this University a situation which calls for retrenchment ; we are not contemplating retreat along any line. We must, however,adopt an attitude consistent with the era in which welive — an era in which slow growth with significant alterations has taken the place of rapid expansion and hurried improvisation. Although we live in a world whosewhole life seems uncertain, we must engage in long-range planning. ..."Our long-range planning is not made any easier because of the dual nature of our ambitions. On the onehand we cherish the natural desire to continue the undergraduate College with undiminished vigor, to theend that the ancient Harvard education tradition ofwhich we are so proud may flourish and prosper. . . .On the other hand, we desire earnestly to have Harvard University one of the great national institutionsfor professional training and the advancement of learning. So far as possible the three objectives — undergraduate education, professional education, and scholarly inquiry — should be given equal weight; the meansof securing one must supplement and support the methods employed for attaining the other two. ..."There is little or no merit in having a variety ofeducational and scholarly endeavors carried on undera common name unless by sharing allegiance to thesame corporate structure each component part gainsstrength. And in a university each faculty or research(Continued on Page 23)17OHIO CHEMISTAn Alumnus ProfileWILLIAM LLOYD EVANS is a famous mantoday — head of the Chemistry Department atOhio State University, president of the American Chemical Society for 1941, recipient of the WilliamH. Nichols medal, several times author. Thirty-fiveyears ago he was Billy Evans, graduate student at theUniversity of Chicago, plying his way between Kentand Ryerson. Memories of his years at the Universitybring twinkles to his grey eyes today,and his face lights up as he talks ofthem.He took his PhD in 1905. John U.Nef was head of the Chemistry Department, with Alexander Smith and JuliusStieglitz as professors. They were alsothe days of Walter Eckersall. ReynoldsClub was newly built and one could lookacross the Midway from the windows ofKent because Harper Library was onlya rectangle on a blueprint."Football rallies were held in theCommons after dinner," Billy recalls."You had to attend or go hungry. Theteam would be up on the rostrum, andPhil Allen, PhD'97, or Stagg or GeorgeE. Vincent, PhD'96, LLDT1, wouldalways speak."Billy chuckles as he recalls incidentafter incident. "There was one day before the Michigan game. Phil Allenhad spoken, I remember. And thenVincent got up. 'Michigan delenda est!'he thundered. We knew our Latin in those days and itbrought us up standing."Then there is the picture of Walter Eckersall after hehad kicked five goals from the field for a total of fifteenpoints in a Wisconsin game, bashful and blushing beforehis fellows, protesting modestly that after all there wereten other men on the team who had made it possible forhim to kick the goals.Billy Evans' richest memories are of the men whowere his companions at the first table in the southwestcorner of Hutchinson Commons. It was a group ofvaried interest, all of them men of later note, DavidAllen Robertson, '02, now President of Goucher College ;Henry P. Chandler, JD'06, Administrative Officer ofthe United States Courts ; Charles Andrews Huston,'02, JD'08, later dean of Stanford University LawSchool; John Broadus Watson, PhD'03, the psychologist; Myron R. Strong, '13, now in the School of Medicine at Loyola University ; Hermann Schlesinger, '03,PhD'OS, secretary of the University's Chemistry Department. Night after night these men gathered at dinnerand talked and argued as graduate students have doneW. F. EVANS, PH D '05 • HELEN ROBBINS BITTERMAN, '24ever since there were graduate students. Billy proteststhat he was only a listener. But those who know hisWelsh will know that he contributed his share of thegood talk.Like many others of later fame, he lived in HitchcockHall — in Room 65, he recalls, where the windows overlooked what is now Stagg Field. An old Swede, whomthe boys called "Oscar," was janitor, caretaker, andfatherly adviser as occasion required.Even as for graduate students in thesedays, there were few hours of recreation for young Evans. He workedhard, to be rewarded with the Loewen-thal Fellowship in chemistry in the year1904-5. But nevertheless, every Saturday night found him in OrchestraHall, listening to Theodore Thomas'orchestra. And he was one of the manystudents who rejoiced when the arrangement was made whereby the orchestra came out to the Midway oncea month to give a concert in MandelHall.Billy Evans is a native of Columbus,Ohio. He took his undergraduate workat Ohio State University, receiving hisBachelor of Science degree there in 1892and his Master of Science four yearslater. For two years he was assistantin the Department of Ceramics, andthen he spent four years as an instructor in chemistry in the high school inColorado Springs. He speaks of those years as one ofthe wonderful times of his life, teaching at the foot ofPike's Peak. But it is not surprising to find him, oncehis doctorate was awarded, returning to Ohio StateUniversity.In 1911, he married Miss Cora Ruth Roberts of Columbus. Legend has it that it was a romance betweenteacher and pupil. But Billy laughingly protests thatthat isn't true, because the charming young lady wasnever his student at all. She studied under William E.Henderson.At Ohio State University, the graduate student ofthirty-five years ago has reached the summit of campuslife. He is revered and loved, and— test of true campuspopularity— apocryphal tales are told of his ready witand his sane common sense. He is a campus figure inthe finest sense of the term. But in all his goings andcomings, he has never forgotten the University of Chicago. He has been the center of the alumni group inColumbus, unflagging in his efforts to advance the causeof the university to which he feels he owes so much.18NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By BERN LUNDY, '37THREE thousand five hundred years ago, ancientMitanni was a sovereign state which held the balance of power between the Egyptians and Hittites.Clay tablets recovered in excavating other cities haveenabled archaeologists to reconstruct much of the correspondence among the three nations. But great gaps stillexist in scholars' knowledge of the period.Near the town of Ras el-Ain, located near the Turkishborder between Aleppo, Syria, and Mosul, Iraq, a greatmound called Tell Fakhiriyah probably marks the siteof Washshukani, capital of ancient Mitanni. In mid-February the Theodore Marriner Memorial Expedition,jointly financed by the University and the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, sailed for Syria at the invitation ofthe French government to dig at Mitanni. The expedition was named for the late U. S. consul-general inSyria, assassinated two years ago by a demented Armenian. Under the guidance of Calvin W. McEwan,Oriental Institute research associate, the diggers hope touncover the palace and administrative headquarters ofMitanni. If Dr. McEwan's and Director John A. Wilson's guess is correct, the missing one-third of the correspondence among the three great powers may there bediscovered. This would supply the facts now missingfrom the history of the second milennium B. C.The German Archaeological Institute for years held anoption to dig in French-mandated Tell Fakhiriyah, buthas been unable to exercise its option. The French authorities have since withdrawn the concession and invitedthe Oriental Institute to excavate the site."The invitation is a distinct honor for the Institute,"said Director John A. Wilson, "since it marks the firsttime that the responsible authorities of a country richin archaeological treasures have taken the initiative inselecting an institution for a specific piece of work."NEWS OF THE 1940 ECLIPSEThe sun shines brighter at its center than at its rim.Exactly how much brighter, scientists do not know, because radiation from the center mingles with the radiation from the rim, or "limb," making exact measurement practically impossible save during a partial eclipseor an annular eclipse.Hard-working Dr. Otto Struve, who directs the University's Yerkes Observatory at Williams Bay, Wisconsin, and the McDonald Observatory at Mt. Locke, Texas,plans to make the first measurements of the sun's infrared radiations during the solar eclipse next April 7th."It is very important that such observations be secured,"he says, "in order to interpret the nature of the materialwhich makes up the outer part of the sun's atmosphere."The April eclipse will be annular, the moon's darkdisk being superimposed on the sun to produce a brightdoughnut of light which will be visible to observers alonga line running from southern Texas through the southern states as far as Florida. Because McDonald Ob servatory lies fifty miles north of the eclipse path, aspecial expedition will establish temporary headquartersslightly north of the border in the direct path. Themaximum phase, which will reach the observatory at3 :38 p. m. on its eastward journey, will last 4.7 minutesin New Orleans and 5.4 minutes in Tallahassee. Evenwhere the eclipse will be at a maximum the darkeningwill be substantially less than that of a total eclipse. Itwill seem like a hazy or cloudy day.Portable equipment to be used in the observationsconsists chiefly of a thermocouple mounted behind thefocus of a small reflecting telescope, with filters eliminating all but the infra-red rays, whose wave-length isabout three one-thousandths of a millimeter. A thermocouple is essentially two strips of metal, bonded together,which expand at different rates when heated, setting upan electric current which automatically records the temperature on photographic paper.Meanwhile, back at McDonald Observatory, wherethe magnitude of the eclipse will be 92 per cent (oneper cent less than the maximum aspect), television apparatus will be used to record the sun's corona. The appa-DIGGER McEWAN AND DIRECTOR WILSON1920 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEratus was designed by Dr. A. M. Skellett of the BellTelephone Company to record the small additionalamount of light emitted by the corona when seen againstthe normal blue sky of daylight.Amateur astronomers will be able to see prominencesat the obscured edge of the sun, according to Dr. Struve.Moderate-sized equipment will get Baily's Beads, prominences, and the mountains at the moon's edge, but goodspectrograph^ equipment will be necessary to photograph the flash spectrum which will be visible at theedge of the sun.HARDY CHRYSANTHEMUMSFive times twenty-five thousand equals 125,000 to anybody but Dr. Ezra J. Kraus and the department of botany workers at Wychwood, the University's outdoorlaboratory near Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. To ProfessorKraus, breeding an average of twenty-five thousandchrysanthemums every year for five years has resulted ina total of a mere 175 varieties of chrysanthemums.But these are no ordinary mums. Every variety ofthe 175 is winter hardy, capable of blooming in summereven after weathering a winter with temperatures frequently as low as thirty below zero.For the past five years the botanists have planted fromtwenty to thirty thousand seedlings each year, selectingfrom these the ones they thought best from the standpoint of form, flower, and foliage, and re-planting them.Each year's 25,000 "boiled down" to about one hundred ;the total remaining at the end of each year was about 150.Chief aim of the University gardeners was to producea chrysanthemum which could