THE UNIVERSITY OF(HI (AGO MAGAZINENOVEMBER 19 3 9THE ALUMNI COUNCILOFTHE UNIVERSITY 'OF CHICAGOChairman, JOHN NUVEEN, JR., '19Secretary and Editor, CHARLTON T. BECK, '04The Council for 1939-40 is composed of the following delegates:From the College Association: Josephine T. Allin, '99; Arthur C. Cody, '24; Charles C.Greene, '19, JD'21; Olive Greensfelder, '16; Huntington Henry, '06; Frances HendersonHiggins, '20; J. Kenneth Laird, '25; Frank J. Madden, '20, JD'22; Herbert I. Markham,'05; Robert T. McKinlay, '29, JD'32; Frank McNair, '03 ; Helen Norris, '07; John Nuveen,Jr., '19; Keith I. Parsons, '33; JD'37; Elizabeth Sayler, '35 ; Katharine Slaught, '09; Clifton Utley, '26; Helen Wells, '24.From the Doctors of Philiosophy Association: Charles H. Behre, '18, PhD'25; Rollin T.Chamberlin, '03, PhD'07; Leon P. Smith, AM'28, PhD'30.From the Divinity Association: Charles L. Calkins, AM'22; Laird T. Hites, AM'16, DB'17,PhD'25; Sylvester Jones, DB'07.From the Law School Association: Charles F. McElroy, AM'06, JD'15; Charles P. Schwartz,'08, JD'09; Horace A. Young, JD'24.From the Education Association: Harold A. Anderson, '24, AM'26; Paul M. Cook, AM'27;Robert C. Woellner, AM'24.From the School of Business ^Association: George W. Benjamin, '35; Louise Forsyth, '30;Neil F. Sammons, '17.From the School of Social Service Administration Association: Anna Sexton Mitchell,AM'30; Marie Walker Reese, '34, AM'36; Marion Schaffner, '11.From the Rush Medical College Association: C. J. Lundy, '24, MD'27; William A. Thomas,'12, MD'16; R. W. Watkins, MD'25.From the Association of the School of Medicine in the Division of the BiologicalSciences: W. Carter Goodpasture, MD'37; John Van Prohaska, '28, MD'34; B. G. Sarnat,'33, MD'37.From the Chicago Alumnae Club: Mrs. Jasper S. King, '18; Catharine Rawson, '25; Mrs.George Simpson, '18.From the Chicago Alumni Club: John J. Schommer, '09; W^risley B. Oleson, '18; John William Chapman, '15, JD'17.From the University: John F. Moulds, '07.Alumni Associations Repreented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Association: President, John Nuveen, Jr., '19; Secretary, Charlton T.Beck, '04, University of Chicago.Doctors of Philosophy Association: President. Charles H. Behre, '18, PhD'25; Secretary, LeonP. Smith, AM'28, PhD'30, University of Chicago.Divinity School Association: President, William F. Rothenberger, DB'07; Secretary, CharlesT. Holman, DB'16, University of Chicago.Law School Association: President, Horace A. Young, JD'24; Secretary, Charles F. McElroy, AM'06, JD'15, 29 S. LaSalle Street, Chicago.School of Education Association: President, Aaron J. Brumbaugh, PhD'29; Secretary, Le-nore John, AM'27, 6009 Kimbark Avenue, Chicago.School of Business Association: President, George Benjamin, '25; Secretary, Shirley Davidson. '35, 8232 South Sangamon Street- Chicago.Rush Medical College Association: President, Frederick B. Moorehead, MD'06; Secretary, CarlO. Rinder, '11, MD'13, 122 S. Michigan Avenue, Chicago.School of Social Service Administration Association: President, Roger Cumming, AM'26;Secretary, Alice Voiland, AM'36, 5654 Kenwood Avenue, Chicago.Association of the Medical School of the Division of Biological Sciences: President, AlfT. Haerem, MD'37; Secretary, Ansgar K. Rodholm, MD'38, University of Chicago.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the Alumni Council,Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in any one of the Associations namedabove, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, are $2.00 per year. A holderof more than one Degree from the University of Chicago may be a member of more than one Association;in such instances the dues are divided and snared equally by the Association involved.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCHARLTON T. BECK, '04 REUBEN FRODIN, '33Editor and Business. Manager Associate EditorWILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD '22; DON MORRIS, '36; RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36Contributing EditorsIN THIS ISSUETHE COVER: A candid cam- a first-rate discussion of an impor- 1. Contest is open to all formerera shot of Director John A. tant pan- American problem. students of the University of Chicago.Wilson of the Oriental Insti- • More than one manuscript may betute, taken several years ago when Then, too, the editors want to an- submitted.Dr. Wilson was visiting one of the nounce the first of a series of yarns 2. Manuscripts must be in theInstitute's expeditions in Egypt. Dr. by the late Phil Allen, PhD '97. A Magazine office by Jan. 15, 1940.Wilson, who contributes this month's year or so before Phil died, a number 3. Address entries to the Manu-leading article, Between Wars: The of his friends urged him to put down script Contest Editor, the Univer-First Twenty Years of the Oriental on paper some of his amusing and sity of Chicago Magazine, Uni-Institute, has been forced to cancel sometimes almost fabulous stories, versity of Chicago, Chicago, inspection trip to the Near East Phil dictated some 800 pages of 4. Do not sign manuscript. Putbecause of the European war. stories, which remain, in a rough your name and address in a sealed• form, unpublished. Our thanks are envelope and clip the envelope toThis month's issue of the Maga- due to Phil's son, Philip S. Allen, your manuscript.zine will go to nearly 8,000 alumni for the privilege of printing them. 5. Subjects: a) What the Uni-and former students of the University • versity of Chicago means to itsof Chicago. In addition to our regu- Last, but, as they say, not least : alumni and former students ; b) Whatlar subscribers, all non-subscribers the 1939-40 Manuscript Contest. The the University of Chicago means towho have written to John Nuveen, contest rules are the same as last American life; c) Famous and "no-'18, chairman of the Alumni Founda- year's, with the exception of subject torious" men and women encounteredtion, asking for a sample copy, will matter; the prizes again total $125. at the University; d) For studentsreceive one. We hope they will join Here are the rules: 0f the last ten years: "Why I came tothe list of regular subscribers ($2 per — the University of Chicago and whatyear, including alumni membership). TABLE OF CONTENTS I got from it."• NOVEMBER 1939 ^' -^ manuscripts become theIn addition to Dr. Wilson's article, 'page property of the University of Chicagoalready mentioned, there are other Letters 2 Alumni Council and the right to pub-stimulating contributions in the pages Books 2 Hsh any of them is reserved.that follow. John Nef, professor of Between Wars, John A. Wilson 5 7- Upon request, unused manu-economics at the University and an a Social Science Objective, John scripts will be returned at the conclu-eminent economic historian, looks Nef ! io sion of the contest, providing returnwith a critical eye upon objectives of New Plays and Old Labels, Frank postage is inclosed.the social sciences. Jerome Kerwin, Hurburt O'Hara 12 g Manuscripts should not exceedassociate professor of political sci- Are We Ready for Peace? Jerome G. 3,000 words, and, if possible, shouldence, has written for this issue an ermn " 15 be typewritten, double spaced.article which raises a point which %ar^E #™N' Nationalism'17 9. Any or all prizes may be with-ejeryone in the United States should My MogT ' Interest'ing" ' 'Decisions', drawn, providing no suitable materialgive thought to : what sort of a world Philip Schuyler Allen. 19 1S submitted. Ihe decision of theorder is there going to be when the Athletics, Don Morris 23 judges shall be final. In case of a tiewar in Europe somehow comes to an News of 'the quadrangles,' William duplicate prizes will be awarded.end ? Harold Davis, AM '27, con- V. Morgenstern 24 10. Prizes : First, $50 ; second, $30 ;tributes what may be well labeled as News of the Classes 32 third, $20; fourth, $15; fifth, $10.Published by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. at-kills Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the PostOffice at Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 3Q Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agency of the University of Chicago Magazine.2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEFor Future Travel Delight-PremierDiamondMine/HEN normal conditions again assureuninterrupted travel, visit South Africa,whose hospitality is as famous as its blueskies and golden sunshine. You will experience the travel adventure of a life-time!Docking at Capetown, romantic gateway tothe "Sunny Sub-Continent", you will see amodern metropolis — rich with historical interest — set among soft rolling vineyards,Dutch homesteads, tranquil gardens ablazewith buginvillsa. The aerial ride to TableMountain, the famous Marine Drive, andpleasant sea side resorts are among the manydelightful attractions.Northward lie Kimberley and Johannesburg, synonymous with diamonds and gold;Victoria Falls; vast game reserves, primitivenative villages, and many other unforgettable sights — all easily accessible by finetrains, modern air lines and good motorhighways.On that future trip — resolve to see wonderful SOUTH AFRICA.• For full information see your travelagent. Also send for booklet GG, outlining 8 thrilling tours. Include thename of your travel agent on your postcard, addressed to South African Consulate, 500 Fifth Ave., New York.Below, The "Sentinel,"from Chapman's Fea\,Cape Marine Drive^**f»H, - ? i>I » LETTERSOFFER ACCEPTEDTo the Editor:Notice that the annual alumni association dues are due reached me in Germany. At the present time it is notpossible to pay them because of exchange regulations. However, I shouldbe interested in seeing the alumni magazine again and would appreciate it ifyou forward it to me here. Maybe Ican pay you when this war is over.Maybe' I could "pay" by sending younews from and about Germany.Rudolf Stormer, '36.Hamburg, Germany.FOOD FOR "THOUGHT"To the Editor :... I realize, although I presumethat most of our alumni and former students do not, that the football scoresin the games with Harvard and Michigan are actually contact propaganda inthis new drive [of the Alumni Foundation] . My reason for so stating is this :. . . The scores for the last two Saturdayswere 61 and 85, respectively, or a totalof 146. Any chairman [Mr. Blazer isone — Ed.] ought to realize the value ofthis in the solicitation of funds. Assuming, however, that some may have overlooked it, let me give it to them forwhat it is worth.(a) To those alumni and former students who still have a sophomoric outlook it might be suggested that a portion of the funds derived will go, directlyor indirectly, to the strengthening ofthe football team.(b) To those long-skirted ladies andthe long sideburned gentlemen who donot believe in football, it might be statedto them that if they give any funds theycan see from past performance thatnever has the University directed anyfunds received by it to football players,and that therefore they may safely assume that the funds that they will givewill not in the future go to those who,by their prowess, will establish footballsuperiority at the University.For that reason I want to congratulate the football team in laying thegroundwork to secure funds from allformer students, regardless of what theirperspective may be.Eugene N. Blazer, JD'14.Omaha, Neb.SHEEP IN WOLF'S CLOTHESTo the Editor :Did you notice the enclosed Associated Press dispatch from New Yorkby Whitney Martin? The story discusses the perennial "Chicago to leavethe Big Ten" rumor, but closes significantly (i.e., for a sports page) :"In fact, perhaps the Nation's institu tions of high learning owe Chicago alow bow for putting football in its place,although the football fanatics would bowonly with shame. They judge a schoolby its passing percentage on the field,not in the classroom."John Martin, '32.Washington, D. C.BOOKSSons Without Anger. By StanleyYoung, '28. New York : Farrar &Rinehart, 1939. $2.50.Alumni of fifteen years ago will remember Stanley Young as a leadingundergraduate, active in Blackfriars.Leaving the University he studied inEurope, wrote for newspapers, taughtEnglish. He has now settled down toa literary career, his earliest efforts being plays and criticisms. This is hisfirst novel.Sons Without Anger tells the storyof four brothers, sons of a successfulNew England industrialist. The loss ofthe family fortune turns them out intoa world full of broad social changes, aworld that has no sympathy for thepampered children who have lived toolong on the labors of others. It is aharsh commentary on the sons of therich, that three of the four can make noadjustment and end their lives tragically. Only one is able to find his wayout of his bewildering problems towardan understanding of the new order.While the scene is contemporary andthe troubles are those of the depressionyears, the plot and its ultimate solutionare subordinate to the characters of theyoung men. The author treats themwith sympathy and an awareness of thepsychological and social factors thatmolded them.Howard P. Hudson, '35.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWhy do young, unmarried men own Life Insurance?9 THE NEED "Why did Ibuy life insurance? Well. . . first, because I wasn't saving any money.Usually I spent it as fast as I made it. Now andthen I saved for something I wanted to buy.But of course that didn't get me anywhere.What I needed was a long-range plan. And mylife insurance policy gives me that, because Ihave to save money for the premiums regularly."But that wasn't all. My mother has done alot for me and I wanted to do something forher. So I named her the beneficiary of mypolicy. Of course, some day I suppose I'll getmarried. And when I meet the right girl Ibelieve she will have enough common-senseto know that a life insurance policy means alot more than a carload of orchids."Another thing. Some day I may want to gointo business for myself, and have to borrowmoney. I understand that in passing on a loansome banks ask whether you own any life insurance; and I have heard that when you apply to some of the big corporations for a job theyask the same question. So, I figure that someday my policy may help me to get ahead inbusiness or to land a better job. Any way youlook at it, I think it's a good thing.THE POLICY "Of course I hardly knewone life insurance policy from another. Butwhen a New York Life agent called I talkedthings over with him. He explained the benefits and the premiums, dividends, loan values,and so on. He said that young men usuallytook an Ordinary Life policy, or Limited Payment Life or a Long-Term Endowment. Afterhe had asked me a number of questions andgone over my situation thoroughly, he recommended an Ordinary Life policy for $5,000because it gives more permanent protectionper dollar of premium than any other life insurance policy."Well, $5,000 seemed like a lot for me, andat first I didn't think I could handle it. But INEW YORK LIFEINSURANCE C OM PA N YA Mutual Company Founded on April 12, 1845THOMAS A. BUCKNER, Chairman of the Board 5 1 Madison Ave., New York ALFRED L. AIKEN, PresidentSafety is always the first consideration . . . Nothing else is so importantfound that the premium at my age would beabout $100 a year, and I knew I could savethat much if I tried. So, that's what I'm doing.And I'm going to leave all my dividends with theCompany, because if I do this, my policy someday should be worth $5,000 to me in cash."One more thing. Every year you wa^t, yourpremium rate goes up. So I am glad I tookmy policy when I did . . . Yes, I feel that theNew York Life agent did me a good turn."THE COMPANY Young people under age30 bought approximately $190,000,000 of lifeinsurance last year in the New York LifeInsurance Company. Many of these policieswere taken by young men whose fathers a,lsowere policyholders in this Company. TheNew York Life has insured the lives of succeeding generations of American citizens since itwas founded as a mutual company morethan ninety-four years ago on April 12, 1845.Throughout those years the NewYork Life has weathered every panic,war and epidemic '. . . and has metevery obligation it assumed. TheCompany is in a strong financialposition, and its insurance and annuity reserves are on the most conservative basis used by Americanlife insurance companies.In view of the Company's pastrecord and present strength, a NewYork Life policy should be one ofthe best investments which anyyoung man could make.PERSEPOLISTHE SITE of Persepolis (above), capital of ancient Persia, wasfirst identified in modern times in 1620. The Oriental Institute,since 1931, has reclaimed structures used by Darius and Xerxes. ONE OF THE first objectives of the Institute was the excavation of the impressiveience halls. From far across the Persian plain may be seen the majestic coliof the halls. Approaching the terrace, one climbs the great staircase, enters the pg|THE TREASURY under excavation. Behind stands therestored Harem Palace which serves as the Institute'sheadquarters. In background are ruins of Xerxes' palace. WORKMAN replacingfrom relief depicting fallen stoneepicting a lion attackingbull — origin of the legendary unicorn. IN THE summer of 1938 Boris Dubenslcy,this 100-ft. scaffold, photographed the intions on the tomb of the great king, DaiiTHIS sculptured wall relief, more than20 feet long, portrays an audiencein which Darius interviews a petitioner. POTS are archaeologists' "type fossils" for detersmining age of deposits. Into this trash pit housewives of about 900 A. D. threw out-Fhoded crockery. WORKMEN assembling pots redfrom the trash pits, ruins of fhouses, and kitchens for Xerxes' t!VOLUME XXXII THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 2NOVEMBER, 1939BETWEEN WARSThe First Twenty Years of the Oriental InstituteTHE stretch of twenty-one years since the firstWorld War has been the richest archeologicalperiod in the world's history. A combination ofinterest, means, and opportunity has resulted in anastonishing increase in our knowledge of the past inpractically every part of the globe. In this recovery ofhuman history no single institution has alarger part than the University of Chicago'sOriental Institute. In the work which ithas done, in the methods which it has laiddown, and in the results which it has announced it stands foremost in archeology.This may be stated in all modesty, because the Institute was practically the personal creation of the late Professor James H. Breasted ofthis University. In 1919 hereceived a letter from John D.Rockefeller, Jr., agreeing tosupport the work of a proposed Oriental Institute forfive years on a budget of $10,-000 a year. The Trustees ofthe University took promptaction to bring such an institution into being and to addto its resources. On a modest initial budget Chicago setout to study the origin anddevelopment of civilization, a task incongruously ambitious. Twenty years have increased our respect for thetask but have also increased our skill and strength intackling the job.This new institute was no ill-considered fancy, suddenly launched to take advantage of post-war opportunities. Breasted had been talking an Oriental Institutefor more than twenty years previously. He loved totell of his first visit to Egypt in 1895, when he faced thevast stretch of standing Egyptian monuments. As equipment to take in these miles of scenes and inscriptionshe had a camera, a notebook, and a donkey for transportation. He saw that no one man could do the workwhich needed to be done before these records perished— and Egypt was only part of the task.For years Breasted went up and down this countrytalking about the opportunity. In 1902 he drew up aTHE LATE JAMES H. BREASTED • By JOHN A. WILSON, PhD '26memorandum for President Harper, detailing the expenses of excavations in Egypt, Palestine, and Babylonia. The three might run together at an annual outlay of only $17,500. A dollar went a longer way inthose days, and field archeology had not become thehighly specialized profession that it is today.But it was not until post-war conditions opened up the Near East in1919 that the Oriental Institute cameinto being. Immediately Breasted anda group of colleagues from the University went out into the Near Eastto size up the opportunities. It wasno de luxe junket. They had to travelunder such temporary anddangerous conditions as prevailed. Rifles were still going off in that part of theworld. The party had to makea bold dash of a week's duration through a no-man's landof the upper Euphrates. Theyemerged with a clear idea ofwhat could be done and howit might be started. The general program of the Institutehad specific areas of attack.After that, the story becameone of steady progress. Youmay remember the finances of the happy 1920's, theopenness of the world for travel and work. The smallinitial budget increased through the gifts of many friendsand especially through the generous support of the International Education Board, the General EducationBoard, and the Rockefeller Foundation. Over four-fifths of the resources of the Institute derived from theseboards.The extraordinary growth of the Institute can only beexplained in terms of the enthusiasm, careful planning,and hard work of James Henry Breasted. The fieldswere white for the harvest, the means were at hand,trained workers were few. But the time might not belong. Writing to a friend in 1924 or 1925, Breastedestimated with prophetic insight that the Institute mighthave about ten years of full opportunity before the tideof nationalism made work difficult, before the interna-56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHE INSTITUTE MUSEUM— HEADQUARTERStional situation shifted for the worse. In the estimatedten years there was a great deal to be done.So the Institute located a baker's dozen of field expeditions in the Near East, the region in which the basesof our civilization were laid down long ago. Between1922 and 1931 there were initiated seven field projects inEgypt, two in Iraq, one in Palestine, one in Syria, onein Turkey, and one in Iran. This takes no account ofanother dozen less formal enterprises, individual scholarson smaller missions within the area. Beyond compare,Breasted had built the greatest archeological institution.To be honest, there were growing pains involved inthe expansion of the Oriental Institute staff from threeor four workers in Haskell Oriental Museum to about120 at home and in the field. As one looks back at thisin retrospect the difficulties seem slight as over againstthe flood of successes and the enthusiasm and accord ofthe workers who came to the Institute. They faced fieldconditions with a happy combination of the amateur'sunquenchable verve and the professional's respectfulconsideration for his job. That resulted in an inspiredskill, which in return produced results.I shall return shortly to the sparkling series of fieldsuccesses achieved by the expeditions in the Near East.These were missions sent out by the University of Chicago, and the home headquarters was the nerve center.When the University was founded, President Harper,himself an Orientalist, had established a strong Department of Semitic Languages, later to be the Departmentof Oriental Languages and Literatures.For years the orientalists shared Haskell OrientalMuseum with the Divinity School, and both parties feltthe lack of elbow room. Even after the Divinity Schoolmoved into its new Swift Hall the expanding OrientalInstitute found Haskell a building designed for a smallerstaff of an earlier time. In 1931 the Institute was ableto move into a modern building — now named JamesHenry Breasted Hall — designed for the known activitiesand requirements of its workers. An excellent museumand lecture hall, adequate workshops and library, andsufficient office space were a real impetus to productivescholarship.This Chicago headquarters is a busy place. I shallnot detail all the forms of activity but mention only two of the largest projects. The ancient Near East has givenexcavators hundreds of thousands of cuneiform tabletsand inscriptions. For these there is nothing like an adequate dictionary. In the very first years of its life theOriental Institute embarked on an Assyrian Dictionarycomposed on historical lines, like the Oxford Dictionaryfor English. Over a million card references have beencompiled and are being studied. Ultimately we shallknow the ancient world much more intimately througha closer knowledge of what they themselves said.By-products of such a dictionary are countless. Thesecards provide the extraordinary story of the intellectualdevelopment of early man, his very respectable abilityin mathematics and astronomy, his social organization,the rise and fall of prices for centuries of history, andso on. Nowhere in the world is such a sweep of yearsvisible in such detail.Another huge enterprise is the publication of therapidly multiplying results of Institute researches. Itis no easy job to state things completely, compactly, andunderstandably. Working with the University of Chicago Press, the editorial offices of the Institute havealready made a phenomenal record, something over onehundred volumes produced with fidelity and care.There is no question that the field expeditions in theNear East outweigh the other Institute enterprises fromthe standpoint of popular interest. The excavator, toiling through conditions characteristic of his work — mudand malaria, sand-storms and