od R. RTHE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEMIDSUMMER3>iwwl thsL £dii&iL W&winq~ WlaiL —Dear Carl: —Here is a check for ten dollars to cover my first installment on a Life Membership in the Alumni Association. I've intended doing this for the past twelveyears — and most of those years the check would have been good — but somehoivI never got around to it. It's certainly discouraging to see how often we postponedoing not only the things we ought to do, but the things ive want to do. Nevermind, I have overcome my inertia. The first payment is made and the others willcome through on schedule — provided you send me a reminder, and somehow Ifeel I can trust you to do that.Here's hoping a thousand others may "join for life" and make your life ahappier one.Cordially,In the past twenty years more than 1500 alumni have "joined for life." During thelast twelve months, sixty "Lifers" have been added to the group. You are invited tojoin the "immortals." The cost is $50, payable in lump sum or in five annual payments. Make your remittance to The Alumni Council, The University of Chicago.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF THE LATEST SIXTYPaul H. W. Harders, ChicagoErnestine M. J. Long, St. Louis, Mo.George E. Leonard, ChicagoWilliam J. MacKenzie, ChicagoStella Bodmer Boyd, Evansville, Ind.John J. Theobald, Oak Park, 111.Tracy W. Simpson, Portland, Ore.Edith B. Whitney, Virginia, Minn.Benjamin M. Gasul, ChicagoClinton D. Swickard, Charleston, 111.Benjamin J. Birk, Milwaukee, Wis.Robert S. Carroll, Asheville, N. C.Arthur R. Metz, ChicagoJacob H. Enns, Newton, Kans.Claude L. Shields, Salt Lake City, UtahVernon C. David, ChicagoLouis E. Kanne, ChicagoJohn W. Green, Vallejo, Calif.Richard H. Pousma, Reheboth, N. M.Albert E. Reed, Larned, Kans.Frank K. Bartlett, Ogden, UtahKatherine Rogers Garner, Winnetka, 111.George M. Curtis, Columbus, OhioM. Elizabeth Downing, ChicagoGeorge E. Goodrich, Phoenix, Ariz.Floyd E. Keir, Englewood, N. J.Theresa T. Cohen, ChicagoCharles F. Nelson, Beverly Hills, Calif.John Inglis, Denver, Colo.George F. Dick, Chicago Clayton J. Lundy, ChicagoElis S. Hoglund, Stockholm, SwedenLydia Quinlan Dobbins, Springfield, 111.Russell M. Wilder, Rochester, Minn.Veit Gentry, Highland Park, 111.Lyman A. Copps, Marshfield, Wis.Julia Wells Bower, Reading, Pa.Amando Clemente, Manila, P. I.Gerald R. Gorman, ChicagoAaron Arkin, ChicagoDaniel L. Stormont, Evanston, 111.Herman F. Burkwall, Nodoa, Hainan, ChinaWilliam M. Hanchett, Council Bluffs, Ia.Roy K. Keech, Cedar Rapids, Ia.Lee T. Hoyt, Roseville, 111.John C. Hubbard, Price, UtahN. Sproat Heaney, ChicagoHugh Dean, Detroit, Mich.Lloyd H. Barker, Kingman, Ind.Tom D. Paul, Evanston, 111.Julia D. Randall, St. Louis, Mo.Ludwig A. Emge, San Francisco, Calif.Susan Grey Akers, Chapel Hill, N. C.Margaret Fogelsong Ingram, Forest Hills, N. Y.Faith Johnston, Rosebush, Mich.George A. Bates, ChicagoRuth Swift Van Nice, ChicagoMax S. Bloom, ChicagoElise Meyer Drummond, Detroit, Mich.Carroll Mason Russell, ChicagoTHE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEALUMNI COUNCILHoward P. Hudson, '35Associate EditorPUBLISHED BY THECharlton T. Beck, '04Editor and Business ManagerFred B. Millett, PhD '31; William V. Morgenstern, '20, JD '22; Paul MacleanContributing EditorsMilton E. Robinson, Jr., 11, JD '13; Louise Norton Swain, '09, AM '16; John J. McDonough, '28Council Committee on PublicationsN THIS ISSUEAROUND the time when"Ee-o-lev-en" was just swinging into action, when the young University was growing even faster thanbefore and amazing the country withits brilliant scholars, Burton Rascoeand Martin Stevers were students.Rascoe breezed through two years ofnewspaper work squeezing in University studies in his budget wherebest he could, and soon left for theoutside world. Stevers, with whomhe roomed and shared his experiences, went on to become editor ofthe Daily Maroon, the Cap andGown, and a leader in activities. Justthis year Rascoe, now a well-knownliterary critic on the staff of Esquire,wrote his memoirs entitled Before IForget, and devoted much of hisbook to his University career. Thishe developed into a tirade against theeducational policies on the Midway,terming them "a wasteful farce." Tomeet his attacks close friend Stevers,encyclopedist with F. E. ComptonCo. and a literary man himself,jumped to his typewriter to poundout a defense of the University and aclean-cut description of erstwhileroommate Burton. The conflictingviews of these two prominent alumniare on page 12.Our business men alumni can wellappreciate the complexities of financing an institution as large as the University. They undoubtedly will appreciate them still more after readingComptroller Nathan Plimpton's his torical study of the money side of theUniversity, on page 14.Following a precedent set at theAlumni School, the speakers for theAlumni Assembly in Mandel Hallhave been selected from classes celebrating a fifth year reunion. And sothe last Assembly in June foundHarold L. Ickes, class of '97 and Secretary of the Interior, and Harold G.Moulton, class of '07 and presidentTABLE OF CONTENTSMIDSUMMER, 1937Page"Students, Lend Me Your Ears,"Harold L. Ickes 3Who's New on Board 7Law Association Celebrates 7Quad Rambles, Howard W. Mort 8Economics Today, Harold G. Moulton 9Resolved : The University is a"Wasteful Farce," Burton RascoeAttacks, Martin Stevers Defends. . . 12Financing a University; An Historical Sketch, Nathan C. Plimpton 14In My Opinion, Fred B. Millet 18Herbert Ellsworth Slaught, GilbertA. Bliss 22News of the Quadrangles, WilliamV. Morgenstern 25Athletics, Paul Maclean 29News of the Classes 31 of Brookings Institution among thespeakers. We think that our readerswill be interested in reading the talksmade by these two Washingtonions.Ironically enough Alumnus Ickes corresponded early last year with classmembers regarding a fortieth reunioncelebration, the celebration was held,but illness prevented his attending.A brilliant scholar and teacher wasHerbert Ellsworth Slaught, professoremeritus of Mathematics, who diedrecently, and exceedingly active inalumni work. Alumnus Gilbert A.Bliss, one of Slaught's departmentalcolleagues, pays tribute to him in thisissue, (page 22.)In the June issue of the Magazine,the report of President Hutchin's address at the Memorial Service forJohn D. Rockefeller erroneously gavethe amount of Mr. Rockefeller's initial pledge to the University as$400,000. As all informed alumniknow this first of the Founder's manygifts to Chicago was $600,000; thissum to be met with pledges fromothers of $400,000. Also in the samearticle credit is due The ChicagoDaily News for furnishing the reproductions of the old pictures of Rockefeller and Harper. The picture ofHarold Moulton in the June issuewas made by the Chicago Herald andExaminer.Published by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago monthly, from November to July. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. atEllis Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Officeat Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agencyof the University of Chicago Magazine.HERBERT ELLSWORTH SLAUGHTPROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICSJULY 21, 1861— MAY 21, 1937VOLUME XXIX THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 9MIDSUMMERJULY, 1937"STUDENTS, LEND ME YOUR EARS"*THE pleasure of this opportunity to address fellowalumni of an Alma Mater that has grown dearerand more revered as the years have passed isindeed great. I cherish this occasion, not because 1 haveany particular wisdom to disclose, but because there isa question that has been pressing itself upon me for sometime, a question that is as important to you as it is tome. I shall venture to propound this question, evenalthough Heywood Broun in his column recently saidthat it is the undergraduates who look, through seriouseyes, at the real problems of the day, while alumni onthe occasions that they get together are more interestedin knowing why they haven't a winning football teamand demand an outburst of college spirit in the form of"football songs and drinking ditties."According to Broun, the son of a visiting alumnus willsee to it that the "boys in the corridor" put on such ashow that dear old dad "will feel that he is getting hismoney's worth for sending his boy to college."I confess that I am not free from what HeywoodBroun declares to be the weakness of alumni. I love tobe at ease with a sympathetic group talking aboutHerschberger and Eckersall and Steffen and Berwanger,living over again those great days when to us footballwas the most important thing in the world; exulting inthe two-to-nothing victory over Michigan and the seventy-seven-to-nothing triumph over Northwestern; recallinghow time after time little Jimmy Sheldon clasped themighty Hare of Pennsylvania just above his knees andthrew him back toward the scrimmage line. I wouldwelcome an opportunity to tell a group of fellow alumniwhat, in my opinion, Amos Alonzo Stagg, the greatestcoach of his time, meant to the University, not by wayof miraculous victories over stronger teams supportedby a wealth of athletic personnel, but as a builder ofcharacter who has had no superiors and few, if any,rivals.There are many pleasant and interesting memories inthe mind of an alumnus whose diploma bears the date ofjust forty years ago, when the ownership or the abilityto borrow or rent a dress suit won membership in theglee club over a mere voice that was not supported bysuch habiliments. These memories are sweet and dear to* Speech of Harold L. Ickes, Secretary/ of the Interior, delivered before the Alumni Assembly, Mandel Hall, June 5«. Because of the illnessof Secretary Ickes, his address was read by Professor Charles E. Merriam. • By HAROLD L ICKES, '97me. But I shall put behind me the temptation to"reminisce" today. I do not know whether HeywoodBroun was right or not when he wrote the piece to whichI have referred, but if he was I hope that there is at leasta leavening of two or three undergraduates here so thatthere may be some interest in the serious talk that I haveprepared.I told you at the beginning that it was my intention toask a question. PI ere it is : Do the people of Chicago and'the alumni and students of the University of Chicagowant to maintain here on the Midway one of the greatestuniversities in the whole world ? Or do they want a sortof super-finishing school which, after four years of intellectual regimentation, of more successful athletics thanwe have had, of pleasant associations in girls' clubs andmen's fraternities, turn out, in neat little packages, allbearing identical labels, a steady output of graduates whohave a smattering on many subjects, have learned towrite and speak good, but not too good, English, and whoare prepared to go through life as pleasantly as they havegone through college?I know what the answer of the alumni will be to thisquestion after they have thought of it, although I am notso sure about the great City of Chicago. We alumni areproud of our University. The assurance that it rankstoday as one of the two greatest universities in ourcountry, and that it is in the select group of half a dozenof the oustanding institutions of learning in the wholeworld, fills our hearts with pride. Nor are we contenteven to share the front rank either in America or in theworld with any other university. We want to be first.The achievements of Chicago are more than extraordinary; they are marvelous. And here I will "reminisce"a bit, if I may, although not about student pranks, pie-throwing contests and faculty baiting, in which, believeit or not, some of us once indulged with a feeling ofjoyous accomplishment.The University of Chicago was still in its swaddlingclothes when I entered as a freshman in the autumn of1893. Those were great and inspiring days in the earlyyears here — greater and more inspiring than we wereable to realize at the time. Yet, if the truth were told,I suspect that in that long ago many of us suffered fromsomething the name of which was not then known butwhich is now called inferiority complex. Were we really3THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEbeing collegiate? Did we wear clothes that would proclaim clearly that we were collegians, and did we wearthem in the right way ? We were worried not only aboutour manners, which we wanted to be properly undergraduate ; we were equally concerned about our customs.On the question of customs we were particularly sensitive. How could a college man really be a college man ifhe did not have customs and traditions to stack upagainst the customs and traditions of fortunate studentsin other colleges when they boasted of their own localidiosyncrasies? Well, if we didn't have customs andtraditions we would create some of our own, and manya brow grew stern as the result of the active cerebration that was going on behind it trying to invent sometradition or custom that would prove that Chicago wasa university after all. I think that the crowning effortin this connection was that of one of my own classmates,who wrote a song, which I hope is still current, entitled"Old Haskell Door," a song that was written, tuned upand sung before the door in question had been hung.I believe that many "old timers" will agree with mewhen I say that secretly we were envious in those earlydays of the accomplishments, the traditions and particularly of the collegiate manners that were, or werethought to be, the natural heritage 6f those happy "college men" who strodes across the campuses of Harvardor Princeton or Yale. While worrying for fear thatwe were not "college broke," we did not foresee thatwithin a comparatively few years our own Chicagowould be tied with another as the greatest institutionof learning in America, if indeed we are not leading bya nose.There is no university in the whole world now thatwe need to envy. It is of no concern whether our customs and traditions are as interesting and hoary as thoseof other institutions. We have taken from others whatseemed to us to be good and capable of being adaptedto/bur particular needs. To many colleges in the UnitedStates do we owe a debt of gratitude for contributionsthat they have given, or at least have surrendered, tothis vigorous, young, educational giant of the Midwest.Particularly to Yale can we say gratefully that she hasdone a pretty good job so far as Chicago is concerned.Yale has given us William Rainey Harper and RobertMaynard Hutchins, not only our two greatest Presidents, but Presidents who would' rank among the bestanywhere, at any time. Yale also gave us Alonzo Stagg.Even if in those earlier days we took it for grantedthat Chicago would keep on growing greater, few, ifany of us, had the imagination to foresee that withinless than two generations our University would beamong those few institutions that rank the highest inall the world. Here is a record that has never beenequalled. For example, Harvard has twice Chicago'sendowment and six times as long a history. Its facultyis also much larger than Chicago's, yet every objectiverating of American universities has placed Chicago ator near the top. In the 1934-35 edition of Who's Whoin America the names of 1,981 former students of Chicago were listed, of whom more than one hundred werecollege presidents. The . eminence of any university isattested by the achievement in the world of affairs of its HAROLD L. ICKESHe asked alumni a question.alumni, as well as by the scholarship of its professors.By both tests, as well as by others, Chicago, withoutdoubt, is entitled to the rank that has been generallyaccorded her by objective analysts.We older alumni can now see that if, when we werestudents, we had been less concerned whether we couldmix with undergraduates of other institutions withoutour provincialism being discovered, and, ceasing toworry about our lack of customs and traditions, hadcompared our faculty and our curriculum with those ofour rivals, we might have made a pretty shrewd guessthat ours was to be a great future. Our first President,William Rainey Harper, who was described in an articlein The Atlantic Monthly for June, 1935, as "perhapsthe most picturesque figure in the whole history ofAmerican universities," could not have established asecond-rate university even if he had wanted to. Hewas a man with a great vision, one of the outstandingmen of his generation, "a wise and courageous builder."His was the ideal that today is nearing perfection. Notanother mere college for him but something notable anddistinguished. To the actual building of his' dream hegave his life. He died young, but he left behind him aliving monument such as few men in all the time sincethe beginning of the world have been able to build forthemselves.But Doctor Harper could not have hoped to do whathe actually accomplished if it had not been for the generous support that was given to him from the beginning ,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 5by Mr. John D. Rockefeller, his son, and the Boardsthat were endowed by them. To quote again the articlein The Atlantic Monthly, "Mr. Rockefeller generouslypoured in the millions that made it possible to build inthe capital of America's middle empire one of the world'sgreatest universities — the most brilliant of all the accomplishments of the Rockefeller fortune." Altogether,from Rockefeller sources, the University has received atotal of $70,000,000. Mr. Rockefeller not only gavegenerously, he gave greatly — in a manner that hasgiven more distinction to his name than if he had imposed upon his gifts such conditions that out of themcould not have been built a strong citadel of free speechand academic freedom.Perhaps the greatest contribution made by the Rockefellers was the full academic freedom that, from the beginning, the university has had and held. Without thisfreedom, even $70,000,000 and the additional millionsthat were added to them from other sources, while theymight have created a college of note, would not havebuilded a university of distinction. The world knowsnow, if it did not know back in 1892, that the dynamicWilliam Rainey Harper and the millions of "academicfreedom" money from Rockefeller sources were bound toproduce something notable in the history of civilization.But Chicago can not expect to live on outside help forever. A rich and powerful University such as thismust, more and more as time goes on, take over theburden of maintaining itself.When Doctor Harper still in full vigor, died, here onthe Midway he left coursing through the veins of Chicago energy and strength and an assurance of greatdestiny. The endowment, even if inadequate for futureyears, was still sufficient to maintain as fine a groupof scholars as could be found in any American university, a group that was to become even more distinguishedin the future. President Harper realized that while theUniversity had to have stones and bricks and mortar fabricated into buildings, it could not be a university in thetrue sense of the word without outstanding scholars onits faculty. He established a standard in that regardwhich President Hutchins is not only maintaining butis endeavoring to surpass.So much for the past, which is interesting enough,; butnot nearly as interesting as the future. Early in myremarks I expressed some doubt as to whether the greatCity of Chicago was really interested in maintaining herein the very heart of the city one of the great universitiesof the world. I base my doubt upon the local publicestimation of this great institution as indicated fromtime to time by the daily press of Chicago. From thevery beginning there has been a tendency on the partof some of the press to seize upon every incident, however trivial it might be, to depreciate this Universityof their own city, to make it a target for witless wit,to ridicule and to harass eminent men on its faculty.Like many other Chicagoans, I am seldom gratified, letalone uplifted, by anything that I see in othe ChicagoTribune, but my hat went off to it some months ago —for a moment at least — when I read an editorial of realfeeling with respect to and appreciation of a Universitywhose existence theretofore, generally speaking, had merely been an opportunity for rag-picking news that,at its best, was indifferent to what harm it might do.One of the few words on my index expurgatorius is"constructive." That mangy, overworked, doddering,old word as a usual thing greatly annoys me. I do notthink that, since it became the very street-walker ofwords that it is, I have ever used it. But I will use iton this occasion because I want to suggest to certainChicago newspapers, with which this word is a favorite,that, from the point of view of the great future thatChicago as a city will have, if we all push and pull together, they should have a "constructive" attitude towardthe institution that, in the vision of the civilized world,is the most distinguished institution in the city.Another reason why I question whether the citizensof Chicago really appreciate what has been accomplishedhere on the Midway and possess the proper concernwhether our city should continue to be the locus-in-quoof a great institution of learning, is their apparent reluctance to support the university. Of course, Chicagoneeds a greatly increased endowment if she is to keeppace with those with whom she is racing toward supremacy in the academic world. But that is not the onlykind of support that she needs. As events in the recentpast have made tragically clear, Chicago needs the goodwill, the high faith, of this community. Chicago oughtto have the benefit of every doubt. Chicago should notbe muck raked merely because some newspaper feels aneed for inky headlines. Chicago is entitled to protection from sensation mongers, from political dolts, frommale or female hysterics when they go out on one oftheir periodic publicity-seeking "red hunts."Would it be going too far to suggest to the citizensof Chicago, generally, that a university that is theirs isentitled to their support, especially since it is a university in which they should have great pride because ithas served as a beacon light to civilization even duringthose years when Chicago was a political shambles. Itmay be with some diffidence that I recall to the citizensof Chicago what ought to be their prideful duty, butit is with boldness that I say that every alumnus of thisinstitution owes to it utmost loyalty, unless and untilit proves itself unworthy of that loyalty. Chicago hasnot let her alumni down yet. We owe her some guerdon for that share in her just pride which is ours byright of inheritance from her.It is all very well to harbor a secret pride in ourillustrious Alma Mater; it is all very well even to prayin the secrecy of our chambers for her continued success. But what Chicago needs are fighting alumni, menand women who in serried ranks will bear down uponthose who traduce our University, those who wouldmake it difficult for her to achieve her great destiny. Inthis connection, may I ask why so many alumni voiceswere silent when Chicago was last under fire, a bitter enfilading fire in which poison gas bombs predominated.I wondered at that time and I have wondered since.And my wonder is all the greater