THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEN U AIn Life's BigMomentS,^// relyonyvur telephoneSkilled Western Electric workersmade your telephone so well thatyou can rely on itGood telephone service depends on capable, resourceful people and reliable equipment. Western Electric'spart in it is the equipment.This means not the telephone alone, but also thousands of items that you may never see, in the centraloffice and along the way. Switchboards, relays, cable-virtually everything in the complex network — weremade by Western Electric people with pride in theirwork.It is this Company's responsibility as the Bell System's Service of Supply to furnish equipment of thehighest quality at the lowest possible cost. An unusual inspection, typical of Western Electricthoroughness. The operator has taken an X-ray pictureof the telephone, to make sure its "innards" are all right.Western Electric . . . made yourBELL TELEPHONETHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCHARLTON T. BECK, '04 REUBEN FRODIN, '33Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorWILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD '22; DON MORRIS, '36; RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36Contributing EditorsIN THIS ISSUETHE COVER : Harold H. The article by Harvey C. Daines, of the mammoth Bowery SavingsSwift, '07, Chairman of the AM '26, concerning the University's Bank in New York City, writes ofBoard of Trustees of the Uni- finances is another in the series which the contributions made by Chicagoversity since 1922, a member of the seek to present a picture of the Uni- and other social scientists to the run-Board since 1914. One of the most versity as a whole. The article ex- ning of our economic and politicalloyal followers of Maroon athletic plains in a clear fashion the compli- society. Judge Florence E. Allen, theteams, it was a difficult decision for cated financial problems arising from only woman ever to be elevated toMr. Swift to make last month with the conduct of its diverse activities. the Federal Circuit Court of Appealsregard to withdrawal from intercol- • bench, writes of the importance oflegiate football. Dr. Ralph Gerard, holder of three our fundamental law in the life of the• degrees from the University and now everyday citizen. Miss Allen, whoThe article on football in this Associate Professor of Physiology, attended the Law School thirty yearsmonth's Magazine represents, to the nas ^een a valued contributor to the ago, lives in of the editors' abilities, an accu- Magazine before. The article which #rate appraisal of the factors leading he contributes to this issue is in fact Cedl M Smith >27, Executiveto the decision made by the Board *e first chapter of a new book on Secretary of the University's Depart-of Trustees. We regret to see the blol°^ whlch wl11 be lssued next ment of Music, contributes an arti-passing of football, but not nearly so month- cle ab0ut one factor 0f the Univer-much as we would regret the entrance ¦ sity's cultural life which receivesof the University into the highly com- , Two prominent former students at j tant attention from undergrad-petitive business of bidding for high the University m its early years are uates ^ duates athletes. a™on2 *e contributors this month.Henry Bruere, 01, who is President* - Several letters of praise were re-We take pleasure in printing one TABLE OF CONTENTS ceived for the articles in last month'sof the most appealing of many ap- JANUARY, 1940 page Ma^azine by Professors McKeonpealing articles about Amos Alonzo Letters 2 and Borgese. Mr. Borgese's articleStagg on the occasion of his fiftieth , Books 3 originally appeared, in part, in theanniversary of football coaching, and * Football, 1892-1939 5 Courier of the Friends of the Library.point with pride to the participation AlgNnz°. THE Magnificent> All{son %of Chicago men in the celebration, at THrUNivERsiTY;s * Finances,* 'Harvey °Due to the delay of production ofLos Angeles. In a way the tribute c. Daines 10 the November issue of the Alumniduplicated the one paid to Mr. and People, Philip Schuyler Allen 13 Bulletin, the announcement of theMrs. Stagg on their visit to Chicago Out of the Nowhere, Ralph W. Gerard 14 University of Chicago manuscriptlast year. In Mr. Danzig's article In^t^e Service of Society, Henry contest did not reach members of thethere is the statement that he "would TJ%£ LAw'm the New Land,* F/Vr'- alumni h°dY wh° ** not subscribersnave fought mightily against the re- ence e. Allen 20 to the Magazine when it shouldcent action of the trustees" with re- A National Institution, Ralph W. have. Consequently, the deadline forgard to giving up football. This is Nicholson ;.; 23 the contest has Deen extended totrue, but with the Old Man's pas- *^j^™**™> W4ham V'34 March 1, and there is still ample timesionate desire for honesty in sports, Students and Music> CecU m. Smith. 26 to £et in Your entries- The Prizes, ashe too would protest against the big Athletics, Don Morris 27 we stated in the last two Magazines,business aspects of football. News of the Classes 34 total $125.# Published by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. atEllis Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the PostOffice at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of the University of Chicago Magazine. &¦ '• ' ' ft ; '2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELETTERSCOLOR MOVIES$ A Q50only mXw ONLY $10 DOWNFOR priceless memories later on, start yourbaby's movie record now. It's easy. It's inexpensive! And you are sure of superb resultsif you use a Filmo, precision-made by themakers of Hollywood's professional movieequipment.Palm-size Filmo 8 makes movies at snapshotcost! Makes color movies, too, indoors andout, even in slow motion! Just press a button,and what you see, you get.' Extra speeds, devicefor animating cartoons, and provision forspecial lenses make Filmo a basically complete camera that keeps pace with your skill.Only $49-50. Buy now on easy terms at bettermovie dealers'. Bell & Howell Company,Chicago; New York; Hollywood; London.Established 1907.NCW FILMO 141A superb 16 mm. "shcl-loading" camera whicheliminates threading offilm and permits mid-reel changes from colorto black-and-white.With F 2.7 lens, $115.FREE MOVIE BOOKLET nBELL & HOWELL COMPANY¦iVil 1 8 39 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111.Send free, 16-page booklet on( ) 8 mm. ( ) 16 mm. moviemaking.Name. . .Address.City .State gghoPRECISION-MADE BYBELL & HOWELL THANKS, JERRYTo the Editor:Our December issue of The University of Chicago Magazine — our firston our current subscription — came today. Noting the price is still $2.00 ayear I am enclosing a check whichshould pay us up well past both Thanksgivings next year. This will save you3c in billing me which can be turnedover to the Foundation to help the drivealong.We're glad our name is back on themailing list if the average issue is asgood as December's. We liked the Allen yarn; found Morgenstern's articlecontained a lot of things we never knewbefore about Hutchins and the University's "New Plan"; got a big kick outof Brownlee Haydon's drawings ; andwere especially pleased to know of therapid progress of Alumna Cecilia PaulEisman (see BORN).Jerry Jontry, '33.Wabash, Ind.ALUMNI GIVINGTo the Editor:I would appreciate your printing thetext of the following letter which I haverecently sent to several hundred alumniof the University so that the messagewill reach the readers of the Magazine:"As an annual and generous contributor to the University through theAlumni Gift Fund, you have no doubtread with interest the communicationswhich have been sent to all alumni during the past few weeks announcing theformation of The University of ChicagoAlumni Foundation. The organizationperiod of the Foundation is virtuallycompleted and the Foundation now takesover the functions heretofore performedby the Alumni Gift Fund Committee.You are, therefore, invited to send yourgifts hereafter to the Alumni Foundation, Room 402, Cobb Hall. A vigorouscampaign is under way for extendingand augmenting alumni support for theUniversity and all alumni are being invited to participate."In sending you this word, I wish toexpress appreciation for your loyal aidthrough the recent difficult years. Yourgifts, with those of other alumni, havemade it possible for Chicago to maintain a top position among the universities of America, and we covet the continuance of your valued support."John F. Moulds, '07.Executive SecretaryAlumni Gift FundChicago. FOR THE RECORDTo the Editor :I simply want to go on record asbeing highly pleased that the University is getting out of the professionalfootball business.Certainly there is room in the UnitedStates for one big university that placesthe emphasis of its existence on someitem of its activities other than football competition.Best regards,Harold M. Barnes, '22.Fort Worth, Tex.FOOTBALLTo the Editor :It was not without regret that I, asan alumnus of the University of Chicago, read of the decision to abandoncompetition in intercollegiate football.Yet I am certain that the step waswell taken and the only solution to theproblem as it existed.The alumni who regarded a winningteam as of paramount importance to auniversity had made a wide study ofthe methods, legitimate and otherwise,used by schools in the East and on thePacific Coast to develop winning teams.As a result of these studies and travelsthey made various suggestions rangingfrom one for the establishment of adepartment of physical education to onefor open subsidization. Other ideaswere to purchase a farm where playersmight work (and practice) together inthe summertime or "plant" C-men ascoaches in prep schools of the Chicagoarea — the idea being to start teachingthe Chicago system of play in highschool, thus offsetting any future limitations of practice time. . . .All these schemes were based on theassumption that it was necessary forthe university to have a winningteam. . . .I yelled myself hoarse on every autumn Saturday of my undergraduatedays. I knew the number, weight andidiosyncrasies of every regular and substitute. T was, and still am, a footballfan. But I should hate to think thatthe abandonment of football should dissever my affections from the university.Just as the university's fame is greaterthan that of one department, so are itstraditions and spirit much more thanthose of one sport.Attempts to besmirch the universityadministration for its recent action havealready begun. It is time for truefriends of the university to work theirhardest. . . .Emmett Deadman, '39.Pendleton, Ind.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3BOOKSThe Novel and the Modern World.*By David Daiches, Department ofEnglish. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939. $2.50."The most serious and important section of modern fiction represents an attempted adjustment between literatureand a certain state of transition in civilization and culture generally, and . . .this adjustment explains most of thedifferentiating features of the twentiethcentury novel as well as providing animpressive example of the kind of relation that exists and always has existedbetween any particular art and the general state of civilization." This is thetheory with which Mr. Daiches prefaceshis critical study of the modern noveland which serves as a premise for theremainder of the work.Before beginning his analyses of theoutstanding writers of the presentperiod, Mr. Daiches devotes two chapters to an enlargement upon this themeand a discussion of certain changeswhich have been developed in the technique of the novel form. He seeks todifferentiate between the problemswhich a period of transition such as ourshas to meet and the problems which facea more stable period. In the latter, suchas the Victorian era, there existed acommunity of belief, when certain public truths were established as a patternof values, not only for the writer butfor the whole civilization. In otherwords there was a common languagewhich served both author and public, orartist and public, as a direct means ofcommunication. In a period like thepresent, for which one can find a closeparallel in the transition between thecollapse of the Roman Empire and $ierise of medieval Christendom, whencommunity of belief disintegrates andpublic truth is broken up into innumerable private truths which are mutuallyincommunicable, the artist must substitute his own language for the commonone, or create a new one. That we arenot inarticulate as other transitionalperiods have been is due to the substitution of technical experimentation,which has not been without value.However, Mr. Daiches believes thisperiod is on the wane from certain indications in the work of "those writerswho have shown and are showing themselves alive to the great social issues ofour day and all that those issues in-*Selected by Time as one of the hundredbest books of 1939. volve." He adds further that "it issignificant that the emergence of groupsof writers with this common backgroundhas coincided with the slowing-down ofexperiment in the technique of thenovel."Mr. Daiches then proceeds to analyzecontemporary novelists in the light ofthe problems which confront them, indicating how each has succeeded in writing to a world without common symbolsby substituting the symbols of his ownprivate world.Galsworthy and Conrad he discussesas survivals from the Victorian agewhose work nonetheless continued wellinto this one. Galsworthy is the last ofthe great Victorian novelists whospeaks too much with the voice of hisown generation to be appreciated bythis one. Conrad stands apart fromalmost any period because he chose toconsider the accidents of history ratherthan the events which follow the mainstream of historical causation, to studythe physical environment in which menlive rather than the economic.After an extensive and most enlightening study of James Joyce, and thorough though not so extensive discussions of Mansfield, Woolf and Huxley,Mr. Daiches succinctly summarizes eachwriter's answer to the present-day problem: "Joyce met it by retreating intoa realm without values; KatherineMansfield met it by endeavoring to cultivate an impossible purity of vision;Aldous Huxley met it by denunciationfollowed by romantic compensation;Virginia Woolf met it by trying to "refine all life into a problem for the meditative intellect."Mr. Daiches concludes his excellentstudy with a recapitulation of his original premise in the light of the foregoing analyses whereby he attempts toshow why the contemporary proletariannovel is not particularly good literature,though it serves many valuable purposes. "It will have most chance ofbecoming good literature only when itis the natural reflex of the existing stateof culture, not a deliberate attempt topoint forward a new one. Which is another way of saying that no real literaryrevival can come until after the transition is over."The Novel and the Modern Worldshould serve to answer many of thequestions prevalent in the minds ofreaders today, who seek in vain to reconcile the conflicting viewpoints of modern writers. Its author not only expresses himself in a clear, scholarlymanner, but what he says is not too academic for the lay reader. Mr. Daiches'study should be an important contribution to the field of literary criticism.Rebecca Hayward Frodin, '33. Social Change and Labor Law. ByMalcolm Sharp and Charles O. Gregory, The Law School. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939. $2.Add this book to the accumulatingevidence that the University of ChicagoLaw School has been reborn. Theschool was organized when the University itself was young around a groupof young men with brilliant promise,was famous for two decades for thesplendid realization of that promise, butfaltered as the members of that groupgrew old and died. The new dean notesin his Preface that the six lectures collected in this book are the result ofdiscussion around the faculty lunch table concerning the new program of theLaw School. Similar lectures on otherobjectives of the program will follow.Mr. Sharp's three chapters are entitled "Society and the Law"; Mr.Gregory's "Government Control of Labor Disputes." Both authors take it forgranted that talk about the law, whetherof the Constitution, the corporation,torts or the labor union, must relatestatutes and legal decisions to theforces and pressures of the social process intimately and realistically and notmerely verbally.Mr. Sharp's first chapter, after raising some interesting questions about ourchanging notions of responsibility fortort and crime, lists some of the "systematic ideas" which seem to him togive ,to the law "its ordering and stabilizing power." He includes the notionof responsibility, the recognition of interests that are to be protected againstinterference, the effort to deal consistently with recurrent situations that, despite their individual uniqueness, possessbasic similarities, at least of pattern(including in the concept of consistencythe ideal of equality of treatment), thesystem of precedents, a "set of workingideas," in which the most general notion is said to be "the notion of rights"(which sometimes leads to the reifica-tion of rights, and "the reification ofrights is one of the plagues of thelaw"), the emphasis upon adequate presentation of the facts of the controversyand, finally, the uniformity in the lawwhich is a reflection of uniformity inhuman affairs, and which supplies to thelaw that "minimum of system whichmay perhaps be regarded as containingthe elements of a nontheological natural law." This list is suggestive andoriginal, even though, understandably,it leaves much unexplained on the placeand function of law in society. Mr.Sharp's second and third chapters examine, respectively, the Constitution and{Continued on page 33)4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEQUEENS OFFRANCESEVEN years have passed sinceThornton Wilder's delightfulone-act play, Queens of France,was produced for the first time onany stage in the Reynolds ClubTheater, it was given, you will recall, along with The Long Christmas Dinner and the uproariousHappy Journey to Trenton andCamden. Here are three scenes.THE three scenes here reproducedare from a current quadrangle puppet production of Queens of France.Created by Mrs. Wilber G. Katz, andoperated by Dean Katz of the LawSchool and Mrs. Katz, the thread-tiedcharacters are just as appealing asflesh-and-blood ones. In the top sceneM'su Cahusac (originally played by Du-laney Terrett, '31) is discussing"queenly finance" with Mme. Pugeot(originally played by Alice Stinnett,"32). He is repeating his story (withvariations) to Mile. Pointevin (originally Natalie Gordon Goldenberg,ex'33) in the center picture, and to anolder woman (originally Loretta Bell,'33) at the right. The photographsare by Joseph Schwab, "30, PhD'38.VOLUME XXXII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEJANUARY, 1940 NUMBER 4FOOTBALL, 1892-1939AT the Chicago Club on the Thursday before Christmas: The Board of Trustees of the University ofChicago vote unanimously to withdraw from intercollegiate football, stating its belief that the University's "particular interests and conditions are such that its studentsderive no special benefit" from the sport. "The University trusts/' the Board's statement adds, "that its withdrawal will not require termination of its long andsatisfactory relationship with the other members of theBig Ten!3 Twelve members of the Board are alumni ofthe University.WHAT IS IT? MAN OR MACHINEFOR the last dozen years football has been one ofthe major problems of the American educationalsystem. As soon as the public began to take suchan interest in the game that it might be said to controlit, football strangely was looked upon as a vital symbol &of college life. With winning teams getting good publicity (despite murmurings about subsidization andbought players) "college" football gained in attractiveness because it was full of school spirit, amateurism andother essentials which were just the things that had toleave it before national interest could be won.As John R. Tunis says, "Intercollegiate football haslong been corrupted by a vicious professionalism. In the,seventy years of its existence, football has made liars outof college presidents, chiselers out of athletic directors,professional sports promoters out of head coaches, andbums out of 'amateur' players/' Mr. Tunis adds thatthese things were no great secret in the year 1939.As the student newspaper at the University of Minnesota described the situation after the Maroons' dismalshowing against Michigan and Ohio State during theseason just past: "Chicago has set an example, but nota bad example, as so many writers would lead one tobelieve. Its idea of having ordinary students 'play'football may be a little premature as long as otherschools are 'producing' football teams. . . . Let's do awaywith national championship teams, $150,000 gates, andthe idea of either having a winning football team orelse having a losing school. If Chicago is forced out ofthe sorcalled Big Ten, there is no longer a need forundercover subsidies for college football players."As the Trenton (N. J.) Times puts; it, the Universityof Chicago "is actually concentrating on education,strange as that may seem."Early in December the Richmond ( Va. ) Times Dispatch commented as follows : "Will President Hutchinssuccumb to the uproar, as so many college presidentshave done before him, or will he fearlessly announce that if Chicago has to go out and buy football material on thehoof, as nearly everybody else is doing, it would be betternot to have any team at all ? We hope, and believe, thathe will take the latter course. If he does, his action willbring a breath of fresh air into an academic atmospheregrowing increasingly fetid. ... It is high time that oneof the leading centers of learning in the United States[abolishes football]. It could be an event of genuineimportance to America as a whole."On December 21, 1939, Chicago withdrew from intercollegiate football.A REALISTIC VIEWInstead of looking at the record, let's look at theledger.First, the advantages. For the players football provides exercise and recreation, training in cooperation,sportsmanship, and fair play. For a college or universityfootball may unify the undergraduate body, draw together the alumni with their alma mater, attract students,and interest the public. The questions then arise: Dothese benefits come from football alone? Do they comeonly when a football team wins?Next, the disadvantages. Football is a much morestrenuous game than many others. It cannot be playedafter graduation except as a professional sport. (Ofcourse many football players don't take a degree.) Football is time-consuming, as Robert S. Johnson, a formerUniversity of California athlete writing in his alumnimagazine points out: "It is difficult if not impossiblefor a student to study, play football, and, at the sametime, honestly work his way through college." He goeson to say that a student taking 15 units of academic workrequires 45 hours a week for studies, 25 hours a week fora job, 25 more for football (not counting trips), 17 formeals, and 63 for sleep. This totals 175 hours, but,unfortunately, there are only 168 hours a week. Eventhen no time has been allowed for getting to and fromwrork, classes or the football field, or for recreation.Unless a football team wins a fair proportion of itsgames, many of the advantages apparently disappear.Alumni grouse and have no desire to come back for football.1 The question then arises: "Could Chicago win?"In order to win, there has to be good material, timeto whip the team into shape, and competition in yourown class. Despite the fact that there is now a largerproportion of undergraduates to graduates (3124 to2783) than there was a dozen years ago at the Universe the remarks of W. V. Morgenstern in The University of ChicagoMagazine, March, 1929, entitled What's All the Shouting For?6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEINTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS*<3Wrestling Fencing Basketball Swimming Baseballsity, Chicago still has the lowest number of men eligiblefor intercollegiate athletics of any Big Ten institution.All right then, how do you get material of game-winning calibre ? John R. Tunis describes a number ofdifferent ways, such as those employed by a universitythat here will go nameless : X University has a summercamp run by its backfield coach, where players who arepaid to act as councillors spend most of their time practicing punting, passing, and blocking. The assistantathletic director visits the homes of star prep school athletes named on a list prepared by alumni and members ofthe coaching staff. Last fall the freshman squad at XUniversity had 84 players from 15 states and Hawaii.In the trade this university has a reputation of promisinganything but not always delivering. As a rule, however,players can obtain board, room, and tuition, plus a $40-a-month job which entails only nominal work.The Big Ten rules on recruiting and subsidizingathletes say:"No scholarships, loans or remissions of tuition shallbe awarded on the basis of athletic skill, and no financialaid shall be given to students by individuals or organizations, alumni or other, with the purpose of subsidizingthem as athletes or of promoting the athletic success ofa particular University." (Rule 6, Section 4.)"Athletic Directors and coaches shall not, by the initiation of correspondence, by the distribution of literature,or by personal interviews of their own seeking, endeavorto recruit athletes. It is legitimate for them, in speeches,or in response to inquiries, or in casual conversation, topoint out what they believe to be the advantages of attending the institution they represent, but further theyshall not go. Moreover, they shall actively exert theirinfluence to discourage questionable recruiting by alumniand students."Alumni and students, whether as clubs, fraternities,informal groups, or individuals shall not only scrupulously follow the rule of conduct governing financialassistance set forth in Rule 6, section 4, but shall do allin their power to prevent its violation by others. Theyshall vigorously oppose all such unreasonable or unfairrushing of prospective athletes as practically deprivesthe student of a free and deliberate choice of his university. They shall recognize the truth that any resort toquestionable recruiting methods is a manifestation, notof loyalty, but of disloyalty, to their university, and poorsportsmanship as well."General, or field secretaries, of alumni associations,and similar officers shall be particularly careful to refrainfrom improper recruiting activities.UNDERGRADUATE INTERESTS Cross Country Water Polo Gymnastics"Prospective athletes shall not be promised employment in or by the athletic department of a university.After matriculation they may be employed by the athleticdepartment