siroccos — is a romanticfigure despite himself. He — if he is the properly objective type — insists that it is simply an orderly routinewhich is his job. The miserable field conditions and theelement of adventure implicit in searching for buriedtreasure are only minor phases of a carefully plannedand professionally organized search for information. Hedeplores any emphasis on the difficulties or on theromance — but we may suspect that he secretly enjoys theheroic and romantic elements of his work.Not all field archeology consists of excavation. Exploration is a necessary prelude to digging, as it involvesa survey of an entire cultural area to determine the mostfruitful point of attack. And by "fruitful" I do not meanpresenting objects of gold and silver or fine statues, butproductive of information. We may enjoy exhibitingshow-pieces in our museum, but the bulk of informationwill probably come from crumbled walls of stone andbrick, unlovely tablets of mud marked with writing, andbroken scraps of pottery. Exploration sifts the largerarea to find the key-sites and thus incidentally producesa great deal of general information on the historical development of the larger area. Some of this can well bedone from the air, and the Institute is now participatingin a proposed airplane survey of the archeological possibilities of Iraq and India.In Egypt a roving survey specialized in the geologicaland prehistoric story of the Nile Valley and its inhabitants. Scouting the margins of the valley, the PrehistoricSurvey was able to explain how the land of Egypt wasmade geologically and how man ultimately came visiblyinto the picture. Through carefully recorded detail thereemerges the extraordinary story of a well-watered andforested Sahara region gradually drying to a blighteddesert, driving hunting man of the Early Stone AgeTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7down to the margins of the River. Confined there by theonly water, together with other hungry and thirsty animals, he became the farmer and herdsman which he stillis.Egypt built more extensively in stone than other earlycivilizations, so that we are now faced with miles andmiles of carved wall surface. Some of this is disappearing rapidly, as the surface exposed by excavation issubject to ground moisture and destructive salts. Consequently Egyptology is faced with a great responsibilityto salvage the visible scenes and inscriptions. It is alaborious task to make a detailed accurate copy, and thecamera alone cannot see as much as the camera supplemented by the eye of the expert and the hand of theartist. The Oriental Institute's five copying expeditions the colorful wall paintings, the Old Kingdom tombsat Sakkarah, the Middle Kingdom wooden coffins, andthe Empire temples at Abydos and Luxor — have set ahigh standard of accuracy. They may not be "final" —nothing is absolutely final in this world — but they present an honest answer to the problem of preserving theslowly disappearing records of Egypt.Because the main responsibility in Egypt was to themonuments already above ground, Breasted had notoriginally intended to excavate in that country. But theprogram of making a complete architectural descriptionof a single typical temple — a task never before completed — did involve the clearance of a large area ofground, at the Temple of Medinet Habu near Luxor.Although the main product was architectural, involvingsuch elements as the ground plan of a royal palace of1200 B. C, some objects were found. The most notableof these is the colossal statue of Tut-ankh-amen whichnow stands in the museum in Chicago.In Western Asia the program was initial explorationfor the definite purpose of excavation. The first spade-work was done in Palestine at the Biblical site ofMegiddo or Armageddon. Research here lay under theinsidious curse of malaria until the Rockefeller Foundation, cooperating with the British officials, succeeded indestroying the breeding grounds of the malarial mosquitoes. Yet the expedition had a success from thebeginning. Rows of standing stones proved to be thevisible remains of Solomon's horse stables. The Bibletells how he traded horses between Asia and Egypt,probably a basis of his wealth and his reputation forwisdom. Here at Megiddo he stabled more than fourhundred horses involved in this important commerce.Archeology involves the physical elements of humanactivity, and they must be put into succession to showthe process of the story. If you can find datable inscriptions they are the best means for setting your materialin order. An ancient site is usually a layer-cake mound,with the oldest material at the bottom, the latest at thetop, like a city dump-heap. Stratification is an essentialpart of excavation. But by far the most prolific materialis pottery, whether whole or broken, the discarded tableand kitchen ware of thousands of years. Since potteryshapes and decoration change constantly, one of the firsttasks of the archeologist is to establish his pottery sequences. When the expert has these sequences laiddown for an area he can use his skill to predict what mayHe in an untouched mound. In Mesopotamia I have LOCATION OF INSTITUTE EXPEDITIONSseen an Institute archeologist examine a new site andprophesy correctly the dating limits of that mound, andthe main periods of its importance — on the evidence ofa dozen little scraps of pottery. The Oriental Institutehas laid down such index sequences for all future excavators in Palestine, Syria, Anatolia, and — to a lesserextent — in Iraq and Iran.In terms of the colossal the Institute's best knownachievement was the bringing of the 40-ton stone bullfrom Assyria to Chicago. This human-headed, wingedbull was a propaganda piece of the emperor Sargon ofAssyria about 700 B. C. The work of moving thatcolossus from North Iraq to this country was terrific.Even between New York and Chicago it had to bespecially routed, as it was too large to run through ordinary tunnels or under ordinary bridges. Its companionpiece is still buried in the mound of Khorsabad; theInstitute has plenty without it.Ten years ago the beginning of the Depression foundthe Institute moving into its most productive and successful period. The staff was trained and knew whatit was looking for — and where and how. Expeditionswere organized on a business basis, with specialists perfecting their skill in the lines of their expertness. Resultscame in with almost bewildering succession.At Megiddo a huge water-system was found, hewedout three thousand years ago by the city engineers toprovide water for this famous battle-city. A hoard ofroyal gold and a great quantity of carved ivory piecesprovide stunning depictions of the art of "the Canaaniteswho were in the land." Palestine and Syria have beenhappy hunting grounds under the assistance of thefriendly officials of the mandatory powers there.To mention only a few of the elements resulting fromexcavation, the Syrian expedition found the oldest metalfigures known anywhere, in a half dozen little gods andgoddesses of excellent craftsmanship. A superb pieceof sculpture was the double Hon column-base which oncegraced the front portico of a Hittite palace. It will standcomparison with the animal art of any civilization. InAssyria the discovery of an aqueduct built by the emperor Sennacherib to bring water thirty miles across the(Continued on Page 22)(Turn page for Expedition Pictures)-PALESTINEEXCAVATION of Megiddo, famed Armageddon of the¦" Bible, has been under way since 1925. Here in onemound is 3,000 years of history — now being recovered. ABU ALIAli) (meaning Father ofearns 55c a day plusbakshish (a premium) for objects. NINETEEN different layers of towns were removi,before Institute researchers got to the bottom tArmageddon. Here workmen are untangling the wall.THIS view, taken several years ago by French army' airmen, shows the mound of Chatal Huyuk and theprogress of the Institute's excavation of a Hittite city. DY A check of objects found"on each floor of this steptrench, dates are determined. A STEP trench at Tell Judaidah. The drawings at the ri?1,** show objects characteristic of each layer. At Level 3 wiifound copper statuettes, oldest (3200 B.C.) known metal -figure)AT KHORSABAD in Iraq, not far from the River* Tigris, the Institute made a series of notableinds, among them two tremendous winged bulls. LIERE workmen are excavating between the two giant' ' figures. The alabaster reliefs on the gates weresafeguarded from damage with mats and tarpaulins. WHEN the Institute has compl<*work: the alabaster qateway to <'cient Dur-Sharrukin, the city of Sara*1IELD Director Gordon Loud (left), members of thestaff, and visitors examine object found at Megiddo.„ong the finds at Megiddo were Solomon's stables. DEBRIS is taken awayand taken away in basketsnd small cars. In the foreground are walls of 3000 B. C. INSTITUTE staff members and native helpers are engaged iithe conservation and study of the most important group oancient bodies thus far found in Palestine by archeologistsA DOUBLE lion column-support* of a 9th century Hittite build- CALVIN W. McEwan, Field Director of the Syrian-Hittite Expedition, takes notes on a beautifully carved basalt column-ng found at Tayinat, near Antioch. base, one of three found in the porch of a palace of 800 B. C. ROBERT Braidwood, Field Assistant of the SyriaiExpedition, is receiving objects found by nativiworkmen and giving out bakshish at end of a day| HE Institute's work in Egypt: At the temple°t Medinet Habu, near Luxor, epigra-P"«rs copy and photograph wall records. KARNAK'S great temple from the air, a structure twothousand years in course of building. Here, as atMedinet Habu, miles of wall records are sources of history. COLUMNS, six feet in diameter, in froiof the window where Ramses III appearebefore crowds of people on state occasionA SOCIAL SCIENCE OBJECTIVE• By JOHN NEFIF social studies are to have some value other thanthat of providing professors and instructors withan income at the expense of public or of private donors, we should try to plan for social science a futurethat will be of service to mankind. In years to comescholarship will have to contribute to the good life, if itis to be anything but a superfluous luxury with whichstates will dispense in time of war (except in so faras they can use it for making war materials or propaganda) and eventually, under the pinch of circumstancesbrought about partly by war, in time of peace. If it isto survive, scholarship must help to lead men and womenin the ways of truth and justice, honor and wisdom.Forty years ago it was common to believe that people were growing more just and truthful, more honorable and wise, in spite of themselves, as a by-productof the incredibly rapid material advance for which thenineteenth century is so often remembered. The nineteenth century drew to its close in a delicate haze ofhope. The Spanish-American War and the Boer Warwere ending with little loss of life and with little damage to economic welfare. 1899 and 1900 were summersfull of brilliant sunshine. They produced some of themost perfect claret in history. Most influential peoplesaw the world through the clear ruby colors of thesewines. They mistook twilight for dawn.Today few of the persons who were born in thosehappy years would contend, except for purposes of thepropaganda that has become so pervasive in the interval,that the Western peoples in Europe and America haveshown increasing respect for truth and justice, honor andwisdom. We have grown up to see the Western nationsengage in one of the most terrible wars in human history. We find ourselves in the first phase of whatthreatens to become a second and even more terribleworld war, the end of which no man can foresee. Wehave lived to feel the force of Thucydides' descriptionof the effects of the Peloponnesian War upon the civilization of Greece:"Words had to change their ordinary meaning and totake that which was now given them. Reckless audacitycame to be considered the courage of a loyal ally; prudent hesitation, specious cowardice ; moderation washeld to be a cloak for unmanliness ; ability to see all sidesof a question, inaptness to act on any. Frantic violencebecame the attribute of manliness; cautious plotting, ajustifiable means of self-defence. The advocate of extreme measures was always trustworthy, his opponent aman to be suspected. To succeed in a plot was to havea shrewd head, to divine a plot a still shrewder; butto try to provide against having to do either was tobreak up your party and to be afraid of your adversaries. . . ."Thus every form of iniquity took root ... by reasonof the troubles. The ancient simplicity into whichhonour so largely entered was laughed down and dis appeared; and society became divided into camps inwhich no man trusted his fellow."The existence or absence of civilization depends in aconsiderable measure on the goals for which men liveand die. In the world today young people are offeredtwo principal goals. One is the goal of power and territory for a single nation at the expense of other nations, the goal of extreme nationalism. The other isthe goal of money and wealth of every kind, the goal ofmaterialism uncontrolled by higher values. There canbe no question that the first — embodying as it does theview that might is right — is the more dangerous of thetwo goals for the future of civilization. It does not follow that the other goal is a satisfactory alternative. Itmay not follow that it is an alternative at all. Thepursuit of material ends for their own sake, and theerection of self-interest into a comprehensive principleof conduct, undermine the strength of a people to resistdespotism when it threatens either from without or fromwithin. We hear a good deal nowadays about the dutyof the United States to stay out of the present war inorder to preserve civilization. But if civilization is tobe preserved it must be cultivated. The history of thelast thirty or forty years hardly suggests that we aredoing all we can to cultivate it. We cannot justify ourneutrality, as many are inclined to do, by assumingthat our great material wealth and the absenceof warlike neighbors along our frontiers are indicativeof virtues superior to those possessed by the nations thatare fighting.Neither neutrality nor war, by themselves, will solvethe problems on which the future of Western civilization depends. It depends upon the creation of anothergoal as an alternative to both the goals most men areserving today, a goal that will restore confidence in thevalue of the wrorld which the Western peoples havecreated during the last thousand years, that will unitethe Western peoples to preserve what is best in thatworld. The American universities have an opportunity to help in providing such a goal. Whether or notthey respond to their opportunity depends in a measureupon the ends of social studies, and also upon the meansadopted to reach these ends.It is characteristic of the so-called social sciences, asthey have developed during the last hundred years, tobe concerned more with what is, than with what is good,concerned more with describing something for the firsttime than with describing well something that needs tobe described. The social scientist has adopted the objectives, the viewpoint and the methods of the naturalscientist. The proper study of the natural scientist isnature and the proper study of the social scientist is manin his relations with other men. The object of the natural scientist has been to discover the truth about natural phenomena, by observation, experiment and reflection, and with the help of this knowledge to increase10TI-IE UNIVERSITY OF CLIICAGO MAGAZINE 11material wealth and to reduce disease. Following thenatural scientist, the social scientist in the nineteenthcentury set out to discover the truth about men's relations to each other, by studying documents and otherevidence dealing with the past and by investigating theactivities of men in the present. In so far as his studieshave been guided by something beyond mere curiosity,by a desire to benefit his fellow men, the social scientisthas come to adopt the same aims as the natural scientist,to increase wealth and to diminish material suffering anddisease.The application of social science to political and social life is sometimes described as "social engineering."So strong is the assumption that men in their relationswith each other can be appropriately studied and treatedin the same ways as material things, that there is talkof social "inventors," who are to be encouraged, it appears, to follow the mechanical inventors in their badas well as their good habits. Thus a recent writer onbehalf of "social engineering" tells us that, "it is wellknown that most mechanical inventors are almost illiterate in [sic] expression of their ideas, and this is probably true of social inventors as well." The prospect ofsuch illiteracy causes the writer no concern. He takesfor granted that it is inevitable and compatible with"ideas" !During the nineteenth century the scientific attitudetoward the study of social relations contributed muchthat is of value to creative scholarship. It emphasizedthe importance of observation, objectivity and accuracy.In history, for example, the scientific method as developed by the Germans in particular, provided the scholarwith rules for testing the authenticity of documents andfor analyzing their contents. The work of bibliographers, monograph writers and editors of encyclopediasand dictionaries provided an enormous amount of information in an easily accessible and quite accurate form.Thanks to the painstaking labor of tens of thousands ofconscientious workers, the social scientist of our owntime has at his disposal many short cuts to facts. Thanksto the drill of the masters of scientific history in theuniversities, the last and the present generation of European scholars have had impressed upon them the importance of discipline in accurate reading and accuratewriting.It is difficult to estimate the contribution of the socialscientist to the growth of material wealth and to thedecline in the death rate. In so far as the actual production of wealth is concerned, even the most enthusiasticadmirers of the economists or the political scientistswould probably agree that the roles played by thesescholars have been secondary to those played by thenatural scientist and the mechanical engineer. Pasteur'scontribution to the health of mankind was probablygreater than that of all the economists who ever lived.His contribution to the wealth of mankind is easier toestablish than that of Alfred Marshall, though not perhaps than that of Adam Smith. During the last seventyyears the greatest contributions of social planning tohealth and wealth have been made not in the production but the distribution of wealth. They have been thework less of scholars or university professors than ofmedical men and of social reformers like Jane Addams and Mr. Justice Brandeis. They have been the work,in short, either of persons trained in the natural sciencesor of persons whose primary guide in life was notscience but ethics. The important social reformers havebeen able writers rather than "social engineers," for noone would deny that the prose of Miss Addams andJustice Brandeis, while not of as high a quality as thatof Jane Austen or Francis Bacon, is respectable, agreeable and at times delightful.The scientific approach to social studies bore valuablefruit, especially on the side of method, as long as theethical and literary standards of society generally werehigh. It is easy for men in a period like our own, whenintellectual life is becoming more destructive and critical than constructive, to debunk the Victorian Age.For the impartial historian centuries hence (if any arethen allowed to practice their craft) the humanitarianismand the morality of that age are likely to seem more important than the cant and hypocrisy. The nineteenthcentury in Europe and the United States is likely tostand out as an age when the standards of conduct wereremarkably high. These standards were essential to themaintenance of a high level of scholarship in the socialsciences, but the social scientists, who were increasinglyanxious to be scientific, did little to cultivate them or toemphasize their importance. As the principles of ethical conduct along with the teachings of Christianity losttheir influence in society, they also began to lose theirinfluence in the universities. They were replaced bynationalism and materialism. In some countries thesocial scientists were expected by the government topromote the power of the nation even at the expense oftruth; in others they were left to seek their own advantage or that of the groups they found it advantageous to serve. In many places the result has been adecline in the standards of objectivity and accuracy uponwhich nineteenth-century scholarship prided itself. Nowhere has the decline been more precipitate than inGermany, the first home of scientific history. This suggests that the social scientist cannot help to improve therelations between man and man, or to hinder these relations from deteriorating, simply by examining the factswith which he deals in a scientific spirit. Somethingmore is needed.It would be unfair to throw all the blame for thepresent state of the Western world onto the shouldersof social scientists ! But it is evident that social sciencehas not done all it can to resist the currents of extremenationalism and extreme materialism that are sweepingWestern civilization toward destruction today. Theweakness of social science before these powerful currentsis- partly the result of its exclusive dependence on themethods and objectives of natural science, divorced fromthe higher objectives of human existence, which are tolive honorably, justly, graciously and courageously,whether or not this contributes to greater material abundance or to greater personal influence and worldly prestige. A great deal is heard nowadays about theinfluence of this or that professor. The important questions, what is the nature of his influence? is it good orbad? are almost never intelligently asked. Objectivity(Continued on Page 27)NEW PLAYS AND OLD LABELS'[In "New Plays and Old Labels" Frank O'Hara sets up someof the recent plays against the old technical terms for classifying plays, and finds that the persistent labelers have a hard jobfitting academic designations to our theater-fare. The articleis really a preview of his new book, Today in American Drama,published this month by the University of Chicago Press. — Ed.]IF anyone is going to be bold enough to classify playsat all today, he might as well say at the very beginning that terms like "tragedy,""comedy," "farce," and "melodrama"are after all only labels academicallypasted onto stories which creativewriters contrive for the stage becausethey have a story they must tell. Thestory is the thing, as every audienceknows and every actor knows andcertainly every playwright ought toknow. Probably there never was aplaywright — at least not one whosename lingers — who said to himself,"Today, I think I shall write a tragedy." If he had a story to tell, hetold it in the most moving way hecould tell it because it was that kindof story. No doubt if we couldgather them together, these playwrights of the centuries, in sometimeless now where everything thathas happened is still happening, itwould make little difference to Euripides if he found himself in the stokehole of a steamship, or to O'Neill ifhe stood on the battlements of Troy.Each would sense the story around him and begin togive it life upon some stage.But since so much of the life around us seems to usso different from what the world has ever known before, the plays reflecting our contemporary life seemvery different indeed from the dramas which saw theboards when pasting labels was an easy gesture. Sodifferent, in fact, that many will say, with conviction,that tragedy has passed from the American stage. Theyare reaching for a fact not without significance. Forthe materials of tragedy have changed somewhat, andthe implications of tragedy have changed. Which isonly a way of saying that our point of view has changed.Today we have different standards, different sanctionsfor morality — and ethical sanctions are the backdropagainst which tragedies are played.Tragedy today is less likely to reflect a moral judgment. Perhaps the whole of life, says our tragedy incertain moods, is just a vast miscasting of parts by adirector who is himself an automaton. Perhaps . . . butonly perhaps. We are not sure. Since we lack authentic moral judgment, the punishment meted out by ourtragedy today is frequently petty and life-long instead*From Today in American Drama, by Frank Hurburt O'Hara, published in November, 1939, by the University of Chicago Press at $2.50.FRANK HURBURT O'HARA• By FRANK HURBURT O'HARA, '15of tremendous and final. The life of the sinner wearsaway instead of going out magnificently in one final actof extirpation. Indeed, this loss of finality, this inde-terminateness, is the point at which we can most questionwhether some modern plays really are tragedies orwhether they are the somber serious comedies whichalso mark the current mood.Today's modifications in tragedyare probably the outgrowth of theone basic factor which has given ourage its distinguishing trait: thegrowth of science. Pure tragedy ofthe classical