easily be grown underadverse climatic conditions.The chrysanthemums, which will probably be introduced to the public next year after the University releases them, range from white through yellow and bronzeto brilliant scarlet. Many of them are semi-double orfull double blooms. Their size ranges from the smallbutton-type to blossoms from four to five inches indiameter.Second in importance to the results is the story of thework itself, a lesson in the fine art of patience.Each petal on the chrysanthemum bloom, ProfessorKraus explains, is actually a small flower, and each onehad to be separately fertilized by hand, by a laboratoryWorker using tweezers and a magnifying glass. Thesmallest chrysanthemum has from 50 to 60 separateflowers ; the largest has as many as 2,000.Cross-pollination was not the worker's only concern;they had to be sure that the flowers would not pollinatethemselves naturally, and accordingly had to remove thestamens from the flowers to forestall natural pollination.! Once there were few chrysanthemums that actuallymeasured up to claims of winter-hardiness, but the University botanists believe they have produced them. Theywill, the botanists assert, resist low winter temperatures,bloom early in the season, and have such native vigorthat they will survive in the average garden for manyyears. STUDENT FLYINGWith the arrival of their three new training planesfrom the factory at Alliance, Ohio, thirty of fifty students who began ground training at the University lastDecember started actual flight instruction in February.The flight training is the culmination of the coursewhich began in December with instruction in meteorology, navigation, aerodynamics, air mechanics, and aviation law, all of the subjects save mechanics being taughton the campus. The students receive credit for thecourse toward their degrees.The air training will be given at Rubinkam airport,two miles west of Harvey, 111. The airport is owned byHenry Rubinkam, former University student, and Nathaniel Rubinkam, TO, JD'12.DEATH OF DODDFebruary marked the death of William Edward Dodd,Andrew MacLeish distinguished service professor emeritus of American History, one-time (1933-38) ambassadorto Germany, and one of the outstanding scholars ofAmerican historyin the UnitedStates.Professor Dodddied of pneumonia at his farm,"Stoneleigh,"nearRound Hill, Virginia, where hewas at work completing his monumental History ofthe South. Thefirst volume of thework, A Historyof the Old South,was published inthe fall of 1937.Acceptance o fthe post of ambassador to Germany in 1933 meant the abandonmentof his historical work for service to his country. Hechose to serve, his friends said, because he saw in thefuture relations with the third Reich an opportunity tofurther the ideal which his friend Woodrow Wilsonhad followed — the ideal of international cooperationwithout which democracy and world peace are impossible.A liberal who adhered to Jeffersonian principles, Professor Dodd had developed a clear social philosophy. Inhis farewell address before taking up his ambassadorialduties, he said :"In this country we think Lincoln was the greatest,although the social ideas he fought for were lost in theturmoil of war and reconstruction; in Germany, Bismarck was the greatest man since Luther, although someof his purposes were thwarted by rivalries and the decree of fate. When one thinks of that stormy era andcontemplates the tangles of the present, there is hopethat men will not prove utterly unequal to the occasion.WILLIAM E. DODDTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21It is a man-made world, and men must make it a fitrealm for men."Born in Clayton, North Carolina, in 1869, William E.Dodd received his bachelor's and master's degrees atVirginia Polytechnical Institute, where he taught fortwo years before going to Germany to take his PhD fromthe University of Leipzig. After teaching at Randolph-Macon college for eight years he joined the faculty ofthe University of Chicago in 1908. He succeeded Professor Andrew McLaughlin to the chair of the department of history in 1927. He was president of theAmerican Historical Association in 1934.HONOR FOR KHARASCHMorris S. Kharasch, SB'17, PhDT9, Carl WilliamEisendrath professor of chemistry, was among sixtyAmerican scientists honored February 20th at a "ModernPioneers" Celebration dinner sponsored by the Illinoisand Wisconsin Manufacturer's Associations and ArmourInstitute of Technology.When Professor Kharasch announced recently that hewas going to take a vacation in California, one of hisassistants asked, "How long will you be gone — five daysor four?" One of the country's outstanding organicchemists, he is an indefatigable worker who works 14 or15 hours a day and cannot see why others think such aprogram difficult. Professor Kharasch's research in organic chemistry has had far-reaching applications. Hedeveloped "merthiolate," which physicians and hospitalsnow widely use ; he developed an important treatment forsmall grains affected by smut ; and working with Univer sity obstetricians and gynecologists he isolated and prepared in pure crystalline form the drug "ergonovine,"useful in making childbirth safer.Born in the Ukraine, Professor Kharasch received allof his schooling in Chicago, graduating from Crane HighSchool. He was second lieutenant during the WorldWar, in the Gas and Flame Division of the U. S. Army.BRIEF NOTICESOther honors during February accrued to Dr. HoratioH. Newman, co-author with Drs. Freeman and Holzingerof Twins: A Study of Heredity and Environment. Dr.Newman received a citation from the American Educational Research Association for outstanding contributionsto educational research.Closing date for the 1940 Charles H. Sergei playcontest will be June 1st, Associate Professor Frank H.O'Hara announced. The prize of $500 will be giventhis year for the best radio play to be submitted by anyresident of the United States. The play may take nomore than twenty minutes and no more than twenty-fiveminutes of actual playing time; the playwright retainsthe rights to the play.Manuscripts must be submitted in original, bound inpaper or cloth, to the Charles H. Sergei Play Contest,University of Chicago. The title page must include thewriter's name and address, and all pages must be numbered.The contest was established by Annie Meyers Sergeiin memory of Charles H. Sergei, prominent Chicagoanand founder of the Dramatic Publishing Co.TO EMPLOYERS AND ALUMNIT^HE University of Chicago is happy to offer an employment serviee to business houses and col-J- lege or school administrators of the city and of the nation and to all individual employers oflabor on a temporary, a part-time, or a permanent basis. This makes it possible for alumni andnon-alumni employers to make use of the great resources in personnel material available in thevarious departments of the University.The foremost interest of the Placement Counselors is to recommend to the employers the verybest persons available to discharge the duties of any given position whether it be a part-time,temporary position concerned with the home, or a highly responsible executive position in a business organization.Who understand the needs of the home and of business, will assist you to find the proper college trained individual, either man or woman, for any particular work. Do not overlook the convenience of making use of this service to locate the best employee with a minimum of time andeffort.The alumni can render valuable assistance to this service by reporting employment opportunities to us.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO CHICAGO, ILLINOISTelephone Midway 0800 — Extension 391ATHLETICSJOE STAMPF, Chicago's long-geared basketballforward, is practically sure to win the Big Tenfree throw scoring title; he scored 44 in his firstten games as well as enough field goals to rate himeleventh in the Conference in total individual scoring.Stampf missed thirteen free throws in the ten games,and his average tosses-made-per-attempt was 77.18 percent. Only a junior, he undoubtedly again will rank asone of the Conference's leading forwards next year. Oneof a trio of six feet, four-inch players on this year's team,Stampf wears a pair of unbreakable glasses as he plays.His favorite and probably most effective shot is a fastflat pass hitting the backboard hard and low.Last month Maroon teams won 13 contests and lost14. In Big Ten competition the record was 11 won and12 lost. Taking into account the fact that most of thelosses have been in the major sports, the minor sportshave a victory percentage of .667.STRONG SCISSORS OPERATORProbably the most colorful representative of the University in intercollegiate sports this winter has been William Ralph Moore, a wrestler who, although he hasweighed less than his opponents in the 175 pound class,has ably succeeded last year's Captain Ed Valorz inGEOLOGIST MOORE • By DON MORRIS, '36bouts at that weight. Moore is a sophomore, green,young, and light, but it has taken him a total of justtwenty-four minutes and thirty-five seconds to pin hisopponents in the four Big Ten matches he has wrestled.Unafraid of action, although, it must be admitted thataction has usually spelled discomfort for his opponentsrather than himself, Moore has the eyes of a lion tamerand the co-ordination I like to think of as belonging to alion. His scowl is vicious when he is working on themat, and his individual record is the most consistentlysuccessful on the squad. As he goes about his University routine, which includes four classes per day including one in geology (geologist's hammer not to beconfused with the hammerlock, says Yancey T. Blade),Moore displays none of the traditional earmarks of thewrestler. His curly hair and benign appearance inmufti belie his performing alter ego, which emphaticallyis not an eager alto.Moore's caliber will receive its first acid test when theSt. Charles wrestler enters the Big Ten meet at Lafayette. Until the results of that meet are available, askTrubey of Northwestern, Aronson of Purdue, Mullikanof Nebraska, Coyte of Bradley, or Patterson of Wheatonwhat they think of his grappling methods.Captain Colin Thomas, 145 pounds, and BernardStone, 155 pounds, also possess unbesmirched records inBig Ten competition, although their victories have included wins by decision as well as by fall. Coach SpyrosVorres, with a better balanced team than he had lastyear, expects more fruitful combat by some of his sophomores next year than they have displayed this season.Sam Zafros, 136 pounds, and Carroll Pyle, 128 pounds,will bear watching. Chicago's heavyweight problemshave been handled by lumbering Milton Weiss, erstwhilefootball guard, who makes up for what he lacks in ingenuity by bulk.TWO OF A KINDFollowers of Midway athletics last year pursued thecourse of the Murphy twins, Bill and Chet, through thebasketball season, the mumps, and the South, to the BigTen tennis doubles championship. Three years ago theMurphs began their careers well but on a smaller scale,and it may be that on a similarly small scale anotherpair of twins have begun to enact some history this year.Primarily because of an injury to Captain GlennPierre, Earl and Courtney Shanken have carried almostthe whole burden of Chicago's gymnastics competition.Despite the fact that they are only sophomores, the brothers problably have undergone more meet-minutes thanany other gymnasts in the Big Ten. A gymnast ordinarily competes in one or two — sometimes three — of thefive dual meet events; side horse, horizontal bar, flyingrings, parallel bars, and tumbling.The Shankens probably lead the Big Ten in total number of individual points scored, although they usuallyTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23FENCERS BEN PRITZ AND STUART MACCLINTOCK; COACH HERMANSON BEHINDhave not won more than an event or two in each meet.Return of Captain Glenn Pierre to the gymnasticslineup in time for the Big Ten meet, plus the increasingproficiency of Al Robertson, Maroon tumbler, shouldmean that Chicago will move from third to second placein the Big Ten rankings. Captain Joe Giallombardo, ofIllinois, is virtually a cinch to lead his team to the championship, but Coach Dan Hoffer's Maroon team shouldclimb out over Minnesota despite the defeat by theGophers early in the season.TANK BUBBLE BURSTSLast month Coach E. W. McGillivray was ill; hisaquatics coaching duties were taken over for a time byLong John Van De Water, remembered as captain ofthe team and its best distance swimmer last year. Thisyear Chicago probably ranks higher than the eighth placeit won last year as a result of Jim Anderson's breaststroke third place. The dual meet record should not betaken too seriously as an indicator of Chicago's strengthbecause the schedule did not include such powerhousetank organizations as Michigan and Ohio State..THE MAROON SCOREBOARDBasketball Track The Problem(Continued from Page 17)ChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoChicago 29—4136—4430—5218—2935—3234—3840—4233—4631—46 MarquetteOhio StatePurdueMichiganMinnesotaIndianaIllinoisMinnesotaWisconsinFencingChicago 15 — 12 Notre DameChicago 17 — 10 IllinoisChicago 13 — 4 WisconsinSwimmingChicago 46—38 PurdueChicago 49 — 35 WisconsinChicago 31 — 53 IowaChicago 29 — 55 NorthwesternChicago 41 — 43 Illinois Chicago 21- ft* p,urdue .6 (58 WisconsinChicago 17 — 78 IllinoisChicago 35 — 42 NorthwesternWater PoloChicago 10 — 1 PurdueChicago 8 — 1 IowaChicago 4 — 7 NorthwesternChicago 7 — 5 IllinoisWrestlingChicago 12 — 14 NebraskaChicago 23—11 PurdueChicago 20— 8 PurdueChicago 18 — 14 NorthwesternChicago 23 — 11 WisconsinGymnasticsChicago 503—553^ IllinoisChicago 426%— 493*4 Illinois group can best prosper if the activities of all are coordinated in such a way that mutual aid and supportare given and received almost unconsciously. . . . ThePresident of the University .... must explore fromday to day methods of opening new channels of communication between different areas. He must assistthe formation of inter-departmental committees even iftheir existence be only temporary. He must be preparedto lend a hand whenever a promising opening appearsfor a new departure which will result in a closer integration of educational endeavors or scholarly investigations. To my mind this is, perhaps, the first duty in aperiod such as the present . . . .""Since approximately one-half of our graduates subsequently pursue graduate and professional studies hereor elsewhere, the College can hardly shut its eyes to anypossible relationship that may exist between collegiateand professional training. Indeed, certain types of professional training have long since been domesticatedwithin the College while others are repelled. I shall notattempt to maintain that there are sufficient reasons forthe differentiation. But to draw a sanitary cordonaround collegiate instruction and thus ward off theclangers of infection by a professional element seems tome impossible.""Personally I am much impressed by the need forproviding a broader education for all our professionalmen, whether they receive their higher education fromthe Faculty of Arts and Sciences or from one of ourprofessional schools. I think the reform should startin the College, but the movement should not stop there.A more liberal professional education is surely also tobe desired. It seems to me those most concerned withliberalizing our higher education today should regardthe college and the professional-school years as one unit.By doing so they may be able to evolve a consistentliberal pattern for the entire six, seven, or eight vears(depending on the professional school)."24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBehind the Gift(Continued from Page 15)meeting, a Fox Valley Alumni Club (with Oshkosh asits center) was formed with these officers ; president,Charles H. Forward, '80, of the old University; secretary-treasurer, May M. Beenken, AM '26, PhD '28.Philadelphia, Pa. Alumni there entertained T. V.Smith, at a dinner that, in addition to Professor Smith'stalk, was featured by two showings of "Midway Memories." After the Alumni Foundation dinner a ChicagoAlumni Club was re-established with these officers :president, Mrs. Edward S. Mead, '97; first vice-president, J. L. McCartney, '21, MD '23; second vice-president, Mrs. W. T. Fox, '34; secretary, Gertrude Solenberger, '26.Alumni in Rochester, N. Y ., according to Isabel K.Wallace, PhD'28, co-chairman with Harold E. Nicely,'21, for the Alumni Foundation there, gathered for thefirst time when they met at the Faculty Club of the University of Rochester.Officers recently elected in established Alumni Clubsinclude the following: Minneapolis-St. Paul: president,Don B. Smith, '31, JD '32; vice-president, Frederick A.Replogle, PhD '36; secretary, Alice Lawrence, '20.Wichita: Alumni Foundation Chairman Robert M.Moore, '21, was elected president of the Alumni Club.Ithaca: J. P. Bretz, PhD '06, was elected president.Boston: president, John B. Perlee, '14, who is also NewEngland Chairman for the Alumni Foundation; vice-president, Mrs. Lyman E. Lehrburger, '17; secretary-treasurer, Reginald H. Robinson, '15.President Hutchins again during the month just pasttook a leading part in the activities of the Foundation.On February 15 he addressed 130 alumni in Detroit ata meeting arranged by Mrs. Emerson Davis, ex '04,newly elected president of the Detroit Alumni Club, andWilliam P. Lovett, '99. On February 19, the President,together with T. V. Smith, spoke to 204 residents ofEvanston and Wilmette gathered for the first meeting ofChicago alumni ever to be held in Evanston. HowellMurray, '14, Chairman for the Chicago North Shore, wastoastmaster; John F. Dille, '09, was chairman for thedinner. Two nights later, the President, this time teamedwith Trustee Clarence Randall, addressed 184 NorthShore alumni in Highland Park at another meeting withHowell Murray as toastmaster.On February 27 in Boston, having stopped off the daybefore in New Haven to speak at the Phi Beta Kappadinner, the President met 80 alumni and addressed themon the subject "What Chicago Means." Arrangementswere made by John P. Perlee, New England Chairman.On the next night, the President appeared before 200New York alumni. Rob Roy MacGregor, '28, Presidentof the Chicago Alumni Club of New York, is also NewYork City Chairman for the Alumni Foundation. Meanwhile, Dr. Wilber E. Post, Dean of the RushGraduate School of Medicine, and Dr. Frederick B.Moorehead, President of the Rush Alumni Association,sent a joint letter to all Rush alumni. They indicatedthe scope of the work to be done by their institution andpointed out that "the moral and financial support of thealumni and friends" is essential for success and that"Rush alumni who are able to join in the Fiftieth Anniversary Fund may designate that their contributionsshall go to the support of Rush by so indicating on theirsubscription card."The Scholarship Story(Continued from Page 11)There has been some interest in the scholarships received by athletes at the University. In the Universityreport to the Intercollegiate Conference (Big Ten),an athlete is defined as a student "who wron numerals orwho engaged in intercollegiate athletics." In 1938-39, 82athletes received scholarships, for a total of $16,591.60.Of these, 25 received Noyes scholarships, the qualifications for which have been mentioned above. These 25received $2,583.27.Of the 2,303 undergraduate men in residence in1938-39, 267 were listed as athletes. The percentage ofathletes receiving scholarships was 30.71. The percentage of all undergraduate men receiving scholarships was28.31. (The number of undergraduate men receivingscholarship aid was 652.) These figures indicate that theCommittee on Scholarships neither discriminated infavor of nor against athletes. In other words, theyreceived, as the Committee feels they should, the sameconsideration as other scholarship applicants.A few athletes — eight to be exact — also receivedgrants-in-aid in the form of tuition remission. One wasawarded full tuition, the others one-half to two thirds.The total disbursed in this manner was $1,300.Is Your Subscription Running Out?Renew Now!University of Chicago Magazine,University of Chicago, Chicago, IllinoisPlease renew my subscription forOne year ($2.00) Two years ($3.50) Three years ($5.00) My check is enclosed.Name Address THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25The Great Books: 2(Continued from Page 10)interested in physics, we cannot avoid considering mathematics. Here, too, there have been some recent books,SUch as Hogben's Mathematics for the Million, but Ithink none so good as a little masterpiece by Whiteheadcalled An Introduction to Mathematics: Bertrand Russell's great work on The Principles of Mathematics hasalso just been republished.If we read these books, we might even dare to openHilbert's Foundations of Geometry, Dedekind's Theoryof Numbers, and. Peacock's Treatise on Algebra. Throughthem wre could not help returning to the starting pointsof modern mathematics in Descartes' Geometry and themathematical works of Newton and Leibnitz. TheMathematical Lectures of Barrow, Newton's teacher,would be extremely helpful, but I think we would alsofind it necessary to see the whole of modern mathematicsin the light of its contrast with the Greek accomplishment, especially Euclid's Elements of Geometry, Nicho-machus' Introduction to Arithmetic, and Apollonius'Treatise on Conic Sections.The connection of the great books and the versatilityof their authors may now appear even more plainly thanbefore. Leibnitz and Descartes were both mathematicians and metaphysicians. Malthus's Essay on Population was not only a work in social science, but alsoinfluenced Darwin's notions about the struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest. Newton was notonly a great experimental physicist but also a greatmathematician. Leonardo's Notebooks contain both histheory of perspective in painting and the record of hismechanical investigations and inventions.THE NOVEL AND ITS FOREBEARSI am going to take one step further. Even though wehave been primarily concerned with expository works, arecitation of the great books would be sorely deficient ifthe masterpieces of belles-lettres were not mentioned.Here, too, contemporary works might generate an interest in their forebears. The modern novel has a variedhistory which opens up when we gojmck from Proustand Thomas Mann, James Joyce and Hemingway, to theforms of narration they have tried to modify. Proustand, perhaps, Andre Gide, lead us to Flaubert, Zola, andBalzac, and to the great Russians, Dostoevski and Tolstoi. Nor will we forget our own Mark Twain, HermanMelville, and Henry James; or Hardy, Dickens, andThackery. Behind all these lie the great eighteenth-century novels of Defoe and Fielding. Robinson Crusoe andTom Jones would remind us of many others, includingSwift's Gulliver. Our travels would not be complete, ofcourse, until we came to Cervantes' Don Quixote andRabelais' Gargantua and Pantagruel.The plays, both pleasant and unpleasant, by Shaw and°ther contemporaries follow an even longer tradition ofdramatic writing. There would be not only the modernP^ays of Ibsen, who influenced Shaw considerably, andthe earlier comedies of Sheridan and Congreve, Drydenand Moliere ; but behind the tragedies of Racine and Cor- neille, and