to do necessary work, but they shall be paidaccording to a regular and reasonable scale and shallbe required to give full return in service."Any violation of these regulations shall operate tomake the student affected ineligible for intercollegiateathletic competition." (General Regulation 18.)The University of Chicago will not violate these rulesas the price for the successful teams that will bring toit the advantages of football.HENRY McLEMORESAYSHenry McLemore, the ace sports columnist of theUnited Press, feels that professionalism has made a jokeout of college football. He also thinks the All- Americanracket has gone far enough. So, when the time camearound for the sports writers to pick their 1939 All-American teams, McLemore picked his — but it was different from all the others. In the January 2 issue ofLook magazine, with 2,000,000 circulation, McLemoresaid :"Working on the naive assumption that college football is an amateur sport, this writer has chosen an amateur All- American team for 1939. Without benefit of advice from coaches, scouts, sport writers or the incometax department, I name the University of Chicago varsityeleven. This team is unique in that it is composed ofstudents who look upon football as recreation — not a jobby which they may support themselves for four years andlay aside a nest egg."There isn't a single hired hand on this eleven. Fromend to end, from quarterback to fullback, the players areunsalaried and unsullied. Not one of them has an athletic scholarship. None is majoring in poultry husbandry, appreciation of music, butter and egg judging,blacksmithing or tire vulcanizing."This team is a volunteer one. It was not drafted byalumni talent scouts nor run to earth by subsidizationagents bearing promises as a bride does a bouquet. Noneof its players was fought over by rival schools — becausestudents do not make the best players."The article was illustrated writh pictures of the teamand Coach Clark Shaughnessy.MISCELLANYRemember too that Chicago students are not wealthy— sixty-five per cent of the undergraduates on the Midway work their way, wholly or partially. This meansconsiderable in relation to a time-consuming sport likeAnatomy Bacter- Bio-iology chemistry Botany Home NursingEconomics Phys- Psychology Zoologyiology Com p.ReligionTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7INTRAMURAL ATHLETICSPing Pong Hockey Tennis Basketballfootball. . . Alumni and students would not be interestedin a complete schedule of games with small schools.The attendance shows that. . . Chicago is not "becoming"a graduate school. The undergraduate school is healthier today than it was a dozen or two dozen years ago.2There are more than 130 recognized student activities,all of which "operate on their own steam." The passingof football is no more an indication of any flagging interest in undergraduate affairs than was the depression.Interests and customs change with the years. Football is a symbol which even the movies ran ragged. . .It is true that students are serious about their work.Most of them want to become proficient so that theycan earn a living when they leave. The charts printedin last month's Magazine showing the diversity of interests of juniors and seniors in the undergraduate schoolillustrate this. . . Chicago was the first university to giveits coaches faculty status. . . Chicago didn't float a bondissue among the local business men to build its athleticplant. . . The heat is not on the University, it's on theothers. . .FLASHBACK TO 1933Lest the Magazine be accused of seeing spooks underthe bed, a front page editorial in The Daily Metro onseven years ago written by one of the authors of thisarticle is herewith reproduced. The problem was thesame then, but not so acute. And nothing said on February 10, 1933, needs to be recanted. The Universityhas been boxing with the phoney trappings of "amateur"football since then. Here's the editorial in part:"Forty-one years ago this winter William RaineyHarper was looking around for a man to give Chicagoa start in athletics. The man he selected did the joband did it well. And in addition to giving a new University an athletic department, he was instrumental ina movement which established intercollegiate sport competition on a high level. . . This man, who needs no further eulogizing, was Amos Alonzo Stagg."In October the University's secorid athletic directorwas appointed to fill the position left open by Mr. Stagg'sretirement at the age of 70. Thomas N. Metcalf, athleticdirector at Iowa State College, was given the task ofcarrying on where the Old Man had left off. Intercollegiate athletics have taken a place in the setup of universities throughout the nation. Some of them did itwith bond-tied stadia and field agents in high schools.Others offered athletics of every type to every student.The University of Chicago is one of the latter type ofinstitutions, and Metcalf entered his new position withsThe same cry has been raised before. See Acting-President Woodward's remarks in The University of Chicago Magazine for June, 1929.PREPARING FOR "AFTER COLLEGE"\l* Handball Bowling Wrestling Swimming Golftwo tasks confronting him. First, he had to find a manto carry on for Stagg in producing football teams forintercollegiate competition. Secondly, he had to buildon the foundations already established, a new and betterathletic department to meet the needs of a great university in a metropolitan area."He has picked the man and given him a job. Theman is Clark D. Shaughnessy. The job is to build upa fooball team. Several have said tersely, 'He's on thespot.' Maybe he is and maybe he isn't. He won't produce a conference champion. It would be a bad thingif that should come to pass. People would start pointing the dirty finger at Chicago. . ."The University has been trying to produce footballteams for intercollegiate competition — but only accordingto rules which it helped to inaugurate, starting in 1896with the formation of the Big Ten. The rules are stillon the books.THE SUNNY SIDEChicago's withdrawal from football, however, does notmean that it is no longer interested in athletics. Priorto the recent move by the Trustees, Chicago and onlyone other Big Ten school were competing in all sportsrecognized by the Conference. Chicago's general athletic ability is indicated by a remarkable showing inmany of these so-called minor sports. In tennis, forinstance, the Maroons have won twenty-three championships and all other teams of the Big Ten combined havewon twenty-one. In fencing the Maroons have wonthe Conference championship the last four years in arow. In gymnastics they have won eleven Conferencechampionships in nineteen years. And so it goes.On the basis of performance in the last three years —or the last six — or the last ten — Chicago is second onlyto Michigan in the total number of Big Ten championships won.The attitude of undergraduates towards athletics isclearly indicated by the fact that one out of every foureligible men is a member of the varsity team — a ratio ofparticipation that is probably unequaled even at mostof the big football schools. At the same time, six orseven times again as many men as participate in varsitysports are getting valuable training in sportsmanship,cooperation and team play, as well as healthy recreationby taking advantage of the University's complete program in intramural sports. Contrary to the trend inother universities during the depression, Chicago didnot reduce its minor sports and intramural activities.Chicago is not opposed to athletics and will go onoffering as many of the advantages of sports as arecompatible with a balanced educational system.Romance Astron-Languages omy ShJLGeography Geology Math. Physics Anthropology Divin- Sociality Service8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1939 MAROONCHAMPIONSONLY MICHIGAN HAD AS MANYBIG TEN WATER POLO CHAMPIONSCoach McGillivray Bernhardt Stein Anderson Markoff SpeckPercy DeGrazia Van de Water Schnering Stearns Macy Teague Robert CasselsBig Ten Pole VaultChampion Erwin BeyerNational CollegiateSide Horse ChampionBIG TEN TENNIS CHAMPIONS^H1 Inwv J^WiBm.'W HPT *^^B (H-.mi1 *Sr <«^>PW Vl*h oi sJ&mB Chester Murphy William MurphyBig Ten Singles Western SinglesChampion ChampionBig Ten Doubles ChampionsDaniels Stevans Hill Coach Herbert Reynolds CraneJorgensen Krietenstein C. Murphy W. Murphy Shostrom AtkinsNotov George Chapman MacDonald Gauss Gladstone Edward GustafsonCoach Hermanson Ginsberg MacClintock Tingley Straeti Glasser Vertuno Big Ten SabreRuben Corbett, J. Corbett, C. Gustafson Donnelly Siever Champion Loyal TingleyNational EpeeChampionALONZO THE MAGNIFICENTA, Tribute to Mr. Stagg on His Fiftieth AnniversaryTHE American Football Coaches Association convene in Los Angeles today [December 28] andat the appointed stage in the three-day sessionMr. Louis Little, whom Californians will remember fromsix years back, will rap for order with his gavel and givethe floor to the gentleman from Michigan, Mr. HerbertOrin Crisler.At that moment the minds of many present will undoubtedly go back to the game in which Fritz Crisler'sPrinceton varsity started Lou Little's 1933 Columbiateam on the way to the Rose Bowl with a stinging defeat.The shock of the reversal in Palmer Stadium so infuriated the Lions that no one thereafter could stop CliffMontgomery, Al Barabas and KF-79, the most powerful wallop carried on the hip in those Volsteadian days.But the thoughts of the tall, dark-haired gentlemanfrom Michigan will go back much farther than that.They will span no less than half a century, and, thoughhe can speak from personal experience of no more thantwenty of those years, he will have in his hand a voluminous collection of tributes reviewing the entire career ofone of the most venerated figures in American sports.Amos Alonzo Stagg has given fifty years of service tofootball, and in honor of his golden anniversary as acoach the convention at Los Angeles has been dedicatedto him. Crisler, who sat at the feet of the Old Man ofthe Midway as player and assistant, is the chairmanof the Stagg anniversary committee. In that capacityhe will present to the still active septuagenarian a boundvolume of letters from coaches, university executives,sports writers and others, extolling his contribution toamateur athletics and the pioneer spirit that drove himwestward to the College of the Pacific at an age when,in the Bard of Avon's book, he should have been readyfor the armchair and the slipper 'd pantaloon.Man and boy, coach and player, Alonzo Stagg hasbeen one of the most compelling forces American sporthas known. A renowned end and an even better baseballplayer at Yale, where he pitched the Elis to five successive championships; athletic director and football coachat Chicago for forty-one years, a leader in the formationof the Western Conference ; the last surviving memberof the original Intercollegiate Football Rules Committee ;a member of five Olympic Games committees ; an ingenious strategist who contributed as much to the devicesand trend of the modern game of football, including theNotre Dame system, as has any other individual — theseare some of the reasons why the coaches are honoringStagg at Los Angeles.Here, in this white but still bristling-haired veteran of77 years, with the spring of youth still left in his stepand an idealism that has never wavered or compromisedfor victory or commercial gain from the days he workedhis way through Exeter Academy, is a throwback tothe Spartan mold. The name of Alonzo Stagg has stood"Reprinted from the New York Times of December 28, 1939. • By ALLISON DANZIGfor character, for the rugged honesty and stern simplicitythat are intolerant of sham or any bargaining or trimming at the sacrifice of convictions and principles, regardless of the emoluments or the penalties.Stagg's lifework has been the coaching of young menupon the athletic field. He has coached them to win, tothe best of his ability, but that has been of only secondaryconsideration or even incidental to his real purpose.Coaching to him has meant something more than teaching a boy how to play a position on a team or developingwinning machines.Imbued as a youth with the zeal of spreading the Gospel, he matriculated in the Yale Divinity School with theintent of entering the ministry, but forsook such a careerbecause of his conviction that he was not fitted for it.In athletic coaching he saw the opportunity to render thekind of service that was nearest to his heart. It was anopportunity to teach the young idea not merely how toshoot but to be a square-shooter, to live cleanly and toput honor above victory.Those are harsh words to pin upon a football . coachin this pragmatic day and age when it is necessary tosmile when you speak of character molding. Stagg wasthe original character molder in football and he workedjust as hard at it when his teams were winning Big Tentitles as when he ran out of Five- Yard McCarthys, BillZorns and John Thomases. And no one smiled, any(Continued on Page 27)iWmber 2S. 1939.tft^nYtt/b^h,.,/,,,rj,;,„,,t.-AI>„„„;f!t„/>This greeting, illuminated in full color, was presented to Mr. Staggin Los Angeles by H. O. Crisler, '22, on behalf of Chicago men.9THE UNIVERSITY'S FINANCESSecond in a Series of Articles Looking Toward the FutureDURING the forty-nine years which have elapsedsince the incorporation of the University inSeptember, 1890, the assets have grown fromzero to the impressive total of $125,835,441. This probably represents the most rapid accumulation of fundsby a new educational institution in the history of theworld.FUNDS HELD AND CHANGES THEREINOn June 30, 1939 this total consisted of the followingfund groups:Current funds $ 2,577,115Suspense funds 3,132,433Loan funds 208,163Annuity and living- trust funds 2,250,678Endowment funds 71,013,850Replacement funds 1,216,772Plant funds 44,447,453Funds held for others 988,977Total ..$125,835,441During the fiscal year 1938-39 there was a net decreaseof funds held amounting to $410,922, largely accountedfor through the use of unrestricted suspense funds andreserves for current operating needs/'1"Endowment FundsThe balances of endowment funds (includes fundsfunctioning temporarily as endowment) on July 1, 1938,were $70,429,491.70During the year there were changes as follows :Additions :Gifts $313,535.55Capital profits on investments (net) 84,262.75Income added to principal 28,763.26Transfers from otherfunds 132,236.90 $558,798.46Deductions :Transfers to other fundsand expenses chargeableto principal 44,042.34Net increase 514,756.12The balance on June 30, 1939 was $70,944,247.82In the prior year the net increase in principal amountedto $3,191,168.04. The income received from endowmentfunds was $2,808,866.20 or 4 per cent on the averageof the fund balances during the year 1938-39; for thepreceding year the amount was $3,076,871 or 4.5 percent. The endowment income for the year 1938-39 was$728,601 less than that received in 1930-31, the peakyear in the amount received ; this reduction occurred inspite of a net increase in principal of $11,014,349 duringthis period. This almost unbelievable situation is dueto a decline in the rate of return from 6.1 per cent in1930-31 to 4 per cent in 1938-39. Since endowment isof value only for the income produced, this reduction incapital productivity is equivalent to a loss of 34 per centof endowment principal. The following tabulation of^'Current operations for 1938-39 showed a deficit of nearly $200,000,although this amount was considerably less than was estimated at thebeginning of the year. • By HARVEY C. DAINES, AM'26, Comptrollerrates of return from endowment funds may be of interest ;Year Per Cent Year Per Cent1928-29 6.2 1934-35 4 31929-30 6.2 1935-36 4 11930-31 6.1 1936-37 4.41931-32 5.1 1937-38 4 51932-33 4.3 1938-39 4 01933-34 4.0Since a variation of. 1 per cent in the rate of return onthe present principal of endowment funds is equal to$709,442 in annual income, the importance of a satisfactory yield from endowment investments in the operation of the University budget is readily apparent.INVESTMENTSThe book value of investments owned by the University on June 30, 1939 was $77,748,245.26and that of investments held for others was 757,294.51making a total of $78,505,539.77The market value of investments (appraisals for realestate and mortgages) owned by the University was$4,748,208 less than the book value; a year ago theshrinkage was $1,842,685. For stocks and bonds themarket quotations were $2,596,158 less than the bookvalue, whereas at the close of the previous year the decline was $1,022,910. While this information is given forits statistical interest, it should be borne in mind that, unless such a deviation is likely to be permanent, marketfluctuations are relatively unimportant where investmentsare chosen and held primarily with reference to their productivity and stability of income. During the last tenyears market quotations of securities owned have fluctuated from a high in 1929, when the market on June30th was approximately $15,000,000 above book value,to a low in 1932 when the market on June 30th was$16,000,000 below book value.The diversification of investments owned at the closeof the year and at the close of the prior year in terms ofbook value was:Per Cent6/30/39 6/30/38Bonds 35.6 37.0Preferred stocks 6.6 6.0Common stocks 23.4 21.2Real estate, mortgages, and real estate contracts 34.1 35.5Funds in trust and sundry 3 .3Total 100.0 100.0It is of some interest to note that the amount of realestate taxes paid or accrued on investment propertyowned by the University for the fiscal year 1938-39 was$494,402.56.For purposes of investment management, the investments owned by the University are divided into: (1)Those held in an investment pool known as theConsolidated Investment Merger, which is composedof endowment and replacement funds, aggregating$63,572,900.24; (2) Those held in an investment poolknown as the Annuity Merger consisting of funds subject to annuities amounting to $1,925,050.70; and (3)10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11Those invested separately for individual funds totaling$12,250,294.32.In order to deal as equitably as possible with the various funds, investments of permanent funds are pooledexcept when donor or legal restrictions exist or wheninvestment considerations make commingling undesirable. Such pooling relates only to the assets of funds;the identity of the principal and income accounts is always maintained, and the income and capital profits orlosses of the pool are distributed to the participatingfunds in proportion to the capital contributed.CURRENT OPERATIONSThe consolidated statement of current income and expenditures includes :(1) The Regular Budget (all budget divisions) comprising those activities which for the most part are on acontinuing basis; (2) The restricted expendable funds,representing occasional gifts for designated current purposes; and (3) Auxiliary enterprises, consisting of thoseactivities of a business nature operated for service tostudents and faculty.The consolidated income was received from the following major sources:Amount Per CentStudent fees $ 2,439,325.20 23.08Endowment income 2,780,484.00 26.31Gifts (including transfers from suspensefunds of $1,048,139.96) 1,789,732.43 16.94Income from medical patients 1,457,034.48 13.79Sundry income 400,514.40 3.79Auxiliary enterprises 1,700,862.55 16.09Total income $10,567,953.06 100.00The consolidated expenditures were for the purposeof:Amount Per CentGeneral administration $ 532,881.79 4.95General expense 289,978.16 2.69Instruction and research 6,586,525.74 61.17Plant operation . 990,288.97 9.20Retiring allowances and annuitypremiums 293,546.24 2.73Student aid 486,440.39 4.52Auxiliary enterprises 1,587,698.85 14.74Total expenditures $10,767,360.14 100.00 The deficit of $199,407.08 or 1.85 per cent of expenditures was charged to the appropriate surplus reserves,as provided for at the time the budget was adopted. Thetotal amount of support from giits and reserves was$1,989,139.51 or 18.47 per cent of the expenditures.The University's reserves were accumulated from operating surpluses prior to the depression. These factsare shown graphically in the accompanying charts.The Regular BudgetThe Regular Budget of the University embraces thoseactivities and undertakings of a more or less continuing nature, supported in large part from recurring income; the operations of restricted expendable funds andgross operations of auxiliary enterprises included in theconsolidated statement of current income and expenditures are therefore excluded.The income of all divisions of the Regular Budget,including $1,266,759.88 in gifts was $8,375,444.30The expenditures were 8,631,707.45leaving a deficit of $ 256,263.15which was charged to the various surplus reserves relating to the respective divisions of the budget. Theamount required from reserves was $17,125.85 less thanwas thought necessary at the time the original budgetwas adopted.The expenditures for the year just closed were $417,-066.09 greater than for the prior year, due largely tonew undertakings in the Medical School and Clinicsarising from special gifts for medical purposes and theassumption of the financial operation of the ChicagoLying-in Hospital and Dispensary.General Division of the BudgetFor convenience in financial administration, the University Regular Budget is divided into various divisions,the largest of which is the General Division. In thisdivision are included those activities in which the University for the most part has been engaged for a numberof years; the activities in the other divisions have beenmore recently undertaken and are separately financed.SOURCES OF CURRENT SUPPORT AND EXPENDITURESSupport Expenditures MISCELLANEOUS$400,514.3.7* DEFICIT:FINANCED FROM SURPLUSRESERVES: *,9Q,407.1.9% RETIRING ALLOWANCESAND ANNUITY PREMIUMS$203,546. $&12.&bo.J.bV. TUDENTAID$ 1 8o,440.4.5%Total $10,767,36012 THE UNIVERSITY OFThe General Budget Division includes the operations ofthe College and Divisions of the University, and theprofessional schools of Law, Business, and Divinity, aswell as the general administration and physical plant expenses for the entire University with the exception ofthe plant operations for the Medical School and Clinicsand Rush Medical College Divisions of the budget.The principal items of income of the General Divisionand the total expenditures, together with the amount ofdeviation from the preceding year's actual were:Actual Variation from1938-39 Prior YearIncome :Student fees $2,153,718.09 $+ 89,395.98Endowment 1,839,333.47 —193.929.77Gifts :Allocated from :General Education Boardgrant 300,000.00 + 6,000.00Rosenwald Suspense Fund... 250,849.26 +250,849.26Other 51,756.22 — 25,668.16Total gifts (602,605.48) (+231,181.10)Auxiliary enterprises (net income) 112,671.09 + 30,707.38Sundry 287,633.36 + 23,440.38Total income 4,995,861.49 +180,795.07From General Reserve 128,713.52 —117,111.99Total income and reserves . $5,124,575.01 $+ 63,683.08Expenditures $5,124,575.01 $+ 63,683.08In spite of a net increase during the last ten years of$2,866,294 in the principal of endowment funds supporting this division of the budget, the endowment income for 1938-39 was the smallest received during thisperiod except for the year 1933-34, when the amountwas $83,244 less than for the year just closed. Thesupport from gifts and reserves was $731,319 or 14.3per cent of the expenditures; for the year previous theratio was 12.2 per cent, and for the year 1930-31 thepercentage was 6.6 per cent. The total expenditures for1938-39 were $887,188 or 15 per cent less than for1930-31, the peak year for this division.Medical School and Clinics DivisionThis division of the budget includes the operationsof the Medical School on the South Side, the AlbertMerritt Billings and Bobs Roberts hospitals, the MaxEpstein Out-Patient departments, the Chicago Lying-inHospital, and the Country Home for ConvalescentCrippled Children. The latter two hospitals were mergedwith the University during the fiscal year 1937-38.The aggregate expenditures for this division of thebudget were $2,737,979.55The income, including $381,116.58 fromthe $3,000,000 gift of the General Education Board and other gifts amountingto $170,313.67, was 2,669,355.48leaving a deficiency in income of $ 68,624.07of which $61,261.28 was charged to the Reserve for theMedical School and Clinics and $7,362.79 to the Reservefor the Country Home for Convalescent Crippled Children, as provided for in the budget. The total supportfrom gifts and reserves required to balance expenditures CHICAGO MAGAZINEUNIVERSITY COMPTROLLER DAINESamounted to $620,054.32, which was 22.65 per cent ofthe amount expended.Other Divisions of the BudgetThe other divisions of the budget relate to the Graduate Library School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Rush Medical College, Nursing Education, and the Oriental Institute. These undertakingsare of more recent origin than those represented bythe general budget division and, as mentioned previously,have been financed separately so far as direct expenditures are concerned. On account of limitations of spacethese budgets will be omitted from the discussion.GiftsThe total amount of gifts paid in during the year forall purposes was $1,308,671.68, which was applied asfollows :For current purposes $ 580,187.28For endowment 313,035.55For loan funds 3,940.74For plant additions 39,112.50For undetermined purposes 372,395.61Total $1,308,671.68These gifts were received from :Bequests and estates $ 542,932.71Foundations and charitable institutions 487,766.00Trustees, alumni, and other donors 277,972.97Total $1,308,671.68Ten-Year Trend of Income and ExpendituresA review of the trend in income and expendituresunder the Regular Budget during the last ten fiscal yearsmay be of interest.The total expenditures of the Regular Budget, amounting to $7,716,484 in 1929-30, increased to $8,572,811 in1930-31 and then declined to a low of $7,087,559 in(Continued on Page 31)PEOPLEThird in a Series of Phils YarnsFOR some forgotten reason I was at dinner at theChicago Club one night when a neighbor of mineat table asked me if I had ever heard of a placeby the name of Bisma. I said I thought not and askedhim in what part of the world it was, and he said,"Hanged if I know. I recall, however, that there wassomething very important at Bisma — "something thatneeds saving almost immediately. I can't remember justwhy." I said, "The University of Chicago has an expedition to Bismayah, and certain bricks which containancient lettering of a sort have been uncovered there bya shift in the sand. Exposed to the sun and the air, thebricks had suffered great deterioration, and an expedition was therefore got together to transliterate and, ifpossible, later to decipher the inscriptions so curiouslyand belatedly brought to the light of day." "That's it,"he said, "that's it! Bricks! And we had to hurry!"I said, "May I ask what connection you have with thematter?""Only that a year or so ago," my companion related,"five or six of us were returning from a trip East together about a financial matter when at Buffalo therecame into the smoking-room of the pullman in which wewere sitting a stout man with double magnifying glasses.Hardly had he set his satchel down when he began totalk to us about these bricks and in very interestingfashion. I said to one of my friends, 'George, I'll givefive thousand, if you'll give five,' and he said, 'Bill, well,I've been lucky. I'll make it ten thousand,' and thelong and short of it was that before we left Buffalo thisgentleman, who I believe is president of your university,picked up our checks for fifty thousand dollars, and I'dalways wondered vaguely what came of it." "Well," Isaid, "I can assure you that you are in good hands, thatevery cent of the money that you've spent for recoveringthe chronicle of an ancient and unknown civilization willprobably, when published, make a decided contributionto our knowledge of the past." ^Good," he said, andconcealed a yawn.It was hard for me not to smile, thinking of wearyPresident Harper climbing aboard a train at Buffalo atmidnight and picking up fifty thousand dollars from fiveor six men about a matter that no one of them reallyunderstood. And yet at the first dinner that the newlyformed Alumni Association that the University ever had,the president rose and said, "They call me the world'sgreatest beggar and I don't know why. I never haveasked one man to give a dollar to the University ofChicago." There was a slight gasp. Mr. Harper lookedabout him and then continued, "But I hope I have neveryet failed to acquaint anybody with the opportunity forgiving that lay in the cause of our great university inthe West." Which only goes to show that anything inthe world can be said in more than one way. By the Late PHILIP SCHUYLER ALLEN, Ph D '97MICHELSON AND THE ADMIRALIT was quite impossible not to be fond of A. A.Michelson, so I gave up trying and enjoyed his companionship and rare mind for some thirty years.During the War Michelson, in common with manyfamous scientists throughout the country, was draftedinto the service. His first job was to develop a range-finder to be used to determine the position of submarines.