mold was doomed whenGalileo's telescope projected question marks across a sky which hitherto had been a tapestry of mythology. From that time, the stubbornfeet of Science moved toward a neutral Nature which needed no placa-tion from, and made no moral demands upon, mankind. The gods retired from the stage. Inch by inchthe "natural" laws which operatedin the physical world moved in onthe mind of man and the very processes of his thinking and believingand willing and wishing — the wholeof his soul — were also explained bylaws as "natural" as those whichgoverned the plants and animals andstars. With so many laws of suchamazing exactitude, it became aQ. E. D. to conclude that all Life was operated by invariable laws which needed no gods to account for them.Thus, whatever the beliefs we cling to, we are nevertheless affected by reports emerging with convincingunanimity from the scientist's laboratory. The psychologist, the dramatist and the common man are forced toface the problem that if reality is a mechanism, thenmorality may be nonsense. If man — any man — is as heis because of ten thousand laws of heredity and environment, then he is not to blame if he fails in life. Forafter all he is only a spinning top on a spinning earth ina spinning universe for which he is certainly not responsible. Even on the stage, it is not convincing toask an individual to sacrifice himself for standards whichare based upon blind mechanics or cosmic futility.So the old notion of Fate has gone out with chariotsand romantic battlements. We still have Fate in ourtragedies, of course ; we Have always had man the pigmyin the presence of a Fate irrevocable, relentless, awe-inspiring. It is only the face of Fate that alters. Thatface is no longer masked by an oracle ; Fate no longercomes down as a god in a machine. Today Fate is theSocial Order, the Inequality of Classes, the EconomicCause of a Sumerged Fraction. Or he may wear theguise of "Ole Davil Sea" or the Dust Bowl Drouth. But12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13whatever we call him, he still operates to defeat man ;and as long as the dramatist reflects the maladjustmentsabout him, we will still have tragedies for the stage."Maladjustment," indeed, seems to be the best wordout of our current vocabulary to apply to tragedy. Tragedy is the study of a maladjustment. Of permanentmaladjustment. But there is no categorical answer tothe question, "When is maladjustment permanent?" because we all bring to our answer our own philosophy oflife ; we bring the assorted materials which make up ourindividual store of knowledge, our own experience, andour own peculiar emotional makeup. We are differently "conditioned" to find tragedy or comedy in agiven situation.Obviously, some situations lend themselves morereadily than others to such difference of interpretation.For instance, it has never seemed possible to get anything like agreement concerning one of the earliest ofour contemporary plays, Eugene O'Neill's AnnaChristie. If that play is a tragedy — although droppingits curtain without the accent of an old-time finality —someone in the play goes up against the Universal tohis inevitable catastrophe. But who battles what towardwhat end? Or is battered toward what end? Is itAnna? Is it Chris? Or is it, in its larger implications,simply Man against Fate? . . . There are those who findin this play the sure note of present-day tragedy, lifegoing on after the defeating blow is delivered ; and alsothere are those who feel that there is a chance — thoughnot an assurance — of ultimate adjustment, and who willtherefore label the play as a very somber sort of comedy.Lillian Hellman's 1939 offering, The Little Foxes,and Clifford Odets' contemporary American folk-play,Awake and Sing, may share with the O'Neill drama theuncertainty of the labeler. Some would quickly classifyAwake and Sing as a new tragedy, others would put itin the serious comedy class ; while conceivably three persons addicted to labeling could have (for themselves) aspirited hour debating whether Miss Hellman's pictureof the Hubbard family at the beginning of the centuryis a tragedy, a serious comedy, or an up-to-now melodrama. All would begin, however, by agreeing ' thateach play dramatizes a problem of today.And sometimes these problems of today are so overwhelming that it seems impossible for the individual toextricate himself from them. The social forces becomeFate, just as inexorably as the gods were Fate. Whenthe individual cannot extricate himself, when he is completely defeated, no matter by what accumulation ofcomparative triviality, his story is necessarily a tragedy.But many contemporary plays, although they containtragic elements and show characters buffeted by socialforces of today as cruelly as Destiny ever buffeted theheroes of an earlier day, still leave open a door of escape.In this open door — if it is open and not merely reflecting some light of hope from tired eyes — a question-markstands at attention: Can the characters pass through toultimate adjustment? If they can, then the play is nota tragedy. It is of course on the point of whether theycan or cannot make an ultimate escape that the difference of opinion comes in. Playwrights and public are sounsure of the finality of things that most of our seriousplays must be written and received with this note of in- determinateness which leaves no assurance of adjustment — merely a chance.Indeterminate, with characters blocked by social forcesyet given a chance of escape, Awake and Sing is a playof this kind. ... If it is a comedy, at least the audiencefeels no cozy sense of satisfaction at its final curtain, suchas an audience may feel at the conclusion of another kindof play so readily labeled "comedy" — no pleasant assurance, for instance, such as may be afforded by the finalnostalgic moments of Ah, Wilderness! when Nat Millerand his wife speak of "youth's sweet-scented manuscript."This play Awake and Sing is quite another thing, andthere is not much sweet-scentedness about the youngRalph, however "full and strong" he stands in the doorway to symbolize Odets' hope that the boy can buildhis world more to his grandfather's hopes. ... At theend of The Little Foxes we are no more sure about theyoung Alexandra Hubbard. We do not know justwhere she goes after the final curtain. We know onlythat she is of a new generation, with some of the oldway and some of the new way in her, and the best ofeach. Somewhere along the line will she find adjustment? . . . Alexandra's future may be uncertain as toevents ; but having once understood when to escape fromwhat, and why, her own integrity will become her'surety. ...To be sure, many who are interested in pigeonholingplays by types are convinced that this play is really amelodrama. But when it comes to the controversy oftragedy versus melodrama, John Steinbeck's Of Miceand Men and Maxwell Anderson's Winterset take firstplace in the attention of the classifiers.No play is more up-to-the-minute in reflecting thenew attitudes than Of Mice and Men. In the characters chosen, in the frank vernacular these charactersspeak, in the theme which runs through the series ofstirring situations, Steinbeck's play is so contemporarythat not only would it have shocked an older generationbut it has the power to jolt some members of an audience today ; and indeed characters, speech, and theme areso flavored with realism — and with a sturdy roughbeauty — as to persuade (or deceive?) some of us intothinking that Of Mice and Men is a genuine, new tragedy. Genuine, Steinbeck certainly seems to be; moving, his story surely is. Perhaps it is a tragedy ? Tragicflaw ; man the pigmy in a relentless universe ; inevitabledevastating catastrophe? Perhaps. Some feel this wayabout the story, strongly. But the most persistent labeler s are not inclined to think so. . . . And yet — weare likely to come away from this play, especially asinterpreted by actors like Broderick Crawford, WallaceFord, and our own Will Geer (Chicago, '24), with morefeeling for character than for story; and with more feeling for the implications of the story than for the taleitself. Indeed, at times the play does achieve the dimensions of tragedy by sketching behind the individual characters the vast numbers of other homeless drifters whowrork for a toe hold in a society which really has noplace for them. This aggregate of the unwanted becomes a personality which looms larger than any individual — larger and more significant, threatening, pitiable,disheartening. Certainly Of Mice and Men is melodrama in the outline and emphasis of its story, but14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmelodrama of a distinctly contemporary sort, with motivated characters who speak for a "problem" whichcalls forth the sympathy and the intelligence of the audience for its solution. ...About Anderson's revenge play of today, Winterset,many feel, with conviction for which they give reasons,that the inconsistencies so outweigh the intended loftiness of mood that the playwright is really writing melodrama and pushing his story for all possible social implications, after the fashion of present-day melodramaof a more serious sort. On the other hand, many maintain that Winterset illustrates a tendency in some present-day tragedies, as in older tragedies, to utilize theplot of melodrama with fully drawn characters caught inthe inevitable maladjustments which belong to tragedyalone. Granting that Anderson continually skirts melodrama, they point out that he has given us more finalitythan have his contemporaries writing the new melodrama; that even the Heywards in Mambafs Daughtersleave open a door of escape — if not for Hagar, certainlyfor Lissa and through Lissa for her race, even perhapsfor society as it faces tomorrow; while Anderson notonly makes death inescapable for Mio and Miriamnebut makes ultimate defeat the answer to that whole partof society they represent — or at least suggests that anyopen door of escape is down such a far vista as to seemmore illusion than reality. ... At any rate, in so contemporary a story Fate, as we would expect, lurks inthe socioeconomic order. Forces beyond Mio's control,or understanding, have produced the "criminal" whocommitted the murder for which his father was convicted; those same forces wrought the miscarriage ofjustice and then sanctioned the injustice by decree ofthe sovereign state. Unrelenting, the same forces workon, not with the placable anger of the gods, but withthe impersonality of some vast, diabolical machine. . . .We may have to wait for time to paste the final label onWinterset. Time may call it a tragedy of our day; ortime may season it into what everyone will readily recognize as melodrama characteristic of its period in American drama — a melodramatic story carrying a cargo ofintended social significance.Indeterminateness marks the conclusion of Robert E.Sherwood's Abe Lincoln in Illinois, as indeed uncertainty has seemed to be the keynote of the life it depicts.. . . Seeing this play, there is scarcely anyone who wouldthink of calling it a tragedy. But not knowing the play,many citizens would guess that any drama about Lincoln must be a tragedy. They have grown up with thethought that the career of Abraham Lincoln was tragic.Tragic, yes, according to the connotation of that word inthe average mind. But is it possible to write a genuinetragedy about one whom martyrdom has only enhanced,enlivened, authenticated? He died; but a great majority feel that he died grandly without defeat. They feelthat his was not a continuing maladjustment but an apparent rising over circumstance to what the present-dayaudience considers a triumph and with which the audience chooses to identify itself.In such a mood one may say that it is not possibleto write a real tragedy, as it would be impossible towrite a tragedy around the character of Robert E. Lee,who though he surrendered as a soldier was both before and after Appomattox triumphant as an individual. Wefeel that he, like Lincoln, carried the sorrows of half thenation in his heart and that his plans for the reconstruction of the South in terms of education and agriculturesoared above the technicality of political defeat. Difficult to build a real tragedy around the leader of thatlost cause or around the leader of the cause that won;but it is possible that some younger playwright someday may be able to fashion a tragedy around the careerof Woodrow Wilson, may be able in that other American character to show dramatically the individual battling to his inevitable personal catastrophe. The "Fourteen Points" . . . the armistice . . . acclaiming, adulatingcrowds . . . the Versailles Treaty . . . and then. . . .In spite of the uncertainties and uncertitudes whichwe find in the theater today, as we find them everywhereelse, now and then we come upon a play which everyone will at once designate as a tragedy. One could notcall Ethan Frome anything else, either as Mrs. Whartonwrote the story or as Owen and Donald Davis bring itto the stage. Ethan's tragedy knows no final momentof release. His tragedy lies in necessary adjustment toa continuing, torturing maladjustment. He has to stayon, maimed in body and desolate in spirit, strugglingfor a useless survival in the economic setup, watchingthe maladjustments around him and made constantlyaware of his own maladjustment; merely closing in silently upon himself. . . . Life goes on after the final curtain falls. And we know that the characters are trapped.All doors are closed. For Ethan, for Mattie, for Zeena.And the release of death for the one — any one of them—would bring no help to the others, would take awayno torture. Nothing in circumstance or in himself canpossibly free Ethan Frome.This is a sort of ending which we are likely to find intragedies today; not always of course, but frequently.The ending which denies a character the fatal finalityof most of the older tragedies ; the newer finality whichcloses all doors and then compels the defeated to live on.If Ethan Frome had had a god to defy, or a tragic flawin the sense of some moral shortcoming which he mightstrive to overcome, his tragedy might be less devastating, or even more exalting. But it would be less in thecontemporary mood.Ethan Frome is unmistakable tragedy. And naturallythere are also plays today — like No Time for Comedy,for instance — which, although they carry their cargo ofsocial thought and are not too determinate at the finalcurtain, are nevertheless unmistakable comedies. Butthese, of course, would be for another chapter. ...Remember the Manuscript ContestLast year's manuscript contest drew approximatelytwo hundred articles from alumni authors. This year$125 in prizes are again being offered. The subjectmatter of the contributions is limited to articles aboutthe University, as outlined on Page 3 of this issue. Sendin your entry or entries by January 15, 1940. Anyphotographs appropriate to the articles will be welcomed.ARE WE READY FOR PEACE?• By JEROME G. KERWINWHILE we are engaged in assessing the blamefor the European catastrophe, it is altogetherwholesome and proper to speculate whetherwe as Americans must share any of the guilt. Those ofus who belong to "the lost generation" may remembercertain vows and resolves made during the first WorldWar. H memory fails or wishful forgetting has conveniently set in, it mightnot be amiss to recall that large numbers of thinking people in this countryfrom 1914 to 1918 insisted that the oneway to prevent world-wide disorder wasto substitute a world-wide order. Sincea long line of political authorities fromAristotle down to the present haveknown no way of establishing a social,economic, or political order withoutgovernmental machinery, law, andpower to act, it was assumed in thosefar-off days of a quarter of a centuryago that some kind of effective worldorganization would have to be established. This writer, whose faculty forrecalling verse has always been limited,was nevertheless able through the helpof orators and teachers to tuck safelyaway in his feeble memory Lord Tennyson's hopeful lines :"Till the war-drum throbb'd nolonger, and the battle-flags were furl'dIn the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world."He thought he interpreted correctly the unchallengedand oft-repeated statement, "All nations must join tochastise the aggressor" as a plea for some kind of aninternational police force. We were all quite happyabout the coming of this new world juridical order.Most startling, as one looks back upon those days, wasthe universal agreement among men and women of allclasses and parties. It was assumed that most of themembers of this new world state would be democraciesand among them shedding light out of the West intoall dark corners would stand these United States ofAmerica. This was to be the permanent way of making the world safe for democracy. No one seemed toconcern himself with "dangers to our sovereignty as anation," "the maintenance of the Monroe Doctrine,""George Washington's warning voice," or "keeping ourboys at home." Why should anyone have quarreled withthe eminently practical suggestions? The end soughtwas lasting and universal peace. As peace, then as now,is the tranquility of order and order required authority,certain channels through which authority was exercised,and sanctions to make the authority effective were accepted as inevitable. It seemed simple, feasible, and theessence of common sense. JEROME G. KERWINProf. Kerwin has been on the University political science facultysince 1923. He is a qraduate ofDartmouth, and has a Ph. D. fromColumbia. One of the most popular lecturers on the Midway, heteaches courses in political theory,government and social legislation.The past twenty-five years have crushed more sanguine hopes than any similar period in history. Thepeacemakers at Versailles dealt blow number one ; theAmerican people in their unseemly retreat back to normalcy under Mr. Harding and "the best minds" dealtblow number two. Mr. Harding in his own quaint amiinimitable style promised that he would"commend himself to a commitment"that there would be an association ofnations but not the association of nations. But normalcy caught up withthe commitment and slew it. Month bymonth the world grew more giddy andmore irresponsible. As pale green monsters out of a welsh-rarebit nightmarecame II Duce, Depression, Der Fuehrer,Tovarich Stalin, invasion, Munich, andsimilar noteworthies and events. Thealtogether fitting conclusion to thiscrazy era was the Soviet-German lovefeast, and the emergence upon the worldstage of a new freak, the Communazi,equipped with Russian beard and Hitler mustache. With that the worldrushed madly into war — and even thewar is phoney, according to SenatorBorah.If the United States enters the present war despite the popular incantation,"We won't go in, We won't go," it willstill have to think of peace. If theUnited States does not enter the war, it must still thinkof ensuing peace. We are told that America by remaining out of the war will when peace comes play the goodSamaritan. It will bind up the wounds of Europe,and if the remainder of the parable holds true, it willput the wounded continent up at the nearest hotel, paythe bill, and go its way.It is indeed time that we began to forget politicalslogans and traditional sacred cows. It was no meresentiment nor flight of the emotion that brought us tothe conclusion twenty-five years ago that world peaceand stability depended upon a world order organized tocope with emergencies. We had seen world trade, commerce, and communication draw peoples together despite artificial boundaries. We knew that centuries ofnational isolation for each country had made for muchsuspicion and distrust. .Scarcely a century of free communication had passed, and in that time closer contacthad increased rather than diminished the rivalry amongsome nations. Yet in all common sense many peopleknew that at least another hundred years would be required to efface the deeply rooted prejudices of centuries.We in this country, and people elsewhere, were willingto go ahead on the basis of progress already made. Theycould clearly see that the old order of chaotic internals16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtional responsibility spelled turbulence and ruin for allcivilization. People within the United States recalledthe local jealousies that once separated the original thirteen colonies; they saw how out of this welter of jealousy and distrust there grew a united federation redounding to the benefit of many generations of Americans. No fanciful flight of the imagination broughtthem to ask the question, "If it happened here, why notelsewhere?" They were not unaware that differences oflanguage and tradition made a world order more difficult to construct, but there had been and still were multilingual political entities living at peace within themselves. As men saw it, at that time there was one compelling need for the salvation of the world and it waspeace. The end sought, therefore, was worthy of sacrifice — a sacrifice of all illusions of grandeur and selfishadvantage. But all that was in 1914 to 1918.Once again we are in the same position in which wefound ourselves in those fateful four years. Isolationists within our midst are still telling us that we shouldhave nothing to do with Europe and that we need havenothing to do with Europe. After all, George Washington said so, yet in their hearts they know that withevery Allied ship sent to the bottom, with every Nazipush against the Maginot Line the war becomes of moreand more concern to America and America's entry intothe struggle becomes more of a reality. The very nervousness and tension in America today, no matter howwrell-concealed, is due not to the preachings of so-calledwar-mongers but to two things : first, the almost hysterical protests of the isolationists and secondly, an intuitive feeling among Americans that somehow or otherthey are closer to European shores than they wouldlike to believe. The very existence in this country of adeep feeling of sympathy for the Allied cause is in itselfa rebuke to the unrealistic attitude of the isolationists.The sense of justice of most Americans has been outraged by the actions of two of the totalitarian powers,and how long the people of this country will rest content in their aloofness in the event of a smashing blowat the two belligerent democracies not even the isolationists dare answer. There comes a time when one feelsmore comfortable in the trenches than at home — a feeling which comes not as a result of any desire to meddle,but as a result of a much more praiseworthy desire,the desire to help your friends when they are exhaustedand fighting for their very lives.All talk of neutrality by legislative fiat borders on thepharasaical. Any piece of legislation seriously considered throws us on the side of one belligerent or theother. If a complete neutrality, shutting off trade of allkinds with all belligerents is out of the question as practically all groups in Washington agree, then the fortunesof war can make of any other policy a mockery. If byso-called neutrality legislation we must aid one side oranother, reason would seem to indicate and popularsentiment approve a policy that aids the Allied cause.Yet all this dispute should drive home an obvioustruth: we are not isolated and we never can be in aworld catastrophe. Wishful thinking has driven manypeople into a dream world of isolation where they content and delude themselves by the repetition of ancientslogans and hackneyed shibboleths. Even with the les son of a world-wide depression and its devastating effects on every town and village in America, they stillbelieve that America can afford to let the world driftinto misery without end. No way has yet been discovered of isolating America from the effects of European or Asiatic economic or political instability. Noway has yet been discovered of isolating America fromsubversive ideological trends. America possesses power.America has prestige. The influence of America at theworld conference table can not be lightly tossed aside.How many times in the past twenty years has Americahad the opportunity to cast its great influence on theside of justice and peace, and yet has remained aloof?Because of the union that links America's fortunes withthe fortunes of the rest of mankind, it would seem reasonable to assert that America has two choices ; first, tojoin with other nations in keeping and securing peace;secondly, to join with other nations in the inevitablyrecurring warfare for peace.Whether we enter this war or remain out of this war,its ill-effects will be felt here and everywhere for manyyears to come. Now is the acceptable time, however,to determine where we shall stand with reference to therest of the world when the war is over. It so happensthat we may look forward for a comfortable existencein democracies only in the event of an Allied victory.A world dominated by Hitler or his ideas leavesno room for calm, judicious international intercourse.We shall quarrel and fight with him at the drop of ahat. Should Germany collapse, however, and fall intothe expansive arms of Soviet Russia, we shall be boundto fight to preserve our democratic heritage ; then it mayturn out to be only too true that America's first lineof defense is the River Rhine. There are then thesepossibilities :(1) An Allied victory with the restoration of thedemocratic order in Germany and even perhaps in Russia with the collapse of a regime that put its money onthe wrong horse.