^\W^«K—THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINETHE ALUMNI COUNCILOFTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOChairman, JOHN NUVEEN, JR., '18Secretary and Editor, CHARLTON T. BECK, '04The Council for 1938-39 is composed of the following delegates:From the College Association: Josephine T. Allin, '99; Arthur C. Cody, '24; Charles C.Greene, '19, JD'21; Olive Greensfelder, '16; Huntington Henry, '06; Frances HendersonHiggins, '20; J. Kenneth Laird, '25; Frank J. Madden, '20, JD'22; Herbert I. Markham,'05; Robert T. McKinlay, '29, JD'32; Frank McNair, '03; Helen Norris, '07; John Nuveen,Jr., '19; Keith I. Parsons, '33, JD'37; Elizabeth Sayler, '35; Katherine Slaught, '09; CliftonUtley, '26; Helen Wells, '24.From the Doctors of Philosophy Association: Gilbert A. Bliss, '97, PhD'00; Harold F. Gosnell, PhD'22; Robert V. Merrill, PhD'23.From the Divinity Association: Charles L. Calkins, AM'22; Lon R. Call, DB'20; Laird T.Hites, AM'16, DB'17, PhD'25.From the Law School Association: Arnold R. Baar, '12, JD'14; Charles F. McElroy, AM'06,JD'15; Charles P. Schwartz, '08, JD'09.From the Education Association: Harold A. Anderson, '24, AM'26; Paul M. Cook, AM'27;Robert C. Woellner, AM'24.From the School of Business Association: George W. Benjamin, '35; Louise Forsyth, '30; NeilF. Sammons, '17.From the School of Social Service Administration Association: Ruth Strine Bellstrom, '31;Anna Sexton Mitchell, AM'30; Marie Walker Reese, '34, AM'36.From the Rush Medical College Association: C. J. Lundy, '24, MD'27; William A. Thomas,'12, MD'16; R. W. Watkins, MD'25.From the Association of the School of Medicine in the Division of the BiologicalSciences: Sam Banks, '30, MD'35; Sylvia Bensley, MD'30; Alf Haerem, MD'37.From the Chicago Alumnae Club: Julia Ricketts King, '18; Catherine Rawson, '25; BarbaraMiller Simpson, '18.From the Chicago Alumni Club: John William Chapman, '15, JD'17; Wrisley B. Oleson, '18;John J. Schommer, '09.From the University: John F. Moulds, '07.Alumni Associations Represented in the Alumni CouncilThe College Alumni Association: President, John Nuveen, Jr., '19; Secretary, Charlton T.Beck, '04, University of Chicago.Doctors of Philosophy Association: President, Gilbert A. Bliss, '97, PhD'00; Secretary, Harold F. Gosnell, PhD'22, University of Chicago.Divinity School Association : President, Charles L. Calkins, AM'22 ; Secretary, Charles T.Holman, DB'16, University of Chicago.Law School Association: President, Arnold R. Baar, '12, JD'14; Secretary, Charles F. McElroy, AM'06, JD'15, 29 South LaSalle Street, Chicago.School of Education Association : President, Aaron J. Brumbaugh, PhD'29 ; Secretary, Le-nore John, AM'27, 6009 Kimbark Avenue, Chicago.School of Business Association: President, George Benjamin, '35; Secretary, Shirley Davidson, '35, 8232 South Sangamon Street, Chicago.Rush Medical College Association: President, Edward Allen, MD'19; Secretary, Carl O. Rinder, '11, MD'13, 122 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago.School of Social Service Administration Association: President, Roger Cumming, AM'36;Secretary, Kathryn Lain, AM'35, Illinois Children's Home and Aid Society:, 203 North Wabash Avenue, Chicago.Association of the Medical School of the Division of Biological Sciences: President, Carter Goodpasture, MD'37; Secretary, Gail Dack, '27, MD'33, University of Chicago.All communications should be sent to the Secretary of the proper Association or to the Alumni Council,Faculty Exchange, University of Chicago. The dues for membership in any one of the Associations namedabove, including subscription to The University of Chicago Magazine, are $2.00 per year. A holderof more Degrees from the University of Chicago may be a member of more than one Association ; in suchinstances the dues are divided and shared equally by the Associations involved.THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILREUBEN FRODIN, '33Associate EditorCHARLTON T. BECK, '04Editor and Business ManagerFRED B. MILLETT, PHD '31; WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD '22; DON MORRIS, '36Contributing EditorsN THIS ISSUETHE Cover: A portrait of 6,791 -feet high in the Davis moun- The 1939 Reunion Program, withHarry Augustus Bigelow, re- tains, is 40 miles from a railroad and a bigger and better Alumni School,tiring Dean of the University's 16 miles from a town, Fort Davis, starts an page 19. Besides the "side-Law School, taken for the Magazine The dedicatory celebration was well- shows" of the medicos and the theolo-by Joseph Schwab. Mr. Bigelow has attended by alumni-astronomers and gians, the lawyers are staging a two-been on the law faculty for 35 years an alumnus-president. day conference on public law, withand Dean for ten. Although retiring # Assistant Attorney General Thurmanfrom administrative duties, he will Arnold and Labor Board Chairmancontinue to teach. See News of the Maude Taylor Sarvis, '10, author j Warren Madden as headliners.Quadrangles. o£ the fourth prize-winning article in Warren Madden, JD'14, is coming# the Magazine's recent manuscript from Washington for the Silver An-contest, writes from Delaware, O., niversary of the Class of '14.A year ago this month in the that the prize money went to Chris-Magazine Reuben Frodin, '33, dis- tine, whom she tells about in her •cussed the role of professorial experts story. Christine and her family Although Ray Schaeffer '06 is ad-in public service activities, the so- failed to make a go of sharecropping vertising manager for Marshall Fieldcalled "professors in politics This and arrived m Delaware on the cold- & ^ it isn>t ^ usual thing for tfaeyear he is back with an article on the est night of February, Mrs. Sarvis rjniversity to creep into Fidd ads>place of lawyers in our .democratic writes. They are now located on an Recentiv however Field's "house"society, and the role which legal edu- Ohio farm, with things looking up. columnist, Caleb, reported that "thecation should play. He has in mind,_____ stateliness of the University of Chief course, the stimulating new cur- cag0 campus ig not tQ be surpassednculum of the Law School mtro- TABLE of CONTENTS anywhere on this continent." Weduced by Dean Bigelow m 1937. agree> but we can>t sancdon Caleb>sIhe author of Laws, Lawyers and •Page reference t0 the «13th Century"Society, by the way, will take over Letters 2 Rockefeller Memorial Chapel. Ifthe duties of Associate Editor of the BooKS 3 0Uf memory serves us that far back>Magazine, replacing Howard Hud- Law^ Lawyers and society, Reuben the Chapel was finished in 1929.son, '35, who is taking on other ad- Frodin 5ministrative duties. The new editor Chicago Looks to the Stars 8 •is a onetime editor of the Daily AnyWay, Circuses, Maude Taylor Ao o fi « .„ u. ., « __f^Maroon, a staff writer for the Asso- Sarvis . . n As a final note, let t be reporteddated Press and a contributing editor Jobs for the Millions, David C. Le- , , X,S' ^tellT^ P^P*011'of Time ™* 13 mother of A™ur H., Karl, Wilson* News of the Quadrangles, William an<* MaiT Compton, has been hon-V. Morgenstern 15 ored as "America's Mother of 1939."The story of the opening of the Who's Who in Who's Who, Roy We suspect (with pride) that theMcDonald Observatory comes to the Temple House 17 article of Milton Mayer, '29, MotherMagazine from the old U-Up and 1^39 Reunion Program 19 of Comptons, which appeared in theDown Ranch— -the 200-acre site of Tn My Opinion, Fred B. Millett 22 November issue of the Magazine, had&e new observatory atop Mount Athletics, Don Morris 23 something to do with it. Yes, theLocke in western Texas. Mt. Locke, news of the Classes 27 article was also in Reader's Digest.Published by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from October to June. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. atEllis Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Officeat Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agencyof the University of Chicago Magazine.2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE0>k yduA.%fa7ti*CALIFORNIA'S GOLDENGATE EXPOSITION LETTERSYOSEMITE...one of the World's MostSpectacular Scenic WondersA pageant of the centuries . . . tremendousglacier-hewn cliffs and domes ... thunder-ing waterfalls ... the Mariposa Grove ofBig Trees, earth's largest and oldest livingthings. Easily the most amazing of California's travel experiences. Any travel orticket agent will tell you how easily Yose-mite can be included on your trip to theGolden Gate Exposition this summer. Forfolders, write Yosemite Park and CurryCo., Yosemite National Park, California. WAIKAIKI REPORTSTo the Editor:That sketch of Freddy Starr in theMarch issue of the University of Chicago Magazine was a corker. I couldhave added a few elaborations — in including the delightful (in recollection)two minutes he gave me after the Blackfriars' show in which George McHenryhad sung the song about the hairyAinus.There has been some bully stuff inthe Magazine lately.Riley H. Allen, '04.Honolulu Star-Bulletin,Honolulu, Hawaii.(The Ainus are survivors of a remote branch of the Caucasian race, indigenous to Japan. Professor Starrbrought a group of them to the St.Louis World's Fair of 1904 as part ofthe anthropological exhibit. — Ed.)A PROVOCATIVE LETTERTo the Editor:The prize essay of Thaddeus Allenin the April number of the Magazinewas certainly an interesting andthought provoking contribution. But,ought it not be answered in some way ?It surely does not represent the sentiments of the alumni body of an institution which made so creditable a showing in the World War. Surely weare not an unpatriotic body who areashamed of our country to the extentthat we are incapable of saying anything appropriate on Memorial Day !I enclose a copy of the letter whichI am sending to Mr. Allen. Probablysome social scientist who is more expert in these matters than I will sendyou a better reply than mine. But Ido hope that you will not allow soobnoxious an essay as this to remainunanswered.William K. Wright, '99 PhD '06.Dartmouth College,Hanover, N. H.(Enclosure, in part)Dear Fellow Alumnus :Your prize essay published in theApril number of The University ofChicago Magazine is certainly interesting and thought provoking. Sincethere was nothing comforting or constructive that you felt you could sayin a Memorial Day address you were,of course, right in declining the invitation.Your attitude is probably a commonone today, especially among Christian ministers. I quite understand it, andindeed held a similar view for a fewyears. ...It is true that the entrance of theUnited States into the World War didnot accomplish so much as the moreenthusiastic expected in 1917. But because it did not bring in the millenium,make the world entirely safe for democracy, and end altogether the prospectof future wars, does not mean that itaccomplished nothing at all, and thatour boys fought in France in vain.American intervention in the war prevented the German victory which wouldotherwise have occurred. A Germanvictory at that time would have madethe war immensely profitable for Germany; it would have resulted in anenormous expansion of German territory, and increase in national wealth;the defeated countries would have beencompelled to pay all the financial costsof Germany in the war; it would havebeen demonstrated that even a fouryears war pays a "have not" countryif it wins in the end. No pacifist couldnow claim that a successful war isunprofitable to the victors. American participation saved Britain andFrance, and kept democracy at leastalive in Europe. It brought nationalindependence (although not immediatedemocracy in all cases) to many countries in central Europe which could nototherwise have obtained it. . . .It seems to me that there never hasbeen a war, or any less violent socialor national controversy, in which themerit was all on one side and the evilall on the other, in which a man couldally himself with unsullied white againstunmitigated black. It has always beena choice between a lighter and a darkershade of gray ! To make the world alittle lighter in shade is all that thebest of men in the worthiest reformhave ever been able to do. But eventhis much calls for and deserves thegreatest of sacrifices. . . .I congratulate you upon your excellent essay, but urge you to think further upon the subject.Cordially yours,William K. Wright.SUGGESTION SECONDEDTo the Editor :I enjoyed the results of the twomanuscript contests which the Magazinehas conducted. I thought the first andsecond winners this year — by VanMeter Ames and Helen Cody Baker-rwere very clever. I'd like to see mat*articles from alumni of note who couldcontribute constructive material fr°ffltheir field— Ralph Works Chaney, Gertrude Emerson Sen, Florence RichardsAtwater, to name a few.Lydia Lee Pearce, '14.Chicago.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 3BOOKSThe Democratic Way of Life (Revised Edition). By T. V. Smith, PhD'22. Chicago: University of ChicagoPress, 1939. $2.50.First published in 1926, The Democratic Way of Life, now in a new edition, serves strikingly to emphasize thecourse of events since the middle twenties and the author's adherence to aposition first stated at that time. Thenew edition is specially distinguished bya new preface, sketching the course ofthe author's personal development, anda new chapter, "Democratic Discipline."Lovers of a supposed classical precision will be critical of this work. Theysee in the Greeks the beginning of theordered structure of the schoolmen ; andthey are not disturbed when a four-termsyllogism (proving the "immortality"of the soul) appears as an essential partof the structure's foundation. Some ofthem say that people like Mr. Smith aretoo vague to be called philosophers.If the reviewer is forced to choosebetween such a distortion of the Greeksand philosophy on one side, and Mr.Smith on the other, he will regretfully,recognizing the contribution which thegreat tradition enthusiasts are making,choose Mr. Smith. The modern worldmakes its own contribution and has itsown life. Part of the contribution andthe life is a scheme of democracy builton elusive but powerful notions of liberty, equality and fraternity. Of these,fraternity, as Mr. Smith observes, maywell be the first. In three telling chapters, Mr. Smith explores the implications of fraternity, and particularly its52 Vat*****-!**»¥TITH A SCHULT Trailers' nave a vacation every T' 3. have % vacation every weak andtie year. You can go when the flsh-^to I hunting ia beat— and always.Schult preaenta ten new 1989 modelsEwngBoeh feature* as aireondMon-JJ- electric refrigeration, showers,JE?1? generator!, etc. Larger inte-SSi 'nsalated for maTJmnm comfort.X™«y-produetion, low prices.Three-5» warranty. See the new models at"<» dealer's or write for Free Catalog. TEMPERATURECONTROLThis big comfort 'controlled iiusid.Umptratur. inalt matter. Seedemonstration.FOR FREECATALOG' implications with respect to liberty andequality. These three words, full ofpoetry, have also an intellectual content.The chapter on Democracy and theDay's Work, deals with the problem ofsignificance in routine, particularly theindustrial routine of which CharlieChaplin furnished us a comic sketch afew years ago. Mr. Smith properly doesnot pretend to have a complete solution.In this specifically "economic" chapter,one might have expected a more incisive treatment of the pursuit of gain,and the relationship of interdependencewhich many see between private capitalism and democracy. The following chapter on Democratic Leadership makes thesound point that we have more "leaders" than we realize; and that we mustlook in government laboratories and atbureau desks, as well as to the headlines,if we wish to find them.The final, new chapter, on Democratic Discipline, deals with relatedmatters. Its main theme is that, likethe artist and the scientist, the man ofaffairs has his own principle of discipline. This principle requires a man ofaffairs to know, and admit it, when heis talking about matters which he couldnot "prove" as scientists prove facts.The principle, while perhaps Utopian,is important; and if it were accepted itwould avoid much waste, in the academic world as well as elsewhere.Malcolm P. Sharp. "*** 38 day cntha lcB A R B ADOSRIO • SANTOSMONTEVIDEOBUENOS AIRESTRINIDAD33,000-Ton Luxury LinersS. S. BRAZILS. S. URUGUAYS. S. ARGENTINAAmerican Republics LineGood Neighbor FleetFortnightly SailingsRATES: $410. TOURIST$480. FIRST CLASSConsult your Trlvl Agtnt orMOORE-McCORMACK LINES,lnc.5 Broadway New YorkB ecause we know only shoes • • •If you can't tome in, writefor date of Frank BrothersExhibition in Your CitySCHULT TRAILERS Black or Brown Calf, »127SNot being diverted by hats or shirts, ties or pajamas . . . concentrating as we do on shoes — the finest ... we have finally succeededin producing a Frank Brothers shoe ... on a new British-type lastwhich we call the Charing Cross ... to sell at $12.75. As always, with the Frank Brothers style built in — not added on.FIFTH AVENUE • 47th-48th Streets • NEW YORK225 OLIVER AVENUE— PITTSBURGH. PA. • 112 WEST ADAMS STREET. FIELD BUILDING— CHICAGO, litAllan Nevins, Columbia University's distinguished historian, was on theQuadrangles for a lecture on "John D. Rockefeller and the Founding of theUniversity of Chicago." He is writing a biography of the University's founder. Wilber Griffith Katz, Professor of Law at the University since 1930, wilceed Harry Augustus Bigelow as Dean of the Law School on July INews on the Quadrangles). His field is corporate finance.ON AND OFF THE MIDWAYPaul Hoffman, '12, looks pleased as punch as he surveys the new StudebakerChampion, which he, as president of the corporation, is pitting against the Chevrolet, Ford and Plymouth in the competitive low-priced automobile MMr. Hoffman is one of the alumnus-trustees of the University.VOLUME XXXI THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 8MAY. 1939LAW, LAWYERS AND SOCIETY• By REUBEN FRODIN, '33TWO hundred years have passed since JonathanSwift wrote one of the most sustained pieces ofirony in English prose. It was entitled "A Modest Proposal for preventing the Children of Poor Peoplefrom being a Burthen to their Parents, or the Country,and for making them Beneficial to the Publick." Carrying every sophistical criticism of the administration ofpoor relief in Ireland to an extreme, Swift suggestedthat stewed, baked, roasted and boiled poor childrenmake a delicious, nourishing and wholesome food. Heconcluded with the suggestion that "those Politicianswho dislike my Overture . . . may perhaps be so boldto attempt an Answer/'In numerous periodicals during the past several yearscritics of the law, lawyers and of our society liave contributed articles, any of which might have been called"An Unmodest Proposal for preventing the Members ofthe Legal Profession from being a Burthen to their Fellow Men, or the Country, and for making them Beneficial to the Publick." Among the pundits of the lawmenis Ferdinand Lundberg, author of America's SixtyFamilies, who uses as his central theme the accusationthat lawyers belong to an autonomous, self-aggrandizinginterest group which is exclusively occupied with detailsof predatory fraud.*I take issue with Mr. Lundberg and the critics whosepatter is the same, not because I believe nothing of whatthey say, but because I dislike attempts to blame thelegal profession for so many of the ills of contemporarysociety without stopping to examine the society and thekind of people in it. And if I seem bold for attemptingan answer, it is because I believe something can be doneto arrive at a better understanding of the nature andpurpose of the democratic society in which not onlylawyers, but all their fellow men, live. Mr. Lundberg,for instance, attacks the legal profession; he demands aninvestigation. Benefits may result from one or both.Jonathan Swift's Irish tracts, although the author's conclusions were frequently drawn from false premises andhis arguments exaggerated, often had prodigious success. His "Modest Proposal, &c," it scarcely need beadded, was better rhetoric than argument. And so before the "investigation" proceeds, it seems pertinent toask what should be investigated.*Mr. Lundberg's articles about the law appeared in Harper's Magazine(December 1938 and April 1939). An investigation of the incomes aiid trade practices ofWall Street lawmen doing corporate reorganization workwould scarcely rectify the ills of society which Mr. Lundberg complains of. William O. Douglas has alreadydone this in five extensive reports submitted to Congressin 1936 and 1937. How about other lawyers' income?Last summer a committee of the American Bar Association headed by Lloyd Garrison published a 230-pagestudy of the economics of the legal profession, quotingstatistics showing 35% of the lawyers in New YorkCounty and 47% of the lawyers in Milwaukee earnedless than $3,000 per year during a five-year period before 1932. And in 1933 one-third of the New York andhalf the Milwaukee lawyers earned less than $2,000.But these are not the kinds of investigations Mr.Lundberg and other critics want. What Mr. Lundbergis asking for in his writings — and I use him as an example because lawyers, law professors and law studentseverywhere are discussing his bold charges — is an investigation of the philosophies or "notions" under whichlawyers operate. A good starting place would be a consideration of more definitive meanings of some of thewords and word phrases used in his attack on lawyers.The distinction between justice and law is an importantexample. Law is, of course, just one mechanism of justice. Others are education, propaganda, and investigations by government. Mr. Lundberg is unwilling to admit that there are changes — many of them fundamental— going on in the law every day. He is reluctant to admit the necessity for concepts in the law, and for a language of the law. He does not seem to understand that themore complex our society grows the more we need mentrained in all the social sciences who can interpret andadminister laws. Perhaps these men are not the lawyersof today. Who are they?In other words, the problems arising out of the position of any professional or public service group are theproblems of society and these bring into sharp reliefthe need for a more-perfectly-educated citizenry. Theneed for better educated lawyers is obvious, but no moreobvious than the need for more better-educated doctors,welfare workers and journalists.IIPart of the confusion which is manifest in Mr. Lundberg's position has been mentioned — his inability todistinguish between justice and law. Furthermore, he6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEseems unwilling to concede that the moral virtues of thelawyers do not exceed the standard of moral virtues ofthe society in which they work— the society which accepted a Samuel Insull as a prophet of a new era. Moralvirtues are individual habits of acting rightly, and justice is the habit of acting rightly in society. And so it istruly disturbing when Mr. Lundberg says that "a largeand influential section of the bar is constantly devotingits skill and professional immunity from external restraint to forwarding extremely dubious and socially disruptive schemes." It sounds like the view expressed bythe sophist Thrasymachus in Plato's Republic that justice is the interest of the stronger in any society. If weare to agree with the fascists that man's future hingeson state enterprise alone, it is an easy step to prophesythe extinction of democratic societies. And if we havenothing better to offer in opposition to the power gangthan an irrational wish for "kindly, humanitarian andtolerant" people (as hoped for by Thurman Arnold),we might as well prepare the storm cellars now. But Ishould not accuse Mr. Lundberg of accepting the powerpsychology of Thrasymachus and the fascists, for Mr.Lundberg is no fascist. But, for example, we must recognizes that when South Chicago police shoot workers inthe back at Republic Steel, it is not justice, nor is it law.It is power.To offer opposition to the "extremely dubious andsocially disruptive schemes" of the power gangs in theworld, democracies call on the reason and free will whichmake them democracies. The goal is justice and thecommon good. And, if one is unwilling to accept thephilosophy which drives Mr. Lundberg to accuse lawyersof leading the "simple and artless personalities" of business into a power gang, one must subscribe to some idealsof justice through law. The position must be taken thatjustice consists of all the moral virtues in the social aspect; and' that man cannot be wise unless he is good.Mr. Lundberg says that law is "the formal incorporation of ethical principles (often contradictory and sometimes cancelling each other) into the political structure."Beyond the common and statutory law, he continues,"there lies a vast juridically unsanctified ethical realmin the violation of whose precepts there is nothingillegal." Mr. Lundberg doubts if any large section of thelegal profession is concerned during working hours with"this domain of unofficial moral law." His doubts arejust doubts. No canon of the American Bar Association is going to instill the moral virtues in a lawyer. Nocanon of the American Society of Newspaper Editorssuch as the one which says that "by every consideration of good faith a newspaper is constrained to be truthful" is going to prevent the Chicago Tribune or a Hearstpaper from calling President Roosevelt a communist. Norule of the New York Stock Exchange is going to prevent its board of governors from voting 27-to-l not todo anything about the Richard Whitney affair.What is law, and what is the job of the lawyer? Lawis a set of political determinations of the principle ofjustice with respect to the social and economic relationsof men at a given time and place. Law is the work ofpractical reason in the regulation of social conduct. Justice, as has been pointed out, is the habit of acting rightlyin society— illustrated by such diverse acts as the sign ing of a labor agreement by the United States SteelCorporation at a critical period in 1937; the citizens ofLos Angeles successfully recalling Mayor Shawlast year; and very recently, the concerted action ofthe Catholic population of the German city of Stuttgartin preventing Nazi storm troopers from running the Jewsout of town. Laws are directed toward the achievementof ideals of justice. The fact that justice is not achieveddoes not, as Mr. Lundberg seems to suggest, invalidatethe ideal. Justice in a social organization means peaceand order, and an equitable distribution of economicgoods. And I do not think Mr. Lundberg would disagree about acting rightly in society, for he is a keencritic of our society. Where Mr. Lundberg and I disagree is in making the lawyers the villians in the piecejust because they are practioners of the law, which hassomething to do with justice — which, it seems, we havenot completely achieved in the society in which we live.IllAristotle said in the Ethics that law has two aspects,the natural, from which point of view we see that lawhas its basis in justice, and the conventional. Rules oflaw are conventional to the extent that they consider particular conditions, and attempt to devise just politicalmeans to meet them. The courts apply rules of law toparticular cases and the legal profession is the professionthrough which conventional