• The presence of this quiet and unassuming professor at adesk in the Navy Department was somehow a cause ofcomment and gossip among his fellows, due, I suppose,to the feeling that navy men could do a better job withnavy problems than professors drawn from the collegesand universities of the country.One day Michelson was sitting at his desk broodingover some mathematical problem, when an orderly appeared, saluating, "Lieutenant Commander Michelson,sir." "Yes, sir" said Michelson. "Admiral Badger desires your immediate presence," said the orderly. "Allright, sir," said Michelson sitting down and immersinghimself again in his problem. Several moments elapsed,during which even absent-minded Michelson could sensethe censures of whispered talk about him. Again theouter door was torn open and an orderly appeared. Theformer scene was repeated. "Lieutenant CommanderMichelson, sir." "Yes, sir." "Admiral Badger insistsupon your presence immediately." "Thank you, sir."Michelson sat down and started again to try to retrievehis calculations, but now the whispered talk had growninto whole sentences which Michelson could tell weredue to the impending trouble that he would experiencein case he delayed another second. But he soon forgotabout that and was working away when he heard a voicein the next desk say, "God almighty, there's the Admiralhimself!" Admiral Badger stormed in and said, "Showme where Michelson is," The desk was pointed out tohim by many eager fingers. Badger went over, slappedMichelson on the back so that you could hear the noisemany feet away and said, "Mike, you blankety blankblank so and so, come to lunch with me," put his armaround his shoulder, put his hat on his head for him,and together they disappeared, leaving behind them avery dissatisfied crowd of navy men.THE LOEB DINNERWE learned with much dismay that Jacques Loebhad accepted an offer to go to the Universityof California. The one determining circumstance in his mind was that they offered him a pool oraquarium in which he could raise the lower type of animal water life which he was engaged in dealing with —skates and that sort.(Continued on Page 22)13OUT OF THE NOWHERE"SOME time life began. A few scientists have speculated that this beginning was not on this earth butoccurred long before it existed and on far distant,probably now vanished, heavenly bodies. Some hypothetical "biospore," having escaped from such a body,and remaining completely dormant and inactive at thezero of all temperature, might have floated for eonsthrough the celestial void until it reached a habitableworld, warmed up, started activity, and so became theprogenitor of a world of life. Such a voyage might havebeen made again and again by descendants and ultimately one happening on toearth might have become the Eve of allearthly creatures.Of course, the distance from some habitable speck of the universe, a planet of afar sun, to another, our own mite, isenormous. Light itself, the ultimate inspeed, measures the distance to our nearest neighbor in years of travel, to the outlying inhabitants of our "island universe"in millenia. A bit of life stuff, probablysub-microscopic, once it wafted beyondthe immediate pull of its home planet,would float on at the speed and in the direction with which it started, possiblypushed faster by the pressure of lightcoming behind it, possibly deviated bychance contact with other lone wanderersin space, until it was swept up by thegravitational force of its home-to-be. An unbelievablylong time must elapse during the journey. The span oflife of any individual, or species ; yes, the whole durationof life on the earth would be a clock-tick by comparison.Ordinarily the precious life stuff would have died enroute and arrived inanimate as star dust.But space is cold. Cold below where water freezes,below the temperature at which mercurial quicksilverbecomes set and rigid and can be used as a hammer topulverize blocks of solid alcohol. Colder than the pointswhere air itself settles and liquefies and becomes hard,than the far greater cold that causes helium gas to do thesame. Cold to the zero of temperature where no heatexists.Heat is necessary to life in an interesting way thatmust be considered and, strangely, to the very questionof how the life dust could leave its planet. Heat is reallythe dance of those minute units of matter, the molecules,as they restlessly jostle and rebound from one another.The faster they go the warmer is the object they compose, not unlike a dance hall with its swirling couplesAnd, also, the harder they collide, the further they rebound until, for every substance, some temperature isreached at which the attraction of each particle for allothers (gravity) can no longer hold against their rest-*The first chapter of a new book entitled Unresting Cells, to be published in February by Harper and Brothers. PHYSIOLOGIST GERARD• By RALPH W. GERARD, "19 PhD'2l, MD'25lessness. The family disbands, the community disperses,the substance vaporizes, becomes a gas, and its membermolecules fly off from one another into space until stoppedby impinging on an obstacle. If huge enough numbers ofmolecules are close together, even as a gas, the pull ofthe mass gravity is likely to turn back slowly the wayward ones rushing out to empty space, so that nebulae,such clouds of separate molecules, can exist in the skies.Even more, a large solid body like the earth, with molecules packed several thousand times as closely as in air,can hold about it by gravity a thickblanket of gas molecules, the atmosphere.A single one, somewhere in the swarm,even if it should bounce off another andstart directly away from the earth, hasno chance to leave, for almost immediately it will collide with one above and,like a frisky puppy, set off with undiminished energy in a new direction. But nearthe top of the atmosphere, if one shouldstart up, its fate will depend on how fastit is going. The molecule acts like a bullet fired upward which gradually slows,stops, and then falls back with increasingspeed. The pull of all the molecules ofthe earth is steadily drawing upon it. Butthis pull fades rapidly as the objects separate and, if the small one gets a sufficientstart, the pull that slows it fades out before it has slowed to a stop. Then it keepsgoing into space. For a molecule to escape from ourearth, it must start straight away faster than seven milesa second. This may seem a good deal — a bullet leavesthe gun at less than a twentieth of this speed — but evenat ordinary temperatures many molecules in the air aremoving this rapidly, and as it is heated, their numberincreases sharply. However, to balance the air thusregularly if slowly escaping entirely away from the earth,other molecules wandering through space are caught bythe long gravitational tentacles and swept into theatmosphere.What keeps the molecules so lively? That story mustbe told elsewhere— how radiant energy is caught by themand in turn radiated away, though in truth we know lessof how this works than of how certain radiating strainsof music reach slowly pirouetting couples and start themricocheting about the dance floor. But at least it is truethat energy is slowly radiated and, if not made good, themolecules lag on their wayward course. And as thecomponent molecules lag, the composed substance cools.A hot stone in the most perfect vacuum thermos bottlewill slowly cool to the surrounding temperature. Thewhole earth, and each heavenly body, cools in its surrounding vacuum of space (except as the heat lost isbalanced by receipts), and from the interior of the globeto the edge of the atmosphere the temperature falls lowerand lower. Out in the open oceans of space between14THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15worlds the temperature is essentially the absolute zero ;there is no heat; the last feeble molecular shivers haveceased ; matter exists in a state of ultimate cold and quiet.Quiet and cold and dead. For life is change, action,movement. The very words and structure of language,even our colloquial slang, recognize this. Animals are"animate," life very much "alive," an excited person is"heated" up, an unresponsive one a "cold" proposition.The agile spring of the cat, the buzzing bee, the burstingwillow buds, the gentle breathing of a sleeping child, allare events. Even the microscopic yeast organism sturdilygoes about its business of budding new generations andperforming its simple magic of sugar-fermentation. Ourown muscle movements depend in part on fermentation,occurring in the living muscle, in part on a type of breathing in it. Chemical change is needed to build more ofthe living stuff in growth of all animate beings. Inliving bodies as in non-living the molecules dance, collide, react, and only as different kinds of. particles, molecules of separate species of matter, come together canthey change one another. Breathing, growth, movementresult from molecular interactions following these chanceencounters of different sorts of molecules.Life, then, requires chemical change which, in turn,depends on molecular movement, which varies with temperature. Small wonder that wood burns only when hot,that eggs harden in boiling water and meat keeps inthe refrigerator but spoils in the room, for all these arechemical changes. And one can tell quite exactly thetemperature in the open by counting the number of chirpsa cricket makes in a minute or how many bees leave thehive or the rate at which the heart of. a small fish beatsor by measuring how much carbonic acid is formed by acake of yeast in sugar water; for the speed of life, likeall chemical interactions, is under the control of temperature. How excessive heat kills, we must consider later ;but cold has one clear enough effect. As its leaden fingers subdue the active particles and the rhythm of thedance slows and fails, change is suspended, life hangsstill, and time itself pauses in its eternal unwinding.The tiny biospore, somehow jostled away from itsbirthplace — where, of course, conditions were such thatlife could and did flourish, the particular wanderer beingbut one descendant of a race of living things stretchingstill further into the cave of antiquity — the biospore, almost at once on entering the heatless void, would itselfcool down to absolute zero, and so to changelessness anddeath. Utterly quiescent, it could not age nor molder.Its own clock stopped, it is immune to time ; though relative to other objects in the universe — the mutual approach with the planet it will ultimately meet — the hourglass still runs. Then the frozen mite may drift overparsecs and for eons, with time or change passing bybut not through it, and so arrive at long last on the earthjust as it started on the journey, as if conveyed by asupernal refrigerator freight.But well-frozen bulbs will never give forth blossomsnor frozen fish glide through the water when they areagain made warm. They are dead irrevocably, irreversibly. Death is no simple alteration, and many bodychanges are induced in the more complex organisms byfreezing. Even in the simplest ones, a sudden freeze totemperatures sufficiently below 32° Fahrenheit (or 0° Centigrade) will cause the water, present as it is in allliving material, to crystallize as ice. As it solidifies itswells and ruptures any container that opposes it — thesteel shell of an automobile radiator, the glass wall of amilk bottle, the delicate veils and membranes that enmesh all living stuff. Thawing will not undo this damage, and most animate beings if cooled only enough tofreeze their water, five to ten degrees below the Centigrade zero, are beyond restoration. But not all.The bacteria that cause typhoid fever, stubby rod-likebodies 1/8000 of an inch long, are one interesting exception. They have been especially studied, for these organisms pass with the sewage of a patient along watercourses and, unless killed, may cause wide epidemics.Apparently they can survive a winter in solid ice high inthe Alps, but it is not easy to be certain how cold theyreally become there. Simpler to do the test in a laboratory. Bacteria obtained originally from typhoid patientshave been kept alive and growing by placing themon sterile gelatine containing proper sugars, meat juice,and the like. After some days a bacterial mass orcolony forms. The tip of a wire touched to this and thenon to some fresh jelly carries enough individuals to colonize the new country (the jelly surface is to one of. themlarger than Switzerland to us), which they promptly do;and the transfer may be carried on indefinitely. And ifultimately a transfer is made back to a healthy man,which is not an infrequent accident in bacteriological lab-oratoris, the germs are likely to grow in him as in thejelly. The chemical and other changes produced by thetyphoid bacilli, plus the activities of the man's body in attempting to counteract these, constitute together the disease, typhoid fever. It is easy, then, to test for livingtyphoid germs. If they grow and form colonies on properjellies or other media for growing or culturing them, andif they produce typhoid fever when administered to rabbits (which can be given a disease not unlike that inman), then they must be alive.Suppose now that several portions of the same culture medium are inoculated at the same time from awell-grown colony of these bacteria. One is then left onthe table, one placed in the refrigerator, and one in anincubator at 37° Centigrade, the body temperature ofman. At intervals each is examined. The little, clear,dew-like drops on the jelly's surface that constitute each anation of typhoid bacilli appear in the warmed portionin a day, in the untouched one after weeks, in the onekept cold not at all. Clear enough: the speed of lifevaries with temperature, and growth is but one life activity slowed by the cold. Then the cold portion shouldgrow well enough when put, even months later, in the incubator, and so it does. But what of life and death here ?The refrigerator may be cold enough to freeze the bacteria, but still molecular movement continues and thevital activities, though slowed, may trickle on. The cellstructures may yield rather than crack before the swellingice. The bacteria then are dormant, not dead ; their livesrun feebly, but they run. We must make the test moresevere.Start again with a rapidly growing culture of typhoidgerms. Cool it gradually in the cold box to five or tendegrees below zero Centigrade. Put it then on "dry ice"— carbonic acid gas frozen solid — until it cools to 78°16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbelow zero, then in liquid air which is far colder, minus182 degrees. Do not stop, but place this in liquid hydrogen. The temperature falls to minus 252 degrees andeven the liquid air turns solid. The cold is great, the experiment becomes ever more difficult to pursue, for theice box is now a furnace compared to the frozen air,and special insulation is needed to keep it all from boilingviolently away. But still the experiment can be pressedfurther. Liquid helium, even solid helium, has been obtained at a temperature 272 degrees below zero Centigrade or 460 degrees below zero on our ordinary thermometer. Into this put the bacteria to cool down, downto within a degree of the absolute zero, the temperatureof interstellar space. Now surely life is stopped, completely.Then begins the slow return from this edge of existence. The helium is allowed to boil away, the hydrogen,the air, the carbon dioxide. The water melts, the germsare returned to the room temperature. Do they live?A number of them are transferred to a fresh medium andput in the incubator ; a rabbit is infected ; we wait. Andthen they appear — the dew-drop colonies on the medium,the fever and bloody diarrhoea in the animal. Truly, bywarming up the congealed germs we have made life, forthey were stone dead in the terrible cold. Could not thebiospore after its timeless voyage through space likewiserevive ? Why not ?Some minds find surcease from the gnawing uncertainty of problems which, like that of the origin of life,are beyond certain solution by relegating them to a sufficient temporal and spatial remoteness. The yearning fora dim discernment of how it might have been is assuagedif life began so far away and long ago as to be almostbeyond the vision of the mind's eye. The problem thenseems less acutely imminent and settles comfortably intothe limbo of accepted axioms. Yet there the challengestands; how did life start ? This is a more searchingquestion than where ? or when ? All the above discussionindicates only that this planet might have been colonizedfrom another, not that it was. In fact, the Earth is peculiarly suited in its temperature, moisture, and other properties to support the sort of life we know, and equally tooriginate it.Reading back from the present the fossils in the rocks,traces and fragments left by living things, their patternbecomes always simpler, and the saga breaks and vanishes some half a billion years ago ; for the early fragile,naked bits of life substance, devoid of bone or shell,would leave no certain token of their presence able towithstand the mighty forces of destruction and changeswirling upon the earth's surface for millenia. Yet, eventhen, a wide array of living forms already existed ; changeand divergence by descent, through generation succeeed-ing generation, had been long in action and individualshad deployed to a great range of habitats. There is noreason to doubt a similar continuation backward, thepanorama narrowing to ever fewer kinds of simpler beings, and in fact even a billion years earlier there aredeposits suggesting the presence of a most primitive kindof life.The tree of life, then, robust and branching as it isnow, took root on earth perhaps half way back to whenthe earth itself had a solar birth and from the simplest, most unpretentious start. So must the play open, wher-ever the setting. Perhaps life appeared de novo onlyonce and later spread throughout the heavens. Perhapsit still is limited to our earth. Perhaps it formed and willform again and still again when and wherever the neededstage be set. On earth the active start may have been abiospore wafted from beyond or a similar bit of lifestuff formed at home.What sort of thing would qualify as life-stuff or protoplasm (first fluid) ? Though innumerable protoplasmsexist today in the many parts of varied organisms, theyall show such an astonishing similarity in characteristics,the protoplasm of. a typhoid bacillus so closely resemblingthat of the human brain, as to enhance the belief thatsimilar properties were present in the earliest protoplasmat the start. Yet this is no small requirement, for bothin its physical architecture and chemical composition,protoplasm is superlatively intricate and complex.To be sure, only the well known elements are present,mainly the most common ones: oxygen, composing inair, water, and rocks. half of the earth's surface bulk;hydrogen, held in huge reserves in the water of oceans;carbon, emerging originally, perhaps, from volcanic ventsand still present in small amounts in the atmosphere,now spread in huge layers of limestone over the earth(mainly by the labors of earlier living forms), andleached from them slowly by the land waters; nitrogen,comprising the bulk of air and locked in many rocks assaltpeter deposits; phosphorus, sulphur, iron, sodium,potassium, calcium, chlorine, iodine, etc., all plentifullypresent in rocks and ores and waters, comprising, infact, in their various combinations with one another thesalts of the salty seas.But what slight comfort is this, that no special elementsneed be conjured up for the matrix of life; for the greatmajority of substances present in protoplasm are formedby particular combinations of these elements, are composed of molecules containing the simple, familiar atomsof the elements in unique arrangements. Such substancesare almost unknown in nature except as produced by living organisms. Of course, there is nothing mysteriousabout these organic substances — by which name chemiptsstill denote them, a heritage from the time, a scant century ago, when their synthesis seemed beyond hope — forthey are made in ever increasing numbers in the laboratory. But at what a cost of planning, care and understanding.Sugar contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygenatoms, and is the stable currency of the world of life.The meanest plant builds it from carbonic acid and water,a dilute carbonated water present everywhere, wheneverthe sun smiles down its energy upon the green pigment. The tiny pond scum, like bacteria a simple microscopic blob of protoplasm but containing the precious"leaf green" or chlorophyll, changes the carbonated waterwithout effort to sugar, starch, protoplasm, so long as thesun gives light. It make it in surplus, stores it, burnsmuch for food, become itself food for amoeba or otherminute animalcules which also play a skilled game ofchemical handball with the sugar, molecules. No bit ofliving protoplasm is so clumsy as to fumble this game;all are adepts at the alchemy.