(2) An Allied victory together with an internal collapse in Germany followed by the setting up of a communist regime under the influence of Russia. This mostcertainly is likely to result in the continuation of thewar with what results no one can forsee.(3) A Hitler victory with a speedy end put to theBritish and French democracies. This will still leavethe ring clear for a grand battle between the two dictators Hitler and Stalin. Whoever should win thisbattle would eventually find America an impossible annoyance whose influence would have to be broken.(4) Lastly there still remains the possibility of apatched-up peace. Such a patched-up peace would probably result in a renewal of war within a few years.In the cases of alternatives two, three, and four—especially two and three — the United States, it wouldseem, can do but one thing — prepare for war. If thefirst of these alternatives should become a reality, theUnited States must then be prepared to make a distinctive contribution to world peace.We have all learned from the experience of the lastwar that a punitive peace does not pay and can not belasting. The United States, therefore, may reasonably(Continued on Page 25)OIL AND MEXICAN NATIONALISMHonorable Mention in Manuscript ContestMEXICAN seizure of British and American oilproperties last March was the occasion ofanother violent outbreak of anti-Mexicanismin the American press. A Carlylean running shriekfrom the outraged oil interests found such resoundingechoes throughout the nation that there has been littlechance for the Mexican case to be heard, or for an impartial consideration of the question onits merits. A very feeble voice of protest from obscure and mostly radicalsources, has been lost in the almost universal chorus of exaggeration and actualmisrepresentation of the situation.Only the ostrich-like blindness of theoil interests and of the British andAmerican governments has preventedthem from seeing that for many yearsthey have been accepting Mexico's growing control over her petroleum industry,and that they were in a position in whichthey could have little hope of preventingthat control from taking its inevitablecourse toward complete nationalization.Since 1925, if not since 1917, it shouldhave been clear that Mexico intended,whenever circumstances permitted, tonationalize foreign owned oil properties.Sensing the danger, foreign oil interestshave alternated in policy between cryingwolf to bring diplomatic pressure or intervention by the United States government, and adopting measures of co-operation with the Mexican government.Nor was there much else for them to do,unless they wanted to give up the fight and surrendertheir interests all at once.No other question in the diplomatic relations of thetwo countries has engendered so much heat, nor recurred so insistently and seriously as that of Mexicanpolicy toward American oil interests. Since the constitution of 1917 nationalized natural resources (Article27), each major change in political leadership in Mexico has brought a renewal of the oil controversy, andeach succeeding diplomatic tilt has been resolved withsome gain to Mexico. Fabian tactics (the only onespossible, since a direct frontal attack on the UnitedStates has always meant defeat and loss of office toMexican presidents) have slowly but steadily eatenaway foreign resistance.The ultimate extinction of foreign property in Mexican oil became simply a matter of time. Probably theAmerican and British oil interests refused to believethat Mexico really meant to enforce the nationalizingprovisions of her constitution. Accustomed to dealingHAROLD E. DAVISHarold Davis, AM '27, has been professor of history in Hiram Collegesince 1928 and Chairman of the Division of Social Studies since 1936.He has traveled widely through Mexico, Panama, and Peru and has con-'tributed articles on Latin Americanhistory and customs to numerous publications. Prof. Davis is married andthe father of a 9-year-old daughter. • By HAROLD E. DAVIS, AM'27with Latin American Governments whose policies weretime-serving, vacillating and opportunistic, they failedto appreciate either the growing seriousness of the Mexican demands or the upsurge of nationalism which gaveincreased intensity and consistency to those demands asthe years went by. An angry American (and British)shout went up at expropriation in 1938, but whateverelse it may have been it was not entirelya cry of surprise, except in the sense inwhich any long-expected disaster is stilla surprise. To those who fully understood the situation, it was probably, andin the main, simply surprise that theMexican government had at last actuallydone what she had always been expectedto do sometime, but perhaps not so soon.The first major clash over Mexicanoil came in the days of President Venus-tiano Carranza, when Woodrow Wilsontried to keep him from putting the nationalizing Article 27 into the Mexicanconstitution, and from enacting any lawsto carry out the constitutional provision,once enacted. Personally, Carranza wasfar from hostile to the oil interests ; norwas he ever really interested in the nationalizing program. What he wanted,and got from the oil industry, was an increase in taxes. It was not due to him,then, but to the real strength of certainradical and labor interests supportinghim, that Article 27 was included in theconstitution, and remained there eventhough his policies made it, for a time, adead letter.The dispute with Carranza was hardly settled beforethe Revolution of 1920 brought in a new and muchstronger political regime under President AlvaronObregon. The oil dispute broke out again when Obregon instituted a program of heavy taxes on oil production and export, intended both to increase governmentrevenue, and to limit production. Needless to say, thetaxes were considered confiscatory by foreign oil interests.Since the United States followed the Wilsonian policyof withdrawing recognition until foreign interests wereprotected, Obregon had to settle the oil question, andmake arrangements for servicing the foreign owned Mexican debt, before Uncle Sam would recognize his government. But Obregon and his Secretary of the Treasury.Adolfo de la Huerta, shrewdly played the American oilmen against the Wall Street bankers in a way to bringrecognition on terms favorable to Mexico. The newpetroleum taxes had been enacted ostensibly to service17IS THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe foreign debt. Moreover, the Mexican governmentsoon made a secret agreement with the petroleum producers to accept Mexican bonds, worth forty cents onthe dollar in the market, at their face value, in paymentof the petroleum production tax. The bankers were notslow to see that by this arrangement the Mexican government was actually retiring the foreign debt on morefavorable terms than the bankers had been willing togrant, and an agreement on the debt was soon followedby the Bucareli Conference (1923), which paved theway to United States recognition. Mexico securedAmerican acknowledgment of the principle of Article27 in exchange for a promise not to make its applicationinjurious to American interests. It seemed an emptyenough victory for Mexico. But it was a good dealunder the circumstances, and time, as it proved, wasworking in her favor.The Calles regime, if one is to believe the slightlynostalgic after- judgments of foreigners in Mexico,looked on their interests not too unkindly. Yet, underCalles the oil question exploded again, in a dispute overthe Petroleum Law of 1925. The new law requiredproduction to be carried on under national concessions,and was said by oil men to be a violation of the 1923agreement. Again Mexico yielded, this time to thediplomatic skill of Dwight W. Morrow, granting fullconfirmation of all existing American oil rights in longterm concessions issued under an amended petroleumlaw. But the principle of an all embracing system ofoperating concessions was established. Property rightsin oil were now limited legally to the terms of the concessions, and, though Americans probably closed theireyes to the fact, might be withdrawn by the Mexicangovernment for legal cause. Moreover, the concessionsincluded the Calvo clause, a promise not to invoke thediplomatic protection of foreign governments for property interests, which were to be considered as thoughheld by Mexican citizens, under Mexican law. Englishoil interests (Dutch Shell) paved the way for this settlement, by beginning to accept the concessions systemahead of the Americans.Succeeding Mexican administrations were more orless under the influence of ex-President Calles. No major change in the oil situation was to be expected untila new regime was inaugurated with the election of President Lazaro Cardenas in 1934. The nationalistic SixYear Plan, unquestionably inspired by the New Deal,and adopted by the National Revolutionary Party as acurtain raiser to Cardenas' election, promised furthernationalization of the petroleum industry. So, since1934, it has been merely a question of time until thebalancing of internal political and economic forces withconsiderations of foreign policy and the need for foreignfinancial support would indicate the strategic time tochallenge foreign interests again. It remained to beseen only whether the next move would be in the direction of more drastic regulation and control, or outrightexpropriation. Possibly, if the oil interests had shownthemselves more sympathetic to the Six Year Plan, andless recalcitrant in the labor crisis which arose in 1937,the less radical alternatives would have been chosen.However, the increasing extent of land expropriationsfor the agrarian program and the new Expropriation Law of 1936 might have suggested which way the windwas blowing.Urged by the Mexican Department of Labor the oilworkers consolidated into one industrial union in 1936,and began a program of agitation to improve their standard of living and bring their wages and conditions oflabor up to those of oil workers in the United States.All this was in accordance with the Six Year Plan.Having announced their demands for wage increasesand other benefits which would increase the companies'annual outlay for labor from 49,136,620 pesos to 114,-611,460 pesos (from less than twelve and a half milliondollars to more than twenty-eight millions), the workerscalled a strike to take place in November, 1936. Sincethe Mexican president has broad powers in industrialdisputes, President Cardenas brought employers andemployees together in a series of conferences lastingfrom December, 1936, to May, 1937. But neither sidewTas willing to yield and the strike began on May 27.The Federal Labor Board declared the strike legal,and on June 7, at the request of the workers, undertookto settle the dispute, meanwhile suspending the strikein accordance with Mexican law. A commission of experts, consisting of an assistant Secretary of the Treasury, an assistant Secretary of National Economy andan economist were appointed to make a survey of theoil industry to determine the companies' ability to meetthe workers' demands. This Commission of Expertsreported in August, claiming that the oil companies inMexico made greater profits than those in the UnitedStates, paid lower taxes and required smaller investments for the production of an equal amount of oil.The total investment in the petroleum industry wasplaced in the neighborhood of a billion pesos (roughlytwo and a half million dollars) about half of it American owned.On the basis of the experts' report the Labor Boarddecided to allow increases in wages and social serviceswhich they estimated would cost about twenty-six million pesos a year, one-third of which was an increasein wages, two-thirds the cost of various health and socialservices to be furnished by the employers. The companies claimed the award would actually cost a great dealmore, and contested the award in amp or o proceedingsbefore the Supreme Court. The Labor Board suspendedthe application of its ruling, but demanded that thecompanies post a bond to cover the amounts in question, pending the court's decision. This the oil menrefused to do. They also refused to pay their taxes inadvance as they had been doing for years. Almost amonth later (January, 1938) they reluctantly posted abond of three million pesos. March 1, the SupremeCourt gave its decision upholding the award of the Labor Board, but limiting the responsibility of the companies to an increased annual expenditure of twenty-sixmillion pesos.A great deal of heat had been generated on both sidesduring the months of January and February. Feeling,apparently, that the strike was being deliberately pushedby the Mexican government to provide an excuse forexpropriation, the oil men resorted to what can onlybe termed measures of desperation. They began to(Continued on Page 30)MY MOST INTERESTING DECISIONSFirst in a Series of Phil s Incomparable YarnsFOUR decisions at football I was called upon tomake among several thousand have remained inmy mind as being interesting, because in no oneof them did I have a full half second in which to makeup my mind.The first of these four was between Minnesota andIndiana. Minnesota had an old Carlisle Indian playerby the name of Marshall.He kicked a field goal alongin the latter moments ofthe game, thus apparentlyputting the game on ice forMinnesota. King Kelly ofPrinceton was refereeingthe game so when the kickwas about to be made I ranquickly in behind the goalpost and kept my eyes gluedto the cross-bar. The ballcame like a bullet right atthe middle of the goal, hitthe under side of the crossbar, but because of its velocity and the light touchit gave the crossbar it wentstraight on over my head.The next thing I saw, ofcourse, was Kelly running down to ask me if the ballwent over or under the cross-bar. Meanwhile on thefour sides of the field Minnesota was yelling its head off.I said to Kelly, "That's your decision, Mr. Kelly."He said, "I know it, but I have a right to ask yourstatement if I care to.""It went under," I said, and put my hand unconsciously flat down, meaning: "No goal." I wished, grinning, that I might hear the things that I was being calledby the stand, but we had no time for that sort of occupation on my part.There was only a minute of play left. Hare, the greatIndiana full-back, picked up the ball which unexpectedlyfell in his direction and started to run the full length ofthe field to an apparent touchdown. I was going justas fast as he was, one jump behind him and my eyesglued on the boundary mark of the field. I jumped bothsides of the accusing footmark, which was his, one stepoutside the field of play and tooted my horn. An interesting spectacle followed. The whole crowd was convinced that I had made a mistake on the first decisionand was trying to rectify it by my next one. Along theline a few feet away outside the field sat substitutes andmembers of the faculty of the University of Indiana.They all jumped up and told me accusingly that they haddistinctly seen that Hare did not step outside the line.I said, "That's very interesting to me, but when youTHE LATE P. S. ALLEN• By PHILIP SCHUYLER ALLEN, PhD '97get all through talking, my decision is the opposite."Decision number two was at a game between Chicagoand Iowa. Chicago had played the previous week at theUniversity of Pennsylvania and Penn had been allowedto get away with a fast one as being a play not spokenof in the rule book. One time when the ball went out ofbounds and was recovered by Chicago during the Iowagame, Chicago fell into position at once to play.I said to the captain, "I'llcall your attention to theposition of your men in relation to the side lines."He looked at me, madea face, and put the ball inplay. I blew the horn andchanged the ball over toIowa, first down, at theplace where the foul wascommitted. Four or fiveChicago players ran up andsaid, "There's nothing inthe rule book about that.They permitted it at Pennlast week."I said, "Y o u knowenough to ask my opinionbefore the game with regard to any special play runningclose to or possibly violating a rule. This is in the rules.It's in the preamble which states that the game of footballis played on a properly marked field, 110 feet in lengthand 55 feet in breadth. If by agreement between thetwo captains you want to play this game in Kansas Cityor Podunk, that's your privilege. It's announced asbeing played on Marshall Field."I wasn't popular with a certain element on campusfor a few days thereafter, but such is life in large cities.The third decision was during a Thanksgiving Daygame between Western Reserve and Oberlin. Therehad been a good deal of kicking and when WesternReserve drew back for a kick formation I would rundown the field without waiting to see the ball passedlistening for the impact of the foot against the ball andwaiting to have it come sailing over my shoulder whereI had in view the three or four men that might at thattime be struggling for its possession. Western Reservepulled one on me and I listened for the impact of the footwhich did not come, so in another second or two Islopped to see what was happening. Way over on theother side of the field a Western Reserve man was running to a touchdown amid the wild cheers of the crowd.This was in the days before forward passes and theother side was granted permission to have some fair and(Continued on Page 26)19THE ALUMNI FOUNDATIONA Report on OrganizationON May 15, 1889, John D. Rockefeller gave $600,-000 to found a university in Chicago. The nexttwo years saw tremendous activity. Gifts fromChicagoans and another gift from Mr. Rockefeller nearlytripled the amount of the original grant. In 1891 a mannamed William Rainey Harper became president of anew University of Chicago.In October, 1939, fifty years after Mr. Rockefellermade his founding grant, the formation of the University of Chicago Alumni Foundation was announced. Ifthe Alumni Foundation has its way, the two years untilthe Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration in 1941 will be asactive and as helpful to the University as those two yearsbefore the official opening of the University's doors.The Alumni Foundation has as its object the development of mutual helpfulness between the University andits alumni. As John Nuveen, '18, chairman of the neworganization, points out, most alumni are deeply interested in continuing their relationship with the Universityafter they leave it. Many of them have problems intheir business and professional lives that the Universitycan help them solve.For its part, the Alumni Foundation intends to behelpful in a very tangible way. It intends between nowand 1941 to raise a Fiftieth Anniversary gift which willbe presented to the University on the occasion of theanniversary celebration. Thereafter it intends to sponsor annual alumni giving.The Foundation already is active on many fronts. Under the leadership of John Nuveen a national committeeand a Chicago committee have been established, withClifton M. Utley, '26, and Harold J. Gordon, '17, respectively, chairmen of the two committees and vice-chairmenof the foundation. • By RALPH W. NICHOLSON, '36The national committee got under way at once byselecting a chairman in each community where ten ormore alumni were known. Already 250 chairmen in 43states and the Philippines and Hawaii have been appointed. The mail from more distant places has not, atthe time of this writing, had time to arrive. (CbnradoBenitez, '11, cabled his acceptance from Manila.; Inorder to present the aims and needs of the Alumni Foundation to the newly-appointed chairmen, the nationalcommittee on the week end of October 20 and 21 held aconference for its members. Nearly a hundred alumnifrom widely-scattered cities in the United Statesattended a dinner in Chicago as the guests of Harold H.Swift, '07, chairman of the Board of Trustees. Theyheard the objectives of the foundation described byChairman Nuveen, and the problems facing all universities and specifically the University of Chicago were described by Clarence B. Randall, trustee of the University, and President Robert Maynard Hutchins."From this point on," said Chairman Nuveen in hisaddress, "the alumni of the University of Chicago mustassume a greater responsibility for the life of the University and the continuation of the University than hadever occurred to the majority of them before." He wenton to say:"I believe that when this portion of the history of theUniversity is written up in the future, this dinner tonightwill prove to be tremendously important. . . , Your joband ours as we go forward toward this Fiftieth Anniversary, I think, is largely one of education, of educatingalumni as to what this university stands for, what it isdoing and what part the alumni can play in it."This campaign is not going to be a high-pressurecampaign in any way. Once the alumni understand whatPresident Hutchins and Trustee Harold Swift, '07, at theNov. 20 dinner for regionalAlumni Foundation chairmen. Al F. O'Donnell,PhD '38, Washington, D. C, poses forMagazine's camera. George Koivun, '24, MD'28, Moline, III., and RuthHerrick, '18, MD '28, GrandRapids, Mich., after dinner. Rudy Matthews, '14, Winter Park, Fla.,and Elwood Ratcliff, '22. Oak Park, III.,get together for a chat at the kitchendoor after talks by Mr. Hutchins et al.20THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21we are doing, what the University stands for, what itsplace is in society, then our problem is over."Trustee Randall, who is a leader in alumni affairs ofHarvard, made an impassioned plea for the preservationof the great universities. "I have two ideas which govery deep with me," he said. "They are simply these:First, the vital importance to the preservation of ourAmerican democracy of maintaining the great privately-endowed institutions of higher learning. Second, thetremendous obligation of the individual alumnus towardthe support of these institutions at a critical time."In my day in college the totalitarian state had notbeen born except in the brains of theorists. Nowherein the world had a totalitarian economy been attemptedon a large scale. Today, those of us in this generationhave seen it bring the wreckage to modern men andwomen of all the things that we cherish. Under the flagof liberty they have enslaved mankind. Tonight, ofcourse, we are particularly interested in the fact thatbefore mankind was enslaved they had to destroy highereducation, and we ought to see in that a deep lesson — -that the preservation of free inquiry in these great educational institutions is inseparable from democracy."Often these distinguished professors at the University of Chicago hold up to me the mirror to display theweaknesses of the things that I stand for. Sometimes Isquirm under it ; someetimes I do not like the way theydo it; sometimes I would like to talk it out with them,but I haven't the slightest desire to coerce them. If Icannot have the mirror held up to the things I believe in,I am giving only lip service to democracy, as the holding up of the mirror to all institutions is the vital thingin democracy."Why is it that the alumni of American institutions atthis time in the world's history, when the phrases I haveexpressed are upon every man's lips, why is it that theyhave such an appalling apathy toward the support andmaintenance of these institutions?"I cannot understand how a man can leave Harvardor Chicago, and not know certain essential facts. Thefirst and most penetrating is that half of the cost of hiseducation came from endowment and not from his tui tion fee. Those are the figures at Harvard. I do notquote them exactly for Chicago, but by and large, in theendowed institutions the tuition fee that the man paysis only one-half the cost of his education."What is endowment? How can any man fail topause for a moment to respect and admire the greatworks of those who have gone before? Endowment istwo significant things : First, my friends, it is the product of the system of free enterprise. Let us not forgetthat. You will have no endowment in the collectivesociety. It is the product of the system of free enterprise. And in its other sense it is the accumulated unselfishness of mankind."It takes but simple mathematics to realize the present predicament. Exen though I have no personal portfolio, I know men who have, and they tell me that thereturn on investments has shrunk. Now, how can theaverage alumnus, if he will stop thirty seconds to think,fail to see that if the endowment return of the Universityof Chicago has shrunk by more than one-third, that somesubstitute must be found if the great standards of theUniversity are to go on?"He probably knows that the clays of big money aregone, and he, therefore, if he will only think about it,must see that these budgets can only be met in the futureby a wide number of smaller gifts. The systematic cumulative effort of all the alumni is the only thing that canreplace big money."I want to sum up, with all the earnestness I can, mythought in this way : if you want a thrilling experience,re-read Goodspeed's short history of the University ofChicago. Catch the spirit of Harper and Gates andGoodspeed, and doff your hat as you do so. There isone of the greatest records of miracle-making in the history of America. Those