when I reflect thatthere are enough alumni in the Chicago area alone toassure fair consideration for and respectful treatmentof their university, whatever local issue may be raised.I have never had much interest in those who run with6 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe tide regardless of whether the tide is headed in theright direction or not. I suppose that even among college graduates we must expect to find those who, if theyhave convictions upon fundamental questions, lack thecourage in the face of opposition to fight for those convictions. But can it be that there is neither man orwoman who has gained outlook and insight and inspiration on this campus who can believe that this University, or any other, can be great and at the same time bethe timid handmaiden of whatever the existing socialand economic order may be?A university can be great only in the degree to whichit is left free to search for the truth, wherever it maybe found, and, having discovered it, to proclaim it. Auniversity can not be great if it padlocks its doors totruth. Not only American civilization but civilizationgenerally rests fundamentally upon the principles of aright of free assemblage, of a free press and free speech,within which is included academic freedom. Of theserights the most important, at least to a university suchas this, is academic freedom. And we must bear inmind, as was said by Joseph Wood Krutch, in a recentissue of The Nation, that "you can not give freedom totruth without giving a certain latitude to error, and theattempt to distinguish too precisely, between liberty andlicense always means that liberty itself is infringed."There are those who, under the hypocritical pretenseof preserving of our institutions from communism, —those persons are usually as silent as the grave on thesubject of a more threatening fascism — are really interested in suppressing, or at least in modifying, theseessential freedoms, the exercise of which has madeAmerica what it is. To quote Mr. Charles P. Taft, theycease to "remember that traditions were once innovations; that the Constitution itself was close to revolutionary in its day !" They denounce as "subversive"even a moderate suggestion that our social and eco-nemic order might conceivably be improved. A milddissident from their extraordinarily moldy conservatismis nothing less than a communist or a red. To suchpersons I commend careful consideration ©f what Mr.Taft said further in his address on April 22 before theContinental Congress of the Daughters of the American Revolution : "Neither can you get anywhere bydamning fascist dictators, or painting red networks ofcommunism across every evening sky."I do not suppose that there ever was a time whenany proposed departure from laissez faire was not denounced as dangerous, as radical, as subversive of theestablished order. Yet after all, progress has alwaysbeen a departure from the well-beaten road, a variationfrom laissez faire. Since life can not stand still, it musteither go forward or backward. And who, even amongthe professional "viewers with alarm," would have it gobackward ?Of course there are radicals, extreme ones, but evenso far as extreme radicals are concerned, I believe inthe British system of letting them blow off steam asthey are encouraged to do in Hyde Park, in London,insisting, however, that they may not say or do anythinginciting to the overthrow of the government by violence. Short of this, every man under the American theory of organized society is well within his naturalrights in criticizing the government to his heart's content even if his criticism be without basis either in factor in theory.Excluding those who are extreme but regarding thoseas radicals who in any degree want to improve the existing social and economic order, then all of us ought toencourage radicalism and be willing ourselves to be regarded as radicals. Be it remembered that the founderof Christianity was in quite sharp dissent with the laissezfaire of his day. His radicalism brought him to the finalagony of the cross. The radicals, who forced King Johnto sign the Magna Charta were English barons. Ourrevolutionary forefathers were radicals. Abraham Lincoln, in overturning an economic system even at the costof the greatest fratricidal war in all history, a systemthat was sanctioned and buttressed by the very Constitution itself, was a radical. He was regarded by manyALUMNUS ICKES"What Chicago needs are fighting alumni of his contemporaries as a radical of the dangerous sortand from their point of view this characterization canbe understood. President Harper was a radical whenhe founded this University, and President Hutchins wasno less a one when he conceived of the "new plan"which other colleges throughout the country are flattering him by adopting as fast as they can.I could go on with an enumeration of radicals whosenames stand out in the history of the civilized world because they have earned honored place on the pages ofthat history by insisting on modifications and improvements in our social order— radicals in their own time{Continued on Page 20)Who's New on the BoardTREVOR ARNETT AND MARSHALL FIELD III ELECTED TRUSTEESIN 1896 a young English born student came to theeven younger University of Chicago to continue thestudies he had begun in Minnesota. Even then he hada wide background of the science of accounting, andupon the recommendation of Dr. Judson, PresidentHarper soon put him to work. He sent him into theoffice of the Business Manager togo over the booksand preparefinancial state-in e n t s. Thisservice youngArnett continuedfor two years.And he provedso efficient thathe was soongiven completecharge of the accounting department, two yearslater was madeAuditor.Since then hehas been acknowledged t obe the country'sleading authority on university and college accountingmethods and financial administration practices. Hisability in this field has been so clearly recognized thatmost endowed American educational institutions haveadopted the principles which he developed. His book,College and University Finance, published in 1922, isthe standard work on the subject.The General Educational Board and the Universitywere in friendly competition for his services for manyyears. He l>ecame Secretary of the foundation in 1922to assist in the allocation of the $50,000,000 given byJohn D. Rockefeller Sr. to increase faculty salaries in colleges and universities throughout the United States.The University requested his release in 1924, and from1926 to 1928 Mr. Arnett was Vice President and Busi-TREVOR ARNETTLife-long servant. ness Manager. In 1928 he was elected President of theGeneral Educational Board retaining that position untilhe retired last July. And so, in June, Mr. Arnett waselected to serve the University still further, on the Boardof Trustees.A GRANDSON of an original incorporator of theUniversity of Chicago is a new member of the Boardannounced recently. He is Marshall Field III whosegrandfather, the Chicago merchant, donated half the original site of the University.Born in Chicago, but educated in England at Etoncollege and Cambridge university, Mr. Field'shome is in NewYork. At theoutbreak of thewar he enlistedin the 122ndField Artilleryas a private, andduring activeservice at thefront, won successive promotions to the rankof Captain.He is identified with variouscivic enterprises.and is Presidentof the New YorkPhilha rmonicand Chairman of the Committee of Operations of tlieBoy Scouts of America. Mr. Field is a trustee of theField Museum of Natural History, and the BeekmanStreet Hospital, New York, and other philanthropicenterprises are included among his interests."Through the years," says Harold Swift, president ofthe Board, "Mr. Field has been a consistent and enlightened friend of the University."MARSHALL FIELD IIILife-long friend.LAW ASSOCIATION CELEBRATESTHE annual Dinner of the Law School Associationon June 11, 1937, was held in the new air-conditioned and modernistic dining room of the Chicago BarAssociation. President Richard C. Stevenson, '25, wasin excellent form in his introductions of the speakersand features.The address was by Honorable Marvin B. Rosen-berry, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, on the subject of administrative law as applied by government bureaus. These show a rather natural extension of delegated powers, but present certain grave problems. Their rule-making power enables them in effectto enact legislation quickly and with little or no discussion or publicity, without the safeguards that attend theprocesses of the legislature. Also they can change or(Continued on Page 30)QUAD RAMBLESEight dozen soft balls (purchased by the University along with ten dozen baseball caps) have been clouding the twilight skies on the intramural field (four diamonds) at Cottage Grove and 59th Street this summer.Starting with six departmental teams last summer, theUniversity Inter-departmental Leaguejumped to ten teams this spring:Oriental Institute, Geographers, Bursars, University Press, Buildings andGrounds, Reynolds Club, International House, and three teams fromBillings Hospital. GeneralissimoHoeppner (Information Office) and Claude Hazen(Buildings and Grounds) worked hard to organize theleague; had a grand opening this spring with Superintendent Bachmeyer (Hospital), Comptroller Plimpton,Assistant Business Manager Harrell, and Vice-presidentWoodward throwing the first balls on the four diamonds; and are now just as busy. arbitrating umpire decisions and protested games in this league where themen are all seriously out to win the gold trophy.The Illinois Symphony Orchestra (unit of the Federal Music Project, W.P.A.) is giving a series of Thursday evening concerts in Hutchinson Court during theSummer Quarter. A green canopyspans the Coffee Shop-Mandel Corridor corner where platform tiershave been erected for the orchestra.Hutchinson Court has been crowded every week for thispopular feature. Carl Bricken, Acting Chairman of theDepartment of Music, was guest conductor the otherevening, directing one of his own compositions duringthe course of the concert.T. V. Smith, when asked to be one of the speakerson the summer schedule of public lectures, agreed — onone condition: that he could talk for two-and-a-halfhours! It seems that this famous philosopher-legislatorhas something on his chest concerning "The Promiseof American Politics" which can't be gotten off in lesstime. With this Eugene O'Neill technique being introduced into the lecture field, there was some thought ofan intermission for refreshments in the Coffee Shop atabout the end of "secondly," but final plans call for astraight 2 :30-5 :00 schedule without the "chaser."^In line with the Athletic Department's program of a sport for everystudent, Stagg Field has taken on new0JiN^Jl/ summer importance. An approachIcr ^ *- fairway and green at the west end ofthe north stands and a nine-hole putting green in one corner of the field give golfers an opportunity to practice iron control; two sets of bowlesand a close-cropped green introduces a new (for most » By HOWARD W. MORT, Editor, Tower TopicsAmericans) activity transplanted from the British Isles:Bowling-on-the-green ; while sun bathing, track running,tennis, and soft ball, make up the other activities on thisfield that will be cluttered up with footballs by October.The largest university switchboard in the worldhas. just been installed at Chicago. Eight operators nowjab out the twinkling lights on a multiple board largeenough to service a city of ten thousand. Everyone gota new number in the deal and many absent-minded professors are still wondering why they get the psychopathicward or some less appropriate department when theycall their offices by the old numbers.Dean Henry G. Gale (Physics) has a new penthouse on the roof of his laboratories( V*^\ (Ryerson). It is to house the old~Ht T s&> telescope which has been in storageLu J) since the igloo southeast of Ellis Hall(jj was t°rn down some year ago. Tfye.^^ telescope is to be used in the undergraduate astronomy courses, a sort of a minor leaguetraining farm from which to draw star gazers for themajor league at Yerkes.Collecting campus maps of universities and colleges is a hobby of Miss Ruth White (supervisor of theCoffee Shop). These maps are posted under glass onthe walls of the Coffee Shop, lending new color to thisfamous student rendezvous. In addition to the Chicagocartoon map of the quadrangles (drawn by Betty Fisher'22), there are maps of Iowa State, University of Iowa,Harvard and Radcliffe, Ohio State, St. Olaf and Carle-pSk/. ton, Minnesota, Northwestern, and OhioK J j Wesleyan. If you know of other such maps> - -v* we wjjj TDe gjacj tQ pass tjie mformatjon onto Miss White/Miss Fisher's clever map has FrederickStarr crossing the quadrangles with hisface buried deep in a book, which remindsus of another Freddy Starr story we heard the other day.Dave Adams, in 1914, had heard that Freddy Starrnever read examination papers. It was rumored thathe merely stacked the examination books in piles, awarding A's to one pile, B's to another, etc. So Dave, havinglittle to lose in a certain Starr course, merely wrote theLord's Prayer, closed the book and placed it near thetop of the pile at the end of the hour. Some days laterhe was called into Professor Starr's office and, aftera lengthy chat, the professor said, "By the way, I suppose you would like to know how you came out in mycourse?" Dave's hand trembled slightly as he acceptedthe examination book. He risked a glance at the spacemarked "Grade" on the cover and noted : "99" ! Safelyoutside he opened the book to find that he had mispelledone word !8ECONOMICS TODAY'By HAROLD G. MOULTON, '07THE vast changes which havebeen taking place in recentyears in all parts of the worldhave naturally aroused a new and intense interest in problems of economic and political organization.Everywhere men and women are discussing the significance of currenttrends. Many are hopeful that a newand genuinely better day is dawningand that we shall soon find ourselvesenjoying vastly higher standards ofliving than ever before. Others arefearful that we may have reached theend of the great period of economicprogress which has characterized thelast 200 years, if indeed we are notentering upon a period of economicretrogression. Meanwhile wc receive from a veritable hostof volunteer economists and other soothsayers blue-printed Utopian suggestions for the elimination of all our ills.What is the answer ? Whither America? Are we going or coming? I gather that the committee in chargeof this program had the thought in mind that I mightvolunteer on an occasion such as this to forecast thefuture. If so, let me make it very clear at the outsetthat I have no intention of assuming a sacrificial role.It is my view that even in these troublous times it isbetter to be a live economist than a dead prophet. Whatlittle I shall have to say about trends will relate to verycurrent conditions and not to longer run developments.My major purpose is to direct attention to certainfundamental economic factors or requirements. Thegreat economic objective is higher standards of livingfor the population as a whole. On this there is complete agreement. Radicals, Conservatives, Liberals,New Dealers, Old Dealers, Republicans, Democrats,Socialists, Communists, labor leaders, industrialists,bankers, farmers, economists, politicians, and John Q.Public — all wish to see living standards raised as rapidly as possible. The disagreements relate primarily tothe methods by which the desired goal is most likely tobe attained. I shall center my discussion on the expansion of production required to restore former standards of living. I must begin with a brief statement withrespect to living standards at present as compared withthose existing just prior to the depression.The income produced by the American people in 1929aggregated about 81 billion dollars — equivalent at present prices to approximately 72 billions. By aggregateincome we mean the market value of the goods andservices produced by the American people as a whole.HAROLD G. MOULTONBrooking's president considers some trends.^Address at the Alumni Assembly in Mandel Hall, June 5, by HaroldMoulton, president of the Brookings Institution. In 1936 the aggregate production wasa little over 60 billion dollars, roughly85 per cent as great as that of 1929.Meanwhile, the population of thiscountry had increased by about 5 percent and the population of workingage from 8 to 9 per cent. In per capita terms, accordingly, the national income in 1936 was only about 80 percent that of 1929.If the aggregate income in 1936had been divided equally among theAmerican people as a whole it wouldhave amounted to approximately$470 per person — about $1,900 perfamily.During the last seven years wehave had on the one hand a continuedexpansion in population and labor power ; but on theother hand a restriction in the rate of growth of capitalpower — plant and equipment. Indeed, the suspension ofnew capital construction and the postponement of replacements of existing plant and equipment have createda situation the economic consequences of which will befelt for years to come.The production task now before the country may bestated in the following terms : First, to make good theactual deterioration of plant and equipment sustainedduring the depression; second, to increase productivecapital in proportion to the growth of population thathas occurred ; and, third, to expand the output of consumption goods in accordance with this growth of population. Popular thinking centers mainly on the last ofthese three; but the achievement of this depends fundamentally upon the fulfillment of the first two requirements.We have recently made a comprehensive analysis ofthe expansion of production that would be required inthe next few years to restore former levels of production and consumption. Concretely, we set it as our taskto determine how great an increase would be requiredto restore by 1941 a per capita level of production andconsumption equal to that of 1929. Inasmuch as thecurtailment of production has been greatest in the fieldof durable goods our detailed analysis was concentratedon the production requirements there. We studied inturn the situation in the fields of housing, passenger automobiles, public utilities, industrial enterprises, etc. Eachof these studies involved taking account of the restrictedrate of production during the last seven years, the extentof deferred replacement and maintenance, and the requirements resulting from the continued growth of population. In other words, our approach was essentiallyof an engineering character.In relative .terms and as compared with output in910 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE1936 the increase in housing construction would haveto be 208 per cent, industrial enterprises 70 per cent,public utilities 70 per cent, steam railroads 67 per cent,passenger automobiles 15 per cent, and other durableconsumer goods 33 per cent. Stating the housing problem in another way we would have to produce annuallyduring the next five years approximately three timesas many housing units as we produced in 1936.In these analyses a conscious effort was made to avoidpossible exaggeration by stressing minimum requirements. It is our belief that whatever shortcoming mayexist in the estimates for the separate categories ofgoods the aggregate figures may be taken as reasonableand conservative approximations. In aggregate terms,the volume of production in these lines would have tobe roughly 60 per cent higher than in 1936 and approximately one-third higher than during the boom periodof 1925-1929.The primary explanation of these enormous production requirements to get us back to where we were isof course to be found in the continuing rate of population growth on the one hand and the suspended rate ofgrowth in producing capacity on the other. The realcosts of a depression are registered in these fundamentalrelationships. They can be overcome only through arebuilding process which will make good, first, the positive deficiences and, second, expand productive capacityin proportion to the growth of population.Let us see what the labor requirements would be incarrying through a program of expanded productionsuch as has been indicated to be necessary. Our investigations indicate that, in the field of durable goodsalone, from 8 to 9 million additional workers would beneeded. The increased production and labor requiredin the field of the non-durable goods would of coursebe very much less. But there can be no doubt that thework requirements to restore living standards during thenext five years are more than sufficient to absorb theentire volume of unemployment now existing. Theseestimates are based upon an assumption of an averageworking week of 43 hours which was the prevailing rateat the time the investigation was made.The simple truth of the matter is that we have notyet reached a stage of technological development atwhich it is possible for the American people to obtainthe standards of living which they desire, if workingtime is reduced below that which now prevails in American industry generally. Bear in mind that the foregoing estimates are based merely on the assumption ofa return to 1929 per capita levels of production and consumption. We need much higher levels than these toprovide satisfactory standards of living.During the period of great technical progress from1900 to 1929, the length of the working week was reduced by approximately 13 per cent. During the periodfrom 1929 to 1936, with productive expansion held incheck by the forces of depression, the working weekwas nevertheless reduced by approximately 20 per cent.Our research reveals that anyone who favors a furthergeneral reduction in the length of the working week atthis stage of our economic development unwittingly favors lower standards of living. Thus far we have been concerned only with factualdata. We must now turn for a moment to the consideration of certain economic principles and processes. Business activity is conducted through what we call a pecuniary system — involving the sale of goods in the marketsfor money and the disbursement of the shares accruingto those who participate in the productive process in theform of money income — wages, interest, etc. We nowinquire, therefore: What is the bearing of wage andprice trends upon the further expansion of productionand the accompanying absorption of unemployment? Asa basis for considering this issue, two fundamental principles must be clearly perceived.» First, the process of raising the standards of livingof wage earners necessarily involves increasing the ratiobetween wage rates and prices. If the wage earner getsmore dollars and prices remain unchanged, his purchasing power is expanded. If he gets the same number ofdollars and prices decline, his purchasing power is expanded. But it can be expanded only by increasing-wages in comparison to prices.Second, an increase of wage rates relatively to pricesdepends fundamentally upon increasing the efficiency ofproduction. Only thus will the means be available withwhich to pay higher real wages — provide more goodsand services. Accordingly, there must be constant acceleration of technical advances, improved management,increased labor efficiency, etc. Any practices or policies that tend to work in this direction are economically sound and any that work in the opposite directionare economically unsound.With these principles in mind, the course of the recovery movement may be briefly reviewed. During thesummer of 1933 wage rates were sharply increased as aresult of the code agreements. Prices advanced quicklybut not quite proportionally. From the beginning of1934 until the end of 1936 wage rates continued to increase at a moderate pace, while the prices of manufactured goods remained practically stable. During thisperiod productive efficiency was materially increased.The economic results of these trendsyare:(1) The increase in productive efficiency and thefuller utilization of plant capacity resulted in lowerunit costs.