(Continued on Page 28)IN THE SERVICE OF SOCIETY•By HENRY BRUERE, "01THOSE who ten years ago conceived and providedthis special building at the University of Chicago,to facilitate the study of the social sciences, had,it turned out, a masterly sense of timing. In 1929, evenafter the fateful day of reckoning in Wall Street therepersisted the belief that in America the way to progressive national well-being had been devised. It was, perhaps, to make more certain as well as to certify to thisattainment that this building, whose tenth anniversarywe celebrate, came into existence.It could hardly have been foreseen by its sponsorsthat the decade 1929-1939 would prove to be the periodof greatest opportunity for the social sciences that America had known. For in this time social problems havebeen uppermost in the minds of politicians and statesmen as well as the chief concern of the people themselves.Had the philosophies and theories and all the taxonomyof the social sciences been indeed the materials of truescience, we might have achieved solutions to many problems which in these disturbed years presented themselves with tragic insistence.Fortunately, we were under no illusion as to the tentative character of our conclusions regarding economicprinciples and the social effect of economic and politicalpolicies. For, otherwise, we might now find ourselvescaught in the rigidity of a man-made system of controlwhere flesh and blood and spirit are bent to fit the pattern of measures instead of the other way round. On thecontrary, we have been laboring through a period of vastexperimentation, costly, sometimes fruitless, yet oftenbeneficient. Not everywhere and always have the methods and the viewpoint of the social scientist been employed or consulted. But often they have been with theresult that no department of government nor scarcelyany phase of business can fail to be aware of the methodsdeveloped by the social science disciplines.There are, for example, 2,500 economists and statisticians or persons otherwise trained in the social sciencesemployed in the federal government, many of them veryusefully employed. The tendency to regard economistsas a modern type of astrologer who may predict fromgraphs if not from zodiacal charts has been abandonedfor reliance on technical skill in the accumulation andpresentation of facts and their logical interpretation inthe light of experience. In short, it is recognized thattrained intelligence, capacity to analyze, as well as togather data, acquaintance with theoretical reasoningregarding at least the major economic and social processes are indispensible to any serious effort to deal constructively with the problems of society.1This awareness of the social sciences as available implements to assist the otherwise wholly inadequate power# *Condensed from Mr. Bruere' s paper which was read at the "rededica-tion" of the Social Science Research Building on December 1 (see Newsof the Quadrangles).1For another discussion of this point of view, see the article entitledBriefcase and Toothbrush in the May, 1038, issue of The University ofChicago Magazine. — Ed. of politician, administrator, publicist, labor leader, andbusinessman to deal with the tasks that confront him isalmost fruit enough to justify all the past teaching ofthese subjects in the colleges and universities. But beyondthis is the development, in at least some of those whoattend universities and colleges, of an intelligent interestin social problems.If there were no demand in government at all for thesociologist, political scientist, tax expert, or economicadviser, yet the study of society's problems and processeswould continue to be justified. Whether it be the generalaim or not, one of the principal concerns of the peopleof America is, now, as it has long been, to construct andto maintain a progressively more satisfactory communitylife. For this we need the social sympathies, the awareness of men's past social aspirations, the historical lessons, and the respect for logical analysis which are available to those who cultivate an acquaintance with theliterature of the social sciences. Such acquaintance, itmay be expected, will have its good effect in the slowdevelopment of enlightened public opinion.For the cultivation of even a sense of curiosity regarding the interplay of social forces and a desire for theacquaintance with those principles that have seemedimportant to the welfare of society, we are, each of us, indebted to able teachers. Who can measure the influenceon the private thinking or the public acts of his studentsof William Graham Sumner of Yale, Goodnow of JohnsHopkins, Wilson of Princeton, Seligman and Giddingsof Columbia, Laughlin, Small, and Veblen of Chicago, tocite only a few of the great names of the past. It wasmy good fortune to attend the University of Chicago inthe first year of this century. No opportunity that hassince presented itseif has equalled the rich harvest thatI might have gleaned from courses taken then with Veblen, Vincent, Judson, Mitchell, Miller, Merriam, Zueblin,and Thomas in the fields with which we are today concerned. These courses dealt with ideas and ideals. Theywere disciplinary and inspirational. One was onlyvaguely conscious of any possible relation of the ideataught to the misty business life that lay ahead.The gentlemen who taught were learned doctors andone did not expect them to be artificers in commerce orpolitics, though several of them later applied their learning in public affairs. It was then not as customary as itnow is for teachers of the social sciences to become practitioners and advisers too.The recent record of public service of social scientistsis formidable. Outstanding, perhaps, is the work of theso-called "brain trust" in the early days of Mr. Roosevelt's administration. I personally had a speaking acquaintance with most of them and never regarded thesemen of the universities, suddenly in public affairs, assome seemed to believe them, irresponsible enthusiastsfor impractical innovations. Being imaginative and tender in spirit, some of them were emotionally stirred by1718 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe state of the nation, and they had apprehensions,sometimes, of impending calamities that did not occur.But they tried to apply intelligence to the vast array ofproblems that confronted the first New Deal and on thewhole they were remarkably effective in classifying andanalyzing the problems facing the government. The"brain trust" has been dissolved by time if not by theAttorney-General, and no longer seems to enjoy amonopoly of analytical and constructive intelligence.It was the Columbia group, principally ProfessorsM'oley, Berle and Tugwell, who were popularly regardedas an intellectual innovation in the federal government.That was because they were the seeming engines as wellas the advisers in the dramatic days of many innovations.Other universities as well as Columbia have suppliedvery great assistance to the government in recent effortsto deal with its problems with greater knowledge andscientific spirit. I have no complete catalog of these goodtemporary public servants, but there comes to mind atonce the names of Professors Merriam, Millis, Viner,Douglas, and White of Chicago, Witte of Wisconsin,Rogers of Yale, and Hansen, Landis and Sprague ofHarvard, Willets of Pennsylvania, and J. Douglas Brownof Princeton.Individual social scientists have for many years contributed largely to social policies and practices by professional advice and have assisted in legislative and administrative . attacks on important economic problems. . . .In order to sample the opinion of competent observers,I recently asked a group of qualified experts three questions bearing on the use of the social sciences as instruments for social progress. These questions were:First: Are the fruits of study and investigation conducted during the last, say, fifty years into social questions beginning to appear in substantial quantity in whatlegislators do, in the way administrators act, and whatthe public thinks or demands?Second: Are the social sciences definitely employedin the service of society or would you say rather thatthey stimulate those who serve?Third: Are the social sciences sufficiently developedand sufficiently scientific to be employed as techniques inserving society?Let me summon these gentlemen to give us briefly thebenefit of their views. Charles A. Beard, the historian,is my first witness. "For nearly a century," he says,"legislative bodies have been employing the methods ofthe social sciences in dealing with all kinds of publicquestions, and the effect of their inquiries, the bringingof testimony, and the analysis and tabulation of factualmaterial is widely evident. One of the best illustrationsof the effect of social science in national life is found inthe field of the conservation and wise use of natural resources. The history of this movement goes back morethan sixty years. First a few informed specialists wrote,talked and argued about the subject, using the bestknowledge they had. Then came a little action, then moreaction, with knowledge and thought widening. Anotherexample is city planning." "The social sciences," he concludes, "pioneer in the thought which leads to types ofsocial action. Every gain or improvement in social conditions is foreshadowed in thought long before it is re garded as practical and worthy of serious inquiry witha view to action."Alvin Johnson, Director of the New School for SocialResearch, states that the work of the economic, political,and social scientists has had a substantial effect on legislation in every country. 3?he New Deal would neverhave taken the form it did had it not been for the discussions of money and credit in the time of crisis, firstaround the doctrines of Cassell and then around thoseof Keynes. Dr. Johnson goes on to say the social sciencesare primarily occupied with finding explanations of actualfacts and movements. These explanations prove usefulto administrators and leaders of public opinion. "Thesocial sciences cannot tell us what kind of world we wantto live in. That is a matter of private opinion and political ideal. But they can tell us what kind of world wewill have to live in provided certain forces actually operating are given their way."Dr. Johnson does not pass judgment as to whetherthe effect of this policy is good or bad, and as an alternative illustration he points to the fact that without thework of J. Laurence Laughlin [of Chicago] in researchand propaganda relating to the credit and monetary systems of the country, the Federal Reserve System wouldprobably never have been proposed.Dr. Virgil Jordan of the National Industrial Conference Board replied in general answer to my questionsthat, "we have lacked outstanding capacity to coordinateand synthesize the scientific social data which is madeavailable through the detailed work of a great number ofpeople. In such a period as we have been experiencingduring the past quarter century," he believes that "suchwork of coordination, synthesis, and intelligent application is of primary importance, rather than the accumulation of new information."Dr. Jordan seems to feel that the application of economic data to government policies in connection withwages, employment, and relief, is the product of engineering and mathematical minds, "dominated," he says,"by the slot machine conception of economic processes,or, by vulgar politicians who have appropriated the mechanical formulae of such economists for satisfaction oftheir power impulses, without any real interest in theirvalidity and effectiveness."My last witness is the new President of BrooklynCollege, Harry D. Gideonse. Mr. Gideonse points outthat the social sciences are concerned primarily withmeans and that there is a marked traditional prejudiceagainst evaluation.2 The result is a confusing picture inwhich the available and emerging knowledge is used byall sorts of pressure groups and quacks, and consequentlymore or less discredited."The empirical studies," says Gideonse, "which havebeen carried on by social scientists, especially in America,during the last generation have been largely directedtowards the building up of a body of empirical knowledgewhich, in the form of information, has percolated throughvirtually all branches of social practice."Mr. Gideonse sums up his testimony by saying thattwo crucial weaknesses at present seem to lie, first, in2For another discussion of social science objectives, see the article entitled A Social Science Objective in the November, 1939, issue of TheUniversity of Chicago Magazine. — Ed.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19the restricted activity in popularizing knowledge of socialsciences which in this field under democratic conditionsis all-important and second, if a new technique inhandling cancer, for example, is developed, it becomesimmediately a matter of professional and public interestand can be acted upon promptly when a rather limitedgroup of medical experts have been persuaded of thevalue of the new developments.Not so with regard to the contributions of the specialist in monetary policies, city planning, internationaleconomics, and similar social phenomena. The discoveryis merely the first step which must be followed by greatactivity in the persuasion of laymen spread over a greatperiod of time.From these expressions of opinion is it possible todraw any conclusions? Perhaps we can if we will fillin the vacant places with items taken from our own observations. First, there has been a great development ofempirical studies in the social sciences, but there havebeen lacking adequate syntheses of the detailed studiesso extensively made. This is primarily due to the reluctance of social scientists to form and urge conclusionswhen they are so fully aware of the need for fuller dataon new conditions with which to modify and verify established canons of thought.The great need for adequate syntheses is apparent. Itis quite impossible for the average preoccupied man orwoman to see the picture of society as a whole or toform intelligent views from what he hears or reads regarding the broad issues before us. It is more difficultto be intelligent than to be shrewd and certainly harderto generalize wisely from information than it is to beinformed. I suspect that many social scientists do notdraw conclusions because they do not know what conclusions to draw. They leave it to radio agitators, partisan politics and the hurried commentator to draw conclusions.It may be that social scientists hesitate to draw conclusions because they fear a too gullible public. If athousand men or women in each state of the union hadreceived and remembered a sound education in twentyphilosophical treatises on the problems of society, America would be as skillful in solving social problems as inbuilding highways and motor cars.At the University of Chicago, fortunately, youth hasthe opportunity to make the acquantaince of the great ofthe past — Plato, Aristotle, Saint Thomas, Descartes,Hobbs, Montesquieu, Locke, Adam Smith. It is reasonable to hope that even a casual student will rememberone significant idea from each of these philosophers foruse in later life, if for no other end at least to test thequality of thought current in their times.While at Chicago I attended several classes withStephen Leacock [Ph.D. '03]. It was he who firstshowed me what degree of effort a scholar must expend.Obviously, he remembered what he studied for he waslong a professor in political economy at McGill University. Happy man, he is now emeritus, so that he can giveall his time to writing humorous literature, which formany years was his avocation. Lately, however, in amagazine article he spoke seriously, even passionately,of the state of the science of economics. This is what BANKER BRUEREhe said that has a bearing on the need of syntheses, Iquote: "At a time when the world is in danger of collapse from the dilemma of wealth and want, the economist can shed no light, or rather only a multitude ofcross lights that will not focus to a single beam, in placeof a lighthouse, wreckers' signals, or at least fireworks,elaborate and meaningless."Thus far, my attempts to formulate even a crude appraisal of the contributions of the social sciences havebeen related to personal services. Because of the growingdesire to hasten the development of a better social organization in America, there have been established duringthe course of the present century a number of institutional research agencies to deal with the subjects withwhich we here are concerned.Outstanding among such research agencies are theBrookings Institution of Washington, the TwentiethCentury Fund, the National Bureau of Economic Research, and the Institute of Public Administration.The first of these, the Brookings Institution, is a consolidation of two earlier undertakings — the Institute forGovernmental Research which was established to promote scientific administration of government affairs, andthe Institute of Economics established for the purpose ofmaking critical analyses of questions of primary importance whether or not of current popular interest.The Brookings Institution, in the words of its director,Dr. Harold Moulton ['07, Ph.D. '14, LL.D. '37], "bycarrying out a series of inter-related specific investigations has been layng the foundation for the re-formulating of economic and political theories." Obviously, thisis a function of greatest importance when political andeconomic changes are so rapidly occurring.(Continued on Page 32)THE OLD LAW IN THE NEW LAND*• By JUDGE FLORENCE E. ALLENDEUT. VI, 10. "It shall be when thou comestinto the land which I sware unto thy fathers,unto Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, to dwellin great and goodly cities which thou buildest not,houses full of good things which thou filledst not, wellsdigged which thou diggedst not, and vineyards and olivetrees which thou plantedst not, and thou shall have eatenand be full, then beware lest thou forget the Lord."We live in a new and swift-moving and fascinatingtime, a time when science has put new powers and playthings into our hands. We turn a knob on a radio andhear the King of England renounce his heritage. Men,and women too, take wings and fly across the ocean.And yet, as we go on living, we are aware that no newprinciples of conduct have come out of these marvelousdevices. No new standards have been invented alongwith the airplane and the radio. When we come downto the end of things we shall be asked exactly the sameold questions that have been asked of the men andwomen of every time from the beginning down, whetherwe have done justice and loved mercy and walkedhumbly with God, and our answer to these questionswill end the matter so far as we are concerned.It is a truism that our advance in the spiritual life hasnot kept pace with our advance in the mechanical life.We invent, manufacture, and widely use important devices, and we discard them for further improvementsbefore the generation has passed. A very simple illustration is that of the improvement of the tire and tube.I come of the generation which remembers that whenwe used the first automobiles, whenever we had a puncture we were compelled to take the tire off the rim inorder to repair the break. The dismountable wheel hadnot been invented. During that time a friend of minedrove from Youngstown, Ohio, to Tyrrell Hill, a littlehamlet some fifteen miles from Youngstown. He startedin the morning, and had puncture after puncture; butas he was an obstinate man, he determined to make histrip. During the day he had nineteen punctures, andevery time he took the tire off the rim and repaired thepuncture, thus spending the whole day in going fifteenmiles, from Youngstown to Tyrrell Hill. The cord tireand the modern non-skid tire, with their toughness,have completely wiped this phase of our automobileexperiences off from the page of our daily lives. But inthe application of ethical truth to our daily life, we arefar less adaptable. If this were not so, the war systemwould long ago have been abolished, for obviously themurder of men in mass cannot be more justifiable thanthe murder of one individual man; and yet the systemof organized war goes on.I see in my professional life the result of the failureto apply ethical principle. This is the real cause of ourhigh criminal statistics in this country. Too often wesee so-called good citizens failing at some point to ob-*An address delivered in Rockefeller Memorial Chapel on ConvocationSunday, December 17, 1939.t serve ethical law. The man who thinks the traffic lawis for others instead of himself, who sneaks around thecorner on a red light, the man and woman who regardthe smuggling laws as applicable to all others but themselves, are loosing the forces which give strength to AlCapone. If one man can successfully evade the incometax for his profit, a more brutal man will kidnap for hisprofit. Crime will really be eliminated only when allof us observe the old fundamental rules of conduct, andnot before.I see this failure to apply ethical standards in certainphases of our political life. Sometimes it has seemedto me as though the life of the people flowed in one deeppowerful stream, idealistic, clean of purpose, and that theorganized political life of the country flowed in anotherstream, with no outlet between the two. To apply theTen Commandments in politics would automaticallyachieve reform.Of course the application of the old law to modernconditions is not always easy and simple. In the complex development of modern business, with the wideramification of the corporate form, the pyramiding oforganization upon organization, the bewildering intricacies of interlocking affiliations, sometimes we lose sightof simple ethical law. Because men have failed to recognize the old rule that man cannot serve two masters,individuals who would never deliberately have defraudedother individuals have permitted themselves to be placedin positions where if they properly protect one organization to which they owed a duty, they inevitably harmanother organization to which they owe an equal or evengreater duty. The bank director who uses his bank toprotect his private corporation is a familiar example.These distressing situations arise out of a failure herein the new life of the new land to observe old ethicallaw.I would not have you think that the picture has onlya negative side. The Ten Commandments grew out ofthe recognition that all men have human rights. "Thoushalt not kill" recognizes the right to life. The higherand more positive command that "Thou shalt love thyneighbor as thyself" is based upon the conception of theinherent dignity and worth of the individual. Theserights were given peculiar recognition in America notonly in the Declaration of Independence, but in the Constitution, the supreme law of the land. The Constitutiondevelops the implications of the old law with referenceto human rights to an extent not known before in history.The preamble of the Constitution of the United Statesintroduced a new principle into government. In additionto stating that the purpose of the new federation was"to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insuredomestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense,"it added that its purpose was "to promote the generalwelfare." This purpose was re-emphasized in the bodyof the instrument when the Congress was given power20THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21(Art I, Section 8) to lay taxes, pay the debts, andprovide for the common defense and general welfare ofthe United States.This had not been the aim of government in the centuries preceding the Revolution. Since the establishmentof centralized powerful states government had alwaysbeen run for the benefit of the ruling classes. Sometimesthe King was supreme, and sometimes the nobles ; but thepeople were never supreme, and as a result the government was never run for the people. Ordinary functionsof the state, exercised under what we call the policepower, were farmed out for money or as a mark of favorto men who used their great positions to enrich themselves at the cost of the ordinary citizen. Offices werein effect for sale, and from the exercise of the functionsof those* offices the officers would exact all that the trafficwould bear from those who were taxed or regulated.Our theory of government is that it shall be not government by the official and for the official, by the politicians and for the politicians, by the rich and for therich, but by the people and for the people. We havereally put to work the tradition that in this countrygovernment is to promote the general as opposed to thespecial welfare. It is a doctrine which we accept, thatin our national life we share in a common enterpriseto which we all contribute, the benefits of which areaccessible to all. The tradition has been put to workwith varying intelligence, directness and effect. Butlooking at the country as a whole, a marked cleavage isseen between our conception of government and the conception in force in the Old World. Behind the woof of' our none too perfect social and political life runs a warpwhich is the basis of what James Truslow Adams callsthe American dream of equal and generous opportunity.Not forgetting the orgies of graft and corruption whichhave called forth the criticism of as fair an observeras James Bryce, the fact remains that infinitely moremoney paid by the taxpayers has been expended in publicenterprises accessible to all than has been wasted orstolen. Some of these enterprises in their immediateeffects are physical. And yet the building of highways,the reservation of millions of acres of public parks andforests, the purification of water and milk, the elimination of typhoid, the care of the public health, all doneby the public, have immense human vajues. The schoolsand libraries confer an immense intellectual and spiritualbenefit. The systems are not perfect, but nowhere inthe world are there so many public institutions of higherlearning accessible to all as in this country. In the OldWorld, until recently, there was a sharp division betweenthe school of the laborer and the school of the gentleman.It was a divsion made by society and made by the government. Nowhere in the world are there so manybooks so constantly and freely circulated in publiclibraries, paid for by all and accessible to all, as in thiscountry.It is a tradition of our country that at the beginningrights of the individual were guaranteed not in a merestatement or attitude or intention, but in a Bill of Rightswhich was declared by the Constitution itself to bethe supreme law of the land. The First Amendmentto the Constitution should be learned by heart by every FEDERAL JUDGE FLORENCE E. ALLENchild in every school and family. It reads as follows :"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ;or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; orthe right of the people peaceably to assemble, and topetition the Government for a redress of grievances."All of these provisions grew out of the actual needsof that day, needs which press upon us now. Not solong before this measure was enacted Bacon had saidthat if one said in private conversation that the Kingwas incapable, this would constitute treason. Two generations later Algernon Sydney was convicted and executed for writing in a book which was never published,that the supreme power was lodged in the Parliamentrather than in the King. "This book," said Chief JusticeJeffreys, in summing up to the jury, "contains all maliceand revenge and treason that mankind ean be guilty of.It fixed the sole power in the Parliament and in thepeople." Freedom to criticize the government was not theright of the ordinary citizen in Great Britain at the timeour Constitution was adopted. It had been won formembers of Parliament only. For the first time in history, and to a degree never before stated, freedom ofinquiry was guaranteed through the Constitution to everyresident within our borders. But this great traditionhas not been put to work extensively. It has been enforced in ringing declarations in the Supreme Court, butin lower tribunals and in the hearts of the people, theFirst Amendment has not been properly enshrined.Never until police officers, mayors, legislatures, governors, and plain citizens understand and believe in theFirst Amendment as an article of faith, will it be actually,as well as in the words of the instrument, the supremelaw of the land.The Ten Commandments, the Law that "Thou shalt22 THE UNIVERSITY OFlove thy neighbor as thyself," and the provisions of theConstitution recognizing and extending human freedom,together make up our ancient American principles. Andwe are known and tested by the principles that we steadfastly keep. I will give you an illustration taken frommy own family history. Several hundred years ago mygreat-great-something grandfather was a preacher inHolland. In the tense days of the struggle betweenPhilip the Second and the Netherlands, he preached asermon which so aroused the indigation of the ruler ofthe province that he and his family were banished fromHolland forever. In those days the only refuge fromreligious persecution wras England, and so my forebearsplanned to cross the channel and settle there. Whenthey came to leave, because they were gardeners, as wereall Hollanders, they could not endure to abandon theliving green things which they had tended and grownwith their own hands. So they packed up a number ofDutch plants, including a certain kind of rhubarb, or"pie-plant," thin-skinned and tender and good to taste,and took them and transplanted them in their new country. After the family had lived in England for a numberof years, the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock, andmy adventurous forebears looked across the sea, anddetermined that freedom was over here. Again theypacked their household goods and arranged for the long,long journey across the Atlantic; and once more in thepreparation their thoughts harked back to the homelandof Holland, and they uprooted and packed some of theDutch plants that they had brought to England, includingthe pie plant. They landed safely in Massachusetts andlived there for several years during the time of the witchpersecution. But as my forebears really believed inreligious liberty, they could not endure the cruelty ofthose persecutions, and they went over into Rhode Islandwith Roger William's group, taking with them, and againtransplanting, the pie plant. They moved on from RhodeIsland to