law is evoked and justicedone. Mr. Lundberg evidently would agree, for he saysthat "lawyers do unquestionably engage in constructivework." This was in answer to his proposition that "somereaders may have gained the impression . . . that it isbeing argued that lawyers do not do any constructivework or that they are incapable of it." Mr. Lundbergsupports the growing demand for "legal service bureaus"which will give inexpensive legal service to membersof the low income group. Mr. Justice Stone has spokenwith approval of the effort to start such a bureau inChicago. Other bar groups are active, and it is widelyhoped that bar associations all over the country willestablish such bureaus where they are most needed.But, through practically all of Mr. Lundberg's argument there seems to be the assumption that the legal profession could be swept away without loss and without asubstitute group's springing up. As Mr. Lundberg knows,for he is no anarchist, countries are not run withoutlaws. So, when things are not as they ought to be, whynot go after the lawyers? "The often cited 'lack of confidence' in business," Mr. Lundberg says, "turns outto be ... a lack of confidence wherein it is closely associated with the legal profession. It could hardly beargued, certainly, that any wide section of the Americanpublic has turned against the business system." This, Isubmit, is cock-eyed logic. If Mr. Lundberg's argument is a good one, it might also be said that lack ofconfidence in constitutional government follows becausethe legal profession was closely associated in drawingup the Constitution. In the Soviet Union, where therewas a turning against the business system, there aremore lawyers today than there ever were under theCzar and each year more than 2,800 new students enterTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7law schools. If this proves anything, it proves that ittakes lawyers under any kind of a system.Mr. Lundberg, in fact, does not deny this. "Caughtin the meshes of the lawmen's state," he says, "all otherindividuals and groups must needs, when collaboratingwith the state, carry on the collaboration through theinstrumentality of lawyers, who alone are familiar withthe vagaries and intricacies of the law." When you haveeliminated such emotional words as "meshes," "intricacies" and "vagaries," it is not difficult to see what Mr.Lundberg is saying is that to do business under a constitutional government it is necessary to employ lawyers,rather than electrical engineers. But then Mr. Lundbergcannot resist the remark that one consults a lawyer notout of fear of an opposing private party, but out of fearof an opposing lawyer. This is something like saying thatthe New York Herald-Tribune uses cartoons to lampoonthe Roosevelt administration because it knows that theNew York News will use cartoons to praise the NewDeal. As a matter of fact, a "survey" of the twelve-year-old minds which radio advertisers use to judge programswould reveal that there is more fear of the dentist thanthere is of the lawyer. What Mr. Lundberg means isthat the citizen, young or old, has a wholesome fear ofthe law. It is in the mores of our society to dislikepolicemen, and one fears the law's hand whether one isspeeding through Westport, Connecticut, or making winein the cellar during Prohibition.It seems strange for the author of America's SixtyFamilies to refer to our industrial and financial barons as"simple and artless personalities" when they are withoutlawyers.. Lawyers with all the moral virtues in the worlddo not change men like Samuel Insull of Chicago, TomGirdler of South Chicago, Herbert Fleishhacker of SanFrancisco, and Richard Whitney of Ossining, New York.I agree with Mr. Lundberg if all he wants to say is thatlawyers can execute a scheme for a bad purpose, but healso says that most deeds and misdeeds of industrial andfinancial barons are "mere projections of lawyers'schemes." It seems pertinent to ask: Which came first,the crooked client or the crooked lawyer? And lawyerscan be and are convicted as accessories or accomplicesof criminals. But, more importantly, I think the entireargument about the part lawyers play in business affairsis begging the point. A man's moral virtues must support the intellectual virtues. Law can be used for evilpurposes, it is not to be denied. So can science. Theideal of the legal profession is to do justice. To do justice men must be good and wise, but no student in alaw school today thinks that none but good and wise menis in his chosen profession.Mr. Lundberg, in attempting to smear the lawyers because he would like to see improvement in the legal profession,,, gets caught in the inconsistencies of his argument. The following is given as an example of what happened when a lawyer received no censure for advising aclient how to reduce his taxes : "The taxpayer was puton trial for tax evasion, and was acquitted. The lawyerhad been, as far as criminal law was concerned, quitecorrect in devising a special way of reducing tax liability.The taxpayer, however, endured sharp criticism . . . and^st his dominating position." Twenty paragraphs latera lawyer's conduct in a divorce case is described thus :"Notwithstanding the fantastic nature of the legal com plaint, which the lawyers press with utmost seriousness,the respondent is usually accepted back into his or hersocial sphere without any difficulty." Such cases areperhaps frequent. When they are placed together the situation sounds like the conventional conception of Sovietjustice : Withholding money from the State is a criminaloffense while adultery is just fun. When one stops tothink of the situations illustrated, the author's argumentloses force. Rightly or wrongly, everyone tries to payas few taxes as possible. Even when the mayor of Chicago has to pay a whopping sum to the government fortax evasion that does not stop him from being mayor,does it ? If Mr. Lundberg is simply saying that lawyers,in making an argument, exaggerate, let him be remindedthat all who argue exaggerate. And as for the "fantasticnature of the legal complaint" in a divorce case, it is wellto remember that religious scruples against divorce havedictated the law, which in many jurisdictions, means thatadultery has to be charged. A more amusing illustrationof legal fiction in a divorce case than Mr. Lundberg's willbe found in the case of Simpson v. Simpson which occupied England and the world in October, 1936.IV"One can hardly expect lawyers," says Mr. Lundberg,"dealing with carefully abstracted particularities, knowing generality only in terms of medieval logic, to see theforest when so many seductive trees stand all about."First, it is perhaps well to remember that the science oflogic received its finest exposition in the fourth centuryB. C. But, as Mr. Justice Holmes has pointed out, "Thelife of the law has not been logic, it has been experience "What Mr. Lundberg seems unwilling to accept in hisargument is the necessity for legal concepts. The lawembodies the story of a society's development throughmany centuries, and in order to know what the lawis, we must know what it has been and what it tends tobecome. The substance of the law at any given time prettynearly corresponds, as far as it goes, with what is understood to be convenient and workable. Its form and machinery depend very much on its past. Speaking of thesubstance of the law, Mr. Lundberg asserts that it is"amazing" how many advances in psychology, sociology,history and the other social sciences have been "ignored"by the law. But it is not true, as he says, that the law is"shot through with falsity." Any system which seeks toregulate the conduct of society consistently is naturallycumbersome. Resistance to change, like fear of policemen,is a characteristic of American life. Changes do come inthe law, almost every time a decision is handed down.As an example one might cite the case of Erie RailroadCo. v. Tompkins, decided last April by the SupremeCourt. Mr. Justice Brandeis' opinion received no screaming headlines just because the case had to do with theforest of the administration of justice, and not with theseductive trees of New Deal legislation. In the Erie casethe court overruled the hundred-year-old doctrine of Swiftv. Tyson, a decision which held that state interpretationsof the common law were not binding upon federal courts.According to historical researches which Mr. JusticeBrandeis quoted in his opinion, no decision of the Supreme Court gave rise to more uncertainty as to legal{Continued on Page 25)CHICAGO LOOKS TO THE STARS;If We Cannot Excel in Size/ We Must Excel in EfficiencyITH eminent astronomers of six nations participating, the new McDonald Observatory inthe Davis mountains of western Texas wasdedicated on May 5 to the continuing tasks of the mostancient of the sciences. Just seven years had passedsince President Robert M. Hutchins called the lateHenry Y. Benedict, president of the University of Texas,on the telephone to sound out the possibility of a jointenterprise in education and science — the staffing by Chicago and a new astronomical observatory to be built byTexas. The deal was completed and this month Chicago astronomers had available for research the secondlargest reflecting telescope in the world.The dedication of the telescope — with its 82-inchmirror — was dedicated by its joint sponsors as the highlight of a seven-day meeting of the Southwestern sectionof the American Association for the Advancement ofScience. Joining in the dedicatory ceremonies and participating in the symposium on "Galactic and Extra-Galactic Structure" were Dr. Joaquin Gallo of the National Observatory of Mexico; Dr. J. S. Plaskett ofDominion Astrophysical Observatory, Canada ; Dr, J. H.Oort of Leiden Observatory, Holland ; Dr. E. A. Milneof Oxford University, England; Dr. Bertil Lindblad ofStockholm University, Sweden, and a score of the mostdistinguished astronomers of the United States. TheUniversity was represented by Dean Henry GordonGale, '96, PhD'99 and Professor Arthur Holly Comptonin addition to its distinguished astronomy department.The astronomers and some 300 physical and socialscientists of the Southwest inspected the McDonald plantfrom the outskirts of its village of stone residences forstaff members to the top of the 71 -foot aluminum domeatop 6, 791 -foot Mount Locke. They learned that thegiant telescope has a larger range of sky than any otherpreviously built, since it will permit observation of theentire heavens except for a circle of about 30 degreesaround the South pole. (The diagram on page 10 showTshow the telescope operates.)One million times more powerful than the naked eye,it can photograph an object 2,400,000,000,000,000,000,000miles distant. Accurate to one millionth of an inch, themost perfect mirror ever built is made of pyrex glass,an innovation in the manufacture of telescope reflectorswhich is valuable in that it resists the slight distortionfrom heat common to other mirrors.Constructed by the University of Texas' $800,000McDonald Fund, gift of the late William Johnson McDonald, Paris, Texas, banker, the observatory is staffedby Chicago. Members of the permanent staff of theUniversity's Yerkes Observatory will spend part of theirtime at Mount Locke.The telescope was tendered to Professor Otto Struve,PhD'23, Director of Yerkes and McDonald Observatories, by C. J. Stilwell, vice president of Warner andSwasey Company of Cleveland, manufacturers of the observatory equipment. In accepting the plant in theinterests of science, Dr. Struve told of some of theproblems of manufacturing the 82-inch mirror and otherequipment, and described McDonald's task."The purpose of this observatory, in the words of theman whose name it bears, is 'the study and promotionof the study of astronomical science/ " Dr. Struve said."To promote the study of astronomical science meansto discover the fundamental laws of nature which governthe structure of the material universe and the changeswithin it. It means that astronomers must not be passive observers of strange and unexplained phenomena inthe cosmos but must be active and intelligent explorersof the vast unknown."The telescope was not intended to be just one moreexpensive g'adget to be discarded, ultimately, in thegraveyard of scientific instruments. It was to produceanswers to a number of specific questions. If it succeedsin this task it will have served its purpose. If it doesnot succeed, we shall be obliged to regard it as an expensive failure."There is a story connected with the first attempt toanneal the great mirror disk, after it had been successfully cast at the Corning Glass Works on the last dayof 1933. The glass was slightly checked in severalplaces when the annealing oven was removed severalmonths later, and the Corning experts, immediately offered to melt the glass and to anneal it a second time.During this process of melting the liquid glass pressedagainst the firebricks, of which the mold was constructed,and pushed them slightly apart — with the result that wefinally got a disk of 82^4 inches instead of the contracteddisk of 80 inches ! I do not guarantee the absolute correctness of this story, but we did get, by some stretching,an 82 y2 inch disk"Unfortunately, this is all the stretching our mirror,or for that matter, the truth, will stand. The 82-inch isnot a particularly large mirror, and some of our goodfriends are wasting their time in trying to prove that itwill be just as powerful or just as efficient or, anyway,just as good as the Mount Wilson 100-inch. It will benothing of the sort — as simple geometrical considerationswill convince you. I wish we could do some more'stretching/ but not even an expert in relativity couldstretch the 82-inch mirror to measure 100 inches or tomake the half-million dollars available for this projectpay for a two-million dollar telescope."If we cannot excel in size we must excel in efficiency.Aperture is important ; for some problems it is all-important. These problems are not within the scope ofour observatory. We shall not attempt to extend thegeometrical boundaries of the universe of galaxies; thistask is taken care of by Dr. Edwin Hubble ['w,PhD' 17] at Mount Wilson. Nor shall we attempt tophotograph stars within our own galaxy which arefainter than anv hitherto recorded. Dr. Walter Baade8, A GALA TEXAS OUTING INAUGURATES THE McDONALD OBSERVATORY*4% 'e'' — The new observatory perched atop 6,800-foot Mount Locke; Upper right — Part of the crowd waits for a chuck wagon lunch; Middle left — C. J. Stillwell of Warm"thi t,ey ^°"> builders °' tne Observatory, and Director Otto Struve on the "speakers' platform"; Middle — President Homer P. Rainey of Texas; Middle right — ProfessoUr H. Compton and Mr. Stillwell at lunch; Lower left — Astronomers Henry Russell of Princeton, J. S. Plaskett of Victoria, B. C., Otto Struve of Chicago, HarloiShapley of Harvard, and President Rainey in front of the Observatory; Lower right — The 82-inch reflecting telescope. Photos by Payne,10 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEco*jchit runs rtwooucm suiloimcTO StO BOCKS ruci Mohthlis engaged in this type ofwork with the 100-inch."What we propose todo is to study intensivelythe relatively bright starsof our galaxy — as individuals and not as statisticalmaterial. We want toknow why it is that allmatter in the world is segregated essentially in twoforms: stars and nebulae.Why are there no starswhich exceed in mass afew hundred times themass of the sun? Why isit that nearly all starsand nebulae consist of thesame chemical elements inroughly the same relativeproportions as we findthem in the sun? Whereand how do the stars generate their stupendous energies of light and heat,and what is the ultimatefate of their radiation?"To answer these andmany other similar questions we have made thistelescope as efficient andpowerful as we know how— for studying the spectraand the brightnesses ofthe stars and nebulae. We decided to make the telescope relatively short — only 27 feet in focus — so thatthe images of the stars would be small, even when theair outside is not quiescent. We even built a specialspectograph for the prime focus which effectively converts the telescope from an f/4 instrument to an f/2instrument. We did this at a sacrifice in limiting faint-ness of the stars we can observe because we wanted tophotograph rapidly hundreds of stars on one plate, instead of spending hours on every single object. Wemust not forget that there are a billion stars or more,which have never been looked at and which this telescope will analyze and classify."We wanted to get a mirror which would be perfectlyfree of all distortion when used visually or photographically. Corning supplied us with a Pyrex disk whichchanges little with temperature, and C. A. R. Lundinhas put on it a figure so close to the true mathematicalideal that our experts assure us we have the finest astronomical mirror ever made."The spectrographic requirements have been constantlyin the foreground during the design of the telescope.That we have succeeded in our aim is amply demonstrated by the work of my colleague, Professor G. P.Kuiper, during the past six weeks. He has secured some400 spectrograms of stars never before examined byany astronomer, and has added several brilliant discoveries to the list of his former achievements. SHUTTERS ROLL OUT O* WAVTO PlRMITOaURVATIONlTRUCK ON WHICH[MUTIflf .OILA "WORKING" DIAGRAM OF McDONALD OBSERVATORY"We are indebted to many friends and scientific colleagues for assistance in this project. Perhaps one ofthe most important features of the 82-inch is the Coudearrangement for photographing stellar spectra with largeprisms or gratings. I need not tell you that this ideawas first developed successfully by Dr. Walter Adams[AM'OO] at Mount Wilson. We owe another important idea to Dr. Heber Curtis of Michigan. It was athis enthusiastic insistence that the prime focus and notthe Newtonian focus should be used that we scrappedsome of our plans — already partly executed — and builta large camera for the prime focus. The telescope driveoriginated at the McMath Observatory, and to Robert R.McMath and his collaborators we are deeply indebtedfor the great help which they gave us when we weredesigning our drive. My colleagues assure me that thisdrive is practically perfect."It would take too long to even briefly mention allthose who have contributed to the success of the McDonald Observatory. Many of them are here today.'"One hundred years ago — in 1839 — two of the world'sgreatest observatories were opened for research: theHarvard Observatory at Cambridge, Massachusetts, andthe Pulkovo Observatory near Leningrad (then SaintPetersburg), Russia. We are fortunate in having withus here the distinguished director of the Harvard Observatory, Dr. Harlow Shapley. The director of the(Continued on Page 18)ANYWAY, CIRCUSESFourth Prize in Manuscript ContestCHRISTINE had made a mapfor us, for she had thoughtwe would come from Memphis. We came from the north andhad trouble finding their place.Christine and Willie were onlysharecroppers, and since we did notknow their landlord's name we hada hard time finding them.After we ferried the Mississippiit rained, and the road was a channel of gravel through a sea of mudand water. A sea that was gashedby long ridges of earth, like nastyscars. In the fields wind-whippedmules stood heads together andtails to the storm, and tender littlecalves huddled in the lee of tipsysheds. The unpainted shacks stoodalone on their stilts in the widefields. Their weathered sides wereof unpainted batten-boards, the slabshingles on the roofs curled up atthe edges. Every place had a sodden woodpile in the rear and a crazyouthouse with flapping door ... orperhaps no door. Chickens hadtaken shelter under the houses. Anoccasional Negro in hip bootsploughed his way through the mud,his head turned sideways againstthe lashing rain. In the fields, lastyear's cotton stalks stood rooted inthe gumbo and protested the stormwith flapping arms.In Kaiser at last we found someone — a truckdriver —who knew whose land Willie was on, and gave usdirections. It was dark by then, and the road wasuncertain at best. It seemed all corners and bridgesacross drainage ditches, and no end to it. But miraculously we found Willie's landlord, made the last requisite effort, and finally stopped before a lighted shack.We sounded the horn, and there was Christine, a thinsilhouette against the light of the lamp that Willie,towering behind her, held in his hand."Git> out and come in," Christine was calling, butWillie warned, "Don't try to drive in; wait 'til we come."Christine almost sobbed as she hugged me. "I thoughtyou'd never git here. I coulten believe you'd come,nohow. Now Uncle Guy, you back up so yer lights'llshine on the bridge so she won't fall in the ditch." Thebridge was a long, narrow plank over the drainageditch, and more slabs like it led across the little yardto the front stoop. "Walk light and jump in a hurry,"Christine advised, "or it'll sink right under you. IMRS. GUY SARVIS, "10Born in Harlan, Iowa, Maude Taylor Sarvisstudied at Drake University and at the University of Chicago, graduating in 1910. While athome on leave in 1927, after fifteen years atthe University of Nanking, the Sarvises lost alltheir possessions in the Chinese revolution ofthat year, and have remained in the UnitedStates ever since. They now live in Delaware,O., where Guy Sarvis, AM '10, heads the department of Sociology at Ohio Wesleyan. Mrs.Sarvis' chief claims to distinction, she reports,are four children and an accomplished husband.• By MAUDE TAYLOR SARVIS, "10shoulten want you to git stuck inthis Arkansaw mud before you gitin my house. It ain't like no mudyou ever saw, more like chewin'gum."She called it her house, but myfather's granary had been a betterbuilding. It had been sealed insidewith dressed boards of satiny texture, but Christine's house had neverhad anything inside but a lining ofblack building paper. And in thefront room even this was attestednow only by shreds hanging fromthe nails that had once held it inplace. "When I saw that uglyblack stuff, make you feel like in ajail, I started to rip it right off'nthe walls," Christine said. "ThenI saw all them knotholes and cracks,and thought I better leave it 'til winter was over, so it's still on in here.""In here" was the middle roomof the little "gun-barrel" shack. Ithad but one window, a north window at that, and the only furnishings were two beds, a tall trunk andthe old sheet-iron wood stove. Theblack walls and ceiling pressed inat you. The paper on the wallswas warped and stained. In thekitchen there had never been evena paper lining. The kitchen, behind the middle room, was the sortof thing a careless New Englandfarmer might have tacked onto the back of a house forhis woodshed/except that it had a rough floor. The rangecame from a store ; everything else was homemade.The children were asleep "heads and tails" in thesingle bed when we went in, but Christine cried, "Wakeup and see who's here !" Six-year-old Willene, dwarfedby rickets and wheezy from chronic asthma, sat up inbed and pushed her straw-like hair out of her blue eyes.Then like a flash she was out of bed, running acrossto me, holding up her thin arms to be taken. She woreonly her little undershirt. Her sturdier little brotherwas close behind. They climbed into my lap and snuggled close, kissing me solemnly but fervently. Whenever I spoke to them, they kissed me again. Bubsiefound voice first. "Did you bring me a present?""Bubsie, mind your manners!" Christine said sharply.More than anything in the world Christine "wants thatthe children should have manners."I sat in one of the two chairs, a straighf split-bottomhickory, with the two children on my lap, and they1112 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEinsisted that my husband occupy the only other chair.Willie and Christine sat on the children's empty bedacross from us. The lamp was on the trunk in the corner, and the black walls and ceiling thirstily drank mostof its dim light. Wind poured in gusts up throughthe cracks in the floor, and the rain fell in gusts onthe low roof. The fire crackled in the stove and scorchedour faces, even while our backs and feet grew cold. Butthe children's little bodies were warm in my arms, andChristine's eyes were warm with affection and welcome.When bedtime came there was only one lamp. "Youtake it," Christine said. "We kin find our way in thedark." But we left the door between the rooms opena crack and set the lamp in it to light both rooms.The prettified front room was ours. The double bedhad a clean counterpane. A gingerbread dresser withcloudy mirror, a washstand to match, both resplendentwith shining white paint, completed the furnishings.Christine had written me: "Papa bought me a canof paint and I've painted my furniture. Now I'm goingto wash my bedding, then I aim to sit down on a chairand just wait for you." Well, the furniture was painted,and there were the heavy comforters in their much-scrubbed covers of floursacking, but I could not see myenergetic young friend sitting down to wait for anyone. Willie confirmed my opinion. "She ain't donenothin' but scrub and clean," he said with pride. "Today she's spent her time scrubbin' these floor boards,and has 'bout took our heads off if we tracked in aspeck of mud.""I tried to scrub 'em alright," Christine affirmed. "Butland it ain't much use; the water runs off through thecracks before you git to use it." Then she began tolaugh. "You oughta see my hens. You know they gounder the house to keep dry when it rains, then whenI begin to scrub and the water starts pourin' downthrough the cracks, are they surprised! And mad. Idon't blame 'em. They oughta be some dry place fora chicken in weather like this, and mercy knows theyain't none in any shed on this place."The bedding was scrubbed clean, but it was heavyand sodden and the mattress felt as if it were laid onboards. Perhaps it was, but we slept well.There were delicious hot biscuits for breakfast, andeggs from Christine's hens. Christine boiled andstrained the yellow brackish water to make quite passablecoffee. But there was no cream or milk for it, andno butter at any time. The children ate hungrily ofthe fresh fruit we had brought and refused anythingelse. "They're plumb starved for it," Christine said."I sent for bacon for breakfast, too," she told me,"but it wasn't in the bag when Jess (the landlord)brought my groceries last night. We thought he'd justforgot it, so Willie went down after it, and just guesswhat Jess told him: 'Sharecroppers can't eat meat.'Yes, sir, just that. 