(2) The increase in wage rates as compared withprices steadily expanded the purchasing power of employed industrial workers.(3) The expanding volume of sales led to increasedprofits — the reduction in unit costs more than offsettingthe increase in wage rates.The trends up to the end of 1936 were thus distinctlyfavorable. Production was steadily expanding and unemployment decreasing; purchasing power was beingbroadly disseminated among the masses; speculativebusiness activity was not strongly in evidence; and thegeneral balance between current production and currentconsumption appeared reasonably satisfactory. If theexisting favorable balance could be maintained there wasgood reason for hoping that we might be entering upona period of exceptional prosperity that would in a fewyears go far toward restoring the economic losses resulting from the depression.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11In recent months this hopeful situation has changedin certain important respects. The prices of raw materials and some forms of finished products began to riserapidly in the latter half of 1936. This development wasdirectly related to the military programs of numerousgovernments, including our own, and the speculativebuying that accompanies boom conditions in certain linesof activity. Rising prices of raw materials meant advancing costs in certain lines of manufacturing thus naturally exerting a pressure in the direction of higherprices of manufactured materials. Fortunately the lasttwo months have seen a collapse of the speculative movement in war materials and a wholesome recession ofprices.Meanwhile, however, another factor has come intothe situation which is more far reaching in its implications and more enduring in character. I refer of courseto the abrupt increases in wages ranging from 20 toupwards of 30 per cent in many lines of industrial activity. These increases in wage rates, unlike those of1934 to 1936, have not been accompanied by any proportionate increase in productive efficiency. Meanwhilealso industrial strife has served to check in some degreethe expansion of business activity and to create uncertainty with respect to the business outlook generally.It should be noted, however, that the increase inmoney wages and the accompanying rise in prices alsohas stimulating effects — of a temporary character. Immediately speaking, the increase in wage disbursementsadds to the buying power of those who receive thehigher wages without for the moment proportionallydecreasing that of other sections of the community. Inother words, there is a lag between wage advances andprice advances. Moreover, with prices going up business men and others may hasten to place orders and buyextra quantities in order to be ahead 'of the procession.But developments such as these serve to produce indue course serious maladjustments in the economic system as a whole. Particular labor groups which receivehigher wages may stand to gain for a time; and similarly certain industries may temporarily pass on thehigher costs to consumers, but further extensive expansion appears definitely to be menaced by the inflationaryprocess.The advance in the prices of such basic products asiron and steel and other metals, building materials, etc.,may well serve to impede the expansion of productionin certain very important lines. The financial condition of the railroads has only recently improved sufficiently to permit extensive physical reconstruction ofproperties ; but now with the prices of steel rising rapidly and railway wage increases also in early prospectit is doubtful whether the railroads will be able to carryon the comprehensive programs of rehabilitation whichare so badly needed. Similarly, the building of newhouses, apartments, etc., may well be held in check bythe rising prices of building materials.It may also be noted that large sections of the population would eventually suffer as a result of a rapidrise in prices. These include many groups of industrialwage earners unfavorably situated; individuals workingfor fixed salaries; those living on income from invest ments ; and the farm population. Perhaps the most serious phase of the problem relates to the disparity whichmay again result between industrial and agriculturalprices.The immediate outlook, as I have already indicated,is shrouded in uncertainty. There are so many conflicting trends and political and psychological influences thatno one is warranted in making any confident predictionwith respect even to the next few months. Thus I leavethe discussion in terms of requirements and merely express the hope that a growing recognition of underlyingnecessities in the situation — a growing sense of economic reality — may serve gradually to promote the generally higher standards of living which are so greatlyneeded.Someone has said, "Civilization is a contract betweenthe dead, the living, and the generations yet unborn."This means, I take it, that it is incumbent upon eachsucceeding generation to build constructively upon thefoundations reared by those who have gone before tothe end that those who follow us may in their turn beprivileged to enjoy a greater heritage. This ever advancing goal of a richer and more understanding lifeis, it would seem to me, mostly likely to be progressively realized by evolutionary processes — by the conservation of those elements of our political, economic, andsocial system which experience demonstrates promotethe development of individual talents and capacities andby the elimination of those which work in the oppositedirection.In periods of great social travail there is an inevitabletendency to believe, or hope, that revolutionary changesmight quickly usher in the golden age — by some uncannylegerdemain give us a short cut to the promised landof plenty. Unfortunately, reflection upon the long, longstory of human progress, and analysis of the underlyingrequirements for economic advancement, afford littlesupport for such iridescent dreams. Despite the phenomenal achievements of modern science and of business organization, for generations yet to come it will benecessary to be content with something less than themillennium.This does not mean that the tempo of economic progress may not be accelerated. It would seem, indeed,that the way forward should become progressively morerapid as each new generation starts with the knowledgeand wealth accumulated in the past. Whether this willoccur, in fact, will depend largely upon research andeducation. And by education I mean not merely theeducation provided for the youth of the land in theschool and college years. I mean quite as much thecontinued education afforded by all manner of adulteducational activities carried out through varied agenciesand instrumentalities.In the basic and enduring problem with which we arehere concerned the University naturally occupies a placeof paramount importance. Through the troubled centuries the universities have remained centers for theconservation of knowledge and culture and for the generation of the sparks which light the way to furtheradvancement. I have faith to believe that this great(Continued on Page 28)RESOLVED: THE UNIVERSITY ISBURTON RASCOE, ex '15AttacksBefore I Forget, By Burton Rascoe, ex '15. (Double-day, Doran & Co. 1937. $3.00.)BURTON RASCOE, ex-student, ex-newspaperman, now literary critic, has taken time out ofa busy career to write his memoirs. And interesting memoirs they are, for Rascoe was as precociousa youth as ever came to the University under the "newplan." He started his newspaper career at 14 as circulation manager of the Shawnee, Oklahoma Herald,1 atsixteen he read and spoke Greek, had covered a list ofbooks usually reserved for graduatestudents. He was areporter for the Chicago Tribune whenin school, he filled inas a feature writer,roto editor, dramaticcritic, book reviewer,and later, as literaryeditor, participatedin the literary Renaissance in Chicago.His multitudinousactivities seem almost incredible, butthis is because theyare described in ascompressed a styleas 'the above paragraph. As a commentary on Chicago life in the pre-war days Rascoe'sbook is valuable and fascinating reading. To Universityalumni his section on University life and people duringthe days of "EE-O-LEV-EN," with his subsequentscathing criticisms of the University is best.Rascoe was enrolled by Teddy Linn, "a quick-tempered, ruddy, round-faced, sandy-haired professor ofEnglish, who smoked cigarettes, drank with alumni andcollegians at a saloon on Stony Island Avenue in celebration of football victories and looked anything butthe conventional idea of a professor."2 He worked asa reporter in friendly competition with Will Cuppy,representative of the Herald, now famous for his books.How to Be a Hermit and How to Tell Your FriendsFrom the Apes.He lived at the Harvard Annex and participated inlengthy nocturnal discussions in a company that includedLeRoy Baldridge, the well-known illustrator and presentpresident of the New York Alumni Club. A close com-BURTON RASCOEHe dissects the University., e„,most' obstreperous of my carriers," says Rascoe, "was a runtnamed Charley Higgins who was always rough-housing. I had to paddlehim several times to keep him from wrecking the type easis. /He grewup to be six feet four inches tall, a University of Chicago football hero andOlympics champion," panion and "one of the three closest personal friends Ihave ever had," was Martin D. Stevers, editor of theDaily Maroon. Other friends of those bustling daysincluded Rochambeau Lovellette, Parke Watkins, HiramKennicott, Ronald Peattie, and Ed Sickle.But Rascoe soon tired of University life, decided thathe was temperamentally unfit for the kind of academicinstruction he found, thought that he got much morefrom his library reading. "With the exception of Dr.Beeson, who taught me Livy, Catullus, Horace, Terenceand Plautus, and his young and brilliant substitute, KeithPreston, who encouraged my interest in all the Latinpoets ... I remember but three teachers — Linn inEnglish, whom I had just two days, Phillipson in German, and Clarke in public speaking — with anything butanger, disappointment or distaste," he says."Years afterward, from Keith Preston, Carl VanDoren, Mark Van Doren and John Erksine, who hadbeen teachers and who loved teaching and who have thespecial qualifications which make good teachers, I learnedwhat was in fault there among those teachers from whomI expected to get so much and from whom I got solittle. The fault, they severally pointed out, was in thewhole scheme of American pedagogy and in the conditions which make for advancement in the teaching profession ; a scheme and conditions which require the youngteacher who aspires to the salary and position of a full,professorship to give his best energies, not to teaching,but to laborious and continuous research and condemnhim to petty politics among the members of the facultyand frown upon any departure from the strict routineof imparting information, giving out routine class assignments and grading papers in a mechanical, impersonalway."He was in revolt against the system of education atthe University, he felt that "a university should be considered a seat of learning and not an educational institution ; that it should be there for those who have a desireto learn and not be run as an 'institution' — that is, likebarracks training under compulsory military service,wherein a raw recruit is taken in, put through the paces,and turned out able to perform the manual of arms ; orlike an institution for the rehabilitation of wayward girls,where the regulations are gauged to the co-ordinationand intelligence of the lowest common denominatoramong the entrants and after some months or years ofroutine, mechanically performed, the wayward girl isturned out, presumably now competent to take her placeas a normally constituted and responsible unit in thesocial economy."Furthermore, he writes, "The educational process asI had seen it at that beautiful and wealthy university,(Continued on Page 21)2Says Teddy Linn, "Sorry! T hsven't read Rascoe's book, and don'tremember anything about him — doubt if he was ever in any of my classes.It is possible I was his dean — I had L-Z in the Junior College."12A "WASTEFUL FARCE //IN HIS RECENT autobiography Before I Forget,Burton Rascoe deals at length with his sojourn atthe University in the years 1911-12 — and to statehis conclusions mildly, he put the University down aspretty much of a washout, for intellectual stimulation,joy of learning, and worthwhile humanitarian training.Since Burton is a widely-read critic, his conclusionsare bound to carry weight with many, and hence deservescrutiny. The challenge becomes even greater when werecall that this was, in fact, a highly fruitful and stimulating period in University history. Evenhaphazard plumbingof memory brings upthe names of Michelson, Millikan, Stieglitz, Breasted, Lillie,Coulter, Goodspeed,Albion Small, AntonJ. Carlson, JamesRowland Angell,George Edgar Vincent, Shailer Matthews, James ParkerHall, Mechem,Freund, Chamberlain, Salisbury, Em-m o n s, Goode,Laughlin, the Moul-tons, Richard Green,Forrest Ray, andHarold G. — but whygo on ? The roster of the faculty was as imposing as anyUniversity anywhere has boasted, before or since — andmost of these men were in contact with undergraduatesas well as with graduate students.The student body was led by one of the University's"great" classes — the class of 1911 — and at the lowlierend, the equally "great" class of 1914 was just sheddingits freshman pinfeathers. For myself, I can testify thatI found my college years the most stimulating in mywhole life — and I believe I am as resentful as ever Burton could be, of stuffed-shirtism and academic hocus-pocus posing as intellectual inspiration. Why, then, didthe University fail to click with Burton?Suppose we creep up on the answer with a fewglimpses of the man — or more accurately, the highly-strung, sensitive youth — who came whirling in fromOklahoma, expecting to take the University, as he hadtaken all other tasks and experiences, in his stride.SCENE — the Midway, at noon; in the background,students hurrying by the shortest routes to accustomedluncheon places. Among the few unhurried strollersalong the Plaisance itself, one could make out Burton,MARTIN STEVERSHe dissects Rascoe. • MARTIN D. STEVERS, '14Defendsdrifting along with eyes only for the newest light of hislife (he found a new one once a month or so, until hewas nailed down, as he tells in Before I Forget, by theHazel who still is the all-sufficient luminary in the Rascoeuniverse.) A fraternity classmate of Burton's encounters the couple.Classmate — "Good morning. Missed you all aroundin classes this morning, Burton."Burton (beaming upon the "light") — "How couldanyone be bothered with classes this morning? I canmake up a week's work in a night, when I have to."(And he just about could do so — reading notes, reports,and all, complete. He could tear through work like anOklahoma tornado when the mood or the necessitycame.)SCENE — Burton boning at his desk, I at mine, inour room at the fraternity house; time, perhaps 11 P. M.of a "study night" a week or so before examinations.Burton flings his Latin text across the room.Burton — "Syntax gives me the belly-ache — let's takea walk."We walk — through Jackson Park, through the SouthShore district, through South Chicago. As the Indianastate line appears ahead, the lights in the saloons startto wink out. Meanwhile the universe has been thoroughly plumbed and rearranged to our mutual satisfaction.Burton — "I'm hungry — let's try Swan's."Two hours more of walking bring us to Swan's, aGreek restaurant on Fifty-fifth Street. The remainderof the dialogue, until I dragged Burton home, must berepresented by It took place betweenBurton and the Spartan waiter, and my command ofmodern Greek is — shall I say, inadequate? — for the taskof reporting what was said.Final glimpse, as I awoke next morning- — Burton ina mouse-colored flannel dressing gown, waving asidesuggestions of breakfast and boning to make up losttime.* h= *SCENE — The press-box in Bartlett gymnasium ;time, the closing minutes of a close and important basketball game. Each reporter busy, with a telegrapher athis side, sending his "running account" of the game.Burton, after some restless eyeing of a certain locationin the audience, flings down his pencil.Burton — "Steve, can you meet me outside the Tribabout 20 minutes before late mail deadline? My early'sin, except the flash on final score, and I've got somethingimportant to do." (I might add that in those days thecampus correspondents of the downtown newspapers hada well-oiled system of helping each other which clicked' (Continued on Page 17)13FINANCING A UNIVERSITYAn Historical SketchIF ONE were inclined to sermonize on the subject ofthe establishment and financing of a university, Iopine that he would choose as his text certain wordsfrom a psalm of Moses, a man who had experience inattempting to rescue and reestablish a nation. Thesewords are : "Establish Thou the work of our hands uponus ; yea, the work of our hands establish Thou it." Thecraving for continuity in the realization of ideals undoubtedly is responsible for the fact that men will undertake the ambitious program involved in the establishmentof a university and struggle continuously for its maintenance. In my opinion these ideals, as they apply toThe University of Chicago, may be expressed by theterms "continuity" and "excellence." I am thereforeattempting to sketch in brief outline some of the financialsteps involved in the effort to realize these ideals at thatinstitution up to 1909-10, at which time the deficit inthe budget was capitalized by a gift for endowment.In 1916 The University of Chicago celebrated itsquarter-centennial. A history of the University waswritten at that time by Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed,an incorporator, a member of the Board of Trustees, andits Secretary until 1912. To him belongs the honor offirst calling the attention of Mr. John D. Rockefellereffectively to the unique educational needs and opportunities at Chicago. His history deals in an intimateway with the various plans put forth from time to time,the devoted body of men and women who put their handsto j the plough and looked not back, the almost superhuman efforts required, and the accomplishments leadingto the foundation of the institution and its growth. Henecessarily refers frequently to the finances of the institution without, however, developing such information asto the financial condition or operation as an accountantwould naturally produce. It is probable, however, thatthe efforts of the latter would be less impressive thanthose of the historian.In dealing with the inception of the plan for foundinga university at Chicago, Dr. Goodspeed says :_ "The initial^ steps which led to the founding of the great educational institutions of the world are known in very few instances.In most cases no record was ever made of them, their interestand importance not being recognized when the events occurred.If an authentic narrative of the details of the founding of OxfordUniversity could now be discovered, how much it would contribute to the history of that institution and with what interestit would be read ! In the histories of most institutions, however,these details are not only lacking, but no method can now bedevised for their discovery. The historians of these institutionshave sought for them in vain. The details of the founding ofthe University of Chicago are known. The very earliest stepscan be traced."The art of accounting as applied to educational institutions was not highly developed in the early days of theUniversity; consequently in contrast with the historicalrecord it is not surprising- that the initial financial recordslack the clarity that is now common among colleges and •By NATHAN C PLIMPTON, Comptrolleruniversities. In the Comptroller's Office there is a set ofbooks which, to the uninitiated, appears to contain therecords of the first financial transactions of the University, initial entries being dated in 1890. This set consistsof a cash-book,a journal, and aledger. The application ofmethods ofhigher textualcriticism indicates that thisset is a revisionof a previousset ; in fact, thereis a tradition tothe effect that itis a second revision, and that theoriginal set andfirst revisionwere discarded.One rather conclusive evidenceof the correctness of the foregoing lies in theindubitable factthat the paper in these books bears a water-mark indicating 1892 as the year of manufacture.In order that one may have an understanding of theorigin and development of the institution, it is necessary to take into account the circumstances out of whichit grew. The first University of Chicago was madepossible by a grant of ten acres of land in 1856 by Senator Stephen A. Douglas. The property was located onthe west side of Cottage Grove Avenue, a little northof Thirty-fifth Street. As the donor of the site requiredthe immediate erection of a building to cost $100,000, acampaign for funds was started at once. In less thanthree months the amount was subscribed, and within twoyears the amount pledged rose to $200,000. In January,1857, by act of the Legislature, the new institution waschartered as The University of Chicago. About this.time the panic of 1857 broke. This was followed by theCivil War. Later came the great fire of 1871, severelycrippling potential donors. This was followed by thedepression of 1873. As a result the struggling institutionattempted to finance itself by borrowing. The site andbuildings were mortgaged for $150,000. Interest wasdefaulted and at the beginning of 1878 the principal andinterest amounted to $174,000. Then followed one struggle after another to keep afloat. In spite of heroic efforts,the mortgage was foreclosed in 1885, and the institutionNATHAN PLIMPTONHistory told financially.14THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 15was finally closed in June, 1886. This apparent defeat, most part, in old, great, famous institutions, in whose distinctionhowever, was not accepted as terminating the dream that J* ^^ rf^ldiSi^l^Sd^an enduring educational institution should be founded in for old age. Why should they change? Particularly, why shouldthe City of Chicago. eminent teachers, thus situated, enter on a 'hazard of new for-T. „„„ u„ ,„„n *„ „„.,„„ +„ : a: „*„ u_: a j.u ui„™„ tunes' by going to a new institution, organized on a new educa-It may be well to pause to indicate briefly the problems tional pfan^ 'launched up0n uncharted seas and with new methodsto be solved in the establishment of the second Univer- of navigation,' an institution whose financial basis was whollysity: (1) whether or not support for the foundation and out of proportion to the vastness of the educational scheme, andJ. ', , .. . F rA.