men worked miracles becausethere existed in their lives and in their consciousness agreat need that demanded to be satisfied. We of thisgeneration have never felt that need because the institution which they created stood ready at our hands. Theysaw a great need, a great opportunity, and were preparedto make great sacrifices."The future of the University of Chicago will be as-John Dexter, '02, Ardmore, Okla.; John D.Morrison, '21, Marquette, Mich.; and SamHuqhes, JD'29, Lansing, Mich. They werereally lighting up when this was snapped. Mrs. Casper Platt, '17,Danville, III., and Prof.Fay-Cooper Cole of theanthropology department. R. R. MacGregor,'28, New York, andRaynor Timme, '22,Michigan City. Trustee Clarence Randall andPresident Hutchins. Mr. Randall, a graduate of Harvard,was one of the speakers.22 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBetween Wars(Continued from Page 7)sured only when the spirit of Harper and Gates andGoodspeed once more is in the hearts of her alumni,when the people of this generation feel that the greatness of this university is the dominant thing in our lives,and are prepared to make in our time, and in our way,the same great sacrifices that they did."Following Mr. Randall's address, Clifton Utley interviewed President Hutchins, asking — as he put it — "thepertinent, and sometimes impertinent, questions alumnihave been asking."Q. (by Mr. Utley) : What is the University tryingto do?A. (by Mr. Hutchins) : The University is a pioneer.It began the junior college, graduate and researchwork in the middle west, had the first university press,began extension work on a wide scale, inaugurated thequarter system, and raised faculty salaries throughoutthe country by its example and so helped to attract moreable men in the university work.Q. : What is the University doing now ?A. : The University of Chicago is the center of Oriental studies, psychometric studies, center of the study ofthe living cell, center of lexicography, center of publicadministration, center of the study of international relations in the middle west, has the leading library school,has established with the University of Texas an observatory as a model of cooperation, has the leading schoolof social work, a center of religious education with divinity schools in four denominations, has the only full timemedical school in the country. Moreover, the Universitywas the first to abolish required attendance for all thestudents, the first to abolish the credit system, the firstto initiate the divisional requirements, the first to establish a four year college by combining the last two yearsof high school with the junior college, and the first toshift the emphasis from teaching techniques in the department of education to requiring a knowledge of thesubject so that now the teaching of teachers has becomethe responsibility of the entire University and not of onedepartment.Q. : Does the University need financial help from itsalumni ?A. : I assume you are asking a rhetorical question. Itneeds the moral support of the alumni and it needs theirfinancial support as well.The complete interview was recorded so that alumniin all parts of the United States will have a chance tohear it sometime during the coming year.Paralleling the activity of the National Committee, theChicago Committee has been busy itself organizing forimmediate activity. Chairman Gordon has appointedBenjamin Bills, '12, to direct a Chicago General Committee and George Bates, '27, to direct a Chicago Special Committee. Through these two committees all ofChicago's 17,000 alumni in the metropolitan area will betold the story of the University and the aims of theAlumni Foundation. To facilitate the work of theFoundation in Chicago downtown offices have been established at 189 West Madison Street.A publicity committee for the Alumni Foundation willbe headed by Herbert P. Zimmermann, '01. The committee on Lists and Ratings, headed by Andrew Wigeland, '18. plain to Nineveh tied up interestingly with modern locallegends that these stones had to do with the carrying ofwater. That is an illustration of the value of talking tothe modern locals, who frequently have something helpfulto report.Babylonia provided the greatest quantity of Sumerianstatues ever found, materially increasing our understanding of that people and its artistic ability. And there werehundreds of cuneiform clay tablets: lists of kings, records of purchases, literary documents, hymns, andeverything possible. There was years of work in translating these and putting them in their historical setting.In the mountains of Iran stands a spectacular ruinand rich archeological site, Persepolis, the palace city ofDarius and Xerxes. In 1930-31 the Oriental Institutewas granted a concession to this site, the first openingup of Iran to international archeology. Despite theDepression, Breasted was able to organize a new expedition here under able directorship. The palaces havebeen excavated and partially restored, the harem palaceof Xerxes now serving as the expedition quarters. Longseries of sculptures on the walls of these buildings provide excellent illustrative material for the empire of thekings who marched to Marathon and Salamis. Andthis is an excavators' paradise. One brief dig broughtout thousands of cuneiform tablets ; another producedgold and silver tablets set by Darius under the cornerstones of a palace. In the Oriental Institute concessionthere are prehistoric villages with pottery of brilliant formand decoration, the Persian palaces, and an Islamic city,with a range between the prehistoric and the Islamic ofsomething like five thousand years. Persepolis is producing in quantity.The Institute activity was at its height in 1935. Thatautumn Breasted made an inspection tour, and wasdelighted with the ability, industry, and spirit of. hisstaff. On his return to this country he was taken ill anddied with merciful suddenness. But he had seen hiscreation at its best. We lack his vision and his enthusiasm now. And we no longer have the means whichwe had. The Depression caught up with the OrientalInstitute in 1936 and forced a refinancing. Where wehad nine expeditions in the field in 1935 we now havethree, and may have only one a year from now. Wewelcome financial participation by interested friends.Meanwhile the opportunity is no less, and there is agreat deal of work to do. Work will constitute ourtwentieth-birthday celebration. It is a matter of finishing that Persepolis room of the museum for a winteropening, of completing those publications on Sumeriansculpture, of photographing and translating those Ela-mite clay tablets, of tying together the north and eastareas of Megiddo, of a score of other pressing tasks.There is plenty to do, and the Institute is still youngand vigorous. Maybe we shall have more time on ourfortieth birthday for a proper celebration — but I thinkthat we shall still be busy at that time.ATHLETICS• By DON MORRIS, '36THE FOOTBALL SCOREBOARDChicago 0 — 6 BeloitChicago 12 — 2 WabashChicago 0 — 61 HarvardChicago 0 — 85 MichiganTHE University's football team has, according tonumerous of its members and according to CoachClark Shaughnessy, had a lot of fun in the firsthalf of the 1939 season, but it has made a poor record.After losing to Harvard by the largest score in the history of football on the Midway, the Maroon eleven thefollowing week broke its own record by 24 points. Previous to this season the worst beating administered toa Chicago team was in 1916. Minnesota won 49 to 0.Wherefore all this? One University official feels thatit is merely a slump in the football player "cycle," adepression which will be remedied merely by time andthe course of natural events. One newspaper reporterfeels that it is due to his own personal "point a minute,plus" jinx. A writer for the University's student newspaper believes it is because the alumni are not facing"their problem." One member of the coaching staffthinks it is all on account of the caliber of the players.One alumnus believes it to be the result of coaching.The time honored reasons are still restated by thosewell-informed about Chicago football — by far thesmallest eligible male enrollment in the Big Ten ; theabsence of courses in physical education; the University's unwillingness to grant athletic scholarships. Personally and frankly, I don't know.Followers of Maroon football may divide the futureinto three sections in studying the problem. The firstsection comprises the remaining four games this year.The second section is next year. The third section includes remaining years down the long trail.Since the four 1939 games yet to be played are againstVirginia, Ohio State, Oberlin, and Illinois, it is evidentthat measures short of drastic will not avail in improving what is left of the 1939 record. Coach ClarkShaughnessy, however, is said to be -hatching up drasticmeasures. These include the use of the dozen players,of varying talents, who have reported since the seasonbegan and who constitute a thirty-three per cent increasein squad membership. Prominent among these are HughRendleman, a heavy veteran tackle ; Captain DickI-ounsbury of the Maroon basketball team and his lankymate Ralph Richardson ; Jim Atkins, a draftee from thechampionship Chicago tennis team; and John Palmer, amember of the 1937 squad. All of this may mean theBrobdignagian scores may be whittled down.Second section, the 1940 season, will see Chicago withan unusually large group of sophomore players, whohave been called potential wonder boys by Chicago newspapers and potential conference champions by one of theircoaches. Nelson Norgren, head freshman coach, is less sanguine in his estimates. This year's freshmen in 1940will enter a team weakened by the loss of only a handfulof graduating students. The freshmen include a coupleof all-state high-school selections and several other all-city, all-section, or all-star boys. A score of playersgive promise of turning into capable, if not All-America,performers. All-city Bob Stenberg is a fast, shifty, smallback. Halfback Adam Kosacz was named "most valuable player" at Calumet. Charles Boyd was an all-stateback at East Chicago's Washington. Art Moynihan,Bernard LaBuda, Peter Nicola, Leach Lindsay, andJames Cutshaw are other promising yearling ball carriers. Among the freshmen linemen are brawny BobWeinberg, all-section end at Farragut last year; KarlGuttler, a transfer from the DePaul freshmen andGeorge Drake, all-suburban-league guard at New Trier.As far as the third section is concerned, starting in1941, the year of the University's golden anniversary,and continuing long after the youngest freshman is drawing old age benefit checks, prediction is useless. Thisyear's freshmen should be better in 1941 than in 1940,and better still in 1942. Perhaps one of the "cycles" hasa crest in the offing. Perhaps not. In any case the University will continue to pursue knowledge and to teachit, in sections one, two and three. Yancey Blade, theinveterate Maroon follower who predicted that Chicagowould beat Illinois, is not concerned with the cat-calls.Says he, with that learned assemblage, the University ofChicago Round Table, "What's the War All About?"H. O. CRISLER, '22, MICHIGAN COACH23NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESIN 1916, when the University was celebrating itsQuarter-Centennial, it was decided to establish onthe quadrangles a medical school of a kind then unknown. It was to be a school in which the faculty devoted its full time to teaching and research. That decision contemplated an eventual change in the status ofRush Medical College. The new school, the full titleof which is the School of Medicine of theDivision of the Biological Sciences,("South Side" medical school, for short)has been in operation since 1927, withthe University Clinics group as its teaching hospitals. Rush also continued as anundergraduate school and the pre-medical students at the University had an option between it and the south side.Rush was founded in 1837. Not onlythe oldest medical school of the MiddleWest, it was one of the best. For nearlya century it had enlisted on its facultythe leading practitioners of Chicago, whotaught for nominal or no monetary compensation. Its graduates had carried itsfame to the corners of the earth. It hadaffiliated with the University in 1898, andit had been merged in 1924. The University did not want two undergraduatemedical schools, but neither did it want to impair in anyway the educational usefulness of Rush, backed as itwas by a long and great tradition, and a devoted groupof alumni and staff. Nor did the Rush group want toend the relationship with the University. In additionto the interests of Rush and the University there alsowas that of the Presbyterian hospital. Presbyterianwas established as a teaching hospital; though independent, it had been the clinical unit of Rush under a contract made in 1884.The process of determining the future of Rush sometimes seemed destined to go on forever. It was oneof the questions which President Hutchins inherited,and one that he set out, several years ago, to resolve.Committees representing the three institutions againwent to work. There were three possibilities. One wasthat Rush make some other educational affiliation. Noone, and particularly the Rush staff, gave that proposalmuch support. The second possibility was that Rushand Presbyterian move to the south side, adjacent tothe University Clinics. In general, the Rush facultyapproved of this idea, but the cost of a new hospitalbuilding put on Presbyterian the almost insuperable burden of raising somewhere between four and six milliondollars. The third plan was to establish Rush as agraduate school, emphasizing research and training inthe various medical specialties of students who had received their M. D. degree.It was to this last solution of the future of Rush thatthe committees eventually came. Undergraduate work,DR. W. E. POST, RUSH "03• By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN. '20, JD'22which leads to the M. D., will continue through 1942;the class which enters next autumn for its final two yearsin the clinical phase of medicine, will be the last. Incontemplation of this, change, the trustees of the University have voted that the name hereafter shall be RushGraduate School of Medicine. The old title, Rush Medical College, will be used, however, for purposes ofgranting degrees to the final undergraduate classes.Following the determination of thesphere of Rush, Dr. Wilber E. Post wasappointed Dean of Rush Graduate Schoolof Medicine. The program of graduatework will be developed under his leadership and it is hoped that the graduateteaching will be underway before the lastundergraduates take their degrees. Dr.Post, a noted internist, is one of Chicago'sleading physicians. A Rush graduate in1903, he has been a member of its faculty since 1905, clinical professor of medicine for the past twenty years, and ispresident of the staff of Presbyterian.He was one of that distinguishedgroup trained under Dr. Frank Billings,and has always been active in medicaleducation and research. Following theexample of his famous teacher, he has trained manypractitioners in his special fields. Dr. Post's acceptanceof the administrative position meant that under the practice of the Board of Trustees of the University he mustresign from that group, of which he had been a membersince 1919. So, as the University approaches that anniversary which Mr. Woodward refuses to call the"Quinquagenary," what has come to be known on boththe west and south sides as the "Rush problem" has beenanswered.The University will establish on December 1 a civilianpilot unit under the auspices of the Civil AeronauticsAuthority. When requirements for the course were sentto the University late this summer, administrative honesty compelled the Dean's office to reply that Chicagowas not eligible, for it had no engineering school. Whenthe list of institutions which had established units became available, the matter was reopened, for many ofthese colleges had no engineering departments either.Except for the work in mechanics, the University hasadequate instruction and facilities for the required course.As inquiry as to interest made by Dean Works has sofar brought a response of nearly 300 men students between the required ages of 18 and 25. Women are allowed, in the ratio of one to ten men, to take the work.Some method of sifting the applicants must be devised,for it is impossible to handle a class of 300.Two research associates of Professor Arthur H.Compton flew at stratosphere heights in a chartered airliner to photograph the production of mesotrons, heavy24THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25radioactive components of cosmic rays. Aloft two anda half hours, the plane reached 29,900 feet. The storyof the evolution of cosmic rays which Dr. Compton ispiecing together indicates that the energies reaching theearth are products of several kinds of action on theoriginal energy. The mesotrons are produced at theupper level of the atmosphere.The Chicago branch of the American Association ofScientific Workers has elected Dr. Compton its chairman. Other officers and members of the executive committee, all of the University, are: Drs. Zelma Baker,secretary-treasurer; Anton J. Carlson, Ralph W. Gerard, Victor E. Johnson and Benjamin F. Miller. Theorganization's purposes are to promote awareness ofthe social implications of science, aid in its intelligentorganization, and direct it toward improvement of theconditions of life.Four Rhodes scholars, whose studies at Oxford weresuspended because of the war, are on the quadrangleswith full tuition scholarships granted by the University.Morris Berthold Abram, Fitzgerald, Ga., who graduatedfrom the University of Georgia in 1937, is in the LawSchool. William C. Carter, Waterville, Me., graduateof Colby College, in 1937, is studying mathematics ; Norman Davidson, Chicago, Rhodes scholar from the University, is continuing work in physical sciences, andStanley E. Sprague, Liberty, N. Y., from MiddleburyCollege, is in Romance Languages.Dr. George Otis Whitecotton has been appointedsuperintendent of the University of Chicago Clinics. Hehas been superintendent of the Stanford University Hospitals for the last four years. Dr. Arthur C. Bachmeyer,director of the University Clinics and associate dean ofthe Division of Biological Sciences, has been acting assuperintendent in addition to his other duties since 1934.Dr. Whitecotton will superintend the management ofthe University's Billings Hospital, Bobs Roberts Memorial Hospital for Children and the Max Epstein Clinic.Supervision of Lying-in Hospital of the University ofChicago and the Home for Destitute Crippled Childrenwill continue under other assistants to Dr. Bachmeyer.Walter Peterson, assistant professor of linguistics atthe University of Chicago, died October 3 in BillingsHospital. A member of University faculty since 1930,Professor Peterson was a comparative philologist, specializing in Indogermanic language relationships. Professor Peterson, who was unmarried, was born in Gluck-stadt, Germany, January 24, 1881, and was brought tothe United States when he was three years old. Hereceived the Bachelor's degree from Grand Island College in 1900 and the Master's degree from the University of Nebraska in 1902. After two years of studyabroad at the University of Leipzig, Dr. Peterson returned to Yale University, where he was awarded thePh.D. degree in 1908. Before coming to the University°f Chicago, Dr. Peterson taught at Hastings College,Redlands College, and the University of Florida.The leadership of Grace Abbott in the fight for humanrights was the theme of the memorial service held inMandel Hall on October 18 under the auspices of theIllinois Conference on Social Welfare. Dr. Abbott,former director of the U. S. Children's Bureau and professor of social service and administration, died June 20. Speakers were Marshall E. Dimock, assistant secretaryof the U. S. Department of Labor and associate professor of Public Administration at the University; AdenaMiller Rich, director of the Immigrants' ProtectiveLeague; Katherine Lenroot, chief of the U. S. Children's Bureau; Anne S. Davis, assistant director of theIllinois Bureau of Women and Children ; Joel D. Hunter,superintendent of the United Charities of Chicago, andJosephine Roche, former assistant secretary of the Treasury, and chairman of the United States Interdepartmental Committee on Health.A memorial service for James Weber Linn, '97, willbe held November 16 at 4:30 p. m. in Rockefeller Memorial Chapel. President Hutchins will preside.AreWe Ready for Peace?(Continued from Page 16)use its financial power to prevent such a peace.An attempt to draw political boundaries to the satisfaction of all national groups according to the principle of self-determination is visionary and impractical.Some minority groups must remain in every nation, andthe most that one can hope for is an international guarantee of just treatment for such groups. The UnitedStates could perform a genuine service in the cause ofpeace by supporting to the full extent of its power aplan for a united states of Europe based on the acknowledged economic interdependence of all European states.Such an interdependence once fully realized and functioning may well be a guarantee against future wars.The most effective proposal, however, that the UnitedStates could make would involve the restoration of theLeague of Nations — with the United States as a full-time, active participant. Structurally the League couldundoubtedly stand improvement. There are few whowould not agree that the system of representation inthe Assembly, the constitution of the Council, and theworking procedure should be given close study with aview to creating a more effective international machineryfor peace. Nor can it be expected that a rejioj^atedLeague of Nations, being a human institution, will appeal to all nations and peoples as a thing of perfection.It will undoubtedly take generations to bring this worldwide instrument of peace to the high level of satisfactory operation which many will ask for at its inception.It may be that the present war will help to overcomethe opposition in America to participation in the Leagueof Nations. Whether it does or not, Americans will dowell to rethink the years following the last war whenthe question of entangling alliances, the World Court,and the League, of Nations played an important part inall public discussion. Friends of democracy always liketo think that discussions of public policy in the democratic order is carried out with a minimum of emotionand a maximum of reasoning. Yet the public debateinThe United States on foreign policy between the years1919 and 1924 and at intermittent periods since that timehas been a rude shock to all who expected the emer-26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgence of truth through the interchange of ideas in themarket place. In the year 1919 a few United StatesSenators went in search of a political issue. Theypounced upon the League of Nations. Their previoussilence on the question would indicate either that theyhad approved of a League of Nations with the UnitedStates included or else they did not believe the matterof great consequence. From the point of view of thepolitician (as opposed to the statesman) the issue wasa real find. It had infinite emotional possibilities. Therewas the appeal to patriotism through the eighteenth century warnings of Washington, Jefferson and others.There was the appeal to the modern heresy of nationalism — my country may she ever be in the right (she always is, of course) but my country. There was thevery un-American appeal to every low grudge held byforeign groups in this country against Britain orFrance. There were fantastic appeals through the misinterpretation and misconstruction of articles of the LeagueCovenant itself — such as the exaggerated notions spreadabroad of Article X which everyone talked about butfew had read. In short the whole question of Americanforeign policy became the sport of politicians in one ofthe most hysterical, hate-engendered campaigns inAmerican history. Politicians, however, knew that tomake their campaign a success, someone had to be foundto personify "the wickedness of international intrigue."The stricken President of the United States was a handytarget. Unable to defend himself, shielded from thepublic by medical attendants, he became the insidiouspersonification of a secret plot which presumably wouldpush the United States into a welter of foreign quarrelsand use "our boys to fight Europe's War." We had tobe saved from this monster, declared the patriot politician. So our safety was placed in the hands of WarrenG. Harding and his compatriots.The whole purpose in reviewing that unfortunatecampaign is to remind calm, prudent, judicious Americans that it may happen again. It will take a great dealof education and many world-wide heart-breaking incidents to overcome the prejudices fostered in the 1920's.We stand to lose by a peace that has no more certainfoundation than the international anarchy of the pasttwenty years. If pessimistic idealistic appeals will notlead Americans on to see the necessity for an effectiveworld organization, then plain self-interest should — if wehaven't perchance lost all vision and foresight.My Most Interesting Decisions(Continued from Page 19)equal chance at the securing of the ball. Here was aman who, if he had passed the ball, must have passed itforward; the only alternative was that he didn't pass itto anybody but started running himself. So although Ihad not seen the play I called the man back and changedthe ball at the spot where the supposed foul had beenmade. Later when I was having dinner in the hotel with the Reserve coach. He said, "I wanted to get good offi-ciating for this game to avoid harsh treatment of my lightteam, so I got you. We pulled only one thing on youduring the game, ignorant of the fact that you had eyesin the seat of your pants. If you don't call that hard luck,what is?"The fourth decision was in the Minnesota-Illinoisgame the year that Jake Stahl was captain. Illinois hadgot Minnesota on the jump from the first moment ofthe game and were five yards from Minnesota's goal linewhen they fell back into a quick kick formation. Istopped right where I was, some ten or fifteen yardsaway and kept my eyes on the Minnesota players. Theball was kicked, almost immediately was in Stahl's handsand he crossed the goal line with it in his possession.I gave my signal, went over to where the ball had beenput in play, took the ball and said, "Minnesota's ball."Stahl said, "You didn't see what happened."I said, "I know it, but I saw what didn't happen.There was a kick, wasn't there?""Yes.""I had eleven Minnesota players in my field of viewand can swear on a stack of bibles ten feet high that noone of them touched even with the tip of his finger theball. Therefore you kicked the ball against the back ofthe man in front of you, recovered it when you wereoff side and made a touchdown with it which isn'tworth a snowball in hell."The other Illinois players came up and began to bleet.Stahl fastened his eyes on mine and said, "Allen'sright. Let's play football."My favorite games were those played during twelveyears — I think the games numbered exactly nine — between Minnesota and Nebraska. Four pairs of eyeswould not have watched sufficiently the youthful skullduggery forward in these games. In one game I wasworking the captain of the Nebraska team got about sixinches off-side before the ball was put in play.I said, "Captain Westover, I'll call your attention toyour position.""Yeah," he said.The ball was put in play and I penalized Nebraska.On the next play Westover was six inches off side.I said, "Captain Westover, I'll call your attention toyour position."The ball was put in play and I penalized Nebraskaagain. The third time the thing happened, Westoverthis time being with the Minnesota backs. I spoke theformula to him the third time. He indicated receipt ofmy message, the ball was put in play, and I penalizedthem the third time. By now the crowd was excited.The Nebraska players came up and threatened me and Isaid, "Shut up."Then I turned to Westover and said, "You darn fool,I'll keep moving you back until you fall into the PacificOcean if there's time enough and you don't quit yourfooling."A very unexpected grin irradiated his face. He saidto his players, "Now let's play a little football."And there was no further trouble.