'Sharecroppers can't eat meat.' Wecan't even spend our own money for what we like!Besides, Jess runs the price up on us every week. Iordered a dollar seventy worth of things yesterday andhe charged me two-thirty for 'em. I can't do a thingbut take his figgers, neither.""But, Christine, why don't you do your own marketing?" I asked."How'd I git to town?" she said. "Jess savs ne cant be totin' everyone of his croppers' wives to town everyweek. He does it for all of us, and makes a good thingoff'n us. Takin' the food out of the kids' mouths."Again and again during our stay Christine came backto this grievance, and as we were leaving she said tome, "Now Auntie Maude, if you write anything aboutsharecroppers, don't you put in that we have the thingsto eat we've had while you was here, 'cause we don't.I'm goin' to tell you just what we have. From Monday on we have beans and cornbread, 'til the meal givesout, then for a change we have just beans. Soup onSunday, that's the only difference."That Sunday it still rained and as we sat around thelittle stove in the dark middle room, Willie and Christine gave us their bad news.Willie and Christine had never really been 'croppers,that is, they had not yet raised cotton on the shares.Christine's father had come from Arkansas, but Christine remembered only Nashville. She and Willie weremarried there during the depression. The depressiontook Willie's job and he never got another. Afteryears of looking, Willie gave up hope and spent histime in gambling places and bootleg joints while Christine worked in a laundry for a dollar a day to supportthem all. A "day-home" took care of the children.Finally she wrote me, "I got to get Willie away fromhere. He won't go, so I aim just to pick up the childrenand go to Papa's folks in Arkansas. I bet Willie won'tstay behind very long." Willie didn't. Jess had givenWillie work in his saw-mill that winter and furnishedthem this shack to live in. Some weeks there were asmany as three days clear and dry enough to work, andWillie got two dollars a day then, from which Jess subtracted the money he supposedly paid for groceries. Willieaveraged three dollars a week throughout the winterand on this they lived, because they well understoodthat "the sharecropper's only salvation is in never gettin'in debt to his landlord."On March first, when the land was allotted to thetenants and croppers, Willie was to have at least tenacres for cotton, as much as he needed for corn, anda garden. "I aim to help chop cotton, just like thewomen 'round here do, so's we can get ahead," Christine had written me. She knew exactly how muchcotton their acreage should produce, what their sharewould be and what it would sell for. "And I'm goingto raise chickens and a pig and a garden. We are goingto get on here — we've got to!"But now Willie was not to be a cropper. "Afterpromisin' me all winter, and movin' us into this house,he waited 'til everybody had give out their land, thencomes 'round and tells me because this new cotton control would cut down his acreage so, he'd need all theland hisself. But he'll day-work me. That means I'llmake just as much crop, but he won't have to divide.""But you'd have your wages and take no risk," myignorance spoke again."Say, do you know except for niggers, day- workersis the lowest-down folks in this country?" Christinecried. "Why, they don't git but a dollar a day. We'velived on lessn that this winter, but you can't go on(Continued on Page 14)JOBS FOR THE MILLIONS,-Science Research Associates Point the Way• By DAVID C. LEVINE, '34ILLIONS of young people looking for jobs:dozens of new and little-known industries seeking properly-trained workers.That equation has been, and still is, badly out of balance. Lyle M. Spencer and Robert K. Burns came tothat conclusion several years ago, decided that somethingcould be done about it, and resolved to do it. Their resolution took shape, a few months ago, in the form ofScience Research Associates, a non-profit organizationwhich is rapidly achieving national recognition as a factfinding agency designed to show young people where tolook for jobs.Underlying the history of Science Research Associatesis the personal history of Spencer and Burns. Classmates at the University of Washington ('33), they madea round-the-world debating tour after graduation.(Score: 74 wins, one draw when a Manila audiencerioted before the end of a debate on Philippine independence.) In 20 foreign countries, as in the UnitedStates, they heard youth ask, "Where can we findwork?" The result of that experience was a determination to make job-analysis their joint career.After completing the tour, they took their A.M.'s atWashington, then came to the University of Chicago ascandidates for the doctor's degree. Burns, who was research assistant to Professor Millis, PhD'99, studiedeconomics, specializing in labor. Spencer was MarshallField Fellow and assistant to Professor Stouffer, PhD'30.His field was sociology and statistics.When Spencer and Burns mentioned their idea of research on employment to Professor Millis and ProfessorOgburn, they found an interested audience. Preliminarysurveys were made, financial backing was obtained, andin the summer of 1938 Science Research Associates wasorganized. Its advisory board consists of ProfessorsMillis and Ogburn; Floyd W. Reeves, AM'21, PhD'25,professor of education at the University ; J. Walter Dietz,vice-president of Western Electric; Homer P. Rainey,PhD'24, new president of the University of Texas ; William H. Stead, AM'24, director of research of the U. S.Employment Service; Harry D. Kitson, PhD' 15, professor of education at Columbia University ; and George E.Hutcherson, chief of the Bureau of Guidance of theNew York State Board of Education.Thework of the Associates is divided into researchand publication. Publications include Vocational Trends,a crisply-written, attractively-designed magazine whichoffers monthly job-pictures of a variety of industries andvocational fields; Occupational Monographs (monthly),each containing a detailed analysis of one particular industry or vocation ; Vocational Guide, a monthly bibliography of the best current vocational literature appearinghere and abroad; and Reprints and Abstracts of valuable but inaccessible vocational studies. The Associates also prepare realistic programs to help communities meetlocal unemployment problems.In every examination of a trade, profession or industry, Science Research Associates looks for this information : number of persons employed ; growth or decline inavailable jobs; training, experience and skills required;pertinent facts on sex, age and personal qualifications ofacceptable workers; average salaries and possible lifetime earnings, together with pensions and other benefits ;the average working span; labor turnover and job security; possibility of promotion and lines of advancement; where jobs are and how to get them; workingconditions; and technological changes and developmentsin the field. All this material is checked, broken downand analyzed before final conclusions are reached.Some of the reports already published include studiesof job trends and employment possibilities in transportation, ceramics, radio, air conditioning, statistics and music. In these, as in all other cases, the reports have beenpacked with useful information, assembled from the combined points of view of the impartial scientist and theyouthful job-seeker.Implicit in all reports is this dictum: "The time tostart looking for a job is at least five years before youneed it. That affords an opportunity to choose a careerrather than just find work. The aim of Science Research Associates is to give pertinent information aboutoccupations that will make intelligent selection possible."Because the Associates begin their inquiries withoutpreconceived ideas, and go directly to basic sources inseeking answers, their conclusions often tend to disprovecurrent opinions. What is perhaps the most fundamentally significant of these new findings was embodied ina paper which Spencer read at the recent Cleveland convention of the National Vocational Guidance Association. Ever since the Industrial Revolution transferredhome handicrafts to factory machines, it has been thoughtthat technological improvements displace or replaceskilled workers; in short, that modern civilization issupplying youth with more and more education for jobsthat require less and less skill. Yet Spencer's conclusion fails to support this popular conception. Technological changes, he finds, are more likely to displaceunskilled workmen in most industries than skilled ones.Generally speaking, the more routine a job becomes, themore easily it can be eliminated by machines.Statistics is one of the fastest-growing professions inthe country, the Associates found. In government alone,statistical jobs have increased four-fold since 1929. Private organizations reported a 50 per cent increase in thelast three years, and the manufacture of computing andtabulating machines has jumped 600 per cent since 1933.The report, published in Occupational Monograph No. 1,attributes the growing number of jobs in statistics to the1314 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEneed for better organization in an increasingly complexsociety. Business needs to keep a closer check on costsand markets, and government must know more aboutthe people it is serving. Incidentally, for every new position requiring university training, at least five otherjobs develop for people with no more than a high-schooldiploma: a fact of vital importance to high-school students who are not planning to attend college.More immediately practical was a recent article inVocational Trends, which may serve as an example ofthe Associates' methods. The article called attention tothe growing field of illumination as a source of interesting careers for well-trained young women. Only aboutfive years old, it already employs over 2500 women aslighting advisers for electric utility companies. In discussing the specific services required of a lighting adviser, the article described the selling experience applicants need, the technical facts they must know about thequantity and quality of illumination needed for adequatelighting of rooms, and how this information can best-be presented to housewives. It also outlined necessaryacademic training (usually a major in home economics atAnyway, CirCUSeS (Continued from Page 12)forever without clothes and shoes.""I hear they ain't goin' to pay but seventy-five centsthis year," Willie added.'Cotton takes a hunderd days to make," Christinewent on. That's a hunderd dollars, maybe seventy-five,to live on. Jess'd have to stake us to grub and the wayhe runs up prices on me we'd be so deep in debt we'dnever git out'n here. I don't aim ever to git no morein his debt than this furniture'll pay for. We comehere to better ourselves, not git stuck. . ."They had waited, decently and thoughtfully, to impose their bad news on us, but now that it was outthey could talk of nothing else. We knew with whathigh hopes they had embarked on this venture. As theday went on, it seemed more and more as if a funeralwere imminent, so my husband suggested a movie."I'd love it, but I ain't got a thing to wear," Christine mourned. Then she remembered — "Oh, there's mynew dress you brung me ! But Bubsie ain't got no shoes. . . and it'd break his heart to be left. You haf to haverubber boots for this mud, and I ain't been able to manage no shoes for him yet."We told her Busbie would be fine in his rubber bootsand all piled into the Ford, cruising down the gravelchannel through the sea of mud again. The show wasThe Girl of the Golden West, with Nelson Eddy andJeanette MacDonald. "Am I glad!" Christine's eyesdanced. "I always wanted to see them two."As we waited in the lobby until the first show ended,I became absorbed in Willie and Christine.The little blue linen dress I had designed for hotweather was covered with a light coat, faded and mussed."But it's all I got," she said sadly as she put it on,"so I had to wear it when I helped Willie make thegarden fence and when I tend the chickens." But Christine's clear gray-green eyes above it were shining, and the college level), beginning salaries (about $100 amonth), possibilities for advancement (excellent) andwhere to go to apply for a job.Similar studies and reports are constantly being madefor a wide range of industries and vocations. Professional and technical work, office and manual jobs aresurveyed. Relatively few young people have access tosuch information, especially presented in readable, interesting style, yet it can be of paramount importance tostudents when they come to choosing their life work.By examining past development and present conditions in a vocational field, it is possible to chart thefuture trends with a fair degree of exactness. Equippedwith that knowledge, newcomers in industry are betterable to avoid "blind alleys" of employment in static ordeclining businesses.Science Research Associates does not claim to have apanacea for all industrial ills. But it does believe thatthe long-term information that they are gathering can betremendously helpful to American youth.What is more, they are well on the way to provingthat they are right.her glorious chestnut hair dropped charming tendrilsabout her face. I thought, "If she'd always had enoughto eat, if she wasn't lame from rickets, if . . .if . . .if . . .". . . she would have been lovely." The tear in Willie'scoat just above the pocket . . . the gaping holes in hisrough shoes ... I had known Willie when he still hadhopes of a job and used to go forth clean and neat,always with an air of jauntiness upon him, to look forone. Somehow that tear in his coat was the straw thatbroke down all the fortitude I had built up for this trip.I didn't see much of the picture. I was too disgustingly conscious of the fact that there I sat, well-nourished and warm. That my husband had a job. Thatour children went to college. That we could even havea spring trip to Arkansas. That life was secure enoughfor us that we never had to go to the movies to forgetit. Sitting there in my spring coat that had cost almostfifteen dollars, I felt like one of those disgraceful personswhom my father used to call "bloated plutocrats."That night Willie and Christine spoke no more ofthe troubles of the croppers. They talked only of theshow. A dozen times Willie said, "Yes, sir, they surehad me scairt. I was afraid he'd never get his girl.Yes, sir, I was sure afraid the other feller'd git her."Christine said, "The music made me feel just like Iwas in heaven." When she undressed Willene for bedshe said to her, "Wasn't that a purty lady, hon? Andall the purty dresses, my!" Even after we had goneto bed with only the thin board partition between ourbeds they went on talking about it. The rain drummedsteadily overhead, and I could hear the steady drip fromthe leak over in the corner of the room. As I driftedoff to sleep I heard Willie say again, "Yes, sir, theysure had me scairt . . ." and was it my husband, oronly the rain, murmuring, "Bread and circuses. Wellanyway, circuses."NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESDEAN HARRY A. BIGELOW, last active member of the able group which established the position and reputation of the Law School, retireson September 1. He will be succeeded as dean on July1 by thirty-six year old Wilber Griffith Katz, but he willcontinue to teach courses in property law. Dean Bigelowcame to the Law School in 1904, when it was in processof organization, and he has been one of its distinguishedfigures ever since, known for the clarity both of his legalthinking and of his legal expression. An authority on thelaw of property, particularly real property, his Introduction to the Law of Real Property is a classic of legalliterature.The thousands of students who have passed throughthe Law School know him as a uniquely great teacher.The "Dean" has never been one "to lay it out cold." Hehas never told a class what the law is ; instead, he let theclass find out for themselves, supplying a skillful guidance to legal discovery. Long before the Chicago Plan,and its emphasis on making students think for themselves,Dean Bigelow was practicing a technique that did justthat. No one who has ever taken one of his classes willforget the mild suggestion that he "distinguish" the casein the footnote, nor the unsuspected pitfalls into whichhe fell in his efforts. Nor will Chicago-educated lawyersever forget the tantalizing suspense of a question unsolveduntil the final days of the course, with the repeated deflation, through the Bigelow hypothethical questions, of asolution that seemed unpuncturable.As an undergraduate at Harvard he was so able astudent of English and the classics that an academic career in each of these fields was suggested to him. Choosing the study of law instead, he used that early trainingto translate the law into clear and simple statement. Hetaught law at Harvard for a year after receiving hisLL.B. in 1899, and then engaged in practice, in Bostonand Honolulu, for four years. When Dean Joseph H.Beale of Harvard came to Chicago in 1904 to organizethe new Law School he brought with him two of hisformer students, James Parker Hall and Harry Bigelow.When Beale left, Hall became the dean, and after thedeath of Dean Hall, Professor Bigelow took charge of theschool which had been his life work. He has writtencase books on personal property and real property law,and his teaching has been in the field of property, including that technical subject of future interests.Neither personally nor intellectually has Dean Bigelowever lived the secluded life. He was a member of thefirst expedition to cross an unexplored section of theBelgian Congo. When the affairs of many of the Insullcompanies became involved, the only trustee satisfactoryto all the parties involved in the bankruptcy of. the InsullUtility Investments, Inc., was Dean Bigelow. That jobhas been a monumental one, to which he has directedprodigious effort without neglect of the Law School. Thetraditional type of law school might have been goodenough for him, if only on the argument that it was the • By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20. JD '22kind he knew. But it is under his administration thatthe revolutionary and original organization of the LawSchool has been put into effect, not with his passiveacquiescence, but with his enthusiastic participation andvaluable contributions.THE NEW DEANThe man who succeeds him as dean has been chairmanof the committee which has effected the reorganizationto bring legal education into closer relationship with theproblems of modern society. Like Dean Bigelow, thedean-elect' is a graduate of Harvard Law School, of theclass of 1926. He was a Phi Beta Kappa, with honorsin political science, at the University of Wisconsin, andan editor of the Harvard Law Review. For three yearshe practiced with the New York City firm of. Root, Clark,Buckner, and Ballantine, and then did graduate professional work at Harvard, receiving the S. J. D. degreefor his treatise on "Federal Administrative Courts."Professor Katz was appointed to the University of Chicago faculty in 1930. Since 1933 he also has been associated with the Chicago law firm of Bell, Boyden, andMarshall. He is editor of the annotations to the IllinoisCorporation Act, and co-editor with Felix Frankfurter,newly appointed Justice of the Supreme Court, of a casebook on Federal Jurisdiction and Procedure. He alsois co-author of "Accounting in Law Practice," and authorof numerous articles on corporate finance, his field ofspecialization. Currently he is preparing a new text tomeet the needs of the reorganized curriculum in hiscourse on "Corporations." His appointment means, ofcourse, that the new type law school here will continue.Of its merits, neither he nor his colleagues have any question. The reorganization is already having its repercussions — including adoption — • in the law schoolsthroughout the country.JUNE RETIREMENTS__Retirements in other divisions of the University willbring a reallocation of two of the distinguished serviceprofessorships this autumn. William D. Harkins, chemistwho holds one of the two Andrew MacLeish Distinguished Service Professorships, retires September 1, andBernadotte Schmitt, professor of modern history, assumesthat chair. Dr. William H. Taliaferro, Dean of theDivision of the Biological Sciences, and professor ofparasitology, will assume the Eliakim H. Moore Distinguished Service Professorship now held by mathematician, Leonard E. Dickson, who also reaches the retiringage September 1.The MacLeish professorships were established in 1931in honor of the Chicago merchant, one of the foundersof Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company, who was a trusteeof the first University of Chicago. One of the leaders inthe organization of the present University, Mr. MacLeishserved on the board of trustees for thirty-five years, and1516 THE UNIVERSITY OFfrom 1895 to 1922 was first vice-president of the board.The Moore professorship was established in 1927 in recognition of Professor Moore, mathematical professor atthe University from 1892 to 1931, world-famous as amathematical logician.Professor Schmitt, winner of the Pulitzer Prize awardfor history in 1931, with his "The Coming of the WorldWar," a comprehensive study of the causes of the warand the responsibility for it, has been a member of theChicago faculty since 1925. Graduate of the Universityof Tennessee, a Rhodes scholar, he took his Ph.D. degreefrom the University of Wisconsin in 1910. He taught atWisconsin and Western Reserve universities before coming to Chicago.In 1927, Professor Schmitt held a Guggenheim fellowship, and in 1931 was professor at the Institute of HigherStudies, Geneva, Switzerland. He is editor of the Journal of Modern History and one of the three editors ofthe Cambridge Modern History. Last year he was electedto the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, secondoldest learned society in the United States. In 1931, hereceived the George Louis Beer prize, awarded by theAmerican Historical Association, for his book on theworld war. During the war, he served as a first lieutenant in the American artillery.Dr. Taliaferro, appointed dean of the Division of theBiological Sciences Division Oct. 1, 1935, is widelyknown among medical scientists for his authoritativework on malaria, his studies of other tropical diseases,particularly the phases relating to immunology. He wonthe Chalmers Medal of the Royal Society of TropicalMedicine and Hygiene in 1935 for his research on malaria.He received his Bachelor's degree from the Universityof Virginia and his Doctorate from Johns Hopkins, andtaught there until 1924, when he was appointed to theChicago faculty. Before his appointment as dean, heserved as associate dean of the Biological Sciences Division, and as chairman of the department of parasitologyand bacteriology. His wife, Dr. Lucy Graves Taliaferrowho holds an unpaid position as research associate, is hisscientific assistant in his research.CARL NOE DIESDr. Adolf Carl Noe, 65-year-old associate professor ofpaleobotany of the University of Chicago, died May 10.In April, he had suffered a paralytic stroke, but hadmade such progress that he had been able to leavethe hospital. For twenty-three years, Dr. Noe had taughtGerman literature, but his real interest was in paleobotany — the science of fossilized plants — in which he hadbeen trained in Austria, where he was born and educated.Paleobotany was a relatively unknown field in the UnitedStates, and it was not until 1923, when the University ofChicago enlarged its work in geology, that Dr. Noe hadan opportunity to enter the field.Dr. Noe was an authority on coal and coal fossils, hisstudy of coal balls being the pioneer work in that field inthis country. He conducted studies for several stategeological surveys, and had planned after his retirementthis summer to move to Urbana, to complete publicationsof studies of coal structures he had made for the IllinoisGeological Survey. In 1927 he went to Russia as a member of the Allen and Garcia Coal Commission, and he CHICAGO MAGAZINEhad done consulting work for numerous coal companies.As a teacher in German literature, he was interested inmodern German literature, particularly the "Young German" period of about 1830.To students and fellow faculty members, Dr. Noe wasknown not only because of his scholarship in both of hisfields, but for his gentle wit and humor and his genialattitude. He was a member of the "Skeeters," an informal club of prominent Chicagoans which includes Governor Henry Horner and General Robert Wood. Anofficer in an Austrian Hussar regiment following his student days, he was for many years an enthusiastic horseman, fencer and marksman. He coached the Universityfencing team for many years, and also taught the membersof the Rifle Club, which he helped organize in 1915.Dr. Noe was born in Graz, Austria, October 28, 1873.He was educated at the University of Graz and the University of Gottingen, completing his graduate studies inscience at the latter institution in 1899. He took aBachelor's degree from the University of Chicago in1900, and a Ph.D. degree in Germanic languages in1905. During 1900-01 he was an instructor in scienceand modern languages, Burlington, la., Institute, andthen taught for two years at Stanford University. Whilestill a graduate student at Chicago, he became in 1903 aninstructor in German literature.In 1922, Dr. Noe was made an honorary member of.the University of Insbruck ; in 1923 the University ofGraz conferred the honorary Ph.D. degree on him, andthe same year he received the Golden Medal of the University of Vienna.Dr. Noe married Mary Evelyn Cullaton, of Burlington, la., in 1901. Surviving, in addition to his widow,are their two daughters, Mary Helen, who is the wife ofDr. Robert S. Mulliken, professor of physics, Universityof Chicago, and Valerie.NOTESOak Park and River Forest Township high school,winner four other times during the past ten years, wonthe scholarship plaque for the highest number of pointsscored in the twenty-seventh annual competitive scholarship examinations, held April 15. In the Chicago area954 students took the examination. Another 443 seniorstook it in the 16 centers outside Chicago. Central highschool, Tulsa, with 10 points, and North Division, Milwaukee, with 9, led the schools outside Chicago. . . .Robert Morse Lovett, emeritus professor of English,has been appointed government secretary for the VirginIslands by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes.He succeeds the late Robert Herrick, likewise emeritusprofessor of English, in the position. . . . The HowardTaylor Ricketts prize was won by George Hartley, Jr.,for his studies of the process by which protective cellsare marshalled to ward off infectious diseases. Theprize is awarded annually on May 3, anniversary of thedeath of Dr. Howard Taylor Ricketts, University bacteriologist who died a martyr to his discovery of thetyphus germ and its mode of transmission. ... At leastseven European refugee students will have scholarshipshere next year through the combination of a student-raised fund and the grant of matching scholarship fundsby the University. A total of $7,000 has been reachedso far.WHO'S WHO IN WHO'S WHO• By ROY TEMPLE HOUSE, PhD M7THE only competitive rating on a basis of solidstatistics which is applied regularly to colleges isthe standing of their athletic teams. And eventhe most apoplectic football fan will scarcely argue thatthe last Associated Press line-up of the country's football teams, with its hodge-podge of strong schools andweak schools, scholarly institutions and impecunious anddubious degree-factories, is any sort of guide to therelative educational merit of American colleges. Therecould of course be no competitive rating, on any basis,which would be completely water-tight. Assessed valueof plant, income, salary statistics, size of libraries, academic degrees of faculty, teaching load, relation of number of teachers to number of students, listing of