the plays of Shakespeare and other Elizabethans, there lie the Greek comedies of Aristophanesand the great tragedies of Euripides, Sophocles andAeschylus.Finally, there are the long narrative poems, the greatepics: Goethe's Faust, Milton's Paradise Lost, Chaucer'sCanterbury Tales, Dante's Divine Comedy, The Song ofRoland, the Nibelungcnlied, the Norse sagas, Virgil'sAeneid, and Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.I have not mentioned all the great books and authors,but I have referred to a large number of them as theymight group themselves in the course of conversation, orin the pursuit of interests aroused by contemporary issues or current books. There are no fixed barriers between these groups. They flow into one another at everyturn.This is not only true of such obviously related subjectmatters as politics and ethics, ethics and metaphysics,metaphysics and mathematics, mathematics and naturalscience. It appears in more remote connections. Thewriters of The Federalist Papers refer to Euclid's axiomsas a model for political principles. A reader of Montaigne and Machiavelli, as well, of course, as of Plutarch,will find their sentiments and stories, even their language, in the plays of Shakespeare. The Divine Comedy reflects the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas, Aristotle's Ethics, and Ptolemy's astronomy. And we knowhow frequently Plato and Aristotle refer to Homer andthe great tragic poets.AVOIDING PROVINCIALISMPerhaps you see now why I have said so often thatthe great books should be read in relation to one anotherand in the most various sorts of connection. Thus read,they support each other, illuminate each other, intensifyeach other's significance. And, of course, they makeone another more readable. In reciting their names andtracing their connections, I have gone backward fromcontemporary books, taking each step in terms of thebooks an author himself read. That has shown you howthe whole tradition of the great books is involved in ourlife today.But if you wish to use one great book to help youread another, it would be better to read them from thepast into the present, rather than the other way around.If you first read the books an author read, you willunderstand him better. Your mind has grown as hisdid, and therefore you are better able to come to termswith him, to know and understand him.To proceed in the other direction is sometimes moreexciting. It is more like doing detective work, or playing hare and hounds. Even when you get this excitement out of reading the books backwards, you willnevertheless have to understand them in the forwarddirection. That is the way they happened, and they canbe understood no other way.Our wanderings among the great books help me tomake another point. It is difficult to say of any contemporary book that it is great. We are too near itto make a sober judgment. Sometimes we can be relatively sure, as in the case of Einstein's work or Freud's,26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe novels of Proust and Joyce, or the philosophy ofDewey, Whitehead, and Maritain. But, for the mostpart, we must refrain from such elections. The hall offame is too august a place for us to send our livingcandidates, without enclosing return postage.But current books can certainly be good, even* if wecannot be sure they are great. The best sign I knowthat a current book is good, and that it may even bejudged great some day, is the obviousness of its connection with the great books. Such books are drawn, anddraw us, into the conversation which the great bookshave had. Necessarily their authors are well read. Theybelong to the tradition, whatever they think of it, orhowever much they seem to revolt from it. And thebest way for us to read such good contemporary booksis in the light of the great books. As you have noticed,conversations started by these books tend naturally toenlarge and encompass others, especially great ones. Thatindicates the kind of reading these good books deserve.Let me state one further conclusion. We suffer todaynot only from political nationalism but cultural provincialism. We have developed the cult of the present moment. We read only current books for the most part, ifwe read any at all. Not only must we fail to read thegood books of this year well, if we read only them, butour failure to read the great books isolates us from the world of man, just as much as unqualified allegiance tothe swastika makes one a German first, and a man later— if ever. It is our most sacred human privilege to bemen first, and citizens or nationals second. This is justas true in the cultural sphere as the political.It is our privilege to belong to the larger brotherhoodof man which recognizes no national boundaries, norany local or tribal fetishes. In fact, I would say it isour duty. I do not know how to escape from the straitjacket of political nationalism, but I do know how wecan become citizens of the world of letters, friends ofthe human spirit in all its manifestations, regardless oftime and place.You can guess the answer. It is by reading the greatbooks. Thus the human mind, wherever it is located,can be freed from current emergencies and local prejudices, through being elevated to the universal plane ofcommunication. There it grasps the general truths, towhich the whole human tradition bears witness.Those who can read well can think critically. Tothis extent, they have become free minds. If theyhave read the great books — and I mean really read them— they will have the freedom to move anywhere in thehuman world. Only they can fully lead the life of reason who, though living in a time and place, are yet notwholly of it.APPENDIX: IMPORTANT BOOKSULTIMATELY, everyone should makehis own list of great books. Professor Adler thinks it would be wise, however, to read a few of the books whichhave been unanimously acclaimed beforeyou start. The more you read, of course,the better. This list, reproduced with special permission of Simon and Schuster, isa starter.1. Homer (c. 850 b.c.)Iliad el, lc, ml, wcOdyssey el, lc, ml, wc2. The Old Testament3. Aeschylus (c. 525-456 b.c)Tragedies(esp. House of Atreus, PrometheusBound) el, lc, wc4. Sophocles (c. 497-406 b.c.)Tragedies(esp. Oedipus the King, Antigone,Electro) el, lc, wc5. Euripides (c. 485-406 b.c)Tragedies(esp. Medea, Electra, Hippolytus,Bacchae) el, lc6. Herodotus (c. 484-425 b.c)History (of the Persian Wars)(c. 444-425 B.C.) el, lc7. Thucydides (c. 470-400 b.c)History of the Peloponnesian War(c. 404-401 B.C.) el, LC, ml8. Hippocrates (c. 460-357 b.c)Collection of Medical Writings(c. 320-300 B.C.) lc9. Aristophanes (c. 444-380 b.c.)Comedies(esp. Lysistrata, Clouds, Birds,Frogs) el, lc, wc KEYEL: Everyman's LibraryOT. Oxford TranslationsML: Modern LibraryWC: World's Classics (Oxford)LC: Loeb Classical LibraryOCL: Open Court LibraryMSL: Modern Student's LibraryFor the convenience of the reader in acquiring copies of the great books, either at abook-store or at a library, this key to thepopular editions in which they are availablehas been prepared. Most of the books available in popular editions are also available inother editions which are not listed. In thecase, however, of books which are not available in popular editions, they are listed inthe most readily available edition. As allprices are somewhat subject to change, theyare not included at all, but the popular editions average about a dollar a volume.10. Plato (c. 427-347 B.C.)Dialogues (c. 404-347 B.C.)(esp. Republic, Symposium, Phaedo,Meno, Apology, Lysis, Phaedrus,Protagoras, Gorgias, Cratylus,Sophist, Philebus, Theaetetus, Par-menides) el, lc, ml, msl, ot11. Aristotle (384-322 b.c)Works (c. 335-323 b.c)(esp. Organon, Physics, Metaphysics,De Anima, Ethics, Politics, Rhetoric, Poetics) el, lc, msl, ot 12. Euclid (c. 323-283 b.c)Elements of GeometryCambridge Univ. Press, el13. Cicero (106-43 b.c)Orations (c. 66-57 B.C.) .lcRepublic (54 b.c) lcLaws (52 b.c.) lcTusculan Disputations (45 B.C.) . .lcOffices (44 B.C.) el, lc14. Lucretius (c. 95-52 b.c)Of the Nature of Things (c. 55b.c.)el, lc, ot15. Virgil (70-19 b.c)Aeneid (c. 27-20 B.C.)el, lc, ml, ot, wc16. Horace (65-8 b.c)Odes and Epodes (22-13 B.C.)EL, LC, ML,0TThe Art of Poetry (13 B.C.) .lc, ml17. Livy (59 B.C.-A.D. 17)History of Rome (c. 27-25 B.C.)el, lc18. Ovid (43 b.c-a.d. 17)Metamorphoses (c. 917) el,lc19. Quintilian (c. 40-118)Institutes of Oratory (94-95). --LC20. Plutarch (c. 45-120)Lives el, lc, ml, ot21. Tacitus (c. 55-117)Dialogue on Oratory (c. 84-85)lc,otGermania (98) el, lc, ot22. NichomachusIntroduction to Arithmetic (c. 1°°/Univ. of Mich. Press23. Epictetus (c. 60-120)Discourses el, lc, otTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 2724. Lucian (c. 120-190)Works(c. 145-175) (esp. The Way toWrite History, The True History,Alexander the Oracle Monger,Charon, The Sale of Lives, TheFisherman, Dialogues of the Gods,Dialogues of the Sea-Gods, Dialogues of the Dead) lc, ot25. Marcus Aurelius (121-180)Meditations el, lc, ot, wc26. Galen (131-c. 210)Of the Natural Faculties lc27. The New Testament28. St. Augustine (354-430)Of the Teacher (c. 389)D. Appleton- CenturyConfessions (397) el, lcCity of God (c. 413-426) lc29. Volsunga Saga (or Nibelungenlied)EL30. Song of Roland (c. 1090)Houghton, Mifflin31. Burnt Njal (Icelandic saga) el32. Maimonides (c. 1135-1204)Guide for the Perplexed (1190)E. P. Dutton33. St. Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274)Of Being and Essence (1256)Sheed and WardSumma Contra Gentiles (1258-60)R. & T. WashbourneOf the Governance of Rulers (1265-67) Sheed and WardSumma Theologica (1267-73)R. & T. Washbourne34. Dante (1265-1321)The Divine Comedy (c. 1300)el, ml35. Chaucer (c. 1340-1400)The Canterbury Tales (c. 1398)el, ml, wc36. Thomas a Kempis (c. 1380-1471)Of the Imitation of Christ. . .el, wc37. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)Notebooks. .. .Reynal & Hitchcock38. Machiavelli (1469-1527)The Prince (1513) el, ot, wc39. Erasmus (c. 1469-1536)The Praise of Folly (1510)Allen and UmwinColloquies (1522)Oxford Univi Press40. St. Thomas More (c. 1478-1535)Utopia (1516) el41. Rabelais (c. 1495-1553)Gargantua and Pantagruel (1535)el, ml, wc42. Calvin (1509-1564)Institutes of Christian Religion(1536)....Presby. Bd. of Public'n43. Montaigne (1535-1592)Essays (1580-1588)(esp. Of the Education of Children,Of Friendship, Of Cannibals, OfSolitude, Of Experience, Of Moderation, Of Books, Of Custom,Upon Some Verses of Virgil, Apology for Raymond de Sebond)el, ml, wc44. Cervantes (1547-1616)Don Quixote (1605) el, ml, wc45. Edmund Spenser (c. 1552-1599)The Faerie Queene (1589) el46. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)The Advancement of Learning(1605) . el, msl, wcThe Novum Organum (1620)Oxford Univ. Press, mlThe New Atlantis (1627) wc47. Shakespeare (1564-1616)Plays (1594-1623) el48. Galileo (1564-1642)Dialogues concerning Tzuo Neiv Sciences (1638)Northwestern Univ. Press 49. Harvey (1578-1657)On the Motion of the Heart (1628)EL50. Grotius (1583-1645)The Law of War and Peace (1625)Cambridge Univ. Press51. Hobbes (1588-1679)Elements of Philosophy (1651)MacmillanLeviathan (1651) .el52. Descartes (1596-1650)A Discourse on Method (1637). elGeometry (1637) oclPrinciples of Philosophy (1644). elThe Passions of the Soul (1650)Macmillan53. Corneille (1606-1684)Tragedies (1636-1640)(esp. The Cid Cinna) ml, msl54. Milton (1608-1674)Areopagitica (1644) el, wcParadise Lost^ (1667) el, wcSamson Agonistes (1671) . . .el. wc55. Moliere (1622-1673)Comedies (1659-1673)(esp. The Miser, The School forWives, The Misanthrope, Tartuffe,Tradesman Turned Gentleman, TheImaginary Invalid, The AffectedLadies) el, ml, msl56. Boyle (1626-1691)The Skeptical Chymist (1661).. el57. Spinoza (1632-1677)Political Treatises (1670)D. Appleton-CenturyEthics (written, 1675; pub., 1677)EL, MSL58. Locke (1632-1704)Letter Concerning Toleration (1689)G. BellTwo Treatises of Civil Government(1690) ^ EL, MLEssay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) E. P. DuttonSome Thoughts Concerning Education (1693) G. Bell59. Racine (1639-1699)Tragedies (1667-77)(esp. Andromache, Phoedra, Ath-aliah) ml, msl60. Newton (1642-1727)Mathematical Principles of NaturalPhilosophy (1687)Univ. of Calif. PressOptic ks (1704) G. Bell61. Leibnitz (1646-1716)Discourse on Metaphysics (1686)oclNew Essays Concerning HumanUnderstanding (1704) oclMonadology (1714) el62. Defoe (1661-1731)Robinson Crusoe (1719) . . . .el, wcMoll Flanders (1722) ...... .el, ml63. Swift (1667-1745)Battle of the Books (1704) . .el, mlTale of a Tub (1704) el, mlJournal to Stella (1712) elGulliver's Travels (1727). el, ml, wc64. Montesquieu (1689-1755)Persian Letters (1721)M. W. DunneSpirit of Laws (1748) . G. Bell65. Voltaire (1694-1778)Candide (1758) el, ml, mslPhilosophical Dictionary (c. 1764-73) .Alfred A. KnopfToleration G. P. Putnam66. Berkeley (1684-1753)A New Theory of Vision (1709)ELThe Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) ocl, ml 67. Fielding (1707-1754)Joseph Andrews (1742)el, ml, msl, wcTom Jones (1749) el, ml68. Hume (1711-1776)A Treatise of Human Nature(1739-40) elEnquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748) msl, ocl, mlHistory of England (1754)Little, Brown69. Rousseau (1712-1778)Emile (1762) elThe Social Contract (1762) elConfessions (1782-89) el70. Sterne (1713-1768)Tristram Shandy (1759) .el, ml, wc71. Adam Smith (1723-1790)The Theory of Moral Sentiments(1759) A. MurrayThe Wealth of Nations (1776)el, ml, wc72. Blackstone (1723-1780)Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765) J. B. Lippincott73. Kant (1724-1804)Critique of Pure Reason (1781) .elProlegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783) oclCritique of Practical Reason (1790)Longmans, GreenCritique of Judgment (1793)Macmillan74. Gibbon (1737-1794)The Decline and Fall of the RomanEmpire (1776-1788) el, ml, wc75. Stendahl (1783-1842)The Red and the Black (1830)ml, mslIS. The Federalist Papers (1787-1788)(along with The Articles of Confederation, The Constitution of theUnited States, and the Declarationof Independence) G. P. Putnam77. Bentham (1748-1832)Comment on the Commentaries(1774-5) Oxford Univ. PressIntroduction to the Principles ofMorals and Legislation (1789)Oxford Univ. PressTheory of Fictions (first edited in1932)Kegan Paul, Trench & Trubner78. Goethe (1749-1832)Faust (1774) el, ml, wcPoetry and Truth (1775)... G. Bell79. Ricardo (1772-1823)The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817) el80. Malthus (1766-1834)Essay on the Principles of Population ~(1798) el81. Dalton (1766-1844)A New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808) (extract) Alembic Club82. Hegel (1770-1831)Phenomenology of Spirit (1807)MacmillanScience of Logic (1812-1816)MacmillanPhilosophy of Right (1820) .G. BellPhilosophy of History (1837)i G.Bell83. Guizot (1787-1874) ^History of Civilisation in France(1845 ) D. Appleton-Century84. Faraday (1791-1867)Experimental Researches in Electricity (1839-1855) el85. Lobachevski (1793-1856)Theory of Parallels (1840) ocl86. Comte (1798-1857)Positive Philosophy (1830-42)P. Eckler28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CLIICAGO MAGAZINE87. Balzac (1799-1850)Works (1829-1842)(esp. Le Pere Goriot, Cousin Pons,Eugenie Grandet, Cousin Betty,Cesar Birotteau) el, ml, msl88. Lyell (1797-1875)The Antiquity of Man (1863) . . .el89. J. S. Mill (1806-1873)System of Logic (1843)Longmans, GreenPrinciples of . Political Economy(1848) Longmans, GreenOn Liberty (1859) ..... .el, wc, mlOf Representative Government(1861) el, wc, mlUtilitarianism (1863) el, mlAutobiography (1873) wc90. Darwin (1809-1882)The Origin of Species (1859) el, ml91. Thackeray (1811-1863)Works (1846-62)(esp. Vanity Fair, Henry Esmond,The Virginians, Pendcnnis)el, ml, msl92. Dickens (1812-1870)Works (1834-1870)(esp. Pickwick Papers, Our MutualFriend; David Copperfield, Dombeyand Son, Oliver Twist, A Tale ofTzvo Cities) el, ml93. Claude Bernard (1813-1878)Introduction to Experimental Medicine (1876) Macmillan94. Boole (1815-1864)Lazvs of Thought (1854) ocl95. Marx (1818-1883)Capital (1867)(along with The Communist Manifesto) ml, el96. Melville (1819-1891)Typee (1846) el,wcMoby Dick (1846) el, ml, wc97. Dostoevski (1821-1881)Crime and Punishment (1866)el, mlThe Idiot (1869) .elThe Brothers Karamazov (1881)EL, ML98. Buckle (1822-1862) <A History of Civilization m England (1857).. D. Appleton-Century99. Flaubert (1821-1880)Madame B ovary (1857) el, ml100. Galton (1822-1911)Inquiries into Human Faculty andIts Development (1883) el101. Riemann (1826-1866)The Hypotheses of Geometry(1867) ocl102. Ibsen (1828-1906)Plays (1850-1900)(esp. Peer Gynt, Brand, HeddaGabler, Emperor and Galilean, ADoll's House, The Wild Duck, TheMaster Builder) ed, ml103. Tolstoi (1828-1910)War and Peace (1861-68)EL, ML, WCAnna Karenina (1875-78)EL, ml, wcWhat Is Art? (1898) .....wc104. Dedekind (1831-1916)Theory of Numbers (1872) ocl105. Wundt (1832-1920)Physiological Psychology (1880)MacmillanOutline of Psychology (1896)A. Kroner, Leipzig106. Mark Twain (1835-1910)Innocents Abroad (1869) Harper'sAdventures of Huckleberry Finn(1884) Harper'sA Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) Harper's 107. Henry Adams (1838-1918)History of the United States (1889-91) Scribner'sMont-Saint-Michel and Chartres(privately published, 1904; pub.,1913) Houghton, MifflinThe Education of Henry Adams(privately published, 1906; pub.,1918) mlDegradation of the DemocraticDogma (1919) Macmillan108. Charles Peirce (1839-1914)Chance, Love, and Logic (Collected,1923) Harcourt, BraceCollected Papers (Edited, 1931-34)Harvard Univ. Press109. William Sumner (1840-1910)Folkways (1907) . . . Ginn110. Oliver Wendell Holmes (1841-1935)The Common Laiv (1881)Little, BrownCollected Legal Papers (1921)Harcourt, Brace111. William James (1842-1910)Principles of Psychology (1890)Henry HoltThe Varieties of Religious Experi-ence (1902) mlPragma tism (1907)Longmans, GreenA Pluralistic Universe (1909)Longmans, GreenEssays in Radical Empiricism(1912) Longmans, Green112. Nietzsche (1844-1900)Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883-1892) el, MLBeyond Good and Evil (1886) . .mlThe Genealogy of Morals (1887)MLThe Will to Power (1895)Macmillan113. Georg Cantor (1845-1918)Trans finite Numbers (1895-97) .oclA. Pavlov (1849-1936)Conditioned Reflexes (1926)Oxford Univ. PressB. Poincare (1854-1912)The Foundations of Science (1902-09) Science PressC. Freud (1856-1939)Three Contributions to a Theory ofSex (1905) mlIntroductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1917) Allen & UnwinBeyond the Pleasure Principle(1920) Boni and LiverightGroup Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1920)Boni & LiverightThe Ego and the Id (1923)L.&V. WoolfCivilization and Its Discontents(1930) Hogarth PressD. Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929)The Theory of the Leisure Class(1899) mlThe Higher Learning in America(1918) .Viking PressThe Place of Science in ModernCivilization (1919) .. .Viking PressVested Interests and the State ofIndustrial Arts (1919)Viking PressAbsentee Ownership and BusinessEnterprise in Recent Times (1923)Viking PressE. Lenin (1870-1924)I m peri a lism (1917)Progress Ptg. Co. F. Proust (1871-1922)Remembrance of Things Past(1913-1926) ... Random HouseG. Shaw (1856- )Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant1898) .Dodd, MeadMan and Superman (1903)Dodd, MeadAndrocles and the Lion (1903)Dodd, MeadH. Boas (1858- )The Mind of Primitive Man (1911)MacmillanAnthropology and Modern Life(1928) NortonI. Dewey (1859- )How We Think (1910)F). C. HeathDemocracy and Education (1916)MacmillanExperience and Nature (1925). oclThe Quest for Certainty (1929)Minton, BalchLogic (1938) Henry HoltJ. Bergson (1859- )Time and Free Will (1889)MacmillanMatter and Memory (1896)MacmillanCreative Evolution (1907)Henry HoltTwo Sources of Morality and Religion (1932) MacmillanK. Whitehead (1861- )A Treatise on Universal Algebra(1898) Cambridge Univ. PressAn Introduction to Mathematics(1911) Henry HoltScience and the Modem World(1925) MacmillanProcess and Reality (1929)MacmillanAdventures of Ideas (1933)MacmillanL. Santa yana (1863- )Skepticism and Animal Faith(1923) Scribner'sRealm of Essence (1927) Scribner'sRealm of Matter (1930) Scribner'sRealm of Truth (1938) Scribner'sM. Russell (1872- )Principles of Mathematics (1903)NortonN. Thomas Mann (1875- )The Magic Mountain (1925)Alfred A. KnopfJoseph in Egypt (1938)Alfred A. KnopfO. Einstein (1879- - )The Theory of Relativity (1916)Henry HoltSidelights on Relativity (1920-21)MethuenThe Evolution of Physics (withInfeld) ( 1938).. Simon & SchusterP. Trotsky (1879- )The History of the Russian Revolution (1932) Simon & SchusterQ. Joyce (1882- )Ulysses (1922) Random HouseR. Maritain (1882- )Art and Scholasticism (1920) ,Sheed & WardDegrees of Knowledge (1932) fScribner sFreedom in the Modem JY°rlf(1933) ScribnersPreface to Metaphysics (1940)Sheed & WardTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29Where to Order Booksto;*r How toReadBookTHE ART OF GETTINGA LIBERAL EDUCATIONMORTIMER J. ADLER A BOOK IN THE GREAT TRADITIONOF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOIt does tell how; it gives reasons; it providesthe total perspective necessary to the constantseeker of a liberal education.This is the book which will heap fuel on the flames of theProgressive Education controversy with which ProfessorAdler and President Hutchins of the University of Chicagohave identified themselves (Price) $2.50The list of GREAT BOOKS onthe opposite page is from Professor Adler' s hook.They are read by students at the University ofChicago and at St. John's College. Many are available in these editions:EVERYMAN'S LIBRARY (EL) $ .90 WORLD CLASSICS (WC) $ .80OXFORD TRANSLATIONS (OT) 1.75 LOEB CLASSICS (LC) 2.50MODERN LIBRARY (ML) .95 & 1.25 OPEN COURT (OCL) .50 and upMODERN STUDENT'S LIBRARY (MSL) $1.00 and $1.25A few of the MODERN CLASSICS . . . others also availableFREUD: GENERAL INTRODUCTION TOPSYCHOANALYSIS (LECTURES) $1.39DEWEY: LOGIC 3.00WHITEHEAD: ADVENTURES IN IDEAS 4.00EINSTEIN: EVOLUTION OF PHYSICS 2.50MARITAIN: FREEDOM IN THE MODERN WORLD. 