^ ±. ... , whose future, therefore, was uncertain? It seems strange thatoperation of an educational institution could be secured ; many 0f the best men in the country, notwithstanding the fact(2) its location; (3) its nature; (4) the selection of a that all these things were true, were moved by President Har-President ; ( 5 ) the selection of a faculty ; (6) the develop- Per.'s. approaches. There was a strong power of appeal in the plan. ' v '. . . . J.... „ * and in the young President himself. But no sooner did it becomement of Its activities With respect to ability to finance known that professors had been approached and were thinkingthem. It may be noted in passing that the institution of Chicago than every influence was brought to bear to holdinitially was conceived of as a denominational college, but g^ S?dSS to ^a •Sle^'lif f ^^Sffiithat in order to secure the services of Dr. William Rainey as totally inadequate. It was prophesied that salaries would notHarper as President, the plan was altered to provide for be,,J>aici- „ ,i. j / it. n- j.u • iV.. Under all these circumstances it was not to be wondered ata university,— altered not merely by calling the institu- that President Harper encountered very serious difficulties intion a university, — but in fact. This change increased the securing head professors. Men who at first seemed ready toneed for funds enormously. T-Swi.his proposa^' lat,e\u^de,r^a" the.adverse pressure to. „ , r ¦, r. , irv1^ «~ ., s i r which they were subjected, hesitated, and in some cases, drewAt the close of the fiscal year 1916-1/ the funds ot back. As the beginning of 1893, the year set for the opening,The University of Chicago amounted to about fortv approached with little progress made in gathering a faculty!million dollars. In commenting on this great aggregation ^SXlSS ,£ months of constantof capital, one of the Trustees, who had served the work. Not one of the men that we want can be moved fromUniversity from the start, remarked at a meeting of the a good position at the salary of six thousand dollars. I am inBoard that if anyone had intimated in the beginning that n^r„ine J^edVea^ fvlryttogT SKfiat the end of twenty-five years of operation the Trustees seems capable of being finished and this uncertainty is crushing.' "would have accumulated fortv million dollars, he did notbelieve they would have had the courage to face the task. Jt was> f course> "ecef ar/ L° ra,se ^nds, t0 establishIn retrospect, the accumulation of the sum mentioned th,e »ew enterprise The first effort consisted in securingmay be more or less taken for granted ; in actual expe- Podges amounting to $4(^000 in order to meet the termsrience, however, there were many times when courage ° a conditional gift of $600,000 from Mr Rockefeller.was tested to the utmost, not only on the part of donors lhese funds were to provide for the purchase of land,and Trustees, but also on the part of that group of rela- erection of. buildings, endowment, and operating ex-tively young professors who cast in their lot with Dr. penses. Since subscriptions were frequently pa.d inHarper who was but thirty-five years of age when he installments it was necessary, ,n order to proceed, towas elected President, and with the President of the resort to borrowing funds pending the payment ofBoard of Trustees, who was but three months his senior. pledges.I have mentioned that courage was required on the As of June 30, 1894, the notes payable outstandingpart of the faculty in associating themselves with the aggregated $458,351.77. Of this sum $60,851.77 repre-new university In fact, members of the faculty have sented open accounts of various kinds, $132,500 borrow-told me that it was some years before they could over- ings from three citizens of Chicago, and $265,000 bor-come a feeling of uneasiness over the rowings from seven Chicago banks.financial <ituat'i«.n. It is somewhat sur- ¦¦¦¦P^HM A c"ml,,t'U ^'"^ <•* the ,mt>tand-prising, under all the circumstances, that mS liabilities on June 30, 1894, is asa faculty such as was wanted, was secured. follows :„,„„„„,„.,On this subject I am quoting Dr. Good- 'N***^! Notes Payable ^'3Jlilsneed as follows- Real Estate Contract Payable 99,000.00speea as iouows Accounts Payable 60,798.42"President Harper's educational plan pro- General Account Cash Over-vided for the appointment of heads of depart- draft 10 841 28ments. One of the duties of the head pro- ^ ^"^ 'fessor was 'to consult with the President as to A ^ I the appointment of instructors in the depart- A I Total $628,991 .47a^Snt ^ h^oSs fS^SvS «£ kftl . The ^ of borrowing from banks con-partments, that the President might have their i««««lBl»l»'..lBlllli^i» tinued until early in 1897, at which timeassistance in making up the faculty. If this COMPTROLLER PLIMPTON Mr. Rockefeller undertook to loan thecourse could have been followed it would have , Tnl- ,„r„:t,, „ anffir,Vnr c,,m r>f mnw, tnwonderfully simplified the President's problems, . . University a sufficient sum ot money tolightened his labors during the eighteen months preceding the liquidate outstanding loans, apparently on the under-opening of the University, and saved him anxieties without num- standing that borrowing from banks was to be discon-ber. He began, therefore, to look for head professors, and . ° ? , , . _..,..immediately fixed his mind on professors in the leading uni- tinued unless approved by him. The following is anversities of the country. Then came the tug of war. As a extract from the minutes of the Board of Trustees undermatter of course, these men were, of all the professors in the Hite nf Mnrrb 0 1807-country, the very ones— it may perhaps be said, the only ones— UtUC ul ivJ-cUl-11 ?> loy' ¦who were practically immovable. Why should such men move? "There are no outstanding local bills payable; theThey had positions for life, into which they had grown where accommodation paper that has for many months beenthey had every possible tie to hold them — homes, libraries, labora- , . . , r, rr „, . , , , ,,tories, friends. Their salaries were ample. They were, for the lying m the hands of Chicago banks and other parties16 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhaving been fully paid ; these payments were made underarrangements between the University and Mr. John D.Rockefeller whereby he has furnished the requisite fundsin evidence of which the promissory notes of the corporation in his favor and drawing 5% interest perannum, payable Jan. 1, 1898, have been issued in amountsand upon dates following; viz.January 30, 1897 $155,000February 5, 1897 50,000March 2, 1897 85,000Total $290,000"The reaction of the Board of Trustees, not withoutcertain humorous aspects, was as follows :"The action of the officers in transferring to Mr.Rockefeller the indebtedness of the University amountingto $290,000 and executing the notes of the Universitytherefor, was approved/'The notes issued to Mr. Rockefeller not only wereextended from time to time, but were increased so thatat one time the total outstanding amounted to $475,000.These notes were later cancelled as gifts from him. Sofar as borrowing from Chicago banks was concerned,the records show that at various times up to January 1,1897, twelve Chicago banks had loaned varying sums tothe University aggregating $1,940,500. Some of these,of course, were renewals. Some were for capital purposes and some were for running expenses.In Dr. Goodspeed's history reference is made to aconference held in February, 1897, between officers ofthe University and a representative of Mr. Rockefellerwith reference to the institution's finances. As theresult of two days' discussions, a memorandum was prepared in which, after reviewing the situation, the latter,in closing, referred to the financial situation of the Uni-cersity as follows :"Why, then, these frequent and earnest admonitionsto avoid debt and deficit at any cost?"I reply, for one thing, in order that public confidencemight be secured and maintained. The University hasnever put forth a treasurer's report because, as the Treasurer truly says, it has never dared to disclose to thepublic the facts. The public confidence is maintained onlybecause the public is not informed as to the true situation."So far as I can ascertain, it was not until June, 1899,that any publicity was given to the University's financialcondition or the results of operation. This was more thantwo years after the conference mentioned.Information concerning the University's finances hasbeen published as part of a document known as the President's Annual Report to the Board of Trustees, in whichthe several officers rendered reports to the President.The first volume of this series, covering the year 1897-98,was published in June, 1899. The Comptroller's report"embodying the financial history of the University fromthe date of organization, July 1, 1892, to June 30, 1898,covering a period of six fiscal years," was rendered intwo sections :I. Financial Statement 1892-94, covering assets, receipts, and disbursements.It is significant that no statement of liabilities was presented, and that there was nothing approaching areport as to operations under a budget.II. Consolidated Statements 1894-98, covering budgetincome and expenditures and gross receipts and expenditures.No statements were presented from which it ispossible to ascertain the liabilities. In order todevelop information on this point it will be necessaryto take trial balances at the close of the several yearsand attempt to interpret them.In 1902 the President's Decennial Report was published, covering the first decade of operation, but nomention was made of the results of the financial operations for the first two years. So far as I am informed,no publicity was ever given to them, nor can I find themrecorded in the minutes of the Board of Trustees.Recently a statement was discovered in an old file whichsheds some light on this period and the financial problems faced by the founders. This document is entitled"UNIVERSITY BUDGET for FIRST & 2ndYEARS," and presumably was prepared prior to July1, 1892. Taking the two years as a whole the estimatedexpenditures amounted to $938,097, and the estimatesof income totaled $541,578. The estimated excess ofexpenditures over income was $396,519. This undoubtedly was a gloomy prospect, since the estimate of income was only about 58% of the estimated expenditures.The discovery of this document excited my interest tosuch an extent that I have taken trial balances from theledgers as of the close of the several fiscal years in orderto determine, if possible, how the results compared withthe estimates. In this effort it was necessary to makecertain arbitrary decisions as to the application of fundsthat might be applied either to plant capital or budgetsupport. On the basis of these long-range interpretationsand without going into details except to call attention tothe fact that the payroll for June, 1893, was charged intothe following year, the operating deficit on June 30, 1893,stood at $209,853.17 after applying thereto $5,900received from transients at the World's Columbian Exposition who were housed in the dormitories. For 1893-94there was a surplus of $2,844.55. This was made possibleby including in the income $35,970.52 of additionalWorld's Fair accommodation receipts and a special giftof $150,000 from Mr. Rockefeller for budget supportfor that year. Otherwise there would have been a deficitof $183,125.97. Without these special receipts the deficitfor the first two years would have stood at $398,879.14as contrasted with the estimate of $396,519.There was, of course, no experience on which to predicate a budget, and so far as I can learn, no budget wasformally adopted for the year 1892-93. The amountnecessary to provide for expenditures came from endowments and students, from gifts, and from borrowedmoney. There is no official record of the particulars ofthe budget for 1893-94, the minutes simply stating thatthe budget for that year "having been taken up and theitems of expenditure considered, it was voted that theappropriation for fellows be limited to $12,000." Thetotal is not given.The budgetary experiences of the last eight years ofthe first decade may be summed up by stating that inTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 17total the estimates of income, including contributionsfrom Mr. Rockefeller in the amount of $1,585,644, wereexceeded by the actual income in the amount of $31,180;on the other hand, the actual expenditures exceeded theestimates by $184,950. The deficit for the period was$153,770, and was less than 3% of the total income.Since Mr. Rockefeller later provided for the deficit, itmay fairly be said that his gifts for budget support inthe eight-year period aggregated about $1,750,000 or30% of the total expenditures. In the same period healso contributed approximately $3,500,000 for endowment.During a large part of the period up to and including1908-09, annual estimates of proposed expenditures andanticipated income, which was invariably less, were submitted to Mr. Rockefeller. He was then in position toindicate to what extent he would be responsible for thedeficiency of income. Generally speaking, he agreed 'toprovide the amount necessary to balance the budget, thuspermitting the proposed scale of expenditures. Fromtime to time within the period mentioned additional giftsfor endowment were received from him and others, untilfor the year 1909-10 it was estimated that the deficit inthe budget was approximately $40,000. This was capitalized by Mr. Rockefeller by a gift for endowment.Shortly thereafter Mr. Rockefeller, in making his finalgift to the University in the amount of $10,000,000,announced that he had completed the task he had set forhimself at the time he became interested in the foundingof a university at Chicago. How well he had carriedon to the end of the furrow is attested by the fact thathis contributions to the University amounted to approximately $35,000,000. They, of course, were indispensableto the founding of the institution and encouraged othersto participate in the achievement of the ideals of continuity and excellence.In 1896, on a visit to the University, Mr. Rockefellermade a brief address including the following sentences :"I want to thank your Board of Trustees, your President, and all who have shared in this most wonderfulalong efficiently under the eye of our senior and dean,Will Cuppy, of the Record-Herald.)I agree — curtain falls to indicate lapse of time. It risesto show the Dearborn Street entrance of the Tribune,shortly before midnight. A taxi rushes up, dischargesBurton; inside the vehicle, one can descry the newest"light."Burton — "Anything I need to know for the final lead ?No? Thanks a lot — see you later."He dashes in — the "light" waits, knowing full wellthat he will rip off his final story and be out within fifteenminutes. Slow fadeout.* >jc *These glimpses, I hope, will portray the Burton ofthose days — nervous as ten race-horses, always withthree interests to be served at once, and bedazzled bynew interests before he had fairly focused his gaze uponthose previously in view. Moreover, while he had beginning. It is but a beginning, and you are going on ;you have the privilege to complete it,-— you and your sons'and daughters. I believe in the work. It is the bestinvestment I ever made in my life."In his letter of final gift in 1910, the following appeared :"Most heartily do I recognize and rejoice in the generous response of the citizens of Chicago and the West.Their contributions to the resources of the Universityhave been, I believe, more than seven million dollars. Itmight perhaps be difficult to find a parallel to generosityso large and so widely distributed as this exercised inbehalf of an institution so recently founded. I desire toexpress my appreciation also of the extraordinary wisdom and fidelity which you, as President and Trustees,have shown in conducting the affairs of the University.In the multitude of students so quickly gathered, in thehigh character of the instruction, in the variety and extentof original research, in the valuable contributions tohuman knowledge, in the uplifting influence of the University as a whole upon education throughout the West,my highest hopes have been far exceeded."As one studies the financial history of the Universityhe probably is forced to the conclusion that it was exceedingly fortunate for the institution that Mr. Rockefellertook so seriously his part in the enterprise that, havingonce put his hand to the plough, he would not turn back.As one considers the accomplishments of the Universityand its usefulness to society, it seems equally impossibleto escape the conclusion that men like Mr. Rockefellermust feel a sense of gratitude that there were men likeDr. Harper who could supply the leadership and inspiration, and even the pressure, to bring about the realizationof the ideals of continuity and excellence. Insofar asthe first is concerned, it appears that unless some socialchange should occur greater than those already encountered, the continuity of the institution is not likely to beinterrupted. Its excellence, as in the past, will depend onleadership and financial support.uncanny brilliance, he also was as undisciplined a coltas ever snorted and cavorted through the sedate Midwaysetting. And therein, I am sure, is one all and sufficientreason why Burton and the University, with the utmostmutual cordiality, agreed to disagree.What Burton could not understand was that scholarship exacts its price, even of geniuses such as he. Itemsin that price are thorough preparation, patient digestion,and careful examination of every facet on a jewel. Then,scholarship believes, a man may revel in the jewel's flash,if he likes, without danger of overlooking fundamentalvalues, or being misled by hastily perceived appearances.Burton wanted to see the flash and be off to the nextexperience. He was, and still is, a trigger-like worker —lightning quick in attack and defense, out in print withideas of prime importance while other critics still arereading the book of which he speaks ; but never in his(Continued on Page 24)Resolved: the University is a Wasteful Farce* (Continued from Page 13)IN MY OPINIONBy FRED B. MILLETT, PhD'31, Associate Professor of EnglishNOT the least important of the problems discussedby the University Grants Committee are thosethat have to do with those student-relations tothe University that are other than formally intellectualin nature.* As the Committee phrases this major problem, "How is the traditional British belief that education consists in the development of thewhole man, and not merely the intellect, to be made effective in a predominantly non-residential Universityin the heart of a great industrial population?" To America's countlesssmall colleges, this question may seempointless, but our great municipal andstate universities must face and solvethis problem if they are not to fall farshort of their whole duty to their students. Too many thousands of theAmerican undergraduates who commute to their university classrooms byauto or elevated, subways or streetcar, get only a tithe of the potentialbenefits involved in academic domestication.Americans who think of the Oxford and Cambridgesystem of collegiate organization and residence as typical of British higher education are very far from realizing the actual state of affairs. The ancient universitiesare, in fact, exceptions and not the rule. The Universityof London and the small provincial universities resembleclosely such American universities as are located in largecities. "Excluding Oxford and Cambridge, the numberof British students who are living at home totals 22,000,while not less than 11,500 are living in lodgings, leavingonly some 6,300 students who are accommodated in hallsof residence. . . . But the total residential accommodationavailable at the Universities and Colleges (excludingOxford and Cambridge) only meets the needs of some16 per cent, of the total population, and this percentageis actually somewhat smaller than that attained six yearsago." Among the younger universities, "Reading witha residential percentage of 68.3 of the total number ofstudents leads the way, followed by Bristol with 37.2per cent., Durham with 31.0 per cent., Leeds with 23.4per cent., Manchester with 20.7 per cent., Wales with15.3 per cent., and London, Birmingham, Liverpool andSheffield with between 9.5 per cent., and 12.5 per cent."The assumption that underlies the Committee's thinking on the subject of the students' social relation to theUniversity is that "a University education is or shouldbe designed not only to enable a student to be efficientin any vocation or career which his talents, bent, or circumstances may have led' him to choose ; it ought also*This is the third and last of a series of articles on topics suggestedby the most recent report of the University Grants Committee, a Britishgovernmental agency for the allotment of national funds to colleges anduniversities. The earlier articles in this series appeared in the May andJune issues of the Magazine. FRED B. MILLETTto afford him what might broadly be described as aneducation for life. An education for life may be achievedin many different ways." Among those ways that arenot formally intellectual, the Committee distinguishes"students' unions, common rooms, refectories, playingfields and other opportunities of physical exercise." Butthe means to which the Committeegives the most detailed attention is the"hall of residence." It is convinced"that a system of halls of residence is,when effectively developed, a systemof great educational value, and that theresults already achieved go far to vindicate the pioneers of this movement.As compared with lodgings or withmany homes, a hall affords an environment where intellectual interests arestrong. It offers students exceptionally favourable opportunities for thestimulating interplay of mind withmind, for the formation of friendships,and for learning the art of understanding and living with others of outlookand temperament unlike their own. Itcan be, and it often is, a great humanising force. Moreover, in Universities where so many students disperseimmediately after the working day is done, the Halls,as continuous centres of corporate life, do something tostimulate that life in the University as a whole."Of the potentialities of such a system, the Committeepaints a picture so glowing that it sounds suspiciouslylike American academic publicity. "The excitement ofbeing plunged into a new environment and a more spacious mode of