facultypublications, all these and other measurements might beapplied with some profit but would still fail to reachthe intangibles which are of the first importance. Andalthough noisy charlatans sometimes crash the gates ofWho's Who in America and substantial men are sometimes ignored, inclusion in that biographical dictionarydoes indicate a certain relative merit and importance.We have undertaken to apply the Who's Who test tocollege faculties, comparing the size of the faculty withthe size of its Who's Who representation. Thus, a faculty of 100, for instance, with 10 of them in the red book,received a rating of 10 per cent. The task was a littlecomplicated. In some institutions all the teachers, fullor part-time, are included in the faculty; in others, assistants and even instructors are left out in the cold.All college presidents are in Who's Who, without exception. Somewhat as every candidate for public officerecives at least one vote, every college in the UnitedStates has at least one great man on its faculty, namelyPrexy, however out-at-elbows, obscure, holding-onto-his-job-by-the-skin-of-his-teeth he may be. This, in the caseof the small schools, disturbs the balance a little. Manydistinguished professors in the larger schools are considerably more distinguished than the "greats" in thelittle schools, but Who's Who does not have a Class Aand a Class B. But, after all, statistics are fascinatingbecause on the whole they do spell out averages whichare suggestive and not a matter of common knowledge.We were struck early in our study by the appallingdifferences between the old-line humanistic colleges andthe technical schools. At Indiana University for example, one member of the faculty in eight and three-fourths *is in Who's Who. At Purdue University, thesame state's excellent technological institution, the proportion is not more than one-fourth as large. Is thisrating fair? At the University of Oklahoma the figuresare 1 to 9; at the Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College they are 1 to 35. At the University of Iowathe proportion is one to 7%, whereas at the Iowa StateCollege at Ames it is 1 to 12. It appears to be true ingeneral that men engaged in what might be called the cultural activities are more likely to be mentioned thanthose whose labors are in more "practical" lines — whichis rather a vigorous answer to the Europeans who maintain that Americans care only for money, mechanicalgadgets and silly dissipation. Be this as it may, it isevident that our Who's Who yardstick is of little use inmeasuring the A. and M. colleges.The big state universities show up rather poorly incompetition with the endowed institutions. The formerhave so many students to grind through, and their fundsare usually so limited by legislatures, that they are mostoften forced to entrust a large part of the work to young-assistants who have not yet made a reputation. Of thegroup comprising the largest and most ambitious stateuniversities — California, Cornell, Michigan, Wisconsin,Illinois, Minnesota — the palm goes to Wisconsin, withone teacher in four and two-thirds in Who's Who. Michigan comes second with 1 :5%.If we lump all the smaller state universities in a second group, the enterprising University of North Carolina appears to lead the list with 1 :5j4> and its neighbor the smallish University of South Carolina followswith l:6$4. Third is probably the University of Nebraska, with about 1 :7, a good record for a large stateuniversity. Several of the fairly ambitious state institutions do not have more than one Who's Who representative among twenty or thirty faculty members.We could pay some attention to the colleges whichare under the control of a religious denomination. Usually these schools suffer from inadequacy of funds, whichmakes it difficult for them to hold the ablest teachers, orif they do hold them, to furnish them the equipment andthe leisure which are requisite if a teacher is to givethe best that is in him. The larger number of theseschools have therefore not been competitors for our laurels. But there are some notable exceptions to whichwe will return later. And we ought perhaps to remarkright here that if we class as denominational colleges,not only those institutions which are now under denominational control but those which have been undersuch control, the denominational schools will turn outto have walked off with nearly all the honors.As we approach our group of top-notchers, we wishto call attention to the fact that they come in generalfrom the generously endowed institutions which are ableto furnish the best equipment, to accumulate first-ratelibraries, to pay good salaries and to limit student attendance so that not every moment of the professors'time and every ounce of their energy is absorbed by thegrind of routine duties. Since the small schools have theadvantage at several points, we have separated the fieldinto Class A and Class B school, the sole basis of divisionbeing the number of students enrolled. Our Class Bmight be more expressively denominated the Three-Figure Class, and our Class A the Four-and-Five-FigureClass. Usually the former are called colleges and the1718 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElatter universities, but there are some exceptions.We will begin with the Three-Figure Class, and whenwe arrive at the Four-and-Five-Figure Class, we willaward to the winner in this class the Grand Prize ofPrizes, the A-Plus Prize for the nation.In rating these well equipped and efficiently managedsmaller colleges, most of them with impressive endowments and enviable traditions, it is easier to name thesix or eight leaders than to determine their exact comparative standing. There are questions about the inclusions of emeritus professors, of part-time teachers, ofassistants, which have cost us time, correspondence andheadaches. But after much computation and meditation,we think we have established definitely that the honorof having a higher percentage of faculty in Who's Whoin America than any other educational institution in thecountry belongs to the remarkable Carleton College ofNorthfield, Minnesota. This school, established by theCongregationalists in 1866, is now sponsored jointly bythat denomination, the Baptists and the Episcopalians,and is recognized as a sort of pre-seminary for studentswho are planning to enter the Episcopal ministry. Andour second prize for the small institutions (the margin,indeed, is so small that we are almost tempted to call ita tie) goes to Wesleyan University of Middletown, Connecticut. This famous little college, with only 700 students, has a much larger library than the combinedcolleges of the two states of Wyoming and Nevada^ andhas never made the mistake, common among Americandenominational colleges, of undertaking too big a jobwith limited equipment. On the campus of either ofthese study centers, approximately every third facultymember you meet is in Who's Who. And very closebehind these two come Drew University of Madison,New Jersey, until ten years ago strictly a theologicalseminary; the Episcopal Hobart College, at Geneva, New York; the excellent Quaker college, just out ofPhiladelphia, Haverford; the sterling Congregational-founded Amherst College, in Amherst, Massachusetts;and Clark University, at Worcester, Massachusetts,where William Rainey Harper made his big haul for thefirst University of Chicago faculty. Most of these schools,it will be seen, is from the East. The West is still in alittle too much of a hurry.The Class A institutions undertake a larger and moredifficult task. Higher education has become a privilegeof the masses, and each one of several institutions inthis country has a present enrollment as large as theentire college enrollment of the country a generation ortwo ago. A college with even ten thousand students isa confusing and more or less confused big business.Haverford College has 328 students. The Universityof California has more than 30,000. It is like mother shome-baked bread and the product of the thousand-window bakeries. The large universities are taking careof fifty times as many students as the high-grade smallcolleges, they are covering much more educational territory, and our Class A award is thus, quantitatively, atleast, a many times more important matter than the otherone. It is therefore with a due sense of the heavy responsibility resting on us that we weigh the impressive recordsof two candidates, two of the most capably planned andmanaged institutions in all the history of colleges, andaward the Grand Prize for universities to that virile andenterprising institution, The University of Chicago,which shows a Who's Who percentage comparing favorably with the best of the little colleges. Second GrandPrize goes to Princeton University.We believe the figures warrant us in saluting thesetwo as the highest-grade educational institutions in thecountry. Which probably amounts to saying: the bestin the world.Chicago Looks tO the Stars (Continued from Page 10)Pulkova Observatory is not here — he is a recent victimof the most barbarian dictatorship of all times. The disturbed international and political conditions of the worldtoday are not conducive to quiet research. But the twoobservatories I have just mentioned have weatheredmany storms. We confidently hope that the McDonaldObservatory is destined to weather the storms of thepresent and of the future and to become one of the greatcenters of research where the cultural treasures of theworld are preserved and enriched."Dedicating the new observatory on behalf of Texanswas Homer Price Rainey AM'23,PhD'24, whose electionto the presidency of the University of Texas was notedin the February issue of the Magazine. Dr. Rainey described the importance of the new observatory to science,and paid tribute to the benefactor of the equipment. Healso praised Presidents Benedict and Hutchins for getting the cooperative enterprise under way.Location of the observatory in the most remote portion of Texas, known as the Big Bend and termed "thelast frontier of America," was by design and not acci dent, Dr. Rainey said. "Texas has long been famedas a land 'where the skies are not cloudy all day,' andin this particular region there are more cloudless daysthan in almost any other place.""We are here to dedicate this observatory to the mostancient and purest of all the sciences. In doing so, mayI express the hope that this observatory will stand asan enduring symbol of the insatiable desire of man todiscover the secrets of the universe, and that it mayalso stand as a symbol of the freedom of man's mind toexplore the boundless areas of truth without any restrictions whatsoever."The roster of visiting astronomers included :Prof. Henry Norris Russell of Princeton UniversityObservatory; Drs. Shapley, Bart J. Bok, and CeceliaGaposchkin of Flarvard; Dr. R. J. Trumpler of California ; Drs. Baade, Adams, and Hubble of Mount Wilson Observatory ; Prof. E. F. Carpenter of Steward Observatory; Dr. Joel Stebbins of Washburn Observatory; Dr. S. A. Mitchell of McCormick Observatory;and Dr. W. H. Wright of Lick Observatory.1939 REUNION PROGRAMTHURSDAY, JUNE I6:30 P.M. School of Business Dinner, Cloister Club, Ida Noyes HallSpeaker: Paul H. DouglasMONDAY, JUNE 510:30 A.M. Backstage at the University: The Tour starts from the Reynolds ClubA visit to the Oriental Institute where Dr. John Wilson will personally explain the methodsand results of the University's excavations in Bible lands.2:30 P.M. The Alumni School— Mandel HallHow the Churches Got Apart \ . William M. SweetHow the Churches Are Getting Together John T. McNeillReligion Pounds the Pavement Samuel C. KincheloeCan Man Make Good? A. Eustace Haydon6:00 P.M. Alumni School Dinner — Hutchinson Commons (75c)Speaker : Shailer MathewsSubject : Fifty Years in American Religion8 :00 P.M. The Alumni School— Mandel HallReligion on Broadway . . . . Davis EdwardsWhat Can We Expect from the New Pope? . . .Winfred E. GarrisonPresent Religious Trends Among American Students Charles W. GilkeyHitler's Only Open Opposition Edwin E. AubreyTUESDAY, JUNE 610:30 A.M. Backstage at the University: The Tour starts from Reynolds ClubA visit to the Lincoln Memorial Room where Dr. Raney will describe and interpret theLincolniana. Then on to the Mierophotographic Laboratory where tons of newspapersare being transferred to film2:30 P.M. The Alumni School— Mandel HallWelcoming address by Reunion Chairman Robert T. McKinlay, '29 JD '32 and introductionof Clifton M. Utley, '26, as Director of the 1939 Alumni School2:45 P.M. A Mental Refurbishing in the Physical SciencesRecent Developments in the Field of Chemistry-. .Herman I. SchlesingerThe Past and Future of the Earth and Its Inhabitants Carey Croneis6:00 P.M. Alumni School Dinner — Hutchinson Commons (75c)Speaker : Arthur H. ComptonSubject: Physics of the Future6:45 P.M. School of Social Service Administration Annual Dinner, Cloister Club, Ida Noyes Hall8:00 P.M. The Alumni SchoolSection One — Eckhart Lecture Hall (Room 133)Modern Alchemy Samuel K. Allison(Illustrated with experiments and slides.)! Lecture to be followed by a visit to the Demonstration Laboratory, located on the top floor ofRyerson Physical Laboratory, where fundamental principles in physics will be shown by experimental and demonstration devices under the direction of Professor Harvey B. Lemon and acorps of assistants. Laboratory open until 11 P. M.Section Two> — Mandel HallWhat Is Progressive Education f. Hilda TabaTypical Programs of Progressive Schools Paul B. DiederichHow Well Do the Progressively Educated Perform? William E. ScottWEDNESDAY, JUNE 710:30 A.M. Backstage at the University: The Tour starts from the Reynolds ClubA visit to our hospitals for Children, the Orthopedic Hospital with its occupational therapyroom then on to Bobs Roberts Memorial Hospital for Children with its delightful play room2:30 P.M. The Alumni School— Mandel HallRecent Developments in the Field of Medicine : A Symposium for LaymenDr. George F. Dick, Professor and Chairman, Department of MedicineDr. Dallas B. Phemister, Professor and Chairman, Department of SurgeryDr. Lester R. Dragstedt, Professor of SurgeryDr. Paul C. Hodges, Professor of RoentgenologyDr. Walter L. Palmer, Associate Professor of Medicine \1920 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE6:00 P.M. Alumni School Dinner — Hutchinson Commons (75c)Speaker: Dr. Morris FishbeinSubject: Quackery— 1939 Model8:00 P.M. The Alumni SchoolSection One— Eckhart Lecture Hall (Room 133)A Journey on a Beam of Light • • . • Harvey B. Lemon(Illustrated with experiments and slides.)Lecture to be followed by a visit to the Demonstration LaboratorySection Two— Mandel Hall uRecent Trends in the Writing of American History. William 1 . HutchinsonThe Problems of the New South Avery O. CravenThe New Pan- Americanism and the Fascist Threat J. Fred RippyTHURSDAY, JUNE 810*30 AM. Backstage at the University: The Tour starts from the Reynolds ClubA visit to the University Radio Studio from which N.B.C. each week broadcasts theRound Table Program, then a trip to Mitchell Tower and a demonstration of the Chimes,followed by an inspection of the Reynolds Club, its theatre and art exhibit.2:30 P.M. The Alumni School— Mandel HallA Defense of the Contemplative Life Morris k. CohenScience, Art and Technology Charles W MorrisNatural Theology. Mortimer J. Adler3:00 P.M. Alumni- Varsity Baseball Game — Greenwood Field6:00 P.M. Alumni School Buffet Supper— Reynolds Club Lounge (75c)Speaker: Harold A. SwensonSubject : Hypnotism, Its History, Theory and Practice (with demonstration)6:30 P.M. Order of the C Annual Dinner — Hutchinson CommonsWomen's Athletic Association Annual Dinner— Cloister ClubSpeakers : Edith Abbott, Dean of School of Social Service AdministrationBarbara Cook Dunbar, Alumnae RepresentativeClass of 1914, Silver Anniversary Dinner— Hotel Del Prado8 :30 P.M. The Alumni SchoolSection One — Eckhart Lecture Hall (Room 133)Our Expanding Universe Otto Struve(Illustrated with experiments and slides.) ^Lecture to be followed by a visit to the Demonstration Laboratory and to the Observatory onthe roof of RyersonSection Two— Mandel Hall T „_Isms and Ideologies : • • • • .Louis WirthThe Catholic Church in World Affairs Jerome G. KerwinThe United States and World Affairs Walter H. C LavesFRIDAY, JUNE 99:00 A.M. — South Side Medical Alumni, The University ClinicsProgram of papers by Faculty MembersClass of 1914 (Men only) depart for Lakeside, Michigan, for a twenty-four hour rural masculine jamboree10-30 A M. Backstage at the University: The Tour starts from the Reynolds Club^A visit to Maud Slye's Cancer prevention laboratories. Miss Slye will be present tointroduce the tourists to her 8,000 mice assistants.#12:30 P.M. Luncheon for Regional Advisers and Club Representatives— Solarium, The Quadrangle LluD2:00 P.M. South Side Medical Alumni, The University ClinicsProgram of papers by Alumni2:30 P.M. The Alumni School— Mandel HallThe New Russian Nationalism in Modern Russian Literature. George V. BobrinskoyThe Limits of Totalitarian Economy •• • • -M^hior YItEngland and the Current International Situation Marshall M. Knappen5:00 P.M. Reception and Tea for Alumnae Regional Advisers— Ida Noyes Hall6:00 P.M. The Alumni School Dinner— Hutchinson Commons (75c)Speaker : Hayward KenistonSubject: Revolution and Reaction in SpainUniversity Aides, Annual Dinner — Ida Noyes HallClass of 1909 Dinner — Private Dinine Room "A" International House6:30 P.M. South Side Medical Alumni Annual Banquet— Judson Court Dining RoomClass of 1914 Women's Dinner— International HouseClass of 1929 Dinner — Ida Noyes HallClass of 1935 Dinner- — Hotel Sherry7:45 P.M. Band Concert, The University Band— Hutchinson Court8:30 P.M. The Alumni School— Mandel HallShowing of Sound Picture on Heredity and a glimpse of"Men and Things at the University of Chicago."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 219 :00 P.M. Foreign Trade Policy oj the Roosevelt Administration Jacob VinerSaving the Faith oj Our Fathers Paul H. DouglasSATURDAY, JUNE 108:00 A.M. Breakfast for Regional Advisers and Club delegates — Judson Court Dining Room9:30 A.M. Conference for Regional Advisers — Judson Court Lounge12:00 M. Alumnae Reunion — Ida Noyes Hall12 :30 P.M. The Alumnae Breakfast— The Cloister Club, Ida Noyes HallLuncheon for Regional Advisers and Club Delegates — Judson Court Dining RoomClass of 1919 Luncheon, Solarium, The Quadrangle ClubClasses of 1916-17 Annual Luncheon, The Coffee ShopClass of 1934 Luncheon — Private Dining Room, The Quadrangle Club2:30 P.M. Annual Baseball Game 1916 vs. 1917— The CircleClass of 1904 Reunion — Common Room, Eckhart Hall3 :30 P.M. The Annual Alumni Assembly — Mandel HallRobert T. McKinlay, '29, JD '32, General Reunion Chairman, presidingAnnual Address of the President of the UniversityRobert Maynard Hutchins5 :00 P.M. Class of 1924 Reception followed by Dinner — Hotel Sherry6:00 P.M. Sunset Supper, Buffet and Cafeteria Service — Hutchinson CommonsClass of 1899 Dinner, Private Dining Room — Hutchinson CommonsFraternity and Club Reunions6:30 P.M. Doctors of Philosophy Association Dinner — The Quadrangle ClubSpeaker: Harold G. Moulton, PhD' 14, President, The Brookings Institution7:30 P.M. Band Concert, University Band — Hutchinson Court8:45 P.M. Twenty-ninth Annual University Sing — Hutchinson Court10:00 P.M. Induction of Aides and MarshalsAward of Cups to Winning FraternitiesAward of C Blankets to Graduating AthletesAlma MaterMONDAY, JUNE 129:00 to 11:00 A.M. Rush Medical College Alumni Assembly, Symposia and Clinical Demonstrations-Presbyterian, Cook County and Washington Blvd. Hospitals11:00 to 12:30 P.M. General Assembly — Amphitheatre, Rush Medical CollegeSpeakers: Dr. Russell M. Wilder, Rush '12, Head of the Department of Medicine MayoFoundation and member of Mayo Clinic; Dr George M. Curtis, Rush '21, Professor of Surgery, Ohio State University2:00 to 4:00 P.M. — Symposia and Clinical Demonstrations3:30 P.M. The Alumni School— Breasted Hall, the Oriental Institute, 1155 E. 58th StreetThe Law School Conferences on Public LawSubject : Problems of Law Administration by CommissionsJ. Warren Madden, JD '14, Chairman National Labor Relations BoardErnest S. Ballard, Pope and Ballard, Chicago6:30 P.M. Phi Beta Kappa Annual Dinner— Judson Court Dining RoomSpeaker : Guiseppe A. Borgese, Professor of Italian LiteratureTUESDAY, JUNE 139:00 to 11:00 A.M. Rush Medical College Alumni AssemblySymposia and Clinical Demonstrations — Presbyterian, Cook County and Washington Blvd.Hospitals11:00 A.M. Convocation (Conferring of Higher Degrees) — Rockefeller Memorial Chapel11:00 to 12:30 P.M. Rush Alumni, General Assembly— Amphitheatre Rush Medical CollegeSpeakers: Dr. Fred M. Smith, Rush '14, Professor of Medicine, State University of Iowa ; Dr.Waltman Walters, Rush '20, Professor of Surgery, Mayo Foundation and Head of a Divisionof Surgery in the Mayo Clinic2 :00 to 4 :00 P.M. Rush Alumni Symposia and Clinical Demonstrations3:00 P.M. Convocation (Conferring of Bachelors' Degrees) — Rockefeller Memorial Chapel3:30 P.M. The Alumni School — Breasted Hall, the Oriental InstituteThe Law School Conferences on Public LawSubject: Administration and Policy of the Anti-trust LawsThurman W. Arnold, Assistant Attorney General of the United States; Professor of Law,Yale University.Thomas L. Marshall, Bell, Boyden and Marshall, Chicago.5:30 P.M. Rush Alumni Association: Annual Business Meeting — The Palmer House6 :30 P.M. Rush Alumni-Faculty Dinner — The Palmer HouseThe Law School Association Annual Dinner — Hutchinson CommonsSpeaker: Thurman W. ArnoldIN MY OPINION• By FRED B. MILLETT, PhD'31,I SAW Chicago for the first time when I toured theMiddle West with the Amherst College DramaticAssociation in the Easter holiday of 1911. On thatoccasion, I played a minor role in Romeo and Juliet onthe stage of what is now known as the World Playhouse ! Of that encounter with Chicago, I remembermost vividly my witnessing at the Blackstone TheaterDavid Warfield's touching performance in David Be-lasco's fine sentimental comedy, The Return of PeterGrimm. I can still visualize the extraordinarily circumstantial setting and hear the plaintive song of the clownfrom the passing circus parade. For the rest, I recallonly spending the night in some unidentified fraternityhouse near the University campus and taking the trainthe next morning at Sixty-third Street en route to aperformance at Urbana before an audience of severalthousand students. I last saw Chicago in December,1937, when, from almost the top story of a downtownhotel, the Loop and the lake front, thick with smokyfog at five-thirty in the morning, looked like nothing somuch as one of the lower circles in Dante's Inferno.The most ardent native sons of Chicago could hardlymaintain that it is either an agreeable or a handsome city.Most of it is as grim and ugly as any city I have seen.Its redeeming features are the lake shore itself, theincreasingly magnificent Lake Shore Drive, the spectacular Outer Drive, the skyscraper canyons of the Loop, theUniversity, and the far-flung garland of city parks. Itis only by keeping in mind these beauties that one candwell there with equanimity or remember the metropoliswith pleasure. But for what Chicago lacks in lovelinessit makes up in vitality. I have never known a city theinfluence of which is so energizing. Its vigor and speed,its gusto and crudity, account, I think, in very considerable part for the rate at which its academic and non-academic denizens work. Another reason for the dynamiclife of Chicago is the relative inaccessibility of attractiveor enticing playgrounds. The devastated area of factories and mills, of abandoned and depressed tenements,that almost completely encircles Chicago discouragesegress around the south end of the lake to Michigan'sfine beaches, and toward the west the flatness of theprairies is only slightly relieved by the Fox River Valley and the tree-shadowed streets of River Forest, Elmhurst, and Wheaton. Chicago furnishes considerableevidence in support of my theory that men work best inenvironments where they are slightly uncomfortable, andwhere there is not too much temptation to worship thesun on clean sandy beaches or to lie pensive under thespreading greenwood tree.Despite the almost inescapable ugliness of Chicago,most of my memories of it are agreeable ones. Unlikemost of my colleagues, I was never so> unfortunate as tobe "held up" in the deep shadows of the University'sGothic towers, or garrotted, as another friend was, whenhis car got out of gas as he was driving alone one nightthrough the Black Belt. Since I am only an amateur Visiting Professor of English, Wesleyan Universitysociologist, I did not feel it incumbent upon me to seekout the more uncomely neighborhoods in the city. I couldnever understand those academic colleagues of mine who,from preference and not from necessity, lived at HullHouse. On the few occasions when I visited it, I waspainfully conscious of it as a little peak of civilizationthreatened by a rising tide of squalor, misery, and vice.Whether the psychic motiv '*s moral or aesthetic, Ithink of Chicago chiefly in terms of its redeeming attractions. Thus, the lake front east of the University wasa constant delight, and, even when I was too busy towalk down its long slow curve, I, like other patrons ofthe I. C, chose to ride on the shore side of the train forthe glimpses caught of wintry gray ice-laden waters, ofturquoise summer calms, or angry geysers of spray andfoam. I am so old-fashioned as to> prefer the JacksonPark of the war period, with the green copper turrets ofthe German building at the water's edge, the decayingboat of the Norsemen, the melancholy falling plaster andshattered metopes of the Fine Arts Building, Japanesehouses on the wooded island before their smart restoration, and that preposterous gilded matron, Columbia,stern as a traffic cop at a major intersection. I treasureespecially the first glimpses from the Outer Drive of thetowers of the Loop under various skies, towers risinglike a mirage from the lake and seeming the insubstantialpageant of a dream.But Chicago is less impressive in isolation than in relation to the region it dominates. This conception of it,I owe, I believe, to the lyrical peroration of a speech Professor T. V. Smith gave some years ago as facultyspokesman at a trustees' dinner. He had only recentlybecome aware of the potentialities of the radio as a medium of education, and he prophesied, perhaps withoutcomplete seriousness, a time when there should go outfrom the University over the air-waves instruction andenlightenment to civilize the mighty Mississippi Valley.Thereafter I never quite lost the sense of Chicago, as notmerely the economic brain of the Middle West but theinvigorating source of liberal thinking and of a diffusedmodern culture. For, as life on the North Atlantic seaboard responds to the magnet of New York, so the Middle West is drawn somewhat unwillingly and hypnotically under the sway of Chicago.My own explorations of the Middle West, thoughmodest, were not unproductive of treasurable impressions,of the long sloping cobbled shores of the muddy Mississippi at St. Louis and the fantastic assemblage of Lindbergh relics in the Museum in Forest Park, the softspeech and softer spring airs of Louisville, the Quakersimplicities of Earlham College, the robust