[In the December issue of the Magazine Phil recallshow he lost his pants in Kansas City. JTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27/\ Social Science Objective (Continued from Page 11)and accuracy cannot survive the strains of recent historical development, unless they are accompanied by anemphasis on the good life as man's primary objective,an emphasis that we find in the greatest Greek philoso-,phers and the greatest Christian saints. "Without theology or metaphysics a unified university cannot exist,"President Hutchins has said. The truths common totheology and ethics, together with the beauty commonto all great art, furnish the rational guiding principlesfor the study of man in his relation to other men. Byfollowing natural science, which has itself become moreand more divorced from philosophy and art, rather thanby following philosophy and art and using science inso far as it helps to achieve ends determined by philosophy and art, social studies have taken a course whichis both irrational and unpromising for the welfare ofmankind.If social science is the study of man's relation to men,and if man is a rational being, the student of societyshould not treat mind and spirit as if they were matter,and therefore irresponsible. If we treat man as thenatural scientist treats material phenomena, we are likelyto reduce man's place on earth to the level of the animals and the plants. We are likely to leave him to thetender mercies of all-powerful dictators, who will directhis physical motions and his thought as if he were oneof Karel Capek's Robots. What distinguishes man fromthe trees and animals, Pascal suggested, is the knowledge that he suffers. This is another way of sayingwhat Pascal repeated over and over again, that man'sgreatness consists in his power to reason. This powerhas opened to man the possibility of constructing, "withinthe world as it is, a pattern of the world as he wouldhave it," to borrow the phrasing of the late GeoffreyScott, the author of one of the most valuable books onthe artistic tradition that has appeared in the last fortyyears. It is this power that has given us religion andphilosophy and all the arts, as well as natural science.The cultivation of this power is an element common tothe humanism of Greece and Renaissance Italy and tothe Christian religion. It is an essential element incivilized life.Today men are abandoning the age-old recognitionof the value of striving toward what is good, some onthe ground that Christianity is dead and no faith in anafterlife possible, others on the ground that, since it isevident men can never be made perfect on this earth,glimpses of perfection in the minds of men are of nopractical use. In this our contemporaries are tragically mistaken. The history of civilization teaches usthat it is the vision of perfection which finds expressionin religion, philosophy and the arts, and in humble dailyliving that makes mankind less imperfect than it otherwise would be.At a time when mankind is suffering from a moralcrisis which threatens to undermine the foundations ofcivilized life, the first need of society is for a return tothose principles of wisdom and knowledge that havegiven man a place of special dignity on this planet.These principles are to be found in the great works of religion, philosophy and literature (and also in the greatworks of music and the visual arts), that have beenhanded down to us from the past, but which our generation is prone to regard as out of date, and irrelevantto our problems. Yet generalizations concerning the behavior of man, when they are essentially true, have agreat permanence. While they need to be interpretedin terms of man's changing environment, they are neverobsolete in the same sense that a scientific theory basedon an incomplete observation of matter is obsolete.Microscopes and telescopes have helped us to get amore perfect knowledge of the material world than waspossessed by Aristotle, but no technical apparatus riggedup in social science laboratories has enabled us to improve on his principles of ethics. The social scientistshould be drawn to the ancient principles of wisdomand knowledge by the nature of his subject matter. Hisnormal objectives and methods are those defined andexemplified for him by philosophy and by art. If hebases his studies upon philosophy and art, and makesnatural science his helpmate instead of his master, hewill serve not only himself but his fellow men.It is a mistake to suppose that such a new orientationof social studies would cause the social scientist to abandon the "scientific" principles worked out in the nineteenth century for handling historical and statistical data.The view that metaphysics is hostile to objectivity andaccuracy or to the observation of phenomena is not derived from an accurate reading of the greatest philosophers. Anyone who doubts the possibility of reconciling"scientific" methods with the object of moral philosophyto control all investigations in the interest of the highestvalues, would do well to read Roger Bacon's celebratedtreatise, Opus Majus. It is not even true that a training in theology is necessarily hostile to scientific method.Anyone who thinks it is would do well to read Renan'srecollections of his childhood and youth. In this book,Renan explains that he was taught all the critical methods which led him to question and eventually to rejectthe Catholic faith, in the regular training given by theCatholic fathers at Saint-Sulpice.Social studies can acquire the general interest and importance that will make them of value to civilizationonly if their authors turn to moral philosophy and artfor the principles to guide them in their work, if theystrive for what is good and for what is beautiful. Moralphilosophy is concerned with important problems, whichare repeated in new forms from generation to generation,and which are of interest in one way or another toevery man and woman. Art is concerned with the creation of images that appeal to sensitive people down theages. One great plague in social studies today is theview that a person who digs out facts never discoveredbefore is entitled, regardless of their importance, to thesame cultural and scholarly standing as the author of atreatise which "adds to human understanding. According to the criterion sometimes applied in the socialsciences, a person who finds exactly how many car-mileswere covered by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in theyear 1857, makes an original contribution no less than28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa second person who says something fresh about theproblem of meeting death. Indeed, the first person hasa greater chance of being "original" than the second,for it is easier to say something entirely new about amatter that is of no concern to anyone than about onethat has been of vital concern to everyone from the beginning of human existence. Such a scale of values insocial studies is less likely to raise the researcher to thelevel of the philosopher, than to lower the philosopherto the level of the researcher. One result of it has beento support the erroneous assumption that we add tohuman understanding by disconnected accretions of factual knowledge on innumerable separate and disconnected subjects, without even trying to determine therelation of one subject to another. Another closely related result has been to foster the notion that there canexist a sort of private property in scholarly pursuits,with each scholar holding on jealously to his little plotof territory, a field which could be fruitfully cultivatedonly if it were watered from the general stream of ideaswhich is the common inheritance of the race.If the social scientist adopts moral philosophy and artas his guides, he will be less interested in saying something inconsequential for the first time, than in sayingwell something that needs to be said. He will be lessinterested in rendering obsolete the works of his colleagues and predecessors, than in using the materialswith which they have supplied him to give new meaning to the writings of wise men. The chief object ofsocial science will no longer be merely the gatheringof what is good for man, which is the province of morallitical science, sociology and psychology to the studyof what is good for man, which is the province of moralphilosophy, and which embraces all the particular problems of the social sciences. The object of social sciencewill be to illuminate old truths in the light of new evidence and experience. That is the only way of discovering new truths that will have enduring value.How would the pursuit of such objectives as theseaffect university organization? It is obvious that wecannot expect all the thousands of professors and teachers who staff the social science departments of American universities and colleges to write illuminating philosophical treatises tit to place beside the works of Lockeor Mill, or to write histories fit to place beside those ofHerodotus or Gibbon. What we can do is to help afew great universities to build up social science facultiesdevoted to the study of general truths and to the writing of historical works of general interest. If they areto do this, they will have to take account of the factthat the conduct of such studies and the composition otsuch works is labor belonging in a higher category thanpurely analytical studies. The analytical work shouldcontinue, but it should be given direction by the philosophical and artistic interests of creative thinkers andwriters.Let us again use the subject of history as an example.In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, history concerned itself increasingly with the gathering ofmaterials. The time has come, not to stop gathering materials, but to make a more valuable use of the materials that have already been gathered. As one of the wisest philosophers of our time, Jacques Maritain, hassaid, we must both ensure the permanence of the purelyanalytical historical studies of the nineteenth centuryand go beyond them to the writing of creative, philo-sophical history, which deals with the larger problemsof human existence. It is only by going beyond thepurely analytical studies in this way, by incorporatingsome of the facts that they contain in works of literatureand human understanding, that the painstaking labor of.the nineteenth-century armies of fact-finders may be preserved for posterity.If social science is to be made of more value to mankind, a few universities should create a place apart forthe creative historian, the philosophical economist, thephilosophical political scientist and the philosophical sociologist. Such scholars would be concerned with writing books of general interest, and with the study andreinterpretation of the basic principles of their subjects.The number of persons holding such positions wouldnot be fixed ; there might be one or two or ten ortwenty ; the number would depend entirely upon thecreative thinkers available for appointment; no question of filling vacant chairs would arise for the holdersof appointments would not "cover fields." Their positions would be rather like those occupied in France byprofessors in the College de France, whose specified duties consist in giving courses of fresh lectures everyyear, and who are chosen because of the importance oftheir achievements as creative thinkers. The work ofthese special professors should not be confined withinsingle departments but should be at the disposal of alldepartments. Their teaching obligations would consistin looking out for a few students who showed real promise of making some contribution to human understanding, and who, unlike the great majority of successfulcandidates for the Doctor's degree, were entitled to special recognition as scholars and writers.*Under this plan the great majority of persons occupying posts in social science faculties in the universitiesand colleges would be engaged either in teaching or inanalytical studies of one §ort or another. But it is to behoped that the new place created for philosophical socialstudies in a few universities would influence the teachersand the researchers. That result should follow if allsocial scientists were trained intelligently in philosophyand in a love of beauty.I have suggested that the social scientists have a greatopportunity. They have the opportunity to restore someof the intellectual unity and order, some of the love ofbeauty, and some of the higher moral values of philosophy and religion which are wanting in our countryand in the Western countries generally today.It would be in the spirit in which the University ofChicago was founded, and in the spirit in which it hasbeen revived during the last decade, if the social scientists here were to take advantage of their opportunity.If they do, they will deserve well of their University, oftheir country and of Western civilization.*As T have urged in another place ("The American Universities andthe Future of Western Civilization," in The Review of Polities, Vol. \No. 3 [July, 1939] ) and as has been often suggested, such students migMbe given a special higher degree, the Ph.D. might be granted to teachersa^d to research workers capable of doing analytical work, and the presentMaster's degree might be abolished.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29Count on your telephone in a pinchA smell of smoke, a burst of flame — and instinctively you rush to your telephone for help.Bell Telephone service is reliable for two reasons.The people who provide it are capable. The equipment is well made — Western Electric's part.At your command is a vast plant — underground,overhead and in central offices — which responds sosmoothly that you take it for granted.It does so because into the production of the43,000 different items entering into this plant havegone careful thought and skilled workmanship.That's been Western Electric practice throughout 57years of telephone making. Count on a Bell Telephone switchboard too, and all the restof the complex apparatus. Here is shown one of hundreds ofinspections which Western Electric makes.Western Ekcrtc . . . made yourBELL TELEPHONE30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEO'l and Mexican Nationalism (Continued from Page 18)transfer bank deposits from Mexican banks to banks inthe United States. This, with their refusal to pay taxesin advance as had been their custom, seemed like a deliberate attack on Mexican national finance, and increased, perhaps, disposition of the Mexicans to resortto radical measures. James R. Armstrong, who arrivedin Mexico trouble-shooting for the American companies,returned to the United States saying he saw no possibility of a settlement with either the Government or theworkers. Mexicans blamed the oil men for the unfavorable publicity Mexico was receiving in the Americanpress, publicity which threatened to strike seriously atthe summer tourist trade. Toledano, radical and aggressive head of the Mexican Labor Federation, told theCongress of the Federation, in February, that the outcome of the strike might be substitution of the oil companies by "representatives of the State and of the workers of Mexico in order to keep oil production going."Two days later (February 24) President Cardenas, before the same group, pledged the Mexican governmentto carry out the decisions of the Labor Board and theSupreme Court, "whatever the sense of that decisionmay be."The oil interests, naturally, were not silent under thisverbal barrage. Through the press, both in Mexicoand the United States, they argued their financial inability to meet the terms of the Labor Board award, attacked the findings of the Commission of Experts,pointed out the basic importance of the oil industry inMexico's recent development, and argued, with truth,that the oil workers were already the best paid workersin Mexico. After announcement of the Supreme Court'sdecision they still refused to accept the award, and themorning following (March 2) announced through anadvertisement in Mexico City newspapers, that theycould not and would not accept the decision, (addingthat they "felt sorry for Mexico.")The next two weeks were weeks of intense excitement. Feverish, angry conferences between oil officialsand government officials, and one with President Cardenas made no progress toward a settlement. Then theimpasse was broken, dramatically, on March 18, by thePresident's decree of expropriation. The oil men, stillrefusing to believe that the inevitable had happened, orthat the decree of expropriation was more than a weaponin the negotiations, hastened, the same day, to informthe President that they would agree to the award. Buttheir overtures brought no results. Within the next fewdays the oil properties were occupied by agents of theworkers and the government. Eleven years respite fromthe enforcement of Article 27 of the Constitution, had encouraged the oil interests to hope it might never beenforced. That hope was now ended, and the MexicanRevolution took its inexorable course of nationalization.Ambassador Daniels admitted the United States wascaught napping. The press excitedly reported the expropriation as if it were a complete surprise. Then, onMarch 23, the New York Times naively reported thatthe "seizure" was planned in advance. In Mexico, on the other hand, expropriation was hailed as a long overdue declaration of economic independence, and the endof a colonial system of exploitation. The Archbishopof Mexico, the state governors, and prominent leadersof labor immediately pledged their support to the President. The revolt of General Cedillo in San Luis Potosi,charged against the oil interests by President Cardenas,was put down quickly by an army which remains loyal tothe administration.Mexico's foreign debt has been in default since 1933,and was quadrupled by the expropriation of the nationalrailways in 1937. Costly agrarian expropriations wereincreasing the total debt structure dizzily. It seemedimpossible that the existing debt could be serviced regularly under existing conditions, and extremely unlikelythat the oil interests would accept payment for theirproperties in Mexican bonds, issued at a time when thegovernment was already defaulting on the entire foreigndebt. It is not surprising that British and Americancompanies boycotted Mexican oil after the expropriation, refusing to carry it in their tank steamers. In thelight of the national debt situation, however, it is surprising that they should turn a completely deaf ear toMexican proposals to pay for the properties by turning over part of the oil produced to the former owners.In turning down this offer, made apparently in all sincerity by President Cardenas, the oil interests missedtheir best chance at a quick, realistic settlement, without benefit of a long tortuous diplomacy which can hopeat the most to be merely face-saving.A fascist danger in Mexico was almost immediatelyplayed up by the American press. Swedish tankerswere only too willing to carry oil to Germany, and anAmerican syndicate was ready to arrange the matter.Italy and Japan stood ready to buy, and did. Japanw^as reported willing to build a pipe line across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in exchange for Mexican oil.President Cardenas tried to lay the specter of fascismby a public statement that Mexico ould not risk losingAmerican good will by throwing herself into fascist arms.But, of course, Mexico could not be expected to sitholding her oil when buyers offered themselves. Thatthey were fascists was regrettable, for Mexico, of allLatin American nations, has the least sympathy for fascism. But the democratic countries, for the time, wereboycotting her petroleum. Brazil, a good oil customerof the United States, was another purchaser. The LatinAmerican markets of the United States, in Argentina,Chile, and in Central America, were sought as potentialoutlets, though not with great success.Petroleum exports dropped from an average of twomillion barrels monthly to slightly over a million inMarch, three hundred thousand in April, rose to a littleover a million in May, and stood slightly over eighthundred thousand in June and July. Mexican oil production slowed down in April to about fifty per cent ofthe production in April, 1937. Thereafter there was asteady increase in production each month, reaching about75 per cent of the 1937 production in June and July,THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31where it remained. Since 1934 there has been a markedincrease in the use of petroleum products in Mexico, tothe point where Mexico herself now uses half her production of petroleum. This domestic market has notonly held steady, but actually increased since expropriation. <It may not be possible immediately to develop therich Pozo Rico district of the Eagle Company whichsome people think may restore Mexico to the positionof the second petroleum producing country in the world.Lack of capital, machinery, and market for the productprevent any such rapid expansion for the present. However new production wells were brought in betweenApril and July in about as great numbers as during 1937(averaging almost two a month). Administration ofthe industry, lodged temporarily in a council appointedby the president, was given corporate organization bya Congressional law of June 7, and is known as PetroleosMexicanos. Petroleos Mexicanos is pushing the reconstruction of pipe line, is carrying out the housing andsanitary provisions of the Labor Board award, and putinto effect substantial wage increases beginning July 24.Great: Britain saved her face by protesting sharplyagainst expropriation which seemed to amount to confiscation, provoking Mexico to break off diplomatic relations. United States has not risked her face so definitely, preferring to approach the issue indirectly by raising the whole question of evaluation of and compensation for expropriated property, and proposing settlement by an impartial commission or by arbitration.