J/fcnod B.R. JEUNIVERSITYOCHICAGO MAGAZIND E C E M B E 19 3 9What Modem life insurance planhas been designed particularly forFathers of Young Children ?THE NEED Nearly everyfather of young™ ^k children wouldV*. agree that hefaces a real lifeinsurance problem. How canhe, within hislimited budget,provide adequate'income protection' for his family at least until hischildren are grown? If anything should'happen,' he wants his wife to beentirely free to watch over the home;for he knows that the greatest giftthat any father can leave his childrenis their mother's time and care. Also,he wants permanent protection for hiswife to continue after their childrenare grown.But when he thinks of his expensesand all the things he wants to do for hisfamily, he wonders, 'How can I affordall this insurance protection now, whenI need it most?'THE POLICY Here is the way thisproblem has already been solved bythousands of fathers of moderate means.For example, a young father takes a NewYork Life 'Family Income Policy' of$10,000 (face amount) with a '20-yearperiod.' If he dies at any time during the '20-year period,' the New York Lifewill pay an income of $100 a month forthe remainder of the 'period'. . . andthen, at the end of the 'period,' will inaddition pay $10,000. To illustrate themaximum of guaranteed payments thatmight be made: If the father died, immediately after the policy was issued,the income payments of $100 a monthwould run for the full 20 years; so thetotal income payments of $24,000 plusthe $10,000 payable at the end of theperiod would amount to $34,000. If heoutlives the '20-year period,' the sumpayable in event of his death would bethe face amount, $10,000. Of course, ifhe lives to retirement age, as so manydo, he can obtain, through his policy, alife income for his later years.And the premium? You will probablybe surprised to learnthat during the '20-year period' the rateis not much higherthan for OrdinaryLife. After the 20thyear it is exactly thesame as the Ordinary Life rate. Inshort, the premiumis very attractive inview of the amount and kind of protection offered. This policy, of course, isalso issued for larger and smaller amounts than $10,000, but $2,000 isthe minimum. Policies with ten, fifteenor twenty-year periods are availableaccording to the age of the father. (As you can see, this policy fills areal need for a greatmany fathers. Aska New York Liferepresentative totell you about it. . . ot write to theHome Office at theaddress below forour Family Incomebooklet.THE COMPANY The New YorkLife aims to provide life insurance at thelowest cost consistent with the amplemargins of safety which the Companyfeels it should always maintain. A policyholder's premium rate cannot be increased above that stated in the policy,but annual dividends, as declared, maybe used to reduce the premium payments. Dividends are derived from earnings of the Company in excess of theamount deemed necessary to keep it ina sound financial condition. Policyholders get their insurance at cost. TheCompany pays dividends to policyholders only. The New York Life is,and has always been, a mutual company.NEW YORK LIFEINSURANCE COMPANYA Mutual Company V- tSSaSSs^ =^& founded April 12, 1845THOMAS A. BUCKNER, Chairman of the Board r r r 51 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. <¦ t > ALFRED L. AIKEN, PresidentSAF.ETY IS ALWAYS THE FIRST CONSIDERATION N OTHING ELSE IS SO IMPORTANT.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCHARLTON T. BECK, '04 REUBEN FRODIN, '33Editor and Business Manager Associate EditorWILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD '22; DON MORRIS, '36; RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36Contributing EditorsN THIS ISSUETHE COVER: Rockefeller stay away from it because it's about subject (where shading indicates theMemorial Chapel in Winter, mathematics! portion of ten). The drawings are byThe photograph is by Capes. • Brownlee Haydon, '35, brother of• We run the second in a series of our other contributing Haydon.The articles in this month's Mag- "yarns" from an unpublished manu- #azine speak for themselves, and need script of the late Phil Allen. Amonglittle introduction. Professor Borgese those who commented on the one ap- Attention is called to the Manu-is the author of a best seller on Fasc- pearing in last month's Magazine scnpt Contest-. Entries are due Jan-ism two years ago called Goliath, and was Ferdinand Schevill, Nonresident uary 15, according to the rules set outwe are happy to be able to present Professor of Modern History, who last month-this "re-examination" of his at a said: "Give us all you can." •critical time in world affairs. Dean » We want to apologize for severalMcKeon's article on the humanities The pictographs on Pages 2Q and typographical mistakes in last month'sand contemporary culture is likewise 21 attempt to portray in graphic form Magazine. One, which we wish todeserving of your special attention. the «major» interests of juniors and correct here, appeared in Professor• seniors in the Division this autumn— Nef's stimulating article, A SocialHarold Haydon, who writes of the in other words the fidd of stud in Science Objective. The first full par-Max and Leola Epstein Art Refer- which they will take their bachelor>s agraph on Page 28 should have read:ence Library, is an artist in his own comprehensive examination. Each fig- "If the social scientist adopts moralright. The son of Professor A. Eu- ure represents ten students, except philosophy and art as his guides, hestace Haydon of the University, Hal where there are less than fen in a wjH be less interested in saying some-Haydon teaches art at George Wil-^^^^^^ thing inconsequential for the firsthams College. Discussing Art from ' — — time, than in saying well somethinga different angle is Monta Bell, one TABLE OF CONTENTS that needs to be said. He will be lessof the veteran motion picture direc-DECEMBER 1939 interested in rendering obsolete thetors and producers, who was invited 'Page works 0f his colleagues and predeces-to the University last month to speak Letters , 2 sors> than in using the materials withunder the auspices of the William - Books 3 which th have suppHed him to iveVaughn Moody Foundation.. Mr. The Essence of Fascism, G. A. Bar- new meaning to the writings of wiseMis observations are fresh and in- your Universe-Its' Future"::::: 8 men- The chief object of social sci-erestmg — hence we are bringing The humanities and Humanisms, ence will no longer be merely themem. to the University's greater audi- Richard McKeon 10 gathering of new data. It will be theence through the Magazine. Education in Art, Harold Haydon. . . 12 ordering of economics political sci-r . • Ho9w \]l0ST My Pants m K- c> Philit,, ence, sociology and psychology to the^nends and former students of „ , " srndv of what i« o-nnrl fnr man wr»V1nProfp«nr Pm»^f«c T »^-r 1 n^i ^ Motion Pictures as an Art? Monta sxnaJ ot vvnat ls gooa tor man> whichfrotessor Emeritus Leonard Dickson Bell 16 ls the province of moral philosophy,and admirers of his mathematical ac- Foundation Progress, Ralph W. and which embraces all the particularumen will be interested in the book Nicholson 19 problems of the social sciences. Thereview appearing in this issue, for Pteuk of Study 20 object of social science will be to illu-which our thanks are due to one of N™s of the Quadrangles, William mjnate 0\A truths in the liVht of newhk f^„ <. j ± -r. c t. i , V. Morgenstern 22 mmd-lc o'u trutns in tne lignt 01 newH ,1 M1" STt"dents'. Procfessor Ralph AthleticSj Don MoMs 24 evidence and experience. That is ther.0t thAe Umversity of British Co- National Committee Members 27 only way of discovering new truthsJ^a- And let not the uninitiated News of the Classes 31 that will have enduring value."El'isPAvS,nld rvthe Alu™ni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St atOffice atTw.,? tIt0' ¦ AnnHal ^bscr'ptI?n«pnCue ?2\°o°™ SK?le ,Sopies 25^cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934 at the Post^V^-^\^^\^&^$£X£n- ^ Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the 'official 'adver'2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELETTERSOUR HOLLYWOOD REPORTERTo the Editor :After 15 years of writing HollywoodSunday features for the Chicago Tribune, I am starving to death in an elevenroom Hollywood hillside patio, fireplaceoutside (what a climate!), rock pools,canary aviary, and many exotic florahereabouts. A breeches buoy slung fromour top floor three hundred feet wouldland me any night in front of the Chinese Theatre for a big opening — if youcare.I don't any more. I'm all worn outwith glitter, and am trying to get areal foothold in serious writing. Didyou see my name on "Jesse James"?Well, some day you'll see the book (abiography) complete, if I can foil thesheriff by pulling up our drawbridgefrom the road side and letting the lilypond fill up the moat which they quaintlycall a "sunken patio" out here.George K. Shaffer, '16, likes it alljust fine, likes California, thinks moviesare a screwy way to make a living,though he manages it somehow.My two kids have been mighty bigabout my retiring from the earning fieldto try to write, but liking to cook gets inthe way of my writing a good deal. Ourson, George, 18, who was barred fromwrestling at Mercersburg prep schoolbecause he used professional bone-crusher holds on a bunch of panty-waistsprepping for Princeton, is now digesting Karl Marx and spewing forth hisripened criticisms thereof in peril of hislife at the nearby "Ham an' Eggs $30Every Thursday" headquarters. Whenhe has time, he gets to his classes atschool. His sister, Rosalind, is a juniorat the University of Southern Californiaand danced in Adolph Bolin's ballet,"Prince Igor," at the Hollywood Bowl,the past summer. If we ever make akilling, we'll send 'em both to the U.of C. for graduate work or some specialwork. Remarkable kids ! Watch for'em in the headlines some day. No, I'mnot proud, just punch nutty from experience.Rosalind Keating Shaffer, '17.Hollywood, Calif.P. S. : In senior and junior years atthe University I was a proud memberof the Gas House Gang: Elsa Freeman,'17, Florence Carroll, '16, Esther JaneHelfrich, '17, Mildred Smith, '18. Whereare they now?Out here I have a pretty good gang,including everything from a Russianprincess to a movie star and anyone ina position to do me good financially. VOICE FROM ITHACATo the Editor :If you did not happen to see the following in the Cornell Alumni News,perhaps you will be interested. The quotation is from a column by RomeynBerry :"The dramatic element in recent events[i.e., Cornell's powerhouse football team— Ed.], which has unquestionablygripped the imagination of the generalpublic, arises from the fact that in recent years it had come to be regardedas impossible for a good college to havea good football team; for a first-classteam to exist in a first-class college."Try this out sometime in one of yourcalmer moments ! Make a list of thedozen colleges and universities of thecountry which, measured by the yardstick of academic integrity, scholarlyaccomplishment, public respect, and cultural dignity, would be pretty sure tostand at the top. Then make anotherlist of the twelve most proficient football teams. Now then, how many namesappear on both lists ? Always one, sometimes two, but never more than two.The first list remains fairly static fromyear to year (with Johns Hopkins andthe University of Chicago always on it) ,while the second changes weekly withthe astonishing rapidity of the auroraborealis."Very truly yours,H. A. Stevenson.Cornell Alumni News,Ithaca, N. Y.[Columnist Berry is better known forhis "Talk of the Town" in the NewYorker. — Ed.]VOICE FROM GOTHAMTo the Editor:Here's a carbon of a letter of mineto Bill Cor urn, Sports Editor of theNew York Journal-American:"I have never seen the University ofChicago except from a Chi taxi. However, I should like to doff my cap, ordip my ensign, or something, to theirfootball team."Bill, (I mean Mr. Corum) have youever had your nose driven in the dirtregularly when you knew you were going to come out on the short end ofa 40-0, 50-0, 60-0 score?"If so, you will understand what I amdriving at. I think the boys should havetheir group pictures blown up andtacked on to the highest ceiling in theUniversity. I do not agree with H.Broun that they hear the tinkle of thePhi Beta Kappa keys as they are thrownfor a ten yard loss. I think they aredoing the best they can with a toughproposition, and who can do more?"Sincerely,R. D. Lusk.New York CityGift ©f 'President's Offi VOICE OF EVANSTONTo the Editor :When I was at the University, I hadconsiderable to do with the encouragingof athletes to attend the University 0fChicago. Enclosed please find a letterfrom one of my fellow students whoseviews are self-explanatory by the letter.Robert Tieken, '27, JD '32.Chicago.[Enclosure]Dear Bob :Enough is too much. I am referringto Harvard, Michigan, and Ohio State.I am, therefore, writing to you in thehope that you know who is doing therecruiting for the Alumni and will handalong to him this very small donation.I wish it were ten times as great butit will at least pay a little postage ortravel expense.As far as I can see we are the onlycity school that has a weak team. Ford-ham, Pennsylvania, Columbia, Minnesota, Washington, California, U. C. L.A. and a flock of others still manageto do pretty well.If you know whom to contact, suggest they write . He's on thefaculty of High School, wherethey have a smashing good team, andmight know some players there andround about that could be worked on.Here's for less culture and more contest on Stagg Field, for a while at least.Allen D. Albert, Jr., '24, PhD'36.Seabury- Western TheologicalSeminary,Evanston, Illinois.VOICE ON EVANSTONTo the Editor:Did you see the following in the November issue of the NorthwesternAlumni News :"Cheap and Flashy""Dear Sir :"Your invitation to Alumni andFriends [of Northwestern'] dated October 10, is at hand. I confess I am notin the least inspired by the programoffered to accept your kind invitation.'Willie the Wildcat,' 'Pep Session,' 'Parade' — all these fail to* create within methat loyalty to 'alma mater' of which Iam capable."For some time, I have noted, Alumnibulletins have contained nothing but arather cheap and flashy chatter, unworthy of an institution of learning. Itis sad, but true; my loyalty to Northwestern has completely evaporated. Youmay as well remove my name from themailing list."Edward W. Ohrenstein,"Unitarian Church,"Hinsdale, Illinois."Chicago.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3BOOKSModern Elementary Theory of Numbers. By Leonard Eugene Dickson,PhD '96. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1939. $3.00.This new book marks its author's retirement this year (1939) as EliakimHastings Moore Distinguished ServiceProfessor of Mathematics in the University of Chicago. The theory of numbers has always been one of ProfessorDickson's chief mathematical interests,and the present book is one of severalwhich he has written on that subject,in addition to numerous articles inmathematical journals. He has mademany important contributions to research in this field. Some of these contributions are here made available forthe first time in expository form, alongwith the foundations of the subject.The book is written in ProfessorDickson's characteristic style. Thismeans, in the first place, that no time islost in getting down to business. Thereviewer recalls a remark of ProfessorDickson's one day to the effect thathe liked to have a theorem on the firstpage of each of his texts so that hiscolleagues in the Quadrangle Club, onpicking one of them up in the readingroom, would recognize it at once for amathematical text. In the second place,the book is remarkably self-contained,that is to say, very few if any references to other mathematical sources needbe made in order to understand the text.It is complete in itself. Numerous references are given, for no one is morefamiliar with the literature on the theoryof numbers than is Professor Dickson,but these references are to indicate theoriginal sources, in papers of the authorand others, on which the exposition ofthe text is based, or to enable an interested reader to follow up topics not exhausted in the text itself. The text isalways concise, appealing to an alertreader, and throughout the entire book,one finds that careful attention to definitions, the precise reasoning, and thecompleteness, which are expected of amaster of a mathematical subject as isthe author of this book.The first three chapters deal withfundamental concepts upon which thewhole theory of numbers is based. Theseare such concepts as that of the greatestcommon divisor of two integers, primeand composite numbers, congruences,quadratic residues, etc. Theorems provedinclude that of Fermat (If p is a prime,and if a is any integer prime to p, thenP divides ap-x-l.) and the quadratic rec- LEONARD E. DICKSON, PHD'96iprocity law of Legendre. The authorintroduces these ideas in a clear, logical way, often preceding a definition bya numerical example which makes evident the need for the definition, or thereason for giving it the particular formwhich it takes. The problems too, ofwhich there are many, aid in an understanding of the concepts employed. Indeed, they are carefully selected withthis end in view, and not as long, involved computational exercises for thereader. Nevertheless, many of the results to be proved in the problems areof considerable intrinsic interest and importance.The later chapters deal with a greatvariety of topics in the theory of numbers, and they include many of the author's own contributions to the subjectand those of his former students. Chapters IV, V, VIII and XIII are concerned with the theory of quadraticforms, that is, with problems dealingwith the representation of integers bysuch forms. For example, a ternaryquadratic form is an expression likeF(x, y, z) = ax2 -|- bxy -f-. . . -f- cz2,in three variables x, y and z, with integral coefficients a, b, . . . , c. One ofthe author's own important theoremsproved in the text is that every universal, ternary, indefinite, quadratic formF(x, y, z) is a zero form. A formF(x, y, z) is said to represent an integer m if there exist integral valuesof x, y and z for which F takes thevalue m; F is said to be universal ifit represents every integer m; indefiniteif there are both positive and negative numbers which it represents; and, finally, a zero form if there exist integralvalues of x, y and z, not all 0, forwhich F takes the value 0. There aremany other results concerning ternaryforms, and also binary forms and n-aryforms, that is similar forms in two, orn, variables, respectively. In the caseof this theorem and the others also, theauthor gives the simplest proof nowavailable.Chapters VI and VII deal with cubesand cubic functions. The first includesa new simplified proof by the author ofthe theorem that every positive integeris expressible as a sum of nine integralcubes. Here especially, perhaps, the author's mastery of the subject is seen inthat his new proof obtains at once thetheorem quoted along with a large number of additional related results. Thecorresponding problem for nth powers,that of determining the minimum number g(n) of nth powers such that everypositive integer is expressible as a sumof g(n) integral nth powers, is described briefly in Chapter XII. However, the elaborate analysis by whichthe author recently (1936) solved thisfamous Waring Problem is not includedin the present book.Space does not permit further detailsof the results of the chapters mentionedand the two remaining chapters, IX andX. It suffices to say that the entire bookis elementary, in the sense that the arguments are based on the properties ofthe integers themselves, such as thosedeveloped in the first three chapters,and that sophisticated analytical concepts are not employed. There is oneimportant exception to this statement,namely, the use made of the Dirichlettheorem on primes in arithmetical progressions. This theorem, which is almost indispensable in the advanced theory of numbers, is proved in an Appendix, and its inclusion satisfies a long-felt want in the literature in English.Ralph Hull, PhD '32.University of British Columbia,Vancouver, B. C.Pictorial Journalism. By Laura Vi-tray, John Mills, Jr., '32., and RoscoeEUard. New York: McGraw-HillBook Co., 1939. $4.00.An informative book dealing with taking, choosing, developing, printing, andlaying out pictures for use in newspapers and magazines. Illustrated.Seven Against the Years. By Sterling North, ex '29. New York: Macmillan, 1939. $2.50.A novel by the literary editor of theChicago Daily News which describeswhat seven students of the Universityof Chicago (members of the Class of1929) have done in past ten years.4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElOOO lO^O President Hutchins, in November,I s j£-S~ I /O/. completed ten years in office (seeNews of the Quadrangles for William V. Morgenstern'sstory). The picture below shows the President with hisfather, William James Hutchins, LLD '29, president emeritusof Berea College, taken ten years ago at the inaugural.IOQQ HenrY P- Chandler, JD "06, former\s3s. president of the Chicago Bar Association, in November was appointed Director ofthe Administrative Office of the United StatesCourts. Appointment to the position, created bythe court reorganization bill passed by Congresslast August, was made by the Supreme Court.Mr. Chandler will take up his duties (supervision offederal court finances, progress of work reports,and promoting court efficiency) this month.1000 °n November\7*-Y. 1 9, Robert Maynard Hutchins was inaugurated as President by HaroldH. Swift, '07, with thesewords: "You come to thefifth presidency of the University. We have many perplexing problems of our own,and difficult questions of educational policy and administration confront the wholeeducational world. But, I believe we offer you commensurate compensations — theloyalty of faculty members,students, graduates, and of adevoted Board of Trustees,all eager to advance the greatcause of education and research and all believing thatyou have such an opportunityas seldom comes to any man."VOLUME XXXII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 3DECEMBER, 1939THE ESSENCE OF FASCISMWHILE wishful or automatic thinking still holdssway over many minds even after months ofwhat should be called the preliminaries of thegreat fight (or of the great surrender), it may be worthwhile to restate some elementary notions about the essence and development of Fascism. Elementary as theymay be, they have not been stressed sufficiently sofar, save by a handful of remorseless observers whosepessimism may make them hateful, although thepessimism finally must be recognized as the