menus ofMilwaukee's crowded German restaurants, Madison'sstudents in the spring sunning themselves on the narrowbeach or sailing or canoeing on its shining lakes, thebosomy maternal curves of the farm lands in southeastIowa, the red-cheeked farm girls and boys of GrantWood's frescoes in a Cedar Rapids hotel, the gaudyTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23Ak-Sar-Ben parade in Omaha, the soaring modernity ofthe tower of the state capitol at Lincoln and the Corn-husker Hotel jammed with a football crowd, the domestic elegance of the Taft Museum at Cincinnati a fewblocks above the swirling Ohio, the delicate ironwork inthe old French houses at Dubuque and the superb sweepof the Mississippi seen from a high point north of thecity.To dwellers in most of these places, Chicago was — asit was to me — the Middle West's equivalent for Manhattan, the focus of aesthetic no less than economic activity.Of the hundreds of plays that I have seen here and thereon the stages of the world, not a few of those I remember most pleasantly were witnessed in Chicago theaters.So it was with many a pang and twinge that I watchedtheater after theater disappear during the depression andgive way to bare and ugly parking lots.Of Chicago's museums, the Art Institute was the oneto which I went most regularly. (The Museum of Scienceand Industry lay beyond the range of my intellectualinterests, and the Field Museum oppressed me by itsoverabundant treasures, though I am glad I did not missMalvina Hoffman's superb figures for the Hall of Man.)To the Art Institute of my earlier visits, I am indebtedfor the romantic autumnal colorings of the George Innessroom, Sorolla's brilliant white sands and sun-brownedpeasantry, Zuloaga's haughty women, with heavily powdered faces, blue-black hair, and haunted eyes, and Mes-trovic's tortured Byzantine Christs and ecstatic prophets.To later visits to the Institute, I owe my introduction tq the riches of modern French painting — Gauguin andPicasso, Seurat and Utrillo, and the incomparableWorld's Fair show in the summer of 1933, that treasure-house of European paintings from American collections, a show that not only demonstrated the magnitudeof America's sack of Europe but dazzled me with thesensuous exuberance of Italian Renaissance painting.Here were Marlow's Hero and Leander and Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis in unabashed and living formand color.I caught my most sensational vision of Chicago on ahot summer evening in 1930 when I watched the pageantof the skies from the great flat rocks at the farthest pointof the land's extension into the lake at Jackson Park.Away in the north stretched the long line of skyscrapersof the Loop, at first misty and dim and only vaguelydistinguishable in the low-lying haze, and then, as thelong strings of jeweled lights flashed out on the OuterDrive, lights leaped up in the Loop towers, and the remote city became magically brilliant. In the meantime,the ruddy colors of the sunset changed to the most lucidof blues and greens, and, as the darkness deepened, greatbursts of fireworks from an amusement park south ofthe Midway rose to stud the sky momentarily with greenand blue, orange and red lights. Long after the opalescentafterglow had faded from the clouds banded on the eastern horizon of the lake, long after the summer lightninghad ceased flashing through the clouds massed above thelake, a great moon emerged from the low banked clouds,and sent a stream of gold across the dark water.ATHLETICSTHE MAROON SCOREBOARDBASEBALLChicago 15 — 2 WheatonChicago 4 — 1 ArmourChicago 3 — 8 PurdueChicago 1 — 2 Purdue TENNISChicago 9 — 0 MichiganChicago 9 — 0 WisconsinChicago 8 — 1 Notre DameChicago 9 — 0 Western StateChicago 7— 9 Notre Dame TRACKChicago 4— 3 Indiana Chicago 66 — 60 DeKalb Tchrs.Chicago 5 — 13 Indiana Chicago 62 — 64 Western StateChicago 6 — 8 Iowa Chicago 53 — 73 Penn StateChicago 6 — 9 IowaGOLFChicago 17^ — 9^ MarquetteChicago 7y2— 19y2 Notre DameChicago S}^ — 18^ NorthwesternPOPULATION DENSERWhittled away a little on both ends, the big block ofdifficulties which beset Chicago's football efforts lastyear may be carved down to a size susceptible of easierhandling next fall. A highly profitable spring practiceseries concluded at the end of April constitutes onemound of whittlings. At the other end are the shavingsfrom the tough 1938 schedule, eased somewhat for 1939.Come September, Coach Shaughnessy can be a football coach instead of a juggler. Spring practice enabledhim at least to get his players sorted.Last fall only three members of the Maroon squad • By DON MORRIS, '36survived the constant shifting of players which went onall season, after a desultory spring practice a year ago.This year virtually every squad member is neatly packaged and pigeonholed long before the first muster inSeptember.The improvement in classifying was made possible bythe turn-out, about four times as large as last year's,which saw the practice field always populated by twofull teams, usually by more than three. Last year lessthan eleven men were present at many of the sessions.Prospects of a green backfield, which loomed up atthe close of the 1938 season, have dwindled away, thanksto the spring practice. Only one freshman will have achance at a first-string backfield assignment, and he isonly even money for the post.Of Chicago's seven regular backs last year five areslated for graduation this June: Captain Lewis Hamity,Sollie Sherman, Ed Valorz, Remy Meyer, and MortonGoodstein. When Karl Nohl announced he intended togo to Europe to study, John Davenport was apparentlythe only backfield man still in circulation.But Bob Wasem, Co-captain with Davenport and anoutstanding end last year, has been moved back to right24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhalf, opposite Davenport. Joe Howard who played end,tackle, and guard at various times last season, will moveback to fullback.The sole chance for a sophomore to crash the Maroonbackfield crew is at quarterback, where Bill Leach, anaggressive though light newcomer, is a fifty-fifty prospect to replace Chuck Banfe, a sophomore last year, whois the same type of player but more experienced.HARVARD IMPRESSEDBob Wasem, co-captain next fall, piled up some mid-western laurels last fall in spite of the .143 average ofthe team. Coach Dick Harlow, of Harvard, by the way,called him "as fine an end as played in the Harvardstadium in 1938."Wasem, a "natural" player, was the No. 1 pass receiver in the Middle West. By hanging onto CaptainHamity 's tosses he was instrumental in putting Chicago'spassing attack at the head of the list in the Midwest.The hard-running end, who also played defensive halfback last year in preparation for taking over the postfull time next fall, was first in the region in number offorward passes caught, yards gained by catches, andaverage gain per game by catches. He was also No. 3in individual scoring.Wasem accumulated this record in spite of the factthat he did not play in the first three games because ofineligibility. This spring the pass-receiving star hasbeen practicing up in his broken field running as a hurdler on the track team. He topped the 120-yard highsin 15.3 seconds to win the event over Penn State's respected Frazier.MINORITY DISSENTSour-pussed Yancey T. Blade, inveterate Maroon follower, irked by all this optimism because of spring practice gain, points out that, in the light of Chicago's conference average in football last year, 400 per cent of .000is still .000. He says that although Chicago has three"easy" games with Beloit, Wabash and Oberlin, lastyear's three "easy" contests boiled down to one win, atie, and a defeat. He also laughs at paring off a BigTen game, since the game pared is Iowa, leaving thethree toughest ones: Michigan, Ohio State, and Illinois.Blade also suggests that however fine an end Wasemmay have been, and however fast a halfback Davenport,both have an academic pall hanging over them in theform of a midsummer eligibility exam.One final parting pot shot, at which Blade cannotpot back, is also derived from the 1938 football tallysheets. Chicago's brand of football gave Coach Shaugh-nessy's squad the lowest penalty average in the MiddleWest. Chicago was penalized only twenty times in theentire season, with an average penalty loss per gameof 16.8 yards.Chicago's opponents, on the other hand, were penalized 32 times, 32.5 yards per game being awarded tothe Maroom team for that reason. The conclusion fromthe standpoint of good morals, is clear-cut if not overwhelming: moral conduct nets about 16 yards and nopoints per game.HOLDING FOR A RISEChicago's baseball team has a record which to datelooks rather bleak on paper. Baseball games are not played on paper, however, and the explanation of theone-in-six percentage is r*~ t two-thirds of the Chicagoefforts thus far have 1. uirected against the co-champions of the Big Ten iast season.After two initial losses to Purdue, in which Chicagomet an effective team after almost no practice activity,because of the spring monsoons, all the Maroon gameswere with one or the other of the 1938 pennant winners.Chicago broke even with Indiana, one of the championship teams, and dropped two, one in eleven innings,to Iowa, the other co-champion. The rest of the seasoncomprises games with Minnesota, Northwestern, Wisconsin, and the alumni. With each game the averageshould rise a few notches.Chicago's forte has been pitching, with veteran BobReynolds and Cliff Gramer, righthanders, and Art Lo-patka, a lefty.TENNIS IS SOMETHING ELSEThe Maroon tennis team rolls on and on. Undefeatedin their last eighty-eight consecutive individual matchesagainst Big Ten opponents, tennis team members havelost only ten sets out of 210 in two years of conferencecompetition.This year Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as NotreDame and Western State, have fallen easily before theMurphys and their cohorts. But, the position of No. 1man on the team is not yet officially determined. ChetMurphy has been playing the position because of thelate start the mumps allowed Bill. Last year, it will beremembered, Bill and Chet were slated to play off forthe top spot when both were upset by Johnny Shostrom.Chances are much slimmer that Charlie Shostrom, nowNo. 3, will repeat his brother's coup.IN ONE EARPossibility that John Davenport, of the University ofChicago, will be eligible to represent the institution inconference competition for six years instead of the usualthree constitutes a Big Ten freak fact.John Davenport is the Big Ten's champion 100-yarddash man as well as co-captain of the 1939 football team.The Cedar Rapids athlete's third year of intercollegiatecompetition begins next fall.The catch is that John Davenport is also a student atSullivan high school, who won a scholarship in the University of Chicago- competitive exams recently. His firstyear of college eligibility begins in the fall of 1940,promptly following his namesake's graduation.The question is, can the second John Davenport runthe 100 in less than :09.8?Versatility is not the explanation for the appearance ofthe name Bob Reynolds on three University of Chicagoathletic rosters this spring. There are three Maroonathletes by that name, and they are not related.Bob Reynolds No. 1, a red head, is the ranking veteran pitcher on the Chicago baseball team; he hailsfrom Gravity, Ia.Bob Reynolds No. 2, a sandy-haired Kansan fromTopeka, seventh ranking man on the championship tennis team.Bob Reynolds No. 3, who has black hair, is a freshman, member of both baseball and football yearlingsquads. He is from Lakewood, Ohio.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25LaW, Lawyers and Society (Continued from Page 7)rights of United States citizens. Some lawmen think thatErie v. Tompkins will mean lessening of the amount andkind of litigation which can be brought in the federalcourts. Others, like Professor W. W. Crosskey, feel thatthe rule of Swift v. Tyson was more desirable.It was pointed out above that history has dictated theform and machinery of the law courts. Yet to say thatbeneficial changes to reform procedure always bog downin legislative chambers, as Mr. Lundberg does, is an exaggeration unworthy of a critical student of the bar. Anentirely new set of rules of civil procedure for federalcourts was adopted by the Supreme Court last year aftera minimum of fuss to secure enabling legislation in Congress. The new rules will have a beneficial effect ofstandardizing and simplifying procedure.Such changes, either of substance or form, are just oilon the great body of legal concepts which a society musthave in order to operate with any consistency. Throughout Mr. Lundberg's entire article is the underlying accusation that lawyers make a simple task difficult so thatonly a lawyer can understand them. When a young student first learns about electricity and tries to explainwhat he has learned to his mother, she is likely to saywhen he is done, "Well, all I know is that when I flipthe switch, the light goes on." Such a job as making lightfor a farm house is not so difficult. Why should it behard to give everybody electric light and a radio? Butwhen the technician starts talking of dynamos, peak loads,kilowatt hours, etc., one does not charge him with tryingto make things difficult. So it is with disputes.Lawyers, in common with all men, hold fast to namesand concepts which they have acquired over the years.These legal concepts are not to be tested by what theword or phrase means to the man in the street. Theyare to be tested by asking: Can they be applied easily?Are the results good or bad ? If the results are good theconcept in question will stand. To say that lawyers oughtto strive to keep abreast of changing social concepts isone thing, and a good one. But, to say that the law is"replete with fictions that refer to no objective fact, withcontradictory generalizations, and with outmoded, anachronistic, and quite empty concepts," seems to me a horseof a different color. A democratic society relies on concepts in its juristic system so that the courts can notusurp the functions of the legislature. To suggest otherwise is to admit the philosophy of Thrasymachus and thepower gang — that justice is what the stronger says it isbecause any man's view is as good as another's.Mr. Lundberg is particularly worried about the factthat the legal profession has no conscious social philosophy, "fhere is nothing so orderly animating the workof the legal profession," he observes, "as a consistent capitalistic philosophy, such as one finds in Adam Smith orHerbert Spencer." Likewise, he notes that the legal profession is older than capitalism as we know it, that lawyers have been famous revolutionaries as well as conservatives, that "lawyers have no more of an integralrelationship to capitalism than have monks or nuns," thatlawyers serve the underworld and labor as well as thecorporation, and so forth. It is a little difficult to understand Mr. Lundberg here. It seems to me that any pro fession whose job it is to resolve conflicts in any givensociety can not possibly have a consistent, conscious socialphilosopy. Each lawyer or community of lawyers canmake his choice. Hitlerian lawyers probably preferNietzsche, who said that democracy ("this mania forcounting noses") must be wiped out. Mussolinized lawyers probably have to read up on Machiavelli. JeremyBentham had a momentous effect upon the reform oflaw in the last century in England. Many Americanlawyers and perhaps more law students of today arepartial to the Cardozo approach to legal and social problems. But what does this add up to? Nothing. If Mr.Lundberg will describe the "conscious social philosophy"of the United States as it is today, he will have also described the philosophy of its lawmen. To ask for auniform approach to political problems is asking forfascism, and Mr. Lundberg would not do that.What Mr. Lundberg wants, I suspect, although hedoes not ask for it when he invites an integrated legalphilosophy, is a profession which is dedicated to thecommon good. If this is what he means, I fully agreewith him. I suppose that the difference between a profession and a trade is to be found in the phrase "dedicatedto the common good." Newspapermen like to think oftheir calling as a profession, and to the extent that journalism does what is good for a community in achieving abetter society in which to live, it is a profession. On thewhole it is not. Business is certainly not a profession.Law is one profession which should meet true professional requirements. It has an intellectual subject matterof its own and standards which are designed to maintainthe quality of its service. There is, of course, the matterof pecuniary gain, or as Mr. Lundberg says, quotingVeblen, "predatory fraud." But there are good newspapermen who have to sell their souls to Hearst, andbrilliant young chemists who have to go to work formunitions manufacturers. So, when it is said that thebar is sleek and fat, it is usually not said that 61 percent of the legal profession earned an average of lessthan $3,000 in 1936. There are many members of the barwhose aims are measured in terms of dollars, but thisdoes not mean that the profession must subordinate moralstandards to financial interest. There are wealthy doctorswho leave medical research to universities and institutes,yet the ideals of the medical profession are not lowered.VWhat is going to help bring the legal profession nearerthe achievement of its ideals ? It has been suggested thateducation is, like law, a mechanism of justice, and thatthe education of the members of our society is one goalof a democracy. And although education is no panaceafor all of the ills of society, it is one way a peoplehas of better preparing itself to cope with its problems.A better kind of education and higher bar standards forlawyers are thus only one step in this educational processwhich society is carrying on.The program of education suggested in the followingparagraphs is by no means unique. No plan of education is. A constructive answer to Mr. Lundberg's sweeping attacks on the legal profession is not easy to under-26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtake, and it is perhaps obvious to say that it is moredifficult to build anything than it is to tear it down. Andso the discussion of 1) prelegal school training, and2) elements of a modern legal curriculum, is a reminderto Mr. Lundberg and those who nod in agreement withhim that there are forces in motion which are attempting to prepare young lawyers to solve more easily theproblems they will face in the 40's and 50's.The student intending to enter law school in 1939should have acquired the foundations of general education. He should have 1) a facility in the use of theEnglish language, written and spoken, and an acquaintance with English literature; 2) an introduction to Latinas the basis of modern language and the mastery of atleast one modern language other than English, preferablyFrench or German, which may be used freely in reading; 3) a familiarity with at least the outlines of thehumanities (history, art, music, literature, etc.) and amuch more thorough knowledge of the history of England and the United States; 4) an understanding of theprogress and significance of philosophic thought; 5) amastery of elementary logic and mathematics and someacquaintance with their applications in contemporarylife; 6) an introduction to the biological and physicalsciences, and an appreciation of the tremendous importance of science in the modern world; and 7) a thoroughknowledge of the elements of the social sciences, including the essentials of economics, politics and government,psychology, and sociology. In high school the study ofEnglish, foreign language, history, mathematics, andscience should comprise the bulk of the curriculum. Philosophy and the social sciences, and the tying together ofthe other studies, will fill up the two collegiate years.Such preparation, suggested by the requirements ofsuch great universities as Chicago and California, may besecured without waiting for reforms in secondary andcollegiate education, signs of which are hopefully appearing on the academic horizon. It presupposes that thestudent will secure adequate instruction and guidance forfour years of high school and two years of junior college.The prelegal student should begin the cultivation ofprofessional school standards of study as early as possible. Recent surveys of younger members of the California and Wisconsin bars revealing that a surprisingnumber regretted the lack of more training in grammarand writing emphasize that such habits must be acquiredand developed during the prelegal years and practicedin law school. Intelligently selected readings in the greatbooks of the western world from Homer to the presentclay should supplement the work of the classroom.The kind of legal education to follow such preparationmust be one that will make the legal profession more likea true profession. The problems which lawyers meet arepractical problems and students must be trained to meetthem. The problems which a lawyer meets in our complex society are not solely legal problems, for the lawis one of the great integrators of social life and reachesinto all branches of social and economic activity. If theyoung lawyer is to be qualified to handle the affairs ofmen in the practical world he must receive more thantraining in the use of the strictly legal tools.Perhaps Mr. Lundberg is unaware of the movementswhich are changing legal education. The changes outlined here are being reflected in the curricula of many law schools across the United States. Plans of studytoday are quite different from the kind Christopher Columbus Langdell inaugurated at Harvard some fifty yearsago. New curricula — similar to Chicago's — involvesuch features as 1) the inclusion of non-legal coursesin the law school curriculum; 2) the incorporation ofnon-legal material into the law courses; 3) the reclassification of legal subjects into larger units based on thesimilarity of problems dealt with ; and 4) changed teaching techniques : supplementation of the Langdellian casemethod by outside readings and lectures, small seminars,individual tutorial guidance and general comprehensiveexaminations covering a year's work.The law student of 1939 is introduced to the lawthrough the field of psychology, the study of man andman's basic assumptions about himself which underlie allfields of law and the administration of justice. Many,possibly most, of the problems which the lawyer andpublic servant meet today have economic aspects. Insofar as economic theory may contribute to their solution,its place in the education of a lawyer is obvious. Thurman Arnold, whose latest book Mr. Lundberg renamedThe Folklore of the Legal Profession, is finding this outevery day in Washington as he tries to unlimber theanti-trust division of the Justice Department. Yet Mr.Arnold has been guilty of saying that a student can learnall he needs to know to be a lawyer in a year.Since practical problems involve a choice of means,and means presuppose ends, some of which may be considered good, and others bad, the student undertakesa systematic consideration "of the relation between theindividual and the state, the structure of the politicalorganization and the problems of morality in business."These studies in ethics should tie together previous discussions concerning the nature of man and the economicorder and should integrate the earlier work in Englishconstitutional government and the development of American political and judicial thought as set forth by thelegislatures and the Supreme Court. It is to be hopedthat such coordination will fill what Carl Friedrich ofHarvard has recently called "the lack of living contactbetween political and legal science."So many students enter law schools with an imma-turely closed mind on most of the basic questions concerning interpretations of history and the relation ofscience, philosophy and law. Far too many young students are solidly convinced, like Mr. Lundberg, thatthe law is a body of rules which are certain, and which,in action, impede social progress. As the student progresses in the law and related social science studies herealizes that such is not the case. Improved legal education which gives the student — and thus the lawyer oftomorrow — an understanding of what the social sciencescan (or can not) do is thus one mechanism for findingout how a society can achieve more perfect justice.The problem facing the student-lawyer and the lawyeris, in brief, the problem of democracy — the balancing ofsecurity and equality. The legal profession has a tremendous responsibility in this because of the central placelaws have in an orderly society. The more thought andstudy lent the problem of achieving peace and order, andan equitable distribution of economic goods, the morechance that action taken will be just.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27+f - ••r in Friqida're "J*^ ~-^^mx%%***^^ photogf'Reproduced from certified, unretouchtdphotographs of identical foods, refrigerated,uncovered, at comparable temperatures.New "Cold-Wall FRIGIDAIREBuilt on Entirely New Principle !A General MoroRS ValueAmazing new principle saves food'svital freshness from drying out!Preserves flavor, color, nourishmentfor days !• Imagine keeping even highly perishable foods vitally fresh for days onend! Now, for the first time . . .thanks to Frigidaire's astonishing new" Cold- Wair Principle ... it is possible to prolong food's original freshness for days longer than ever before!This means you save not only thefood, but the vital values you payfor in food! Natural nourishment andfresh flavor stay in . . . because theydon't dry out! Think what this meansto health and appetite . . . particularlythat of growing children !Fresh fruits and vegetables do notJose their attractiveness through wilting, shrinking, changing color! Leftover meats, peas, beans, even. mashedpotatoes . . . stay as delicious as whenfirst prepared. And they needn't even be covered! For with the new "Cold-Wall" Principle, food is not driedout by moisture-robbing air currents.Odor-and-flavor transfer is alsochecked.Convince yourself . . . in 5 minutes.See Proof. Only the new"Cold-Wall"Frigidaire can give you such vital advancement. Only Frigidaire gives youthe famous meter-miser for recordlow operating cost... the new meat-tender for saving fresh meats . . .super-moist hydrators for keepingfruits and vegetables crisp. OnlyFrigidaire gives you General Motorsdependability and long life. Yet . . .the new "Cold- Wall" Frigidaire costsno more than ordinary "first-line" refrigerators! See it today. See Frigidaire's other models, too— for everyneed and budget. Also the new Frigidaire Electric Ranges and WaterHeaters. Every one a great GeneralMotors Value!FRIGIDAIRE DIVISIONGeneral Motors Sales CorporationDayton, Ohio . . . Toronto, Canada HOW AMAZING'COID-WAU." PRINCIPLE WORKS6= O NOW, FOR THE FIRST TIME_>THE NEW'DEW-FRESM SEAL-A SOLID GLASS PARTITION -DIVIDES THE CABINET INTO,Z COMPARTMENTS.THE LOWER COMPARTMENT IS REFRIGERATED-OIRBCTLV THROUGH THEWALLS BY CONCEALEDREFRIGERATING- COILS.This provides all 3 essentialsfor keeping foods vitally freshlonger than ever btfore! 1 . Uniform Low Temperatures.2. 