Connecticut, with the pie plant. They movedfrom Connecticut to Western New York, with the pieplant. And then they came from Western New Yorkinto the Western Reserve of Ohio, driving in wagonswhen the country was first open to settlement, leavingbehind them their mahogany furniture, but bringing withthem the pie plant. And that is the pie plant, very thin-skinned and tender, and good to taste, which grows inmy grandfather's old garden in Ashtabula County, Ohio,today, having come all the way from Holland via England, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and NewYork.It is said that during the great migration to the West,as you crossed the Overland Trail, sometimes you wouldsee perched in a pine tree on some rugged mountain apiece of mahogany furniture which had been thrownover by the housewife when the road became so perilousthat she had to choose between the furniture and thefamily.The question facing America today is whether it willcling to and carry on into the future the old fundamentalstandards which grew out of those fundamental rules.This is the challenge of the old law in the new land. CHICAGO MAGAZINEPeople(Continued from Page 13)One of Loeb's most conspicuous accomplishments, s0far as the public was concerned, was to bring into beingthrough parthenogenesis life which up till that time hadbeen initiated only through male impregnation of theother sex. You may imagine but can scarcely realizetoday how false and wild the impressions were thatgained currency in the public news. Particularly in thegraphic and magazine sections of the Sunday newspapers, the figure of Loeb would appear at such timesin the role of the medieval metaphysician who conjuredup strange new beings out of vacuity.My own reason for disliking very much having Loebleave our scene here in Chicago was that I used to joinin the group of listeners that questioned and talked withLoeb in the Quadrangle Club and found his guesses andhis tries very interesting. So far as I recall, he was thefirst famous figure to leave the University for work atanother and it lay in the situation that we said goodbyeto him and Godspeed at a dinner where several hundredof us colleagues sat down together.Paul Shorey was the speaker of the evening and chasedthe English language around a tree in his own inimitablefashion. He begged us not to be afraid of the physicaland psychic changes that the work of Loeb bade fare tobring about, assuring us that Loeb was not working for"the elimination of the rooster, but only for the encouragement of the hen."At this climactic phrase of Shorey's the type of shoutwent up from his listeners that belongs rather to prizefights and World Series games.FARIS RIDES AGAINDURING the earlier years of the University underthe able guidance of Albion W. Small, sociologywas being slowly formulated into its presentposition in the social sciences. After the death of Mr.Small I heard that a man by the name of Ellsworth Fariswas to be his successor.I went that autumn to the get-together dinner of thefaculty and as one of our new men Faris was called uponto speak. Mr. Judson, in introducing him, said thathe had always tried to learn from Small, but unsuccessfully, just what sociology was. He hoped now that withMr. Faris on the campus his doubts in the matter mightbe laid at rest.Faris stood up and said, "Oh, look here, Mr. President, I can't teach you in the five minutes allotted mewhat sociology is, but if you will take a major with me,I'll agree to acquaint you with its meaning."Cat-calls from the other parts of the room came, "He'strying to get solid with the old man.""Which reminds me," said Faris like a flash, "of thepetrified man. They charged ten cents admission to seehim in his tent at the Fair. One young woman lookedat him for a moment and then said, with tears in hervoice, 'Oh, petrified man, how did you get that way?''Well/ said the petrified man, 'I fell in love with a girland I wanted to marry her and I tried to get solid withher old man and I went too far.' "A NATIONAL INSTITUTION• By RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36TODAY you hear a lot about progress being madeby land, by air, and by sea. The Alumni Foundation, although definitely not at sea, is now makingfull use of land and air, and to them has added celluloidand wax. The Foundation has become a national institution because the University is a national institution,and its graduates are at work in the four corners of theUnited States, and in foreign lands as well.Traveling by land and occasionally by air when closetiming of engagements demanded more speed, facultyspeakers have appeared before alumni meetings at therate of once every other day. A squad in New YorkCity, after weeks of work in Chicago, completed and reduced to celluloid a reminiscent movie of the University's history. President Hutchins, Clifton Utley, '26,and Trustee Clarence Randall continue to meet withsuccess wherever the wax record of their voices isplayed. Back on the air on February 3 is the University'sradio program, "The Human Adventure," which willdramatize in a new series of half -hour programs the workof the great endowed universities. The program is onColumbia stations at 5 p. m., Central time.The reminiscent movie, appropriately entitled "Midway Memories £>r an Album of Old Celluloid," will probably receive at least near-the-top billing at all alumnimeetings held after January 10. In two fast-moving reels,the movie, with the help of the commentator, spans theUniversity's growth from its swamp days to the presenttime. After a respectful pause to meet John D. Rockefeller and President William Rainey Harper, the filmplunges into the earliest film in the University's archives—some shots of the Chicago-Michigan football game atAnn Arbor in 1904, in which Walter Eckersall starred.From there the film goes through the years. It recallsphases of the twenty-fifth anniversary celebration in1916, it shows the Three-Quarters Club in action, it presents the University's presidents, it catches student activities in action, and, best of all, it preserves the memoryof the men and women of the faculty and alumni whohave helped to build Chicago's reputation. Although definitely not a documentary film, "Midway Memories"presents an engaging cross-section of fifty years.While this movie was being produced in New York,alumni on the Quadrangles resolved themselves into anew and important committee of the Alumni Foundation—-the Alumni- In-The-Uni versity Committee, headed byProfessor Carl R. Moore, PhD '16, and including fifteenother members representing the academic and non-academic employees of the University. The Committee hasannounced as its opinion that the alumni closest to theUniversity should be the vanguard of the Alumni Foundation. Consequently it has already actively set aboutsecuring the participation of every alumnus within theUniversity in the Fiftieth Anniversary Fund.Hardest working of alumni speakers in the last monthwere Psychologist Harold Swenson, PhD '31, andAlumni Secretary Charlton Beck, '04, who appeared be fore nine alumni meetings on a southern tour. Makingtheir first appearance at Memphis, they were welcomedby Chairman C. Arthur Bruce '06, JD '08, and acordial group of Tennessee alumni. At Birmingham,they appeared at a dinner in a private dining room ofthe Birmingham Southern College. Arrangements weremade by Chairman C M. Spencer, '25. Dr. E. D.Hinckley, PhD '29, chairman for Gainesville, Fla.,arranged for a dinner meeting at the new Union Building of the University of Florida, where he is a memberof the faculty. (The high spot of this meeting was theunexpected appearance of the Don Cossack Chorus —singing — just as the gathering was about to break up.)At Tallahassee they were met by Regional ChairmanRudy D. Matthews, '14, who joined them for some oftheir Florida travels. The Tallahassee chairman, Dr.Jennie Tilt, PhD '23, conducted the meeting at the dininghall of the Florida State College for Women. Roy B.Nelson, '01, a former member of the University faculty,arranged for a very successful reception and dinnerat St. Petersburg. Mrs. Edwin B. Frost, widow of oneof the University's famous astronomers, was one of thehostesses at the reception. Alumni in Tampa not onlyarranged for a meeting, but they organized a new alumniassociation with Chairman Seth Walker, '08, SM '10,President, and Miss Bernice Byrum, '20, as secretary.In Miami, W. R. Cunningham, '31, arranged for adinner meeting with the help of Chairman Douglas: P.Ball, '15. In Orlando, they were met by Local Chairman M. Addison Baker, ex '21, and at the final meetingat Jacksonville by Mrs. George M. Cooke, '07.Meanwhile, while the team of Swenson and Beck wastouring the South, Professor Samuel N. Harper, '02,appeared before Springfield alumni and discussed thesubject, "What Is the Soviet Policy?" Leon P. Smith,PhD '30, Dean of Students in the College, filled engagements in East Lansing and Grand Rapids, Michigan.Frederic Woodward, Director of the Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration, was the guest of Chairman Morris M.Leighton, PhD '16, at a dinner meeting for Urbana-Champaign alumni. Director John A. Wilson, PhD '26,of the Oriental Institute, accompanied by Miss MarjorieKuh, an undergraduate, journeyed to Danville, Illinois,for a tea in the home of Mrs. McKee Raymer, '24, adinner meeting of the American Association of University Women, arranged by Mrs. Casper Platt, '17, localchairman, and a reception for all Chicago alumni following the dinner.Eight meetings in the West, with Professor Arthur H.Compton and the Alumni Secretary as speakers, wereheld in Denver, Salt Lake City, Seattle, Portland, SanFrancisco, San Diego, Los Angeles, and Tucson, duringthe holidays and the first week in January.On the return trip, Secretary Beck will meet President Hutchins in Tulsa, where they will make the first offive meetings in the Southwest. Stops will be madeat Oklahoma City, Dallas, Fort Worth and Houston.23NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESFOUR important gifts which came to the University during the month of December totalled aspectacular total of $8,000,000 in the newspaperheadlines. Briefly, these gifts, in order, were :1) $1,000,000 allocated by the trustees of the estateof Clara A. Abbott for endowment of research in thebiological sciences.2) $1,500,000 from the Rockefeller. Foundation forendowment of research in the biological sciences, whichhad been offered conditionally on raising of $500,000 — acondition more than met by the Abbott gift.3) The beautiful Mill Road Farm estate of AlbertD. Lasker, trustee of the University. Mr. Lasker hadinvested some $3,500,000 in this magnificent 480-acreestate, which is west of Lake Forest.4 $2,000,000 bequeathed Billings clinic in the will ofthe late Orson C. Wells, retired broker of Chicago. (Mr.Wells was no relation of Orson Welles of radio andstage prominence.)The Abbott, Rockefeller Foundation, and Wells gifts,it will be noted, are directed to the support of medicineand the biological sciences. To that extent they arerestricted funds; the Wells bequest goes specifically toone of the special — as opposed to the general — budgets ofthe University, a distinction which Mr. Daines makesclear in his article on the University's finances in thisissue of the Magazine. They are none the less valuable,because they are for a basic area of the University'sinterests, and an area that greatly needed support. Pending the fulfillment of the conditional grant, under a timelimit expiring in 1941, the Rockefeller Foundation hadbeen giving the University an annual grant equivalentto the interest on the capital sum of $1,500,000. Thoughthe Foundation capital sum claimed as a result of theAbbott Gift will not in itself provide additional incomeover the amount of the annual grants, the success inobtaining the $1,500,000 is important because the incomeis now assured beyond 1941. The Foundation could notbe expected to keep its exceptionally liberal offer openindefinitely. But the $1,000,000 from the Abbott estateadds, at present interest rates, approximately $40,000 ayear to support of biological sciences activities.The Lasker gift is an unusual and interesting one.Mr. Lasker requested that the University retain theestate for at least two years; after that time the estatecould be disposed of should the University so desire.The administration is now exploring every possible educational use of this property, and several constructiveuses are already apparent. The estate includes a modern50-room mansion of French manor house design; alarge garage, greenhouses, theatre, barns, and swimmingpool. An 18-hole golf course rated by experts as one ofthe three best in the country occupies part of the land;another section is in woodland, and a considerable areahas been devoted to farming. The University is particularly desirous of devoting this estate to educational pur- • By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20. JD '22poses, for such use would realize in the largest measurethe investment Mr. Lasker has made. Should the estatebe sold a large sum would be realized, but it probablywould not be commensurate, under present conditions,with the actual value of the property.In recognition of the gift made by the Abbott trustees, the $2,500,000 fund it produced will be named theAbbott Memorial Fund. The physiology building, oneof the key buildings of the biological sciences group, willbe named the Abbott Memorial Building. Clara A.Abbott was the widow of Dr. Wallace C. Abbott, founderof Abbott Laboratories, manufacturers of chemical andpharmaceutical products. Dr. Abbott died in 1921 ; hiswidow died in 1924. She established a trust fund, to bedistributed in 1939, for the benefit of medical, chemical,or surgical science.The annual grants which the Rockefeller Foundationhad been providing for research in the biological sciencesbegan in 1929. Last year the Foundation informed theUniversity that the research program "has so clearlydemonstrated its quality that the stabilization of Foundation support seems wise," and offered the conditionalgrant. From two independent sources, therefore, thevalue of the University's work in this area has been attested by gifts of large sums.Mr. Lasker's gift is not the first he has made to theUniversity. In 1928 he gave $1,000,000 to establish theLasker Foundation for research in the degenerative diseases, and subsequently he provided $125,000 additionalfor the same purpose.The bequest from Mr. Wells, who died in Clearwater,Florida, on December 10, resulted from his close friendship with the late Dr. Frank Billings, one of the University's leading figures in medical research and education, and a prime mover in the establishment of the southside medical school. Through his friendship with Dr.Billings, who was enthusiastically and convincingly amissionary for medical education resting on basic research, Mr. Wells early in the last decade determinedto make a substantial gift to the University.Acknowledging the Abbott gift, President Hutchinssaid : "This gift from the trustees of the Clara A. Abbottestate is not only one of the greatest, but also one of themost useful contributions the University has received inrecent years. By bringing to the University the Rockefeller Foundation conditional gift of $1,500,000 it assurespermanent support for research in the biological sciences.I wish publicly to express our gratitude to Mr. Shattuckand Mr. Bays [the trustees of the estate] . The University believes that the most appropriate recognition ofthe enlightened interest of Dr. and Mrs. Abbott in aiding biological research can be expressed by naming thephysiology building the Abbott Memorial Building. Thecombined sum will be known as the Abbott MemorialFund."In announcing the gift of the Lasker estate, Mr.24THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25jiutchins emphasized that "the University will not decide to sell the property without exploring every educational opportunity that it can think of. In any event, theestate is a splendid addition to the University's resources." The Wells bequest, Mr. Hutchins said, "willbe used to meet expenses in the University's medicalwork. It is a very important and encouraging gift, andwiU make it possible for us to continue to carry on ourwork at the highest level."The University has been described (by others) as thecapital of social sciences study in the United States.Ten years ago the new Social Science Research Buildingwas formally dedicated ; and so, at the beginning of December, the anniversary of the dedication was observedwith a two-day program. The meeting was organizedby Robert Redfield, Dean of the Division of theSocial Sciences, to report on and discuss the progressmade in the study of human nature in the past decadeand to give an accounting of the University's programin that period. Past and present, the University canpoint to an imposing list of great students of man and hissocial environment, and it has demonstrated its abilityto utilize the ideal laboratory provided by the city ofChicago. Speakers on the program, in addition to thosefrom the University, were alumnus Henry Bruere, '01,president of the Bowery Savings Bank and authority oncivic and industrial personnel problems (whose speechis printed elsewhere in this issue) ; Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur, president of Stanford University; Beardsley Ruml,formerly director of the Laura Spelman RockefellerMemorial and one time Dean of the Division of theSocial Sciences who is now treasurer of Macy's in NewYork; Professor William Line, University of Toronto,and Professor Edward L. Thorndike, Columbia University. More than a score of other authorities participated in the round tables and a couple hundred representatives of government, business, and social scientistsattended the meetings.One of the principles on which President Harper actedwhen he first organized the University was to make thenew institution effective through widespread contact.One of the devices which grew out of this desire to extend the influence of the University and make its teaching easily accessible was downtown University College.Others have followed this pattern, and in the last decadethe University has been reshaping its activities in thisand other "extension" fields. Instead of catering tovocational interests, to the desire for information, or ageneral if vague concern for culture, it has moved toward cooperation with special groups. It has cooperated,for example, with the Chicago Section of the AmericanChemical Society in organizing and presenting advancedtheoretical courses for chemists in industry. At the beginning of the winter quarter, the University inauguratedan Institute of Statistics to provide introductory andadvanced statistical training for workers in business, industry, and science. Statistics are becoming a fundamental tool in many fields ; for example, the newly popular polls of opinion which confront the citizen are basedon refined use of statistics. Centers for training in methods and applications of statistics are not available gener ally and so the University is fulfilling with its newinstitute, its extension function in a modern way.Faculty of the Institute includes Joel Dean, director,who is also assistant professor of statistics and marketing and research associate of the Cowles Commission forResearch in Economics; Frank A. Mancina, instructorin statistics, assistant director; Donald R. G. Cowan,marketing economist for Swift and Co. and vice-president of American Marketing Association, professoriallecturer; Walter Bartky, associate professor of astronomy, and a statistical consultant to industrial concerns;Karl J. Holzinger, professor of education and co-authorof studies applying statistics to education and psychology; and Neil H. Jacoby, assistant professor of financeand chairman of the Illinois Emergency ReliefCommission.Two faculty appointments for current quarters havebeen made recently. R. R. Renne, professor and head ofthe department of agricultural economics, Montana StateCollege, will be visiting professor of economics duringthe winter quarter. Charles H. Pritchett, consultantof the Immigration and Naturalization Service of theDepartment of Labor, and formerly associate in publicadministration with the Tennessee Valley Authority, hasbeen appointed assistant professor of political science forthe winter and spring quarters. He will teach coursesgiven by Marshall E. Dimock, at present on leave ofabsence as Second Assistant Secretary of Labor.The 1939 award in the Charles H. Sergei play contestwas won by Carl Allensworth, of New York City, for hiscomedy of American rural life, "Ring Once for Central."Mr. Allensworth, a graduate of Oberlin, is managingdirector of the summer stock company at Whitefield,N. H. The Sergei contest provides an annual award of$500. It was established by Annie Meyers Sergei inmemory of her husband, Charles H. Sergei, Chicagoanwho founded the Dramatic Publishing Company. Thenature of the contest varies; the contest for 1940 willbe for thirty-minute radio dramas. Alumni are eligible.Earl Browder, General Secretary of the CommunistParty, will speak on the quadrangles January 17 underthe auspices of the Communist Club. The club is oneof the 132 recognized student organizations (only tenof which might be said to have any relation to so-called"pressure" groups of any kind). Mr. Browder appearedon the quadrangles last April, under the same auspices,and about 600 people heard him speak in Bartlett Gymnasium. Apparently few of the audience then werestudents ; they generally were willing to concede him theright of free speech but stood on their right to stay away.At the moment, Mr. Browder seems to be making thecollege circuit; Massachusetts Institute of Technologyand Yale University, as the New York Times said,"frustrated" him by permitting him to speak, just beforethe Christmas holidays. The Times added editorially:"Since the invasion of Finland it [Communism] couldnot rally enough votes the country over to elect a dog-catcher. The best way to prick the Communist bubbleis to let the Communists write and talk themselves todeath. ..."STUDENTS AND MUSIC• CECIL M. SMITH, '27IF you had visited the University of Chicago campuson Sunday evening, December 10, 1939, you mighthave beheld a remarkable spectacle. An audience,filling nearly every available seat in Mandel Hall, waslistening of its own volition and without protest to aconcert played by the University of Chicago SymphonyOrchestra consisting of nineteen unrelieved and consecutive canons and fugues by Bach. This was no ordinaryaudience of placid dowagers and obedient if tired businessmen putting in a necessary appearance at a culturalevent. It was a young, alert audience composed chieflyof University students, undergraduates and graduatesalike, and only secondarily including friends and hangers-on from the neighborhood.This occasion, which happened to be the first publicorchestral performance in Chicago of Bach's "The Artof Fugue" may be taken to symbolize the present qualityand extent of student interest in music on the University campus. The day is completely past when studentopinion divided the art of music into two equally unattractive cults — the small and rarefied group of aestheteswho toyed with music in the mood of connoisseurs ofthe untouchable, and the somewhat larger group whosemusical horizon was restricted to the InterfraternitySing and the marching band on the football field.Within the past few years music has come into itsown on the campus as a valued and important phaseof intelligent, well-rounded living. The hundreds of students who came to hear "The Art of Fugue" were subjected to no high pressure advertising of any sort. Onlya few modest posters and a couple of informative advance articles in the Daily Maroon heralded the event.But an interest in Bach has come to seem as normal asan interest in Shakespeare or in Darwin, and it was notnecessary to depend upon any rah-rah appeal to givepatriotic support to the Orchestra in order to insure alarge student attendance at the concert.All the University musical activities, curricular andextra-curricular, operate increasingly on the assumptionthat University students are seriously interested in musicand censorious of attempts to attract them on a level toolow to be worthy of their intelligence. If Dr. SiegmundLevarie, the orchestra's conductor, had chosen what wein the music trade call a "popular" program with Sibelius' "Finlandia" or Tschaikowsky's "Nutcracker Suite"as featured items, it is safe to predict that student support for such a program would have been lackadaisicaland halfhearted. The orchestra now limits itself to musicthat is important and stimulating, often venturing toundertake the performance of works that have beenneglected downtown — as writh "The Art of Fugue" andwith the Hindemith cantata which received its Americanpremiere on the campus last winter. Right now theorchestra is working toward a spring festival, to includea purely orchestral program, an opera and a choral concert in cooperation with the University Choir. This preoccupation with the kind of music that isworth anybody's time and trouble seems to eliminateproblems of spotty attendance and wavering loyalty. Themusical job at hand becomes so challenging that thestudent members of the orchestra do not have to betold that they must attend rehearsals. They often ask forrehearsals beyond the regular schedule.The other student musical organizations pursue asimilar policy with a similar result of continuing anddependable enthusiasm. A small group of vocalists andinstrumentalists are now preparing Bach's "Passion According to St. John" which they will present in BondChapel later in the winter. The performance seeks toreproduce the small scale and modest dimensions inwhich the work was originally performed before it wasallowed to become ponderous and stuffy at the handsof unwieldy large choral societies. The University Choir,under the direction of Mack Evans, has also set itselfan impressive stint of work outside its regular Sundayduties. In the spring festival they expect to sing a Magnificat by Vaughan Williams, the contemporary leaderof the British school of musical composition, and theimpressive Psalmus Hungaricus by the Hungarian composer, Zoltan Kodaly, a striking contemporary masterpiece that has not yet been performed in Chicago. TheConcert Band, under the skilled direction of HaroldBachman, is making a similar effort to revise its programs to secure more challenging musical substance.All these activities, as can be readily seen, add up intoa considerable amount of sustained student participation.For those students who limit their musical undertakingsto listening, the daily noontime phonograph concerts inthe Social Science Assembly Room continue to attractaudiences of rather surprising discrimination. If we hadever had any doubt of the popular demand for these record concerts we should have been fully reassured by theinsistent clamor that arose during a brief period whenwe had no phonograph for this use.The academic curriculum for the Department of Music stands, we hope, as a bulwark behind this exactingextra-curricular program. Within the last two years theDepartment has shifted and refocused its emphasis. Noneof the courses any longer wears a conservatory or professional school aspect. We are not training virtuosomusical performers, for we do not believe that suchpurely vocational training belongs in a university curriculum. Nor do we pretend to guide young composers inthe field of musical creation, for we know realisticallythat a genuinely talented composer ought to forget aboutcollege degrees and apprentice himself to a master.We do, on the other hand, seek to present the subjectof music as a historical, critical and analytic field worthyof the most thorough application intelligent minds canbring to it. We endeavor to teach our undergraduateand graduate students alike to know music, to understandit and to be articulate about it. In short we are endeavoring to establish music as an academic discipline.26ATHLETICSTHE BASKETBALL SCOREBOARDChicago 52 — 27 Armour TechChicago 42 — 26 Chicago TeachersChicago 31 — 25 North CentralChicago 39—40 UtahChicago 18 — 20 WisconsinWHEN Basketball Coach Nelson II. Norgrensaid, "I don't think there's much chance thatwe'll finish in the first division of the Big Tenthis year," he wasn't spoofing. He was just being-careful, because the 1940 Maroon basketball team is oneof the best this correspondent has seen forsome time. But, the thingthat keeps my fingerscrossed is that of fourpre-season contests Chicago played three werevictories. The fourth,against a white-hot fivefrom the University ofUtah, resulted in a lossby one point in two overtime periods. Now thatthe Big Ten cavalcade isunder way, it becomesapparent that Indiana isa good bet for the championship. Illinois, even withoutDehner, is going to be good. Michigan, Purdue, Northwestern, and perhaps Iowa's agile sophomores cannot beconsidered beyond the pale around the title competition.Nelson Norgren was one of two athletes in the historyof the University who won an even dozen major letters.The late Teddy Linn once wrote that Norg "never losthis head, never lost his temper, never lost his nerve."