2.00ORDERS ACCOMPANIED BY CASH WILL BE SENT POSTPAID5802 ELLIS AVENUE— University of Chicago Bookstore _NEWS OF THE CLASSES1892John Nuveen, Sr. is heading themovement to reopen the old ImmanuelBaptist church, 2320 Michigan avenue,where Dr. Johnston Myers conducteda bread line for 40 years. Mr. Nuveenwas Sunday school superintendent atthe famous church for 20 years. Hestates, "Our idea is to make a laboratoryout of Immanuel for the benefit of seminary and training school students."1901Eliot Blackwelder, Professor ofGeology at Stanford University since1922, has recently been nominated forthe Presidency of the Geological Society of America.1903Wallace W. Atwood, PhD, who isPresident of Clark University inWorcester, Massachusetts, and Directorof the Clark Graduate School of Geography, has written a new book, ThePhysiographic Provinces of NorthAmerica.1905Fred A. Speik, MD '07, who specializes in internal medicine in SouthPasadena, California, directed the Community Chest in S. Pasadena.Mary M. Steagall, EdB, PhB '06,SM '23, PhD '26, who retired in thespring of 1938, has completed a worldcruise on the Empress of Britain sincethat time. Miss Steagall has served asvice president of the State Academy ofScience and in many other honorarycapacities.1906Dr. N. Andrew N. Cleven, EdB '06,professor of history at the University ofPittsburgh, is the author of a book, ThePolitical Organisation of Bolivia, whichthe Carnegie Institution of Washington,D. C, has just published. He is theauthor, editor, and translator of fourbooks and has written numerous articlesfor professional journals. Dr. Cleven isfounder and permanent honorary president of Phi Alpha Theta, national history fraternity and holds membership innumerous honorary and professional societies and organizations.Carl Henry Davis, MD '09, is onthe staff of the Delaware and St.Francis hospitals in Wilmington, Delaware. Dr. Davis is also consultant atWilmington General hospital.1907George Frederick Lussky is notonly a Professor of German at the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon,but is Chairman of the department ofGerman.Adeline M. Cook of Jacksonville,Florida, teaches in Riverview school inRiverview, Florida. Miss Cook hasstarted twelve garden clubs in the lastfew years. CHARLES F. McELROY '06Charles F. McElroy, AM '06, JD'15, who has been secretary of the LawSchool Alumni Association for 21 yearsand president of same for the year,1933-34, is a Republican nominee forAssociate Judge of the Municipal Courtof Chicago. Mr. McElroy practices lawhere in Chicago and has for many years.Shortly after his graduation from theUniversity of Chicago, he owned andmanaged the McElroy Publishing Co.,which is today operating under thename Clarke-McElroy Publishing Co.McElroy was a candidate four years agoand at that time received the ChicagoBar Association nomination in what isknown as the "Bar Primary." .1908Clyde Max Bauer, who is HeadNaturalist at Yellowstone National Park,is carrying on research on volcanics andgeologic history of the YellowstoneLake.Charles E. Decker, AM, 'PhD '17,Frofessor of Paleontology, has taught atthe University of Oklahoma twenty-three years. Mr. Decker has spent hissummers in Arbuckle and WichitaMountains for the Oklahoma GeologicalSurvey.Frank M. Dryzer, AM, although interested in mathematics and physics, isan examiner in the United States PatentOffice in Washington, D. C.1910Robert L. Judd, LLB, is a member ofthe recently formed law firm, Judd,Kay, Quinney & Nebeker, offices ofwhich are in the Kearns Building, Salt30 Lake City, Utah. Mr. Judd was associated formerly with the firm Bagley,Judd, Ray & Nebeker.Herschel G. Shaw holds the position of Western Manager of the Western Wallpaper & Paint Company in SanFrancisco, Calif.Mortimer Stanfield, PhM, retiredschool teacher, has been living in Portland, Oregon, for some time.1911Matilda Fenberg, who is a lawyerin Chicago, has just published a book,Women Jurors, and Jury Service in Illinois. Miss Fenberg has served on theAssistant Corporation Counsel of theCity of Chicago and is a candidate forRepublican nomination for State Representative this year.Perry D. Trimble, JD '12, has beenand is active in his local community,Princeton, Illinois. Just now lawyerTrimbel is City Attorney and for the14th year is secretary of the ElementarySchool Board. Mr. Trimble has beenpresident of the Boy Scout Council,President of the Rotary Club and President of the Fifth Illinois Judicial District Bar Association.1912Clyde M. Joice, formerly vice president of Mitchell-Faust AdvertisingCompany, is now president and partnerof the Goodking, Joice & Morgan firm,advertising, located at 919 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago.Clara Allen Rahill, who is a member of the Board of Education in Caldwell, New Jersey, writes a note to saythat her daughter is very enthusiasticabout her college work at the University of Chicago.William Carlson Smith, AM, PhD'20, Professor of Sociology at LinfieldCollege in McMinnville, Oregon, wrotethe book Americans In The Making,which was published by D. Appleton-Century Company last September. This"natural history of the assimilation ofimmigrants" is a study of the socialpsychology of the immigration process.Samuel D. Schwartz, AM '13, hasmade talking his business. In 25 yearshe has entertained and instructed 6,000,-000 persons — indirectly. It was in 1912that Mr. Schwartz started instructingbewildered immigrants in English, soondiscovering that this new people needinformation talks as well as the trainingto speak. In October of 1914 he beganwork at Emil G. Hirsch center otSinai, 4600 South Parkway, Chicago.with an audience of 42. These im"?1'grants proved to Mr. Schwartz that tWman in the street is interested in '",problems of the day and so he continuehis work. Sinai forum is a model tothers all over the world and is *iieby the United States bureau of education as one of the foremost of its km 'THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31™ n Slje Unitiersitp of CJjicajofe^ umveRSicp coLLeGeIN THE LOOPPUBLIC LECTURESSPRING QUARTER 1939CURRENT TRENDS IN THE AMERICAN THEATER— 6lectures by Frank Hurburt O'Hara (April 2 to May 7).(Series, $1.50.) (Also credit course.) (See announcement.)f CURRENT WARS: THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECT IN THEUNITED STATES— 5 lectures by Maynard C. Krueger (AprilJ 3 to May 1). (Series, $1.50.)*OUR FOOD AND PRESENT DAY CHEMISTRY— 5 lecture-I conferences with illustrations by Dr. Herbert E. Robinson{ (March 27 to April 24). (5 sessions, $2.50).WHAT NOW AND WHAT NEXT IN LATIN AMERICA?—5 illustrated lectures by Robert S. Platt. Exhibits by HarrietShanks Platt (April 5 to May 3). (Series, $1.50).*WOMAN MEETS THE LAW— WOMAN WITH RELATIONTO BUSINESS AND SOCIETY — 10 lecture-conferences byB. Fain Tucker (April 5 to June 7). (10 sessions, $5.00.)*ASIA TODAY — 10 lecture-conferences by Sunder Joshi(April 5 to June 7). (10 sessions, $5.00.)Admission to public lectures, 50 cents.*No single admission to conferences.Tickets on sale downtown at University CollegeFor detailed announcement regarding public lectures and lecture conferences, addressUNIVERSITY COLLEGE18 South Michigan Ave. Telephone: DEArborn 3673TUESDAYS6:45-7:45 P. M.The Art InstituteWEDNESDAYS6:45-7:45 P. M.6:45-8:15 P. M.The Art InstituteFRIDAYS6:45-7:45 P. M.The Art Institute6:45-8:15 P. M.18 S. Michigan Ave.4:15-5:45 P. M.18 S. Michigan Ave.Such speakers as Alfred Adler, WilliamJennings Bryan, Bertrand Russell andMrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt have accepted Mr. Schwartz's invitation tospeak at Sinai.1913James A. Donovan, who has beenmanager of the bond department ofKroehler Manufacturing company, wasappointed vice president at a meetingin January, Chicago.1914M. Albertson has been with ShellOil Company for twenty years, engineering research relative to oil production. Mr. Albertson lives in Houston,Texas.1915Dr. Bessie Talbot Strongman hasclosed her office in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, permanently. Dr. Talbot hasgone to France to work among theSpanish refugee children under theauspices of The American Friends Service Commission.1916Joseph K. Calvin, MD '18, a specialist in children's diseases, was president of the Chicago Pediatric Society in1939, chairman of the Pediatric Sectionof the Illinois State Medical Society in1938, and has served as attending physician at Michael Reese Hospital, andCook County Hospital, and AssistantProfessor of Pediatrics at the University of Illinois Medical School. Mr.Calvin lives at 5108 Kimbark Ave., Chicago.1917Ford Bradish, whose headquartersare in Fort Worth, Texas, has been aconsulting Geologist and PetroleumEngineer for the past fifteen years.1919Under the auspices of the CarnegieInstitution of Washington, Ralph W.Chaney, head of the department ofPaleontology at the University of California, is continuing his study of Tertiary floras in western America andChina.Hanford Tiffany, chairman of thedepartment of botany at NorthwesternUniversity and author of Algoe, servedas president of the Limnological Societyof America for the year 1939.1920Simon H. Alster, JD '21, is a member of the new law firm, Alster, Berger& Wald located at 100 West Monroestreet, Chicago.Robert Elden Mathews, JD, of OhioState University, has recently completeda book entitled Cases and Materials onAgency and Partnership. Mr. Mathewsis the author of Mathenfs Revision ofMechem' s Cases on Partnership (1935).1921Carl O. Hedeen, AM '31, beganteaching Spanish on February 5, 1940,in a high school in Alhambra, California.Jacob John Hoffmann, AM, livesin Wheaton, Illinois, and is Professor ofthe Bible at Wheaton College there. 1922Charles S. Bacon, Jr., professor ofCurrent Research at Texas A. and M.College, is teaching mineralogy and petroleum geology. Mr. Bacon has beendoing research on the study of theigneous rock province, in Alpine, Texas.Mary E. Branch, AM '26, has beenserving as President of Tillotson College, Austin, Texas, since 1930. Tillotson is one of the five colleges forNegroes supported by the AmericanMissionary Association of the Congregational-Christian Churches. Threeother graduates of the University ofChicago who are members of the facultyare: William H. Jones, AM '19, deanof the college, and professor of sociology, Mrs. John Lewis, AM '31, associate professor of biology, and JosephA. Reid, AM '31, associate professor ofRomance languages.Robert C. Matlock is chief chemistfor the Ken-Rad Tube & Lamp Corporation in Owensboro, Kentucky. RobertC. Matlock, Jr., was born last November 16 to Mr. and Mrs. Matlock.Jeanette Seabright has been living a vivid life according to Hal Johnson, reporter for the Berkeley DailyGazette. Although Miss Seabright hasbeen known to complain about the coldin Berkeley, Calif., there was a timewhen she walked through the UralMountains when the temperature was45 degrees below zero. In 1920 MissSeabright returned from Siberia tocomplete her college work at the Uni versity of Chicago and then back to theOrient in 1922. From then until 1928she was secretary at Peking Union Medical College during which time she sawmost of the noted Chinese war lords.And this lady now owns a dress andgift shop in Berkeley, Calif.1923John Peterson, AM '31, a missionary in Kingchow, Hupeh, China,planned to return to America on furlough last year but since his presencewas urgently needed in Kingchow, Mr.Peterson stayed on the job.Helen M. Royce is connected withthe D. C. Heath Publishing Company inBoston, Mass.1924John Emery Adams, geologist forthe Standard Oil Company of Texas forthe past thirteen years, currently investigated the location and occurrence ofcommercial deposits of petroleum in thePermian Basin of West Texas and NewMexico.Since 1933 Glenn G. Bartle hasbeen with the University of KansasCity, Kansas City, Missouri. His present position is Professor of Geologyand Dean of the Faculty. Mr. Bartlehas been studying the progress on theHugoton Gas Field.Robert B. Campbell, who has beenPresident of the Peninsular Oil and Refining Company for the last five years,has finished drilling a 10,006 foot holein the heart of the Everglades recently.On November 17, 1939, he read a paper32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awnins Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIR &WELDING CO.BOILER REPAIRING AND WELDING24 HOUR SERVICE1408 S. Western Ave. Tel. Canal 6071BOOK BINDERSBOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CEMENT CONTRACTORST.Ajroca CONCRETE\\ // FLOORSSIDEWALKSVAULT WALKSAll REPA,RSphones BEVerly 0890Yard: 6639 So. Vernon before the Florida Academy of Sciencesin Tallahassee on "Outline of the Geological History of Peninsular Florida."Campbell Dickson, JD '28, has beenthe assistant football coach at Michigan,but is now Dean of Students at Hamilton College. Harold Cowley, PhD '30,is president of Hamilton. Before taking up his duties at