only available foundation for a future optimism not grounded ininert hope alone. Inert and pious hope — which becomes,however, impious by implication — is according to mostprobabilities the dissociation of Italian Fascism fromGerman Nazism, inspiring so many overconfidentweathermen. The mental neutrality advocated from suchivory towers as may be left, is a futile relapse into thecomfort and quietude of past ages, which it is in nobody's power to revive. These and similar delusions,dangerous to America and to whatever survives of Western culture and civilization, would quickly vanish beforean uncompromising knowledge of what Fascism reallyis, both in its original Italian shape and in the enlargedGerman elaboration.It has been said, that there is no essence of Fascism,that Fascism is merely one more operation of the permanent spirit of oppression and tyranny that alwayswas among the main components of history. BertrandRussell, probably more versed in mathematics, thescience of quantities, than in history which is the scienceof qualities, went so far as to uphold that the naive, idealistic, blundering, unfortunate and comparatively harmless Napoleon III, the creator and destructor of theFrench Second Empire was an excellent exemplificationof Fascism as a permanent or recurrent element of history in the 19th Century. No statement could be moreerroneous. Fascism certainly is oppression and tyranny,certainly it is dictatorship and centralization. So alsowere in greater or lesser measure Lenin's Bolshevism orAtaturk's despotism or any kind of ancient autocracy orRenaissance arbitrary rule or absolute monarchy or Napoleonic Empire. External and institutional featurescan and must be similar in these and many such socialgrowths. Yet we feel that the description of the genusdoes not give a complete account of the species, and theage old pattern of tyranny is vague, and inadequate tothe particular substance which makes of Fascism themost compelling feature of our time. • By G. A. BORGESEIt has been said that Fascism in its original form asproduced by Italy and in the magnified exemplar thatwas offered later by Germany is the offensive retort ofthe threatened owner classes against the threatening riseof organized labor. But it has not been said that ifeconomic determinism and Marxist analysis could givea sufficient interpretation of Fascism, a prophecy of itought to be found in at least one page of those verysapient economists of the 19th Century who knew everything of past, present and future. All their books arebarren of such a forecast, and Fascism, a revolutiontowards the extreme right, if such a provisional definition may be adopted for a single moment, amazed, likethe proverbial lightning out of a clear sky, a society anda culture which had been used for at least three centuries to thinking that man, a strange sort of left-handedand left-footed animal, can only march toward the left.Neither has it been said enough that if economic determinism and dialectics of class warfare constitute theonly substance of Fascism, then Fascism should haverisen in countries like France, England, the U. S. A.or, to be sure, also Germany, where capitalism and labor had reached a high stage of development and tension, but certainly not in Italy, where both capitalismand socialism were immature and young and unprepared, according to all objective measurement, for a fightto the finish destined to be decisive in world history.It has been said that Fascism is the revulsion of avanquished nation, Germany, against the injustice andcruelty of the victor nations, a revenge on the Treaty ofVersailles. But it has not been said enough that thisrevulsion started in an effective way only 10 years or soafter the Treaty of Versailles and swept Germany only14 years after the Treaty, when the Treaty itself alreadywas little more than a reminiscence and most of itsprovisions had been cancelled or had fallen into silentdesuetude. Neither has it been said sufficiently thatif it is a law that a kind of Fascism should rise as anecessary revulsion against an iniquitous and unbearable treaty of peace, then there should have been in thecourse of history as many Fascisms as there were unjust treaties, many of them much worse than the oneof Versailles. But against this hypothesis the evidenceof history is forbidding. It is even warranted to assume, that as a general rule and as far as one can speakof historic rules a defeat sealed in an oppressive treatyhas generated leftist revolutions. Thus it happened inFrance after the war of 1870-71, thus it happened quite56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINErecently in Russia after the military defeat sealed shortlyafterwards in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, compared withwhich the treaty of Versailles is an act of tenderly reconciled love. Finally and in spite of all obviousness mostobservers try to forget that Fascism did not rise in Germany, the vanquished and mutilated nation forced downinto the condition of a tributary. It had risen elevenyears earlier in a victor nation, Italy, whose territory andprestige, however qualifiedly, had increased in the wakeof the war. True it is that the Italians themselveswanted to transliterate their victory into a defeat andcherished the attitude of the repressed and injured andcheated nation, but the inference from this statementis that it was not the objective facts of war and peacethat generated the Fascist phenomenon. Its real rootslay in attitudes and inclinations of the individual andcollective souls, feeding on whatever nurture might beprovided by the circumstances of the time. Seen froma psychiatric angle, Fascism might well be a masochistic attitude developed into a sadistic one.It has been said indeed that Fascism, unintelligible inits main significance both to the economist and the historian should be turned over to the psychiatrist, theonly one who could give account of the nature of Duceand Fuehrer and of the groups around them. It mustbe stressed, however, that this answer too evades muchof the real problem. Of masochists and sadists, of para-noiacs and scizophrenes, there are plenty everywhere,not in Italy and Germany alone. It may be interestingor gratifying to know that the leaders are insane, butwhat is politically and historically relevant is to knowof what kind and content their insanity is and how ithappened that insane leaders could be the leaders ofgreat nations and, armed with the power trusted to themby the multitudes, shake the earth. Surely only a fanatic could deny that economics were a motive contributing to the rise of Fascism and Nazism, only a mysticideologist could cling to the thesis that all that happened happened in the mind alone. The Treaty of Versailles and other major and minor national disappointments, the harshness of class warfare, the impact ofpoverty and desire, the fits of capitalistic fear, the problems, technical and moral, of the machine age with thesuggestions for wanton destruction and ruthless offensecoming from the perfected engine as at other times ofhistory and pre-history they had come from the initialstages of metallurgy, the psychoses grown out of thecrushing experience of the trenches with the long training, during an atrocious war, in brutal discipline, - allthese and innumerable other elements of fact cannotsimply be erased from the picture. The body politicand social certainly was ailing and ready for a mentalsubversion. One writer, one prophet, if only one of the19th Century, Henry George, endowed with muchdeeper insight than the European scientists of economicdeterminism and historic materialism, had outlined 60years ahead of the times the coming collapse of civilization. In the final pages of "Progress and Poverty"we read the amazing forecast that: "Strong, unscrupulous men, rising up upon occasion, will become the exponents of blind popular desires or fierce popular passions, and dash aside forms that have lost their vitality. The sword will again be mightier than the pen, and incarnivals of destruction brute force and wild frenzy willalternate with the lethargy of a declining civilization."There is no gainsaying that a sound economic body, notshaken by the inequalities and diseases which Georgeand others diagnosed, not tortured by the physical andmoral ordeals which preceded and followed the WorldWar, might have resisted the suggestions of a ruinousmind.But it is telling for our assumption that the prophecyof Henry George concerned the United States, nay evenmore exactly, that his flash of prophecy rose from theWestern section of this country whereas again, of allplaces, Italy was the one whence the nightmare gallopedinto daylight. In a field of analysis cleared of superfluous or general elements, the specific essence ofFascism reveals itself as a perversion of the mind, adisintegration of culture and standards in a misled intelligence and in a corrupted intelligentsia. Far moredecisive than any other organ of the political and socialbody were frenzied imagination and perverted thought,and ready as I am to accept any other definition whichcovered more conveniently the entire range of the phenomenon up to date, I must maintain my proposal ofdefinition according to which Fascism is the substitutionof the idea of force for the idea of justice. More comprehensively I should say that Fascism is the substitution of the idea of force or power for the idea of truth,of the idea of force or power for the idea of beauty, ofthe idea of force or power for everything in this worldand in all possible worlds.If it first rose in Italy it was because the Italians moreinsistently and permanently than any other nation inEurope had been brought up for centuries in a delusional complex of greatness and persecution. Under thelovely surface of their aesthetic refinement, of their industrious wit, of their personal kindness they, or at leasttheir leading and thinking groups, had maintained for anumber of centuries a unique compound of pride in themagnificence and glory of their ancestors, the Romans,and of sadness and grudge for what in spite of allachievements they considered their decadence and humiliation in the post-Roman ages. Success and failure,rash hopes withheld from a too prompt imagination andpartial conquests whetting a suddenly reawakened desire during the Risorgimento and Italy's intervention inthe World War made of that psychological compoundan explosive stuff. Bryce while summarizing dramatically the short and disastrous careers of mediaevaldreamers like Crescentius, Arnold of Brescia, Cola diRienzo who, "sitting upon ruins," had wanted to rebuild the primacy and absolute power of ancient Romeconfidently stopped to express his certitude which wasthe certitude of all his contemporaries, that the Italiansof the Risorgimento who were clamoring for the annexation of Rome had entirely dismissed the world-wideimplications of this dangerous name. "Our own days,"he wrote, "have seen the name of Rome become again arally-cry for the patriots of Italy, but in a sense mostunlike the old one. The contemporaries of Arnold andRienzi desired freedom only as a step to universal domination; their descendants, more wisely, yet not moreTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7Giuseppe Antonio Borgese, Professor ofItalian Literature, made headlines a littlemore than a year ago when he becamean American citizen. One of Italy'sleading men of letters, a noted editor,and a friend and associate of Mussoliniuntil his refusal to take the Fascist oath,Professor Borgese came to the UnitedStates in 1930 and joined the Universityfaculty in 1936. On November 23 of thisyear he was married to Elisabeth Mann,daughter of the noted German author.from patriotism than from a pardonable civic pride, seekRome only to be the capital of the Italian Kingdom."He was wrong, although nobody at his time in Italy andoutside would have realized his mistake. The elementsof the compound still lay inert, not yet dynamized by theevents of the following decades.Justification and satisfaction for this collective complex of inferiority and superiority necessarily had to besought for in the detritus of a fragmented and loosenedculture. For all its marvels the Italian Renaissance andthe Renaissance at large had wrecked the edifice of human intellectual and practical unity as that edifice hadstood through the changes of antiquity and the MiddleAges. In a spirit of heresy and anarchism it had clearlyand impressively enough outlined the scheme of a stateof mere power, as a sheer self-expression devoid of allsubmission to a criterion of justice and truth and of anypurpose along a consciously planned line of progress.Machiavelli is the half-historical, half-mythological embodiment of this trend. His theories or sketches oftheories had been studiously developed by philosophersor lovers of wisdom, unaware of their implications or byearly and later Romanticists, wooers of insanity in manyplaces of Europe and especially in Germany. The Italians had received the finished product in the speculationsof several French reactionaries but especially ofNietzsche as reflected through the dazzling popularpages of their poet D'Annunzio. Practically all culturein Europe was infected with the spirit of disintegration,bookworms had grown to the size of dragons. In Italyhowever, the psychological humus was more fittinglyprepared than in any other country and the Duce, theleader of the decisive action, should not be considered asan effective cause, at least not as one of the most effective causes but as a personal idol,' risen out of the century-old idol of Italian imagination. An impossibledream, the reconstruction of the Roman Empire, foundnurture and, at least for a time, an unexpected vitalityin the unlimited possibilities which a lawless culture anda ruthless imagination afforded in the troubled era.If of all the other countries of Europe Germany wasthe one where the plant of Italian Fascism transplantedin the following decade grew to gigantic proportions, theintellectual and psychological factor works again as theonly conclusive explanation. Germany too had been forcenturies under the obsession of a past glory and powerand of a future revindication. If it was not the RomanEmpire of old united with the universal authority of theCatholic Church it was the Holy Roman Empire of theGerman nation. The Fuehrer too, like the Duce, is notso much the creator of the event as the embodiment of acollective psychological drive. Thus much greater things, much longer preparationsthan are generally realized lie behind men who seem sosmall and behind events which also were minimized foryears and whose magnitude, now undeniable, looms likean insoluble enigma over most minds. Contemplating abattle whose significance in some way escaped his powerof comprehension, a personage of Goethe saw all the elements of the universe participating in the fight: "PerWald, das Feld, die Atmosphaere, der ganze Himmelmischt sich ein," Forest, field and atmosphere, the entireheaven intervenes. Equally it is not the little passingman, it is not the measured limited events of our recentyears that have produced the threat under which all dignity and hope of man gasps today, but the challengeinvolves many of the most important and permanenthistoric issues. Even further than that, it involves insome way even the biological destiny of our species.At other times I have quoted a startling developmentin Bergson's latest book, "The Two Sources of Moralsand Religion," a beauteous passage in which he mytholo-gizes, though using facts which contemporary science hason the whole accepted, a kind of creative intentionthrough trial and error in the inscrutable agency of lifewhich he calls Nature. Nature, he supposes, tried longago to reach a climax or masterpiece in the building ofa perfectly organized and sufficient animal species. Shereached that apex in some of the families of the arthropods, especially ants and bees. There the individualand social structure is well-nigh flawless. There is,however, a flaw since a society like the society of antsand bees is found on the permanent and automaticworking of instincts, and instincts are static and conservative while Nature is the never stopping, never ending, ever wanting, ever changing. As if she were disappointed by the very crystallization of perfection in theworld of superior insects, Nature, so Bergson mytholo-gizes further, turned back to her crossroad, chose another direction, blazed another trail. The provisionalresult of this new attempt was much later another masterpiece, man. Instinct in him is supplemented, counterpoised, topped by the force of intelligence which is creative, promising, dynamic. Yet, as the stability ofinstinct in bees and ants includes the danger, nay the certainty, of permanence in immobility, so does the dynamicof human intelligence include another and opposite danger. Intelligence, as it is creative, so can it be destructive. Its ambivalence is fraught with threats of disintegration. One might say that man's intelligence iswalking all the time on a razor's edge, on the rim of achasm, apt to soar in light and flight and liable to plungein obscurity and chaos.Bergson's book was published in 1932 when few realized the universal implications of Fascism. Most probably this phenomenon was not yet vividly present to themind of the philosopher himself. We can add today afootnote to his speculation and suppose that Fascism orNazism or any other kind of authoritarian and totalitarian collectivism is a violent reversal against the deedsand misdeeds of intelligence. It is as if mankind, confronted with the crushing responsibility of a free andsearching development, wanted to relapse into a more(Continued on Page 26)YOUR UNIVERSITY— ITS FUTUREFirst in a Series of ArticlesIN SEPTEMBER of 1941, at the celebration of itsFiftieth Anniversary, alumni and friends of theUniversity of Chicago will review and applaud anastonishing record. They will have reason to be proud,for the story of the University of Chicago is withoutparallel. To the city, to the nation, to the world, it willbe an occasion for marvel, for the institutions with whichour university is now most often compared are from twoto seven centuries older. Many wall rise to say that theUniversity of Chicago has discharged its obligationsbrilliantly.To the University these recent years have been a timefor searching of the soul. With its first half-centuryclosing, it was natural for the University to reappraiseits task and contemplate its future. Indeed, it has beenforced to do so; for the economic depression sired bythe first World War compelled it to distinguish betweenimportant and less important objectives, so that restricted income could be used to fortify the most important.It is now clear that if its gaze is to be forward ratherthan backward, if it is to discharge its obligations asbrilliantly in the next fifty years as it has in the last,its friends must rally by 1941 to renew and consolidatethe University's strength.At their best universities are — or can be — the mostimportant of all distinctly human institutions. Andamong all universities, ours can be of unexampled importance because it is (1) a great university; (2) a greatAmerican university; and (3) among all American universities unique.Universities are the most enduring of human institutions. It is now more than seven hundred years sincestudents by the hundreds trudged south through theAlps to hear Irnerius lecture on law at the Universityof Bologna or to study medicine at the University ofSalerno; or trudged north to the University of Parisand, hiding their rags with cap and gown, sat at the feetof the great theologian Peter Abelard. Over these sevencenturies universities have advanced, with the advanceof civilization, because they did a job which no othertype of institution could do so well.Their responsibility has been threefold:1. To conserve the accumulated wisdom of the race.