> The cool Scandinavian fielded .965 at first base ; out-punted a Minnesota fullback by the name of ClarkShaughnessy in the 1912 game in which Chicago's 7 — 0victory broke a four-year Gopher winning streak overMaroon teams; put the shot farther than the presentwriter could putt a golf ball ; and potted baskets regularly.The 1940 basketball season is Coach Norgren's nineteenth on the Midway. "Death" Halliday was captainand forward on the first Maroon team he coached, andChuck McGuire was a guard and Campbell Dickson anamazing sophomore forward on the team. Herbert OrinCrisler, who as head football coach of football at Michigan now advocates that goal posts be lowered to promote field goal production, was Norgren's assistant incharge of freshman basketball. This was in 1921-22, theyear in which the Quandrangle Club was completed, andin which Marshal Foch was awarded an honorary degree.It may be the Norgren caution that accounts for thezone defense which his teams are the only ones in theBig Ten to use. The same quality may have floweredthis year in the new double-pivot offense designed byNorg and employed by the Maroon five. It was, how- • By DON MORRIS, "36ever, not Norgren caution which resulted in the transfer of the field house press table from the front row ofthe west stand to the top gallery of the east stand. Probably the move was instituted to provide exercise fornewspapermen on the ground that they have not yet attained the age of reason.Besides Coach Norgren, Chicago's chief assets inascending beyond the seventh-place tie in which it finished the Conference season last year are three playersnamed Dick Lounsbury, Joe Stampf, and Ralph Richardson. All are veterans, all are lettermen, and all areseventy-six inches high. Lounsbury, an Oak Park boywho went to St. John's Military Academy, is a seniorin the geology department and captain of the team.Stampf, the season's high point man, with 52 points inthe first block of four games, set an all-time individualscoring mark in the University's interscholastic tournament when a member of the Calumet High School championship team three years ago. Richardson, whose guiding aim is to make up for the loss of scoring punch atguard involved in graduation of the Murphy twins lastsummer, registered eight points in the first pair of games,nineteen points in the second two. He attended the unlikely-sounding Zelienope High School in Pittsburgh.Leading the sopohmore contingent in the Maroonsquad is a promising youngster from Wilson HighSchool in Dallas, Texas. In the second two games healmost trebled his scoring in the first two. Paul Zimmermann, who is fussy about the double "n" in his name,is only five feet, eight inches in height, but he is fast,alert, and passes competently, whether toward a teammate or toward the basket.Veterans besides the three mentioned include Art Jorgensen, 'ranking tennis player and basketball guard ; andCarl Stanley and Morris Allen, forwards.Alonzo the Magnificent(Continued jrom Page 9)more than they did at the sight of him playing in a tennistournament at the age of 69 or braving the icy blasts ofChicago sans hat or topcoat throughout the Winter, ordriving his antediluvian electric runabout.A year after that game Stagg coached his last team onthe Midway. Under the university rule retiring facultymembers at the age of 70 he was relieved of his portfolio.He could have stayed on as chairman of the committeeon intercollegiate athletics, a new post created for him,and if he had he would have fought mightily against therecent action of the trustees, but the zeal for active service with youth still burned strongly within him and heaccepted an offer from the College of the Pacific."I went West when I was a young man," he said."I'm going West again, and I'm still a young man."That was seven years ago. This past season his teamdefeated the Golden Bears of California on the day thatChicago lost to Beloit.2728 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOut of the Nowhere(Continued from Page 16)The chemist also can make sugar. There are manychemical roads to the sweet substance, all the way fromthese simplest beginnings. But they are devious windingpaths, often precarious, advancing by slow stages fromone outpost of combination to the next more complicatedone, itself in turn the start for a struggle to the nextintermediate product. So, laboriously, is atom attachedto atom in proper sequence and correct arrangement untilthe complete sugar molecule has been forged. It can bedone — with the full armamentarium of the laboratory conscripted into service, with the masterly strategy gleanedfrom centuries of study focussed on the problem, withwilling hands laboring long months. And while the scientist works to his truly transcendental achievement,culminating in a few small transparent crystals of sugarformed in his last reaction mixture, the ivy leaves overhanging his laboratory window, perhaps casting a wavering shadow on the historic test tube, have made poundsof this same sugar and built it and other far more elaborate stuffs into the protoplasm of ivy leaves, or turnedit into wood, or simply burned it up again.If the letters of the alphabet are likened to the atoms ofvarious elements, then the molecules of compounds arewords. Water molecules, made of two hydrogen atomsto one of oxygen, are HOH ; vinegar (containing carbonas well), CHHHCOOH; alcohol, CHHHCHHOH;ether (the methyl variety) CHHHOCHHH. Alcoholand ether, note, have the same number of C, H and Oatoms, but are as distinctly different from each otheras are "each" and "ache" with the same letters. Thesimplest ordinary sugar has six carbon, twelve hydrogenand six oxygen atoms in each molecule, a twenty-fourlettered word. Common cane sugar has two of thesewords combined in one, and the more complex vegetablesugars up to starch and wood possess molecules that areveritable documents, with hundreds of these "words"linked end to end. The ivy leaf or pond scum knowsnothing of such verbose starch molecules, but buildsthem with fine craftsmanship from the crudest supplies.Throughout history man has been impressed by theprowess of living things and their "vital activity," andhence the great importance of making these same organiccompounds in the test tube. Only now that such attempts have succeeded may we say with confidence thatno mysterious, sui generic, potent "vital force" is required for their manufacture. The plants must haveremarkable tools to perform so neat a job, but that isall. And so they do have. One of the finest is thisgreen chlorophyll. Plants that lack it cannot make theirsugars and must live on others. And, conversely, chlorophyll containing cells can still make sugar away from anyplant body.These chemical tools, richly present in all livingthings, perform seeming miracles beyond the rarest virtues of Aladdin's lamp. Obtained early from yeast, andbearing still the name then given them — enzyme (inyeast or leaven) — they preside over the flux of matterin living bodies and are the orchestra for the dance oflife. One builds sugars ; others break them down, eachenzyme acting in its special way, to alcohol or the acid of sour milk or of vinegar or back to carbon dioxide andwater ; some form starch, some wood. Some form or destroy fats. Even proteins, bodies like gelatine or eggwhite, the most invariable components of protoplasm, areerected adroitly and exactly, just the right ones for eachdifferent living being.Dissolved in the water of protoplasm are hordes ofmolecules of many molecular races. They dash aboutcollide, rebound, mostly unaltered by a momentarymeeting with each other. But now and then — now andthen, that is, in relation to the number of such collisions •exceedingly quickly according to our ideas of time—such close-pressed molecules exchange atoms or evencombine, and new and different ones result. Chemicalchange occurs ; new substances are formed. The enzymescontrol this play and largely determine which moleculesreact with which and what results.Enzymes are a special group in the large and interesting class of catalysts; agents, mainly chemical substances, more important in our daily lives and our modern industry than any others. The action of catalysts,though only partly understood, is potent, and withoutthem we, as living machines, could not exist; our greatchemical industries would fail; our foods, drugs, dyes,fabrics would dwindle ; and many of the activities that goto make up the complicated life of civilization must disappear. Catalysts guide and accelerate all types of chemical change. A simple example may help the picture.Within a lump of iron are close-packed myriads ofmolecules jostling busily against their neighbors, oscillating about some home position, going always but arriving nowhere. Outside the lump is air, whose widelyseparated molecules of nitrogen and oxygen dart freelyin all directions and recoil as freely from their constantcollisions. Within the lump is only iron, and no changeoccurs ; without is air, also unchanging. But at the surface, where oxygen bombards the iron, they can react,and slowly iron changes to rust or iron oxide as ironand oxygen molecules combine. If the tempo of themovements is increased by heat, rusting goes faster.Powdered iron tossed through a flame rusts, or burns,so rapidly in air that the falling grains sparkle brightly.And cold, of course, prevents the reaction.Apparently here the simplest kind of molecular changeoccurs. Yet how misleading, for dry iron will not rustin dry air. Iron and oxygen combine only when watermolecules are also present, though these remain as waterat the end. Lilliputian preachers, these, uniting othermolecules, entering into the ceremony of the union butremaining still themselves and ready to repeat innumerable times with new couples the nuptial act. Just howeven so simple a rite is carried out is not yet fully clearand is today a problem actively investigated. For thisis an entirely typical case. The great bulk of. chemicalchanges, even the simplest, require some agency to helpthem take place. Such agents, that hasten action, arethe catalysts.Heat is a universal one, water hardly less so. Lightis often most powerful — a glass bulb filled with hydrogen and chlorine is harmless in the dark, but tossed intothe sunshine it explodes before it hits the ground. Acids,lye, salts, a great variety of substances catalyze chemicalreactions. Some are catholic in their influence; othersTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29very limited. The enzymes are a special class. Thearistocrats of skilled workmen, each one does one or afew jobs only, but performs these with superlative dispatch. Many reactions that they carry on are also catalyzed by other agents, but not so exactly nor so fast. Atleast three enzymes in the stomach and intestines cooperate to digest a piece of meat in four or five hours.Strong acid will do the same, at body temperature, onlyin many weeks and then part of. the meat is completelylost as food. Still, the essential difference is not of kindbut of excellence.Further, catalysts may lead to their own formation —auto-catalysts these are. Consider a candle standing onthe table, maybe for months. Its smooth wax remainsas sleek, its wick as stiff and white, as when it was placedthere. Yet wax does combine with oxygen and burnsand gives off heat. Light a match and touch the hotflame to the wick. It glows a moment, falters, then fromits tip grows out another flame. Heat is the catalyst.The match is no longer needed ; its heat started the combination of wax and air which gives more heat and moreburning. From the catalyzed reaction grows morecatalyst.Or consider a brick of butter, fresh today. Tomorrowstill quite fresh and next day palatable, but possibly withjust a trace of rancid smell. Another day it hardly doesfor cooking, and soon it is completely spoiled. If theamount of rancidness be measured, the results bear outexperience, for it increases very slowly at the start, thenfaster and increasingly fast. The butter fats are brokendown as it spoils and ill-tasting acids result. Yet thechange is not spontaneous ; a catalyst is needed, and acidserves as one. Hardly any is present in fresh butter andspoiling is very slow. But each bit changed forms moreacid and so more catalyst and so leads to faster change.And similarly, once the first few molecules of enzymeshad appeared, it is fairly easy to account for their continued existence and increase. Many of them are pro-teins; some are perhaps simpler substances. If theydirect the flux of synthesis and by their action causenew molecules to form — the sugars and the proteins andall the rare content of protoplasm — why not producethemselves? They must; they do. When one yeastplant (containing just one unit of organized protoplasm,just once cell) divides in two, each daughter cell in two,and these again, and so on until a- flourishing colony ofprogeny exists, the quantity of enzyme present multiplies apace. Each descendant has the same supply asdid its single ancestor. The process of autocatalysis isat work here. Just as acid in butter leads to the production of more and more acid, so an enzyme may lead tothe production of more and more of itself.One can almost watch an enzyme grow by doing thesimplest experiment. Place some crushed meat, or almost any foodstuff, in a little water in a small flask.Connect its opening with a long fine tube held horizontally and stopped at its far end with a drop of water.Keep the flask warm, about body temperature, and thenobserve it at intervals, say every hour. What occurs?The meat is largely protein and fat, the air (and water)about it contains oxygen; and the story of the candlerepeats itself. At first no stuff is oxidized, a catalystis lacking, and the drop of water remains at rest in the end of the tube. In three or four hours it begins totravel slowly towards the flask, measuring, by the distance moved, the oxygen that has disappeared from theair. It crawls a while, so slowly that only at long intervals can a change be noted. But the intervals shorten,the change increases, and after half, a day the drop slidesquietly along before one's eyes. Oxygen is disappearingat increasing speed, protein is being burned more andmore rapidly; a progressively larger quantity of catalystmust be present. What is it and how formed?Why, simple enough, bacteria are growing. A feware present at the start, being everywhere; and findingfood and water, oxygen and warmth, they multiply. Oneforms two, then four, then eight, doubling the numbertwo to three times every hour, and in the day billionshave formed. The water comes to teem with them, asany microscope will show. But if the meat and flaskwere sterilized at first by boiling, no germs appear —and then the drop remains static at the end of the tube.Each tiny bacterium contains enzymes that catalyze theoxidation of the meat; each division into two also doubles the enzyme present. Organisms growing, enzymesforming themselves — the two are very similar ; so likeindeed that cases have appeared which have been verydifficult to classify.It might seem strange at first to find that entities existas to the nature of which, alive or not, fierce controversiesrage in scientific groups. There are many such, dozens ofviruses alone. A man takes smallpox. His fever mounts,his pulse runs fast, pains play along his back, his skinerupts in pustules. Smallpox is a particular disease,different from every other, documented by its own distinctive signs. True, the changes seen are in a humanbody, but since these are a unique response to some condition, they serve to identify the disease. Some definite thing is happening in the smallpox patient. Further, the causative agent is not limited to this one bodybut is transmitted with the greatest ease to others; thedisease is infectious. A minute bit of mucous from themouth, even a light contact with the skin of the suffereror with something he has touched, suffices to carry contagion to a healthy man. Some substance has to beconveyed — infection does not pass through walls or rubber gloves — a substance completely destroyed by boiling.And after this inoculum has reached the second personit must grow. No signs of disease appear for manydays. Then they become increasingly severe. Then, andnot before, this second person's body dust can carryfurther the disease. The bit of smallpox virus growsin a man just as the typhoid bacilli grow in the jelly and,after growth, can be carried on time and again to freshcolonies.Why doubt then if the virus is alive? For one thing,it is small beyond the most searching microscope; noone has ever seen its body. Fluids from smallpox patients have been forced through layers of porcelain sofinely porous that the tiniest of bacteria are held back,but the virus passes through. Again, it has no measurable life of its own ; it grows only in human bodies anddoes not "breathe" or exhibit any activity away fromthem. Perhaps the human tissues are its only food;without this it rests dormant. Perhaps, though, it isjust an enzyme which leads to chemical reactions in the30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEprotoplasm of man, from which are formed more of this*enzyme as well as poisons that produce the symptoms.Truly the question verges on the meaningless, for theremust be in any case some complicated enzyme moleculesforming a minute "body." Now does this "live" or not?Categories can be very useful, but the boundary wallsmust not be built too high or too rigid."Before I built a wall I'd ask to know what Iwas walling in or walling out, and to whom Iwas like to give offense.Something there is that does not love a wall."It is no accident of poetic fancy that the phrase, "Theflame of life," is common currency. A living organismand a flame are running systems, in more or less perfectequilibrium, through which flow streams of. matter andenergy undergoing transformation. Each is sensitive tochanges in its surroundings and responds to them; eachhas a structural organization, though here the most apparent difference between the two lies ; most of all, eachcreates itself and grows. It is almost or quite impossibleto describe living things in terms which do not describethe flame, except by recourse to such secondary differences as the actual temperature of existence or the absence of a watery menstruum. Both are auto-catalyticsystems with catalysts or enzymes that produce themselves and the other ancillary substances that form thematrix of their being.Given, then, the proper enzymes, acting upon surrounding water and dissolved substances, there wouldgrow about this enzyme nucleus the substances of protoplasm. There would be sugar formed, to serve for foodand structure; protein would appear and give the forming cell its unique characters and special composition;fats would arise, to act as a further store of food and,more important, help to isolate and protect the fragilemass from its environment, weaving about it, togetherwith the proteins, a fragile veil, yet firm enough to repelthe bombardment of vagrant molecules and resist thesway of water currents. For fats spread in thin filmsover water, soaps (from fats) form foams and bubbles,proteins set into jellied masses; and as these substancesappear by the action of enzymes they would tend to gatherinto films and meshworks and form a fairly definite structure. So the new substances would build their edifices ;surrounded by a film secluding, protecting, and restraining them — there would a cell be born. Now the enzymeswould act undisturbed. In through the protecting wallcome water and foods; out go waste products of. allkinds; inside, the simple chemicals become the complicated stuff of protoplasm.By the agency, then, of non-living enyzme moleculesthe substance and form of protoplasm could come intobeing. Once formed, it would continue to increase, toreproduce, to guide its molecules along the ways ofchange and so to eat and breathe — in short to live. Andfrom one bit of protoplasmic seed the whole tree ofliving forms could then evolve. Into the living loom poursimple crudes— water, carbonic acid, ammonia, and somesalts— there to be whirred through the enzyme machine,drawn into threads of protein and woven at last intothe beautiful patterns of a living tapestry. A magiccloth, indeed, is this that spins itself. Protoplasm forms more protoplasm; living things beget themselves. \Moloch, life, consuming matter in its path; yet fashioning from it living stuff, more and ever more whilethe supply of matter lasts.All this, once the enzymes are on hand. Yet how didthese first enzymes, the artificers of protoplasm, comeinto being without the aid of antecedent enzymes ? Thisis perhaps the hardest gap of all to bridge, but not impossible. We cannot positively know how they arose,but scientific rigor may permit us surmises as to howthey might have arisen. The possibilities are many, buthere can only be hinted at. Many substances that mighteasily serve as intermediate building stones are knownto form. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen areprobably present in all enzymes, iron in many, phosphorus, sulphur and magnesium in some. Heat alonecauses several of these to combine into simple molecules.The energy of sunlight leads to the formation of otherstuffs. Flashes of lightning are able to induce importantchemical combinations, especially the '"fixing" of thenitrogen of air — the prototype of one of man's methods.Many of these simpler molecules are very active andrapidly combine with each other. Some of the new onescatalyze the formation of themselves and others. Allmanner of atomic edifices would result from these influences, randomly thrown together in every pattern.More and more complicated units would be fashioned,decomposed again, altered, built anew. Always motion,always reaction; a seething, restless horde of molecules,colliding, exchanging atoms, chancing on new combinations, rushing to other contacts, always changing. Andby chance, at last, an auto-catalytic enzyme molecule appears. Unlikely? Most unlikely, almost impossible. Yetwhat the precise tools of the ivy accomplish in minutesman duplicates with his crude chemical implements inmonths, and chance and change might do the same inyears — in billions of them.Somehow life arose, and now on earth each tiny cellenacts its deathless drama. In every little theatre oflife the scenery is set, the players take their roles, theplot unfolds. We have no program to this play; manyof the actors are unknown and regions of the stage arequite obscured. But it has brought real pleasure to theaudience peering at it through microscopes and colorimeters and may intrigue many others to attend whenthey have found the way.The Human Adventure11Back on the air Saturday, February 3, for a new seriesof half-hour programs is the University's radio dramaof research in American universities. The program willbe heard each Saturday afternoon over a coast-to-coastnetwork of the Columbia Broadcasting system — 6 p. m.Eastern time — 5 p. m. Central time — 4 p. m. Mountaintime — 3 p. m. Pacific time.