life, with all its possibilities of congenialstudy and congenial companionship; the sense of privilege in being made heirs of a great tradition, citizens ofno mean city, with the freedom of 'its streets where thegreat men go' ; above all, the informal discussions of afew friends about all things in heaven and earth upto all hours of the night or morning, where the argument is followed whithersoever it leads; the clash ofmind between the youthful historian, medical student,chemist, theologian, and engineer, members often of different social classes and bringing into the pool differentexperiences and different prejudices . . . and in all thisthe exhilarating sense of intellectual daring and adventure: these are the influences which stimulate thoughtand enlarge its boundaries, develop the faculty of judgment and arouse in students that energy of the soul inwhich Aristotle found the essence of true wellbeing."Certainly one who has spent fourteen years of his academic career as resident or faculty head of one or another type of residence hall finds such a picture extravagantly idealized. Only in an Oxford novel of the moreromantic sort could collegiate living be so glamorous,and there it would be achieved only by the suppression18THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19of the grimmer details of Oxford's systems of heating,eating, and sanitation. But, highly colored as the sketchmay be, it may serve as a kind of ideal by which American experience and experiment may be measured.American academic institutions have experimentedwith three types of student-faculty residence: the dormitory, the residence-hall, and the Harvard- Yale housesystem. Of these, the last, an adaptation of the Oxfordcollegiate system, is too new to America to be evaluatedsatisfactorily. But almost every academic campus harbors some relic of the ancient dormitory system. Frequently one of the first buildings to be erected, it isalmost certainly the last to be abandoned. Its staircasesmay sag and creak, its woodwork may be wrought thinwith fantastic hand-carvings, its fire-escapes may be ashaphazard as the rope-ladders of my undergraduate experience, its plumbing may rival in antiquity that of anOxford college; yet, those stern walls, those factory-likefacades continue to defy the renewed assaults of generation after generation of undergraduates.As I recall my experience as student resident or faculty head of one or another of these ancient structures,I am amazed at youth's capacity for endurance, at itsunshaken nerves. Youth takes what an institutionoffers it, and accepts it with curiously mature stoicism.I remember arriving at Amherst as a Freshman fullyprepared to go out and furnish a room which the Collegehad rented empty. The first act of my higher educationwas to buy a bed and have it installed. When in mid-June I re-visited Amherst after an absence of manyyears, I was housed by the Alumni Council in the ancient building where I had spent my Freshman year.In all essentials, it was almost unchanged. To be sure,the College now furnishes its ancient dormitories, but Iam sure the bed I tried to sleep on was no easier thanthe one I bought in the autumn of 1908.In the old type of dormitory, alarms and excursionswere the order of the day. I still recall a freshman-sophomore conflict at Amherst in which the college'sstacked and stored storm-windows were the major casualties. I remember returning from a Memorial Dayexcursion out of Chicago, to find a lively water-fight inprogress between my student-charges on one floor andthe floor above. I can still hear an addled missionaryfrom Burma raising his voice in melancholy psalm amongthe squat trees of the Divinity Quadrangle. The oldtype of dormitory seems to have been constructed toproduce the maximum amount of noise with the minimum effort. When Gates Hall was still masculine incharacter, some ninety of us lived on five floors builtaround a single stair-well. The inhabitants of the fifthfloor clattered down to the first with all the clamor ofthe Nude Descending the Staircase. Typewriters twofloors above one's head played a staccato accompaniment to one's attempt at slumber. Three telephonesrang in fretful opposition. The Head's duties were lightlyindicated and as lightly taken. One of the first of minewas to request the Summer Quarter clergymen not toalarm by their fire-escape sun-bathing the nurses in thehospital across the way! The major function of theHead was to sit on the lid. If he kept the lid closed tight, he was, from the University's point of view, agood Head.With the building of Burton and Judson Courts in1931, a new era opened in the history of students' residences at the University of Chicago. Here, for the firsttime, the University faced seriously the problem: of creating a student life that might have "great educationalvalue." Those handsome Gothic quadrangles south ofthe Midway with their massive a-symmetrical towerwere not merely a contribution to the University's skyline, but an attempt at supplying comfortable and gracious quarters for almost four hundred students. Sixyears' experience at the Courts have convinced me thatthe architects and decorators did an extraordinarilygood job. To be sure, the entries into which the Courtsare sub-divided have not remained so completely severed as they were intended to be; student ingenuity hasfound the shortest distance between two points via manya forbidden passage. The door-panels might easily havebeen devised to resist more than a single well-directedkick. No uneasier easy chairs have ever been sat inmomentarily by a committee on furnishings. But, onthe whole, the buildings and furnishings have proveddurable and handsome, intimate yet spacious.The spiritual potentials of such halls of residence areclosely connected, I feel sure, with the physical surroundings. Among the younger students, of course,there is a normal amount of insensitiveness to the claimsof University property. But I am certain that very fewstudents have, for long, been quite untouched by theinfluence of surroundings which are beautiful and dignified without being as sybaritically demoralizing as thenew houses at Harvard and Yale. But the values thathave come out of our experience there have not beenmerely architectural in origin. They arise from thequality of the experience shared by the hundreds ofhighly selected young men who have lived for a shorteror longer time within those gracious walls.I accepted Dean Works' offer of the Senior Headshipof Burton and Judson Courts with only the vaguestnotion of what could be done with the place or the position. I selfishly coveted such prestige as the positionmight have and such creature comforts as the Head'squarters might afford. It was only after a long periodof trial and error that I came to see that the task I hadlightly undertaken was one of the most difficult andexacting that the University had offered me. I learnedto regret the fact that my other personal and academicresponsibilities made it possible for me to give to theCourts only a fraction of the attention they deserved.But, in any case, I caught a vision of what living in theHalls might be, a vision that I have attempted to communicate to my remaining colleagues and my successorsthere.It is a vision of the Courts as centers of civilizedliving, as places where young and old students mayshare a common life in comely surroundings, a life madetolerable by mutual forbearance and consideration andby the absence of foolish or petty restrictions, a life maderich by democratic social and intellectual communication. Though highly selected, the students who come to20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthe Courts exhibit a wide range of social experience andinexperience, of maturity and immaturity. Many ofthem, when they arrive, are over-assertive and aggressive; some of them are too shy to be easily expressive.In almost no case that I can remember has a studentlived at the Courts for more than a year without showing a definite gain in civility and tolerance, an advancetoward intellectual maturity and a healthy social adjustment.One's loyalty to an academic institution is curiouslypersonal in origin. It is built up slowly out of one'sadmiration for places and people, out of one's attachment to fellow-students and teachers. It has been thereproach of many large universities that they are cold,impersonal, and machine-like. I am profoundly convinced that the University of Chicago has never embarked on a project primarily social in nature that willbring it richer returns in loyalty than the building andmaintaining of Burton and Judson Courts.* * * #Here, by the edge of the sea, a thousand miles fromthe long green aisles of the Midway, the thought of theyears I spent at Burton and Judson Courts stirs a thousand memories. From my study window above thearchway, I can see the thin streamer, of the Lindberghbut long since come to be regarded as moderates andconservatives. Such a list would be many times longerthan the "begat" chapters in the First book of the Chronicles. But I will spare you any further enumeration forthe reason that I realize that the man who sees a "red"in every college professor or in every man in publiclife who favors even a slight change in our accustomedmorses, has a mind as closed to reason as is the mind ofa child who has been brought up on ghost stories, impervious to the suggestions that there are no ghosts.Of course, I do not suppose for a moment that there isany alumnus of our Chicago who has not left a littlechink in his mind open for whatever light may reachtoward it. Nevertheless, I do hope that there are someundergraduates present.No university can call itself great unless it is a laboratory for the searching out and the testing of ideas andtheories that conceivably might affect our civilization,either for good or for ill. So far as the human mindcan do it, the true must be separated from the false, thedross from the gold. If a university is not equipped todo these things, or if, possessing the equipment, it hasnot the courage to do them; if it is persuaded that amodification of some social, economic or scientific theory has been proved to be due, but through timidityrefrains from urging that modification, then it is notworthy to be called a university at all.No more than the United States, in the language ofthe immortal Lincoln, could exist "half slave and halffree" can a university exist intellectually bound and free.To an institution of higher learning, sclerosis of themental processes is death. Not only must a university beacon sweeping across the cloud-hung sky above themassed towers of Billings and Harper. Into my bedroom window from the quadrangle drift the tinny notesof a dance tune from an irritating radio. Around thecourt, the lights go out, one by one. A lamp-bulb explodes against the cement walk. Boys in twos andthrees return singing from their evening diversion. Atlast, a belated solitary whistles his way stalwartlythrough the silent darkness. Or, again, the sound ofsirens and the staccato strokes of running feet draw meto the window. The night sky is suffused with crimson, and ominous sparks rocket toward the Midway.Returning at dawn after the fire has died down, I turnon the radio, and, as I fall into sleep, I hear a hesitantroyal voice making his responses in the Abbey threethousand miles away. On almost the last night of all,my celebrating colleagues raise their voices in serenadeto the surprising obligato of an harmonica. But in thedepths of night, there comes a moment when the Courtsare utterly silent, when all their energetic inhabitantslie for a brief time, like the inhabitants of a dead city,shrouded in sleep. It is so still that I can hear distinctly the ticking of a thin Swiss watch, bearing theinscription, "To Fred B. Millett from the residents ofBurton and Judson Courts, June, 1937."be free, it must be kept vigorous and fresh by the frequent infiltration of new ideas and new courage. As ameans to accomplish this necessary end, I would not venture to suggest that a university should have a compulsory retiring age for members of its faculty, although Iunderstand that Chicago has worked on this principlefor many years with great benefit to its faculty and toitself, from which it might be deduced that on the average it is better for professors to< retire at a certain agein order to make room for younger men. But, of course,this sound rule must be strictly limited to college professors, bank and railroad presidents and heads of greatindustrial and business enterprises.If Chicago is great, it is because it has been free ; because it has had both the conviction and the courage tofight back those who would shutter her mind to newideas and make of her an institution for the turning outof purely conventional and conventionalized intellectualgoods. As one alumnus, I would do homage to theseable and brilliant scholars who have kept and who insiston keeping, the University of Chicago in the front rankof the great universities of the world. But even morethan I praise the ability and the brilliance of thesescholars, I acclaim their high courage in fighting backthe dark forces of reaction even when they advanceunder formidable leadership.Nor am I unconscious of the backing that the facultyhas had of an able board of trustees when the witch-hunters and the red baiters have been abroad in theland. We alumni also are proud of the vision and thecourage of these business and professional men who havestood in the trenches alongside of the professors whenStudents, Lend Me Your Ears (Continued from Page 6)THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 21•i ife 1 . :• '" f m ifflltill ¦i fnnn 1 S9 ¦ ^h» «u1 *H /Jj •V - , 1 P. ¦ .- ¦¦m 9# J 1 11.IS lrHVflBim m¦ * ffxr ¦"¦ .— *T?^ii 5'? ^bJI > r J ii ^.' -¦vm v ^¦ -T% 1 1 r J "^ ... A>* S53 ^^^B WrE» t L **M ^^^P^% TO" ' " *^ *8? I'• 1 # * < ¦ , „ ¦Vsv-»*y 'SP *l *" 1 ilCLASS OF »7RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGEJUNE 12. 1.37FIFTY OF THE 128 REMAINING MEN OF THE RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE class of 1897 held a 40th reunion celebration June 12 atthe Chicago Athletic club. Reading clockwise in the picture are: I. W. A. Cook, Tulsa, Okla., 2. B. F. Miller, Whittier, Calif., 3. G. H.Miller, Chicago, 4. J. F. Aldrich, Shenandoah, la., 5. J. J. Willingham, State Sanitorium, Ark., 6. W. W. Gregory, Stevens Point, Wis. 7. J. G.Cunningham, Spokane, Wash., 8. T. Sarkissian, Denver, Colo., 9. C. A. Miller, Las Cruces, N. M., 10. F. S. Davidson, Chicago, II. C. F.Clayton, Chicago, 12. E. P. Webb, Beaver Dam, Wis., 13. R. S. Carroll, Asheville, N. C, 14. W. H. Folsom, Fond du.Lac, Wis., 15. E. H.Adams, Quimby, la., 16. F. S. Skinner, Marion, Iowa, 17. F. J. Sullivan, Kankakee, III., 18. A. E. Rector, Appleton, Wis., 19. J. A. Reuter,The Dalles, Ore., 20. J. R. Crowder, Sullivan, Ind., 21. R. G. Scott, Geneva, III., 22. C. E. Cook, Chicago, 23. F. F. Bowman, Madison,Wis., 24. T. R. Crowder, Chicago, 25. M. A. Austin, Anderson, Ind., 26. C. H. Searle, Chicago, 27. E. A. Riley, Park Falls, Wis., 28. F. L.Strauss, Chicago, 29. H. Gresans, Chicago, 30. N. M. Whitehill, Boone, la., 31. A. L. Parks, Omaha, Neb., 32. A. J. Moe, Sioux Falls, S. D.,33. T. Thompson, Shelbyville, III., 34. W. E. Kaser, Las Vegas, N. M., 35. S. E. Findley, Mansfield, Ohio, 36. J. Meloy (W. W's son),37. H. A. Patterson, Joliet, III., 38. G. A. Longbrake, Ft. Myers, Fla., 39. W. H. Maley, Galesburg, III., 40. C. L. Warren, Oak Forest, III.,41. John Marten, Tolono, III., 42. F. H. Rollins, St. Charles, Minn., 43. S. G. Wright, Chicago, 44. R. G. Bedford, Oneida, III., 45. A. M.Wheeler, Oak Park, III., 46. Henry Klein, Chicago, 47. W. W. Meloy, Chicago, G. H. Fellman, Milwaukee, Wis., R. J. Dunn, Chicago, andE. Bowe, Jacksonville, Ml., were present also.the enemy has been exploding its poison gas bombs. Iknow that I speak for every right-minded former studentof this institution when I take the liberty of assuringthe faculties and the board of trustees that we are interested enough in our Alma Mater and proud enoughnf her to rally to any call that may come to us to support her and to encourage her in her ambition and determination to continue, as a spiritually free institution,to rank with the most outstanding universities in theworld.How many of us oldsters recall these words in thesong of my own class:"Oh Chicago, Chicago, how great you've grown to be,Since first we cast our lot with thine in eighteen ninety-three."Certainly none of us, old or young, has forgotten, orever can forget, these words in "Alma Mater" :"Today we sing the praise of her who owns us asher sons." Rascoe(Continued from Page 12)insofar as it was represented by the so-called College ofLiberal Arts, was largely a wasteful farce. Even thetwo years of it required of those who enter the collegesof law, medicine, chemistry or surgery— which are subjects requiring exact knowledge, exact technique andhence an exacting discipline — seemed to me designed tohandicap or cripple future lawyers, doctors and chemists rather than benefit them ; for so much of the curricular regulations and methods of classroom instruction isdesigned to give the student an active distaste for thevery branches of general knowledge deemed necessaryas a cultural base for a man in the professions, insteadof inculcating them. It is no wonder that so many graduates with degrees cannot frame a decent letter, talk intelligently on general ideas, or that they rarely read a bookexcept a sensational best-seller which in social self-defense they think they have to read."Perhaps alumnus Rascoe should return next spring tothe Alumni School ! Howard P. Hudson, '35.HERBERT ELLSWORTH SLAUGHT• By GILBERT A. BUSS, '97, PhD'00, Head, Department of MathematicsHERBERT E. SLAUGHTKnown and belovedundergraTHE justifications of a universityare its alumni and faculty, and itsundergraduates who will presently become alumni. In our own University one of the men most widelyknown and most beloved by these threegroups was Herbert Ellsworth Slaught.His life long devotion to his institutionand to the promotion of the study ofmathematics, his skill as a teacher, hischeerfully effective cooperation in departmental and more general University affairs, and his influence withalumni and teachers of mathematics thecountry over, were remarkable. He wasborn July 21, 1861, came to the University as a Fellow in 1892, was madeProfessor Emeritus in 1931 after holding successively all of the intermediatefaculty ranks, and died on May 21, 1937.A detailed description of his activitieswould require a volume. I describesome of them here. They speak forthemselves.The foundation of Slaught 's effectiveness in universitywork was his teaching. It was lucid and encouraging,and essentially friendly even when criticism was necessary. He enjoyed the mathematics he taught and hisclasses so much that his students reciprocated by enjoy->Ag them too. An undergraduate in the early days ofthe University, registered for a course with Slaught,unexpectedly found that he liked the mathematics andwas successful. He registered for another, but to hisdissatisfaction was assigned by lot to a second section.He appealed to his dean and to Slaught for a transferwithout success, and to his father who held an influential post in the University but who declined to interfere. Finally he appealed to his mother who went undaunted to President Harper and explained how unfortunate it would be for her son to lose his new foundinterest and encouragement. The President succumbed.That the encouragement engendered by Slaught in thisstudent is typical of Slaught's successes in the classroomis confirmed by hii colleagues, some of whom havethemselves been students in his classes, and by the testimony of many letters from former students, tuckedaway in Slaught's correspondence, expressing appreciation of the clarity and friendliness of his teaching, letters which must have given him the greatest satisfaction.I think that Slaught's unusual sympathy and understanding for students struggling with mathematical orother difficulties must have had its source in the hardshipswhich he himself cheerfully overcame in securing his ownhigh school and college education. In 1875, when hewas thirteen years old, his family, through some financial by alumni, faculty,duates. catastrophe, lost the farm on SenecaLake near Watkins, New York, whichhad up to that time been his home. Withtwo older brothers of approximatelycollege age, an older sister, and an invalid mother, he migrated in that yearto Hamilton, New York. They tookwith them a cow and a horse andwagon salvaged from the farm, and theboys from the first managed to financethe family and their schooling in Hamilton by selling milk and carting, by janitor work in the college, and by numerous jobs of other kinds. Herbert inparticular was very proud of a positionas telegraph operator at a resort in theCatskills which he held repeatedly during his summer vacations. The twoolder brothers ultimately became successful physicians, and Herbert graduated from Colgate Academy in 1879,and from Colgate University in 1883,each time as valedictorian of his class.He received an honorary Sc.D. fromColgate in 1911.Soon after receiving his bachelor's degree Slaughtwas recommended by one of his professors for an instructorship in mathematics at Peddie Institute inHightstown, New Jersey. The recommendation and appointment were a surprise to him because his specialtyin college had been the classics, though he was also afirst-rate student of mathematics. He was greatly encouraged to find at Peddie that his presentation of mathematics to young students was regarded as unusually successful. He remained there for nine years, includingthree as assistant principal from 1886 to 1889, and threeas principal from 1889 to 1892. In the summer of 1885he married Mary L. Davis, a young woman from Boston who had for two years been the teacher of music atPeddie. Their partnership was an eminently successfuland happy one both at Peddie and later at the University of Chicago, terminated only by her death in 1919.While at Peddie Slaught became much dissatisfiedwith the high school texts in mathematics which wereat that time the most popular. His criticism came tothe attention of the publishers and irritated them so muchthat they arranged an interview between Slaught andthe author. The outcome was surprising. It was acontract between Slaught and the publishers, stronglyrecommended by the author, for a book on high schoolalgebra to be written by Slaught. Unfortunately he wasnot able to carry out the contract. His duties as principal at Peddie became more exacting and took him moreand more away from the mathematics and teaching whichhad by that time become his real interests. He finallydecided definitely to enter the field of university mathe-22THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23matics and wrote to Johns Hopkins University applyingtor a fellowship.His plan did not go through, however, in full accordwith his original intention. He had been very successful as principal at Peddie, and during a campaign forFunds in 1891-92 had met Mr. Fred T. Gates, privatesecretary and investigator