— This wisdom is hard won. The simplest prudencedictates that there be centers of learned men and of bookswhere wisdom is honored and preserved. How else thanin universities shall the human race store all that it haslearned over fiv^ thousand years about mathematics,for example, or history or biology?2. To add to that wisdom. — Universities have developed special traditions and techniques which fit themuniquely to advance human knowledge. Their tools arefaith in objective reasoning; careful observation andrigorous experiment; the clarification of old ideas; thedevelopment of new ideas; the close commingling ofspecialists and of men of conflicting views. Many of the highest achievements of the human mindmust be credited to university men and universitymethods. Some of them have influenced the course ofhistory more profoundly than any emperor or any army.The mere listing would fill a library.We may cite as outstanding examples: the contributions to theology by Aquinas of Paris and Erasmus ofCambridge ; the reinterpretation of the law by Blackstoneof Oxford and Story of Harvard; the understanding ofthe physical universe by Galileo of Padua and Newtonof Cambridge; the rediscovery of the preclassical worldby Mommsen of Berlin, and the interpretation of historyby Cardinal Newman of Oxford; the reformulation ofphysical laws by Einstein of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (whose work was based in part on the experimentsof Michelson of Chicago).As examples of university research which had unexpected practical applications, we may cite Roentgen oiWurzburg, whose discovery of the X-ray has alreadysaved more lives than the World War cost; Faraday ofthe Royal Institution, upon whose induction principlethe entire electrical industry is based; Hertz of Karlsruhe, whose work eventually made possible the radio;Eijkman of Utrecht, who discovered vitamins, and Pasteur of the Ecole Normale, who discovered the germorigin of disease and the principle of vaccination.These are examples which have "matured." Worknow in progress should not be less fruitful.3. To make their wisdom available to all who seek itand to serve as a focus for the idealism of every generation. — Universities train men for all the learned professions, including those who are to teach in the lowerschools. They try to guide all who come within theirorbits toward intelligent, useful, happy lives. They sharethe guardianship of the virtues of justice, reason, understanding, wisdom, courage, temperance, liberality, honor.From its first day, the Llniversity of Chicago was castin the mold of a great university. Since that day —thanks to the vision of its Founder and its first presidentand to the faith and imagination of more than 14,000benefactors — it has become one of the half-dozen mostinfluential universities of the world.It has conserved the wisdom of the race through maintaining a distinguished faculty and building one of theten finest university libraries in existence.It has added to human knowledge through the production of more than 60,000 published research reports.It has spread wisdom and knowledge by instructingmore than 185,000 matriculants (and so successfullythat one in every sixteen persons now listed in Who'sWho is a former Chicago student) ; by encouraging itsspecialists to consult with leaders of business, government, and community life; by making its facilities available to every citizen who cared to read its publications,attend its public lectures, enrol for home study, or listento its radio programs.8THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 9In all the peaceful arts and sciences our country hasbeen rising toward ascendancy. To the extent that thisis true, the United States, without assuming the mantleof manifest destiny or invoking "the white man's burden," must accept a quiet trusteeship for the advance ofcivilization. At least until a more peaceful order is restored America has a special responsibility to futuregenerations everywhere. It falls with special gravityupon the great universities, whose primary purpose isto conserve, enlarge, and transmit the wisdom of therace. It means that more than ever American universities have responsibilities world wide in scope.American universities inherited a great tradition fromEurope. They have added to it, and can add for thebenefit of future generations the world over, certain distinctively American values — values which emphasizefreedom, equality of opportunity, respect for the dignityof the individual.Even before the Great War of 1914 the star of intellectual and scientific empire was shifting to America.The war hastened that shift. And now a second periodof crisis and intolerance, by making America an intellectual refuge, has brought to our shores some of thebest minds of the Old World, and has made us a symbolof enlightenment.The University of Chicago occupies a remarkablystrategic position for the fulfilment of this new American obligation. The city of Chicago is one of the greatmechanized communities to which men increasingly lookfor leadership. It is the capital of the AmericanMiddle West; and every European statesman will attestthat what the American Middle West thinks and doesis critically important. Professor T. V. Smith haspictured the Mississippi Valley as "a natural amphitheater for the voice of the University of Chicago," andPresident Hutchins has said :"This is the Middle Empire. Its development hashardly begun. Its significance as a cultural area is notyet appreciated. But its influence already determinesnational policy and will continue to do so. Here thequalities of leadership will be most telling. Here theirabsence will be most damaging to the country and tothe world."Among all universities, the University of Chicago hasfrom its beginning gladly assumed one further duty. Notmore than three or four of the nation's higher institutions share this duty in like degree. It is to be apace-maker, a standard-setter, a model, a leader.This has seldom been stated so baldly. In Americaone does not become a leader by announcing, "I am aleader." Leadership is won by persuasion, example,and performance. Keenly aware of its duty toward itsown community and region, toward its own students,toward the special research projects it has undertaken,the University of Chicago nonetheless looks to a largerconstituency.Education and research, whatever their shortcomings,are mankind's chief hope for a better world. Americahas had such faith in education that it has built the mostcomprehensive system of schools and universities theworld has ever seen. The elementary and secondaryschools are housed in a $10,000,000,000 plant, spend$2,500,000,000 a year, employ nearly 1,500,000 persons, and minister daily to 30,000,000 pupils. The nation's1,700 higher institutions enrol more than 1,000,000students and spend $500,000,000 every year, of whichmore than $50,000,000 is used to carry on an estimated33,300 research projects.As nowhere else, the entire educational system, including higher education and research, is decentralized. Inmany respects this freedom from central control, whichis characteristically American, is fortunate. But it meansthat the necessary leadership must come through theexample, and the prestige, of individual institutions.That is why the University of Chicago "looks to alarger constituency."The enormous, loose-knit system of education inAmerica looks to the great universities for guidance.Since 1894, when John Dewey joined the Chicagofaculty, a few key institutions like Columbia and Chicago have exerted a profoundly beneficial influence onthe elementary and secondary schools. Through theirowrn work they have raised the personnel level, helpedto formulate curriculums, devised better methods ofteaching. Indirectly, the policies of a few leading universities, because they have affected the policies of nearlyall universities, colleges, and normal schools (which inturn train the nation's teachers) have had an influenceimpossible to calculate.There is a clear need that there exist at the apex of thesystem a group of at least three or four such "pilot"universities. The American educational and researchsystem is a magnificent achievement. But it is not yet— partly because of its mushroom growth — doing asgood a job as it should be doing.Because of its tradition, its record, its location, thetype of financial support it enjoys, and the fact thatit is headed by one of the most stimulating figures ineducational history, the University of Chicago is ideallyconstituted to be such a "pilot" institution. Its educational policies affect not only its own 6,000 students but1,000,000 students in American colleges and universities ;and, directly or indirectly, 30,000,000 pupils in the lowerschools. Its policies respecting the organization and procedures of research affect not only its own 500 investigators, but 10,000 others in the nation.Thus conceived, our university is a powerful enginefor building a better America and, through America, forbuilding a better world.Remember the Manuscript ContestLast year's manuscript contest drew approximatelytwo hundred articles from alumni authors. This year$125 in awards are again being offered. (First prize,$50; second, $30; third, $20; fourth, $15; fifth, $10).Subjects: a) What the University of Chicago meansto its alumni and former students; b) What the University of Chicago means to American life; c) Famous and"notorious" men and women encountered at the University; d) For students of the last ten years: "Why Icame to the University of Chicago and what I got fromit." Send in your entry or entries by January 15, 1940,according to rules set out in the November issue of theMagazine. Any photographs appropriate to the articleswill be welcomed.THE HUMANITIES AND HUMANISMS• By RICHARD McKEONSO MUCH of what has been written about thehumanities has been polemical and controversialthat it is difficult to find statements concerningthem which are not tendentious, partisan, and particular.There is no unanimity concerning the nature and constituent arts of the humanities, their uses, or the meaningof their names. Even the controversies in which thehumanities have been involved, if they can be calledcontroversies, are primarily about their value and faterather than their content: the humanities involve thepursuit of a lofty ideal, cultivated in former ages whenthe works of Plato, or Cicero, or Jerome were studied,but are now, whatever the age in which this statementis made, lost, or endangered, or the object of piousaspiration. Less equivocal statement of their nature isprecluded by the peculiarities of these controversies :since the opponents have apparently been many, thehumanities have in opposition been described in manyways ; they have been made to serve a variety of ends ;and the names and contents of the disciplines by whichthose ends were to be accomplished have suffered repeated changes. Even worse, the opponents who areaddressed so vigorously in humanistic defenses do notseem to have stated their case against the humanities,though they are usually pictured as on the point of victory, and conversely actual opposition to any of thehumanistic arts has almost always been made in defenseof some human values, with the result that the "humanities" have been subject for eulogy or object of exhortation even when the value of art, literature, history, orphilosophy has been questioned. Such equivocations of I.statement, no less than the equivocal history in whichthe humanities have for centuries been threatened bycrucial and imminent dangers and yet have persistednotwithstanding that the defense of humanists seems inretrospect never to have been successful, reinforce othersigns of the disparity between the "humanities" and"humanisms." Defense of the humanities, if it is vigorous and persistent, constitutes a humanism, andhumanisms multiply, not because of some trait of theobject of their defense, but because they are directedvoluminously and militantly against opponents of thehumanities, and they discover new virtues, not alwaysconsistent with the old, in each new application discovered for the old arts.The paradox of the humanities and of humanisms,since it turns like most paradoxes on the difficulty ofknowing what the assertions are about, does not necessarily implicate the importance or even the truth of whathas been said about the humanities. It is the consequence of a triple shift of meanings which occurs, sometimes fully expounded but more frequently implicit, inhumanistic literature. The name, in the first place,would lead one to expect a discussion of the humanitiesto be related to some traits of human nature or somedevelopments of human powers ; in all forms of humanism, secondly, the arts of the humanities and the interests of humanists have been literary, bookish, and turned tothe accomplishments of some past age ; this characteristichistorico-philological view of human nature, finally, has'* in* each formulation received its humanistic statement inopposition to the claims of some other activity, social,political, religious, or scientific, by which men havesought improvement or salvation. In general, discussionand defense of the humanities have involved the statement of an ideal which has been identified in controversywith a proposed means of realizing that ideal and which,even as means, has assumed its particular form andappurtenances in opposition to some rival means to comparably conceived ends. If their name has more than*historical justification, the humanities should be addressed to an ideal or maximum realization of man'spotentialities, centering human endeavor, knowledge, andexperience on that end; so conceived as an ideal thehumanities have had no critics, for any human activitywhich is defended may properly be justified as "human."But a comparative and normative element enters intoany such statement, and the designation of what is peculiarly human has fallen frequently on the arts, disciplines,and letters; whenever the humanistic arts have had advocates, they have also had critics who have not been convinced that man is most truly and most fully humanin his pursuit of the arts. The humanities have as aresult been defined by adjectives in the comparativedegree, as "more human" than some other activity orstate of being, and their changing meanings have depended on changes of the activities or states than whichthought to be more human.The basic paradox involved in any statement of thehumanities is the reduction of "humanity" to "letters,"for it results from the statement of a means to an endas if the means were the end. The paradox is moststriking in its historical form: the humanities have beencultivated best by men who have felt no need to explainor underline the humanity of their achievement, whilemen who have pleaded the case for the humanities haveby their very advocacy emphasized a need to resort tobooks to find what man is able to accomplish and appreciate. Plato has been father to many humanisms; andwe have not yet seen the end of attempts to explain awaythe distrust Plato expressed concerning the written wordor the pronouncements he made against poets. Onemight try to bridge such gaps by the arts which humanists find exemplified in the works they admire, for theywould go far to explain the continued vitality of thehumanities, but even the humanistic arts tend to be conceived and stated, not in terms of their essential natures,but of their changing rivalries with current non-humanistic pursuits. It has long been customary to refer tothem as the "liberal" arts or disciplines, but as humanistsdefine them, they are not calculated to make men freein the sense that freedom acquires in the discussion ofPlato, Aristotle, Augustine, or Spinoza. The discrepancybetween the liberal arts of the philosophers and the10THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11I Richard McKeon is Professor of Greek'•', and Philosophy and Dean of the DivisionI of the Humanities. With a fine classical and philosophic background, hehas a remarkably lucid and analyticalmode of discussion, all of which makeshim an interesting speaker and teacher.^k< He is 38 years old and the holder of thebachelor's, master's, and Ph. D. degreest^^^^M from Columbia University. Dean McKeonI is a member of several learned societiesB MB ^M I and an editor of Classical Philology.humanists arises not so much because humanists haveaddressed themselves to opponents, but because they haveconsistently betrayed their cause to their opponents ; theyhave made a brave show of rallying for the humanitiesamong the defenders of alien creeds, but they have softened their attack by borrowing from the philosophy oftheir opponents, and each new-born humanism finds newdefense for an old ideal in the methods of new oppo-nentsjAs a consequence of this triple paradox it is impossible to discuss the ideal of the humanities withoutresorting to a philosophy, or to expound the humanisticarts without choosing between the philosophy on whichthey may be made to depend and the disciplines to whichthey have been opposed and approximated. It is safestto approach the explication of the humanities, not interms of their ideal (for philosophy has been numberedamong the opponents of the humanities), nor of theirarts (for there is no canonical catalogue of the humanistic arts and little agreement concerning their function),but in terms of the compromises which have determinedsome of the typical formulations of the humanities (forthe remnant of philosophy and the enumeration of thearts proper to each are then easily recognizable).The almost innumerable forms assumed by the humanities may be organized schematically in three recurringtypes according to the oppositions dominant in antiquity,during the Middle Ages, and since the period of theRenaissance. According to Aulus Gellius*, who is oneof our earliest sources for the meaning of the term, thosewho used Latin correctly, among them Varro and Cicero,meant by humanitas "erudition and instruction in thegood arts," for beasts are unable to cultivate these arts,and the men who seek them are most highly human,maximi humanissimi. The translation of culture and thegood arts from Greece was opposed in Rome chiefly bythose who feared that the peculiarly Roman virtues mightbe softened by less virile virtues. On the other hand,however humanistic the impulses of Cicero and his fellowstatesmenAtranslators, Roman borrowings from theGreeks were narrowly selective, circumscribed to theuses of those same Roman virtues, and the broadly conceived cosmos of Plato and Aristotle, already contractedin the works of Hellenistic writers, became Roman onlyby fitting the precise limits of the Roman mundus, anempire in which Gods and men were citizens and thechief art was rhetoric.Early in the period of Christian culture, the humanities took their place as secular letters in counterdistinc-tion to divine letters, the one useful, according to thenumerous writers who repeat the doctrine of Cassi-'h'octes Atticae 13. 17. odorus, for lay erudition, the other for the salvation ofthe soul. The opponents of such studies saw in themdangers to the proper virtues of Christians and of theCity of God, and once again they were defended ratherless in opposition than in accommodation, since theywere shown to be useful to, and in later centuries independent of, divine letters. As Roman writers had domiciled the humanities within the limits and ideals of theEmpire, medieval writers fitted them to the transitionfrom the terrestrial to the celestial city, and for thattransmutation the art of predication was the chief instrument, aided by the arts that attend hermeneutics andexegesis.Since the Renaissance the progress of the study ofthe humanities has been conditioned by the progress ofthe sciences, and "humanisms" take their controversialsignificance, as in the recent discussions of the "NewHumanism" of Babbitt and More, in opposition to"naturalism." Both sides to the dispute have, oncemore, claimed the sanction of both the humanities andthe sciences, and the humanities have been domiciledanew in a universe bound by natural law, their contentions buttressed by techniques borrowed from the methods of the sciences which have been variously conceivedduring the period to be dominant.The human values celebrated and sought by thehumanities have thus been defined by considering manin turn as a citizen, an immortal soul, and a naturalorganism. It would not be difficult to find further variations of the definition of man, and additional formulations of the arts by which to pursue human goods. Ineach such humanistic formulation, since they figure asthat which is peculiar to man, the humanities are adaptednot primarily to an appreciation of the achievement ofartists and an understanding of the doctrines of philosophers or to the translation of these into the activitiesand moments of a life, but rather to the use of literature,history, and philosophy in the service of some other endand to the translation of them into effective instruments.That process may be seen in any outline history of thefailures of humanisms and the persistence of the humanities such as that traced in the evolution of the "liberalarts." The Roman was free in the political terms suggested by consideration of the Empire, and arts praisedby Cicero and Quintilian were of assistance to him in thepursuit of that freedom. The Christian was made freeby charity and love of God, and the arts drawn up byAugustine and Cassiodorus were calculated to be of usein freeing him, not from political or economic slavery,but from the enslavement of concupiscence and theworld. Modern man has sought to be free by control ofnature, and the arts that go back to the reforms ofRamus and Bacon would be useless in fighting the world,the flesh, and the devil, since they were constructed tofree man of material bondage, of fear, and of superstition.It is possible that in the centuries since the Renaissancewe have succeeded to a degree in attaining that objective, but the consideration of the humanities has meanwhile moved back to the context of political, social, andeconomic ends.The question, What are the humanities? is notanswered therefore by an enumeration of subjects, such(Continued on Page 25)EDUCATION IN ARTIN modernized Goodspeed Hall, new quarters of theUniversity's art department, stand rows of steelshelves marked for uncommon use. The Max Epstein Art Reference Library, slowly, surely, is takingform on those shelves.A collection of reproductions can be more than ahappy hunting ground for research. People learn aboutart only through exposure to art. While a few can experience the world's art by traveling over the world'ssurface, for the many it is better that the world's art dothe traveling, coming in the form of good reproductionson paper — whole galleries and periods in a folder orhanging on the walls of an exhibition room, so that itis only a step from the Metropolitan to the Louvre. Andthere are obvious advantages in a time when some ofthe world's art has acquired a veneer of sandbags.*An impressive task was created when Mr. Epstein'sgift of 160,000 reproductions of paintings, drawings andprints began to arrive from London in 1937, to be culled,classified, catalogued and in many instances remounted.Dr. Bertha H. Wiles, curator and librarian who is directing the work, has 20,000 photographs of works ofart from the University's own collection, plus additionsto the Epstein gift which already raised its total to 175,-000, to blend and build into a reference library thateven now is unique in this country. Years will passbefore cataloguing can be completed.Drawings of Leonardo beautifully reproduced in facsimile by the collotype process, half-tone reproductionsof paintings by great masters of the art as well as bythousands of less known men, examples of etching, engraving and woodcut — even numbers of original prints— have been found in the collection. Of particular importance are the hundreds of drawings, because the usual*Dr. Ulrich A. Middeldorf, acting chairman of the University's artdepartment, comments that ^destruction of art has already started in thesecond World War, following war's historic pattern of irreparable cultural loss. Bombs and artillery fire have destroyed many of Poland'smasterpieces of wood cuts and lithographs."We also fear greatly for architecture in Poland," Dr. Middeldorfadds. "Buildings there of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries fromthe period of John Sobieski and Stanislaw Pbniatow'ski are masterpieces.Famous Italian architects and decorators also have been active there incentury-old towns like Czenstochaw and Cracow. The masterpieces ofarchitecture, sculpture, painting and literature always have been amongthe chief sufferers of war. Swords can be beaten into ploughshares, butthe destroyed fresco of a master can never be restored."Despite protective efforts, however, wars from early times to todayhave made men culturally poorer. Highlights of destruction cited by Dr.Middeldorf are:480 B. C. — Persians take Athens and burn the Acropolis.772 — Charlemagne destroys the Irminsul, ancient Teutonic monument.1511 — Michelangelo's bronze statue of Pope Julius II torn down by theBolognese in their war against the Pope. It was used to cast a big gun.1687 — Parthenon ruined by explosion of a powder magazine housed init during war between the Turks and the Venetians.1689-93 — Troops of Louis XIV under General Melac wreck the castleof Heidelberg and ruin the Romanesque cathedral of Speyer.1870-71 — Strassburg library burned, destroying valuable mediaeval German manuscripts, including an encyclopedia written by the nun Herradvon Landsberg in the fourteenth century.1914 — Cathedral of Rheims shelled and famous sculptures of the facademutilated. Famous cathedral of Soissons almost totally destroyed.1915— Famous ceiling frescoes by Jan Batiste Tiepolo in the Churchof the Scalzi, Venice, shattered by a bomb.1916 — Bomb falls on St. Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, destroying thecorner of the building and damaging the famous Byzantine mosaics.1917 — Blast ruins of Byzantine basilica, of St. Demetrius in Salonica.1914-1918 — Whole ancient towns are wiped out in Belgium and NorthernFrance. The town halls of_ Arras and Louvain, considered the mostbeautiful examples of late Gothic style, completely destroyed.1936-38— War in Spain. Ruin of the Alcazar and other buildings.Loss of pictures and sculptures. • By HAROLD HAYDON, '30, AM"3|methods of reproduction are kind to drawing, rendering it with more faithfulness to the original than is possible with painting. Hence students can know the intimate techniques of draughtsmen too numerous or tooneglected to appear in books or in usual art libraries.While many of the works are excellent, it would be amistake to imagine tens of thousands of large and impressive reproductions, each nearly as authentic as itsoriginal. Recent developments in printing are making-available splendid reproductions of old and new works,at reasonable cost. But many of the prints in the ArtReference Library are small, clipped from rare oldcatalogues, magazines and books; their virtue lies inrarity rather than in especial excellence of reproduction.Coming from the Sir Robert Witt Library of Reproductions in London, famous on the continent as a sourceof material for research, the University's collection isthe great nucleus for a reference library that will drawstudents, critics and connoisseurs to it for informationunobtainable elsewhere.Yet knowing how the University grows, the future ofthe Art Reference Library may be of greater popularinterest than its present content. A strong contemporary movement toward more and better reproductionsof works of art, so that a painting hanging on a certainwall of a great museum may also hang on thousands ofother walls in schools, libraries and particularly in private homes, suggests that future additions to the University's collection may be of such quality and size as toconstitute veritable art galleries on paper. A simplegathering of fine prints as they roll from presses in thiscountry and abroad every month and every year wouldbuild into the reference library material for popularexhibitions of impressive educational value.To serious students, the present collection offers opportunity enough for special work in art, and also insuch other fields as history and costume. Three hundredand twenty portraits by the eighteenth century Americanartist Gilbert Stuart, famed for his paintings of GeorgeWashington; the work of thousands of minor artistsmany of whom are not listed in reference books ; a complete set of original mezzotints by Richard Earlom, ofClaude Lorrain's famous Liber Veritatis; examples fromprivate collections that are closed to the public eye ; suchfeatures as these help to explain the significance attachedto the Epstein gift by specialists in art.Undoubtedly the University's collection v will furnishmaterial for planned education both of students and ofthe interested public, as it becomes able to make meaningful statements about the evolution and tendencies ofthis art and of that, by means of selections for displayfrom its vast storehouse. Already this has started. Thefirst exhibition from the library, shown last spring atthe University, went to Rockford College in October.The new Art Reference Library is the beginning ofan important service to students and the public.12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13IN THE EPSTEINART LIBRARYALTHOUGH it is a reproduction from a reproduction,Rembrandt's pen and wash drawing of a couchantlion retains on this page much of its original freshness,even to expressing the quality of the paper upon whichit was executed by the artist. Students interested in thework of the seventeenth century Dutch master of paintingand etching may learn from such drawings, which containthe tone quality of painting and linear quality of etching.THE complex genius of Leonardo the Flbr-' entine ranged from the painting of theMona Lisa to invention of terrible and fantastic war machines, including among thema tank, submarine, and a horse-propelledchariot with whirling scythes. The drawingabove illustrates the concentrated attentionda Vinci directed even toward a study;again it is reproduced from a reproductionand greatly reduced in size.ORIGINAL prints from Earlom's mezzotint plates enable the reference Libraryto present Claude's famed series of scenesfrom nature as evidence of that painter'simportance as one who first made landscapethe main subject of painting. Today themezzotint is used principally to executeoriginal works, but Earlom used it as thehalf-tone is generally used now, to reproduce the painter's work in quantity. (right)THE romantic delicacyof contour that characterizes Watteau'spainting appears at itssource in the artist'sdrawing. Testifying tothe value of the ArtReference Library, thestudy of a child's headreveals the French master's use of his medium,although it is twice removed from the original.HOW I LOST MY PANTS IN K. CSecond in a Series of Phil s Incomparable YarnsTHE amount of service a chap used to get on trainsnorth and west out of Chicago seems like a fairytale today.I recall one late afternoon before the ThanksgivingDay game was to be played between the universities ofKansas and Missouri in Kansas City. I got down tothe Union Depot late only to look in dismay at the lineof ticket windows which was being besieged by literallyhundreds of people. My train left within six or eightminutes and I knew that it would take at least half anhour for me to get up to any one of the windows. Avoice at my side addressed me, an assistant passengeragent who took an interest in football and happenedto know me."Going out, Mr. Allen?" he asked."Hope so. Want to go to Kansas City.""What road you taking?""The Burlington.""Go down and get on the train," he said. "Tell thegateman that Mr. Wright is coming down with yourtransportation."I said, "Thank you," very much relieved, told himthat Henry Gale was also coming along and asked himif he could look out for him.He said "Yes," the gateman let me through and I hadhardly got my bearings in the lower level of the oldUnion Depot when a Negro's voice penetrated to methrough escaping steam."Hello, hello, football!" he said."Hello, Sloan," I answered him, my memory responding to the tones of his voice."You always called me Sloan, and my name is Steve,"he said."Sloan's your right name and I'm going to keep calling you by it. When did they take you off the Minnesota run?""I been here now on this run for two years and more,"he replied. I handed him my bags and we mounted thesteps of the last car."I'm putting you in E," he said."I haven't got my transportation with me, but it'scoming along shortly. The train must be crowded tonight and there's no use starting me off in a compartment because somebody else will show up with the ticketfor it.""You tend to your work and I'll tend to mine," he said."Where I put you is where you're going to wake upin Kansas City. This is my car."I told him about the impending arrival of Mr. Gale,so he opened a door into the adjoining compartment andassigned that to Henry, who soon arrived. Henry andI had not had a good talk for a long time as chancehad it so we decided to sit up late moistening our lipsoccasionally with a glass of water. The hours spedswiftly by and we wrere just about ready to stumble into • By the late PHILIP SCHUYLER ALLEN, PhD'97our respective berths when Sloan appeared with a greatplatter of sandwiches and coffee. "We're just passingthrough Quincy, and I thought you might like to havea little snack before you go to bed," he said.Next morning things were terrible. Such a rain asone ordinarily remembers for a year or two was coming down. We got to our hotel, The Baltimore, andlooked disconsolately out the window. There was nosign anywhere that it wouldn't be raining a year fromthat time. Even then we didn't know the half of it.The game was being played on a new field. Every timeyou stepped onto the field you went down to your kneesin mud. We might as well have been playing the gamein the shallows of the Mississippi River.I had been officiating for so many years that I hadgrown more or less careless about preparations for numerous trips out of town and never took along any extraclothes but contented myself with throwing a pair ofpajamas, a tooth brush, shaving tools and handkerchiefsinto my bag at the last minute before leaving town. SoI confronted this weather with the only suit of clothesI had in Kansas City.The game was played and after it was over there wasno part of my person or the covering of my person thatwas not coagulated mud. I had it in my mouth, up mynostrils, in my eyes.At the edge of the grounds I saw a carriage withnobody in it and jumped in."Baltimore Hotel," I said.' The driver took one look at me and said, "Get out ofhere, you barrel-house bum ! What do you mean dragging mud all over the inside of my carriage?"After some slight search I found a carriage with theMissouri people driving down into town and jumpedon the rear of this.When I reached the Baltimore Hotel, I went up to thedesk and confronted the clerk."Get out of here, you," he said.I answered, "You'd better give me the key to 361first"He took a long hard look at me and then fell backagainst the rack of letter boxes."My God, professor, what have they been doing toyou?" he said.Pleasantly, I answered. "Are you going to give methat key?"He laughed and said, "That's one way of getting youout of the lobby."And I mounted to my room. I called a bell-hop atonce, gave him my clothes, told him that not much couldbe done with them but to take them down stairs andmake as good a job as he could of them If they wererenovated so I could go out on the street at least thatI would give him a sum of money that he could investfor his grandchildren. He departed with all the clothes14THE UNIVERSITY OFI had and I jumped into the bath-tub. After two orthree baths I began to approach that cleanliness of person which is the white man's burden.The bellhop appeared with my clothes and considering the circumstances a good job had been done by thehotel. It must have taken the frenzied efforts of several different people to reclaim even partially the heapof indeterminate clothing that I had sent off with theyoungster. I paid him, when suddenly I looked at theheap and said, "Where are my pants?"Swift examination established their absence.I said, "You go and hunt. Meanwhile I'll stand atthe telephone and make the clerk uncomfortable."I got the clerk and told him that they had lost mypants, that my train left from the Union Depot in fifteen minutes, that I would give the hotel two minutesat most in which to find my pants or come down without them. He never appeared to doubt the threat, perhaps because of the definite voice in which I made theassertion. By this time Henry Gale came into my room,all dressed up like a million dollars. He took the telephone and kept the wire busy while I was dressing fromtop to toe except for the missing trousers. A string of people began to peer into the room, bellhops, chambermaids,floor clerks, and finally the assistant manager. Just aswe had reached the impossible end of things, beyondthe final rainbow of even hope, a man tore into my roommildly, waving my pants and saying, "Here they are"I assumed them in two seconds and was on my waydownstairs. When we got to the carriage entrance ofthe hotel we found there were no carriages and thecarriage man said he really didn't know that there wouldbe one that we could have for half an hour at least, because of the reservations made ahead of us, all of whichwere lamentably late. When a carriage blew up andwithout any conversation on our part, Henry and I knewwhat to do. He strong-armed the man that was at hisleft, I performed a similar service to the man who wason my right, we jumped into the carriage, yelled "UnionDepot," and slammed the door. The driver whipped hishorses and off we went on a dead run.When we finally reached the depot it seemed duringthe rain to have changed its position from Kansas Cityto some other town. With Henry in the lead, we duckedout of the carriage and started -running through thewaiting rooms. I caught sight of a clock. It was tenminutes after the time for the departure of our train.I said to Henry, "Let's go back and establish residence in Kansas City, wait until it stops raining, getsomething to eat and call it a day."But Henry, even before he was a Senior Dean, hadacquired pertinacity. "I've started for that train andI'm going to see where it is," he said. We ran downstairs and there stood the Limited. Beside the gate was°ur friend, Sloan, saying, "I told them that you weregoing back with us tonight and that they better hold the^ain for you."Could I but have foreseen the future I should haveknown that the absence of a pair of pants was a matter°^ small import. I could have put a safety pin in mys^rt and passed as a member in good and regularlanding of the Quadrangle Club on his way to tennis. CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15[From the Chicago Herald, August 26, 1895]PHIL ALLEN A POWERADDITION TO STAGG'S ELEVENFamous Williams College Center Rush to BeSeen on the Chicago University ElevenThis Season — Other MaterialSurely as the seasons return, football becomesthe college passion and the characteristic predominant of college life in the fall. When the undergraduate once has the love for football instilledin his breast, nothing, not even faculty opposition,can ever make it grow cold. All the worship offair ladies and brave men that used to be bestowed upon the medieval knights is in moderntimes in colleges transferred to the heroes of thegridiron. It is this adoration by the whole collegeof its representative team, coupled with the animaland savage delight of a combat, the intellectualinterest of skill and strategy, that produces thefascination of football.Every University of Chicago man is pleased atthe prospect of a good eleven this fall. In the fieldof talent the most conspicuous of the new men isPhil Allen, a famous Williams College center rush,who is a graduate student and a fellow in theUniversity of Chicago this fall. As an exampleof the singular fascination the game has over aplayer, Phil Allen had long ago given up collegesports for his life profession of teaching, being aninstructor at the Shattuck military school in Minnesota but now he is as enthusiastic over the factthat the University of Chicago is to play this yearon the gridiron as Captain Charley Allen himself,which is the most that could be possible.Phil Allen is a fine and daring player. Threeyears ago he played with the University Clubeleven of Chicago in the Thanksgiving Day gameagainst Cornell. The reporters who wrote up thegame did not know a great deal about the scientificand technical points of football, but they all sawAllen grab a Cornell man by the throat. Theycalled him "the strangler." Then some wag gavean account of how he accompanied Allen over thesnowy field searching foot by foot for stains ofblood. When it was pointed out to the Williamshero that there was not one drop of crimson on thewhole white field it was said that he turned andlooked wistfully in the direction of the stockyards.But for all that Allen is a recognized veteranin the science of the game and a sportsmanlikeplayer. He has heretofore weighed 200 pounds,but is now down to 180.Of the eleven that went to the Golden Gate lastfall there are at the university and ready to play:C. Allen, tackle; Roby, tackle; Rullkoetter, guard;Gale, end; Herschberger, full back; Ewing andNichols, half backs ; Tooker and Lamay, ends, andCoy, half back.[The Gale mentioned is Dean Henry G. Gale,'96, and our author's travelling companion.]MOTION PICTURES AS AN ART?'• By MONTA BELLI HAVE a daughter. When she was six years old,she was expelled from school. "Question Mark"was her trouble. They were having reading lessons and according to the formula as the children readthey also repeated aloud the marks of punctuation, "Thecat is dead period" ; "Here comes the band exclamationpoint". My daughter had to read a simple question:"Where are you going?" She said: "Where are yougoing little buttonhook".The laugh that followed and her throwing the book ather tormenters brought about the expulsion.Question mark was her trouble. Perhaps it will botherme also as I approach "Motion Pictures as an Art?"Then again she may have been right if she had beenreading about motion pictures. What is Art?Take acting. I would say that acting is simply — theart of being natural in a given role, though many actorsthink it is something you do with your neck. Take directing. Using some sort of a magic fountain pen thatspills forth pictures rather than a stream of words. Andwriting: Taking an impulse from the heart and lettingthe brain polish its facets into a gem that heightens consciousness of beauty and of life.Those are the important elements. The rest are technical and are being well taken care of, in motion pictures.Potentially the creation of motion pictures is the greatest of all arts. Because it reflects and portrays life inall its realism, plus having the imaginative viewpoint ofits author. Motion pictures establishes perfectly a magnetism between audience and screen, and one must catchthat audience. It never demands anything, but oh, how itselects! You meet your heights when you achieve itstidelike level — wrhich makes each individual in the audience feel that perfect collaboration, in which he believesthat he, and he alone, is at one with the author.Yes, I believe that potentially, motion pictures is thefinest of arts. Yet I believe just as surely that it haslagged along its potential pathway. Viewed strictly asan art contribution, in my opinion, the only importantresults yet brought forth have come from D. W. Griffith,Chaplin, Walt Disney, and the news reels.Before Hollywood starts shooting at me for that statement, I hasten to add that Hollywood abounds in talent.There are fine actors, writers, directors, producers andtechnical experts. In fact, it is astounding how muchtalent it sometimes takes to make a bad picture.It was D. W. Griffith who showed the producers theway. He pointed out to them the boundless possibilities of the flickering tin-types by presenting his picturesin such mammoth proportions. From Griffith's leadership the producers saw millions — they talked millionsand that sort of language soon brought into the foldpractically all of the reluctant actors, writers and directors. Some floated with the tide and amassed fortunes ;a few honestly studied the new medium and tried to?Condensed from Mr. Bell's lecture in Mandel Hall, November 8, givenunder the auspices of the William Vaughn Moody Foundation. make it speak that sublime language of which it is capable. If then with such a great medium plus the artistic brains of the world who have been induced to useit — why, then, isn't it now a great art?Again, I plead its youth and the constantly occurringhandicaps that beset it. In the first place the tremendous cost necessary to produce a motion picture; thecelluloid alone would cost thousands of dollars. A writermay borrow a pencil, use wrapping paper, then deliverto the world a record of his genius. There isn't twenty-five cents worth of paint in the picture of the Mona Lisa ;a great composer with music in his soul, might even beable to whistle a masterpiece. But to make a motionpicture you must have a story, actors, director, cameramen, electricians, carpenters, property men, costumers,film, a studio, and all these things run into money. Andwhen money is necessary the banker does the talking, andhe is but little swayed by artistic dreams, when one seeksto borrow from fifty thousand to a million dollars. Thebanker wants to know about the story, who's going tobe in it, who will direct it, but most of all who's goingto buy it and for how much. Yes the tools for makingmotion pictures are most expensive.It requires constant study and active handling of thosetools to keep pace with the technical parade of progressin the making of motion pictures. For here is one branchof the industry that is as near perfection as that statecan be attained — the technicians. They are constantlyhanding us improvements and physical assistance without which our progress would be woeful. But these improvements bring about change so that methods of making motion pictures must always be kept in solution.Believe it or not, I am inclined to believe that silentpictures were a far superior art form than we have madeof the "talkies." Perhaps my introduction into silentpictures had much to do with that. Charlie Chaplin hadinvited me to come to Hollywood as a part of his staffto work on the story and titles of "A Woman of Paris."Charlie was then finishing a two-reel comedy called"The Pilgrim." The hours that he worked over theminutest gag impressed me, but I thought he was wasting time on silly bits of business. I questioned him,whereupon he asserted that even the lowliest gag in hispicture was a psychological problem. I reminded himthat critics had rated the average mentality of a motionpicture audience on an intelligence par with that of aten year old child."Praise God," said Chaplin, "if that is true. It isthe highest order of real intelligence. Try to fool aten year old child. They are the first to detect insincerity." I learned to respect audiences from Chaplin,and watched him for two years, always striving to eliminate words and to get across his message in pictures.The picture! That to me is the important thing ifmotion pictures are to become an art. And that fact 1believe we have neglected. We have imported play-16THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17wrights to do our writing, and most of them have nottaken the trouble to learn this new medium. They areused to dealing with the spoken word which can ofcourse, be beautiful, but never quite so eloquent as thatwhich appeals to the eye. And as the playwrights havebrought us that with which we are familiar, the old-linescenario writer has adopted the same technique becauseit is easier. The startling device of sound in giving us anew dimension for our medium threatened to crash aboutthirty years of effort we had made along other lines. Fortunately, we were not quite submerged even though atthe start we rushed blindly into what was principallynoise. We are learning gradually and