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31The University's Finances(Continued from Page 12)1933-34. Since that year there has been a steady advance to a peak of $8,631,707 for the year 1938-39. Thedevelopment during this period of the Medical Schooland Clinics (organized in 1927) largely accounts forthe increase of the total expenditures in 1938-39 overthose at the beginning of the ten-year period. Deficitswere sustained in eight out of the ten years which werefinanced from surpluses largely accumulated prior tothe depression.When the expenditures for the general budgetdivision are examined, a contra trend is indicated during the ten years. The general budget expenditures,amounting to $5,642,670 for the year 1929-30, increasedto $6,011,763 in 1930-31, the peak year for this divisionof the budget, after which there was a decline to$4,542,107 in 1933-34, the low point in the period. Sincethat year the expenditures have advanced steadily to$5,124,575 for the year 1938-39, which amount is$887,188 less than the peak year and $582,468 more thanthe valley year. The most significant item of increasedexpenditure during the ten years is the amount expendedfor retiring allowances and annuity premiums, which increased from $148,760 in 1929-30 to $269,344 in 1938-39,an increase of 81 per cent. It is in this division of the budget that the greatest declines have been sustained in recurring income, particularly from endowment income,which for the year just closed was $803,600 or 30 percent less than in 1929-30, the peak year for endowmentincome. Student fee income, however, for the year1938-39 was $302,793 or 12 per cent under that of thepeak year, 1930-31. In terms of percentage of support ofthis division of the budget, the income from student feeshas increased from 40.5 per cent in 1929-30 to 42 percent in 1938-39, whereas endowment income has declinedfrom 46.8 per cent in 1929-30 to 35.9 per cent in 1938-39.This decline in endowment income has been partiallyoffset by an increase in gifts for budget support from2.9 per cent in 1929-30 to 11.8 per cent in 1938-39.This latter item of support, while exceedingly welcome,is unstable in character and offers difficulties in longterm planning.The expenditures of the Medical School and ClinicsDivision have shown a steady advance during the ten-year period with the exception of. the years 1932-33 and1933-34, when contraction occurred because of reducedincome. The expenditures for 1938-39 were $2,737,979,an increase of $1,425,686 over those in 1929-30. Thegrowth in expenditures during this period has been possible through special gifts for this project, increased collections from patients, and the assumption of the financial operation of the Chicago Lying-in Hospital and theCountry Home for Convalescent Crippled Children.An examination of the ten-year trend of expendituresin the other divisions of the budget indicates that, ascompared with 1929-30, declines in expenditures haveoccurred in the Rush Medical College and the OrientalInstitute Divisions, and increases are shown in the Grad uate Library School, the School of Social Service Administration, and the Nursing Education Divisions.One fact which must be borne in mind when considering trends of expenditures in an endowed university isthat, in so far as donors place restrictions on the purposes for which gifts may be expended, the administration is thereby limited as to the types of activities andprojects to be expanded. Thus it is possible that a condition may develop where one aspect of the work of. aninstitution may be generously financed, while at the sametime another no less worthy is considerably handicappedthrough lack of financial support, thereby resulting inan unbalanced program of education and research.During the ten years ended June 30, 1939 the University has received gifts amounting to $56,569,096.54which were designated by donors or applied by theBoard of Trustees to the following purposes :Endowment $26,644,344.98Plant 10,470,882.92Current and sundry 19,453,868.64Total $56,569,096.54BUDGETARY OUTLOOKFrom the foregoing comments it might be concludedthat the University, with its impressive showing of assets,is in an exceedingly strong financial position with littlecause for concern. Such a conclusion is erroneous. Thereal financial condition of an institution must be measured by the ratio of. its resources to its needs, obligations, and opportunities. This liability to and responsibility for serving present and future generations is inno way reflected in a balance sheet. Thus an institutionmay possess substantial amounts of capital yet be quiteimpoverished when available resources are placed sideby side with needs, obligations, and opportunities. TheUniversity of Chicago is in such a position today. Fromits earliest history the University has endeavored tomaintain certain ideals of excellence. If it is to continueto adhere to these high standards, it must in the nearfuture obtain substantial amounts of unrestricted fundsto enable it to bridge the gap between recurring incomeand expenditures; if it is to advance and improve itsservices, it must secure still greater sums.In spite of drastic reductions in expenditures duringthe depression, the decline in the return from investmentsmade it necessary to draw heavily upon reserves, as wellas upon unrestricted gifts which were being held in thehope that they might sometime be available for capitalpurposes. There still remains in reserves and unrestricted gifts a sufficient amount to finance the RegularBudget at approximately the present level for the fiscalyears 1939-40 and 1940-41, provided no further declineis sustained in recurring income; after 1940-41 drasticcurtailment of expenditures will be necessitated unlesslarge sums can be raised to maintain the present program of education and research.[The foregoing is an attempt to present the highlightswith respect to the University's financial affairs. Alumniwho are interested in making a more detailed examination are urged to request a copy of the complete financialreport from the Comptroller. A limited supply is available for distribution.]32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIn the Service of Society (Continued from Page 19)The Twentieth Century Fund, which functions in asomewhat different way, has concerned itself, perhapsmore directly with issues which have arrived more nearlyat the stage of concrete action by government and business groups. It does work under the supervision of committees organized to conduct specific investigations, butthe actual inquiries are made by selected experts chosenbecause of their specific qualifications for the work undertaken. This combination of lay and professionalattack on problems under inquiry gives to the TwentiethCentury Fund a unique freedom in formulating conclusions without impairing its reputation for such impartiality as men of hope and sensitiveness can maintain.The National Bureau of Economic Research aims tobe entirely neutral in economic policy and confines itselfto statistical inquiries and to collecting information uponwhich conclusions may be drawn by others or which canfurnish the basis for additional statistical inquiries.A fourth important institution of research is the Institute of Public Administration. As its name suggests, itis concerned with that vital sphere of human intelligenceand habit which is gradually assuming the proportions ofa science, namely, the art of getting things done withclarity of aim and economy of effort and resource. TheInstitute was, perhaps, the pioneer in America in applying the methods of scientific inquiry to problems of government administration.The work of all these agencies that I have mentioned isnot isolated or unique, for similar institutions have beenestablished from time to time to concentrate on narrowerfields, or to promote the application of the results ofinquiry by whomsoever made. Bureaus of municipalresearch have been established and are maintained inmany cities; groups of individuals have formed ad hoccommittees to study special problems. Business menconduct a unique agency for economic study and education in the Industrial Conference Board. The process ofstudy and inquiry, scientific and pseudo-scientific, impartial, partisan, adequate and sketchy is going on continuously.Lately, government, through the National ResourcesCommittee, has enlisted a board of experts under thechairmanship of Dr. Charles H. Judd [professor emeritus of education] to appraise the resources of scientificinquiry available to the Federal Government, not onlyin the physical sciences but in the social sciences as well.The report on the scientific agencies at work in thephysical sciences has been published. Probably it willnot be long before a similar report will be published onsocial sciences. Supplementing the inquiry by the government, however, is not the time ripe for an appraisalby a privately sponsored board of how we are using andhow best we can use the facilities of social inquiry nowavailable to us?We shall presently be compelled to take action onimportant matters. The question may soon arise as towhat shall be done if the present revival of business failsto reduce unemployment to manageable proportions.How much further shall we go along the path of government spending to "prime the pump" that will not stay primed? Is the difference between a subsistence and apopularly accepted reasonable standard of living so greatas to prevent pump priming from accomplishing what itsauthors expected of it? Is Economist A right and Economist B wrong when they differ as to the ability ofprivate enterprise, properly encouraged, to take up theslack of unemployment ?Is the present social security plan adequate to alleviatethe problem of dependent old age — growing daily, bythe lengthening of life and displacement of old workers,more insistent? If it is not adequate how should it berevised or extended? How can we meet and check thediseases that are attacking our cities, including shifts inpopulation both in location and in character, the out-moding of buildings, the competition of the suburbs, andthe drift toward decentralization, caused by many things,but among them subsidized highways, and cheap cars?Forgive this dismal catalog! Each of you could addmany additional items and few of us would agree on theorder of priority in which they should be listed. Butdo something about them we must. In this doing, welook with expectation for the help of social scientists.We shall need, I repeat, expert services and counsel,but, more than that, we shall need to be intelligent ourselves. To this end, we need good teachers, and weneed men and women who clarify our thinking for usand give us new convictions and, if necessary, new principles. Perhaps we can suspend for a while all thatattention to detail which has so much occupied the timeand the thought of economists particularly, and listenmore to philosophers and less to statisticians. It wasthe great teachers who first awakened interest in thesocial sciences and set the course by which much of thesocial and political progress of the past was accomplished.In America, we are dedicated to the fulfillment of ourprofound conviction that man and society are capableof progress and that progress is the chief aim of ourexistence. We are determined to attain next year whatthe realities of this year deny us. We lack knowledge;we lack wisdom; we lack scientific guidance everywhereand in every relation where the interplay of human intelligence, appetites, ambitions and capacities affect theresult. We live in a society that is not social. We refuse to pool our experience and to cooperate for endsthat otherwise elude and frustrate us. The strong ignorethe strength of the weak, and the weak refuse to harness,for their benefit, the strength of the strong. How shallwe escape from this dilemma? One way is to promotewith renewed vigor and enthusiasm the study of socialprocesses and activities and to seek to build immediatelyaround us a sensible society.No greater opportunity awaits the universities thanto elevate the profession of the social scientist, for withhis guidance we shall more quickly rid ourselves ofobstacles to progress and develop more skillfully thoseinstitutions, old and new, on which our welfare depends.No university has a clearer summons to answer this callthan this distinguished institution in the heart of America, the University of Chicago.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33Books(Continued from Page 3)the corporation to indicate whatchanges these institutions may have toundergo to keep pace with developingsocial change.I missed most in Mr. Sharp's discussion any explicit formulation of a unifying thread for his discussion of relationships between law and society.Yet his material all but suggests oneand cries out for its recognition. Thediscussion in chapter 2 would be particularly enriched if Mr. Sharp wouldraise the question whether judges areoracles of a law that is rooted in thenature of things, or — while carriers ofa tradition, a discipline and a technique—are creators of the law they expound.It is, one may submit, because judgesare such creators that they can serveas the focal points at which social pressures can be directed in order to bringabout in the law changes that will correspond to or facilitate those occurringin the rest of society. If, on the contrary, an impersonal body of fundamental principles and rules speaksthrough the mouths of judges, the adaptation of law to social change becomesan inexplicable mystery except to mystics and dealers in the occult.Mr. Gregory's three chapters presenta clear and straightforward summaryof the highlights of our law of laborunion activity. He presents with particularly engaging clarity the grossunfairness of the judicial misuse of thelabor injunction, the judicial emasculation of the labor clauses in the ClaytonAct, and the effect of the antagonismbetween the A. F. of L. and the C. I. O.on the stormy history of the NationalLabor Relations Board. The openingchapter summarizes the common law oflabor organization in State and Federalcourts; the last two deal with statutoryrestrictions and encouragements s* tounion activity. This is an admirablycalm and lucid introduction to a subject that is replete with hates and judicial inconsistencies. And Mr. Gregory'smaterial reenforces strongly the theory°f the nature of the judicial processwhich Mr. Sharp's chapters suggest.For the most part Mr. Gregory manages to hold the scales even and to bescrupulously fair to both employer andemployee in discussing the efforts of labor to secure recognition of its unions.In his last half-dozen pages, however,he falters, and he closes on a particularly lame note indeed when he seemsunable to determine whether the Wisconsin "Employment Peace Act" is less"liberal" than the "little Wagner Act,"which it recently replaced. Mr. Greg ory's defence of labor's demand that itsunions be recognized seems in finalanalysis to be based exclusively on theconsideration that the alternative isviolent industrial conflict. To that heprefers collective bargaining. But he isfrightened by the prospect of labor'sstrength, and foresees union "deals withindustry, tying up employment conditions, including wages, to the detrimentof the entire community and to the exclusion of millions of unemployed fromjobs." He even finds that "the brightest feature" of the opposition betweenthe C I. O. and the A. F. of L. "is thecompetition between these two factions,each ready to undercut the other indealing with employers who are willingto play one off against the other whenever possible. From this competitionand from the ever present possibility ofindependent, unaffiliated employee organizations, there is perhaps some hopethat the unions will not secure overwhelming power." This is to miss entirely the lesson that may be learnedfrom such giant unions as the Amalgamated Clothing Workers and the United Mine Workers as to the capacity of unions to develop group discipline, and to simplify the problem ofindustrial management by enabling labor to contribute to planning the operations of an industry with due regardfor the interests of employer, employeeand consumer. It seems clear that wecan make no progress at all towardfashioning social controls of the industrial process, to harness it for socialends, until the opportunities for competitive exploitation of labor are barredby the social acceptance of labor unions and the institution of collectivebargaining.Or so it seems to me. The point Iwould close on is not a personal difference with some of the views of the authors but the promising character ofthese vivid and timely discussions bytwo associate professors in a reinvig-orated law school.Philip M. Glick, '29, JD'30Chief, Land Policy DivisionOffice of the Solicitor,U. S. Department of Agriculture,Washington.r~n ©fje tfnfoeriitp of Chicago^f UmVGRSICp COLLCGGIN THE LOOPPUBLIC LECTURESTUESDAY6:45 to 7:46 P. Hi.The Art Institute11:00 A. M. to12:30 P. M.18 S. Michigan Ave.7:00 to 8:30 P. M.18 8. Michigan Ave.WEDNESDAYS6:45 to 7:45 P. M.The Art Institute6:45 to 8:15 P. M.18 S. Michigran Ave.FRIDAYS6:45 to 7:45 P. M.The Art Institute6:45 to 8:15 P. M.18 S. Michigran Ave.4:15 to 5:45 P. M.18 S. Michigran Ave. WINTER QUARTER 1940RECENT DRAMAS — 5 lecture-readings by Davis Edwards(Jan. 9 to Feb. 6). (Series, $1.50.)FIVE GREAT POETS IN ENGLISH ROMANTICISM— 5 lectures by Carl H. Grabo (Feb. 13 to Mar. 12). (Series, $1.50.)?CHINESE PAINTING: THE INDEPENDENTS— 10 illustratedlecture-conferences by Lucy Driscoll (Jan. 9 to Mar. 12).(10 sessions, $10.00.)?PSYCHOLOGY AND MODERN ART— 10 illustrated lecture-conferences by Lucy Driscoll (Jan. 9 to Mar. 12). 10 sessions, $10.00). (Also given Wednesdays, 11 A. M. to 12:30P. M.)" THE CARD3BEAN DANGER ZONE— 5 lectures by J. FredRippy (Jan. 10 to Feb. 7). (Series, $1.50.)*OUR FOOD AND PRESENT-DAY CHEMISTRY— 10 non-credit lecture-conferences by Dr. Herbert E. Robinson (Feb.21 to Apr. 24). (10 sessions, $5.00.)?SAFETY EDUCATION — 10 noncredit lecture-conferences byDr. Leslie W. Irwin (Jan. 10 to Mar. 13). (10 sessions,$7.00.)ARCHEOLOGY AND THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATIONS INTHE NEAR EAST— 5 illustrated lectures by Waldo H.Dubberstein (Jan. 12 to Feb. 9). (Series, $1.50.)THE ROLE OF STATISTICS IN BUSINESS, TECHNOLOGY,EDUCATION, AND GOVERNMENT— 10 lecture-conferencesby Special Lecturers (Feb. 2 to Apr. 12). (10 sessions,$5.00; single admission, $1.00.)?WOMAN MEETS THE LAW— 10 lecture-conferences byB. Fain Tucker (Jan. 12 to Mar. 15). (10 sessions, $5.00.)?FUNDAMENTALS IN THE CULTURES OF ASIA— 10 lecture-conferences by Sunder Joshi (Jan. 12 to Mar. 15). (10sessions, $5.00.)Admission to lectures, 50 cents. — No single admission to conferences.Tickets on sale downtown at University CollegeFor detailed announcement regarding public lectures, addressUNIVERSITY COLLEGE ?J!7&£ftKK££:?S;NEWS OF THE CLASSES1882From F. G. Stueber, MD, Rush, inLima, Ohio, we have received a cordialnote, saying "I love to think of thoseearly days." Dr. Stueber hears fromhis classmates occasionally and wouldenjoy having any members of the '82graduating class of Rush write to him.1892David D. Haggard, MD, Rush, having retired from active medical practicein Phillipsburg, Kansas, now resides inLos Angeles, Calif.1897Mrs. Edward S. ' Mead writes usfrom Philadelphia that she is a housewife but after twenty years of bringingup children, she enjoys freedom to workon boards and committees. Mrs. Meadworks with the YWCA, AAUW andother such groups.1894D. S. Hayes, MD, Rush, is living inSan Anselmo, Calif. Before his retirement, Dr. Hayes was a Major in theMedical Corps of the United StatesArmy.1902William Alonzo James completedhis forty-third year as principal of Ball high school in Galveston, Texas, lastJune. Mr. James was formerly president of the County Board of Education,delegate to World Federation ofEducational Associates and member ofthe Legislative Commission of NationalEducation Association of the UnitedStates.Aaron F. Schmitt, MD, Rush, ofMinneapolis, Minn., has been in retirement for a number of years. But whenDr. Schmitt was in active practice, heserved as secretary of Southern Minnesota Medical Association for nine years,member of the State Board of MedicalExaminers for six years and Dr.Schmitt has held many other positionsof honor and trust.1903George Senn, SM, MD '04, whoseson is a freshman at the University ofChicago this year and whose daughter,Gertrude, attended the University lastyear, is one of the outstanding surgeonsof the country. Dr. Senn lives in GreenBay, Wisconsin.1904Charles M. Barber, of Albuquerque, New Mexico, has recently retired in favor of golf. Mr. Barber was Executive Vice President of the MaytagResearch Laboratories. He is the pastchairman of the County RepublicanParty and past District Governor ofthe Rotary.1905J. Leonard Hancock, PhD '13, hasan occupation which most of us wouldvote for with a yes. Because of thewar, Mr. Hancock cancelled his arrangements for study at Oxford andtravel in Europe and is now taking aseventeen-year-delayed sabbatical. Heswings around from New Orleans andMexico City via the west coast to Vancouver including the Black Hills andthe northern Ontario forests.1906From Greater Kansas City we haveword of John S. Wright, JD '07, whohas served recently as special counselfor the Kansas City Election Board. Heis also on the Executive Committee ofthe Lawyers' Association of KansasCity, and is, of course, a member of theMissouri Bar Association.1908James H. Gagnier, DB '15, of Kalamazoo, Mich., fell and injured himself. . . . WITH THE OLD-TIMEFLA VOR FOLKS HANKER FORISWIFT'S BROOKFIELD ' SWIFT'S BROOKFIELDPure Pork SAUSAGE i Pure Pork SAUSAGEin Patties There's a tempting promise in the air . . .a fragrance that tantalizes freshly-wakenedappetites . . . when Swift's Brookfield PurePork Sausage is on the breakfast menu.Selected cuts of pork, delicately seasoned,give this famous sausage its old-time flavor.Rigid temperature control in manufactureand delivery keeps it deliciously fresh.Enjoy Swift's Brookfield Sausage oftenthis fall and winter. Ask your neighborhooddealer for a pound today. in LinksSWIFT & COMPANY34THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE|ast June. We are glad to report thatjlr. Gagnier's leg is healing and thatsoon he will be completely recovered.1909Leonard Bloomfield, PhD, who hasbeen since 1927 Professor of Germanicphilology, and since 1934 chairman ofthe Department of Linguistics at theUniversity of Chicago, has been appointed Sterling Professor of Linguistics at Yale University.1911Ortha L. Plunkett, LLB, of Robinson, Illinois, who was formerly StatesAttorney, is now City Attorney.1912Victoria W. McAlmon is Placement Coordinator with the Los AngelesCity College in Los Angeles. Miss McAlmon is a former Vice-President ofthe Farmer-Labor Party in Minnesota.Morris H. Briggs of Chicago, 111. isa dealer in rare books and has his officesat 506 S. Wabash Ave.Mrs. Edwin J. Walker is living inJackson Heights, Long Island, N. Y.BUSINESSDIRECTORYSTUDENT DIRECTORYThe Dean of Students Office hasprinted a directory of students nowin residence at the University of Chicago. This publication is widely usedby the administrative offices and bythe students themselves. No doubtmany of the alumni would be interested in it.In addition to names of studentsand their addresses, there is also contained in this publication informationvaluable to all those interested in theUniversity of Chicago. The Directorysells for twenty-five cents and can beobtained through the University ofChicago Bookstore, the InformationOffice, and the Board of VocationalGuidance and Placement, University°f Chicago.AMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENT Ray T. Wilkin, advertising director of The New York Daily News since1921, died on December 14 in Bronxville, N. Y., after a month's illness. Hewas 48 years old. He is survived byhis widow, Mrs. Helen WachsmuthWilkin, and two children, Ray Theodore, Jr., 19, and Justine 22.A member of Chi Psi fraternity hewas keenly interested in all sports,having played baseball and football incollege. He was also a great golf enthusiast. •; He was vestryman in ChristChurch, Bronxville, a member of theBoard of Governors of Lawrence Hospital and was on the board for theCommunity Chest Drive.1913Clara Belle Allen has retired fromactive teaching in Chicago HighSchools, and is now living in Los Angeles, Calif.Walter H. Smith, JD '15, is practicing law in Whiting, Indiana.1915I. J. Gaines has been head of thedepartment of Latin in the Savannah(Ga.) High School for many years,but recently has been appointed the headof the department of Foreign Languages, Savannah High School.An adventurer, Franklin B. Evans,Chicago broker by profession, recalls atrip a few years ago that causes us tobe a bit envious. He flew from Chicagoto the Arctic Circle, then to NewOrleans and back to Chicago in 1936.Mr. Evans is President of the SouthShore Country Club, a partner in thePaul H. Davis Company and a directorof other Midwest corporations. Mr.Evans believes there is a great futurefor Alaska.1916Robert G. Buzzard, SM '17, whowas a member of the original University of Chicago Ambulance Company,Section 555, USAAC, during the WorldWar, is President of the Eastern Illinois State Teachers College in Charleston, 111. Mr. Buzzard is a member of.the Rotary and American Legion also.Morris M. Leighton, PhD, headsthe Illinois Geological Survey down inUrbana, 111. Mr. Leighton is busy thesedays with administrative duties connected with the construction of the newNatural Resources Building on thesouth campus of the University of Illinois. This building will house the Natural History and Geological Surveys.1919J. E. Hartzler, AM, who is a lecturer in Systematics at Hartford Seminary Foundation in Hartford, Conn.,has a 340 acre ranch near Kansas Cityloaded with fine Hereford cattle, whichhe claims is a hobby. He has servedas president of Goshen College inGoshen, Ind., of Bethel College in Newton, Kansas, of Witmarsum TheologicalSeminary in Bluffton, Ohio, and professor of philosophy and religion at theAmerican University, Beirut. BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's HotelIn th.University of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorPETERSONFireproof WarehouseSTORAGE — MOVINGForeign — DomesticShipments55th & Ellis Phone, MID 9700HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE_ AFTER19 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseALSOELECTROLYSIS EXPERTMultiple SO platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of Hair from Face,Eyebrows, Bade of Neck or any partof Body; destroys S00 to 600 Hair Rootsper hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.1 7 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth In Beauty36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIR &WELDING CO.BOILER REPAIRING AND WELDING24 HOUR SERVICE1408 S. Western Ave. Tel. Canal 6071BOOK BINDERSW. B. CONKEY COMPANYHammond, IndianaPrinters and BindersofBooks and CatalogsSales OfficesCHICAGO NEW YORKBOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900— 090 1Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CEMENT CONTRACTORST. A. REHNQUIST CO. CEMENTf CONTRACTORSFLOORSSIDEWALKSVAULT WALKSAll REPA,RSest. .929 phones BEVerly 0890Yard: 6639 So. VernonCHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, M2B. R. Harris, '2 1Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6 1 920Evelyn Mae Boyd, AM, AssistantProfessor of English of Grinnell College, is the Alumni advisor of ThetaSigma Phi and Women's Press Club.She is on the editorial board of theGrinnel College Magazine and ofParchment, American College QuillClub publication.H. de Forest, PhD, professor ofbotany of the University of Southern California, sums up the last tenyears as, "The uneventful life of auniversity professor in a subject moreor less remote from economics." Professor de Forest has a hobby — Japanesetea bowls. He is also interested in suchthings as desert vegetation, the researchwork of his graduate students, and inaddition, he takes an active interest inthe Ecological Society of America.Arthur C. Wickenden, AM, BD'21, PhD '31, who is the author of YouthLooks at Religion, is Professor of Religion and Director of Religious Activities at Miami University in Oxford,Ohio. Mr. Wickenden is also a memberof the National Council of the YMCA.1921Stella Helen Sutherland, AM, isteaching and writing. She has beentraveling and doing research this Falland looks forward to more of it thiswinter. Her address is 397 State Street,Albany, N. Y.1922From Kenosha, Wisconsin, comesword that Paul A. Davis, who is oneof the National Committeemen for theAlumni Foundation of the University ofChicago, is still in the Sales PromotionDivision of the Simmons Company ofthe same town.Mattie M. Dykes, AM, of Maryville,Mo., is teaching English in the Northwest Missouri State Teachers Collegethere.Jeannette H. Foster, AM, PhD'35, holds the position of assistant director of the Drexel Institute of Technology in Philadelphia.1923G. W. Koivun, MD '27, is servingas physician and surgeon at Moline,111. Dr. Koivun is another alumnus whois working with the Alumni Foundation.Chuan-Hua Lowe has moved fromShanghai, Hong Kong, where he is associated with the Hong Kong & Shag-hai Bank. He is the author of China'sLabour Movement and Japan's Undeclared War in Shanghai. His latest publication is Japan's Economic Offensivein China.Agness Todd Miller, AM, is instructor in English at the Santa AnaJunior College in Santa Ana, Calif.Miss Miller is also Assistant to theDean of Women at the Junior College.In Austin, Texas, on December 7, 8,and 9 the inauguration of Homer PriceRainey, AM, PhD '24, as president ofthe University of Texas, took place.From state universities, learned societies, foundations and other groupscame several thousand persons to attendthe series of preinaugural conferences. Professor Newton I. Edwards of theUniversity of Chicago presented a paperon "The Oncoming Youth Populationof Texas and Their Educational Needs."President Clarence A. Dykstra, '08, 0fthe University of Wisconsin, gave apaper on "For the Training of Leadersfor Democracy."L. Harper Whitcraft, AM, pastpresident of the Muncie, IndianaKiwanis Club and member of the Muncie Welfare Council, is Professor ofMathematics and Head of the department of Mathematics at Ball StateTeachers College in Muncie.1924George Russell Crisler, PhD '28MD '31, who is on the NationalCommittee of the University AlumniFoundation, is practicing medicine inWinter Park, Florida. Dr. Crisler is amember of the committee for the BakerMuseum of National Science which provides working space, etc., for visitingscientists.On the C.B.S. national hook-upDavid McKeith, Jr., preaches on theprogram, "Church of the Air." Mr.McKeith is pastor of the Asylum HillCongregational Church in Hartford,Conn.Emma A. Eggenberger, AM, head ofthe department of Social Studies, Wood-row Wilson high school in Long Beach,Calif., wrote a course of study for theUnited States History used in the seniorhigh schools of Long Beach in 1933.Will Geer, the fifth actor to don therags of Jeeter Lester on Broadway, entered the cast of "Tobacco Road" onDecember 18, 1939. Prior to this engagement, Mr. Geer played the role ofDr. Hansen in Pare Lorenz's documentary film based on Paul De KruifsFight for Life.1925Louise Barrett continues as registrar of Virginia State College at Petersburg, Virginia.Hazel Floyd, AM, spent last summerteaching at the University of Texas.Miss Floyd is the Director of Elementary Education at Stephen F. AustinTeachers College, Nacogdoches, Tex.Her hobby is that of collecting children's writings.Robert A. Lundy became pastor ofthe Central Baptist Church in SanFrancisco, this year after living in Al-turas, California, during the past fouryears.1926Edwin T. Hellebrandt is an Associate Professor of Economics at OhioUniversity in Athens, Ohio. Mr. Hellebrandt is one of the many alumni working for the Alumni Foundation of theUniversity of Chicago.Lille M. Howe is professor of Spanish at Western College in Oxford, Ohio.Clair C. Olson, AM, PhD '38, headsthe English department at College of thePacific, Stockton, Calif.Lawrence A. Williams, SM '2/>MD '30, recently opened offices for thepractice of internal medicine at Fasa-dena, Calif.