for John D. Rockefeller. Mr.Gates learned of Slaught's intention to go to Johns Hopkins and promptly arranged an interview for him withPresident W. R. Harper of the newly founded University of Chicago. President Harper with characteristicdecisiveness offered Slaught a two-year fellowship atChicago with an agreement for extra summer quarterleaching to help out his finances.Thus began Slaught's long career at our University.He was relatively unprepared for graduate work inmathematics, but with his usual thoroughness he supplemented his previous training intensively during thesummer of 1892 and was successful as a graduate stu-lent from the start. His teaching ability was promptlyrecognized. After his two-year appointment as one ofjur three first fellows in mathematics he was successively appointed reader, assistant, associate, and instruc-or, during the years 1894-97. In the winter quarter of1898 he achieved his Ph. D., delayed because of hiseaching work. He was made assistant professor in1900, associate professor in 1908, and professor ofmathematics in 1913.In the early years of the University Slaught was responsible for entrance examinations in mathematics andwas an official visitor of affiliated secondary schools. Heilso had charge of the mathematical meetings of the conferences of teachers of secondary schools which were:hen held at the University each summer quarter. Thuslis influence and acquaintance with teachers of mathematics in the central west were even at that time verywide ones. During a sojourn in European universitiesluring the year 1902-03, and after a very conscientiousdebate with himself, he decided to devote his life to thepromotion and improvement of the teaching of mathematics, rather than to a research career. Upon his re-:urn to Chicago he affiliated himself enthusiastically withme newly formed Central Association of Science andMathematics Teachers, and in 1907, at the suggestionaf Professor L. E. Dickson, was made co-editor of TheAmerican Mathematical Monthly. It was a journal within appeal to teachers of mathematics, especially in the:ollegiate field, kept alive precariously financially, formany years almost single-handedly, by its founder Processor B. F. Finkel of Drury College in Springfield,Missouri. From 1909 to 1912 it was subsidized by theUniversities of Chicago and Illinois, and from 1912 to1916 it was owned and published cooperatively by fourteen universities and colleges of the central west. Slaughtwas largely responsible for these arrangements, but heForesaw that they could not be permanent. He proposed and with others effected in 1916 the organizationof The Mathematical Association of America with theMonthly greatly enlarged and secure financially as itsofficial publication. The Association now has some 1,800members interested in the teaching of mathematics in thecollegiate field. GILBERT A. BLISSA friend and colleague writes feelingly.During theyears 1916 to1922 the Association had acommittee,financed at critical periods bythe General Education Board,which under theleadershipof Professor J.W. Young ofDartmouth College investigatedthe teaching ofmathematics insecondaryschools andformulated forthe m a standard mathematical curriculum.The report of thecommittee, prepared with the aid of many groups of teachers in widelyscattered communities, is one of the most valuable documents in its field. Slaught believed that the cooperativespirit and the associations stimulated by the work of thiscommittee should be kept alive, and he proposed the organization of an association to be called the NationalCouncil of Teachers of Mathematics whose membershipshould be drawn from the ranks of those interested in theteaching of mathematics in secondary schools. The Council began its existence in 1920. It now has an official journal called The Mathematics Teacher, a series of yearbooks containing valuable articles on the place of mathematics in modern education, more than 5,000 members.For ten years, from 1906 to 1916, Slaught was secretary of the Chicago Section of The American Mathematical Society whose purpose is the encouragement ofmathematical research, and he has been active in theSociety in other ways, especially in the development andperfection of its present cordial cooperation with theAssociation. He has thus been unusually influential inthe affairs of the three most important mathematicalassociations of our country. His effective work in theseorganizations has been most appropriately recognized byhis election to honorary life presidencies of both theAssociation and the Council, and to an honorary lifemembership in the Central Association.Naturally much of the time and thought which Slaughtgave so freely to these associations of mathematicianswas centered on their journals. He was for twentyyears managing editor of the Monthly, and an editor ofThe Mathematics Teacher. In 1923 he conceived theidea of a series of mathematical books, to be sponsoredby the Association, which should present in expositoryform the results of modern research in pure and appliedmathematics. For this enterprise he succeeded in enlisting the very generous aid of the late Mrs. MaryHegeler Carus of LaSalle, Illinois, one of the sponsors ofthe Open Court Publishing Company. The series iscalled The Carus Mathematical Monographs and is pub-24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElished jointly by the Association and the Open Court.Five of the books have already appeared under the auspices of an editorial committee of which Slaught waschairman, and a sixth is in preparation. From 1906 tothe time of his death Slaught was mathematical adviserto a number of publishing firms. With Professor N. J.Lennes of the University of Montana he wrote four textbooks on high school algebra and geometry whichthrough the years up to 1926 appeared in numerousrevised editions. He was an author-editor of collegetexts on trigonometry and algebra in collaboration withProfessor E. J. Wilczynski of our own Department ofMathematics, and he edited a group of five other collegetexts on mathematics by N. J. Lennes and others. Thesebooks were an effective expression of his skill and influence as a teacher.I approach the end of my writing and find that Ihave not even mentioned a number of Slaught's activities, each of which deserves a chapter or more. He wassecretary of the Board of Recommendations of the University from 1903 to 1914, a period during which manyof the policies now followed by the Board of VocationalGuidance and Placement were formulated. He wasSecretary and uniquely guiding spirit of the Associationof Doctors of Philosophy of the University for twenty-five years preceding his retirement in 1931. In 1914with a few of his associates in the Hyde Park BaptistChurch he established the South Chicago NeighborhoodHouse for the benefit of workers in neighboring steelmills and their families. It began with one asset, theenthusiasm of its sponsors, and now has the support ofmany interested persons, a building of its own withtrained workers, a membership of over 1,000 persons,and an average monthly attendance of over 10,000 visitors and participants in its various activities. Slaught'sdevotion to this undertaking, through years of healthilywork can anyone detect a leisurely, sybaritic relishing ofold pleasures, the joy of fireside relaxation with a goodbook when the day's work is done. The University hada lesson for him here, a lesson which he could havelearned and, thereby made life easier for himself to thisclay.For another casus belli, Burton was the type of young,eager enthusiast who went whole hog or none. He hadthe bad fortune to fall among drones and musty drudges,according to his book, for instructors in his dearly-lovedclassic subjects. Very well; the faculty was made up ofdrones, and he preferred livelier fields. Therein, too, myexperience tells me, he made a mistake.I had my share of drones ; mathematics, for example,a favorite subject of mine, was killed for me at the timeby deadly dull instruction. But against that I canremember Millikan, smoking out «* students who hadsneaked into his physics class without prerequisite previous credit in Trigonometry, then telling the frightenedculprits, with a smile, "Stay after class today, and I'llteach you all the Trigonometry you'll ever ne^d." I increasing needs but tardily growing resources, was theessential factor in its success. His contribution to theEducational Screen, a magazine devoted exclusively tothe visual idea in education, was a similarly importantone. He believed in the idea of visual education and byhis encouragement and financial support made possiblethe publication of the first issue of the magazine in 1922.Up to the time of his death his name appeared "with thetitle "President" on the list of the Directorate and Staff.I think that very few of his colleagues knew ofSlaught's interest in the game called roque. On accountof a physical infirmity dating from his boyhood he couldnot take part in more active forms of sports, but he andMrs. Slaught played croquet together in Hightstownbefore they were married, and when the new game ofroque was introduced they managed to have a courtbuilt on the grounds of Peddie Institute. In ChicagoSlaught organized The Chicago Roque Club, with courtsin Washington Park, and was its active president fortwenty years and later honorary life president. Interestin the game grew in Chicago and elsewhere, and Slaughtwas a principal in the organization of The AmericanRoque League which now controls the annual tournaments held in various sections of the country.I think that I have mentioned in the preceding paragraphs most of the activities to which Slaught gave ineach case his whole hearted interest and support. Theycharacterize him and his far reaching influence in mathematical and other affairs more clearly than any otherdescription that I could devise. In our own Departmentwe shall miss him sorely. His skillful teaching, hisdevotion to his science and to his University, and hiscatalytic influence in promoting the happiest of relationsbetween our students and faculty, are qualities whichcan never be replaced but which can long serve as idealsfor us to emulate.stayed, even though I had slaved a year over Trig, outof curiosity — and surely enough, Millikan made good,just as he could make child's play of problems whichtraditionally should wrinkle the forehead even of anEinstein.I can remember Terry in English history, lecturingin his half even, half dramatic, style on feudal land tenure.Everything seemed so simple, so clear, that I scarcelycould believe we were learning anything; but when Icame to law school a year later, I found that most ofthat bugbear subject, Real Property, could be masteredeasily, simply by wrapping up in musty legal jargon, thefacts which I remembered without effort from Terry'slectures.I could cite plenty more examples; and so Burtoncould have, had he possessed the patience to shop arounda bit. But patience was as foreign to his nature, as waswillingness to undergo scholastic discipline and routine.Add to this the fact that the exciting world of Chicagonewspaperdom, then as golden in its rush and inspiration(Continued on Page 30)Resolved: the University is a Wasteful Farce' (Continued from Page 17)NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLESTAKE any of the three quarters of the traditionalacademic year, add a "heat wave" or two, and anumber of Institutes, in which everything frominternational relations to pastoral duties is put underspecialist scrutiny for the" benefit of other technicians inthe particular field, and you have a Summer Quarteron the Midway. Administratively and educationallythere is as much activity as in the autumn or spring.Faculty members contemplate hopefully the end of August and the September hiatus, unless their duties include administrative responsibilities. The Law Schoolfaculty has its own New Plan to put in shape for theautumn; the College faculty has not only the usual adjustments to make in the Chicago Plan but must alsowork out the remaining details of the new four-yearcollege unit.A parenthetical reminder may be needed by somealumni that since the adoption of the Chicago Plan theterm "College" means the program of general educationwhich requires two years of the normal student's time —roughly the equivalent in time of the freshman and sophomore years of the simpler days. Consistent readers ofthe Magazine will recall that the new four-year collegeunit is in addition to the College, and that the Collegeis that part of the University which high school graduates enter. But the four-year college unit (which asyet has no proper name) comprises what was, throughthis June, the last two years of University High School,and two years of a college with a curriculum parallel to,but not identical with, that of the College. If all thisis confusing, it is because new content is being put intoold words. The University in working out its consistentideas for the clarification of educational organization mayyet have to develop some new trade names for the benefit both of its old model alumni and the general public.At any rate, with a College and four-year college unit,it is clear that the University has a burning interest inthe subject of good undergraduate education.THREE FACULTY MEN RETIREAt the end of the academic year, June 30, two prominent members of the University of Chicago faculty, Dr.Edgar Johnson Goodspeed and Dr. Henry Clinton Morrison, reached the retiring age limit and became emeritus professors. A third member of the faculty, AssociateProfessor of English Bertram G. Nelson, retires becauseof ill health, although he has not reached the retiringage. Dr. Goodspeed was Chairman of the Departmentof New' Testament and Early Christian Literature andErnest D. Burton Distinguished Service Professor ofBiblical and Patriotic Greek. Dr. Morrison, authorityon school finance, was Professor of Education.Professor Goodspeed, widely known among scholarsfor his brilliant technical and philological studies of theNew Testament, is equally well known to a wider public • By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, "20, JD '22because of his The New Testament, an American Translation, which precisely translates the New Testament intomodern American idiom. His The Story of the Bible, aseries of lucid introductions to the books of the Bible,also is a popular book. In a literal sense, Dr. Goodspeedhas been associated with the University since his youth.He studied Greek at the age of 12 in the Old Universityof Chicago, while his father, the late Dr. Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed was endeavoring to save that institution.It was the father who first enlisted the interest of Mr.John D. Rockefeller, Sr., in the establishment of the present University, and with Mr. Frederick T. Gates, canvassed Chicago for subscriptions to meet Mr. Rockefeller's early gifts. The older Dr. Goodspeed was Secretary of the Board of Trustees of the University, andafter his retirement, became its Historian. -J^^^^^^^^^^^ Dr. Edgar T. Goodspeedhad graduated "from DenisonUniversity, and had studiedat Yale before the Universityof Chicago opened in 1892.He enrolled in the first Chicago class, studying Greekunder President Harper. Taking to lieart the latter's injunction, "Don't hurry through theGraduate School," he remainedEDGAR GOODSPEED in it ever since. Dr. Good-speed also studied in the NewTestament department under Ernest DeWitt Burton,whom he ultimately succeeded in the chairmanship.After taking his Bachelor of Divinity and Doctor ofPhilosophy degrees at Chicago, Dr. Goodspeed firstjoined its faculty in 1898 as an assistant, and attainedthe rank of professor in 1915. He became Chairmanof the New Testament department in 1923. His publications, listing of which occupies 31 lines in Who's Who,are particularly distinguished in the fields of linguisticsand textual criticism, but range as far afield as a literarydetective story. Dr. Goodspeed is particularly an authority on early New Testament manuscripts, and hasbeen highly successful in discovering manuscripts inAmerica.Because of his efforts the University has one of thefinest American collections of Greek, Syriac, and otherearly manuscripts, and under his chairmanship the department has been noted for its work in manuscript research. He discovered in Paris the famous Edith Rockefeller McCormick manuscript, which was publishedunder his direction. Dr. Goodspeed was born in Quincy,Illinois, Oct. 23, 1871. In 1901 he married Elfleda Bond,of Chicago.Dr. Morrison, nationally recognized leader in the fieldof school finance, is author of the "Morrison" or "unit"plan of teaching. Although primarily an administrativeleader, and authority on finance, he was successful as2526 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEa teacher, research worker, and instructional expert.When he assumed supervisory responsibility for theLaboratory Schools of the University in 1918 he wasranked a leader in state school administration becauseof his achievements in the state systems of New Hampshire and Connecticut. Much of the development of theNew England school system is credited to his efforts.He is author of several books on education, includingThe Financing of Public Schools in Illinois; SchoolFinance; Management of School Money; The EvolvingCommon School; Basic Principles in Education, andPractice of Teaching in the Secondary Schools.The latter book is considered his most important byeducational authorities. Published in 1926 and revisedin 1931, it developed what is now known as the "Morrison Plan" of teaching, a method which eliminates dailylesson assignments and substitutes long-unit and comprehensive assignments. The method has been widelyadopted. For several years, Dr. Morrison has beenworking on a new book, Curriculmn of the CommonSchool, which he will complete after his retirement. Thenew work, however, will not be ready for publication forsome time.Born in Oldtown, Maine, Oct. 7, 1891, he attendedthe elementary schools there. He received his Bachelor's degree from Dartmouth College in 1895 ; the M. S.degree from New Hampshire College in 1906; theLL. D. degree from the University of Maine in 1914,and a L.H. D. from the University of New Hampshire in1931. Immediately following his graduation from Dartmouth he became principal of the high school in Milford,N. H., and after four years was made superintendent ofschools in Portsmouth. From 1905 to 1917 he wasState Superintendent of Public Instruction, New Hampshire, and in 1918 became Assistant Secretary of theState Board of Education of Connecticut. Dr. Morrison came to the University in 1918 as Superintendentof the Laboratory Schools. In 1928 he was promoted torank of professor.Dr. Morrison married Marion Locke, of Andover,Mass., in 1902. Two of their three sons are in education, John A. being instructor in geography, at the University of Chicago, and Hugh S. being assistant professor of fine arts at Dartmouth. A third son, Robert, isnow in the east.Associate Professor Nelson, born in Paoli, Wis., Oct.7, 1876, received the A. B. degree from the Universityof Chicago in 1902, and that year was appointed anAssistant in Public Speaking. In 1922 he became Associate Professor of English. He was a Dean in the College of Arts, Literature and Science, and also wasDirector of the Reynolds Student Clubhouse. Duringthe war he was active in Liberty Loan campaigns, beingAssociate Director, National Headquarters Four-MinuteMen, Committee on Public Information, and member ofthe National Advisory Council of the same committee.LEVINSON GIFTSalmon O. Levinson, Chicago attorney who conceivedthe "Outlawry of War" agreement and almost single-handed carried it through to adoption in the form of theKellogg-Briand Pact, has presented to the University the valuable collection of documents relating the entirehistory of the international movement for the end of war.The Levinson collection, which fills a dozen filing casescontains letters, copies of telegrams and cable messages,diary reports of interviews and conferences with statesmen of the world, unpublished articles and analyses ofthe Outlawry idea and of evolving world events.The collection was used for research before it waspresented to the University. Dr. John Edgar Stoner,graduate student who received his Ph. D. degree in theJune Convocation, made the Levinson documents thebasis for his fivt hundred page thesis, Salmon 0. Levinson, and the Peace Pact. Hozv the Outlawry of WarWas Engineered to Acceptance. The papers are regardedby members of the Department of Political Science asbeing one of the most complete and revealing "casestudies" of an international agreement ever made accessible.There are some 35,000 letters and 13,000 replies inthe collection, covering every phase of Outlawry. Theletters and replies include correspondence with the majorstatesmen of the world, with whom Mr. Levinsonworked to get support and action for his proposal. Inthe long and arduous task of convincing the statesmenthat his idea merited support, Mr. Levinson wrote upward of 22,000 letters between 1913 and 1930. In oneyear, he wrote 2,000 letters, or six a day.Mr. Levinson's interest in Outlawry began at leastas early as 1915. At that time, in collaboration withCharles W. Eliot, President Emeritus of Harvard, andJacob Schiff, New York bankers, Mr. Levinson beganplanning a program to stop war. Out of this generalhope he developed the idea of Outlawry. It was Mr.Levinson who coined propaganda phrases such as "outlaw war," "international criminals," "war is a crime,"and other slogans which caught the world's attentionand helped to bring the program to completion. SenatorWilliam E. Borah, once convinced that the idea was apractical one, was one of Mr. Levinson's strongest aidsin bringing about the expression of the idea in the Pact,the material shows. It was Senator Borah who suggested that the Pact be a multi-lateral one, rather thansolely between France and the United States.According to Dr. Stoner, the Peace Pact was writtenby Mr. Levinson on the back of an envelope. HarrisonBrown, Mr. Levinson's European representative, whowas present at a conference between Mr. Levinson andM. Leger, Premier Briand's secretary, describes themeeting as the most vivid incident in his relations withMr. Levinson."We were alone in a little dingy office waiting forLeger to come in," he relates. "Levinson was talkingaway just as hard as ever to me when all at once hesaid, 'Let's check this over.' He took an envelope outof his pocket and wrote a couple of sentences on theback of it."Soon after, Leger came in. After talking a bit hesaid, 'What definite things do you Americans have tooffer?' Then Levinson told him what he had writtenon the envelope. . . . That was the Kellogg Peace Pact.The two sentences he wrote on that envelope were thetwo articles of the Pact. They were never changedTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 27materially."In 1931, the University awarded Mr. Levinson theRosenberger Medal in recognition of his great servicesto peace.DICTIONARY MARCHES ONBeginning with "baggage smasher" and ending with"blood," the second section of "A Dictionary of American