85 to 100% Humidity.3. No Moisture -RobbingAir Circulation. All withoutadding a single moving part!ONLY FRIGIDAIRE HAS IT !ONLY FRIGIDAIRE HAS QUICKUBE TRAYS... Imitated but neverequalled- 'because they're 1. Easier to use—'yxst lift onelever and cubes are free, two or a trayful. 2. Built Sturdier—to stand hard, constant service. 3. Faster Freezing— made of heavy gauge metal in every part. 4. BetterLooking— styled trim and modern. Compare— and you'llwant only genuine frigidaire quickube TRAYS. CUTS CURRENT COST TO THE BONE ... Simplest Refrigerating Mechanism EverBuilt— and when parts aren't there,they just can't use current or wear.Completely sealed. 5-Year ProtectionPlan, backed by General Motors.FRIGIDAIRE ^ETER-MISERNEWS OF THE CLASSES1897Charles J. Chamberlain, PhD,emeritus professor of botany at the University, was married to Miss MarthaLathrop, organist at the Park ManorCongregational church, on October 30,1938. Professor Chamberlain continueshis studies of cycads in the Universitygreenhouses.1898Otis W. Caldwell, PhD, is generalsecretary of the A.A.A.S., and secretary of the council. He is also chairman of the Committee on the Place ofScience in Education sponsored by theAssociation. In pursuance of the workof the committee, a new Committee onthe Improvement of Science in GeneralEducation has been organized.1900Harry N. Gottlieb is special masterin the Utilities Power and Light reorganization ; has spent most of thewinter in Washington conducting hearings jointly with the Securites and Exchange Commission.1901Burton E. Livingston, PhD, of theJohns Hopkins' Laboratory of PlantPhysiology, attended the Richmondmeeting of the A.A.A.S. and served aschairman of a symposium on the teaching of plant physiology held on December 30, 1938.1902Alice G. Hosmer in her retirementcontinues to live at 158 Summer Street,Somerville, Mass.The new president of the NationalAcademy of Sciences is Frank B. Jewett, PhD, whose election was announced in April.1903Alice J. Fisher's present addressis 44 East Calaveras Street, Altadena,Calif.1904F. L. Cummings, AM '11, resides atChico, California,At the meeting of the Botanical Society of America held at Richmond inDecember, George H. Shull, PhD,professor of botany and genetics atPrinceton, contributed a paper. Shull'searly connection with hybrid corn breeding was memorialized in a recent issueof the Antioch College Alumni Bulletin.1906William Crocker, PhD, director ofthe Boyce Thompson Institute for PlantResearch, gave an address before theNew York University chapter of SigmaXi on May 6, 1938. His subject was"The effect of anesthetics on plants."Heming Gerhard Jensen, PhD, hasbeen ill at his home near Bellevue,Washington (Route 1), for the lastyear, from a paralytic stroke. Hisdaughter, Mrs. J. E. (Ellen Jensen)Stout writes that he can sit up in a wheel chair part of the time, and isquite cheerful in spite of his illness.During the last 19 years he has livedon the farm near Seattle, where he hasbeen able to put his knowledge of botanyto very practical uses in growing plantsand experimenting to make them growbetter.1907Florence R. Scott hopes to go backto England this summer. Then in thefall she will be on leave from the University of Southern California and expects to do some advanced study eitherat Chicago or Columbia.The Pulitzer prize of $1,000 for "adistinguished book of the year upon thehistory of the United States" has beenawarded to Frank Luther Mott forhis three-volume History of AmericanMagazines, published between 1930 andlast January. He "has long been activein the practice, teaching and advancement of journalism. A prolific writer,he has devoted most of his books tophases of his profession, often to thework of reporters and magazine workers less well known than himself."Frank Mott was born in KeokukCounty, Iowa, on April 4, 1886. He attended Simpson College, Indianola,Iowa, before coming to Chicago to takehis bachelor's degree. He earned subsequent degrees at Columbia in 1919 and1928."His newspaper career began in 1907,when he began a seven-year period asco-editor of the Marengo (Iowa) Republican. The next three years foundhim editing The Grand Junction(Iowa) Globe, and he began his careeras an educator at the Marquand Schoolfor Boys in Brooklyn in 1918."He became a professor of Englishat Simpson in 1919 and assistant professor in the same field at the StateUniversity of Iowa in 1921. Four yearslater he became associate professor, andin 1927 director of the School of Journalism, in which post he has since beenactive."Professor Mott has served as chairman of the board of student publications at the Iowa University; has beenassociated with the editing and publishing of The Midland, and was editor-in-chief of The Journalism Quarterly from1930 to 1934. Since 1929 he has beenbusiness manager of the Iowa Publisher, and since 1934 has headed theNational Council for Research in Journalism."He is a member of the ModernLanguage Association of America, theAmerican Dialect Society, the American Association of Teachers of Journalism, the American Association ofSchools and Departments of Journalism,which he headed in 1929; Alpha TauOmega, Delta Sigma Rho, Sigma DeltaChi and Kappa Tau Alpha, of which hewas president from 1936 to 1938."He wrote or edited: Six ProphetsOut of the Middle West, 1917 ; The Manwith the Good Face, 1921 ; The Litera ture of Pioneer Life in Iowa, 1923 ; Re^wards of Reading, 1926; The Historyof American Magazines; News Storiesof 1933, News Stories of 1934, GoodStories, 1936; Interpretations of Journalism with R. D. Casey in 1936; Benjamin Franklin Selections with C. E.Jorgansen in 1936 and HeadliningAmerica, 1937."The third volume of the magazinehistory appeared last January, bringingthe story the author had to tell up to1885. He not only told who the greateditors were and what their influencewas, but how much they paid theirauthors. The work was roundly hailedas a 'monumental' contribution, andconceded generally to present an amazing fund of information on Americanlife as reflected by and contributed toby the Magazines. It was for this workthat he was honored recently."He married Vera H. Ingram onSept. 7, 1910. They have a daughter,Mildred."1908Charles P. Schwartz, JD '09, Chicago attorney, was recently elected trustee of Hull House.1909Mary Ethel Courtenay, AM '37,teacher at Lindblom High School, hasbeen promoted to the principalship ofthe Gompers Elementary School according to a recent announcement.One of our extensive travelers isElse Glokke, PhM, who only spendsabout three months of each year in Chicago now that she has retired fromteaching.Irene Kawin is deputy chief probation officer in the Juvenile Court ofCook County.1910Charles O. Appleman, PhD, hasbeen the representative of the AmericanSociety of Plant Physiologists in thecouncil of the A.A.A.S., and in theBiological Division of the National Research Council during the year 1938-39.He is dean of the Graduate School ofMaryland Agricultural College.Grace M. Charles, PhD, is completing her seventeenth year at AustinHigh School, Chicago.Charles W. Finley, SM '11, is deanof instruction, State Teachers College,Montclair, N. J.Harriet Hartford lives at 21 BuenaVista A v e n u e, San Francisco^ andteaches at the San Francisco Continuation School.Claude A. Phillips, AM, directs thetraining of undergraduates in the Schoolof Education and graduates who aremajoring in that field at the Universityof Missouri.1911President of the Fulton Market ColdStorage Company, Chicago — that Vallee O. Appei/s job.Margaret G. Arnold (Mrs Clark),homekeeper, lives at 311 First Avenue,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29Audubon, Iowa. She is a member ofthe Audubon Board of Education.Edward B. Hall, Jr., comments:"We have a small factory in Choisy-le-Roi, just outside of Paris, where weare manufacturing O-Cedar mops andpolishes, and I have been concentratingmy efforts during the last few yearsendeavoring to convince the French thatour products are the best in the world,and in my spare moments attempting tocement Franco-American amity."Lucile Shaw Poggenpohl (Mrs.William V.) housewife, writes from herhome at 1323 Vista Street, San Gabriel,California.Mrs. Louise S. Schaefer's (AM'38) work is coordinating instructionalprocedure of Jones Commercial HighSchool with the demands of business,leading to positions for graduates.1912After many years with Darling andCompany, Robert C. Buck is now abroker in fats, oils, feeds and fertilizersat 122 Michigan Avenue, Chicago.Essie Chamberlain, AM '24, of theOak Park and River Forest TownshipHigh School, is president of the National Council of Teachers of English.A. Boyd Pixley, executive vice president of Pixley & Ehlers, faces a realjob in feeding a "family" of 40,000people. Boyd's hobby is music and herates both as a composer and conductor.In fact at the Oak Park-River ForestSymphony concert on December 6, heconducted the orchestra in playing hisown composition Amonovis. And itwas the overture to this piece that theWoman's Symphony Orchestra playedat its Grand Park concert July 20.Eleanor and Laura Verhoevenboth teach in Chicago High Schoolsand live at 14700 Riverside Drive, Harvey, 111.1913Winfred M. Atwood, PhD, is incharge of large general botany andplant physiology classes at the OregonState College, where he has given morethan a quarter of a century of service.Howard L. Clark, U. S. Army Major, is stationed at Fort Leavenworth,Kansas.Everett E. Cordrey, SM '25, is finishing his twenty-fifth year at ArkansasState Teachers College at Conway.James A. Donovan is still in chargeof the investment department of theNational Boulevard Bank of Chicagolocated in the Wrigley Building. Jim,Jf., is a senior at Dartmouth and MaryVirginia is attending New Trier HighSchool. The Donovan family home isat 1040 Pine Street, Winnetka.C. P. Freeman's business address isSutro Bros. & Co., Chicago, and hishome address 821 Jackson Street, Gary,Ind.George D. Fuller, PhD, professoremeritus of plant ecology at the University of Chicago, was elected president of the Illinois Academy of Scienceat the annual meeting at Carbondale inMay, 1938. Dr. Fuller has also beenauthorized to establish in the IllinoisState Museum in Springfield and her barium of the plants of the State ofIllinois.Mrs. Warren E. Irmes lives at 2710College Avenue, Berkeley, Calif.Lee Irving Knight, PhD, is in thehospital at Rochester, Minn. His sonis now a senior in electrical engineeringat the University of Wisconsin. Mrs.Knight teaches in one of the Milwaukeehigh schools.1914George W. Crossman's (AM) titleat the University of North Dakota ishead of department and director of student teaching.Rachel M. Foote, AM, of Dallasis planning a trip to Europe this summer as the delegate from the SouthWest Central Section of A.A.U.W. tothe International Federation of University Women at Stockholm.Herschel T. Manuel, AM, of theUniversity of Texas, is now director ofresearch for the Texas Committee onCoordination in Education.Lydia Lee Pearce of Tilden Techspeaks of the interesting change inmethods of teaching public speakingduring the past few years involvingadapting the course to radio activityand recording pupil's voices on recording machines.J. F. Wellemeyer, AM, is presidentof the Kansas Junior College Association and vice president of the KansasState Teachers Association. He is principal of Wyandotte High School anddean of the Junior College of KansasCity.S. A. Zook, AM, is a real estatebroker in Van Nuys, Calif.1915Helen Frances Bridges, AM, continues teaching mathematics at West-port High School, Kansas City, Mo.James F. Groves, PhD, has completed 20 years of service as head ofthe department of botany at Ripon College.Rachel E. Hoffstad, PhD, of theUniversity of Washington, received agrant of $250, from the permanent science fund of the American Academyof Arts and Sciences in support of herstudies of the virus of infectious myxomatosis of rabbits and related viruses.Millard S. Markle, PhD, with hiswife, attended the summer meetings ofthe Botanical Society of America atOttawa, Canada, and after the meetingsmotored through Montreal and Quebec,and into the Gaspe Peninsula. Whileon the Gaspe, they visited the bird sanctuary on Bonaventure Island.Frank F. Selfridge's hobby is photography but he preserves the "belt line"by gardening in the summer and badminton in the winter. He is with theNorthern Trust Company of Chicagoand lives in Ravinia.Charles A. Shull, PhD, addressedthe Midwest Institute of Park Executives on June 13, 1938, on the "Production of New Horticultural Materials."On December 10, while at the KansasState College, he met with the alumnigroup of the University of Chicago, and TO HAVE AND TO HOLDWITH A ^5^*-<f"If we'd only taken a movie of it!" Howoften have you said that!Next time you do something you wantto hold forever in your memory— have apalm-size Filmo 8 along and capture everyaction and detail intruly fine movies. It'sas easy and inexpensive as taking snapshots;With Filmo 8 youcan take clear, sharpmovies right from thestart — indoors or out,in color or black-and-white. Later, you'll use"\rJry0*£» Sud&r modon;A.IHfl.„$10d.wn and £ conm>1 formaking animated cartoons and tides;Filmo 8 makes a fine present— for graduates, newlyweds, or yourself. See it at yourdealer's or mail coupon for free booklet,How to Make Inexpensive Personal Movies.Bell & Howell Company, Chicago; NewYork; Hollywood; London. Since 1907 thelargest manufacturer of precision equipmentfor motion picture studios ofHollywood and the world.SEND FOR FREE BOOKLETBELL & HOWELL COMPANY!1839 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111.Send booklet and details about Filmo 8.Name Address City State <5G 8-raPRECISION-MADE BYBELL& HOWELL30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALLS748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorPETERSONFireproof WarehouseSTORAGE — MOVINGForeign — DomesticShipments55th & Ellis Phone, MID 9700HAIR REMOVED FOREVERBEFORE_ AFTER18 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseALSOELECTROLYSIS EXPERTMultiple 20 platinum needles can be used.Permanent removal of Hair from Face.Eyebrows, Bade of Neck or any partof Body; destroys 200 to 600 Hair Rootsper hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrohiy andPhysical Therapy$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.Perfect Loveliness Is Wealth in Beauty gave an informal talk on the operationof the Chicago plan, and its relation tothe divisional program of the department of botany.Avis Smith, Milwaukee kindergarten supervisor, vacationed in Mexicolast summer.A. K. Sykes makes his report short :"Same business address (A. G. Becker& Co.), same home (Beverly Hills),same family (wife and four children)."1916Mrs. Florence C. Atwater, AM'35, is doing substitute teaching atWright Junior College this year.Elmer B. Brown, AM, is associateprofessor of education at Central Missouri State Teachers College.Frank E. Denny, PhD, who servedas vice-president of Section G, of theA.A.A.S. at Indianapolis, gave the address of the retiring vice-president at theRichmond meeting, December 28, 1938.The subject of his talk was "Productionof Ethylene by Plants."Director of attendance and employment of Minors Section of Los AngelesCity Schools is Guy Marsh Hoyt's(AM '21) title.Leslie A. Kenoyer, PhD, of theTeachers' College, Kalamazoo, Mich.,spent the past summer travelling inMexico and studying the vegetation. Hewas a guest instructor for three weeksat the seminar conducted by the Committee on Better Relations with LatinAmerica. Dr. Kenoyer is also co-authorwith Henry N. Goddard of a manual oflaboratory work in general biology published by Harpers in 1938.If Pancho Villa hadn't developed aset of very bad international mannersback in 1916, Fowler B. McConnellwould probably have had only a bowingacquaintance with Sears, Roebuck andCo., instead of becoming its vice president. The year Mr. Villa's nuisancevalue soared to an all-time high, FowlerMcConnell was getting his PhB at theUniversity with the idea of returningalmost immediately to get a law degree.McConnell couldn't resist the festivities which were getting under wayalong the Rio Grande. He went as amember of the machine gun troop of theFirst Illinois Cavalry which was a unitof the Illinois National Guard. He hadspent $20 for law books which haven'tbeen used professionally from that dayto this because by the time he had returned, it was too late to matriculate.Before he had been graduated fromChicago, a neighbor of his in the University district had talked to him onceabout coming to work for Sears, Roebuck and Co. "If you ever decide to passup law, call on me," he had said. Theneighbor's name was L. H. Crawfordand he was general merchandise manager of Sears. Young McConnell wentout to Sears and applied for a job.The job involved no very heavyduties ; he was sent forthwith to a mailorder floor to do stock work, checkingand other routine tasks connected withthe physical handling of merchandise.After the Christmas season was over, he FOWLER B. McCONNELLdid a stint in the returned goods department. Then he went into what wasknown as the "branch merchandiseoffice" which handled all the correspondence between the Chicago headquarters and the buyers for the firm'stwo branch mail order stores in Dallasand Seattle. At this point he was interrupted by the War.He entered the first officers' trainingcamp on the 15th of May, 1917; he returned as a captain in April 1919. Hewas made assistant buyer in the shoedepartment at Sears, then manager ofthe men's furnishings department, laterassistant to the merchandise superintendent. A new mail order branch wasopened in Kansas City in 1925 and to itwas assigned F. B. McConnell. He became general manager of the Philadelphia plant in 1930 and went from thereto Atlanta for two years before returning to Chicago, where he has been eversince. This month he was elected vicepresident in charge of retail administration.While not in the form he was inwhen he was Maroon football and baseball player, Fowler McConnell plays agood game of golf, but won't guaranteeto break ninety unless unusually hardpressed. His reading consists chiefly ofhistory, political science and politicaleconomy, and, — believe it or not, — contracts and torts. He is married and hasthree children, a daughter, 12, a son,four arid a half, and a daughter bornthis year. He still believes that if >thadn't been for Mr. Villa, the contractsand torts would today be considerablymore than fireside reading.1917John T. Buchholz, PhD, was electedhead of the department of botany at theUniversity of Illinois to succeed Dr. L»F. Hottes, who retired on September I,1938. Dr. Buchholz has been professorof botany at the University of Illinoissince 1929.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31Thomas C. Cawthorne is a traveling representative for Norge ElectricCompany.Last June James D. Darnall, AM,was N.E.A. delegate and the previousyear he served as president of BlackHawk Division. He is superintendentof schools in Geneseo, 111.Glen A. Gordy, AM '33, is a mathteacher at North Side High, FortWayne, Ind.G. L. Harris manages sales promotion and education for the Addresso-graph-Multigraph Corp., of Cleveland,and is a member of the National Committee for Testing Clerical Abilities.Teaching in the local grade school isthe word from Laura B. Heller ofFond du Lac, Wis.A well-attended Chicago luncheonwas held on Wednesday April 5, in connection with the meetings of the American Chemical Society at Baltimore.Leslie Hellerman, PhD '23, of JohnsHopkins University, presided.1918A new job for Joseph A. Baer, AM,is a director of research for the Connecticut State Department of Education.MlGNON CORDILL CULLY (Mrs. H.J.) is busy keeping house in Torring-ion, Wyo.Associate Professor Bessie L.Pierce, AM, of the University, has justreceived the honor of appointment byPresident Roosevelt to the advisorycommittee on the proposed Franklin D.Roosevelt Library to be established atHyde Park, New York. Waldo G.Leland is chairman. She is a memberof the executive council of the American Historical Association and chairman of its committee on appointments;is on the organization committee of theAssociation; and is a member of theexecutive board of the National Council for the Social Studies. She is onthe advisory committee for numerousW.P.A. projects, including the FederalWriters' Project of Illinois. Volumetwo of her History of Chicago willsoon go to press.1919Roscoe C. Andrews practices law inLos Angeles but lives in San Marino,Calif.George A. Bowdler's present addressis Cipolletti, F. C. S., Argentine, SouthAmerica.Dr. Aldrich C. Crowe is a physicianin Ocean City, New Jersey.Fenger High School students aretaught accounting by Luella Kettel-Hon, who lives at 7628 Luella Avenue,Chicago.1920Mrs. Lovell Bay (June King) writesfrom 661 East Drive, Memphis, Tenn.T. D. Brooks, AM, PhD '21, is onthe faculty of A.' & M. College in Texas.Earl B. Dickerson, JD, has beenelected president of the Chicago UrbanLeague.Harry C. Heald clerks in the Lincoln (Nebraska) Post Office.Cecelia L. Johnson, AM, is assistant superintendent at A.B.M. Karen i v*>\d*°^ cfo*mPROTECTGES23D1^ISTANCE gained ina relay race meansnothing unless it is held. Andmaterial gains made in the gameof life . . . home, furnishings, automobile, business . . . . should beheld, too. But they can be takenfrom you at any moment of any day... by fire, windstorm, explosion,accident, theft, etc. Fortunately^ property insurance is so flexible thatyou can protect what you haveagainst practically every conceivable hazard. The North AmericaAgent in your section will be gladto analyze your insurance requirements and tell you just whichpolicies you should have. Consulthim aS you would your doctoror lawyer.Insurance Company ofNorth AmericaPHILADELPHIAFOUNDED 1792and its affiliated companies write practically every form of insurance except lifeHigh School, Daingunkwin, Moulmein,Burma.Einar Joranson, PhD, was discussion leader at one of the round-tableconferences of the recent meeting of theAmerican Historical Association on"The Crusades Reappraised." He isin the department of history at Chicago.Delia E. Kibbe, AM, is in the Wisconsin State Department of Public Instruction.Earl K. Schiek, LLB, formerly associated with the firm of Bell, Boyd &Marshall, announces the opening of hisoffices for the general practice of lawin the Field Building, Chicago.Mrs. Harold E. Smith, (Hope Sherman, PhD), whose husband died several years ago, lives at 2915 ColeridgeRoad, Cleveland, Ohio.1921Beulah Chamberlain, teacher atHyde Park High, recently moved to5851 Blackstone Avenue, Chicago.Earl W. Combs, AM, has been teaching American history and economicsat Waite High School, Toledo, since1923.The new president of North DakotaAgricultural College is Frank I. Ever-sull, AM '27.1922Howard S. Bennett, principal of theEdison Technical and Industrial HighSchool in Rochester, N. Y., writes thatthe school is filled to the limit.Elmer A. Culler, professor of psychology and director of laboratories at 30the University of Rochester, gets hisfun mountain climbing and camping.J. Harry Hargreaves of Los Angeles is still employed at the TravelersInsurance Company in the capacity ofendeavoring to collect premiums to buildup the assets of the great Travelerscompanies. This according to Harryhas been no small assignment duringthe past years of monetary depressionand {he present years of monetary experiments but he is, however, lookingwith optimism to the future.Mary Rebecca Harrison, AM, headsthe department of education at ParkCollege in Missouri.Jerome P. Neff is in the advertising and publishing game in New YorkCity.Kenneth N. Parke, AM '24, combines directing the placement bureauwith teaching courses in education atNebraska State Teachers College.Edouardo Quisumbing, PhD, madea trip early in 1938 through the fareast, visiting the Malay Peninsula, Siam,and Java. He brought back with himPla-Salid (fish) from Siam, and Sepat-Siam (fish) from the Malay Peninsulafor propagation and distribution intofresh water lakes in the Philippine Islands. Since his return to Manila he,has been very busy preparing materialsfor the Golden Gate and New YorkExpositions in 1939. He has been detailed to the office of the president ofthe Commonwealth of the Philippines,in addition to his duties in the Bureauof Science. In the latter he is assist-32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINESCHOOLS & CAMPSGIRL'S SCHOOLOAK GROVEPrepares for College and Gracious Living. Music,Art, Expression. Upper and Lower Schools. Grad.Course Sec. Science. New Fireproof Buildings.Riding included. Mr. and Mrs. Robert Owen,Box 170, Vassalboro, Maine.BOY'S SCHOOLSHEBRON ACADEMYThorough college preparation for boys at moderatecost. 79 Hebron boys freshmen in college thisyear. Write for booklet and circulars. Ralph L.Hunt, Box G, Hebron, Me.WILLISTON ACADEMYUnusual educational opportunities at modest cost.Over 150 graduates in 40 colleges. New recreational center, gym, pool. Separate Junior School.A. V. Galbraith, Box 3, Easthampton, Mass.MOSES BROWN SCHOOLHelp and inspiration for each boy a century-oldtradition. Excellent college record. Secluded 25-acrecampus. Pool. Lower School. Moderate tuition.L. R. Thomas, 293 Hope St., Providence, R. 1.THE MERCERSBURG ACADEMYPrepares for entrance to all colleges and universities. Alumni from 24 nations. 680 former studentsnow in 113 colleges. Boyd Edwards, D.D., LL.D.,Headmaster, Mercersburc, Pa. _? CARSON LONG INSTITUTE *Boys' Military School. Educates the whole boy —physically, mentally, morally. How to learn, howto labor, how to live. Prepares for college or business. Rates $500.00. Camp & Summer Session, $125.00.Box 45, New Bloomfield, Pa.COEDUCAT'NAL SCHOOLS"""MERRICOURT"JUST THE PLACE FOR CHILDREN"For small select group — girls and boys 3-12— -bymonth or year — understanding care in uniquecountry boarding school and camp — every facilityfor health, happiness and social development.Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Kincsbury Berlin, Conn.TUCSON TUTORING SCHOOLIndividual instruction all subjects, college prep.& Business course. All sports, riding. Educationaltrips. Healthful outdoor climate. Wonderful opp'tysee West and complete studies. P. Batchelder,Dir., Route 2, Box 470, Tucson, Ariz.SUMMER CAMP'SGREEN MOUNTAIN CAMPSKAATERSKILL (boys) Pownal, Vt.