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 371927j. Harold Caesar, AM '32, principal0f Vanderlaan Junior High School in]\|uskegon, Michigan, takes an active interest in church work as he is a member0f the Board of Deacons and Superintendent of the Bible School of the FirstBaptist Church of Muskegon. Mr.Caesar is also secretary of the Muskegon Teachers Country Club.C. E. Dankert, AM, PhD '30, whotook his economics at Chicago, is Assistant Professor of Economics atDartmouth College at Hanover, NewHampshire.Lulu M. Dysart, AM, has servedas the principal of the Girls' Trade andTechnical high school in Milwaukee,Wis., since 1937. Miss Dysart beganher work there as vice principal in 1928.She is another who spent the summer inEurope and returned just in time. MissDysart is a member of many organizations, including the AdministrativeWomen's Club.Mrs. Inez Ely Keepers teaches history at Calumet high school in CalumetCity, Illinois. In addition, Mrs. Keepers manages a farm at Wyoming, N. Y.,and raises Guernsey cattle.1928Wilson F. Payne, AM '30, of Bab-son Institute in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has recently written an article,Economic Leadership in Europe, whichwas published in The QuartermasterR e v i e w, November-December issue,1939.1929Grace Galentine is teaching English at Goshen High School in Goshen,Ind. Miss Galentine is a member of theAlumni Foundation National Committee.Having just returned from Paris,Ruth McNeil has resumed her instructorship in piano and organ at theUniversity of Mississippi. While inParis, Miss McNeil spent six monthsstudying under Philipp and Dupre.She is president of the Women's Faculty Club at the University of Missis-,sippi.Clara E. Rainskile is connectedwith the Morrill Crippled Children'sBranch of Lindblom High School inChicago. Miss Rainskile teaches historyand English. She comments that sheenjoys all of the Magazine.1930Edward Nicholas Anderson, MD,was the football coach of Iowa's amazing Hawkeyes, which, last fall, rosefrom the depths of the Big Ten almostto the top.Dorothy Cahill plans to get hertaster's degree at the University ofChicago soon. At the present time MissCahill is also teaching French at theHarvard School for Boys. She lives at1755 E. 55th Street.Verle Nelson Fry, JD, who wasformerly with the Federal Bureau ofInvestigation, is now practising law inLos Angeles, Calif. 1931Mrs. Robert W. Beasley (Cora Miller), now lives in San Francisco, California. Mrs. Beasley taught sociology atthe University of Wyoming until hermarriage in 1937.Bernard Drell, AM '34, PhD '39,is now an instructor of history at Superior State Teachers College, Superior,Wisconsin.Edgar Emerson (Eisenstaedt), PhD'38, has recently assumed his duties asinstructor in Hillyer Junior College inHartford, Connecticut.John C. Jensen, who is connectedwith the H N. Elteich, Inc., an export advertising agency, is flyingthrough the West Indies, South America and Central America via PanAmerican Airways at the present time.Mary Luella Mielenz, AM, is asupervisor in the University High, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb.1932Wendell R. Godwin, AM, is superintendent of schools in La Porte, Ind.Helen Schmidt, a teacher of Latin,was recently transferred from Stein-metz high school to Taft high schoolhere in Chicago. Miss Schmidt enjoystraveling and while en route, takes snapshots of most everything.1933Delia May Forgey, AM, is instructor in Institution Economics, State College of Washington, and also dieticianof the North and South Halls on thecollege campus.Orus F. Krumboltz, PhD, began hiswok as Professor of Chemistry on November 15, 1939 at Huron College,Huron, S. D.John A. Nietz, PhD, has been promoted to a full professorship in education at the University of Pittsburgh.Mr. Nietz has a tremendous collectionof old text books, of which nearly 3,000books are over 50 years old. In thiscollection are two Horn Books: one ismade of pewter with an engraved dateof 1729, the other is of wood coveredwith horn and is possibly over 300 yearsold. The alphabet of the latter containsno "j" or "u."Leo D. Ovson is vice president incharge of production of the Ovson EggCo., packers of frozen canned eggs.William J. Winter is now Assistant Director of Research and Archeologist, of the St. Augustine HistoricalProgram, which program is being carried on under the direction of CarnegieInstitute of Washington with a view tothe preservation and restoration of historical St. Augustine, Fla., the oldestcity in the United States.1934C. D. Bussey, MD, having finishedhis Fellowship in Surgery at the MayoClinic, is now practicing surgery inDallas, Tex. COALEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 19027 YARDSALL OVER TOWNMAIN OFFICE252 West 69th StreetTelephone Wentworth 3215Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wesson DoesCOFFEE -TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE.. CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Botton— New York— Philadelphia— SyracuseELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER WIRING600W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneSeeley 2788FLOWERS/-%/*r iiW CHICAGOg/KjJ^ Established 1865^ FLOWERSPhones: Plaza 6444, 64451 645 E. 55th StreetGRAPHIC ARTSTHE SCRIPTORIUMScribes • Illuminators • BindersC L RICKETTS JASPER S KINGTITLE PAGES; ANNIVERSARY, CHRISTMAS, WEDDING and GUEST BOOKS;COATS OF ARMSGENEALOGIES, MEMORIALS,RESOLUTIONS, BOOK PLATES•DIPLOMAS, AWARDS, HONORARY DEGREES, CHARTERSValued papers and letters restoredand bound38 SOUTH DEARBORN STREETDEARBORN 000I • CHICAGOVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE38 THE UNIGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL LAUNDRY SERVICESAlsoZoric System of Cleaning- : - Odorless Quality Cleaning - : -Phone Oakland 1383LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoLITHOGRAPHERL C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182OFFICE FURNITURE5TEELCA5E°oI?izs£nGJSS Eqzziprtn&irt 0FILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan PAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86 M. F. Smiley, SM '35, PhD '37,member of the National Committee ofthe University Alumni Foundation, isan instructor in mathematics at the Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pa.1935John P. Barden, JD '38, who is associated with the law firm of Carter,Ledyard and Melburn, 2 Wall Street,New York City, writes:"Law practice is much more excitingthan the newspaper business and Idon't get this way because of any natural penchant for liking anything I do.This business of playing with otherpeople's money is as nerve-wrackingand stimulating as anything you wouldimagine. I never know what is goingto hit me next when I get to the deskeach morning. I have settled suits,closed deals, assisted at argument,drawn procedural papers, drafted reorganization (railway) documents, written memoranda on a wide variety oftopics, investigated commercial fraudand tort cases, written opinion letters,and instructed correspondent firms. Inspite of the fact that everything has tobe passed by a partner. I am probablydrunk with power. They never knowas much as their associates about thelaw of any problem, although theyalways have a firm, practical grasp ofthe problems and enough law to knowwhether they are being offered nonsenseor not."Hyman Heller, MD, of Webster,Mass., makes athletics his hobby. Dr.Heller has served as secretary of theWebster-Dudley Medical Society.Hal James, associated with theCompton Advertising, Inc., has recentlybeen elected a member of the WesternUniversity Club, a newly formed organization for midwestern and western college graduates in New York.Jack Anderson, who has been withthe General Motors Acceptance Corporation for a number of years, hasnotified us of his change of address fromBeaumont to Houston, Tex.1936Norman H. Nachtieb has beenawarded the J. T. Boker Fellowship inAnalytical chemistry, Midwest Division,for 1939-1940. Mr. Nachtieb will workunder the direction of Dr. W. C. Pierceon studies of spectrographic chemicalanalysis.Eda Wight, PhD, who served as amember of the Board of Directors ofthe Boys' Club in Dubuque, Iowa, andChairman of the Laboratory Committeeof Dubuque Guidance Association recently, is Dean of the College of LiberalArts, at the University of Dubuque,Iowa. Miss Wight is one of the National Committeemen of the AlumniFoundation.1937Edwin J. Crockin, who was Assistant Director of the Chicago CommunityForum Service, a forum promotingagency and speakers' bureau when in Chicago not so long ago, is ResearchAssistant in the Bureau of Public Administration at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.Henry E. Dewey, PhD, is principalof Roosevelt High school in EmporiaKansas. Mr. Dewey is also secretaryof the Kansas chapter of the AmericanAssociation of University Professorssecretary of the Emporia Consumers'Federal Credit union and a member ofthe Forum club.Leila L. Woods, AM, now Dean ofWomen at Dickinson State Teachers'College, Dickinson, North Dakota, hasunder her charge all of the girls' dormitories, the College, Cafeteria and theN. Y. A.1938B. LeRoy Burkhart, PhD, whospecializes in the New Testament, beganhis work as Head of the Department ofDivinity down at the College of theOzarks, Clarksville, Arkansas, on thefirst of January, 1940.Bland B. Button, Jr., is now withthe Diversey Corporation in Chicago.Helmut M. Engelman, PhD, hasbeen appointed research chemist for thedu Pont Company in Wilmington, Del.McCrea Hazlett, AM, is an instructor in English at Westminster College,New Wilmington, Pa. This is Mr. Haz-lett's second year there.Myron Taggart Hopper, PhD, isprofessor of Religious Education at theCollege of the Bible in Lexington, Ky.Prior to his present post he was National Director of young people's workfor the Department of Religious Education of the Disciples of Christ. Mr.Hopper served as one of the adult leaders of the World Conference of Chris-tion Youth held at Amsterdam in theNetherlands in 1939. Mr. Hopper wasformerly president of the Peace Fellowship of the Disciples of Christ.Guss S. Kass was appointed recentlychief chemist of Products Corporationof America, Chicago.Gordon H. Roper, AM, is now assistant instructor in English at Yaleand plans to continue his work on hisPhD in American Literature at Chicago. His new address is 1 TempletonStreet, West Haven, Conn.1939Bernard Edelstein has recently accepted employment as chemist with theNational Oil Products Company, Harrison, N. J.Reuben Fershko has located withUnited Color and Pigment Company ofChicago.Lillian Kenney is employed in TheTesting Laboratories of Sears Roebuckand Company in Chicago.Clarence G. van Arm an is nowconnected with the Price Extract Company in Chicago.William Maclean Work, Jr. hasbeen working for the American CanCompany since his graduation last June.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 39E. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3192PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579MUSIC PRINTERSHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERSI — SINCE 1906 + WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES ?+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ?* ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE +pRAYNER^• DALHEIM &CO.205* W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO.PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions" SOCIAL SERVICEMiss Abbott and Miss Walker attended the Annual Meeting of theAmerican Public Welfare Associationin Washington, D. C, on December 8,9, and 10. Many former students of theSchool were in attendance at thismeeting.Morton Freedman, AM '39, has accepted a position with the Children'sand Minors' Service of Chicago.Kate Meyer, AM '39, has been appointed Social Service Technician withthe Works Progress Administration inDecatur, Illinois.Cecilia Paul Eisman, AM '39, hasaccepted a position with the Jewish Social Service Bureau of Chicago.A new Social Service Monographis now off the Press: "A History ofContagious Disease Care in ChicagoBefore the Great Fire" by ConstanceWebb, AM '39.Arthur Miles, AM '36, who is nowat the School working on his PhD willbegin teaching some classes at GeorgeWilliams College the first of the year.George Louden, AM '37, has recently left the Juvenile Court of theDistrict of Columbia to accept a position with the Child Welfare Servicesof Alaska.Mark T. Goldstine, AM '37, hasleft the Council of Social Agencies ofChicago to work as District Representative in the Department of Old AgeAssistance in Illinois.Bernice Sheinfeld, AM '37, hasaccepted a position with the IndustrialDivision of the U. S. Children'sBureau.Malcolm Stinson, AM '37 , has resigned his position with the Departmentof Old Age Assistance in the state ofIllinois to join the staff of the SocialSecurity Board in Washington.Ann Kaufman, AM '38/ formerlyConsultant in the Children's Division ofthe State Department of Public Welfarein Indiana, has been made Case Supervisor in the Jewish Family WelfareAssociation of Minneapolis.Irwin Walker, AM '38, has resigned his position with the Children'sDivision of the State Department ofPublic Welfare in Kansas to accept aposition with the Social Security Boardin Washington. Elizabeth Godwin,AM '38, has also recently ioined thestaff of the Social Security Board.Norman Lazarus, AM '38, has accepted a position as Statistician with theDepartment of Old Age Assistance inIllinois.Albert Goldstein, AM '38, has leftthe State Department of Public Welfarein Maryland to be the Director of theJewish Vocational Service in Baltimore.Regina Mendel, AM '39, has beenappointed Supervisor of Social Servicein the Orthopedic Hospital of Lincoln,Nebraska.Clara Tappe, AM '39, has accepteda position with the Family Welfare Society of Milwaukee. RESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South Sidela&w*ni.iCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 WoodJawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324RUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED2313 E. 71st St. PLone Dor. 0009COMMERCIAL SCHOOLSIntensive Stenographic CourseI FOR COLLEGE MEN & WOMEN100 Words a Minute in 100 Bays As- .a•ured for one Fee. Enroll NOW. Day w*elanei only — Begin Jan., Apr., Julyand Oat. Write or Phone Ban. 1575. .18 S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO ^MlHiMfcWilM:MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial SchoolB.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130SCHOOL— SHORTHANDYour whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.LearnGREGGthe world's fastest shorthand.SHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing•1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893STOCKS— BONDS— COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, 'II. H. 1. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W . Davis, '16 F. B. Evans, 'IIPaul H. Davis & Co.Member*New York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock ExchangeChicago Board of Trade10 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622VERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE40 THE UNITEACHERS' AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One FeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY, MO. SPOKANENEW YORKHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, 111.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, Normal School,College and University PatronageUNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492VENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767 Frances Partridge, AM '39, has recently gone to Honolulu to work in theLehai Home.Phyllis Dunne, AM '39, has accepted a position as social worker inthe Pediatric-Psychiatric Unit of theLeland Stanford School of Medicine.Stuart Jaffary, PhD '39, has resigned his position on the faculty of theSchool of Social Work at Tulane University to accept a position in the Department of Social Science of theUniversity of Toronto.BORNTo Dr. Nathan C. Plimpton, Jr.,'34, MD '37, and Mrs. Plimpton a son,David Blair, on November 23, at Rochester, Minn.To Robert S. La mon, '30, and Mrs.Lamon (Jean Keefe), '28, of Villa-vicencio, Columbia, a son, Scott Alexander Lamon, on October 4 at PanamaCity, Panama.ENGAGEDMarion Reed Sibley of Pontiac, Michigan, to Jack Bracken, '37, on December 25 in Clayton, Mo. Miss Sibleyis attending Michigan State NormalCollege a Ypsilanti and Mr. Bracken isconnected with the Regional Adviserprogram of the University of Chicago.Gertrude Wassermann, who is studying at the present time at the University of Chicago, to Edwin S. Fetcher,Jr., PhD, '34, who is Research Associate in physiology.marriedEdward Jackson Baur, AM '38, toLillian Jacobey of Lincoln, Nebraska,who was a summer student in SocialService Administration last summer atChicago, on December 26, 1939 in NewOrleans.Patricia Davis, '38, to Robert H.Bethke, '37, on December 16, 1939 inKenilworth, 111. Mr. and Mrs. Daviswill live at Kew Gardens, Long Island,New York after their brief honeymoonthrough the south.Sara Roberta Mohn, to Albert Edgecombe, PhD, on November 23, 1939 inChicago.Amorette Lee Freese, AM '38, toPaul Charles von John of Cleveland,Ohio, on September 2. Mr. and Mrs.von John are living at 1675 FranklinAvenue in Columbus, Ohio for the present.Edwin S. Hamilton, '13, MD '13,offices in the Volkmann Building inKankakee, 111., to Zona Clark, on December 1, 1939.Veronica Durkee to Maurice J. Mc-Elligott, MD '27, of Boston, on November 28, 1939, in Boston. Dr. andMrs. Elligott will make their home inWestfleld, Massachusetts.Elaine Ogden, '36, AM '38, to Gordon McNeil, '35, AM '37, on December21 at Hilton Chapel. They are livingat 6231 Drexel Avenue. Milton M. Plumb, '34, to LibbyGould- Verschoyle of Dallas, Tex., jSeptember, 1939. Mr. and Mrs. Pl^are now living at 1400 — 29th St., S.BWashington, D. C. Mr. Plumb is on th 'staff of the Library of Congress.Miralotte Lucia Sauer to RaymondWilmarth Ickes, '35, AM '36 Trj'39, son of Harold L. Ickes, '97, JD »q;Secretary of the Interior, on December16, 1939, in Winnetka, 111. Mr. andMrs. Ickes plan to live in New Yorkwhere Mr. Ickes is Assistant UnitedStates Attorney.Bernice Shafer, '39 to R. T. Sanderson, PhD '39, on October 22. Theirhome is now in Sierre Madre, California.Margaret A. Tillinghast, '38, toWilliam H. Stapleton, '36, on November 18, 1939. Mr. and Mrs. Staple-ton are living at 7455 Bennett Ave.,Chicago.Martha Stark, '39, to FarrellToombs, '34, on November 25, 1939 inHannibal, Missouri. After their honeymoon, they will make their home at 5531Kenwood Ave., Chicago.DIEDJessie Mary Averill, '04, on November 27, 1939 in Cedar Rapids, Ia.Luther Dana Fernald, '08, activein the publishing field for thirty years,on December 25, 1939.Calvin M. George, JD '13, Chicagoattorney, on December 12, 1939. Hewas 51 years old.Roscoe Eugene Glass, '09, on September 25, 1939, in Tampa, Florida.Halvor C. Hanson, MD '03, a Chicago physician and surgeon for 36years, on December 10, 1939, in Chicago. He was 58 years old. Sincegraduating from Rush Medical Schoolin 1903, he had been on the staff of theLutheran Deaconess hospital.Charles Eri Hulbert, '01, on Tuly6, 1939 in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Mr.Hulbert was connected with the realestate business until 1924, when he retired. rmnMrs. Tohn Thomas Lister, '00, onJulv 5, 1939 in Wooster, Ohio.J. Craig Redmon, '16, Chicago salesmanager for the Berghoff BrewingCompany, on December 26, 1939, Chicago.Lewis Cass Robinson, '23, SM '24,PhD '35, on December 13, 1939. Mr.Robinson was connected with the University of Kentucky, Geology Department, Lexington, Ky.Harrison Tumpeer, '14, SM '17,MD '16, on November 29, 1939, in Chicago.Ray T. Wilkin, '12, advertising director of The New York Daily News onDecember 14, Bronxville, N. Y. (Seenote under class of 1912.)Dr. Charles Zeleny, PhD '04, professor of zoologv at the University ofIllinois since 1909, on December 21,1939. He was one of the leading geneticists in America.Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments, forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.TO EMPLOYERS AND ALUMNIrT1HE University of Chicago is happy to offer an employmentservice to business houses and college or school administrators of the city and of the nation and to all individual employers of labor on a temporary, a part-time, or a permanentbasis. This makes it possible for alumni and non-alumni employers to make use of the great resources in personnel material available in the various departments of the University.The foremost interest of the Placement Counselors is to recommend to the employers the very best persons available todischarge the duties of any given position whether it be a part-time, temporary position concerned with the home, or a highlyresponsible executive position in a business organization.Trained experts, who understand the needs of the home andof business, will assist you to find the proper college trainedindividual, either man or woman, for any particular work. Donot overlook the convenience of making use of this service tolocate the best employee with a minimum of time and effort.The alumni, can render valuable assistance to this serviceby reporting employment opportunities to us.BOARD OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENTUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOChicago, IllinoisTelephone Midway 0800 — Extension 391With CHEVROLET Gears/lifting isAUTOMATIConlv 20% Driver Effort ! -iveiOnW Chev rolet ho s the New E*<»°Vacuu"1 .power Shi« . • • *he °8()% 0f thechift *hat d°eSn\V *0%e°rS.nd rehires -Wv*odriver e ffortl¦«€£qe It ••Tnt| It ••But|lt!85-H.P. VAlVE-IN-HtAD SIXof Hiirf, Wic/ii-$ 659AND UP gan. Tronjpor-tation basedon rat/ rates,stofe ana* /oca/taxes (if any),optional equipment and accessories — extra. Pricessubject to change without notice. U. vAlmost all cars have steering columngearshifts today — but only one car hasa steering column gearshift that is 80%automatic in operation— and that caris Chevrolet.You can operate Chevrolet's NewExclusive Vacuum-Power Shift with onefinger . . . without taking your hand off thesteering wheel . . . with much less effortand travel than are required to operatethe ordinary steering column gearshift.This New Vacuum-Power Shift isstandard equipment on all Chevroletmodels, at no extra cost. It's exclusiveto Chevrolet for '40 among all carsregardless of price. It's another vitallyimportant reason why "Chevrolet'sFIRST Again!"CHEVROLET MOTOR DIVISION, General Motors SalesCorporation, DETROIT, MICHIGANChevrolet's FIRSTAgain. WHY SHIFT FOR YOUHSHF?Let This Power CylinderShift for You!Why shift for yourself? Why do It thehardwayPChevroIet'sExclusiveVacuum-Power Shift Is controlled from the steer-„n8HC°, Jnn by an e"»»-*h°« lever-itsend right under the rim of the steeringonly effort required of the driver Is tosToh ,Vev«r; the vacuum <*»«<£shif tlr 7 M* eft°rt re<luired to "">« «heshifter forks and gears within the transmission Instead of supplying all theeffort of shifting, the driver suppliesvancuume"fi\h: the —P-t, simplefautaamnmeChaniSm' positive ™* unfiling in operation, does the rest. I