English" compiled under the editorship of Sir William Craigie, Co-Editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, and Professor James R. Hulbert, has just been released by the University of Chicago Press. The firstsection of the Dictionary, from "A to Baggage," waspublished last summer. The complete dictionary willrequire twenty sections, the editors estimate. Work hasbeen in progress since 1925, with a corps of paid andvolunteer readers searching American publications fromPilgrim days onward for the first recorded use of American words.Mutations of the English word "barn" illustrate specifically the importance placed on words closely associated with American customs. Such Americanisms as"barn dance," "barn-burning," "barn-ball," "barnpreacher," "barn-raising," and "barn storming" are apart of the second installment. Colloquial and slang expressions forman importantand colorful portion of the dictionary. Editorsselected the endof the 19th century as the terminating pointfor the admission of slang anddialect words. Itis replete, however, with suchexpressions as :Keep the ball'a rolling, toball up (confuse), to bangaway, bang - up(superior orfirst class),prime bang - up(drunk), barkup a wrong tree,barrels of money, go on a bat, over the bay (drunk),bazoo (boastful), to care a bean for, the beat of, deadbeat, to work like a beaver, to make a bee-line for, beerjerker, beer slinger, go on a bender (a spree), you'dbetter believe, to bid in, biz, billy (policeman's club),big bug, and thousands of others.One of the largest groups in the "B" division is thatof actual things such as American plants, trees, animalsand fish. In this group are Bald Cypress, Bald Eagle,Balsam poplar, (also fir, hickory, pine and apple), Bartlett pear, basswood, beach-bird, beach pea, beggar's lice,Benjamin tree, blackberry bead-snake, bear oak, beaverSIR WILLIAM CRAIGIEEighteen sections to go. wood, bee tree, bee gum, bee moth, Bell pear, Bewick'swren, Big Horn sheep, Big Laurel, birch bark, birdcherry, bitternut, and such "blacks" as bear, bass, duck,alder, elder, hickory, huckleberry, oak. Natural or artificial products, and some domestic or other articles, alsoprovide a number of names of things. Among these arebake-over, bakery, bakeshop, ball and chain, band-mill,band-wagon, banjo, bank-share, barb wire, bargain-counter, bark canoe, barkeep, bar-room, bar-tender, bathtub, batter-cake, bay-rum, bean pole, bean soup, beanporridge, beaver robe, bed-rock, beef-cattle, bell-boy,bible-class, and bill-board.Words and phrases connected with sports contributean inventive portion of the American language in the"B" section. These include baseball, basketball, ball-club, ball-game, ball park, base-running, base-stealing,batting, bicycler, belly-bumbo (sled coasting), bear hunting, beaver trapping, and others. Such American socialcustoms as berrying, basket-meetings, basket-darning,spelling bees, and the like, are reflected in the vocabulary.An American literary invention, "blood and thunder"fiction, is recorded in the publication. Even the "bang"haircut (allowing a fringe to hang over the forehead) isa typical though more recent American fashion, according to the dictionary.ARMAGEDDON DISCOVERIESGordon Loud, field director of the Oriental Institute'sMegiddo (Armageddon) expedition returned to Chicago recently with the valuable gold and ivory discoveredby him last March. The treasures constitute the mostspectacular discovery ever made in Palestine, and inspection of the objects at the Institute headquarters confirms their high importance for Biblical and Orientalstudies. With Mr. Loud's return, the Oriental Institutestaff heard for the first time the details of the discovery."A magnificent palace with frescoed walls and floorsof sea shell mosaic stood just within the city gate anddominated the ramp approach to this fortress city.Within the palace lived princes of Megiddo who ruledthis small section of the Egyptian Empire from about1500 to 1200 B. C. These were troublous times, andthe course of empire was not smooth. The city wasconstantly threatened with invasion by those who wishedto throw off the yoke of Egyptian suzerainty. Thisthreat sometimes became a reality, as is evidenced notonly by historical records but by the excavation of fiveperiods during which the palace emerged from partialdestruction, each time with a slightly different plan."While we were engaged in clearing the floor whichserved the second phase of the palace we notice that thelime pavement in the corner of a comparatively inaccessible room had been replaced with tamped earth. Exploring spades exposed a gleam of gold, and then patient and painstaking work with knife and brush uncovered the entire cache of gold and jewelry under thefloor. About 1350 B. C. a threatened invasion had causedthe prince to bury his treasure, hoping it might escapethe general looting which inevitably accompanied invasion. His hopes of safety for the gold were fulfilled,but he apparently never lived to reclaim his possessions."This hoard of objects no doubt represents a collec-28 TPIE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEtion of royal gifts sent from Egypt and from the Asiaticstates. A splendid gold bowl shaped like a sea shellwas probably a gift from some Asiatic king. Two exquisite cosmetic jars, of serpentine and hematite respectively, with bases and rims encased in gold, doubtlesscame from Egypt, as did a delicate little pair of goldheads adorned with disc crowns. A gold mesh chainwas so beautifully and carefully made that it remains asstrong and flexible today as it was 3500 years ago.Cylinder seals of lapis lazuli set in gold caps, delicategranulated gold and lapis lazuli beads, an electrum ringwith scarab setting, and an ivory tusk banded with incised gold and with one end cut in the form of a humanhead, are other major items in this collection."The ivories found, which date to a later sacking ofthe palace, undoubtedly will prove to be of greater interest and scholarly value than the gold. Approximately250 pieces of carved and incised ivories were found inthe palace, some of them bearing hieroglyphic inscriptions which are expected to enable the Oriental Institute's staff to date the period. Careful treatment toinsure the preservation of the ivories is now being undertaken before they are studied or placed on exhibition.Expeditions of the Oriental Institute have been working on the Megiddo site, famous battle site of ancientnations, for the past thirteen years. Many importantdiscoveries, including the stables of the blooded horsesbred by Solomon for distribution through the east, andan ancient water system, have been made in previousseasons in the field.CIO IN DECLINEThe CIO is already past the peak of its developmentas a mass movement and is declining as a factor in theindustrial pattern of the United States, in the judgmentof Raleigh W. Stone, Associate Professor of IndustrialRelations in the School of Business. Professor Stone'sanalysis was given in one of the important series of dailypublic lectures on the field of business sponsored by theSchool. His estimate of the CIO attracted wide attention.Public opinion in the past three months has turnedagainst the CIO and against the American Federationof Labor as well, Professor Stone said. The attitude ofthe public will be the decisive influence on the growthof Mr. Lewis' organization. Fundamental error of theCIO, Mr. Stone holds, is its theory of a class consciousAmerican workman who can be organized for politicalaction. The fundamental issue between the CIO andA. F. of L. is not that of industrial and crafts unionism,but the clash between the philosophy of a class consciousworkman and that of a workman with middle classattitudes. If the CIO is to survive, Professor Stone predicts, it will have to approximate the A. F. of L. philosophy.Employers have either failed to recognize or to utilize the legal rights which exist to make effective theresponsibilities of unions, Professor Stone pointed out."Broadening of the definition of interstate commercein the Wagner Act case has made all aspects of industrial relations of companies engaged in interstate commerce subject to Federal law. For example, the law of picketing has been set forth in the well-known Tri-Citiescase, which prohibits all kinds of mass action and force.Any substantial interference whatsoever with the operation of an interstate business is illegal."Extension of the concept of commerce calls for anew interpretation of the Sherman Act so that any concerted interference with the employer's access to hismarket makes a union subject either to injunction proceedings or a suit for triple damages. The recent decision of the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals in the ApexHosiery case established clearly some of the legal implications of responsibility set forth by Chief JusticeHughes in the Labor Relations decision."SERGEL PLAY AWARDThe $500 prize in the third annual Charles H. Sergeiplay contest, conducted by the University, was awardedto the play, Happy Merger, by Marcus Bach of IowaCity, Ia. Honorable mention was given to four plays:Barren Field, by John Moore Trout, Jr., of Boston;Dark Grows the Night, by Darragh Aldrich, of Minneapolis, who collaborated with a life-convict in a statepenitentiary; Upper Smoky Falls, by Donald L. Breed,Freeport, 111., and Mollie, by Thelma M. Sims, of Chicago.The Sergei prize was established "to stimulate thewriting, production, and publication of new Americanplays and thus to encourage both new and establishedplaywrights in creating local drama."NOTESDr. Robert J. Bonner, Professor Emeritus of Greek,authority on the principles of Greek law, received thehonorary Litt. D. degree from Trinity College, Dublin,on June 30. Professor Bonner had been previouslyhonored with the same degree from the University ofToronto. . . . Dr. Lester R. Dragstedt, Professor ofSurgery, and his associate, Dr. John Van Prohaska, received a Class I Certificate of Merit for their exhibit onlipocaic at the Atlantic City meeting of the AmericanMedical Association. Lipocaic is the fat-burning hormone which promises to be of great value to diabetics;it was discovered by Dr. Dragstedt, whose operativeskill is backed by experience and training as a physiologist. . . . Memorial service for Philip Schuyler Allen,Professor of German Literature, who died April 27, washeld in Bond Chapel on June 27. Vice President Frederic Woodward presided at the service; Associate Professor Chester N. Gould; Registrar Ernest C. Miller,Professor George T. Northrup, were the speakers.Economics Today(Continued from Page 11)young university which we call our own, located as it isat the economic nerve center of the continental outpostof civilization, and imbued with conceptions of realismand relativity in research and education, has a destinysecond to none.*Detailed analysis of the issue here discussed, together with otherphases of the economic situation today, will be found in a volume recentlypublished by the Brookings Institution under the title The Recovery Problem in the United States.ATHLETICS• By PAUL MACLEANFACING a hard schedule of seven games this fall,four against Big Ten foes, the University of Chicago football squad, consisting of about 45 candidates, will begin a strenuous conditioning period Sept.10 before leaving for the south to meet the VanderbiltCommodores Oct. 2 in the initial game of the season.A strategic position in the coaching staff has beenfilled by the appointment of Herbert Blumer, AssociateProfessor of Sociology at the University and an All-American tackle from the University of Missouri in 1921and an All-American professional guard with the Chicago Cardinals in 1929 and 1930, as line coach this forthcoming season. He was line coach at the University ofMissouri in 1923 andl924 before coming to the University of Chicago in 1925 to do graduate work on hisPh.D degree. His professional football playing wasundertaken to provide funds for his graduate study andlater to bolster his salary as an instructor. He was elevated to an associate professorship at the University in1931. Judge Jerome Dunne's advancement from themunicipal to the circuit court made it necessary for himto resign his position as coach, a position he has heldfor two years.If ineligibility does not cut too deeply into the squad,10 lettermen, nine other members of last year's Varsity22 likely sophomores, and three or four veteran playerswho did not participate last season, will answer the StaggField call. Coach Clark D. Shaughnessy will have as hisassistants, besides the new line coach, J. Kyle Anderson,Jay Berwanger, Nelson Norgren, John Baker, EwaldNyquist and Bud Jordan, the latter one of last year's co-captains.Absence of a regular spring practice may prove ahandicap in the squad's bruising power but there shouldbe sufficient strength to make creditable showings againstthe attacks of Vanderbilt, Wisconsin, Princeton, OhioState, Michigan, Beloit and Illinois.There is no doubt that graduation losses will be felt bythe Maroon coaching staff. Coach Shaughnessy and hisassistants may have to open up a new bag of tricks orresort to a magician's hat to replace such stellar performers as Sam Whiteside, Bud Jordan, Earl Sappington,Bill Gillerlain, and Bill Bosworth, in the line, and"Duke" Skoning and Omar Fareed, in the backfield.Despite the loss of six of last year's regular linemen,four lettermen will be back to form a nucleus of a strong,fast line. They are Capt. Robert Fitzgerald and KendallPeterson, ends, and Robert Johnson and George Anionic,tackles. Coaches who watched George Kelley of Elgin,111., outstanding sophomore recruit, play last year on thefreshman team, claim he is a tough, rugged lineman, capable of filling either a guard or tackle post.Because of an abundance of backfield material, it is notimpossible to suppose that Morton Goodstein, last year's fullback, may be shifted to the line where his 200 poundscould be used to splendid advantage. When Jay Berwanger was sidestepping and plunging his way to gloryon the Midway a couple of years ago, he said Goodsteinwas the hardest tackier on the team — a claim substantiated from his own experience with Goodstein in practice.Last year's freshman team presents two center possibilities, Charles Barton of Muncie, Ind., light but a splendid passer, good blocker and defensive player, and MorrisGrinbarg, former all-Chicago center from Marshal high.Russell Parsons of Davenport, la., and Jim Beardsley,Hyde Park high athlete, though but 170 pounds each, arefast and should make understudies for the two regularends.The Varsity backfield should be well balanced andpowerful. To begin with, seven backfield veterans arereturning. They are Sollie Sherman, Goodstein, LewisHamity, Ed Valorz, Fred Lehnhardt, Bob Greenebaumand Harvey Lawson.Sherman is a slashing, open-field runner and a consistent offensive threat. While the others are stronger asblocking backs, Hamity, who probably will call signals,has developed into an accurate passer and this abilityshould take the Maroon offensive into the air more thisfall than last.Coach Shaughnessy will be watching the sophomoreplatter for potential backfield threats. Such newcomersas Louis Letts of Elmhurst, 111., a good passer and ballcarrier, Bob Brown of Winnetka, 111., Harold Penne ofWinner, S. D., a capable ball handler and blocker, andJohn Pialajner of Harrison high, Chicago, should offerkeen competition in seeking Varsity berths.MORE TENNIS GLORYMembers of the University of Chicago tennis team,Big Ten champions, have been making the rounds oftennis tournaments this summer, bringing added gloryto the Midway. The No. 1 doubles team, composed ofNorman Bickel and Norbert Burgess, after winning theconference crown, went on to be runners-up in the National Clay Court and National Intercollegiate tournaments. The Murphy twins, Bill and Chester, who comprised the No. 2 Maroon doubles combination, won theIllinois state doubles crown. In virtually all of the tournaments, University of Chicago players, in both the singles and doubles, added color and punch to the play.While Bickel and Burgess graduated this spring, theMurphy twins, Capt. John Shostrom and John Kreiten-stein will be on hand next season to defend the team'sconference championship. Charles Shostrom, a brotherof the captain, won the freshman round robin tournamentat the University and will supply one of the vacant postson the six-man team.2930 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINELaw Association Celebrates(Continued from Page 7)reverse these rules almost instantaneously, without notice. Thus, the persons who are affected may find themselves unwittingly violating rules of which they arenot aware, and letting themselves in for punishment.The Chief Justice delighted the audience by hisreminiscences of our former Dean Hall and ProfessorsMechem, Freund and Hinton, with whom he was wellacquainted.Dean Bigelow gave a twenty-minute exposition of thenew Law School curriculum, and made it not onlyunderstandable but alluring. The new plan, accordingto President Hutchins, will turn out educated lawyers,"an innovation — a break with established tradition."To give a flavor of the old smoker days, about a dozenalumni, led by the noted "baar-ton" Arnold R. Baar, '14,put on a skit written by Jack Oppenheim, '28, showinghow the new plan may be expected to work out in practice, with tragic results.Thomas R. Mulroy, '28, was chairman of the committee on arrangements, and Harry L. Horwich, '25,had charge of the ticket sales. . An attendance of 202testifies to the quality of their work. Morton Barnard,'27, gave an introduction in song of the guest speaker,tracing the stages of his career by appropriate versesto music by Gilbert and Sullivan, Brahms, Mendelssohnand George M. Cohan. The Class of 1912, celebrating its twenty-fifth anniversary, kept up the tradition of such anniversaries bycontributing funds for two scholarships. The spokesman of the class was Edwin B. Mayer, who surprisedeveryone including himself by a sketch of the class inthe form of a poem.About twenty-five of this year's graduates were present as guests of the Association, and received the gladhand as newly inducted members.The newly elected officers are:President — Dwight H. Green, '22.Vice-President — Arnold R. Baar, '14.Secretary and Treasurer — Charles F. McElroy, '15.Delegates to Alumni Council — Dwight H. Green,tharles P. Schwartz, '09, and Charles F. McElroy.Stevers(Continued from Page 24)as it is leaden and stupid today, was opening wide beforehim — and we need no more to explain why our eager,brilliant, dynamic young rooster soon was on his wayto his later colorful career in American criticism. Thegain was the country's, through his earlier appearance inthe lists against stuffy New England conventionalism inliterature ; the loss, if any, was Burton's, through missingso much which was fine and enduring in what theUniversity could give to all who knew how to dealpatiently and discerningly with the ponderous academicroutine of that day.New Freedom in Summer Meals. . . serveSWIFT'S PREMIUM DELICATESSEN MEATS• There's a new freedom for housewives in meals planned around Swift'sPremium Delicatessen Meats; for byserving these famous ready-to-servemeats regularly, hours of new leisurecan be gained.These platter-ready delicacies aredifferent from ordinary ready-to-servemeats ..... they have a goodnessthat even home cooking rarelyachieves. That's because of the fine meats and spices used in them, andbecause of the special cooking methods developed by Swift & Company.Serve Swift's Premium DelicatessenMeats two and three times a week there are twelve deliciousvarieties from which to choose. Askfor an assortment at your dealer's thenext time you shop but besure to look for the Premium sealwhen you buy.SWIFT & COMPANYTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31NEWS OF THE CLASSESCOLLEGE1897Word has been received of the deathof Ida Klein Nichols, the wife ofFrederick D. Nichols of New York, onApril 17, 1937, at St. Petersburg, Florida. Mrs. Nichols was well known bymany of the older alumni.Dr. A. R.-E. Wyant, DB, 2023West 101st Street, Chicago, recentlycelebrated his seventieth birthday andretired from the active practice of medicine. On June 18th he sailed on theS.S. Europa with Dr. Sherwood Eddy'sAmerican seminar of seventy-five professional men on a study pilgrimagethrough Germany, Poland, Russia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, England andFrance. He will return about September 1.1899Pearl L. H. Weber was elected amember of the School of Research ofthe University of Southern Californiathis summer and is continuing the workthat she began last summer while studying with Dr. Carr. A preliminary article appeared in the May PsychologicalReviezw.1907Franklyn B. Snyder, husband of Winifred Dewhurst, has been appointedvice president and dean of the facultiesof Northwestern University. He hasbeen a member of the Northwestern faculty since 1909.1910Executive Secretary of the HoustonY. M. C. A., William C. Craver, informs us that this year they sponsoredthe largest father and son banquet inthe United States. Nearly a thousandfathers and sons attend these annualbanquets promoted by the Y. M. C A.1911Eleven members of the Class ofEe-o-lev-en met for luncheon at thePalmer House on July 12 in honor ofConrado Benitez. Those present were:Vallee O. Appel, Har grave Long, Harold Gifford, J. Arthur Miller, S. EdwinEarle, R. Boynton Rogers, Hume C.Young, Edward- Seegers, Milton E.Robinson, Jr., and Thurber W. Cush-ing.The Bunny Rogers recently returnedfrom a trip to Montana in a V Fordin which they covered 4,100 miles ineight days.1914Oakley K. Morton, superior judgeof Riverside County (California), wasinstalled in the office of Grand Commander of Knights Templar of Cal-fornia following the annual meeting ofthe sixty-five local commanderies atSan Francisco.1921Back on, the quadrangles again working for her AM degree in French while on sabbatical leave from teaching atHyde Park High, Katherine SissonJensen (Mrs. J. P.) reports that "it isgreat to be on campus ! Wieboldt is aluxury." Golf, tennis, swimming, andpainting frequently break the routineof a busy week.1923On February 1, 1937, Irwin N. Kne-hans, MBA'36, was transferred fromCalumet High School, where he hastaught for the last eight years, to theBureau of Curriculum of the Board ofEducation for three months, for the purpose of writing a course of study forbusiness and adminstration for the Chicago High Schools. It will be publishedin mimeograph form and used in allhigh schools.1926Next year Ruberta M. Olds will begin her eighth year as chairman of theDepartment of Spanish in AmericanUniversity, Washington, D. C. She alsohas two evening classes in Spanish inthe Graduate School of the Departmentof Agriculture.1927Marian Barnes, who has beenspending the last four years at theSchool of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, receivedher MD degree on June 8 and this nextcoming year expects to interne at theWestern Pennsylvania Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa.Because the schools in Des Moineswere in session until June 11, RachelBeiser, 2811 Cottage Grove, could notget back to the quadrangles for reunionweek. She looks on her work teachingart in the David Smouse OpportunitySchool for Physically Handicappedchildren as both challenging and interesting.In mailing in his regret AlbertDaugherty, 1833 Wilton Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, wrote: "I'll stillbe here teaching science in RooseveltJunior High School June 4 or I wouldcome to the dinner. After ten yearsteaching kids, I still like the job better than any other kind of work. Lucky,I think. Am still single — worse luck —otherwise in good condition (thoughheavier).Allis E. Graham, 500 RiversideDrive, New York City, has been working toward her master's degree in vocational guidance and personnel at Teacher's College, Columbia University. Fortwo. months she has been doing a special research job on customer and employee attitudes at B. Airman and Company.Most of the time of Mrs. Thomas M.Ingman (Katherine McCabe) at present is spent in taking care of her daughter, Margaret Jean, who arrived October 10, 1936. A Hollywood, Calif., resident, she lives at 6100 Glen Oak.Stewart P. Mulvihill, JD'28, practicing law in Chicago at 105 West tor Economical TransportatiomJfCHJEVROLET,SALES SERVICEJ. D. Levin '19 Pres.PASSENGER CARS - TRUCKSModem Service StationDREXEL CHEVROLET CO.4733 Cottage GroveDREXEL 3121BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women otModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, DirectorCLOISTER GARAGECHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYA PERSONAL SERVICEof Refinement, Catering to theUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO5650 LAKE PARK AVE.Phone MIDWAY 0949Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau for menand women in all kinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors and Masters: fortyper cent of our business. Critic and Grade Supervisors for Normal Schools placed every year inlarge numbers; excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics. Business Administration. Music, and Art. secure fine positions throughus every year. Private Schools in all parts of thecountry among our best patrons: good salaries. Wellprepared High School teachers wanted for city andsuburban High Schools. Special manager handlesGrade and Critic work. Send for folder today.