(This, incidentally, is the course to which she is boundby inter- American treaties.) Moreover, the United Statesfeels keenly the need of building a more solid structureof inter- American unity, and Mexico is the keystone tothat structure at present.Mexico refused the United States proposal for a general arbitration of all land and petroleum claims, butshe agreed to a settlement of the land question. Sinceshe has said consistently that she stands ready to arbitrate the value of expropriated petroleum properties(and actually the Mexican Commission of Experts seta higher value than our own Department of Commerceestimate of 69 millions based on reports from the oilcompanies), the disagreement narrows down to a question of the method of payment. Amiable negotiationsduring the past year have looked toward a settlementwhich would return American properties to their formerowners under operating contracts, but have failed toachieve an agreement. It is still too early to see howthe question will be affected by the outbreak of hostilities in Europe, although the war will certainly affectthe market for Mexican petroleum, and may will provethe decisive factor in determining the settlement of thequestion.WHEN ENTERTAININGBefore or After the GameYOU'LL FIND IT A PLEASURE TOSERVE SWIFT'S PREMIUM HAMOn these crisp fall days when "the crowd"gathers at your house for a snack before thegame, or a buffet supper after — you'll findyourself acclaimed the hostess supreme byserving a Swift's Premium Ham.Your guests (and, of course, you, too) willbe delighted with the ham "tender as spring-chicken." And itsfirm texture will make the carving easy. They will enjoy themarvelous Premium flavor. Order a Swift's Premium Hamfor the next home game. Theham in the blue wrapper youbake before serving; the onewith the red wrapper (QuickServe Style) is ready to servecold, or you simply heat itthrough.With either style, you'll delight your guests and find it a pleasure to"play host."Swift's Premium HamMarvelous flavor SPRING CHICKEN TENDERNESSNEWS OF THE CLASSES1 888 Dr. F. Tucker plans to return to theUnited ^States shortly, after some 38Charles W Doty, MD,' former state years in China— years Veil punctuatedsenator for Nebraska, names hard work with wars famineS) plagues, and floodsas his hobby.1899 19031892William D. Larrell writes that allis well in Norris City, Illinois. He isbusy and happy, he says.1896Albert Mead, FhD, professor of biology emeritus and former vice-presidentof Brown, was one of six to receive thedegree of Doctor of Laws at BrownUniversity last spring.1897Professor Emeritus Charles JosephChamberlain, PhD, of the Departmentof Botany, University of Chicago, wasPresident of the Botanical Society ofAmerica for 1931-32 and is an honorarymember of the Botanical Society ofIndia. He is the author of numerouspublications such as Elements of PlantScience, Methods in Plant Histology,and Gymnosperms — Structure and Evolution. Plant Histology has gone intoits fifth edition.William H. Marby, MD, considerscity politics his avocation. For 38 yearshe has been City Alderman in Gales-burg, Illinois. Mrs. Wm. J. Weber (Pearl L. Hunter), AM '20, has been teaching fortwenty-five years and since 1923, at theMunicipal University of Omaha, whereshe is Assistant Professor of Philosophyand Psychology. Her latest contributionto Education Magazine, September, 1939is entitled Universities and First Principles. In 1920 she wrote Behaviorismand Indirect Responses, for the Journalof Philosophy and since that time Mrs.Weber has contributed other articles toprofessional journals.1901Dr. F. F. Tucker is now located inShaoyang, Hunan, China. Dr. Tuckerlived in Wutingfu, Shantun, China, previously. He has been helping in thework of the International Red Crossand states, "Warfare from the air seemshardest on the civilian and the refugee."His daughter, Dr. Margaret Tucker,'34, is at Foochow in the Union hospital. Harlan H. Barrows, former chairman of the geography department at theUniversity of Chicago, is now consultantin the Interior Department directing thedevelopment of 1,200,000 acres of farmland to be reclaimed by the Grand CouleeDam. This development is concernedwith the setting up of a community ofsmall single-family farms.1905Ernest W. Miller, MD '07, is chiefsurgeon for the Wisconsin ElectricPower Company, Milwaukee ElectricRailway and Transport Company, Wisconsin Gas and Electric Company, andWisconsin Michigan Power Company,1906George T. Northup, PhD, presidesas Chairman of the Monograph Committee of the Modern Language Association and has for some time been anExecutive Counselor for this Association.William A. Parks, MD '98, hasbeen practicing medicine in Akron,Ohio, for twenty-five years. Dr. Parkshas three sons in college.1907An essay by Bernard Iddings Bellhas been selected as an example ofAmerican Prose style for a new bookentitled, Essays for the Study ojStyle, just published by the MacmillanCompany, for use in Universities. Dr.and Mrs. Bell have been living in theEast at Providence, Rhode Island, wherehe was the Canon at the Rhode IslandEpiscopal Cathedral. For nearly a decade he has been one of the most popularAmerican preachers in London, England.Professor Edward A. Henry, DB,director of Libraries at the University ofCincinnati since 1928, had the honorarydegree of Doctor of Literature conferred upon him by The Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, Tennesseelast June. He was formerly acting director of Libraries at the University ofChicago.Dr. Orlando F. Scott, MD '08, nationally known psychiatrist and criminologist, developed the "new type" oflie detection which is on display in thewindows of the First Federal Savings& Loan Association, 130 S. LaSalleStreet, Chicago. Dr. Scott uses this machine in the operations of the NationalDetection of Deception Laboratories,Inc. His device was perfected aboutfour years ago, although lie detectionreally had its inception back in 1896,We should sign our name, Frank Brothers, M.S. Master of Shoe-making, of course. And we've earned the degree throughthree-quarters of a century of the study and practice of creatingand sponsoring the finest shoes in America. Now we're ready forthe degree of Doctor of Economics, for we have succeeded inproducing a collection of six Frank Brothers models at $12.75,one of which we illustrate here. Ask your Frank Brothers representative to show you these remarkable shoes.FIFTH AVENUE • 47th-48th Streets • NEW YORK225 OLIVER AVENUE— PITTSBURGH, PA. • 1 12 WEST ADAMS STREET, FIELD BUILDING— CHICAGO, ILL.32THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33vhen an Italian named Riva-Rocci invented an apparatus to measure blood1908Leo W. Hoffman, '08, JD '10, andCalmon R. Golder, LLB '22, announcethe removal of their law offices to Suite1107, 39 South La Salle Street, Chicago.Merrill C. Meigs, publisher of TheChicago Herald-American, has flownmore than 300,000 miles during the lasttwelve years and has accumulated 1,300solo hours flying his own plane. Whenon the ground, Mr. Meigs spends hisspare time playing golf.George J. Miller, SM '09, is professor of Geography at the State Teachers College, Mankato, Minn., and editorof the Journal of Geography. He wasa]so visiting professor at ColumbiaUniversity during the summer of 1938and visiting professor at the Universityof Wisconsin during the summer of1939.1909John Dille was a member of tb"Evanston committee which arrangedthe delegates of the installation of thenew Northwestern chapter of AlphaDelta Phi on October 20. The newchapter of the fraternity, formerlyknown as the Wranglers, makes the27th unit of Alpha Delta Phi. RobertMaynard Hutchins and John Nuven,Jr., were among those present.1910Dean Charles Gilkie visited Denison University last May. Willis A.Chamberlain, PhD, claims that DeanGilkie's visit was much enjoyed.Leverett S. Lyon, AM '18, PhD '21,has been appointed chief executive officerof the Chicago Association of Commerce which appointment became effective October 20, 1939. Mr. Lyon hadserved as executive vice president ofthe Brookings Institution, Washington,D. C. since 1932. At the Brookings institution, a nonpolitical organizationdevoted to the development of nationalpolicies and graduate training in socialsciences, Mr. Lyon worked with HaroldG. Moulton, president.1911Hilmar Baukhage comments thesedays via radio and newspaper on newsas it occurs in the nation's capitol. Hehas been connected with the UnitedStates News (writing this time) andthe North American Newspaper Alliance. He has also been heard on theNBC Farm and Home Hour. Fellowmembers of the Class of '11 can hearMr. Baukhage commentate on Sundaynights at 6:15 E.S.T. over the Blue Network, and . . . his favorite hobby isturning off the radio.1912Fredericka Blanckner, assistantProfessor of romance languages at FloraStone Mather College of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, presides at'he Italian table in the dining room of the College, which table was institutedthis year.1915Louis Bothman, MD '17, recentlymoved to 310 S. Michigan Avenue. Hispractice is limited to ophthalmology.Mr. Bothman was the editor of the eyesection of The Year Book of Eye, Ear,Nose and Throat.Francis T. Ward was chosen president of the Bond Club of New York atthe annual meeting of the club severalmonths ago. This is a distinct honorand Mr. Ward is the first University ofChicago alumnus to be made Presidentof this club.1916Carl C. Taylor, who is now in chargeof Division of Farm Population andRural Life in the United States Department of Agriculture, was formery withthe Subsistence Homestead Departmentin Washington.Dr. Stanley D. Wilson, PhD, deanof the College of Natural Sciences andprofessor of Organic Chemistry atYenching University, Peiping, China,returned to America for a year's furlough beginning in July, 1939.1917Joseph L. Adler, '17, PhD is president of the Independent ProspectingCompany, contracting seismic surveysfor petroleum. He travels so much thathis chief avocation is staying homewhen he gets the chance.John Wesley Elliott, AM, is nowpresident of the Alderson-Broaddus College in Philippi, West Virginia. He wasformerly connected with The AmericanBaptist Publication Society.Harold P. Huls, JD '21, finished adecade last spring as Head of Pasadena, California legal affairs. Hr. Hulsadvanced to the post of city attorney in1929 and since that time has successfullymanaged a number of important matters.Mr. Huls has long taken an active partin legal affairs. He was admitted topractice in the United States DistrictCourt, Southern District of Californiain 1922; to the United States CircuitCourt in 1932 and the United StatesSupreme Court in 1936.For years he has taken an active interest in the Tournament of Roses Association, serving as a division marshal.He is to be adjutant of the 1940 tournament.Edward T. Johnson, SM '20, accepted the position of principal of theWillard School in Dayton, Ohio, lastAugust.Down in Collinsville, Ohio, in one ofthe local newspapers, there is a columnheaded: "Just Thoughts — By a PlainCountry Woman." Lucile Elling-wood Morrow is the columnist. Lastfall "A Plain Country Woman" wrote:"The University of Chicago is my AlmaMater and I attended it when it was acomparatively young school. In factthere are only a few months differencein our ages."There is quite a story connected with BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorPETERSONFireproof WarehouseSTORAGE — MOVINGForeign — DomesticShipments55th & Ellis Phone, MID 970034 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmy attending 'Chicago.' About the timeI was born, the University opened itsdoors for business and father, snowbound in a Rocky Mountain sheep camp,came across a magazine telling of theirideals. Two of their outstanding tenetswere that there should be no bar becauseof race, creed or sex, and that attendance should not be based on 'Who areyou?' but upon 'What Can You Do?'That sounded right to Father and hevowed then and there to send his children to that school if it were possible.However, of five children, I was theonly one to graduate, and that graduation was one of the bitterest, sweetestdays of our life for, although I hadfinished the course, he had died the yearbefore."So you see ... I was sort of dedicated to the University of Chicago."Marguerite Orndorff teaches English in Junior High School in Indianapolis, and attends the summer sessions of the University of Wisconsin.From 1930 to 1932 she was Presidentof the Indianapolis Grade Teachers Association and President of the IndianaBranch National League of AmericanPen Women.1918Mabel E. Noel, PhB. '24, AM '26,(Mrs. Coddington) is now super intend-BUSINESSDIRECTORYAMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIR &WELDING CO.BOILEE i REPAIRING AND WELDING24 HOUR SERVICE1408 S. Western Ave. Tel. Canal 6071 ent of the Hudelson Baptist Orphanagein Centralia, Illinois.1919Henry Rossbacher, PhD, has advanced to the position of superintendentof manufacturing engineering at theKerny, New Jersey Works of the Western Electric Company.Theresa Tracy has a hobby — poetry,and tangible evidence is published bythe Christopher Publishing House inBoston, Massachusetts.1920Hal Earl Norton, DD, is preachingat The Roundy Memorial BaptistChurch, Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin.William Carlson Smith, PhD, professor of sociology, McMinnville, Oregon, is the author of the book, Americans in the Making, recently publishedby D. Appleton-Century Company. Professor Smith teaches in Linfield College.1921N. Addison Baker, one of Orlando,Florida's busiest bankers, gets awayfrom it all by walking, as evidenced bythe fact that he is a member of theAppalachian Mountain Club.Carl O. N. Hedeen, AM, is nowin Redlands, California. Mr. Hedeen isa Spanish instructor at the University ofRedlands.Dwight Sanderson, PhD, is professor of Rural Sociology at CornellUniversity. His recent publication is"Rural Community Organization" withRobert A. Poison.1922L. Dell Henry, MD '35, took up hisduties as Instructor in the Departmentof Pediatrics, University of MichiganMedical School, and Instructor in thesame department on the University Hospital Staff on September 1st. Dr. Henryhad been associated in Hammond, Illinois with a group of three other doctorsin private practice.On October 1, 1939, Dr. Julian F.Smith, PhD, began his work as associate director of the Friends of theHooker Scientific Library, Fayette,Missouri. The Hooker Library is inaugurating a new literature service forchemists. Dr. Smith was formerly connected with the du Pont Company,where he was doing chemical literaturework. Through Dr. Smith the Librarywill offer translations and literaturesearches, backed by facilities for providing filmstate copies of any matter inthe more than twenty thousand volumescomprising the collection.Ferdinand Kramer, vice presidentof Draper & Kramer, Inc., will be thenext president of the Chicago MortgageBankers' Association.1923Last month Irma Langford beganher new job as instructor, (textiles, nutrition and health) at North Park College, Chicago, Illinois.'1924Harold A, Anderson, AM '26, heads the Department of English and Educa.tion at the University of Chicago, andteaches in the Department of Englis^University of Chicago High School. Hehas held the office of Vice-President ofthe Board of Directors, North Park Col-lege, Chicago, and belongs to manylocal, state, and national educationalcommittees.William H. Bessey has moved fromPittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to 315 Kan^sas City Street, Rapid City, South Dakota. Mr. Bessey is teaching Physicsat the South Dakota State School. Heclaims that it was easy for him to become a Black Hills booster.Will Greer the young man who received many favorable comments fromthe dramatic critics for his work inBroadway's Sing Out the News, believesthe theater has made greater strides inthe last five years than for many yearspreviously. "The theater has taken ona social significance," he asserts, "thatwill bring it out of the doldrums andonce again serve as the chief source ofentertainment for untold millionsthroughout the land."Milton T. Hunt is now associatedwith the firm of Sprague, McClanahan &Goddard. The firm's new offices arelocated at 433 South Spring Street, LosAngeles, California.1925Hal Baird assumed his duties asheadmaster at The International School,Fredericksburg, Virginia, in September,1939.Marjory McKee Billow has movedto her country home, Prin-Well Farm,Jones, Michigan. She had been livingin Evanston, Illinois.Henry C. Swift Bush reports a newaddress, American Embassy, Pariser-platz 2, Berlin, Germany. Until thisyear, Mr. Bush was living in Indianapolis, Indiana.1926Toledo's most outstanding young manof 1938, Edward C. Ames, received theAchievement Award of the JuniorChamber of Commerce last spring. Mr.Ames is executive secretary of the Hospital Service Association of Toledo, andit was for his work in that position thathe was awarded the golden key.Mary M. Avery, Ph '36, is now instructor in Latin in the Girls LatinSchool of Chicago. Miss Avery beganher work there in September.Lester Beall, foremost artist anddesigner in the advertising field todayexpresses his theory of modern art, "anew language in art must be created thatis mechanically patterned, but at thesame time flexible in application andvisually effectual." In 1938 Mr. Beallwon unprecedented distinction at theArt Directors' Exhibition in quantity ofwork selected for exhibition and i*1awards received ; also when six of hisposters, drawn for the U. S. Government, were exhibited in the Museum ofModern Art in New York City; andagain when six examples of his workTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 35were shown at the Paris InternationalExposition.In the Modern Language Journal,April, 1939, an article entitled Text-books' and the Living Language, byGuy R Vowles, PhD, was published.y[Vt Vowles points out the linguisticparticularism of many authors of Modern German. He is connected with theDavidson College, Davidson, NorthCarolina.Georgia Robison, AM '28, is now onthe faculty of Hollins College, HollinsCollege, Virginia, as assistant professor of history.Douglas E. Scates, PhD, has lefthis position as Director of Research forthe Cincinnati Public Schools and isnow Associate Professor of Educationat Duke University.Otto E. Strohmeier, MD '37, hasopened offices in the State Trust Building, Moline, Illinois, for the practiceof pediatrics. After interning at St.Luke's Dr. Strohemeier completed twoyears of service at the Children's Memorial Hospital this summer.1927Rufus G. Poole, LLB, is AssociateGeneral Counsel, Wage and Hour Administration, Department of Labor, atWashington, D. C.Jean Irwin Simpson, SM, lectureson foods at the University of Toronto,Toronto, Canada.Kenneth Umbreit, whose book,Our Eleven Chief Justices, was published by Harper in October, 1938, announces it is now in its third printing.Ben West recently accepted the position as teacher in a rural school nearHanna City, Illinois.1928Hymen S. Gratch, LLB, announcesthe removal of his law offices to Suite700-39 South La Salle Street, Chicago.Harold C. Huston, MD '33, isradiologist for the Luther Hospital, EauClaire, Wis.Arnold M. Johnson has been electedassistant vice-president of the City National Bank & Trust Company of Chi^cago. Johnson, who has been in thebank's commercial department, hasbeen with the bank since 1932.1929Clinton L. Compere, MD, has leftDetroit, Michigan and is now connectedwith the Blodgett Memorial Hospital inGrand Rapids, Michigan.Paul L. Hollister, SM, heads thedepartment of Biology at CumberlandUniversity at Lebanon, Tennessee. Between 1934 and 1937 he worked on ateaching fellowship at Peabody College]n Nashville. In August, 1939, Peabodyconferred upon him the degree of Doctor°f Philosophy. He has served as head.jtf the department of biology at "Cumberland since September, 1937.. Mrs. Ethel Wiley Stallings, AM,Is teaching English and public speakinga? Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, Mis-sissippi. 1930On last May 20th H. J. Anderson,AM, added a son, John Emmett to hisfamily. Mr. Anderson is principal ofGraveraet High School in Marquette,Michigan. He is the past president ofthe local Lions Club and past DeputyGovernor of the Lions Clubs of theUpper Peninsula.1931Simon H. Bauer, PhD '35, is nowteaching chemistry at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Mr. Bauerbegan this work in September.Norman A. Imrie of Columbus, Ohiois connected with the Thomas BradySpeakers' Bureau and is considered ahumorist, thinker, and newspaperman.Edith D. Wright was a member ofthe cruise on the S. S. Rotterdam sponsored by the World Federation of Education Association. The ship stoppedat many South American ports andfinally arrived in Rio where the Conference was held.1932Luis W. Alvarez, SM '34, PhD '36,is an instructor in physics at the University of California. He is doing research work connected with the cyclotron, commonly known as an "atomsmasher."Dorothy R. Mohr, AM '33, teachesswimming and mathematics at LaSalle-Peru Twp. High School and JuniorCollege, LaSalle, Illinois.1933Albert Blumenthal, PhD, is an instructor in sociology at North WesternMissouri State Teachers College, Maryville, Missouri at the present time.Hugh D. Duncan, AM, is now located in Gary, Indiana. Mr. Duncanteaches both sociology and English atGary College.From the University of Michigancomes word that Herman H. Goldstine, SM '34, PhD '36, is an instructorin mathematics.Minnie Mae McAlister teachesgrade school out at LaGrange, Illinoisnow.Edith Lottmann, PhB, teaches inPeoria, her home town. Taking moving pictures is her most recent hobby.Jere C. Mickel is teaching Englishand humanities at the University of Chicago High School at the present time.1934Jane Sowers Coltman, and JohnColtman II, '33, have moved to 832South 5th Street, Springfield, Illinois.Mr. Coltman had been city salesmanfor the Continental Oil Company in Chicago and has advanced to DistrictSuperintendentship of the ContinentalOil Company with his move to Springfield.With the letter head reading, "American Mission Hospital, Addis Abeda,Ethiopia," John A. Cremer, MD, writesthat his letter heads will read 1147 Bates BOOK BINDERSW. B. CONKEY COMPANYHammond, IndianaPrinters and BindersofBooks and CatalogsSales OfficesCHICAGO NEW YORKBOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Larqest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon at published Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all irs branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900- —0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CEMENT CONTRACTORSCEMENTT. A. REHNQUIST CO. CONTRACTORSFLOORSSIDEWALKSVAULT WALKSREPAIRSBEVerly 0890We Cover ihe CityCHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 19027 YARDSALL OVER TOWNMAIN OFFICE252 West 69th StreetTelephone Wentworth 3215Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wesson's Coal Makes Good — or—Wesson Does36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECOFFEE -TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston— New York— Philadelphia— SyraeuseELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER WIRING600 T i u\a/ ii ni i TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Seeley 2788FLOWERSPhones1364 ^ CHICAGOEstablished 186SFLOWERSPlaza 6444, 6445East 53rd StreetGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1 327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9 1 00- 1 -2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERLAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning29 1 5 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL LAUNDRY SERVICESAlsoZoric System of Cleaning- : - Odorless Quality Cleaning - : -Phone Oakland 1383LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven TypewritlnoMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 Chicago Street, SE, Grand Rapids, Michiganthis fall.Helen Hiett's permanent address is80 Rue de Longchamp, Neuilly-sur-Leine, Paris, France. Miss Hiett finished her residence for her PhD at theLondon School of Economics last August, then returned to Paris, where sheexpects to stay until April, 1940, whenshe will return to the United States forone month of lecturing.John D. Scheffer, PhD, is now Assistant Professor of English at TheCitadel, Charleston, South Carolina.D. Foster Scott, AM, successfullypassed the Indiana State Bar examination last July and was admitted on September 18th to the Bar. He resignedfrom the faculty of the Lyons Twp.High School, La Grange, Illinois, toaccept the position as Secretary to theDean of the School of Education, Indiana University. Mr. Scott's work atIndiana entails the revision of the Indiana School Laws. He also plans tospecialize in school law practice.Then Chester F. C. Ward changedhis name; it now reads Frederick Corbett Ward. Mr. Ward is in partnershipwith Olive Parker and together they are :Publication and Radio Advertising Representatives, Merchandising and PublicRelation Counselors in Chicago.1935Ethel V. Dyne, AM, is studyingpersonality development at Merrill-Palmer School, Detroit.M. Elizabeth Gentry, MD, hasbeen practicing general medicine forthe past two years but her main interest is in internal medicine includingpediatrics.Vernon D. Keeler, PhD, spent thesummer in New England and on theAtlantic Coast visiting industrial plantsand six weeks visiting classes in management at M. I. T. and Harvard University at Boston, gathering information on educational methods in businessand latest developments in management.He was organizer and sponsor of thefirst branch of the Society for Advancement of Management on the PacificCoast at U. C. L. A., organizer of thefirst Los Angeles adult branch of samesociety, and recently appointed to aneditorial advisory position with the society. Also recently appointed sponsorof Alpha Kappa Psi at U. C. L. A.after aiding organization in reorganization and survey work in Los Angeles.Last month President Wickenden,Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio, announced the appointmentof Dr. Robert S. Shankland, PhD, asacting head of the Department ofPhysics. Dr. Shankland spent one yearat the Universitv of Chirago as instructor in physics, 1936-37. He is a member of many technical societies and theauthor of numerous articles on X-raysand Gamma rays.Two of our graduates are beginningtheir third year at the University of Michigan. Dorothy Norton Smitjj(wife of Kenneth M. Smith, ]Vf])'37), is secretary in the Bureau of Co,operation with Educational Institutionswhile her husband is a resident of th^University hospital.Max Davidson, JD '37, has an.nounced the opening of his offices at100 North LaSalle Street, Chicago. IV[rDavidson plans to engage in the generalpractice of law.1936James D. Bell is now at Gary, In.diana. He is teaching history andgovernment at Gary College.Philip W. Davies, a JohnsonScholar at the University of Pennsyl.vania, is studying for a PhD in Bio-physics.Harriet D. Hudson, AM, shoulderedher responsibilities as instructor in economics at Pine Manor Junior College,Wellesley, Massachusetts last month.Matsukichi Kanai, MD, divideshis time between his duty as a physicianand his duty to his golf clubs.L. R. Leeson, MD, opened his officelast spring and thus did not manage tocome to the Alumni School reunion. Buthe promises to be here next year, Park-ersburg, West Virginia.Hyatt H. Waggoner, AM '36, hasmoved to 4453 Woolworth Avenue,Omaha, Nebraska. He is an instructorin English Composition and AmericanLiterature at the University of Omaha.Willard G. De Young, MD, has thepleasure of working in the same clinicwith four other South Side MedicalAlumni. Mr. De Young's home islocated just outside of Beverly Hillsbecause he wishes to garden.1937Barnett Blakemore, AM, DB '38,traveling fellow from the Disciples Divinity House this past year, spent lastsummer at the American Youth Foundation Camp at Shelby, Michigan. Dr.Blakemore is studying at the Universityof Chicago this winter.Elizabeth Puride Dame (Mrs.Louis P.) lives on the Persian Gulf onthe Island of Bahrain. Mrs. Damewrote us an interesting letter concerning the visit of His Majesty King IbuSaoud of Andi- Arabia. His Majestyspent two hours in Mrs. Dame's home,which was an unusual and gracioushonor.Thomas Eadie, '37, is a chemist inCellulose Acetate Production Department of Celanese Corporation of America, in Cumberland, Maryland.Judson C. Gary, AM, teaches mathematics and science at Francis ParkerSchool in San Diego, California thesedays.Richard W. Hamming has gone toEast Lansing, Michigan to teach mathematics at the Michigan State Collegethere.