Hamilton, Mr.Dickson spent more than three weeks atthe University of Chicago observing theworkings of the University's educationalsystem and its personnel.Perry Yates Jackson, SM, PhD '27,who is on leave from the College ofWilliam and Mary in Norfolk, is teaching chemistry to midshipmen at theNaval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland.Leonard B. Krick serves as Vice-President of the Seminole Flavor Company, which is located in Chattanooga,Tenn.1 925Lawrence F. Athy has been associated with Continental Oil Company inPonca City, Oklahoma, since graduation and is now Chief Geophysicist directing explorational activities and geophysical research.Edward L. De Loach, supervisesgeophysical work in the Rio GrandeValley, Corpus Christi and San AntonioDistricts of the Atlantic Refining Company. He has been with this companysince May, 1937, and holds the positionof Senior Geophysicist.Erling Dorf, PhD '30, has been amember of the faculty of the department of Geology at Princeton Universitysince 1926. Professor Dorf's currentresearch is being conducted in theRocky Mountain region on Mesozoicand Cenozoic stratigraphy and paleobotany.Clifford M. Spencer is connectedwith the Birmingham Trust & SavingsCo. of Birmingham, Alabama. Mr.Spencer "is a member of the CitizensLeague and also of the Greater Birmingham Committee.1926Edward C. Ames has resigned theposition of executive secretary of theHospital Service Association of Toledoto take up executive work with theOwens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation.Mr. Ames has been elected to membership on the Board of Trustees of theHospital Service Association.Wallace W. Atwood, Jr., who is assistant professor of physiography in theGraduate School of Geography at ClarkUniversity, has been connected with theBabson Institute for the past two years,where he is constructing a giant reliefmodel of the United States (65 feet by45 feet).Ralph S. Boggs, PhD '30, of the University of North Carolina Spanish department plans to make a six-monthtour and study of South American folklore beginning this next June. Dr.Boggs has been awarded a grant to enable him to travel to South America.Henry M. Geisman of Las Animas,Colorado, is working as a conservationist and range examiner with the Soil Conservation Service in connection withthe Farm Security Administration. QnJanuary 22, 1940, a second son, ArthurLeon, was born to Mr. and Mrs. Geis-man.Mrs. Denzil K. King is president ofthe Woman's Club of Milton, Pennsylvania, which elective office is of twoyears. The Club has a membership 0f105 women.Roberta Riegel, AM, began her position as instructor of French and speechat Anderson College in Anderson, Indiana, on February 5, 1940.Richard Hurt Thornton, formerlyconnected with Henry Holt and Company in New York City, became collegeeditor for Ginn and Company in BostonMassachusetts, on October 1, 1939.1927Emilie A. Meinhardt, PhD, whoteaches Modern languages and literaturein Winfield, Kansas, at SouthwesternCollege, spent last summer in Europeand wrote us in glowing words of sunsets, fellow travelers, and the mixtureof the new and old cultures in Berlin,Paris and London. Miss Meinhardt recognizes with patience the 110° of Kansas in one lengthy paragraph whichdeals with her return home.Francis J. O'Brien of Rochester,Minnesota, is a member of the law firmof O'Brien & Lobb. From 1930-1933Mr. O'Brien held the position of Assistant Attorney General of Minneapolis.Yolanda Simiz has been appointedto the faculty of the University of Illinois School of Medicine and at presentis delivering the lectures on MedicalJurisprudence. Miss Simiz was admittedto the Bar in 1937 after 8 years of experience and work in medical phases.1928Doris Arden Foresman is head dietician at Bennington College in Bennington, Vermont.Clarence LIendershot, AM, PhD'36, associate professor of history at theUniversity of Redlands in Redlands,California, read a paper at the annualmeeting of the Pacific Coast branch ofthe American Flistorical Association atU. C. L. A. on December 28, 1939.The subject of Mr. Hendershot's articlewas "A Case Study in British Imperialism."Una E. Johnson is now officiallyCurator of Prints in the Brooklyn Museum in New York City. She lives at72 Barrow St., New York.1929Frederic Joel Ericson, AM, is teaching in Berwyn, Illinois.David Scott Wood, AM, PhD '35,who is Dean of Education at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, directs the summer school there.Mr. Wood is president of the ManitobaEducational Association for the currentyear.For eight years Edward J. ZeileR,AM '32, has been principal of RichardsSchool (elementary) in Whitefish Bay*Wisconsin. He has served as chairmanof the Elementary Principals' Section ofthe Wisconsin Education Associate11THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris. "21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists end Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALEASTMAN COAL GO.Established 19027 YARDSALL OVER TOWNMAIN OFFICE252 West 69th StreetTelephone Wentworth 3215Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or—Wesson DoesCOFFEE- TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston— New York— Philadelphia— SyracuseELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER WIRING600 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Seeley 2788GRAPHIC ARTSTHE SCRIPTORIUMScribes • Illuminators • BindersC L RICKETTS JASPER S KINGTITLE PAGES; ANNIVERSARY, CHRISTMAS, WEDDING and GUEST BOOKS;COATS OF ARMSGENEALOGIES, MEMORIALS,RESOLUTIONS, BOOK PLATES•DIPLOMAS, AWARDS, HONORARY DEGREES, CHARTERSValued papers and letters restoredand bound38 SOUTH DEARBORN STREETDEARBORN 0001 CHICAGO and chairman of the Tenure Committee,Wisconsin Elementary State PrincipalsAssociation.1930W. Elward M. Caldwell, AM, wasappointed to the position of AssociateProfessor of History at Trinity University in Waxahachie, Texas, last September.From Mrs. Vedide Kemal Kara-da ye (Vedide Hakki Beha), AM, wehear : "Times are getting harder andharder in this part of the world, IzmirSmyrna. I did not think there couldever be another war after 1918. Herewe are ! There are no apparent effectsof the War in Europe in Turkey but itsindirect influences can be clearly seen.Many people have been called for military service, prices have increased, lotsof manufactured products importedfrom Europe, especially from Germanyhave stopped coming, etc. Of course,the present condition of Europe and thedark future is a source of constant disturbance for us. . . Who knows what isgoing to happen?"1931Alfred L. Anderson, formerly associated with the University of Idaho,now is on the staff of Cornell University, where he is in charge of economicgeology.Aerol Arnold, AM '33, PhD '37,has recently accepted an instructorshipin English at Armour Institute of Technology, Chicago.Clayton G. Ball, Associate Editorof Mechanisation, a magazine publishedin Washington, D. C, which deals withmodern coal mining, is a Mining Engineer with Paul Weir.John N. Link, AM '36, assumed theresponsibilities of his new instructor-ship in speech, debate and dramatics atWright Junior College in Chicago onJanuary 1, 1940.A little late ! The announcement ofthe birth of Richard K. Schmitt II onJune 16, 1939, to Richard K. Schmitt,MD, and Mrs. Schmitt of Columbus,Indiana.1932E. H. Pritchard, AM, of Maywood,Illinois, has made the study of non-metallic minerals his hobby. Mr.Pritchard is Sales-Engineer for theWestern Materials Company in Chicago.1933George L. Herbolsheimer, JD '35,attorney at law, is associated with J. E.Malone, Jr., of Peru. Attorney Herbolsheimer is a member of the Board ofEducation of Peru Public Schools.1934Reverend Charles Mortimer Guil-bert is connected with the Seabury-Western Theological Seminary in Co-quille, Oregon.Robert L. Scranton, AM, PhD '39,took up his duties as instructor in Artand Greek at Illinois College in Jacksonville, Illinois, on January 29, 1940.Madelaine Freeman Strong of NewYork City is assistant to the Director of FLOWERSA. ..^ M§l^A 7 CHICAGOw^ Established 1865cyj^ FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 64451645 E. 55th StreetGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1 327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9 1 00- 1 -2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning29 1 5 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 51 10THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL LAUNDRY SERVICESAltoZone System of Cleaning- : - Odorless Quality Cleaning - : -Phone Oakland 1383LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphinoAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoLITHOGRAPHERL C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182OFFICE FURNITURELEASEFILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co. Grand Rapid*, Michigan34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEPAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86E. STEWART FEISHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3192PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions"RESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South Side(hixani*iif.i ¦Mc(/tl_bji:i**«i«]»jCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 WoodJawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324 Personnel at the College of the City ofNew York.Esther L. Weber was transferred toChicago last August by L. M. Clark,Inc., of New York City, an Advertising Research organization. Miss Weberhas been with Clark, Inc., for five yearsand since her transfer holds a supervising position. Her address in Chicagois 5532 Kenwood Ave.1935William J. Noonan, MD, hasopened a new office at 515 Medical ArtsBuilding in Minneapolis, Minnesota,and plans to limit his practice to urology. Dr. Noonan was formerly instructor and resident in surgery in the University of Chicago Clinics.Barton L. Smith of Long Beach,California, has been working as tellerin the Bank of America in his townfor several years.1936Helen E. Dugan, AM, teaches history at Greenville high school in Greenville, North Carolina.Rev. Donald Harrington is nowin charge of the People's Liberal Unitarian Church in Chicago. Rev. Harrington formerly lived in Waltham,Massachusetts.Jule Owen Josephson, JD '38, attorney, is a candidate of the Democraticparty for the nomination for the officeof Representative in the General Assembly for the Nineteenth SenatorialDistrict of Illinois to be voted for at thePrimary Election.Edith McCarthy (Mrs. Allen R.Maltman) is directing the junior nursery school department at Mary CraneNursery School, Hull House. Mrs.Maltman is also a member of the faculty of the National College of Education in Evanston, 111.James A. Norton, PhD '39, is nowemployed by the R. & H. Chemicals Department of the E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., as research chemist,having commenced employment lastJuly and received his degree last December.1937Sarah Chakko, AM, has returned toher duties on the teaching staff of Isabella Thoburn College, Lucknow. TheCollege is maintained by the Woman'sForeign Missionary Society of Americaand the Board of Foreign Missions ofthe Presbyterian Church.Ralph E. Ellsworth, PhD, of Boulder, Colorado, is Associate professor oflibrary science at the University ofColorado. Mr. Ellsworth is superintendent of the libraries at the Universitythere.Chester Eugene Gilpin, AM, isteaching in the department of educationat the State Teachers College in Moorhead, Minnesota.Catherine I. Lorenz, AM, is livingin St. Louis, Missouri.Sidney D. Merlin, AM '39, hasmoved to Knoxville, Tennessee, to workas a research aide with the TennesseeValley Authority there. Mr. Merlin ac cepted this position