much that is goodhas come along with sound.Recently, your own Bartlett Cormack ['22] in writing a script, contributed a scene which I believe aboundsin eloquence and pictorial economy. Two young menare in a bedroom. One of them is seated while the otheris in a shower. The audience knows but part of theproblem that they are discussing, though they knowenough to be intrigued by the discussion. As they talkthe man in the shower dresses. A simple enough setting, and the dialogue carries a plot interest. Thenfinally, the man who is dressing puts on his coat and ashe turns around we see that he is a young Catholicpriest. Immediately everything is understood. His remarks have taken on added meaning but more than thatthe character has been established in a humanness thatmight have been lacking had he already been dressed inthe habiliments of his church.Hundreds of feet of film and useless dialogue havebeen saved and the audience has become acquainted withthe characters in interesting and telling fashion. Theunion of picture and sound is a real challenge to thefinest creative minds that have ever existed.But there are technical problems brought about bysound, of which Lam sure the general public has beenunaware. During silent pictures the speed of the grinding camera was sixteen turns a minute. That was regarded as natural movement on the screen. However,there were times when we increased this to get speedin a chase or decreased it to bring about a slower tempoon romantic scenes or tragedy. Because it heightenedthe mood of the picture audiences were not aware of thetechnical trick. However, today this is denied us, forproperly to record the accompanying^ sound, the cameramust grind at a steady speed of twenty-four turns aminute making action regular but eliminating any acceleration of tempo. Remember, that today when you seea talking picture in nine reels, you are really seeing butsix reels of picture content as compared to what yousaw during the days of silent pictures.The Art is there waiting for someone who can see bystrapping himself with blinders that will eliminate nonessentials. It calls for a Shakespeare who may be lingering within our reach, but that Shakespeare has notbeen discovered yet. In fact, when he comes, if he does,we are ready to follow him.Don't blame Hollywood too much, that he has notbeen discovered. Again, I plead youth. Motion pictures at the moment are in the throes of a fiftieth anniversary. To be fifty years old and still growing isn'tso bad. Your University is fifty years old. Are you MICKEY GETS PLACESReproduced from The American Scholar, Phi Beta Kappa quarterly,and Walt Disney Productions, Los Angeles, by special permission.satisfied, knowing that you started with the creation oflearning having been born, long before your adoption ofit — not from scratch as pictures did?Remember, too, it must remain an industry — an entertainment for the people. There must be upwards of fivehundred feature pictures produced each year. Strikean average of merit in such a program. In the theatrein New York there are about a hundred new plays produced each year. About twenty of these get by. Aboutfive are outstanding. Comparatively, motion picturesneed not be ashamed. Do books have a better percentage of excellence? Does musical composition? Doespainting? I believe not.You may gather that in the aggregate, I think wellof Hollywood? I do. My approval though, is not ablanket one. I believe that from an "Art" viewpoint weare lacking (and I am supposed to discuss the art ofthe motion picture question mark). Why have we beenwrong, generally speaking? Lack of planning, I believe.No one in motion pictures has looked searchingly fortrends of actuality. No analysis has been made like thatof your University's Percy Boynton who in his fine book,"Literature and American Life," puts it:"The course of thought in America can be traced toits relative religious and ethical controls — through thedominance of religious faith and ethical precept, in theseventeenth century; the challenge to the altar by theflag in the eighteenth century — the challenge of the nineteenth century to the flag by the treasure vault and themachines it served — the twentieth century breakdown ofthe money-changers, after their capture of flag and machine and altar."No. Thought such as that has not percolated throughthe brains of those who guide motion picture destiny.18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAgain youth. I don't think we have had time for leisurely analysis even though trends are always with us.Our trends, (after they happen) come from seeing acertain type of picture succeed. We follow in duplication like sheep. We are dominated by the sales department who are so sure of themselves. They always knowwhat succeeded last year.Because of its size, financially, the picture businesshas been a perennial target — that is in America.What about censorship ? All states have different ideasconcerning it. What is moral in North Carolina is a sinin Kansas. The picture business itself has burdenedus with a voluntary censorship imposed through theHays office. This self-inflicted censorship tries to meetthe demands of all the states, and works pretty thoroughly, in so far as satisfying the League of Decency isconcerned. I know of no one in Hollywood who resentsit particularly.But how about political censorship in this Land ofthe Free? Yes, we have it! Your own city has usedit on several occasions. The national government hasforced it countless times through "requests" of the stateand other departments. What you may preach in yourpulpits, teach in your schools and print in your newspapers, even shout over your radio, that is denied us.We must not offend a foreign government. If we do so,not only is that particular picture banned but everyother picture produced by the offending company isdenied entry.If there is a "heavy" character — a villain — in the picture, he must not be Mexican, or British, or German, orChinese, or Italian, or Swedish, or Russian, or of anyother country that may be mentioned. If we wish touse a villain he must be American — but then he mustnot be a policeman, or a fireman, or a clergyman, or amason, or an Elk, or the member of any other organization, including congressmen, or any other part of ourgovernment. He must be an American of anonymousparentage and vocation!What have these handicaps done to us? Given usthat worst of all inferior complexes, fear. Fear of criticism, failure, public opinion, whispering campaigns. Infact, every fear in the calendar except the one that weshould be afraid of, that of making a bad picture. Onlyone studio so far, and that's the Warner Brothers, hashad the courage to tackle our greatest problems and evilat the moment — disintegration from within. And theywere almost blacklisted for daring to make "The Confessions of a Nazi Spy." Metro owns "It Can't HappenHere," also "The Forty Days of Musa Dagh," butthough they have fortunes tied up in these properties,up until now, they have not dared to make them. Fear.So what? We can't continue to make "Little Women,"and the works of Gene Stratton Porter. New ideas ?Only when they have attained such commercial successon the stage or in books, that they cannot be denied.Let's get back to Art. I haven't mentioned that forsome time. I have listed many handicaps that we haveand have pointed out a few faults and potentialities.What would I do about it? I wish I could make that"buttonhook" tighten up the whole thing and bringforth a well laced art. I can't do that. But I have a few thoughts on the subject. Every studio should makeat least one picture a year off the beaten track andpreferably, have it made by someone who is fresh andhas new ideas. There are no "Dr. Caligari's" comingforth from our mills today. These pictures need notcost much, as good but inexpensive actors could be used,Surely, unusual pictures made at a nominal cost wouldbring more revenue than the horrible "B" product thatmost large studios foist upon the public as second feature on double feature programs. It was a frightfulpsychological mistake for producers to deliberately labela portion of their product as "B" pictures.I also believe that there should be definite programsof short pictures — two, three and four reels. There arehundreds of short stories that are classics, which shouldbe made with good actors and directors and made intheir proper length. Frequently short stories have beenmade into pictures but they have been padded out tofeature length, thereby killing the intenseness that brevity gives them.I think that there should be a chain of theatresthroughout the country, in the large centers where pictures would run regularly for five and six weeks — whereall seats would be reserved, and the product a specialtype of picture away from the character of those regularly shown in the "grind" houses. Here's where experimentation could be used with the general aim towardclass pictures. And if in forty or fifty cities in theUnited States, such theatres ran pictures of this typefor several weeks at a time, you would soon see theregular picture houses using these features in subsequentruns. And the new type of picture would bring forth anew audience and there is such a potential audience,numbering millions.The latest Fortune survey reports that 21 per centof the people in the U. S. never go to movies !It is the most absurd thing of all the absurdities inthe picture business that the entire American productis made in Hollywood. In the first place pictures wentto Southern California to get sunshine. The need ofsunshine in the making of motion pictures today is relatively unimportant, in fact it is frequently a handicap.Several years ago, Metro was making a picture of"The Great Divide," an honest play of its time, writtenby William Vaughn Moody of this University. A company was sent to the Grand Canyon to film the story inits actual setting. After several weeks, they returned tothe studio, unsuccessful. The constant changing of thesun had made it impossible to photograph properly. Longshots were made with the sun in position and thenwhen it came to closeups there was shadow where sunshine had been formerly. Naturally when spliced together the scenes did not match. On a set at the studiothe Grand Canyon was reproduced, and the scenes shotthere were far better in every way, than those shot onthe actual location. On a stage you can control yourlight, and with the tremendous strides that have beenmade technically with the use of rear projection, andother improvements, you can project scenes from anypart of the world.I certainly would not even suggest that the picture in*dustry move from Hollywood. It is too well established{Continued on Page 26)FOUNDATION PROGRESS• By RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36NOVEMBER saw the transformation of theAlumni Foundation from an idea and a plan intoa living organization composed of 600 alumni.Already the Foundation is beginning to realize itsobjective of bringing about new and closer relationshipsbetween the University and its alumni. The Foundationheadquarters is receiving a steady flow of letters fromnot only its own workers, but also from graduates everywhere who have been reminded of the part the University has taken in their lives.But piles of correspondence are not the measure ofthe organization's growth. The original plan postulatedlocal chairmen in 250 of the cities that have ten or moreChicago alumni. Already 280 chairmen have acceptedpositions and more are accepting every day. John Nuveen, Jr., '18, Chairman of the Alumni Foundation, atfirst thought he should try to build up a National Advisory Committee of about two hundred. Already 333have accepted and the first mail after this writing willprobably render that total incorrect. Topping the Advisory Committee is George Vincent, PhD'96, LLD'll,President Emeritus of the Rockefeller Foundation wholeft the Chicago faculty in 1910 to become president ofthe University of Minnesota. [A complete list of thelocal chairmen, who are members of the National Committee of which Clifton Utley, '26, is chairman, startson page 27 of the Magazine.]Important in the Alumni Foundation's plan of bringing the alumni and the University closer together is theSpeakers Bureau, headed by Professor Carey Croneis.Forty-five faculty members, including President Hutchins, Professors Arthur Holly Compton, Frederic Woodward, Anton J. Carlson, Fay-Cooper Cole, Samuel Harper, '02, Leon P. Smith, PhD'30, and Harold Swenson,PhD'31, have volunteered their time as speakers. Between now and the end of January thirty meetings oflocal alumni are planned with University speakers.The first big meeting of alumni was held in KansasCity on November 25 under the 'direction of John S.Wright, '07, local chairman, and Charles Stansell,AM'll, of the Kansas City Star, who was toastmaster atthe meeting. Close to a hundred alumni listened toCharlton Beck, '04, who described the purposes of theAlumni Foundation, to Howard Mort who presented ahistory of the University in a chalk talk, and to DeanSmith, who discussed "Who Should Go to College."At Racine, Wis., on November 27 a meeting of the localalumni was organized by George Colman, '13, theFoundation's Racine representative, and Harrison Wood,'25, President of the Racine Alumni Association. Theyheard the first playing of a record which comprised aninterview between Clifton Utley and President Hutchins and a short speech by Trustee Clarence B. Randall.The record was patterned after the program of the National Committee Conference in Chicago last October. President Hutchins discussed in the recording theaccomplishments of the University and its present problems. In summary he said : "The reason the Universitywill survive is, I think, its importance as a symbol. Wesymbolize the free mind, and the free mind won't staychained."He said further: "Your Alma Mater is nqt now indanger. It will not be in danger of destruction if wefail to raise the funds we need. But we need thosefunds, not to expand but to stay where we are and toretain our leadership. If we don't get those funds, wewill still be a great university, but we will not be thesame university we are today."Mr. Randall emphasized the importance to democracies of maintaining the privately endowed universities.Upon them, he declared, depends the survival of practically all the things we cherish — our present way of life.Copies of the record are available for use at alumni meetings where they are wanted.Harold Swenson, who talked on "Hypnotism, Its History, Theory and Practice," was the principal speakerat the Racine meeting. Local alumni also paid tributeto three distinguished Racine doctors — J. G. Meachem,Rush '97; the late E. L. Tompach, Rush '94; and W. P.Collins, Rush '88, long-respected members of the community.The first major swing of University speakers will bemade by Messrs. Swenson and Beck, who set out thismonth for a series of seven meetings in Florida. Shortlyafter that trip, Physicist Compton and Alumni Secretary Beck launch themselves on a tour of the West, covering the ground between Denver and the Coast.The Alumni Foundation last month began productionof a motion picture of the first 48 years. This moviehas as its ambitious goal the presentation in twenty minutes of at least a sample of the undergraduate activity,the faculty personalities, the athletic successes, the scientific accomplishments — all in pictures taken at the time— that have marked the University's astonishing rise toits present place in the front rank of universities of theworld.Meanwhile, the headquarters organization has beenstrengthened. Robert Todd McKinlay, '29, JD'32, whohad devoted his full time as executive head of the Foundation Office for the past six months to build up theorganization, is now returning to his law practice. Hisplace is being filled by William J. Mather, '17, University Bursar, who previously has been enthusiasticallyactive in field work for the Foundation. William V.Morgenstern, '20, JD'22, Director of Press Relations,has accepted the position of Publicity Director of the50th Anniversary Celebration and as such will directpublicity for the Alumni Foundation. The Chicago committee's downtown headquarters are in the charge oiCharles E. Smith, '35.19FIELDS OF STUDYWhat 1468 Junior and Seniors Are Specializing In — Autumn, 1939ANATOMYBACTERIOLOGYco BIOCHEMISTRYLUOg BOTANYO^ HOME ECONOMICS<y NURSING2 PHYSIOLOGYQ00PSYCHOLOGY*ZOOLOGYCHOICE NOT MADE*Also in Social SciencesARTCOMPARATIVERELIGIONENGLISHGERMANIC^ LANGUAGESUJtz HISTORY*z:<^ LINGUISTICSIuj MUSICIORIENTALLANGUAGESPHILOSOPHYROMANCELANGUAGESGROUP STUDIES ORCHOICE NOT MADE*Also in Social Sciences tjjr\. «l\ Jt\35sPi ^ ><S\ &55 TOTAL 237/<)±*. \lS* *Wa ^*l \± \A \A V* V*. \a Vi,*7103o*1> 4Lv„k£ v70AAA 3220 TOTAL 268THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21ASTRONOMYi/> CHEMISTRYojOg GEOGRAPHY*O^ GEOLOGY<^ MATHEMATICSCO>-E PHYSICSCHOICE NOT MADE*Also in Social SciencesANTHROPOLOGYECONOMICSEDUCATIONooLUuzUJuoo<(JO00 HISTORY*INTERNATIONALRELATIONSPOLITICAL SCIENCEPSYCHOLOGY!GEOGRAgWYfSOCIOLOGYCHOICE NOT MADE k&3i)INhi\ihihihihihiiihit&hJK£K£ 36JEL J& tJL A 36 118*,^/K. ¦7\5i8oM$ 2QWsLk «l k bi •. IdL * U * IdL*66logical*Also in Humanities; }Also in Biological Sciences; f Also in Physical SciencesMEDICINEb3<ZOooooUJu_oQ_ LAWBUSINESSDIVINITYSOCIALSERVICE \9o TOTAL 231TOTAL 349iiWif^it-itlitiilJ 1814o TOTAL 383NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESAS all alumni know, the University has an anniversary — its fiftieth — in 1941. On November19, the University and President Hutchins hadanother anniversary that also was significant. Exactlyten years before Robert Maynard Hutchins was inaugurated in the Rockefeller Memorial Chapel in an academicpageant that brought some two hundred representativesof colleges and universities to the Midway. When hewas elected, on April 25, 1929, the one fact about himwhich attracted universal attention was his tender ageof 30 years. His age, he remarked to one of the numerous reporters who swarmed around,was a handicap that time wouldeliminate. He started out as the"boy president" and for a brief timeno one seemed able to forget his ageand pay any attention to his ideas.The label has been almost completelyforgotten in the ensuing years. Theoriginality of his approach to education obscured such initially importantmatters as youth, preference in cigarettes, and favorite dance band.Two facts supply some perspectiveon the University's fifth president.His ten years here are twice the combined terms of Presidents Burtonand Mason; he is getting withinhailing distance of the number ofyears President Harper served theUniversity. Only five of the presidents of the thirty institutions in theUnited States which are members of the Association ofAmerican Universities have been in office longer thanPresident Hutchins. In a few years he will be the senioramong the presidents of the major American universities.One reason the trustees wanted him as president in1929 was the desire for continuity of administration.Another fact is important to perspective. BetweenApril, 1929, when he was elected, and November, 1929,when he was inaugurated, there had been an economicrevolution, although the fact had not been generally recognized. All ten years of President Hutchins's administration have been years of depression. That economiccondition has been significant in his career. For onething, it required unprecedented concentration on administration. Early in his career, President Hutchinswas faced with the necessity of cutting $1,500,000 fromthe annual general budget of $6,000,000. He had to dothat in such a way as not to impair the work of theUniversity. On one thing he insisted; the level of faculty salaries, which he did not think was high enoughto attract and hold the able men needed in education,must not be lowered. Administrative salaries, includinghis own, were cut; appropriations for maintenance ofthe physical plant were slashed. The teaching load ofthe faculty was increased by adding the work of Uni-PRESIDENT HUTCHINS» By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD'22versity College to the schedule, and by absorbing theSummer Quarter program. The policy of retiring faculty members at 65, required by the University statutes,but not enforced, was put into effect. Because of declining returns on funds, all these places have not been filled.Despite his hope of maintaining faculty salaries, the president has not been able, in the final analysis, to do so.The younger members oE the faculty, who were gettingsmall salaries when the depression began, have not received anything approximating the normal increases insalary their progress would justify.The pressure of financial problemscontributed to the rapid exposition ofPresident Hutchins's educational theories. He would have had the ideas,depression or not, but because some ofthem offered the possibility of improving education and cutting the cost ofeducation, he expounded them rapidly. Many in the educational worldwere not able to assimilate them. Forten years before President Hutchinscame here the faculty and administration had been evolving a new program. It was ready for final formulation. In a brief period that endedin a ten-minute meeting of the University Senate, the new president hadcrystalized the program, added someimprovements of his own, particularly in administrative organization,and had the entire matter approved.One reason he was for it, and for it in a hurry wasthat this "New Plan" provided better education. Another reason was that it was a more economical systemof education. Much of the $1,500,000 saving resultedfrom the ability to discard overlapping and outmodedcourses, and so giving the faculty enough time to takeover the Summer Quarter and University College.Several things can be said about this "New Plan."The first is that the president would not have had anyinterest in it if it did not offer improvement in the organization and the content of education, particularly atthe undergraduate level. The second is that it was nothis invention, nor has he ever claimed that it was. Themain features were within the University; the wholeplan was waiting for some one with the initiative to putit into operation. The third fact is that the "New Plan"does not represent the Hutchins educational program,nor the Hutchins theories.The educators throughout the country have had morefun since Mr. Hutchins came along than they have knownin the present century. They have debated his ideaswith vigor, often, it is reasonable to suspect, withoutreading his exposition of those ideas. Some of the profession have risen to moderate fame by snapping at thefringes of his educational philosophy. Some sections of22THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23the