— WOODLAND(girls) Londonderry, Vt. Christian boys and girls5 to 19. $18.50 a week— Also GARDEN ISLANDCAMP (adults) Charlotte, Vt. $20.00 a week. $4.00a day. Mr. or Mrs. H. Q. Lorenz, P. O. Box 424,Bennington, Vt.For further information write directly to aboveschools or camps or to the Graduate Group Educational Bureau, 30 Rockefeller Pl., New York, N.Y.THE OLDEST CAMP IN THE WESTCAMP HIGHLANDSFOR BOYSSAYNER, WISCONSINThree Camps— 8-12: 13-14: 15-17Woodcraft, Athletic and Water Sports.Music, Photography, Scouting, Long CanoeTrips, Riding, Shooting, Shop, Nature Lore,Camping Trips, Unexcelled Equipment,Experienced Staff, Doctor and Nurse.WRITE THE DIRECTOR FOR CATALOGW. J. MONILAW, M. D.5712 Kenwood Ave., Chicago ant director, chief of the National Museum, and chief curator of the Philippine National Herbarium.Since October Nell W. Reeser hasbeen teaching at Hyde Park High, Chicago. Her hobbies are photography andgenealogy.1923When school is in session LeoraBlair teaches mathematics at LouisianaState Normal College.Professor Henry Steele Commager,AM '24, PhD '28, of New York University has been appointed professor ofhistory beginning July 1 to take chargeof seminars in American history atColumbia University. He is editor ofDocuments of American History andauthor of A Biography of TheodoreParker and other historical works, andrecently spent' several years in Germanystudying German and European history.Cilena G. Walker (Mrs. E. E.),Chicago elementary school principal,spent the summer of 1938 in SouthAmerica.1924Cherrie Phillips Alexandroff,teacher at Parker Elementary School,is also conducting a seminar in arithe-matic methods at Pestalozzi-FroebelTeachers College this semester.Mrs. L. B. Alford (Glen Stiles)of Oxnard, Calif., is serving for 1938-9as recording secretary for the VenturaCountry branch of the American Association of University Women.A new position for Austin C. Cleveland, AM, this year is at FullertonJunior College in California, where heis an instructor in psychology and philosophy.Frederick Haase is a geologist located in Abilene, Texas.John Landesco of the Illinois Boardof Pardons and Paroles is executive director of the Central States Parole andProbation Association.Mabel A. Rossman was on leave ofabsence last year and traveled in SouthAmerica. She is principal of the Jackson and Park Point Schools of Duluth,Minn.1925Ida M. Anderson teaches at HedgesElementary School in Chicago.Nelson L. Bossing, PhD, is on theUniversity of Minnesota faculty, has therank of professor of secondary education.James G. Brown, PhD, recently addressed the Sigma Xi chapter at theUniversity of Arizona. His addressdealt with water relations of plants withspecial reference to cotton seed germination.Amy F. Byrne is a physical education instructor in the Chicago SchoolSystem.J. Kenneth Laird, Jr., is now asso- "ciated with Young and Rubicam, Chicago advertising agency.. Irene D. Lange, AM '27, is assistantsupervisor of rehabilitation and director of the Wisconsin State Board ofVocational and Adult Education. Geisterville LodgeIN THE LAND OF A THOUSAND LAKESNORTHERN WISCONSINComfortable — Pleasing — CongenialInformation on RequestGeisterville Lodge Stone Lake, Wis.A WYOMING MOUNTAIN SIDE_ Canyons and colorful hills are here toride. Trout are caught in the clear streams.Cabins are comfortable, fellow guestscongenial and food good. Families arewelcomed. 'May we tell you more?PATON RANCHShell, WyomingWalter F. Loehwing, PhD, waselected president of the American Society of Plant Physiologists in the 1938annual election. He presided over thefifteenth annual meeting of the societyduring convocation week at Richmond, Virginia, in December, 1938.Eleanor McDowall, AM '37, hasbeen teaching French since the last ofMarch at the Milwaukee UniversitySchool.Amy Irene Moore, AM, mathematicssupervisor at Morehead State TeachersCollege, has played the cello in the college symphony orchestra for the pastseven years and the clarinet in the concert band. She is the accompanist fora junior boys glee club and teaches thefaculty swimming class each year.1926Mary Allison Bennett, AM, is assistant professor of biology at WesternIllinois State Teachers College.Dorothy A. Bock, AM '32, continuesher teaching work at Hirsch HighSchool, Chicago.Along with his work as superintendent of the public schools in Eureka,111., M. W. Brown, AM, gives methodscourses in Eureka College. He was inresidence at the University last summer.John W. Clark is associated withthe Magnolia Petroleum Company ofDallas.Seward A. Covert's present businessconnection is with the Griswold-Eshle-nian Company, Cleveland advertisingagency, located on the twenty-seventhfloor of the late Mr. Van Sweringen'sfamed Terminal Tower. He and Mrs.Covert and their two sons, ChristopherWilliam and Geoffrey Stockwell, liveat 2842 Lee Road, Shaker Heights,Cleveland, Ohio, which, according toSeward, is "a pleasant home site withample trees and almost too much grassto cut."Edna L. Johnson, PhD, of the University of Colorado, visited the University during the summer of 1938. Sheis continuing her work on x-rays, andhas found that appropriate doses causestimulating effects. In some of herwork she has broken the color of flowersby very early treatments.Detlef A. Kraft, AM, is pastor ofSt. John's Lutheran Church in Flushing, N. Y.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33The Chicago Board of Education recently announced the promotion of Isabelle Louise Magan, AM '35, now aninstructor at Chicago Teachers College,to the principalship of the Avalon ParkElementary School.Mary M. Steagall, PhD, who hasbeen in charge of the zoology department at the Southern Illinois State Normal School for many years, is enjoyinga world cruise on the "Empress ofBritain." She expects to be back homeabout the middle of May, 1939.1927Dorothea K. Adolph teaches firstgrade in the Malvern School in ShakerHeights, Ohio, and has been doing workin the educational department of Graduate School of Western Reserve University during the last few years.Wendell C. Bennett, PhD '30,reports as follows : "In the intervals between trips [to the Bolivia-Peru region]I sit in the American Museum workingup reports. While classifying and describing the glories of the past I occasionally peek out at the present. I mustconfess that I turn back to pre-IncaicPeru with zeal; at least the confusionof archeology is relatively static."Knute O. Broady, AM, is professorof school administration at TeachersCollege, University of Nebraska.Clinton, Mo., is the headquarters ofMatthew Robert Gray, who is commercial superintendent of the UnitedTelephone Company of Missouri. Hisdaughter Margaret is a freshman atChicago this year.Emma H. Edwards conducts a private school of her own in St. Louis,Mo.Irving G. Lovejoy was transferredfrom Lane Technical High School toForeman in September, 1938.Frederick M. Meigs, PhD '30, is inthe executive department of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company, In Wilmington, Del. Formerly he was a research chemist there.Ross W. Potwin, AM, writes fromMcPherson, Kansas, where he is superintendent of schools, that the city iscompleting a new senior high school ata cost of $376,000.Leonard Power, AM, is an educational consultant for the U. S. Officeof Education in New York City.Helen E. Richards, who is continuing her teaching in the University ofChicago Elementary School, was an instructor in elementary education coursesin Temple University at Philadelphialast summer:Edith A. Stevens participated in apanel discussion on "Changing Art Emphasis in Early Childhood Education"at the recent Minnesota Education Association meeting. She is supervisor ofkindergarten student teaching and instructor at Miss Wood's TrainingSchool.Walter Gregory Williamson is advertising manager of the SpringfieldGrocer Company in Springfield, Mo.1928The National Council for Social Studies recently elected Howard R.Anderson, AM, first vice president.He is assistant professor of education atCornell University and also director ofsocial studies in Ithaca Junior andSenior High Schools.Bertram D. Barclay, PhD, andMrs. Barclay (Harriet George, PhD),spent the summer of 1938 at the RockyMountain Biological Laboratory atCrested Butte, Colorado. This was thetenth anniversary year for the laboratory. Dr. and Mrs Barclay attendedthe meeting of the Oklahoma Academyof Science at Stillwater early in December, 1938, and showed a very fineseries of kodachrome photographs takenin the vicinity of the laboratory.Leslie (MD '33) and Mary Braud-well (SM '29) of Wendell, N. C, havetwo youngsters, Mary Alice, born December 30, 1936, and David Jarrett,February 25, 1938.A member of the University of Tennessee faculty, Mildred A. Dawson,AM, devotes part of each week to public schools, rural and urban, doingdemonstration teaching and conferringwith teachers, principals/ and supervisors.Ida Brevad De Pencier keeps inclose contact with the University asshe teaches grade five in the ElementarySchool, Chicago.Gabriella M. Eickhoff lives at 2970Sheridan Road, teaches at MurphySchool.Peter E. Erickson spent part of hissummer vacation last year studying atBradley Polytechnic Institute. Heteaches in West Allis (Wis.).Along with his teaching work atLawrence College, Charles D. Flory,AM, PhD '33, also acts as counsellor tothe men in the freshman dormitory.Mrs. Hugh Fisher Hall (EffieMauger) writes from 2407 FifteenthStreet N. W., Washington, D. C, ofher son born in October, 1938, but doesnot disclose the baby's name.Last September Clarence Hender-shot, AM, PhD '36, accepted an appointment of associate professor of history at the University of Redlands,California.Mrs. Kenneth L, Hood (Ruth Zieg-ler) of Belvidere, 111., contributes 1800words monthly to The ElementaryMagazine published by the MethodistBook Concern of Cincinnati.Ward L. Miller, PhD, was electedpresident of the South Dakota Academyof Science at the Yankton meeting, inApril, 1938. Dr. Miller has been headof the department of botany at the StateCollege, at Brookings, South Dakota,since 1928.Roma Lucile (Milnor) Shideler,AM, gives us her present address asR.F.D. No. 5, Huntington, Ind. .The president of the InternationalCouncil for Exceptional Children isEdward H. Stullken, AM, principalof Montefiore Special School, Chicago.Elko H. Van Dyke, AM '38, teachesmathematics, social science and Englishat Central Junior High School, Woodstock, 111. Intensive Stenographic CourseFOR COLLEGE MEN * WOMEN100 Words a Minute In 100 Daya Al- ^inred for one Foe. Enroll NOW. Day ^elaisei only— Begin Jan., Apr., Julyend Oot. Write or Phone Ban. 1675. .18 S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO •£-1MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130ELIZABETH HULL SCHOOLForRETARDED CHILDRENBoarding and Day Pupils5046Greenwood Avf Telephone,. Drexel 1188Your whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.LearnGREGGthe world's fastest shorthand.AMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.All phones OAK. 0492operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.PACKARD AND LASALLE EQUIPMENTAWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRINGBEST BOILER REPAIR &WELDING CO.BOILER REPAIRING AND WELDING24 HOUR SERVICE1408 S. Western Ave. Tel. Canal 6071THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENIGHT PHONEDREXEL 6400 OAKLAND 3929HAVEFEWER BOILER REPAIRSMFG. OF FEWER'S SUBMERGED WATERHEATERS4317 Cottage Grove Ave., ChicagoEstablished 1895BOOK BINDERSW. B. CONKEY COMPANYHammond, IndianaPrinters and BindersofBooks and CatalogsSales OfficesCHICAGO NEW YORKBOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900- —0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CEMENT CONTRACTORST. A. REHNQUIST CO.r; 7 CEMENTCONTRACTORSFLOORSSIDEWALKSVAULT WALKSREPAIRS¥V BEVerly 0890EST. 1929We Cover the CityCHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '21Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALEASTMAN COAL CO.Established 19027 YARDSALL OVER TOWNMAIN OFFICE252 West 69th StreetTelephone Wentworth 3215 Ethelbert Cooke Woodburn, AM,is finishing his twentieth year as president of Spearfish (S. D.) NormalSchool.1929In addition to her work as principalof the Longfellow and Jessie LoomisSchools of Saginaw, Jeannette Birniedoes all psychological testing for theSaginaw School System.Hortense Bernhard Blum (Mrs. J.E.) reports her occupation as housewifeand her address as 1412 Maple St.,South Pasadena, California.Katharine A. Boylan teaches atthe Fernway School in Shaker Heights,Ohio.Harry F. Clements, PhD, has beenappointed to a professorship in thedepartment of botany of the Universityof Hawaii, and is in charge of the division of plant physiology in the Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment Station.Half of C. T. Coleman's (AM) timeis devoted to research and publicity forthe Hammond Public Schools and theremainder to teaching.George L. Cross, PhD, who was associate professor of botany and actinghead of the department of botany at theUniversity of Oklahoma after the resignation of Dr. Paul B. Sears, has beenappointed to a professorship and headof the department. He and Mrs. Crosshave two fine children, Marv Eynn andBilly.Charles F. Cutter is with Halsey,Stuart & Co., Chicago, and lives at 153East Erie Street.Russell I. Damon, AM, principal ofLincoln School in Peoria, 111., is planning on further graduate work this summer.Henry Hugh Edmunds, who retiredas city superintendent of schools, nowowns and manages a food market inClinton, 111.Robert W. Fisher is associated withthe investment banking firm of Blyth &Co., located at 14 Wall Street, NewYork City.Virgil J. Gist works for Shea &Company, investment counselors, Chicago. He and Mrs. Gist (MargaretBlack) have a young daugther.Harry H. Hagey of the Chicago firmof Stein & Roe, investment consultants,gets his exercise running for trains andplaying a bit of tennis and golf. He isat heart a devotee of fly-fishing. .Sam Street Hughes, JD, and hiswife have both had operations for appendicitis this past year but are infine shape again Sam reports. Samholds forth in the City Hall at Lansing,Mich.For diversion from his work as general agent of the Home Life InsuranceCompany, Kaare Krogh plays handballand golf.Elbert L. Little, PhD, has beengiven a permanent appointment with theSouthwestern Eorest and Range Experiment Station at Flagstaff, Arizona.He is assistant forest ecologist, and hasrecently been working on the pinion nutstudy which is part of the project onmanagement of woodlands in the Divi sion of Silvics under the direction ofG A. Pearson. Little has also spentsome time near the Mexican borderstudying the agave for the ForestService.Robert R. Spence has been with thefirm of Hemphill, Noyes & Co., members of the New York Stock Exchange,in New York City, since 1933 as astatistician, subsequent to serving anapprenticeship at Standard Statisticsalong with Bob Fisher, Charlie Warnerand other Chicagoans. He has a three-year-old daughter.Bess Sturgeon is now teaching atthe Maywood School in Hammond.H. J. Thornton, PhD, associate professor at the University of Iowa, hadan article in Palimpsest last year — "TheNational Scene in 1938."1930John Douglas Aikenhead, AM, issuperintendent of schools in Lac Ste.Anne School Division No. 11, in Alberta, Canada. He has charge of 74one-room rural schools and 6 seniorrooms, grades 7 to 11. He marriedMadge Watson of Calgary, Alberta, onJuly 2, 1938.Howard K. Bauernfeind, AM, ismanaging editor of the school book department of J. B. Lippincott Company,Chicago.Laura M. Brown, AM, is a teacherin Wendell Phillips High School, Chicago.Stanley A. Cain, PhD, is co-authorwith W. T. Penfound of a paper on"Aceretum rubri : the red maple swampforest- of central Long Island" in theAmerican Midland Naturalist forMarch, 1938, and is also treasurer ofthe Ecological Society of America. Ina recent visit to Chicago he gave a Sunday afternoon lecture at the ChicagoAcademy of Science on the vegetationof the Great Smokies.C. M. Chilson, AM, is assistantsuperintendent of United PueblosAgency, Office of Indian Affairs, anddirector of Southwest Training Schoolfor Federal Employees.At the close of the school year inBowling Green, Ohio, Vivian B.Craun goes to Columbia University tocomplete her MA degree this summer.Mrs. Harold E. Gibson (AmedaMetcalf), 1052 West Lafayette, Jacksonville, 111., says that she is too busybeing a housewife, business manager ofthe Mid- West Debate Bureau, and helping hubby do his social work, etc., atMacMurray College to think of muchelse. Both prospective U. of C. students are now started on their higherlearning road.Marcita Halkyard, AM }37, hasbeen general supervisor in the JolietPublic Schools for the last year.The School Board Journal for December, 1938, ran Carl W. Hansen'sarticle on "Factors Involved in Reporting School Progress to Parents." Hansen lives in Quincy, 111., where he isprincipal of the elementary schopl.Dorothea Jackson is supervisor ofcadets in the Seattle Public Schools andTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 35taught last summer at Central Washington College of Education.On the faculty of the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College at Richmond, Harriette V. Krick, PhD, isassociate professor of biology there.After graduation Edward J. Lawler,Jr., entered Harvard Law School andfinished there in 1933. In November of1933 he started working in the office ofthe Collector of Internal Revenue inChicago and was assigned to the Income Tax Unit as an auditor. On July19, 1935, Ed received an appointmentas a special attorney for the Bureau ofInternal Revenue and was assigned tothe Chicago office to do federal taxwork. On August 1, 1936, he left thegeneral counsel's office. At the presenttime he is associated with the firm ofBowden and Ooms, Chicago.Blanche McAvoy, PhD, assistantprofessor of biology at the Illinois StateNormal University, has prepared asmall chart showing the evolutionaryrelationship of the families of dicotyledonous plants. The chart has beenpublished by McKnight and McKnight.Mrs. F. Paul Wright (May Burun-jik, PhD) is mother of a daughter bornApril 12, 1938. The Wrights live at380 So. Saratoga Ave., St. Paul, Minnesota.1931Fred R. Bush, AM, is assistant professor of English at Central StateTeachers College, Mount Pleasant,Mich. Last summer he studied atColumbia.Formerly at Decatur (111.) HighSchool, Mary Graddy Brock, SM, isnow teaching at Hirsch High Schoolin Chicago.Arthur Cahill is with the FederalReserve Bank of Chicago.Jane E. Clem, AM, is instructor intypewriting in the State Teachers College at Whitewater, Wis., and typewriting demonstration teacher in the HighSchool.Social studies is the subject Henrietta Collins, AM '36, teaches atEnglewood High, Chicago.Clare F. Cox, PhD, head of the department of botany, Arsenal TechnicalHigh School, and Mrs. Cox are proudparents of a son, Milton Dart, bornJanuary 13, 1939.Marvalene L. Day received her AMdegree in December, 1938, from Columbia University, where she has studiedthe past four summers. She continuesthe teaching and administrative workshe has been doing in Bowling Greensince 1931.Muriel Bernitt Drell, AM '36, iscurator of the Lincoln historical collection at the University. She has initiated the publication of a periodical bulletin called Search and Research. Herhusband, Bernard Drell, researchassistant at the University, is completing his book on Herbert E. Goodmanand the Mechanization of Coal Miningafter three years' work. He has beeninvited to write a life of John Taylor of Carolina for the Southern Biography§eries.Allen C. East of the Public ServiceCompany of Northern Illinois, says ofhis young daughter: "And believe-it-or-not, she can take a sprinter's crouch,get set, and leave her marks a lot betterthan her old man could in his youthfuldays. I'm pointing her for the 1948Olympics."Harriet C. Gastfield teachesscience, music and mathematics at JahnElementary School in Chicago; livesin Deerfield.Verne O. Graham, PhD, is nowprincipal of the Norwood ElementarySchool.For the last two years Olive B.Groth has been teaching in Mount Vernon, New York, at the DeWitt ClintonSchool, and during the summer at BirchCrest Camp in Oakland, Me.Teresa Ferster, AM, has accepteda teaching appointment at StocktonJunior College in California beginningnext September.The article entitled "The Need for aContinuous Education Program forAdults" which appeared in MississippiEducation Advance in October, 1938,was contributed by George DukeHumphrey, AM, president of Mississippi State College.Elias N. Lane tells us that he married Marguerite J. Heller on April 9,1938, and asks that his address bechanged to 3432 North Shepard Ave.,Milwaukee.Dale Allen Letts is employed bythe firm of Adams, Nelson & Williamson, Chicago.Lee J. Loventhal II is the chairman in the fifth senatorial district of theChicago City Manager committee organization. He is a chartered life underwriter and special agent for Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Companyin Chicago office.Clemens E. Lueck's (AM) work isthat of directing the public relationsdepartments of Ripon College, entailingthe contacts with prospective students,the public, and alumni.Gordon D. Merrick has been incharge of the Western Range Surveyproject at the Southwestern Station,Tucson, Arizona.Carl S. Meyer, AM, is professor andregistrar at Bethany Lutheran College,Mankato, Minn. He has a year olddaughter, Carol Helen.Mrs. G. T. Nightingale (Alice Allen Bailey, PhD), with her husband andbaby son visited the mainland duringthe early winter. They visited PenneyFarms, Florida, Dr. Nightingale's home,and came through Chicago early inJanuary. Mrs. Nightingale gave a"technicolor motion picture" address,showing intimate glimpses of their lifein Hawaii. It was a rare treat.Mrs. Lowell M. Puckett (AnnaMulholland) finds that being a housewife and looking after two childrenkeeps her quite busy. Address: 104North 35fh, Billings, Mont. Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620-1-2-3-4Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wesson DoesELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWM. FECHT ELECTRIC CO.CONTRACTORS - ENGINEERSLIGHT & POWER WIRING600W. Jackson Blvd. TelephoneSeeley 2788MEADE ELECTRICCOMPANY, INC.ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWIRING FOR LIGHT & POWER3252Franklin Blvd. TelephoneKedzie 5070ENGRAVERSFLOWERSPhones1364 Q CHICAGOEstablished 186SFLOWERSPlaza 6444, 6445East 53rd StreetGROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1 327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9 1 00- 1 -2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVER36 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELAUNDRIESSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL LAUNDRY SERVICESAlsoZoric System of Cleaning- : - Odorless Quality Cleaning - : -Phone Oakland 1383LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHeoven TypewritingMultigraphingAddressograph Service MimeographingAddressingMailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoLITHOGRAPHERL C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182MUSIC PRINTERSHIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS SINCE 1906 + WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES ++ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED +? ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE ?RAYNER-DALHEIM &CO2054 W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO.OFFICE FURNITURESTEELE ABEBusiness Equipment \FILING CABINETSDESKS — LOCKERSCUPBOARDS — SHELVINGMetal Office Furniture Co.Grand Rapidg, Michigan E. V. Pullias, AM, spent the academic year 1937-38 studying in England on leave of absence from GeorgePepperdine College.S. R. Tompkins, PhD, associate professor at the University of Oklahoma,has a volume in press (Prentice-Hall)with the title, Russia Through the Ages.Arthur M. Weimer, PhD '34, isprofessor of real estate and land economics at Indiana University. Formerlyhe was housing economist for F. H. A.from 1934-35 and 1936-37, and head ofthe department of economics at GeorgiaTech from 1935-6.1932Arthur E. Arnesen, AM, supervisescurriculum and research in the SaltLake City Public Schools. He didgraduate work at Stanford last summer.Harry D. Ashley is selling in theSaginaw, Michigan, area for MasoniteCorporation.William M. Bailey, PhD, is completing 10 years of service as head ofthe department of botany at the Southern Illinois State Normal Universityat Carbondale, Illinois.Edna V. Ballard is assistant librarian at the New Haven State TeachersCollege. During the summer she studiedat the School of Library Science ofSyracuse University.Willis H. Bell, PhD, of the University of New Mexico was electedchairman of the section of BiologicalScience of the Southwestern Divisionof the A. A. A. S. at the 18th annualmeeting of the Division in Albuquerque,April 25-28, 1938. Dr. and Mrs. Bellproclaim themselves assistants to a new"manager" in their home. He is a fineson, Willis Harvey Bell II, born October 9, 1938. The little fellow isfamiliarly known as "Tuffy."Roy Black is now associated withBryant, Griffith and Brunson, Inc., Chicago. This firm represents publishersof various classes of media in the national advertising field. Though primarily an organization to representdaily newspapers, they also have radiostations.Robert S. Campbell, PhD, is actingdirector of the Range Division of theU, S. Forest Service, Washington, D. CHe and Mrs. Campbell (ImogeneFoltz, SM '32) recently adopted twinbaby girls.Waldo Crippen, AM, instructor inhistory, Washburn College, Topeka,Kansas, is sponsor of the Student Citizens' Council at Washburn, an organization for the study of national problems and America's part in internationalaffairs.William J. Custer, Jr., is withCrewdon Printing Company, Chicago,is married and has a small son — Bill, Jr.Seville Flowers, PhD, and Mrs.Flowers report the arrival of FrancesCaroline on June 18, 1938. Dr. Flowersis at the University of Utah, Salt LakeCity.W. R. Godwin, AM, resigned theprincipalship of the Peru (Ind.) HighSchool to accept a similar post atMishawaka, Ind., in January. Jess H. Hengst reports as a geologist for the Continental Investment Corporation located in the Kennedy Building in Tulsa.Paul K. Houdek, SM, was chairmanof the botany section of the IllinoisState Academy of Science meeting atCarbondale, in May, 1938. He is alsosecretary-treasurer of the National Association of Biology Teachers.Due to serious illness Jessie E.Jones, AM, was forced to take a year'sleave of absence from Wisconsin Central State Teachers College but hopedto be able to return in June.Robert C. Klove, SM '37, is now aninstructor in geography at the University of Chicago.Robert T. McCarthy is at presentemployed as assistant parts and accessory merchandising manager for theChevrolet Division of General MotorsSales Corporation. Upon being graduated in June, 1932, he was associatedwith Roche, Williams & Cunnyngham,Inc., Chicago, advertising agency, working on the Studebaker account. Hejoined Chevrolet in December, 1933,and has been with them since, in theDes Moines area.William G. McGinnes, PhD, hasbeen transferred to the SouthwesternForest and Range Experiment Station,in charge of the division of range research. He had been engaged in thesoil conservation work on the NavajoReservation and has placed that workon a firm basis.John W. Mitchell, PhD, has beenappointed associate physiologist in theU. S. Department of Agriculture, andis located at Beltsville, Maryland.Mr. and Mrs. C. Kenneth Pearseare the parents of a second child, a boy,born July 9, 1938. Mr. Pearse has recently been appointed as head of thereseeding project for the Inter mountainRegion of the U. S. Forest and RangeExperiment Station, Ogden, Utah.Thora M. Plitt, PhD, has beentransferred from the Bureau of Standards to the Bureau of Biological Survey.She is microchemist on a cooperativeproject in which the Bureau of AnimalIndustry has an interest.William A. Quinlan, JD '33, wasrecently appointed general counsel ofthe American Bakers Association, Chicago. He has a year old son, William,Jr-Mrs. Ruth W. Riekman may headdressed in care of the Public WorksDepartment, 15th Naval District, Balboa, Canal Zone.Richard A. Studhalter, PhD, wasre-elected secretary-treasurer of theSullivant Moss Society for 1938-1940at the last annual election, 1938.Scott Rexinger represents the Westinghouse Electric and ManufacturingCompany in its Chicago sales department.Bernard Wien is with the RobesonRochester Corporation, dealers in electric appliances, cutlery