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 37LITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182OFFICE FURNITURE5TEELCASE^Business Equipment \FILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co.Grand Rapid*, MichiganPAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3186E. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneMonroe 3192PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579 James C. Shelburn, registrar atMercer University, AM, has taken ayear's leave of absence and is studying atthe University of Chicago this year.Margaret E. Thompson, has just returned to the United States after havingspent the summer in Europe. She is theEpiscopal student worker at Northwestern University and is planning to receiveher A.M. in Education there next June.Bradford Willes is now studying inthe law school at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. His address is9 Oakhurst Circle.Frances Triggs, AM, is now counseling at the University of Minnesota'sTesting Bureau in Minneapolis.1938Ellis B. Kohs, AM, has enteredHarvard this fall to work for a PhDin music. His article, "An Aural Approach to Orchestration," was publishedin the spring issue of the Musical Mercury.Jennie H. Kreydich is now instructor of home economics, biology andgeneral science in Warrenton, Missourihigh school.Thomas B. Larson, AM, has recently accepted a position at Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, as instructor of history and government.Peter P. Lejins, PhD, teacher atthe University of Latvia, holding theChair of Criminal Law, spent last summer in London, studying the methodsof crime research. His wife, Nora C.Muller, PhB' 34, AM' 35, was in London also doing research in the BritishMuseum in French literature.Henry Mick, AM' 38, was called tohis present charge, Central Church,Windsor, of the United Church of Canada, in 1934. He lectured before theTheological Union of the London Conference on "New Testament Research"this last year. In 1936 Mr. Mick wasappointed to The Council of TheologicalEducation of the United Church ofCanada and still holds this appointment.William G. Negley is working fora JD at the Chicago-Kent College ofLaw.Graham S. Newell is an instructorat St. Johnsbury Academy in St. Johns-burg, Vt.David S. Pankratz, MD, has recently accepted a position as professorof anatomy at the University of Mississippi for the coming year.From Mary Anna Patrick we hearthat she is an instructor— in generalscience at Nichols Intermediate chool,Evanston, 111.Helen C. Peterson taught in theJoliet Public schools last year, Joliet,Illinois.William C. Petty, AM '38, beganhis third term as County Superintendent MUSIC PRINTERSHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESEK^RAVERS "N- SINCE 190 6+ WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES ++ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED +? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE +iRAYNERiDALHEIM €xCO.2054 W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO.PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing of All Descriptions"RESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South Sideixanrara*!):COLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 WoodJawn Ave.Phone Hyde Park 6324ROOFERSBECKERAll types of RoofingHome InsulatingAll over Chicago and suburbs.Brunswick 2900RE-ROOFING — REPAIRINGGROVEROOFINGFAirfax5206Gilliland6644 COTTAGE GROVE Av7INSULATINGRUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED2313 E. 71st St. Ptone Dor. 0009VERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE38 THE UNICOMMERCIAL SCHOOLSIntensive Stenographic CourseBfm FOR COLLEGE MEN ft. WOMENH 100 Words s Minute in 100 Dayi As- j.^2 lured for one Fee. Enroll NOW. Day T«M elanei only— Begin Jan., Apr., July >If and Oat. Write or Phone Ban. 1575. .^18 S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO^MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commereial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130SCHOOL—SHORTHANDYour whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.LearnGREGGthe world's fastest shorthand.SHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing•1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893STOCKS-BONDS-COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, 'II. H. I. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W. Davis, '16 F. B. Evans, 'IIPaul H. Davis & Co.Member*New York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock ExchangeChicago Board of Trade10 So. La Salli St. Franklin 8622SWEATERSGENUINE ATHLETIC SWEATERSSweaters and Emblems Made to Orderat theENGLEWOOD KNITTING MILLS6643 S. Halsted Street Wentworth 5920-21Established over one quarter of a centuryAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers. of Schools, Lake County, this lastAugust, Waukegan, Illinois.Irene G. Poole is now teaching thesecond grade in LaGrange ElementarySchools, LaGrange, Illinois.William C. Rasmussen has accepted a position with SeismographService Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma.Rae Elizabeth Rips, '36, AM '38, isattending the University of Illinois, Library School, this year at Urbana, Illinois.During the past year BelleSch wager has been with the ChicagoRelief Administration as a caseworker.This last summer she attended theSmith College School for Social Workat Northampton, Massachusetts. Shehas served on the American Federationof University Women and is living inChicago.Gordon Tiger expects to graduatesoon from the Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University.In Rhode Island the new governor,William Vanderbilt, is reorganizing thestate government and Gordon P. Freeseis assisting.1939Judson "Judd" W. Allen will beteaching for the next three years inAssiut, Egypt. Assiut is located on theNile river about 250 miles south ofCairo.Jane Beuret, AM, has accepted aposition at Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana. She is teaching English.Allen Cabaniss, PhD, has acceptedthe call to the pastorate of the FirstPresbyterian Church in Columbia, Mississippi.Ruth E. Cortell has accepted theposition as research Associate in Physiology at the University of Illinois College of Medicine. Miss Cortell plans tobe at Illinois for one year.Last September Raymond Gouwenscommenced his instructorship (chemistry, mathematics and biology at Thornton Township high school in Harvey,Illinois.Oswald Hall has been appointed instructor in the department of PoliticalScience and Sociology of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.Robert B. Haas began his instructor-ship in English last September at CulverMilitary Academy, Culver, Indiana.Ruth adele B. LaTourette has thetitle of Critic Teacher in Western Illinois State Teachers College in Macomb,Illinois.Donald Pierson received his PhDthis last August and before leaving Chicago wrote us concerning his new location. This is Mr. Pierson's letter :"I have just accepted an appointmentto direct social research for the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and teachsociology in the University of that city. My wife and I previously spent t\v0years (1935-1937) in Brazil, principalsin and about the picturesque old port ofBahia, while I was engaged on a re,search project for the Social ScienceResearch Committee of the UniversityWe were peculiarly interested in theracial situation. In Brazil, althoughthere were probably imported moreAfricans than into the United States orthe West Indies, the Negro as a racialunit is being gradually but to all ap,pearances inevitably absorbed into thedominant European stock. At the sametime, in centers of Negro concentrationlike Bahia, African cultural forms persist. Particularly is this true of thefetish cult which is quite similar to themuch misrepresented "voodoo" cult ofHaiti. I was inducted into the Bahiancult as an ogan, or assistant to thepriest."The results of our two-year investigation were incorporated into a doctoralthesis presented to the Department ofSociology this last summer under thetitle, 'A Study of Racial and CulturalAdjustment in Bahia, Brazil'."Mr. and Mrs. Pierson's post office isnow c/o Consulado Americano, SaoPaulo, Brazil.Newell T. Reynolds is working onthe Mentone (Calif.) News learning thenewspaper business and writing aweekly political column.Carroll F. Shukers, MD, has goneto Little Rock, Arkansas, to accept theassociate professorship of PhysiologicalChemistry at the University of ArkansasSchool of Medicine, in Little Rock.Margaret C. Stowell, SM, has goneto Plymouth, Wisconsin to teach geography and citizenship in the high schoolthere.SOCIAL SERVICEA joint meeting in memory of the lifeand work of Grace Abbott was held inMandell Hall at five o'clock, October 18,under the auspices of the Illinois Conference of Social Welfare, Illinois Chapter of the American Association of Social Workers, Chicago Chapter of theAmerican Association of Social Workers, the American Public Welfare Association, and the School of Social Service Administration.The meeting, which was held duringthe 44th Annual Session of the IllinoisConference of Social Work, was openedby Professor Emeritus Andrew C. McLaughlin who had been one of Grace Abbott's earlier teachers and who introduced Honorable A. W. Bowen ofSpringfield, Director of the IllinoisState Department of Public Welfare, aspresiding officer.The program of the meeting was asfollows : "The Inner Substance of a,Progressive" and address by Dr. Marshall E. Dimock, Assistant Secretary,United States Department of Labor ; Associate Professor of Public Administration, University of Chicago (on leave ofTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 39TEACHERS' AGENCIESAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College department* forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.bsence) ; "The Stranger Within OurQates/' by Mrs. Adena Miller Rich, Di--ector, Immigrants' Protective League;Formerly Head Resident, Hull-House;'¦¦"The Rights of Children," by KatharineLenroot, Chief of the United StatesChildren's Bureau ; "The End of Childlabor" by Anne S. Davis, AssistantDirector, Bureau of Women and Children, Illinois State Department of La-uor-'"A Continuing Influence" by JoelD. ' Hunter, Superintendent, UnitedCharities of Chicago; Formerly ChiefProbation Officer, Cook County JuvenileCourt; "Grace Abbott and Social Pioneering Today," an address by Josephine Roche, Formerly Assistant Secretary of the United States Treasury,Chairman of the United States Interdepartmental Committee on Health.During the early Fall, CharlotteTowle, Associate Professor of Psychiatric Social Work, has spoken at theColorado and Nebraska State Conferences of Social Work.On October 6th, Miss Breckinridgewent to Washington to attend the meeting of the Advisory Committee of theChild Welfare Services Division of theUnited States Children's Bureau.Natalia Green sfielder, AM '31, hasleft her position with the Children's Division of the State Department of Public Welfare to assume the responsibilityof Executive Secretary of the ChicagoChapter of the American Association ofSocial Workers.Cecilia Carey, AM '36, supervisingField Work at the School at the presenttime, is teaching a. course in the Introduction to Social Work to students atRosary College in River Forest.Henry Coe Lanpher, AM '36, andArthur Miles, AM '36, supervisingField Work at the School of PublicWelfare, University of Louisiana, havereturned to the School of Social Service to continue work toward the Doctor's degree.Frank Moncrief, AB '36, has beenmade Acting Director of the Bureau ofResearch and Statistics in the StateDepartment of Public Welfare inKansas.Marie Reese, AM '36, has left theUnited Charities of Chicago and is nowField Work supervisor at the Schoolof Public Welfare, University of Louisiana.Jules Berman, AM '36, has beenappointed to the State staff in the NewYork State Department of Public Welfare in the Syracuse area.Elizabeth Brown, AM '38, has beenniade a Field Representative in the StateDepartment of Public Welfare in Alabama.C. William Chilman, AM '38, hasaccepted a position as Child Welfareworker in the Children's Division in theState Department of Virginia. He willbe located at Roanoke.Esther Immer, AM' 38, has left theDepartment of Public Welfare in NorthDakota to become Supervisor of Child Welfare Services in the Division ofChild Welfare in Iowa.Charles Leopold, AM '38, who hasbeen supervising students at the Schoolin the Child Welfare Field, has accepteda position as Regional Supervisor in theChild Welfare Services of the SocialSecurity Commission of Missouri.Marjorie Rice, AM '38, has been appointed Vocational Counselor in theSan Joaquin County Schools. She willbe located in Stockton, California.D. Katherine Rogers, AM '38, hasleft her position as Social Worker in theState's Attorney's office to become a District Representative in the Old Age Assistance program in the State of Illinois.Florence Stevens, AM '38, has accepted a position in the AssociatedCharities in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.Lucile Bruner, AM '39, has accepteda position in the Department of PublicWelfare in New Orleans.Francis Okita, AM '39, has returnedto his home in Honolulu and will workwith the Y. M. C. A. there.ENGAGEDMargaret Anne Goodman, '35, toHarold A. Shanafield, Chicago. Nodate has been set for the wedding.Marcia Engel to Norman Kay Panama, '36, New York.Margaret Lucius Graver, '37, toHermann Alan Schlesinger, '36, inSeptember, 1939, to be married in November.Anne Malinda Burnham, '38, toJonathan Wrebster Strong, Winnetka,Illinois.Jane Fitzgerald of Winnetka to JohnR. Canright, JD '38 of Highland Park.The wedding will take place at the St.Xavier Church in Wilmette, Illinois onNovember 18.Adeline Roseburg, '37, SM '38, toJack N. Weiland, graduate of ArmourInstitute of Technology.Doris Jennette Sanford of Bridge-water, Connecticut to John CallardJensen, '38, of Chicago and SouthHaven, Michigan.Lavinia Morgan Howells, AM '39,to Dr. Everett Lee Strohl, on September 19, 1939, to be married in earlyApril.Lurene Stubbs to James WilsonButton, '39, Chicago.Arlene Gladys Young, '41, to G.William Skeeles, Chicago, Illinois.Margaret Anne Loomis to JohnBradford Phillips who is now in hissecond year of law school at the University of Chicago. No date has beenset for the wedding.MARRIEDFrances Bell, daughter of LairdBell, JD '07, to Gilbert Hudson Os- CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One FeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY, MO. SPOKANENEW YORKHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 t. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, Normal School,College and University Patronage UNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492UNIFORMSTailored Uniforms Made to MeasureWomen Doctors and Nurses, Stock sizeInterne SuitsANEDA McSWEENY1910 So. Ogden AvenueSEEley 3734 Evenings by AppointmentVENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-276740 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEgood on July 1, 1939, Winnetka, Illinois.John Douglas Scott, '08, to LillianMaudsley on July 16, 1939, Bronxville,N. Y.Mrs. Martha Behrendt Carr, '20,to Einar L. Bjorklund, '30, AM '33,on July 29, 1939, Chicago. They areliving at 5709 Dorchester Ave., Chicago.Helen Louise Price to Lester HarrisBrill, '27, on October 3, 1939, Chicago.Elsie Barbara Byfield, to Harold M.Goldstein, JD '28, on June 25, 1939,Chicago.Fred H. Mandel, '28 JD '29, toRema Berkowitz, on June 11, 1939.They are living at 1547 East Blvd.,Cleveland, Ohio.Grace E. Changstrom, '29, to PaulJean Breslich, '24, MD .'28, on July22, 1939. They are living in theThompson Larson Apartment, Minot,North Dakota.Janet Cunningham, PhB '31, toCastle Freeman, PhB '28, August 12,1939. They are living at 5643 Blackstone Avenue, Chicago.Eleanor Dickson, '31, to HarlowNiles Higinbotham, on September 29,1939, in Hilton Chapel on the Universityof Chicago campus.Irene Martin, '31, to Donald H.Dalton, '31, on September 16, 1939,Chicago.Eleanor R. Bartholomew, PhD '33,to Newton O. Wasson, AM, '27, inSeptember, 1939.Janice Ann Kahnweiller, to Joseph Tobe Zoline, PhB '33, JD '35, onJune 28, 1939, at Edgewater Beach Hotel, Chicago, Illinois.Elizabeth Bliss, '35, to RussellWiles, Jr., '29, on September 16, 1939,in Flossmoor, Illinois.Mary Anne Garlick, '36, to RobertJ. Sugrue, on August 12, 1939. Theyare now at home at 1367 E. 56th Street,Chicago.Marion Oliver, '37, to James Hany,on September 16, 1939, Chicago. TheyTHE OLDEST CAMP IN THE WESTCAMP HIGHLANDSFOR BOYSSAYNER, WISCONSINThree Camps— 8-12: 13-14: 15-17Woodcraft, Athletic and Water Sports,Music, Photography, Scouting, Long CanoeTrips, Riding, Shooting, Shop, Nature Lore,Camping Trips, Unexcelled Equipment,Experienced Staff, Doctor-Nurse.WRITE THE DIRECTOR FOR CATALOGW. J. MONILAW, M. D.1330 East 56th Street, Chicago are at home at 7041 Crandon Avenue,Chicago.Elizabeth F. Poole, '37, to HenryG. Swain, '39, Chicago.Adeline Roseburg, '37, SM '38, toJack N. Weiland, in July, 1939, in Chicago. They are living at 5544 SouthEmerald Avenue, Chicago.Jean E. Hitchens, '38, to Donald W.Anderson on June 25, 1939, Chicago,Illinois. They are at home at 1225 E.44th Place, Chicago.Anne Malinda Burn ham, '39, toJonathan W. Strong, son of Mrs. WalterA. Strong of Winnetka, on October 21,1939.Richard Glen Allen to Mary OliveForney, AM '38, on May 13, 1939,Bloomington, Indiana.Eleaner Shapera, AB '38, to RabbiSidney S. Guthmon, on August 26.Rabbi Guthmon did graduate work atthe University of Chicago in 1933 in thedepartment of philosophy. They arenow residing in Chelsea, Massachusettswhere Rabbi Guthmon is the leader ofthe Congregational Emmanuel Church.Margaret Vail, '38, to Edwin Bir-rell Payne, '37, on June 24, 1939. Theyare now living in Hutchinson, Kansas.Mary Adele Crosby, '39, to JohnGodfrey Morris, '37, on September 13,in the Bond Chapel, University of Chicago.Jerrold Orne, PhD '39 to CatherineL. Bowen, '39, on June 14, 1939. Theyare now at home at 325 Sixth Ave.,S. E., Minneapolis, Minnesota.Virginia Parsons of Birmingham,Alabama to E. Roscoe Jones, '32, onJune 16, 1939. Mr. Jones graduatedfrom the Chicago school of businessadministration and law school. Theyare at home at 7011 S. Merrill Avenue,Chicago.Mary Virginia Rockwell, '34, toGerritt Dangremond, '37, MD '38, onSeptember 9, 1939. They are at homeat Lake Bluff, Illinois.Virginia Grace Raines., to RobertTaylor Kesner, '36, on September 23,1939, New York.Marian Frances Fairweather, '37,to Edward Daniel Benninghoven onSeptember 23, 1939, Barrington, Illinois.Mr. and Mrs. Fairweather are living at7512 Eastlake Terrace, Chicago.BORNTo F. Taylor Gurney, '21, PhD '35,and Mrs. Gurney, a 6^4 pound girl,Margaret Ellen Gurney, September 2,1939, Teheran, Iran.To Arthur Miles, AM '36, andJulia Beatty Miles, AM '39, a daughter,Nancy.To John G. Neukom, '34 and Ruth(nee Horlick) Neukom, '36, a daughter, Barbara Anne, on April 21, 1939.To Edward W. Nicholson, '34, andElizabeth Cason Nicholson, '34 on October 18, 1939 a son, Edward, BatonRouge, La.To Richard D. White, '36, andSara Baumgardner White, '36, 0nAugust 13, 1939 a daughter, GretchenHouston, Texas.RUSH1888H. J. DeFree, MD, of Nappanee, In.diana, retired the first of July, havingbeen health officer for 25 years andmayor for four years. Dr. Defree plansto do some gardening now and fishing.1912John Linson, MD, senior surgeon inthe United States Public Plealth Service,was connected formerly with the UnitedStates Marine Hospital in St. Louis,Missouri. But now Dr. Linson is ChiefQuarantine Officer in Honolulu, T. H.DIEDIrving J. Bleiweiss on August 30,1939, Chicago. Dr. Bleiweiss graduatedfrom South Side Medical in 1933.Lillian Haytin Carr, AM '37, inOctober, 1939.Mrs. Frank Graves Cressey, AB'93, September 8, 1939, at Granville,Ohio.John C. Futrall, '95, University ofArkansas, on September 12, 1939, Fay-etteville, Arkansas.Hemming G. Jensen, PhD '06, June14, 1939, at Bellevue, Washington.Emil H. Koch, '27, on September 15,1939, So. Milwaukee, Wisconsin.James Isherwood, PhB '37, teacher,on June 18, 1939, Chicago, Illinois.Morris A. Mills, LLB T3, on June15, 1939.Pauline Parr, AM '38, in July,1939.Dr. Albert E. Reed, '05, on August30, 1939, Chicago.Dr. Marion D. Shutter, DB '81,pastor of the Church of the Redeemerfor half a century, on August 31, inMinneapolis, Minnesota.Herman J. Stegeman, '15, one timeMaroon athlete, connected with theUniversity of Georgia for 20 years, onOctober 22, 1939, in Athens, Georgia., Reverend Henry W. Stein, retired, minister, on August 28, Chicago, Illi-, nois.Mrs. Newton Wright, AB '99, on1 March 8, 1939, at Carthage, N. Y.> Mrs. James W. Simmons, AB '02,on June 24, 1939.[ Henry Chandler Cowles, professoremeritus of botany at the universitysince 1934, on September 12, 1939 i*1 Chicago. Dr. Cowles joined the Uni-i versity of Chicago faculty in 1898.They Call It "Yankee Ingenuity //THERE ought to be some better way ..."says Bill Merrill. And it bothers him somuch that he has to do something about it.That's the kind of a fellow he is. During his 39years with General Electric he has been finding"better ways"- — and you and I have benefited.That's why, today, he is head of the WorksLaboratory at the G-E Schenectady plant.How have we benefited? Well, for example, bybetter and cheaper paper, because Bill helped inmany ingenious ways to apply electricity topapermaking. During the War, he helped UncleSam out of a hole by showing him how to castanchor chain by the ton instead of forging it alink at a time. His ideas helped us get better refrigerator cabinets, replacing wood with steel,and a brand-new way to eliminate garbage, bythe Disposall, or "electric pig," that macerateskitchen waste and washes it down the sewer."Yankee ingenuity?" Bill hails from Maine!In General Electric there are hundreds of menwho, like Bill Merrill, are developing newproducts, finding ways to improve and make allproducts less expensive. It's these "Bill Merrills,"along with thousands of skilled workers throughout industry, who make it possible for you andme to have more of the things we want andneed — comforts and conveniences unknown a fewyears ago. Bill's slogan, too, is More Goods forMore People at Less Cost.G-E research and engineering have saved the public Jrom ten to one hundred dollarsfor every dollar they have earned for General ElectricGENERAL B ELECTRICit h POLITE TO POINT!. . . 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