early statements of the Hutchins program, collectedin No Friendly Voice and The Higher Learning inAmerica, have been echoed without permission of thecopyright owner. And you'd be surprised by those whodo the echoing.Stating it roughly, much of what Mr. Hutchins hassaid about the organization of education is rapidly becoming "respectable." His notion that the traditionalorganization of eight years of grammar school, four yearsof high school, and four years of college is an historicalanachronism is being proved out by events. The suggestion he made that research be segregated in institutesattached to universities has made no general progress.It has been somewhat overlooked in the clamor about"medievalism" and "metaphysics." Perhaps the educators never read that far in the book.The real furor centering around Mr. Hutchins concerns his theories as to the content of education. Ratherwidely accepted today is the Hutchins idea that a broadgeneral education must precede specialization. Thatagreement is expressed by the first two years of the"New Plan"; the faculty had arrived at the same conclusion while it was formulating the new system. Invariant forms and to varying degrees, this phase of theplan has had a broad influence on college teaching everywhere in the country. There is still considerable argument about the Hutchins position on vocational education, but it is relatively unimportant. Mr. Hutchinssays that students at any level should have other interests than the method of making a living, and that technological changes make vocational education obsoleteovernight. Few university people, except the deans ofsuch organizations as schools of journalism, disagreewith him. But many of those concerned with secondaryeducation — the members of school boards more than theteachers — sometimes are vehement on the subject.The actual violence starts where President Hutchinssays that the aim of education is intellectual development, and that intellectual development can be achievedthrough a curriculum emphasizing the liberal arts. Theliberal arts are those of reading, writing, and arithmetic,from their simplest to their most specialized forms. Thatcurriculum should have, as its unifying subject matter,he says, the intellectual tradition of western civilization.He says that if students know how to read with understanding, to express themselves clearly, and have thebenefit of experience in the abstract reasoning of mathematics, they have the means of thinking clearly. Hecontends that the intellectual tradition of our civilization is important for two reasons. First, study of thetradition, as it has been expressed in the great bookswritten by the best minds from Plato to John Dewey,provides the best means of acquiring and developing skillin the liberal arts. In other words, the students need asparring partner, and the intellectual tradition is thebest that can be found. Second, and more important, theworld is living in its intellectual tradition and mustunderstand it. The striking thing about the world today,the President has said repeatedly, is that many of itsproblems were contemporary problems even in the daysof the Greek civilization.A student who had that kind of education, if he continued at the university level (which Mr. Hutchins thinks should begin at the junior year of the presentcollege), would be concerned with the study of fundamental intellectual problems. President Hutchins thinkssuch study demands the unification of education and theuniversity by philosophy, because no form of knowledgebut philosophy can establish the goals of human life andorganized society. Science, for example, can find howto control nature, but only philosophy can tell man towhat ends that control should be exercised.Somewhere between his contention about the importance of the intellectual tradition and his belief in thevirtues of philosophy, the critics raise the cry of "medievalist." The origin of that slogan seems to be dim,because some of the opposition has stopped at the intellectual tradition and some has gone on to the statement about philosophy, and heard that the presidentadmires the philosophical system of Thomas Aquinas.There is still another school, which roots in some remarks Mr. Hutchins once made about the "trivium."One other group bases its use of the term on the factthat for "philosophy" Mr. Hutchins used to read "metaphysics," which apparently is- the more exact word, buthas its medieval connotations.Again, for the sake of clarity, the application of all thisto the University and what is being taught there shouldbe stated. In a good many alumni minds the "NewPlan" and the Hutchins theory of education have becomeidentified as one and the same thing. The Universitycurriculum has not been deeply touched by emphasis onthe "liberal arts," the "intellectual tradition," or by philosophy or metaphysics as a unifying force. The contentof the New Plan is entirely traditional, but it is betterorganized, better integrated, better taught, than ever before. Because Mr. Huchins is really interested in undergraduate education he has taken time from a busy lifeas a university president to teach a course on the "greatbooks" which state the intellectual tradition. He teachesa two-hour session once a week ; he spends another eightpreparing for each class. The course is not prescribed ;it is an elective. There are 65 students in it this quarter,three times as many as he wants.Nor has Mr. Hutchins tried to force any brand ofphilosophy on the University, or even to recognize oneschool of philosophy as the official one for his conceptof the perfect education. He has said repeatedly thatit is not a particular kind of philosophy which is important, but the recognition of the need for the unity ofaction which philosophy provides. In his own language :"The question of 'whose philosophy' is as silly as thatof 'whose history.' Consciously or unconsciously, weare always trying to get a metaphysics. I suggest thatwe shall get a better one if we recognize explicitly theneed for one and try to get the most rational one wecan."There are a good many other things for which Mr.Hutchins has stood and done. He has been a goodmoney raiser, and he has spent the money wisely. Hehas had the courage to lead the fight for academic freedom and the skill to rally the entire University behindhim in a winning fight. He has a clear and hopefulconcept of the place of a university in a democratic society and the eloquence to express the concept. He has{Continued on Page 26)ATHLETICS• By DON MORRIS, '36THE FOOTBALL SCOREBOARDChicago 0 — 47 VirginiaChicago 0 — 61 Ohio StateChicago 25 — 0 OberlinChicago 0 — 46 IllinoisTHE Illinois game brought the 1939 football season on the Midway to a close, leaving Chicagowith a total of two games won and six lost and apoint total of 37, to 308 for opponents. Chicago's teamreached the Illinois four-yard line once, but Messrs.Smith, Elting, Bennett, Miller, and Campbell of theIllini each reached the Chicago goal line.Chicago's game with Oberlin, like a drop of wateron a parched piece of quartzite, came heralded as "OldHome Week" on the Midway, and went as the instrumentality by which Chicago rooters can claim the bestseason since 1936. It was Chicago's second victory ofthe year.In 1937 Chicago defeated one team — -little Beloit, bya 26 to 9 score. In 1938 the count rose to one andone-half, when Chicago overcame DePauw 27 to 13 andtied Bradley Tech 0 to 0. This year the count is twogames won, and although the scoring record againstChicago has been broken three times, this department pays off only in percentages and is planning tocollect on predictions for an "improved season." Nextyear the department may be out with odds on scores,with Chicago money.Incidentally, one little-recognized statistical item hassunk low this year — the matter of touchdown conversions, which would not be so bad this year if it had notbeen so good last year. In 1938 Chicago scored tentouchdowns and counted .800 on conversions. This yearChicago's point-after-touchdown mark was .000 until thelast touchdown in the Oberlin game, when sophomorequarterback Bill Leach was brought into the wet gamebecause he had a dry foot and drop-kicked the firstconversion of the year.The star of the Oberlin game was Co-captain JohnDavenport, one of thirteen members of this year's squadplaying their final season in Maroon jerseys. Davenport broke loose for long runs, averaged seven and one-half yards per try in ball-carrying, ran 28 times for atotal yardage of 210, and scored three touchdowns,bringing his season scoring mark to 24 points. BobWasem, Davenport's fellow co-captain and voted by histeammates the "most valuable player" on the team,scored once.Meanwhile the freshmen are having a fine time preparing for their coming out party in October, 1940. Halfof the yearlings, the Blues, who were defeated 13 to 12last month by the other half, the Reds, turned on theiradversaries last week in a second Stagg Field game, toadminister a 12 to 8 defeat, with little Bob Stenberg,all-city halfback at Lane Tech last year, registering bothtouchdowns for the Reds. The Blues took first toll, when Dominic Parisi, theircenter, blocked an attempted field goal by Art Moynihanfor a safety. A few minutes later the Blues scored againon a touchdown by Bill Oostenbrug, who caught a passfrom Bernard LaBuda and stepped over the goal line.The Reds started their scoring in the final quarter whenStenberg caught a pass by Moynihan and raced over thegoal. The winning touchdown came in the final minutesof play. Moynihan, of the Reds, intercepted a pass byLaBuda and lateraled to Stenberg on his own 45 yardline. Stenberg ran 55 yards to score.The "Old Home Week" aspect of the Oberlin gamecited above, neglected, but not quite forgot, was this:It was 40 years and four weeks to the day since theUniversity of Chicago and Oberlin College had met onthe field of football. Oberlin had won one, Chicago two,with the most recent game dated 1899. But in 1939not all avenues of communication were closed. President Ernest H. Wilkins, of Oberlin, is a Chicago man.He was dean of the College on the Midway after hisgraduation. President Robert M. Hutchins, of theUniversity of Chicago, attended Oberlin for two yearsbefore joining the ambulance corps in 1917.Director of athletics at Oberlin is Dr. J. H. Nichols,a graduate of the University of Chicago's Rush MedicalCollege and a coach on the Midway in his days as amedical student. T. N. Metcalf, Chicago's director ofathletics, graduated from Oberlin in 1912, after a careeras one of its outstanding track, football and basketballplayers, and coached football at Oberlin for five years.While an undergraduate at Oberlin, Metcalf set anIntercollegiate Conference (Big Ten) two mile recordof 9 :42.8. He was captain of the Yeomen football forcesin 1912. Coach Metcalf s teams registered three Ohioconference championships, in 1913, 1919, and 1921.Dr. Nichols, after receiving the M.D. degree at Rush,earned a reputation as a top flight basketball and football official before going to Oberlin.The thirteen members of the University of Chicagofootball squad who played their final collegiate contestagainst Illinois included four members of Coach ClarkShaughnessy's first team, headed by Co-captains Wasemand Davenport. The other regulars slated for graduation at the end of the academic year are Dick Lounsbury,end and captain of the Maroon basketball team, and DickWheeler, regular center for two years.Besides Davenport, Wasem, Wheeler and Lounsbury,others who have completed their intercollegiate footballcompetition include: Jim Atkins, end and a member ofthe Maroon Big Ten championship tennis team ; TonyBasile, transfer guard from Morton Junior college ; Mor-rie Grinbarg, center ; Russell Parsons, end and a brotherof Keith Parsons, former Maroon athletic star; JohnStearns, tackle and co-captain of the Big Ten championship Maroon water polo team; John Palmer, end; TedHowe, fullback; Bob Stein, reserve halfback; and JackWoolams, reserve end.24THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEThe Humanities and Humanisms {Continued from Page ii)as the fine arts, music, literature, philosophy. Nor isthe question answered by a description of instrumentaland interpretative arts which are used in the study ofthose subjects, such as those modern successors to thetrivium, the arts of linguistic, aesthetic, historical, orphilosophical inquiry. The answer would, ideally, involvea statement of the human accomplishment of such menas Aeschylus, Plato, Shakespeare, or Kant, and there isno improvement on the statement which those writersthemselves made of their accomplishment nor is there asubstitute for the study of their works. The second-bestanswer expressed in terms of the arts which mightassist understanding and appreciation, would tend todayto be stated in terms of the natural sciences or the socialsciences which humanists imitate while opposing. Thehumanistic arts assist in making man tolerant, in freeinghim from illusion and superstition, in acquainting himwith the conditions or imperfections of the existing socialorder, preparing his mind or his passions for a betterorder, or fortifying him to resist subversive propaganda.The best justification that is currently found for thehumanities apart from such uses turns usually to negative praise of their uselessness or to appraisal of possibleleisure time occupations. /Paralleling the discovery of these utilities the humanistic arts have contracted and become scientific : philosophy has long been engrosssed in scientific method andhas narrowed its scope according to some philosophersto logic, according to others to morals; history can explain the past and can aspire to anticipate the future interms of economic and social forces or in terms of thephysiognomies of ages ; literary works may be studied asdata for history, biography, ^economics, propaganda orpsychology. Normative elements have disappeared fromthe humanistic arts as they hav§ become descriptive andscientific. • The fashion in which they have lost theirearlier humanistic function may be judged by the changewhich has come into the study of language, where thepresent predicament of the humanities is particularlyacute. In antiquity the sciences which dealt with wordsand their functions were grammar (which was concernedwith correctness and found one of its. many uses in theinterpretation of the meaning of texts), rhetoric (whichwas concerned with effectiveness and found its use relative to the construction and appraisal of persuasivearguments) and logic (which was concerned with accuracy of presentation and truth of demonstration andfound its use relative to the validity of arguments).Linguistics has been revolutionized by the methods usedby anthropologists in recording non-literary languages,and since it is designed to study how men do speak,generalization concerning how they should speak iscarefully avoided ; theories of "interpretation" and "practical criticism" have been constructed to determine whatmen think poems mean, but it would be heresy in such'interpretation" to ask what poems do mean; the rulesof rhetoric have become part of the theory of "powerpolitics," but though propaganda is analyzed, it can bemet only by counter propaganda; logic has turned to the analysis of the relations of meaningless symbols or themanipulation of symbols which have meaning only bydesignation of material things or operation of physicalinstruments, and logicians have come to the consequentdiscovery that almost everything that philosophers havesaid in the past is meaningless, f|If it is true that the humanities are again in danger,they need to be saved not from hostile attacks but fromthe methods of the practitioners of the humanistic arts.Even considered as means they are not calculated toserve their purpose in the pseudo-scientific forms whichare their latest fashion. The high ends and ideals envisaged by the humanities do not preclude their use inthe preservation of freedom and the cultivation of reason,but they can have such utility only if some sense ofhuman values is preserved in the normative arts of thehumanities. No one who thought to plead the case forthe humanities today could ignore that we are living ina time when there is great uncertainty in individual livesand great danger to democratic institutions and liberties.The natural tendency is to meet such dangers by bandingtogether into momentary alliances of interests to meetforce by power. Yet reason and justice, though theirinfluence in human affairs is slow, constitute the onlyultimate hope. The greatest danger to us and to ourinstitutions comes from the shrewd manipulation ofprejudices and unreasoning fears and from the unreflecting or unintended actions of people united togetherunder slogans which they do not understand or whichmay be made to change their meanings in the course ofaction. If the humanities are of use in teaching men tolook behind slogans, slogans must be measured, notagainst other slogans, but against ideals^ and possibleachievements. Our difficulties have not arisen from adearth of persuasive orators, nor are we in need of abletechnicians, engineers, or scientists. But it would seemthat there have been few men able to view human affairsbroadly, to profit from the thought and the history ofmen, to measure means against values. It involves nocriticism of the sciences to recognize that the humanitieslose their traditional function when they are constitutedsciences. The humanistic arts have been productive ofpractical utilities only among men who have been ableto use them to translate into a manner of life what hasbeen said in the great classics of thought and expression,and thoughts have been potent instruments only whenmen have appreciated that thinking is itself a high human end.Remember the Manuscript ContestLast year's manuscript contest drew approximatelytwo hundred articles from alumni authors. This year$125 in awards are again being offered. See the list ofsubjects on Page 9. Send in your entry or entries byJanuary 15, 1940, according to rules set out in the November issue of the Magazine. Any photographs appropriate to the articles will be welcomed.26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMotion Pictures es an Art? The Essence of Fascism{Continued from Page 18) {Continued from Page 7)and it is doing splendid work. Then too there are hundreds of millions of dollars invested there. So it mustremain the large center of picture production. But Hollywood needs help and the best way to help and improvethe Hollywood product is to give Hollywood competition.There should be thirty or forty pictures a year produced in New York City. The greatest metropolis inthe world, the showcase of seventy-five per cent of thetalent that finally gets to Hollywood, an art center ofevery description, surely it would bring a freshness anda different viewpoint to pictures. The actors could notdwarf that city nor would they continue to believe alltheir press-agents wrote about them. And if we coulddo it in New York, for Heaven's sake, why aren't moving pictures made in your own Chicago? For precedent, remember Chaplin, Beery, Swanson, Bronco Billy,Bryant Washburn. There is art here and there is talenthere. It would cost money, but there is plenty of moneyin Chicago.Hollywood would not like it at first but what of that ?There is nothing about the business that requires orshould be limited by one center of production. At leasttwenty-five pictures a year should be made here withprofit and artistic effect. Start with four or five — then,ten, etc. Where would you sell them? To theatres —and remember that eighty per cent of the theatres in theUnited States are independent and would welcome freshproducts.So back to Art. Let me repeat: the making of motion pictures is the greatest potential art ever known inthis world for it can combine all the other arts, plusadded factors that the other arts lack. It is a challengeto develop it toward those potentialities. There is opportunity for students in this great game, though it isdifficult to find a toehold.But if we must treat the subject, as of status quo, Iam afraid that if you wish to find art in motion picturestoday, you must go to 2719 Hyperion Avenue in LosAngeles. That is the address of the Walter DisneyProductions.stirred education out of its lethargy, and he has madethe University as exciting as it must have been in theearly days.Some five hundred alumni, friends, and colleagues ofthe faculty and administration came to Rockefeller Memorial Chapel on November 16 to honor James WeberLinn, for more than 40 years a vital and inspiring figurein the University. Seven speakers expressed the sametheme about Mr. Linn; his loyalty, his generosity, hissympathy, and his rugged honesty about everyone andeverything. The speakers were a prominent group:President Hutchins, Harold H. Swift, Frederic Woodward, Percy H. Boynton, Charles W. Gilkey, Sydney B. comfortable way of living or half-living, eager almost tochange the dramatic birthright of intelligence with themess of pottage of instinctive life. To consider — I quotethe precise words of the Duce — "everything within thestate, nothing against the state, nothing outside thestate," to consider in other terms a fixed group societyas a lawgiver forever without any ferment of changeallowed to stir in the depth of compression, to mould allminds to the same slogans, all hearts to the same emotions, all arms to the same gesture, to describe the purpose of life as consisting only in the acquisition and maintenance of power through fight and intervals of a "peace"even more cruel, all this conception of politics and culture is tantamount to asserting that the perfection anddesirability of existence must be sought and attained ina highly organized and inflexibly instinctive brutishness.Conclusively the real essence of Fascism is not evenin the substitution of the idea of power for the ideas ofjustice, truth and beauty as we proposed a few momentsago. More deeply and more comprehensively the essence of Fascism is the denial of intelligence. This isthe angle, an unavoidable one, from which it appearsvery clearly that no impartiality or aloofness is grantedto the contemporary man. The ivory towers have beenbombed down and everything in the life of the spirithappens as long as it is allowed to happen in an openbattlefield. Only a delusional optimism can assumeFascism to be a political or social or economic or administrative issue like so many others, a conditionedreflex of class struggle, an aftermath of war and peace.The scholar, the poet, much as he might desire it, is nolonger allowed leisurely indifference or, as Voltaire putit in a much kinder epoch, to cultivate his orchard. Whenintelligence in itself is threatened, there is no shirkingfor the