and the like* ofChicago,A new job for Charles D. Wood, JD'34, is as attorney and legislative direc-THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 37tor for the National Restaurant Association.Tsu Kiang Yen, PhD, is head of thedepartment of botany at Yunnan University, Yunnanfu, China. In additionto his teaching, he is working on amonograph on the edible mushrooms ofhis region.1933Don Birney, vice president of McCormick & Henderson, Inc., printers,says: "We now have two little daughters. One we call Joan, who is justat the age (3) where she demands theattention of all, and to her amusementand our amazement, she gets it. Theother daughter is named Gail, and is ayear old."Flora Bowman is principal of theSouth School in Glencoe, 111.Marc M. Cleworth, AM, associateprofessor at Northern State TeachersCollege, Aberdeen, South Dakota, isinterested in the history of his regionand its economic development. At therecent meeting of the American Historical Association in Chicago he reada paper on "The Rise of the SpringWheat Area, 1960-90," and is preparingthe article on "Wheat" for the Dictionary of American History. He is editorof Dakota Days.John D. Clancy, Jr., is associatedwith the law firm of Castle, Williams &McCarthy, Chicago, having been admitted to the Illinois bar in November,1936.Donald M. Crooks, PhD, head ofthe department of botany at the University of Arizona, is president of thelocal University of Chicago alumnigroup. He has been reorganizing thework of the department, and developingnew courses, with the result that thedepartment is growing rapidly.Mabel David is a first grade teacherin the Houston Public Schools.Margaret E. DeLong, who becameMrs. William Grier Carrington on June11, 1938, lives at 905 Pacific Avenue,Atlantic City, N. J.Helen Dixon, PhD, and L. LouiseHarris, SM '17, botanized in BryceCanyon, Utah, and in Grand CanyonNational Park during the last summer.Miss Dixon is chairman of the ScienceDepartment, Tuley High School, Chicago, and Miss Harris teaches in WestTerre Haute, Indiana.Sarah E. Fisher is now Mrs. A. R.Tobin and is living in Chicago at 2449East 81st Street.Clara M. Graybill, AM, is in Kalamazoo tjiis year where she is an elementary school supervisor.Gustav E. Johnson is at the University working on his doctoral dissertation. Last June he was marriedto Elise Kocourek, a graduate studentin the German department at Chicagoand daughter of Professor Kocourek ofNorthwestern University Law School.Jerry Jontry is director of NixonNewspapers, Inc., Wabash, Indiana.Howard I. McKee is located inColumbia, Missouri, where he is associated with the State Historical Societyof Missouri.J. Wilbup Prentice, AM, is treas urer of Ewing Christian College, Allahabad, U. P., India.Harold Rigney, SM '33, PhD '37,sailed from New York in May for WestAfrica via Europe. He will teachgeology at the government institution,College of the Prince of Wales at Achi-mota, Gold Coast, British West Africa,and also act as Catholic chaplain.Henry T. Sulcer is district managerfor the Interstate Collection Company(Spiegel Inc., subsidiary), Chicago.1934Ulys R. Gore, PhD, is assistantagronomist at the Georgia AgriculturalExperiment Station.James Henning is working for thelaw firm of Chapman and Cutler, 111West Monroe Street, Chicago.Richard J. Hooker is research assistant for Professor Jernegan and doesfree-lance writing for Newsmap.William A. Kaufman, Jr., has beenworking at Spiegel, Inc., a mail orderhouse, Chicago, since graduation and isnow men's and boys' shoe buyer. Hereports that there are about fifteen Business School graduates working at Spiegel's in executive positions.John F. Locke, PhD, is associateprofessor of botany at the MississippiState College.John Fryer Moulds, Jr., has leftChicago for San Francisco to accept aposition as department manager in theHale Brothers' Stores.Edward W. Nicholson received anSM degree in chemical engineeringfrom Massachusetts Institute of Technology in June, 1936. After workingfor the Freeport Sulphur Company,Freeport, Texas, in July and August,he returned in the fall of 1936 to M. I.T. as an instructor in chemical engineering for the ensuing school year.In July, 1937, he began working for theStandard Oil Development Company inBaton Rouge. In June, 1936, he married Betty Cason, '34.This year Homer W. Powers isteaching at the Senior High School inWauwatosa, Wis.Ernest H. Runyon, PhD, who hasbeen at Agnes Scott College for severalyears, spent a part of the summer of1938 on a fellowship at the MountainLake Biological Station at MountainLake, Virginia. He reports a verypleasant and profitable summer's work.Stephen Paul Ryder, PhD, formerly in the executive placement sectionof the Social Security Board, was transferred to the position of personnel director, U. S. Civil Service Commission, atthe beginning of the year.1935Leland Burkhart, PhD, left theNew Jersey Station in September, 1938,and has been engaged in horticulturalwork in west Florida. His present address is 4300 17th Street North, St.Petersburg, Florida.Marie Berger, JD '38, assistantsolicitor of the United States Department of Interior, comes to bat with thefollowing : "I do a variety of legal workfor the Department — which is, of course,the most interesting one in the Govern- PAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86E. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING & DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. Monroe 3192PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. "of C. ALUMNI PLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTY5341 S. Lake Park Ave.Telephone Dorchester 1579PRINTERSCLARKE-McELROYPUBLISHING CO.6140 Cottage Grove AvenueMidway 3935"Good Printing oj All Descriptions" RESTAURANTSThe Best Place to Eat on the South SideCOLONIAL RESTAURANT6324 Woodlawn Ave.Phone Hyde Parle 63241(1 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERIDING CLUBPhone Dorchester 0941UNIVERSITY RIDING CLUBHORSES BOARDED AND FOR SALEWE GUARANTEE PEOPLE TO BESATISFIED WITH OUR INSTRUCTIONSOR NO CHARGEW. S. Parker, Mgr.6105 University Ave.ROOFERSBECKERAll types of RoofingHome InsulatingAll over Chicago and suburbs.Brunswick 2900RE-ROOFING — REPAIRINGRUGSAshjian Bros., inc.ESTABLISHED 1921Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED2313 E. 71st St. Ptone Dor. 0009SHEET METAL WORKSECONOMY SHEET METAL WORKS•Galvanized Iron and Copper CornicesSkylights, Gutters, Down SpoutsTile, Slate and Asbestos Roofing•1927 MELROSE STREETBuckingham 1893STOCKS-BONDS— COMMODITIESP. H. Davis, ,ll. H. I. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W. Davis, '16 W. M. Giblin, '23F. B. Evans, "IIPaul H. Davis & Co.MembersNew York Stock ExchangtChicago Stock ExchangeChicago Board of Trade10 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622 SWEATERSGENUINE ATHLETIC SWEATERSSweaters and Emblems Made to OrderENGLEWOOD KNITTING MILLS6643 S. Halsted Street Wentworth 5920-21Established over one quarter of a century ment. Outside of canoeing on the Potomac and playing a mouth organ, bullsessions are my favorite recreation,especially with the flocks of U. of C.grads in Washington."An address of assistant professor J.L. Cate, PhD, of the Universityfaculty, before the Institute for Administrative Officers of Higher Institutionsof Learning on "Desirable Requisitesof a College Teacher from the Point ofView of College Instructors: The Humanities" was published in The Preparation and In-Service Training ofCollege Teachers (University of Chicago Press, 1938). He reports the birthof a son in 1938.Frank Culhane has been loaned tothe Illinois State Board of VocationalEducation by the Chicago Board ofEducation for a period of three yearsand is serving as assistant state supervisor of trade and industrial education.Rachel H. Cummings is located inRockford, 111., where she teaches kindergarten at Cobb and Park PointSchools.Now a student at the School of Medicine, University of California, IvanEdmister, AM, is planning to securean M.D. degree and then return to childguidance work in the field of education.In September William C. Garge,AM, was appointed to the position ofprincipal of the Pembroke (Mass.)H. S.Esther C. Howes, AM '36, is in thedeaf oral department at Parker High,Chicago.David Kutner is associated withMeyer Both Company, Chicago, whichfurnishes advertising service.In addition to serving as businessmanager of the College of Wooster,John D. McKee is teaching a coursein the department of education, titledthe "American Educational System."Each year during the cold season inIndia the Kenneth L. Parkers (PhD)take a camping trip, covering 1,650miles of territory and 600 villages, andvisit some 6000 Christians. Kenneth isconnected with the A. P. Mission atFatehgarh, India.Walter S. Phillips, PhD, assistantprofessor of botany at the University ofMiami, Coral Gables, Florida, is interested in the hammock vegetation oftropical Florida.Readers of "Front Views and Profiles" in the Chicago Tribune probablynoted this item on April 15 : "JohnPratt, tall, blond young Chicago artistwho did the costumes for the famousWPA swing Mikado, is designer of costumes for this year's Backfiar show.. . . When Gertrude Stein was visiting the University of Chicago campusseveral years ago Thornton Wilder introduced Pratt to her and showed herand Alexander Woollcott some of hiswork. 'The most talented artist I haveseen since I left Paris/ Miss Stein isquoted as having said. 'He is by farthe best draughtsman I have found inAmerica/ Woollcott, a conservative inart, looking at some of Pratt's modern,highly individual conceptions, retorted: 'I see. But Gertrude, can he draw?' "Principal of Boulder Junior HighSchool, Douglas S. Ward, AM, hasbeen appointed a teaching fellow at theUniversity of Colorado for the comingsummer.1936Floyd B. Bolton, AM, supervisesthe teaching of social science and commercial subjects in the East ChicagoPublic Schools.Clinton L. Compere, MD '37, nowan interne at Henry Ford Hospital inDetroit, will assume position of resident at Blodgett Memorial Hospital inGrand Rapids, Mich., the first of July.Hobbies: amateur photography (backof in-a-door in closet) and carpenteringin middle of living room. He reports onthe following alumni at Ford Hospital:George Plain, MD Rush '35, surgeryresident next year. Jay Venema, MD'36, medical staff. Charles H. Brown,SM '36, MD Rush '38, medical interne.Robert Cramford, MD '35, orthopedicresident. Clyde Kennedy, MD Rush'37, resident staff in surgery.After a year's leave of absence in1937-38 spent at Columbia working onher PhD degree, Hazel Davis is backin Washington where she is assistantdirector of the Research Division of theNational Education Association. Hertime is divided between research andwriting.A. William Haarlow, Jr., is working for the Illinois Bell Telephone Company as a traffic supervisor. Hemarried Margaret Blair Noble, aQuadrangler and member of the Classof '36, on February 26, 1938.Now in his third year at ThorntonTownship High School, Joseph Harney, AM, writes that he is very happyin his work as remedial science teacher,assistant class principal (freshmen),and director of safety (in charge ofsafety squad boys, bus guards, andsponsor of Safety Council).David M. Sade's job is editing theTax Administrators News.At the present time William H.Stapleton is employed in the domesticdivision of the American Rolling MillCompany, Middletown, Ohio. The department in which he is working isknown as the market development division.1937Edward B. Beeks is now with A. B.Dick Company, Chicago.Julian A. Kiser was elected vicepresident of the Indianapolis AlumniClub at its recent meeting. He is sales-representative in his father's investmentfirm, Kiser, Cohn & Shumacher, Inc.,which is an over-the-counter house specializing in Indiana securities.Katharine I. Koch, who teaches atMary Phillips School in Mishawaka,Ind., is president of the local A.A.U.W-Alden K. Loosli is enjoying hiswork very much with the Calco Chemical Company and finds his chemicaltraining useful in the production department.William E. Martin, PhD, of theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 39department of horticulture, Universityof Arizona, is said to be an expert oncitrus problems, as well as on bowling.Robert D. Morgan, JD, Peoria attorney, was appointed United StatesCommissioner for Southern District ofIllinois by the Federal Court lastOctober.We have just been notified of the appointment as assistant soil conservationist of Kalervo Oberg, PhD, to a position with the U. S. Department ofAgriculture at Albuquerque, New Mex.1938Taylor Alexander, SM, is continuing graduate work in the department ofhorticulture at the University of Maryland.Guss S. Kass is a chemist at the Municipal Tuberculosis Hospital.Anna Kummer, SM, teaches in theWaller High School, Chicago.Samuel A. Lynde II, AM, recentlyaccepted an appointment at MilwaukeeCountry Day School. He will be an instructor of English and director of theGlee Club.Vincent L. Rees, MD, is at presenttime interning at the University ofMichigan Hospital.Guy L. Robbins, SM, is continuinghis graduate studies at the Universityof Minnesota under Professor W. S.Cooper.SOCIAL SERVICEA new addition to the Series of Social Service Monographs is The Illinois Poor Law and its Administrationby Miss Breckinridge, who acknowledges her indebtedness to a number offormer students of the School who gaveassistance in the preparation of thismaterial.Helen R. Wright, Assistant Deanof the School, recently attended a conference on Housekeeping Service calledby the United States Children's Bureau in Washington.Charlotte Towle, Associate Professor of Psychiatric Social Work, recently conducted an Institute under thesponsorship of the Michigan Districtof the American Association of Medical Social Workers in Detroit. Shealso spoke at the regional meeting ofthe Child Welfare League of Americaheld in Chicago on April 15th.Margaret Creech, PhD'35, Assistant Professor of Social Service Administration, is spending the SpringQuarter in England for some researchwork and will later have a short vacation in' the Scandinavian countries before returning for the Summer Quarter.Ellen Wallace, AM'27, who resigned as Director of Field Service inthe Tennessee Department of PublicWelfare has returned to a position withthe Public Assistance Division of theSocial Security Board.Harriett Byrne, AM'33, has left theWomen's Bureau to accept a positionwith the Social Security Board.Josephine Taylor, AM'35, has beenappointed the Director of the SocialService Department of the Cook CountyHospital in Chicago. Violet Sieder, AM'36, has left theState Department of Public Welfare inMaryland to take a position in the Industrial Division of the United StatesChildren's Bureau. Miss Sieder willassist in the Bureau's work in the administration of the child labor sectionsof the Fair Labor Standards Act.Eleanor Idler, AM'37, has accepteda position as medical social worker inHarper Hospital in Detroit.Lillian Carr, AM'37, has taken aposition in the Family Service Association of Washington, D. C.Vera Mayers Barron, AM'38, hasbeen made Associate Case Work Supervisor in the Social Service Departmentof Bellevue Hospital in New York City.Elizabeth Godwin, AM'38, hasbeen appointed Administrative Assistant to the Commissioner of Public Welfare in Westchester County, New York.She has her headquarters at Valhalla,New York.Some of the students who receivedthe Master's degree in March, 1939,and their positions are: Janet Pleak,Supervisor in the Child and FamilyService Society of Peoria, Illinois ;Lena Weinberg, Medical SocialWorker in Sinai Hospital in Baltimore; Lucille Stenn, Case Workerwith the National Council of JewishWomen in Chicago; Rhoda Gerard,Case Worker with the Jewish SocialService Bureau in Chicago; MiltonFromer, on the Administrative Staff ofthe Philadelphia Federation of JewishCharities; Martha Morse, with theIllinois Children's Home and Aid Society ; and Linda Smith with the British Columbia Provincial Child GuidanceClinic and Mental Hospital at Vancouver.The following students, who havebeen on leave of absence from StateDepartments of Public Welfare takingwork at the School, have returned totheir positions : Verna Esser to Arizona, Helen Cavitt to Washington,Gladys Shuford to North Carolina,Mary Keelan to Indiana, LauraBerry to Kentucky, Margaret Cooperto^ South Carolina, Icile Barnes toMissouri, Abbie Hawk to Ohio, MaryHardegree to Alabama and MargaretKuhn to South Dakota.Mrs. Janet Chandler, formerly ofthe Wisconsin Children's Home andAid Society and of the Illinois Children's Home and Aid Society hasjoined the School's staff of Field'WorkSupervisors in the Child Welfare Field.RUSH1896Elmer L. Kenyon, who specializesin disorders of voice and speech, nose,throat and ear, asks that his address bechanged to the Medical and DentalArts Building, Suite 1814, 185 NorthWabash Avenue, Chicago.1904T. B. Smith, '02, says: "In 1923 Imoved to California and now live inWilmington which is Los AngelesHarbor. Between my medical work,family, and golf am enjoying life. Fam- TEACHERS' AGENCIESAlbert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau formen and women in all kinds of teachingpositions. Large and alert College andState Teachers' College departments; forDoctors and Masters; forty per cent of ourbusiness. Critic and Grade Supervisors forNormal Schools placed every year in largenumbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration, Music, and Art, secure finepositions through us every year. PrivateSchools in all parts of the country amongour best patrons; good salaries. Well prepared High School teachers wanted for cityand suburban High Schools. Special manager handles Grade and Critic work. Sendfor folder today.AMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It Is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.CLARK-BREWERTeachers Agency57th YearNationwide ServiceFive Offices — One FeeCHICAGO, MINNEAPOLISKANSAS CITY, MO. SPOKANENEWYORKHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, Hi.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, Normal School,College and University PatronageUNDERTAKERSBOYDSTON BROS., INC.UNDERTAKERSSince 18924227-29-31 Cottage Grove Ave.All Phones OAKIand 0492UNIFORMSTailored Uniforms Made to MeasureWomen Doctors and Nurses, Stock sizeInterne SuitsANEDA McSWEENY1910 So. Ogden AvenueSEEley 3734 Evenings by Appointment40 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEily are getting older and have a daughter and son in U.C.L.A. They are doingwell and are all in good health. Haven'tdeveloped any rheumatism nor incapacitation and enjoy hitting the golf ball —play in the low eighties and occasionallybreak into the seventies."1907A very interesting write-up of Mrs.Esther Paulsen the wife of Dr. N. P.Paulsen, appeared in The HeraldJournal of Logan, Utah, recently. Mrs.Paulsen, who has painted, off and on,ever since she can remember, held herfirst one-man art show in Ogden in1930 and her first Logan exhibit in1936. Portrait and figure work are herfavorite subjects. During the war whenDr. Paulsen was stationed with thearmy medical corps in New York, Airs.Paulsen accompanied him. Then afterthe Armistice they stayed with the armyand went to the Orient, spending threeyears in China, Japan, Siberia and thePhilippines. During their travels, Mrs.Paulsen sketched or photographed interesting faces and has since paintedmany of them on canvas.1914Gerard N. Krost, '12, lives at 6900South Paxton Ave., Chicago, is a pediatrician with offices at 2376 East 71stStreet. He teaches at NorthwesternUniversity Medical School and atWesley Hospital.1920Julius Kahn, '17, of Los Angeles,specializes in internal medicine. He isclinical assistant professor of medicineat the University of Southern California.1921Andrew Conway Ivy, '16, SM '18,PhD '18, professor and head of the division of physiology and pharmacology atNorthwestern University MedicalSchool, was elected president of theAmerican Physiological Society at itsannual meeting in Toronto in April.Dr. Ivy is world famed in the field ofgastric and digestional disorders. Hiselection is in recognition of his researchon the alimentary tract, gall bladder,liver, uterus, and endocrine glands.Dr. Ivy contributed more than ascore of papers on his medical researches to scientific journals each year.At 46 years of age he has more than400 published studies to his credit.ENGAGEDRuth A. Schenker, '32, to AlanRogers (Yale).Loran Vera Ohan, '33, to Alfred M.Basten of Spadra, Calif. He is a. graduate of La Verne College of La Verne,Calif., and at present is preparing forthe ministry at Presbyterian TheologicalSeminary in Chicago.Joseph T. Zoline, '33, JD '35, toJanice Ann Kahnweiler.Jane-Ellen Cavanagh, '34, toFrank P. Crowe, '32, JD '35. Thewedding will take place in the fall.Stanley L. Harris, ex '37 , to EmilyGertrude Harris. Marion J. Faget, ex '38, to Robert J,Guerin of Woonsocket, R. I. Mr.Guerin attended Amherst Universityand now is studying at New York University. The wedding is scheduled forJune 20 and after a honeymoon in Europe the couple will make their homein Woonsocket.Hiram L. Kennicott, Jrv '38, toMary Wilder of Davenport, Iowa. Thewedding is planned for late summeror early fall. He is the son of Hiramand Mary Whiteley Kennicott, '13.Margaret Pease, AM '38, is to become the bride of Pies Harper ofTucson on June 1. He attended CanyonCollege in Texas and the University ofWashington and is at present workingfor a degree at Stanford UniversityFor the past year she has been assistantin charge of social activities at International House.Margaret A. Vail, '38, to Edwin B.Payne, '37. The wedding will takeplace June 24 in Bond Chapel.Jonathan M. Williams, MD U ofC '38, to Morrell Liphart.Florence I. Kahn, '39, to Rew A.Godow, a graduate of NorthwesternUniversity.Robert Warner, MD '39, to NancyStern, a Roycemore graduate and nowa student at Rockford College.MARRIEDElizabeth E. Meigs, '30, of West-field, N. J., to James R. Morford, attorney general of Wilmington, Del.,April 19, in the chapel of RiversideChurch in New York. After a sixweeks honeymoon in Europe, they willbe at home at The Cedars, Marshallton,Del.Lucile Alger, '31, to WaldemarRobert Johnson, on September 24, 1938.Address: 117 North State Street, AnnArbor, Mich.Lee J. Loventhal II, '31, to Constance Moses (Illinois '35) of Dallas,Texas, on August 24, 1938. They areliving at 5465 Everett Ave., Chicago.Margaret Ravenscroft, '33, AM'35, to Lawrence De Leurere, October15, 1938. At home 444 Monroe Street,Gary, Ind.Bernice Friedmann, '34, to Bernard Yedor, '30, JD '31, on April 25 inthe Blackstone Hotel. At home, 7041Constance Ave., Chicago.Martha Hamaker, AM '39, to Clifford J. Hynning, '34, PhD '38, onMarch 18, 1939. She is supervisor ofsocial work with the Juvenile Court ofthe District of Columbia and he is employed by the U. S. Department ofCommerce to conduct its studies of business taxation for the monopoly investigation.Alice Ludberg, '35, to Wilbur Taylor, February 18, 1939, in Gary, Ind.At home, Ambridge, Pa.Louise Osin, '35, to Darrod D. Oren,December 1938; at home, 4939 NorthKedzie Avenue, Chicago.Julia I. Verbarg, '37, to Rex D.Billings, Jr., on April 20. At home, Belmont Park, Montreal, P. Q., Canada.Bernice Brown, AM '38, to Haldore Hanson (Carleton College) of Duluthon March 29 in Thorndike HiltonChapel.Ethel Goldberg, PhD '38, to Wendell R. Mullison, PhD '38, on December 16, 1938.Genevieve Monson '38 to JulianNelson on February 25, 1939, at theSecond Swedish Baptist Church. Mr.Nelson studied at Northwestern University. Their address is 7706 Kingston Ave., Chicago.BORNTo Mr. and Mrs. Paul A. Risk(Elizabeth Barrett '25), a son,William Barrett Risk, January 15, WestLafayette, Ind.To William Dudley Watson, '35,and Mrs. Watson (Patricia Vail '35)a daughter, Janice, on May 3.To William W. Jones, PhD '36, andMrs. Jones, a daughter, Carol Ann, onFebruary 9, 1939, Honolulu, Hawaii.DIEDCharles W. Duffin, MD '81, physician, January 19, 1939, in Guttenberg,Iowa.Samuel R. Slaymaker, MD '92,Chicago medical leader, on May 6, inthe Washington Boulevard Hospital ofwhich he had been president for the lasttwelve years. Dr. Slaymaker was professor of medicine at Rush and had beenon the faculty for forty years. He wasalso on the staffs of Presbyterian andCounty Hospitals and was a formerpresident of the Chicago Society forInternal Medicine.John H. Schaffner, GS '96-7, professor of botany at Ohio State University, January 27, 1939.Abraham J. Weissman, MD '97,Chicago physician, October 27, 1938.Susan Jones, MD '03, of Racine,Wis,, June 17, 1938. For more thanthirty-five years she had practiced inWisconsin.Grant Emmor Pike, DB '04, pastorof the Wickliffe Christian Church ofYoungstown, Ohio, on February 23 of aheart attack. He was 75 years old.Mabel Augusta Chase, GS '07,emeritus associate professor of physicsat Mount Holyoke College, March 31 atNashville, Tenn.John Yiubong Lee (Li Yao-pang),'07, PhD '15, a Chinese Christian educator and government official, April 20.Albert Ellis Webster, DB '12, assistant publicity manager of the Universal Atlas Cement Company, on April22, 1939, at his home in JacksonHeights, Long Island, New York.Mrs. Agnes Murphy, '15, of Hib-bing, Minnesota, died on October 22,1938,Freas F. Jordan, AM '21, October10, 1938. Formerly taught at DePauland the University of Cincinnati andlater was general manager and vicepresident of the Emery Candle Co.,Cincinnati.Charles Marion Redmond, '22,April 5, of heart trouble, in Chicago.Gifford Dean Wray, Jr., MD U ofC '39, May 2, 1939.£i i 1 1 1 1 U 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 fi 1 1 a 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1\< 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 E I S E 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LLTHE University of Chicago is happy to offer an employmentservice to business houses and school administrators of thecity and of the nation and to all individual employers of laboron a temporary, a part-time or a permanent basis. This makes itpossible for alumni and non-alumni employers to make use ofthe great resources in personnel material available in the variousdepartments of the University.The foremost interest of the Placement Counselors is to recommend to the employers the very best persons available todischarge the duties of any given position whether it be a part-time, temporary position concerned with the home, or a highlyresponsible executive position in a business organization.Trained experts, who understand the needs of the home andof business, will assist you to find the proper college trainedindividual, either man or woman, for any particular work. Do notoverlook the convenience of making use of this service to locatethe best possible employee with a minimum of time and effort.BOARD OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENTUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOCHICAGO, ILLINOISTelephone Midway 0800 — Extension 391?IlllllllllllIMMIigill!llllllll9llllllllllllllilll[ir.1lllllllllllllllllIlllllllllllllillllllllllllllllMIIIMIlllllllIIIIIIElillllllllllllllIlllllllllllllll||IMSl||i~. . the catch of the seasonr more smoking pleasureIn every part of the countrysmokers are turning to Chesterfieldsfor what they really want in a cigarette . . . refreshing mildness . . . better taste. . . and a more pleasing aroma.Copyright 1959, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.