in November 0flast year.John Edward Sheedy, MD, has beenin public health service in BaltimoreMaryland, in connection with theUnited States' Marine Hospital. £)rSheedy has moved to Worcester, Massachusetts, where he is associated withthe Veteran's Administration there.Elizabeth Strange, AM, has an in-structorship in Art at Harris TeachersCollege in St. Louis, Missouri. MissStrange started her work on January29, 1940. JVictor Tepper, MD, practices medicine in Newark, New Jersey. Dr. Tepper has served as chancellor commanderof the Knights of Pythias and is on thesurgical staff of the local hospitals.1938Stanford C. Ericksen, PhD, isteaching at the LTniversity of Arkansasin Fayetteville, Arkansas.Rochell Rodd Gachet, AM, beganher duties as Director of VocationalAdvisory Service at the Alabama College in Montevallo, Ala., on February 1.Oliver R. Luerssen, AM '39, hasbeen head of the department of businessand economics at Quincy College inQuincy, Illinois, since September of lastyear.Eugene T. Mapp left Chicago onFebruary 2 for six months. Mr. Mapphas a leave of absence from A. B. DickCompany and plans to travel throughTucson to California, then to BuenosAires, returning to San Francisco tosee the Fair and back to Chicago inJuly.Walter Wallace Sacker, Jr., MD,is serving as student health physician atthe University of Alabama but his official address is Miami, Florida.Avis Van Lew is American NursingArts Instructor at the Touro Infirmaryin New Orleans.E.verette A. Sloan, PhD, is associate professor of chemistry at ErskineCollege in Due West, South Carolina.Frederic Wickert, PhD, has beenappointed instructor of psychology inthe Gary College in Gary, Indiana. Mr.Wickert began his instructorship onFebruary 5, 1940.1939Orval M. Klose, SM, has gone toOakland, California, to teach mathematics in the Boeing School of Aeronautics; his instructorship began onJanuary 1, 1940.Mary Myrberg of Chicago recentlyaccepted a position with the AmericanMedical Association Council on Foods.Clyde Pritchard, AM '39, is actingas Director of Child Welfare Servicesin the State 6f Idaho while Miss LouiseCuddy, the Director, is taking specialwork at the School.SOCIAL SERVICEMiss Abbott, Miss Breckinridge,Miss Wright, Miss Towle and Mr.White attended the Annual meeting ofthe American Association of Schools ofSocial Work held in Washington, D. C,January twenty-fifth to twenty-seventh.Arlien Johnson, PhD '30, Dean, Grad-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 35RUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED8066 South Chicago Phone Regent 6000COMMERCIAL SCHOOLSINTENSIVE¦ STENOGRAPHIC COURSEfor College People OnlySuperior training for practical, personal use or profitable employment. Course gives you dictation speed of100 words a minute in 100 days. Classes begin January,\pril, July and October. Enroll Now. Write or phonefor bulletin.BRYANT & STRATTON College18 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago Tel: RAN. 1575MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130SCHOOL—SHORTHANDYour whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.For more particulars call, write,or telephone.THE GREGG COLLEGE6 North Michigan Avenue, ChicagoState 1881ROOFERSSHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing•1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893jTQCKS-BONPS— COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, 'II. H. I. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W. Davis, '16 F. B. Evans. 'IIPaul H. Davis & Co.M ember mNew York Stock ExchanotChicago Stock ExchangeChicago Board of Trade10 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622 uate School of Social Work, Universitycf Southern California, was electedPresident of the Association and MissWright was elected to the ExecutiveCommittee. The Annual meeting" of theAssociation will be held in Chicagonext year.The School enjoyed a week's visitfrom Miss Sara Ivins, Director of FieldWork at the New York School of Social Work during the month. MissIvins was especially interested in thedevelopment of our Field Work in thepublic family and children's agencies.Many of the students of the Schoolwill have read with great interest thearticle written by Donald Howard, aformer student of the School and nowwith the Russell Sage Foundation, entitled But People Must Eat which waspublished in the February AtlanticMonthly.Mrs. Willye Coleman, AM '38, hasrecently accepted a position as CaseWorker with the newly developed Service Bureau for Negro Children of theNew York City Children's Aid Society.Dorothy Pearse, AM '39, has beenappointed Supervisor of Case Work inthe Bureau of Maternal Health andChild Welfare in the District of Columbia.Adolphina ter Horst, who attendedthe School during 1938-39, is workingwith the Medical Bureau in Leyden,Holland.Doris Pinney Olds, AM '39, has accepted a position with the Family Welfare Association of Baltimore.Some of the students who will receivethe Master's degree at the Spring Convocation and their positions are: MinaMildred Beaty, Child Welfare Services, Department of Public Welfare,Fort Worth, Texas; Zdenka Buben,Director, Bureau of Medical SocialService, East Los Angeles Health Center; Ethel Hart, Bureau of PublicAssistance, Social Security Board in theDenver office; H. Farrand Livingston, Department of Public Welfare,Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; ElizabethH. Rieger, Case Worker, Children'sService Bureau of Pittsburgh; AlbertWardley, Assistant Manager of theChicago Chapter of the American RedCross ; Elizabeth Weller, CommunityService Society of New York City andMary Nell Stephenson, Director ofEmployment, W. P. A., Denver, Colorado.New supervisors in the Field Workunits beginning with the Winter Quarters are Mildred Livingston and JohnBradley in the public welfare field, andMrs. Margaret Williams in childwelfare. Miss Livingston supervisedstudents in the Winter and SpringQuarters of 1937 and carried work inthe School at that time. Since then shehas been working in the Child WelfareDivision in the State of Washington.Mr. Bradley has had professional workin the School of Social Work at theUniversity of Denver and has been acase work supervisor in the DenverBureau of Public Welfare. TEACHERS' AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One FeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY, MO. SPOKANENEW YORKHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY26 t. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationot Teachers AaenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, Normal School,College and University PatronageUNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave,All Phones OAKIand 0492VENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin th*University of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorPETERSONFireproof WarehouseSTORAGE — MOVINGForeign — DomesticShipments55th & Ellis Phone, MID 9700 ENGAGEDJean Frances Craig to Robert A.Cameron, '20, Indianapolis, Indiana;they will be married on June 1 and willmake their home in Chicago.Sarah Goddard Bradlee to CharlesR. Morris, '26, of Milton and Walling-ford, Vt. The wedding will take placein June. Mr. Morris has been a member of the faculty of Milton Academyas instructor in English since 1931.MARRIEDJeanette I. Havens, '39, to John H.Bodfish II, '36, AM '36, on February10, 1940. Mr. and Mrs. Bodfish are a'thome at 6856 Paxton Ave., Chicago.Grace A. Nelson to Abram L. Alcorn, '35, on January 6, 1940, in Bondchapel at the University of Chicago.Mr. and Mrs. Alcorn went to Forida ontheir wedding trip and are now at homeat 10627 Prospect Ave., Chicago.Betty Thomas, '39, to James RollBrowne, '39, on December 26, 1939, inGambier, Ohio. Mr. Browne is teaching at Kenyon College in Gambier.Louise Jeanne Ziegler to Leon Rossman Gross, '29, JD '30, on December17, 1939, in Chicago, Illinois. Mr.Gross is associated with the law firmof Samuel A. and Leonard B. Ettelson,120 South La Salle Street, Chicago.Mr. and Mrs. Gross spent their honeymoon in New Orleans and Mexico andare at home at 5520 South Shore Drive.Jane Hamilton, '37, SM '38, to David Ballou Hall, SM '38, on December 3, 1939, in Chicago. Mr. Hall isstudying at the University of Chicago atthe present time.Margaret Willis, '34, to WilliamNicoll, in Hilton Chapel, on September30, 1939. They are living at 6428 Kimbark Ave., Chicago.Margaret Graver, '37, to HermannAlan Schlesinger, '36, on November17, 1939, in Hilton Chapel at the University of Chicago. Mr. and Mrs.Schlesinger are at home at 11030 Prospect Ave., Chicago.Joan McLaughlin of New York Cityto John Nelson Schmucker, '32, onJanuary 22, 1940, at the. Church of St.Joseph in New York. Mr. and Mrs.Schmucker are living in New York.L. Edith Elliott, '30, SM '36, toLuke Swank on February 5, 1940. Mr.and Mrs. Swank are living at 4600Baird Street, Pittsburgh, Pa.BORNTo Mr. Alfred V. Frankenstein,'32, music editor on the San FranciscoChronicle, and Mrs. Frankenstein, ason, John, on January 27, 1940, in SanFrancisco.To Robert J. Graf, Jr., '31, AM '33,and Mrs. Graf on February 19, 1940, inTucson, Arizona, where they have beenliving for the last three years, a daughter, Kathrvn.To Walter H. C. Laves, '23, PhD'27, and Mrs. Laves, 5738 KenwoodAve., on February 10, in Presbyterian,a girl, Ruth Anne. Mr. Laves is Asso ciate Professor of political science atthe University of Chicago.To Mr. and Mrs. Edward G. Pimkay(Vera H. Zelmans), '29, on October 61939, a daughter Eleanor Ann, ChicagoIllinois.To Lyle T. Pritchard and MrsPritchard, '31, a son, Peter Thomason July 16, 1939, at Evanston, Illinois'Mr. and Mrs. Pritchard are in OrlandoFlorida, at the present time.DIEDMrs. P. H. Benedict (Florence JChaney), '08, AM '12, on October 30J1939, in Peking, China, which had beenher home for many years.Frank W. Chadbourn, '94, wellknown as a statistician and analyst inWall Street, on November 27, 1939,New York City.Dr. Arne Wilber Clouse, Rush '00on October 30, 1939, in Geneva, Pa.Roswell Durght Cruikshank, MD'05, of Goose Creek, Texas, on December 20, 1939.Dr. Lyle B. Durkee, MD '39, inNovember, 1939, at Abercrombie, N. I).Oscar Haney, LLB '25, member ofthe law firm of Bomberger. Peters &Morthland in Hammond, Indiana, onDecember 30, 1939.Burt H. Hardinger, '14, MD '16, ofMattoon, Illinois, on February 4, 1940.Dr. Luther Orland Leach, SM '22,PhD '28, age 45, professor of physicsand chemistry in Hendrix College forthe past 10 years, at Conway, Arkansas, on December 28, 1939.Dr. Edward M. Libby, MD '98, onNovember 10, 1939, in Iron River,Michigan.Ernest Earl Perkins, 59, principalof Stadium high school in Tacoma,Washington, on February 7, 1940, inTacoma. Mr. Perkins had served theTacoma Schools for 32 years.Dr. Alice Edwards Pratt, who wasthe first faculty member appointed to thestate normal school, now San DiegoState College, on December 31, 1939.Dr. Pratt entered the University of Chicago on the dav it opened and receivedher PhM in 1893 and her PhD in 1897.John R. Robinson, LLB '16, lawyerin Palo Alto, California, on November28, 1939.M. Louise Sawyer, retired professor, SM '15, PhD '22, on September23, 1939, Chicago, Illinois.Kirk Shawgo, MD '03. of Quincy,Illinois, on November 2, 1939.Mrs. John E. Shepardson of Cleveland, Ohio, on February 6, 1940. Mrs.Shepardson completed her kindergartenstudy at the University in 1907.Arthur Whipple Smith, '98, SM'01, PhD '04, 63 years old, head of thedepartment of mathematics at ColgateUniversitv for 20 years, on February11, 1940. 'in Hamilton, New York.Rev. Walter M. Walker, 'DB '89.on August 13, 1939, in Elgin, Illinois.Dr. Winifred Wylie, Rush '77. onSeptember 23, 1939. at Glendale. 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