intellectual unless he wants his own destructionand the annulment of the meaning of his work. Impartiality in a struggle as the one which is developing underour eyes would be impartiality between good and evil,light and darkness, life and death. It would be implicitly a surrender to death.Snow, and Senator James M. Slattery, who read a warmmessage from Governor Henry Horner.An unsolicited gift of $7,500, to establish the OlgaKrohmer Boettcher scholarship, was made last monthby Dr. Henry R. Boettcher, Chicago specialist in eye andear surgery. The scholarship is % memorial to his wife.A son, Henry F. Boettcher tool his Ph.B. degree in1926 and the M.A. in 1928, and a daughter, Cathrinereceived the Ph.B. in 1928. Dr. Boettcher hasbeen active in the practice of medicine in Chicago since1890. He is a trustee and director of the EnglewoodHospital, a member of the Illinois and Chicago MedicalSocieties, and the American Medical Association.NeWS of the Quadrangles {Continued from Page 23)NATIONAL COMMITTEE MEMBERSTHE following alumni of the University are serving as members ofthe National Committee of theAlumni Foundation {see page 19). Thelist is as of December 1.ALABAMABirminghamClifford M. SpencerBirmingham Trust & Savings Co.ARIZONAphoenixLon P. Payne521 Luhres BuildingTucsonRobert J. Graf .2233 E. Drachman StreetARKANSASConwayEarle A. SpessardHendrix CollegeFayettevilleStanford G. EricksenUniversity of ArkansasLittle RockNorman H. MalloryBox 495CALIFORNIAAltadenaArthur O. Hanisch2451 Santa Rosa AvenueFresnoRaymond L. Quigley1637 Popular StreetGlendaleDr. Norman C. Paine1617 Cleveland RoadLong BeachBarton L. SmithBank of AmericaLos Angeles (and vicinity)Charles Brown217 Van Nuys BuildingOaklandDr. Paul M. ElwoodMedical BuildingPalo AltoHermann A. SpoehrStanford UniversityRiverside ^Judge O. K. MortonCourt HouseSan Diego (and vicinity)Wilbur A. Hamman2408 El Capitan AvenueSan FranciscoAlbert A. Hansen330 Grove StreetSan JoseRussell E". Pettit1549 Iris CourtSan MarinoRobert Dunlap2754 Monterey RoadSanta AnaAgness Todd Miller321 W. Tenth StreetSanta BarbaraHarrison J. Ryon26 East Carrillo Street^outh Pasadena (and vicinity)Dr. Frederick A. Speik1625 Fair Oaks Avenue COLORADOBoulderDr. Ralph E. EllsworthUniversity of ColoradoDenverJudge Norris C. Bakke5800 E. 17th AvenueCONNECTICUTStamfordDr. Merlin J. Stone76 Glenbrook RoadDISTRICT OF COLUMBIAWashington (and vicinity)Al F. O'Donnell3000— 39th Street, N. W.FLORIDAGainesvilleDr. E. D. HinckleyUniversity of FloridaMiami (and vicinity)W. R. Cunningham133 Seybold ArcadeOrlandoN. Addison BakerBox 2080St. PetersburgRoy B. Nelson2761 Second Avenue, N.Winter ParkDr. George Crisler226 East Park AvenueGEORGIAAugustaEmma C. W. GrayPaine CollegeEmory UniversityRalph Edmond WagerMaconJosiah CrudupMercer UniversityHAWAIIHonoluluRiley H. AllenHonolulu Star-BulletinILLINOISAltonAdolph S chockShurtleff CollegeAuroraRobert F. Balsley20 S. West StreetBataviaMelvin I. Pinner131 Spring StreetBloomington (also Normal)Ethel M. Burris508 W. MulberryNormal, IllinoisCarbondaleJohn I. Wright720 W. Freeman StreetCarlinvilleJames D. Van PuttenBlackburn CollegeCharlestonDr. Robert G. BuzzardIllinois State Teachers CollegeChicagoHarold J. Gordon201 S. La Salle Street Chicago HeightsArthur V. BishopFirst State Bank BuildingDanvilleMrs. Casper Platt45 MaywoodDecaturEdgar H. Allen502 Millikin BuildingDe KolbDr. James C. Ellis240 Rolfe RoadDixonAgatha L. Tosney621 S. Hennepin AvenueEast St. LouisThomas Sherman Morgan738 N. 22nd StreetElginKenneth Rehage269 Commonwealth AvenueEurekaJacob Aaron RinkerFreeportB. F. Shafer1519 S. CarrollGalesburgJudge Riley E. Stevens1197 N. Kellogg StreetJacksonvilleCole Y. RoweBox 475Joliet (and vicinity)Hayes Kennedy420 Dixon AvenueKankakeeWilliam A. Schneider949 S. ChicagoHarriet I. Edgeworth213 N. ChicagoLincolnDr. Chester Davis626 College AvenueMacomb 'J. J. Welker720 W. Washington StreetMattoonJohn H. HardinMolineDr. George W. Koivun1518 Fifth AvenueMonmouthFrederick B. PatteeMount CarrollMiss A. Beth HostetterFrances Shimer Jr. CollegeOttawaHarold Butters300 Congress StreetPeoria (and vicinity)Harry Dale MorganCentral National Bank Bldg.PeruGeorge L. Herbolsheimer1415 Fourth StreetPontiacGrant C. Armstrong412 Sterry BuildingPrinceton (and vicinity)Perry Dakin Trimble2728 THE UNIQuincyMark A. Penick325 S. Fourteenth StreetRobinsonOrtha Logan PlunkettRockfordRobert More Gibboney701 Forest City Bank Bldg.Rock IslandGeorge H. McDonald1911— 24th StreetSpringfieldDr. Harry Otten502 Myers BuildingSterlingMrs. Neal Marquis331 Ninth AvenueStreatorMrs. Erman F. Plumb321 Main StreetUrbana (also Champaign)Morris M. Leighton305 Ceramics BuildingWaukeganW. Earl Giffin411 Hull CourtWoodstockHarry G. Abraham360 South Tyron StreetINDIANAAndersonElsie G. Perce402 W. 11th StreetBloomingtonStephen S. VisherIndiana UniversityCrawfordsvilleRudolph G. Riemann207 South Grant AvenueElkhartMrs. Charles T. Boynton1923 Greenleaf Blvd.Fort WayneEdward F. Kixmiller3301 South WebsterFrankfortJohn Miller Coulter51 West Clinton StreetFranklinNaomi MullendoreFranklin CollegeGaryDr. Arnold L. Lieberman73S BroadwayAllegra M. Nesbit444 Jackson StreetGoshenGrace Galentine522 S. Sixth StreetGreencastleMrs. Harold Zink327 Highfall AvenueIndianapolisWalter Gingery210 S. Ritter AvenueKokomoDr. Russell P. Schuler119j^ Mulberry StreetLafayette (and vicinity)Frederick HolmesDuncan Electric CompanyLa PorteArthur Edward White, Jr.Plimpton PressLogansportClifford O. Wild214 Fourth Street ERSITY OF CHICAGOMichigan CityRaynor A. TimmeLong BeachMuncieDr. Leslie Harper WhitcraftBall Teachers CollegeRensselaerRichmondMrs. Robert Spurgin, Jr.333 S. 15th StreetSouth Bend (and vicinity)Robert Glenn Happ224 Sherland BuildingJohn Ellis HopkinsOdd Fellows HallTerre HauteWalter E. MarksInd. State Teachers CollegeValparaisoClyde Pauley255 Plum StreetWabashJerome M. Jontry27 E. Sinclair StreetWhitingWalter Henry Smith1930 West Park AvenueIOWAAmesMrs. J. L. Lush3226 Oakland StreetBurlingtonJohn C. PryorStarr and West StreetCedar Falls (and vicinity)Reno R. Reeve422 West 24th StreetCedar RapidsJohn S. VavraMutual National Bank Bldg.ClintonEdith A. Bach411 S. Sixth StreetDavenportPaul A. White402 Davenport Bank Bldg.Des MoinesDr. Daniel J. Glomset1102 Equitable Bldg.DubuqueEdward A. Wight246 Alpine StreetFort DodgeAlan LothSnell BuildingGrinnellEvelyn BoydGrinnell CollegeIowa CityWalter F. Loehwing312 Pharmacy-Botany Bldg.KeokukMrs. Gerald L. Huiskamp729 Grand AvenueMarshalltownRobert E. L. Massey307 N. Eighth StreetMason CityLester C. DibbleMarkley, Blythe, Rule & DibbleSioux CityThomas Cowley2101 Kennedy DriveKANSASEmporiaHenry E. DeweyKansas State Teachers College MAGAZINEHutchinsonEdwin B. PayneWolcott BuildingIndependenceWarren Alvin CulpMcKinley SchoolKansas City (see Kansas City, Mo.)LawrenceDomenico GagliardoUniversity of KansasManhattanHoward T. Hill403 N. Sixteenth StreetMcPherson (and vicinity)V. E. SchwalmMcPherson College.PittsburgMiss Etelka HoltKansas State "Teachers CollegeSalinaMrs. Leonard Hammond200 South 12th StreetTopekaJames W. Porter820 West StreetWichitaRobert M. Moore4601 Meadow LaneWinfieldEvan E. Evans1220 East 5th StreetKENTUCKYBowling GreenMiss Lillian M. JohnsonWestern Kentucky Teachers CollegeLouisvilleH. Campbell Dixon216 E. OrmsbyLOUISIANABaton RougeJohn A. Hinckley, Jr.Goodwood PlaceMonroeDr. Leonard L. Shlenker400 St. John StreetNew OrleansMrs. S. Walter Stern3 Richmond PlaceShreveportCharles D. Egan1336 Woodrow StreetMARYLANDBaltimoreDavid M. RobinsonJohns Hopkins University9 MASSACHUSETTSCambridgeKirtley F. MatherWadsworth HouseNorthampton (and vicinity)James Henry Larson83 Round HillSpringfieldCharles E. LeeY. M. C. A.WorcesterJacob Gross10 Waverly StreetMICHIGANAlbionWalter S. Kennedy616 Michigan AvenueAnn ArborHoward Y. McCluskyUniversity of MichiganTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBattle CreekGeorge E. Bottomley60 West MichiganBay CityWilliam P. Harms1203 Tenth StreetBenton HarborLuman H. Gray120 Pipestone StreetDetroit (and vicinity)Floyd H. FullerManfrs. Nat'l Bank of DetroitFlintMilford Desenberg335 S. Saginaw StreetGrand RapidsDr. Ruth Herrick628 Medical Arts Bldg.HollandEarnest C. Brooks659 State StreetKalamazooJohn F. NortonThe Upjohn CompanyLansing (also East Lansing)Judge Sam Street HughesCity HallMarquette jJohn Darroch MorrisonSavings Bank Bldg.YpsilantiLeslie A. ButlerMichigan St. Normal CollegeMINNESOTADuluthMiss Laura P. CraigHotel DuluthMankatoOtto Walton SnarrMankato St. Teachers CollegeMinneapolisOswald J. Arnold1606 Mount Curve AvenueMoorheadEdward C. BolmeierState Teachers CollegeRochesterDr. James M. Stickney, Jr.Mayo ClinicSt. CloudGeorge William Friedrich1502 Seventh Avenue, S. E.St. PaulDonald B. Smith2161 Sargent AvenueVirginiaEdith B. Whitney419 Ninth Street, S.WinonaWilliam A. Owens227 W. Eighth StreetMISSISSIPPIColumbusGeorge T. BuckleyMiss. State College for WomenUniversityMiss Ruth K. McNeilBox 445MISSOURIColumbiaRoy I. JohnsonStephens CollegeIndependenceLeonard J. LeaHerald Publishing HouseJefferson CityCharles O. Kette1014 Fairmount Blvd. Kansas City (and vicinity)John S. Wright1200 Waltower BuildingKirksvilleGeorge Harold Jamison807 S. HalliburtonMaryvilleMiss Mattie M. Dykes611 North BuchananParkvilleWalter F. SandersPark CollegeSt. JosephMrs. John Wyeth2916 Frederick Blvd.St. Louis (and vicinity)J. Sydney Salkey506 Olive StreetMONTANAGreat FallsLeo C. Graybill311 Ford BuildingHelenaJudge Leif B. EricksonSupreme CourtMissoulaLudvig G. BrowmanUniversity of MontanaNEBRASKAGrand IslandArthur Griffin Abbott108^ W. Third StreetLincolnGrover K. BaumgartnerThe First Trust CompanyOmahaEugene N. Blazer3920 Cuming StreetNEW HAMPSHIREHanoverClyde E. Dankert9 Pleasant StreetNEW JERSEYJersey CityJoseph A. Dear, Jr.care Jersey JournalMaple woodHarry B. Allinsmith14 Maryland RoadNew BrunswickMiss Blanche E. Riggs39 N. Fifth AvenuePrincetonJoseph E. Raycroft301 Nassau StreetShort HillsRalph DeWitt KelloggPine Terrace• West-fieldWilliam H. Lyman630 Nottingham PlaceNEM MEXICOAlbuquerqueCharles M. Barber.1400 East Central AvenueNEW YORKAlbanyClarence A. Woodcare Court of Appeals HallBuffaloJames F. Simon828 Potomac AvenueHamiltonWilson LyonColgate UniversityJamestownGeorge P. Pitts, Jr.169 Hotchkiss Street New York City (and vicinity)Rob Roy MacGregor35 Wall StreetPoughkeepsieMiss Genieve LamsonVassar CollegeRochesterHarold E. Nicely12 Buckingham StreetIsabel K. Wallace292 Oxford StreetSyracuseMrs. Mary Kay Arnold115 Milnor AvenueTroyRalph E. HustonRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteNORTH CAROLINAChapel HillHoward BealeUniversity of North CarolinaDurhamHugo L. BlomquistDuke UniversityGreensboroAlbert S. KeisterWomen's CollegeUniversity of North CarolinaNORTH DAKOTAFargoFrank L. Eversull515— 13th StreetMinotDr. Paul J. BreslichThompson Larson Apts.OHIOAkron (and vicinity)Mrs. Russell R. Wettstyne601 GreenwoodAthensEdwin T. HollebrandtOhio UniversityBowling GreenH. C. Witherington314 North Main StreetCincinnatiPaul MooneyBox 1199Cleveland (and vicinity)Elliott NessCity HallNell Henry732 E. 105th StreetColumbusWilliam S. Harman50 West Broad StreetGranvilleWillis A. ChamberlinDenison UniversityKentEarl F. Brown312 High StreetLakewoodDonald H. Hollingsworth1064 Sylvan AvenueMansfieldJesse I. BeerEast Park AvenueOxfordArthur C. WickendenBonham RoadToledoCletus V. Wolfe2015 Mt. Vernon RoadYoungstownMary Ann Thomas25 W. Princeton30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEOKLAHOMAArdmoreJohn Reinman Dexter239 F. Street S. W.BartlesvilleTheodore R. Savichcare Phillips Petroleum Corp.ChickashaMiss Miriam G. BuckOklahoma College for WomenEnidRalph W. NelsonUniversity StationNormanRoyden J. DangerfieldUniversity of OklahomaOklahoma CityWalter Archibald Lybrand320 N. RobinsonStillwaterGuy A. LackeyOklahoma A. & M.Tulsa^Gerald H. Westby2515 E. 28th StreetOREGONEugeneCardinal L. Kelly307 Miner BuildingPortlandGeorge W. Friede2207 N.W. Flanders StreetPENNSYLVANIABethlehemMalcolm F. SmileyLehigh UniversityErieThomas P. Dunn1209 Erie Trust BuildingPhiladelphiaDr. Esmond R. Long. Seventh & Lombard StreetsPittsburghRoy Hutchison Brownlee4200 Parkman AvenueState CollegeEvan JohnsonNo. 11 Heatherbloom Apts.PHILIPPINESManilaConrado BenitezUniversity of the PhilippinesRHODE ISLANDProvidenceMrs. George E. Downing59 Halsey StreetSOUTH CAROLINACharlestonAlfred E. DufourThe CitadelColumbiaFrancis Bradley719 Bull StreetSOUTH DAKOTAAberdeenDr. Roland George Mayer624 S. Kline StreetRapid CityWilliam H Bessey315 Kansas City StreetSioux FallsJay B. Allen100 N. Phillips AvenueTENNESSEEChattanoogaRev. Alfred W. Hurst 1103 Mississippi AvenueKnoxvilleDaniel C. WebbBox 254MemphisC. Arthur BruceBox 397NashvilleAugust F. Kuhlman310-24th Avenue, SouthTEXASAustinChester LayUniversity of TexasBeaumontAlyce Jane McWilliams1775 BroadwayCollege StationWilliam M. PottsA. & M. College of TexasCorpus ChristiDr. H. Gordon HeaneyMedical Professional Bldg.DallasWilliam E. Wrather4300 Overhill DriveDentonJames F. WebbNorth Texas State TeachersFort WorthMrs. Henry C. Burke2829 PrincetonGalvestonErnest D. Cavin, Jr.care Hutchins-Sealy Nat'l BankHoustonJames P Markham, Jr.Second National BankLubbockWilliam H. AbbittTexas Technological CollegeSan AntonioDr. Evarts V. DePew133 Taylor StreetWacoDr. Aubrey L. Goodman904 Medical Arts BuildingWichita FallsKarl A. Mygdal604 Waggoner BuildingUTAHLoganLeon FonnesbeckProvoIsaac E. BrockbankBrockbank & PopeVIRGINIACharlottesvilleEdwin J. CrockinP. O. Box 1667University StationLynchburgMabel Kate WhitesideRandolph-Macon Women's CollegeNorfolkFrank E. BurlesonR. F. D. LakewoodRichmondMrs. Florence L. Lohman2019 A. Grove StreetWilliamsburgMrs. Dorothy M. GeigerWASHINGTONPullmanWilliam Homer VeatchState College SpokaneArthur J. Hutton915 Paulson BuildingTacomaDr. F. G. WillistonCollege of Puget SoundWEST VIRGINIACharlestonBen T. Woodruff755 Spring RoadHuntingtonJohn W. LongBox 298MorgantownClaude C. SpikerWest Virginia UniversityWISCONSINAppletonCharles D. FloryLawrence CollegeAshlandEarl E. SpeicherBeloitMeredith P. GilpatrickEau ClaireWillis L. ZornGreen BayDr. George A. SennJanesvilleVernon E. KlontzKenoshaPaul A. DavisLa CrosseJonathan C. BungeMadisonR. M. Stroud74 Cambridge RoadManitowocHugh S. BonarMilwaukee (and vicinity)Albert B. Houghton3411 N. Shepard AvenueNeenah (and vicinity)Cola George ParkerOshkoshJames H. SmithPlattevilleFred T. UllrichRacineGeorge Tilden ColmanRiponJames F. GrovesSuperiorEllen Mary ClarkState Teachers CollegeWilliams BayOtto StruveWYOMINGLaramieAlbert Weede McColloughCANADAToronto, OntarioAllan Ross235 Carlow AvenueWinnipeg, ManitobaDavid Scott WoodsUniversity of ManitobaCALIFORNIA DIVISIONNorman BarkerLong Beach, CaliforniaSOUTHEASTERN DIVISIONRudy D. MatthewsWinter Park, FloridaNEW YORK DIVISIONErnest E. QuantrellNew York, New YorkNEWS OF THE CLASSES1899G. E. Congdon and Mrs. Congdonare motoring through the West, intending to spend the winter in California.1900L. Allen Higley, PhD '07, writesthat his new address is The King'sCollege, Belmar, New Jersey. He wasformerly at Wheaton College, Wheaton,Illinois.1901Lionel Sinclair Luton, MD, hada booth in the American Medical Association Scientific Exhibit, which washeld in St. Louis, Missouri, last spring.This exhibit was a part of the 90thAnnual Session of the Association.1903Last month Mildred Chadsey waschosen first vice president of theFriends of the Library Organization,which was founded a year ago inCleveland, Ohio. Robert A. Taft,United States Senator, spoke praisingthis new library body.1909W. S. Bittner, AM '28, is AssociateDirector, Extension Division, and associate professor of Sociology at IndianaUniversity. He, also, holds the positionof Secretary and Treasurer of the National University Extension Association.J. Bradford Pengelly, DB, AM,was associate editor for Standard American Encyclopedia, issued in 1937 andwas art editor for the University ofKnowledge. Mr. Pengelly is living inChicago.1911John C. Dinsmore has been electeda vice-president of the Automatic Canteen Company of America. Mr. Dins-more was formerly associated with thefirm, Sears, Roebuck and Company inChicago. After graduation at the University in 1911, Mr. Dinsmore workedin the university's athletic department.He also was purchasing agent for theUniversity of Chicago Clinics.1915John G. Buott is employed as valuation engineer and geologist with theShell Oil Company, Inc., in Los Angeles, California.Six years ago the Rev. Walter B.Grimes, DB, AM, resigned his post asregular minister in the Rock River conference of the Methodist church. Although 75 years of age, Rev. Grimes>s still active in the interests of theMethodist church.1917Lloyd E. Blauch, AM, PhD '23,began his work as Consultant in Inter-American Educational Relations, UnitedStates Office of Education, Washington,D. C, October 4. Mr. Blauch wasformerly with The Advisory Committee°n Education, Washington, D. C.Still another University of Chicagoalumnus has received signal recogni- ROBERT E. BONDY, '17tion. Robert E. Bondy on September 1st assumed the coveted position ofDirector of Public Welfare of the District of Columbia, an appointment whichinvolves, besides the ponderous publicassistance division, the administration ofpenal institutions, juvenile homes, Homefor the Aged, and the child welfareservice.Mr. Bondy, in accepting this post,"the only one that comes directly underthe eyes of Congress," has resigned hisposition as National Director of Disaster Relief of the Red Cross. Chosenby the Board of Public Welfare, froman ample list of competent men, he holdswhat is, in the estimation of many, themost important city directorship in thecountry.From the time of his graduation, Mr.Bondy has served in numerous administrative and advisory capacities connected with welfare and relief work.He has been director of War Serviceat National Headquarters at Washington and for four years was manager ofthe Eastern Area. In 1931, Mr. Bondywas apoointed director of DisasterRelief.In 1927, as director of reconstructionduring the Mississippi Valley flood, heserved on many occasions as an aid toSecretary of Commerce Hoover andVice Chairman James L. Fieser of theRed Cross.His work has taken him over a wideterritory in the United States, and twoyears ago he attended a conferencecalled by the International Red CrossCommittee and the League of Red CrossSocieties in Paris to explain to delegates from many nations the effectivedisaster relief system he directed in theUnited States.We have been greatly interested andintrigued by a series of articles appearing in the Duluth Herald and writtenbv Lewis L. Dunnington, AM, Pastorof the Endion M. E. Church. Over aperiod of sixty days during the pastsummer, Dr. Dunnington wrote a series of articles full of rare description and penetrating analyses writingfrom Hamburg, Berlin, Danzig andWarsaw.1918Verna Carlisle Sherwood is teaching school in Fort Worth, Texas. Mrs.Sherwood writes that she enjoys themagazine.1920John G. Stutz, PhD, is serving asexecutive director for the League ofKansas Municipalities at Lawrence,Kansas.H. C. Witherington, AM '25, PhD'31, of Bowling Green, Ohio, has recently published a textbook on ThePrinciples of Teaching (Prentice Hall,Inc.).1921During the absence of PresidentFranklin S. Harris of Brigham YoungUniversity, Professor Christen Jensen,PhD, head of the department of historyand political science, and Dean of theGraduate School, is the Acting President of the institution.1922Gottfred J. Anderson has leftFresno, California, and now lives inKlamath Falls, Oregon.Frederika Blankner, AM '23, fromRoyal University of Rome, has madequite a name for herself in the literaryworld. She is the author of All of MyYouth (Coward McCann, 1933) and aco-author and compiler of History ofScandinavian Literatures (Dial Press,1938). Miss Blankner's poems haveappeared in leading periodicals, including The Saturday Review of Literature,Yale Review, Forum, Golden BookMagazine and New York Times BookReview Section. She holds prizes andfellowships from Harvard, Wellesley,and other colleges for her poetry.Nannene Gowdy heads the ChicagoLaboratory of Montgomery Ward &Company and she has been there since1936. Her chief avocation is her vacation, she says.Orvil F. Myers, AM, PhD '26, isnow chairman of the department ofpsychology-philosophy at Los AngelesCity College.Kenneth Phillips, SM '23 MD '25,has moved 1 is office from 609 Huntington Building to 1150 Coral Way atTwelfth Avenue Southwest, Miami,Florida.1923Ernest Richard Wood, PhD, nowliving at 167 Watchung Avenue, Montclair, New Jersey, writes a note callingto our attention the celebration of hisdaughter's, Edna Beth, first birthday.1924Eben J. Carey, MD, is Dean of theMarquette University School of Medicine.While on her way to join Mr. WillGeer in New York, where he is studying to take over the role of Jeeter Les-3132 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEter in "Tobacco Road," Mrs. Geerdashed off the train at Kansas City andreturned in time to see her baby traveling swiftly off on the same train.Luckily the train hostess heard thecries of the Geer baby and Mrs. Geercollected her child in the Dearborn Station at Chicago.L. L. Leftwich, AM, DB '25, hasbeen appointed Dean at Drury College,Springfield, Missouri.1925W. Leslie River's third novel hasbeen published recently (Stokes & Company). The title of the book is TheTorguts, a story of the migration of theTorgut tribes from Russia to Asia inthe 18th century.1926Elizabeth Rogge, SM '36, is nowinstructor of nutrition and foods at theUniversity of Connecticut, Storrs, Con- ,necticut.1927Anna C. Larson, SM, has recentlybeen elected to the chairmanship of theFaculty Organization at St. Cloud StateTeachers College at St. Cloud, Minnesota.Kurt F. Leidecker, PhD, of Troy,New York, is now assistant professorof German and lecturer in Philosophyat Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.Carl M. Marberg, PhD '30, has aposition as research chemist for the In-terchemical Corporation Research Laboratories, New York, N. Y.Roger S. Strout, SM, is now aninstructor of physics and mathematicsat Junior College, Stockton, California.1928Ruth Dorothy White, who foryears presided most ably over Hutchinson Commons, serving countless balanced and attractive meals to countlessstudents with the same attributes, hasgiven up her work with the UniversityCommons. She is now located in herold home town of Toledo, Ohio and hasopened a caravansary in nearby Syl-vania under the name of "The White-house" where delectable luncheons anddinners are served each day.1929Joseph C. Swidler, JD '30, isnow Assistant General Counsel for theT.V.A. in Knoxville, Tennessee.Herbert F. Zornow, JD '31, is practicing law with John Ligtenberg, Raymond J. Kriz, and Virgil Livingston,all U of C men, in Riverdale, a suburbof Chicago.1930.Edward J. Barrett, JD, after fiveyears of general law practice in