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEW. L. LYNCHCOMPANYBUILDING CONSTRUCTION208 So. La Salle StreetCHICAGOHAIR REMOVED FOREVER17 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseALSOELECTROLYSIS EXPERTMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused.Permanent removal of Hair from Face,Eyebrows, Back of Neck or any partof Body; destroys 200 to 600 Hair Rootsper hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy and III. Chamber of Commerce$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.1 7 No. State St.ELIZABETH HULL SCHOOLForRETARDED CHILDRENBoarding and Day Pupils5046Greenwood Ave Telephone>. Drexel 1188 Madison Street, reports that he is married and they have one son, Robert,fourteen months old, "who is, of course,just like his dad."Stanley S. Newman, now with theInstitute of Human Relations of YaleUniversity, moved to New York inJuly for a year of linguistic researchwith the General Education Board.Yolanda Simiz received an LL.B.this February from John Marshall andhopes to pass the Bar exams this September. Having taken occasionaljaunts to the West and getting as farSouth as Caracas, Venezuela, he stillhopes to go on a vagbond cruise afterthe Bar exams.1928La Verne K. Cooke has accepted anappointment to teach at the OttawaHills School, Toledo, Ohio, for thecoming school year.Charles Harris, 370 Lexington,New York City, is now assocated withLawrence Durboron, the far-famed artprinter of New York City.As a result of the faborable attentionwhich a recent caricature of Fred As-taire and Ginger Rogers on the coverof Cue, weekly New York magazine,attracted, Irma Selz went to Hollywood, where she is doing caricaturesof movie stars at work for the NewYork Herald-Tribune.1932Chester W. Laing, Jr., has beenappointed manager of the buying department of John Nuveen and Companyof Chicago.1934Seymour O. Baker, AM'35, goes toPittsburgh in September to begin teaching at Carnegie Institute of Technology-Helen Louise Morgan, AM'36, isworking for the Surgical PublishingCompany of Chicago. 1936Mary .N. Mackenzie, AM'37, istraveling in Europe this summer withMiss Dorothy Sharpe.DOCTORS OFPHILOSOPHY1920Warren W. Ewing, SM'18, has beenpromoted from associate professor toprofessor of physical chemistry at Lehigh University.1928Yale University recently announcedthe appointment of Fang-Kuei Li, ofthe Academia Sinica, Nanking, China,as visiting professor of Chinese Linguistics. ! !Arthur H. Steinhaus, '20, SM'25,professor of physiology at George Williams College, Chicago, is teaching thissummer at the University of Californiaat Berkeley. The American PhysicalEducation Association elected him a fellow this spring.1929Mrs. Callie M. Coons is to be associated with the George PepperdineFoundation, Los Angeles, California,and will begin her work there the firstof September.H. Y. McClusky, of the Universityof Michigan, is teaching for the summerat Northwestern University. Thisspring marked the completion of hisfirst year's work on a research andservice project in Youth Guidance under the auspices of the W. K. KelloggFoundation of Battle Creek, Michigan,and the University of Michigan. Hewas recently appointed a member of theresearch committee of the AmericanCamping Association, using a $100,000subsidy from Chrysler Corporation.Fernand de Gueldre Hotel StevensWabash 0532Photographer toMary GardenLynn FontanneChaliapinAmelia EarhartVincent BendixStuart ChaseFrederick StockAs low as 3 for $9.50 Jane Addams5442 Lake Park Ave. HYDE PARK MOTOR SALES. INC.Service on all modelChrysler DeSoto Dodge PlymouthCarsWe specialize in greasing the above cars for only 45 cents.Dorchester 2900MORE THAN 60,000,000 CALLS A DAYAmericans talk over Bell System wires more than 60,000,000 times a day.In relation ,to population, there are six times as many telephones in thiscountry as in Europe. BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEMTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 33BUSINESSDIRECTORYAMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.Emergency 'phones OAK. 0492-0493operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.24 hour service.ARTIFICIAL LIMBSBARDACH-SCHOENE CO.102 South Canal St.Phone Central 9710Artificial Legs and ArmsComfort and ServiceGUARANTEEDASBESTOSA UNIVERSITY FAVORITEK. & M.FEATHERWEIGHT85% MagnesiaUniform and light in weight. Moredead air cells. Better insulation.KEASBEY & MATTISON CO.205 W. Wacker Drive Ran. 6951AWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRSJOSEPH A. RICHBOILER REPAIRINGWelding and Cutting1414 East 63 rd StreetTelephone Hyde Park 9574BONDSP. H. Davis, 'II. H. I. Markham, 'Ex. '06R. W. Davis, *I6 W. M. Giblin, '23F. B. Evans, 'IIPaul H. Davis & Co.MembersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock Exchange10 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622 1931This September Adeline Bloodgoodtakes up her teaching position at Milwaukee-Downer College, Wis.1934A recently appointed faculty memberat Michigan State College for 1937-38is Ben Euwema.1935Alexander Cappon, '25, AM'26, willbecome a member of the University ofKansas City faculty with the openingof the fall semester.1936Lawrence N. Morscher, Jr., isworking for the United States RubberProducts, Inc., Detroit, Michigan.LAW1909Ralph S. Bauer, JD, professor oflaw at DePaul University, Chicago,gave the annual address to the chapterof Pi Gamma Mu at North Central College, Naperville, Illinois, on May 8 onthe subject, 'The Greatest Peril toThought in the Social Sciences."Speaking of hobbies, Paul O'Donnell, '07, JD, Chicago lawyer, informsus that his are squash rackets, horsesand dogs. "Sometimes I ride the horse,"but on the trip of May 23 "the horsetried to ride me." Under the IllinoisSupreme Court he is commissioner ongrievance matters and on questions ofcharacter and fitness of applicants foradmission to Bar. He is also a memberSOCIAL SERVICEEleanor Glotz, AM'30, assistantprofessor of social work, University ofMichigan, is teaching the courses inSocial Case Work during the summerquarter in Miss Dixon's absence.A number of former graduates of theschool are in residence for the newercourses: Fern Boan, AM'26, assistantprofessor of sociology, Florida StateCollege for Women; Leona Massoth,AM'34, instructor in social work, University of Indiana; Pauline Thrower,AM'30, instructor in social case work,University of Oklahoma; Stuart Jaf-fary, former fellow in Social ServiceAdministration, now assistant professor.HIGHEST RATED IN UNITED STATESENGRAVERS SINCE 1906 + WORK DONE BY ALL PROCESSES 4+ ESTIMATES GLADLY FURNISHED ?ANY PUBLISHER OUR REFERENCE ?1RAYNEITDALHEIM fxCO •ZOSA W. LAKE ST., CHICAGO. BOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCAFESMISS LINDQUIST'S CAFE5540 Hyde Park Blvd.GOOD FOOD— MODERATE PRICESA place to meet in large and small groups.Private card rooms.Telephone Midway 7809in the Broadview HotelCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900— 0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQuality and Service Since 1882CEMENT CONTRACTORSLET US DO YOURCEMENT WORKG. A. GUNGGOLLCOMPANYConcrete Contractors for 35 Years64 1 7 SO. PARK AVE.Telephone Normal 0434CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '2 1Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALJAMES COAL CO.ESTABLISHED 1 888YARDS58th & Halsted Sts, Phone Normal 28008 Ist & Wallace Sts. Phone Radcliffe 8000Wasson-PocahontasCoal Co.6876 South Chicago Ave.Phones: Wentworth 8620- 1 -2-3-4Wasson's Coal Makes Good — or —Wasson Does34 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINECOFFEE -TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston— -New York — Philadelphia— SyracuseELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSMEADE ELECTRICCOMPANY, INC.ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORSWIRING FOR LIGHT & POWER3252Franklin Blvd. TelephoneKedzie 5070ELECTRIC SIGNSFEDERAL NEONSIGNS•FEDERAL ELECTRIC COMPANYCLAUDE NEON FEDERAL CO.8700 South State Street•W. D. Krupke, '19Vice-president in Charge of SalesEMPLOYMENT BROKERSA. J. McCOYAND ASSOCIATES, INC.140 So. Dearborn, Chicago• • •In seeking a position ourservice is specialized; itis restrictedENGINEERSNEILER, RICH & CO. (not inc.)ENGINEERSCONSULTING, DESIGNING ANDSUPERVISINGAir Conditioning HeatingElectrical VentilatingMechanical Sanitary431 So. Dearborn StreetTelephone Harrison 7691FENCESANCHOR POST FENCE CO.Ornamental Iron — Chain Link —Rustic WoodFences for Campus, Tennis Court,Estate, Suburban Home or Industrial Plant.Free Advisory Service and EstimatesFurnished333 N. Michigan Ave.Telephone STAte 5812FLOWERS^^^^ mlH* Q CHICAGO .fl&P Established 1865vs/j^ FLOWERSPhones Plaza 6444, 64451364 East 53rd Street School of Social Work, Tulane University.Florence Sullivan, AM'32, consultant in Child Welfare Services, UnitedStates Children's Bureau, has recentlygiven some lectures to the SummerQuarter classes on the subject, "Federal-State Relationships Under the SocialSecurity Act."Grace White, AM'34, is leaving aposition as medical social worker andstudent supervisor in the UniversityClinics, to be instructor in medical social work at Tulane University. HazelPeterson, AM'28, has recently been appointed instructor in the School of Social Work at the University of Utah,Salt Lake City. Helen Cobb, AM'36,has recently gone to a new position asmedical social worker in the Children'sHospital in Los Angeles, California.Rachel Egbert, AM'36, has accepteda position as case worker in the StateDepartment of Social Security, Ellens-burg, Washington.Some of the students who received theAM degree at the June, 1937, Convocation, and their positions, include thefollowing: Whitney Jansen, AmericanRed Cross, St. Louis, Missouri; AliceReynolds, executive secretary, Y. W.C. A., St. Paul, Minnesota; ElizabethWilson, instructor in social case work,University of Missouri ; Leland White,district supervisor, State Board of Social Welfare, Tbpeka, Kansas; Marjorie Bacon, district child welfare supervisor, Georgia Department of PublicWelfare, Atlanta, Georgia.Mr. Lewis Meriam, of the staff ofBrookings Institution, Washington,D. C, will teach courses in Public Administration and Public Welfare andPublic Welfare Personnel Administration during the second term of the summer quarter.ENGAGEDMary Jane McAllister, '36, to Arthur D. Pickett, GS'37. Miss McAllister and her fiance will receive theirmaster's degrees this summer at theUniversity of Chicago. Following theirwedding in August, Mr. Pickett andhis bride will be at home in Morgan-town, West Virginia, where he will bean instructor in the physiology department of the state unversity.MARRIEDElizabeth Birkhoff, ex'23, to Kenneth W. Moore, '20, Thorndike Hilton Chapel, June 22.Wilfred Jonathan Nowlin, '24, toNeva Whitford Jones, Thorndike HiltonChapel, June 15.Frank D. Ewing, '26, to Ruth WildHaley, Thorndike Hilton Chapel, June15.Margaret Kephart Roop, GS'28, toLee Waldron Sager s, June 5, ThorndikeHilton Chapel.Lily- Way Rutledge, ex'28, to Alexander John Hayes, June 23, BondChapel; address, 4620 Lake Park Avenue, Chicago. FUNERAL DIRECTORH. D. LUDLOWFUNERAL DIRECTORFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSEDAN AMBULANCETel. Fairfax 28616110 Cottage Grove Ave.GALLERIESO'BRIENGALLERIESPaintings Expertly RestoredNew life brought to treasured canvases. Our moderate prices zmll please.Estimates given zvithout obligation.673 North MichiganSuperior 2270GROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVERHEATINGPHILLIPS, 6ETSGH0W 00.ENGINEERS & CONTRACTORSHeating, Ventilating, Power,Air Conditioning32W. Hubbard St. TelephoneSuperior 61 16HOTELS"Famous for Food"Dancing and EntertainmentNightlyCircular CRYSTAL Barthe BREVOORT hotel120 W. Madison St. ChicagoLAUNDRIESMorgan Laundry Service, Inc.2330 Prairie Ave.Phone Calumet 7424Dormitory ServiceSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO M AGAZINE 35THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL LAUNDRY SERVICESAlsoZoric System of Cleaning- : - Odorless Quality Cleaning - : -Phone Oakland 1383LETTER SERVICEPOND LETTER SERVICEEverything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones 418 So. Market St.Harrison 8118 ChicagoLITHOGRAPHERL. C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux "22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182MARBLEHENRY MARBLE COMPANYCONTRACTORS and FINISHERSofIMPORTED and DOMESTIC MARBLES3208 Shields Ave., Chicago, IllinoisTelephones i VICtory 1196leiepnones j VICtory n97MEDICAL EQUIPMENTCOMPLETE EQUIPMENTInstruments, Sundries and Furniturefor' Physicians, Dentists and HospitalsFrank S. Betz CompanyHammond, IndianaChicago Phone: Saginaw 4710MUSICMANUSCRIPT PAPER— SPEED WRITING50 Double sheets — 12 lines— Regular size, 200 pages;$1.00. Send today.WM. R.BULLOCKMusic Engraver— Printer420 N. La Salle St., ChicagoSuperior 2420PAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3186 Grace Evelyn Oakes, ex'29, to Allan Oliver Moland, June 26, ThorndikeHilton Chapel.Harold Haydon, '30, AM '31, toVirginia Sherwood, July 4, Chicago.Georgia William Sullivan, '30, toClare Rosemary Klavas, June 26, Thorndike Hilton Chapel.Meredith Moulton, '31, to Paul E.Redhead, May 26, Thorndike HiltonChapel; at home, 910 Rugby Road,Charlottesville, Virginia.Cora May Poole, '31, to GeorgeBowman, Thorndike Hilton Chapel,June 26.Herman John Sander, GS'31, toRuth Adaline Fehlandt, Thorndike Hilton Chapel, June 19.Sallie Virginia Hamilton, GS'32,to Francis Edward George, June 26,Thorndike Hilton Chapel.Edna V. Burke, '33, to Jesse A.Cralley, June 29, Thorndike HiltonChapel.Mary Louise Forbrich, '33, to Harvey Shearing Murrell, June 19, Thorndike Hilton Chapel; at home, Apt. 506,7100 South Shore Drive, Chicago.Elizabeth L. Johler, '33, to DonaldN. Chadwick, May 29, 1937, BondChapel; address, 315 East 48th Street,Kansas City, Missouri.James William Marron, '33, MD'36, to Nina Miriam Gephart, Thorndike Hilton Chapel, June 5.Dana John Roberts, '33, to Genevieve Katherine " Beatty, April 17,Thorndike Hilton Chapel.Martin E. Carlson, Jr., to Catherine M. Rat cliff, June 5, Bond Chapel.Nora Muller, '34, AM'35, to PierreLejins, GS'37, Graham Taylor Hall,June 6.Edward J. Novak, '34, to Evelyn M.Rakosnik, Graham Taylor Hall, June 5.Alice B. Pedersen, '34, to TheodoreC. Gault, Bond Chapel, June 26; address, 8300 South Green Street, Chicago.Mamie Saathoff, '34, to OscarBernhard, Thorndike Hilton Chapel,June 5.Leora Olive Calkins, AM'35, toJames J. Quinn, June 26, ThorndikeHilton Chapel.Mary Gertrude Fowler to PaulRichard Rohrke, GS'35, June 12,Thorndike Hilton Chapel.Daniel A. Glomset, '35, to FrancesMorehouse. June 14, Des Moines, Iowa.At home, 5729 Harper Ave., Chicago.Virginia Eyssell, '35, to FrankD. Carr, '35, July 8, Chicago. At home,2426 Benderwirt Avenue, Rockford, 111.Arlene Goldwaite, '35, to AlanHoop, Law'38, Thorndike HiltonChapel, June 12.Muriel Barnesby Groff, '35, toWalter Edwin Mochel, SM'35,Thorndike Hilton Chapel, June 12.Marguerite Huggins, '35, to Fredrick Sawin, ex'35, June 5, ThorndikeHilton Chapel.Patricia Vail, '35, to William D.Watson, '35, Bond Chapel, June 29.Bonnie Bess Worline, '35, to IrvillCourtner King, Bond Chapel, March E. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C. ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTYllll East 55th StreetTelephone Dorchester 1579PLUMBINGA. J. F. LOWE & SON1217 East 55th StreetPlumbing and Heating ContractorRadio and Electrical ShopsDay Phone MIDway 0782PUBLISHERSBOOK MANUSCRIPTSWanted — All subjects, for imme-.diate publication. Booklet sent free.Meador Publishing Co.324 Newbury St., Boston, Mass.REAL ESTATEBROKERAGE MORTGAGESTHEBILLS CORPORATIONBenjamin F. Bills, '12, ChairmanEVERYTHING IN REAL ESTATE134 S. La Salle St. State 0266MANAGEMENT INSURANCEROOFINGGrove Roofing Co.(Gilliland)Old Roofs Repaired — New Roofs Put On25 Years at 6644 Cottage Grove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates FreeFairfax 320636 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERUGSAshjian Bros., inc.Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED2107 E. 71st St. Pkone Dor. 0009TAXIDERMISTSGEORGE D. HESSERTAXIDERMISTGAME HEADS — ANIMALS — FISH —BIRDSArtistically Mounted1315 S. Kostner Ave.Telephone Lawndale 2750TEACHERS' AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.Paul YatesjTates-Fislier Teachers' AgencjfEstablished 1906616 South Michigan Ave., ChicagoTHEHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, NormalSchool, College and University PatronageVENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767X-RAY SUPPLIESX-RAY SUPPLIES& Accessories"At Your Service9Tel. Seeley 2550-51Geo. W. Brady & Co.809 So. Western Ave. 27; address 1404 Hyde Park Boulevard, Chicago.Astrid Breasted, ex'36, to BernardL. Hormann, GS'36, June 4, Thorndike Hilton Chapel.Jean Campbell Grace, '36, to Eugene S. Hahnel, '37, Thorndike Hilton Chapel, June 20.Muriel Jeanette Davis, '36, toRichard Longini, April 23, ThorndikeHilton Chapel.Beatrice L. Rayfield, '36, to JohnB. Pullen, '36, Graham Taylor Hall,June 19.Adele Sandman, '36, to Herbert N.Woodward, JD'36, Bond Chapel, April24; address, 73 East Elm" Street, Chicago.Eleanor J. Sharts, '36, to Edgar C.Cumings, PhD'36, Thorndike HiltonChapel, June 25.-Sarah Jane Barringer, GS'37, toAlf T. Toerem, Thorndike HiltonChapel, June 12.Margaret Conger, '37, to PhilipJohnston Clark, Thorndike HiltonChapel, June 14. Address: 11 RosalindRoad, Poughkeepsie, New- York.John H. Meyer, GS'37, to Nina An-tonina Balsamo, June 24, ThorndikeHilton Chapel.Casper G. Wolhowe, GS'37, to StellaLarson, June 10, Thorndike HiltonChapel.Elizabeth K. Zimmermann, GS'37,of Schaefferstown, Pa., to LeRoyBurkhart, GS, of East Earl, Fa., June14, Bond Chapel.Mary Alwilda Reamer, '38, to Fred.Howard Croninger, Jr., GS'36, Graham Taylor Hall, June 13.BORNTo Mr. and Mrs. Samuel John Miller(Muriel M. Ferguson, '29), of 7800Phillips Avenue, Chicago, a daughter,Muriel Jean, June 17, 1937.To Mr. and Mrs. Charles B. Stephens (Cordelia Crout, '32), a son,Charles Bennett, Jr., on April 10, 1937,in Springfield, Illinois.To William C Mulligan, '33, JD'34, and Mrs. Mulligan of WesternSprings, 111., a son, James William,March 13, 1937.DIEDFrank A. Vanderlip, ex'99, formerpresident of the National City Bank,newspaper man, and political theorist,died June 29, at New York Hospital,at age 72.William E. Beardsley, '04, diedMay 15, 1937, in Berkeley, Calif. Hewas a teacher of social studies at theWillard Junior High School and resigned recently after serving for twenty-five years in the school department.George T. Ragsdale, '05, of Louisville, Ky., died during the flood disaster.His death was directly attributable tooverwork in behalf of flood victims.Paul Ellis Merrill, ex'08, diedJune 25, 1937, at his home, 5344 Wave-land Avenue, Chicago.Henry A. Greenebaum, '24, MD'29,of 5411 University Avenue, Chicago,died June 24, 1937. SCHOOLSThe Midway School6216 Kimbark Ave. Tel. Dorchester 3299Elementary Grades— High SchoolPreparation — KindergartenFrench, Music and ArtBUS SERVICEA School with Individual Instruction andCultural AdvantagesSAINT XAVIER COLLEGEFOR WOMEN4900 Cottage Grove AvenueCHICAGO, ILLINOISA Catholic College Conducted bythe SISTERS OF MERCYCourses lead to the B. A. anddegrees. Music — Art B. S.South Shore Art SchoolClay Kelly, DirectorA school of individual instructionin drawing, painting, and claymodeling.1542 East 57th Street, Chicago, III.Telephone, Dorchester 4643mLIBRARY SCHOOL209 S. State St., Chicago, III.Preparatory course for public Librarian.Practical book courses for positions inRental Libraries and book stores.Register Mon. to Fri. II a. m. to 4 p.m.Intensive Stenographic CourseII f£RmC9LLEGE MEN & WOMENI 100 Words a Minute in 100 Days As- _a¦ sured for one Fee. Enroll NOW. Day JCclasses only— Begin Jan., Apr., Julyand Oct. Write or Phone Ban. 1575.^,18 S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO +MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130Your whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.LEARN GREGGThe World's Fastest Shorthand.THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY2500 Prairie Ave. ChicagoWhen Those BacksGo Plunging ThruYOU'LL WANT TO BE THERE!FOUR BIG HOME GAMES FOR $71• A Choice Seat in the North Stands.• The colorful Princeton, Wisconsin, OhioState and Beloit teams in action.• AND You SAVE $1.50. HERE IS THE HOME SCHEDULE¦^ — — — ^— ¦ ^ — ^ ^^-^^• Wisconsin — October 9• Princeton — October I 6• Ohio State— October 30• Beloit — November 13GAMES AWAY• Vanderbilt — October 2• Michigan — November 6• Illinois — November 20Send in your check today for a $7 Season Ticket Book toThe Football Ticket Office,5640 University Avenue, ChicagoMake Checks payable to THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO and add 25c for postage and registry.« it's mildness you look forwtake ChesterfieldsIf its p'ood taste you likestop w0i Chesterfields. . .Copyright 1937, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.