Chicago, accepted an appointment as ChiefClerk in the State Department of Registration and Education in 1937 atSpringfield, Illinois.Appointment of Dr. Walter B.Brown as examining physician in thecivil service department of Los Angeleswas announced in October. Dr. Brown,who served his interneship in the LosAngeles General hospital, placed secondin the civil service examination for the newly created position with a grade of95.5 per cent.R. U. Hilleman, AM, has been appointed Health Education Director ofthe Ohio Public Health Association,Columbus, Ohio.Elizabeth Paxton Lam, AM, PhD'39, has accepted the position of Deanof Women and teacher of religion atCentre College, Danville, Kentucky.Abe L. Sudran, AM '31, has a position with the Jewish Vocational Servicein Cleveland, Ohio.Another graduate to have visited Europe recently, Marjorie Tolman, AM'31, has been occupied giving lectureson her trip and showing moving pictures of same since her return. MissTolman spent nine weeks on the Continent last summer. During the threeweeks she visited Germany, she bicycled400 miles. England, Holland, Italy,Switzerland, Belgium, and France wereother countries visited. Since 1937,Miss Tolman has been secretary to theVice-President of Wilson and Company.1931Bessie L. Alford, SM, is now Assistant Professor of Home Economicsat Taylor University, Upland, Indiana.Robert M. Limpus, AM, PhD '37,is now assistant professor of Englishat Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Michigan.Nicholas Pavia, AM '33, is at Dowl-ir.g College, Des Moines, Iowa, wherehe is an instructor of French andSpanish.John B. Smith, AM, has been appointed Head of the Art Department atthe University of Wyoming, Laramie,Wyoming.1932Corinne Fitzpatrick, PhD, is specializing in the education program andsocial adjustment of children at 5843Blackstone Avenue, Chicago. MissFitzpatrick has developed teachingtechniques for remedial work in reading and has set up a tutoring servicenear the Quadrangles, accepting students from seven years of age throughhigh school. She is also furnishingadvisory service covering the placementof students in colleges according totheir particular needs and interests.Robert H. Wilson, PhD, is now atHoward College, Birmingham, Alabama,where he has a position as AssistantProfessor of English.1933E. G. Stanley Baker is now working as a graduate assistant at LelandStandford University.Charles F. Nesbitt, AM, PhD '39,has been appointed Professor of Religious Education at Wofford College,Spartanburg, S. C.Ella Elizabeth Preston has someof her poems in the Harrison Anthologies published recently. Miss Preston's occupation is that of supervisorof art in the Public Schools of Davenport, Iowa.1934Harry Ruja, AM, if now at Compton Junior College, Compton, California, BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorPETERSONFireproof WarehouseSTORAGE — MOVINGForeign — DomesticShipments55th & Ellis Phone, MID 9700HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE_ AFTER19 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseALSOELECTROLYSIS EXPERTMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of Hair from Face,Eyebrows, Back of Neck or any partof Body; destroys 200 to 600 Hair Rootsper hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in BeautyTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33where he is an instructor of philosophyand psychology.r. Foster Scott, AM, has been appointed Secretary and Dean at IndianaUniversity, Bloomington, Indiana.1935Robert E. Bowers, AM '39, is atVVeyland Junior College and Academy,Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, where he isan instructor of English.Shown on the new Red Cross posterBUSINESSDIRECTORYTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOStudent Directory 1930-1940Contains names, home and Universityaddresses of all students in residence.On Sale at 25c fromBoard of Vocational Guidance andPlacementUniversity of Chicago — Midway 0800AMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIR &WELDING CO.BOILER REPAIRING AND WELDING24 HOUR SERVICE1408 S. Western Ave. Tel. Canal 6071BOOK BINDERSW. B. CONKEY COMPANYHammond, IndianaPrinters and BindersofBooks and CatalogsSales OfficesCHICAGO NEW YORK used in that organization's current appeal for funds is Mrs. John De Witt(nee Marian Voigs). Mrs. De Witt isa daughter of John F. Voigt, '96, andher husband is the nephew of Mrs.James Weber Linn. Mr. and Mrs.DeWitt now live on King's Highwayat Valley Cottage, a suburb just northof New York City.Hilda Peterson, AM, is now ateacher of remedial reading in grammarschool, in Public School, Evergreen,Alabama.James Q. Reber, AM, commenced hisinstructorship of European history lastOctober at Wilson Junior College, Chicago, Illinois, after receiving his PhDin August this year.Douglas S. Ward, AM, has a position as Instructor of Social Studies atColorado State College of Education,Greeley, Colorado.1936Herbert C. Brown, PhD '38, hasbeen appointed Research Instructor ofChemistry with the University to fillthe vacancy caused by Dr. Anton B.Burg's resignation. Dr. Burg, '27, PhD'31, plans to go to the University ofSouthern California at Los Angeles tobecome an assistant professor of chemistry.Lulu G. McClure, AM, has a position as instructor of English at Mon-treat College at Montreat, North Carolina.J. Lambert Molyneaux has receivedan appointment as assistant professor ofpsychology and sociology at A. & M.College of Texas, College Station, Texas.Helen D. Schroeder, AM, has a position as instructor of French and theviolin at Brownell Hall, Omaha,Nebraska.Dorothy Ulrich recently returnedto her home in Hartford, Connecticut,after a two-month automobile trip toCalifornia and the Southwest. Duringthe summer her poems and book reviews appeared in The New YorkTimes. One of her poems has appeared in every issue of The ChristianScience Monitor for many months.1937Harriet M. Doll has moved recently from Berkeley, California, toWhiting, Indiana. Miss Doll is now connected with the Progressive EducationAssociation, University of Chicago.Ralph N. Johanson, SM, PhD '39,is now at Bradley Polytechnic Institute,Peoria, Illinois, as an instructor ofmathematics.William H. Macdonald, MD, announces the new location of his officesfor the practice of Medicine and Surgery, 2103 18th Street at D, Bakers-field, California.Clarence B. Odell, PhD, is now aninstructor of geography at the University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.Gertrude V. Wilson, SM '39, has aposition as interior decorator with theJohn M. Smyth Company, Chicago.1938Robert Blakey, SM '39, has a position as psychologist at Glenwood State BOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CEMENT CONTRACTORST. A. REHNQUIST CO. 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RICKETTS JASPER S. KINGTITLE PAGES; ANNIVERSARY,CHRISTMAS, WEDDING and GUESTBOOKS; COATS OF ARMS, GENEALOGIES, MEMORIALS, RESOLUTIONS, BOOK PLATESDIPLOMAS, AWARDS, HONORARY DEGREES, CHARTERSValued papers and letters restoredand bound38 SOUTH DEARBORN STREETDEARBORN 000 1 . CHICAGOGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1 327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9 1 00- 1 -2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning29 1 5 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5 1 10THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL LAUNDRY SERVICESAlsoZoric System of Cleaning-:- Odorless Quality Cleaning -:-Phone Oakland 1 383 School, Glenwood, Iowa.Lindsey M. Hobbs, PhD, is an instructor in the University of Alabama,University, Alabama.Sol Joseph, AM, is now an instructor of music and theory at the CentralYMCA College, Chicago, Illinois.Casey William Kunkel is assistantprofessor of Accounting at The Citadel,Charleston, S. C.Stanley McColgan is with JohnWyeth and Brothers, Inc., at Mason,Michigan.Hurst H. Shoemaker, PhD, has aposition as instructor of zoology at theUniversity of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.William J. Tancig, SM '39, is employed in the Research Chemist Divisionof Standard Oil Company of Indiana,at Whiting, Indiana.Jonathan J. Westfall, SM, PhD'39, is now an instructor of botany andbiology at the State Teachers College,Moorhead, Minnesota.1 939Barbara Alden is now an instructorof English at University of DelawareWomen's College, Newark, Delaware.Mildred Marguerite Arnold, AM,has a position as instructor of foodsand nutrition at Oregon State College,Corvallis, Oregon.George L. Bach is now at Iowa StateCollege at Ames, where he is an instructor of economics.Harris G. Beck, Jr., is associatedwith the Phenolite Corporation, Chicago.John Berryman has received an appointment in the Department of Finance,State of Illinois at Springfield.Richard H. Blanding is an instructor of French at The Principia, Elsah,Illinois.Donald R. Fryxell, AM, has received an appointment as instructor ofEnglish at New Mexico State Collegeat State College, N. M.Alice Senob, PhD, went to Logan,Utah, last September to assume her duties as instructor of English in the UtahState Agriculture College.Alphonsus L. O'Toole has been appointed professor of mathematics andstatistics at Mundelein College in Chicago.Rhoda Beth Pope is now at CossittGrade School, LaGrange, Illinois, whereshe is a teacher and school librarian.Adrienne S. Rayl, PhD, is now aninstructor of mathematics at Birmingham Center, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama.Virgil Nelson Robinson, PhD, hasaccepted a position as instructor ofmathematics at Georgia School of Technology at Atlanta.Kenneth Hopkins Rood, AM, hasgone to Honolulu, Hawaii, where he isnow a teacher of social sciences at IolaniSchool.Mrs. Kalita K. Shaffer has a position as secretary to the president of theKennedy Manufacturing Company, VanWert, Ohio.George Donald Smith lias been appointed librarian and instructor in library science at Mary WashingtonCollege, Fredericksburg, Virginia.Margaret Louise Slutz is now a LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritingMultloraphinoAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoLITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset— Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182OFFICE FURNITURE5TEELCA5E^Business Equipment \FILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co* Grand Rapids, MichiganPAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting— Decorating— Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3186E. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404RICHARD H. 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LAKE ST., CHICAGO.PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions"RESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South Sidel*JKCH«**l:]l yy«4i_ ¦ Ji:i4Ba(«I*]»2COLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 WoodJawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324ROOFERSRE-ROOFING — REPAIRINGGROVEROOFINGFAirfax5206GillilandW44C0TTA6E6R0VEA"INSULATINGRUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED l»2lOriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED2313 E. 71st St. Phone Dor. 0009 nursery school teacher at Samuel S.Pels Research Institute, Yellow Springs,Ohio.Grace Ann Steininger, PhD, is nowhead of the School of Home Economicsat Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.John Hibbard Stellwagen is atBaldwin-Wallace College, Berea, Ohio,where he is instructor of French.Donald S. Strong, PhD, has receivedan appointment at the University ofTexas, Austin, Texas, as instructor ofpolitical science.Edmund Henry Umberger has a position as instructor of mathematics atthe Altoona Undergraduate Center,Pennsylvania State College, Altoona,Pennsylvania.George Henry Watson is an instructor of political science at Southern Illinois State Normal University, at Car-bondale, Illinois.Franklin Springer Williams, whohas taken graduate work in the Schoolof Business, is now a teacher of bookkeeping, typing and biology at the highschool and junior college, Mason City,Iowa.SOCIAL SERVICEDora Goldstine, AM '31, Field WorkInstructor in Medical Social Work hasbeen loaned to the American Association of Medical Social Workers for theremainder of the year to complete astudy of Medical Social Work in a Public Medical Care Program. Mrs. RuthShriner will assist in the supervision ofstudents during Miss Goldstine's absence.On Sunday night, November 12th, theFaculty held a reception for students atIda Noyes Hall. More than 250 studentswere in attendance.Miss Abbott attended a meetingcalled by the Children's Bureau inWashington on November 14th in preparation for the coming White HouseConference on Children in a Democracy.Miss Breckenridge was recentlychosen to be honored by the Associationof Business and Professional Womenof Chicago as one of the outstandingwomen of the city.Marion Hathaway, AM '27, PhD'33, at present the Executive Secretaryof the American Association of Professional Schools of Social Work hasrecently made an inspection visit ofthree days to the School.Edith Sawyer, AM '31, has beenmade General Secretary of the Y. W. C.A. in Buffalo, New York.Eleanor J. Flynn, PhD '36, hasbeen made Headworker at Elliot ParkNeighborhood House, Minneapolis.Joseph Louchein, AM '34, JD '34,has left his position with the New YorkState Department to join the Facultyof the School of Social Work at theUniversity of Pittsburgh.Winifred Morin, AM '36, has leftthe Detroit Department of Public Welfare to work with the Michigan Children's Institute at Ann Arbor.Helen Bell, AM '37-, is now working for the Committee of Jewish Tuberculous in New York City.Eugene Adelman, AM '37, has left COMMERCIAL SCHOOLSIntensive Stenographic Course1 FOR COLLEGE MEN & WOMEN100 Words a Minute In 100 Days As- alured for one Fee. Enroll NOW. Day welasses only — Begin Jan.. Apr.. Julyand Oat. Write or Phone Ban. 1575.18 S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO^Mfl^mniMacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130SCHOOL— SHORTHANDYour whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.LearnGREGGthe world's fastest shorthand.SHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing•1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893STOCKS— BONDS— COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, 'II. H. 1. Markham. 'Ex. '06R. W . Davis, '16 F. B. Evans, 'IIPaul H. Davis & Co, i10 So. MembersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock ExchangeChicago Board of TradeLa Salie St. Franklin 8622SWEATERSGENUINE ATHLETIC SWEATERSSweaters and Emblems Made to Orderat theENGLEWOOD KNITTING MILLS6643 S. Halsted Street Wentworth 5920-21Established over one quarter of a centuryTEACHERS' AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.VERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One FeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY, MO. SPOKANENEW YORKHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 b. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationot Teachers AaenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, Normal School,College and University PatronageUNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottaqe Grove Ave,All Phones OAKIand 0492UNIFORMSTailored Uniforms Made to MeasureWomen Doctors and Nurses, Stock sizeInterne SuitsANEDA McSWEENY1910 So. Ogden AvenueSEEley 3734 Evenings by AppointmentVENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767 the Jewish Social Service Bureau ofPittsburgh to become Field Workerwith the Tri-State Coordinating Bureauof Pittsburgh.Florence Stevens, AM' 38, has recently accepted a position with the Associated Charities of Pittsfield, Massachusetts.Joseph Shelley, AM '38, has beenmade a Field and Research Secretaryfor the Osborn Foundation in NewYork.Charles Olds, AM '38, has accepteda position with the Department of Public Welfare in Maryland.Helen McManus, AM '39, has beenappointed as State Consultant with theLouisiana State Department of PublicWelfare.Constance Webb, AM '39, has recently been made Director of SocialService of the Montreal General Hospital.Louise J. McDonnell, AM '39, hasleft the Juvenile Court, Washington,D. C, to accept a position with theState Department of Public Welfare inOhio.ENGAGEDMilancie Hill, '39, to Robert W.Janes, '38, AM '39, announced November 14, 1939. Miss Hill is working onher master's degree in American historyat Chicago while Mr. Janes is doingresearch work in sociology at the University of Illinois. They have made noplans for their wedding.Phyllis Todd, '39, to Henry B. Cummins, '38, of White Bear Lake, Minnesota. Thev plan to be married onDecember 30, 1939.MARRIEDDamaris Kathryn Ames, '22,to Professor Bernadotte E. Schmitt,Andrew MacLeish Distinguished Service Professor of Modern History at theUniversity of Chicago, on November22, in Chicago. The former MissAmes is the daughter of Dr. EdwardScribner Ames, PhD '95, professor emeritus of philosophy at the Universityand pastor of the University Church ofDisciples of Christ;Evaline MacAndrew to Eliot Ness,'25, on October 14 in Chicago. Mr. Nessis Safety Director in Cleveland, Ohio.Muriel Parker, '30, to Henry Rothof New York City on October 7, 1939.Mr. and Mr3. Roth are living in NewYork City at 220 E. 23rd Street.Ruth Lindahl to Walter M. Ur-bain, '31, PhD '34, on November 4,1939. They are at home at 7013 34thStreet, Berwyn, Illinois.Ruth Say re to Clarence EldredgeFox, Jr., '32, on October 22, 1939. Mr.and Mrs. Fox are living in Chicago.Elizabeth Ann McCasky, '37, toAubrey O. Cookman, Jr., on September30, 1939. They are now at home at 6752East End Avenue, Chicago.Mary P. Rix, '38, to James M.Markham, '36, son of Herbert I.Markham, '07, and Mrs. Herbert I.Markham, '08, on October 21, 1939.Mr. and Mrs. James M. Markham are at home at 5212 University AvenueChicago, Illinois. 'Erik Wahlgren, '33, PhD '38, toDorothy Sly on November 9, 1939Dr. Wahlgren is teaching GermanSwedish, Danish, Norwegian and ICe.!landic at the University of CaliforniaLos Angeles.Barbara Kennedy, '39, to RichardN. Lyon, '39, on September 24, 1939Mr. and Mrs. Lyon are at home at 6020Drexel Avenue, Chicago, Illinois.Jean Karen Weber, '39, to GeorgeR. Koone, '38. Their address is 332Maple Street, Kimberly, Wisconsin.BORNTo Frank Dacey Carr, '34, andMrs. Carr (Virginia Eyssell, '35), ason, Richard, December 2, 1939, inSpringfield, 111.Cecilia Paul Eisman, AM '39, hasaccepted a position with the Jewish Social Service Bureau of Chicago.To Michael Ference, '33, SM '34,PhD '37, and Mrs. Ference (MargaretA. Wilfinger, '37) their second daughter, Carol Jane, September 14, in Chicago.To Merrill Krughoff, AM '36, andMrs. Krughoff, a daughter, KatharineGay, October 23, 1939.To Morey S. Mosk, '33, secretary toGovernor Olson of California, and Mrs.Mosk, a son, Richard Mitchel, in Sacramento.To Clifton M. Utley, '26, and Mrs.Utley on November 19, a boy, CliftonGarrick Utley. Mr. Utley is Vice-Chairman of the Alumni Foundation.To Julien D. Weiss, '31, JD '33,and Mrs. Weiss (Shirley Warsaw),'34, on October 4, a son, David Harry.To Mr. James L. Watson, '27, JD'29, and Mrs. Watson (Virginia A.Lane), '30, a second son, WilliamRichard, on November 14, 1939, GlenEllyn, Illinois.To John M. Whitelaw, AM '27,and Mrs. Whitelaw, a son, October 3,1939, in Portland, Oregon.DIEDStella Robinson Fox, '02, on November 4, 1939, West Lafayette, Indiana.John C. Futrall, '95, President ofthe University of Arkansas, on- September 12, 1939, at Fayetteville, Arkansas.Maude Miller Greene (Mrs. Robert J.), '04, on May 22, 1939, at Lincoln,Nebraska.Claude C. Nuckols, '03, on June 19,1939, at Albany, New York.Bernard Portis, '18, MD '20, PhD'23, on November 1, 1939, Chicago.Charles N. Walker, '11, teacher, onOctober 4, 1939, at Redlands, California.Helmuth C. Englebrecht, '18, coauthor of the 1934 best-seller, Merchantsof Death, on October 8, New York.Michael F. Gallagher, '00, lawyer,on November 26, 1939, Chicago, Illinois.Franklyn E. McClure, '03, formermanager for the Ford interests in Cleveland, on November 14, in Westport,Connecticut.Emil Leonard Tompach, MD '94,on November 25, 1939, Racine, Wisconsin.a^eerrytoeAlllZ Tsandnei8hbors» ^ telephone company^nd ^u best wishes for aMe<-ry Christmas.Throue-h tho u i- .as alway, we'il J J, h°hda^-°- best to keep the Ch"0^- telephone service. "^ SpiritB£LL TELEPHONE SYST£MNew Books by Chicago AuthorsTODAY fclvM Rushton Coulbornand Arthur FeilerIN AMERICAN DRAMAHow do yesterday's labels (tragedy, comedy andthe rest) fit today's plays? With penetration andhumor, Mr. O'Hara discusses modern tragedieswithout finality, comedies without a laugh, melodrama with a meaning, farce with a purpose, andthe so-called propaganda plays. Probes into themotives and meanings of such plays as "Abe Lincoln in Illinois," "The Little Foxes," "Mamba'sDaughters," etc. $2.50^ ««* •**** THE NOVELAND THE MODERN WORLDHow has modern fiction been affected by publicbeliefs? This analysis of the work of Galsworthy,Conrad, Mansfield, Joyce, Woolf and Huxley discusses not only their writing techniques butprobes beneath for the writer's motives, his symbols and their significance for the social historian.Contains the most thorough discussion and assessment of Joyce yet published. $2.50cm in*"**THE TEXT OF THE CANTERBURY TALESStudied on the Basis of All Known ManuscriptsThe publication of this eight-volume work brings to fruition the great Chaucer project which has beenunder way at the University since 1925 and to which the noted authors devoted a lifetime of study. Acollation of all the known MSS of The Canterbury Tales— eighty-three in number, believed to be the largest number of MSS ever collated in full at any one time. Only eight Chaucer MSS have been previouslyprinted in full. Contains twelve facsimile illustrations of pages from various MSS. Set of 8 vols., $40.00INTERNATIONAL SECURITYWhy has collective security failed as a panaceafor international ills during the period from 1920to 1939? The former president of Czechoslovakia,a former English professor of history, and a formerleading economic writer of the FrankfurterZeitung here discuss the diplomatic maneuverstoward peace that have played an important partin contemporary history. Harris Foundation Lectures, 1939. Edited by Walter H. C. Laves. $2.00^ r yn*»^PROLOGUE TO POLITICSHas modern democracy neglected the role ofarmies in the modern state because it was absorbedin the contemplation of the ideal state withoutwar? This small book attempts to find the truththat lies between the doctrine that force has noplace in human association and the doctrine thatmight makes ri"ht. Stimulating discussions throwlight on the development of dictatorships and discuss pressing democratic questions. $1.50With the aid of Mabel Dean, Helen Mcintosh and others.Includes a chapter on illuminations by Margaret Rickert.To be published January 2, 1946.¦The University of Chicago Press1