THE UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGO MAGAZINEBOYS' SCHOOLSCRANBROOK SCHOOLDistinctive endowed preparatory school for boys.Also junior department. Exceptionally beautiful,complete, modern. Unusual opportunities inarts, crafts, sciences. Hobbies encouraged. Allsports. Single rooms. Strong faculty. Individual attention. Graduates in over 40 colleges.Near Detroit.Registrar, 3000 Lone Pine RoadBloomfield Hills, Mich.FRANKLIN & MARSHALLACADEMYA widely recognized, moderately priced preparatory school. Excellent records in many colleges. Personal attention to each boy's needs.Varied athletic program. Modern equipment.Junior department.E. M. Hartman, Pd. D.Box G, Lancaster, Pa.ROXBURY SCHOOLFor boys 11 years and olderFlexible organization and painstaking supervision of each boy's program offer opportunityfor exceptional scholastic progress and generaldevelopment.A. E. Sheriff, HeadmasterCheshire, ConnecticutWILLISTON ACADEMYUNUSUAL educational opportunities at modestcost. Endowment over half a million. Ovei150 graduates in 40 colleges. New recreationalcenter, gymnasium, swimming pool. Experienced, understanding masters. Separate JuniorSchool.Address ARCHIBALD V. GALBRAITH,HeadmasterBox 3, Easthampton, Mass.COLLEGESAINT XAVIER COLLEGEFOR WOMEN4900 Cottage Grove AvenueCHICAGO, ILLINOISA Catholic College Conducted bythe SISTERS OF MERCYCourses lead to the B. A. and B. S.degrees. Music — ArtART SCHOOL= South Shore Art School =SS Clay Kelly, Director SSSS5 A school of individual instruction 2SSS in drawing, painting, and clay SS!SZ modeling. ss= 1542 East 57th Street, Chicago, III. ESSS Telephone, Dorchester 4643 S=^llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllln; GIRLS' SCHOOLSThe MARY C. WHEELER SCHOOLA school modern in spirit, methods, equipment, rich intraditions. Excellent college preparatory record. Generalcourse with varied choice of subjects. Post Graduate.Class Music, Dancing, Dramatics, and Art. an integral part of curriculum. Leisure for hobbies. Dailysports. 170 acre farm — riding, hunting, hockey. Separate residence and life adapted to younger girlsCatalogue.Mary Helena Dey, M.A., PrincipalProvidence, Rhode IslandGiri's Schools in the Diocese of Virginia (Episcopal)ST. ANNE'S SCHOOLCHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIAMargaret L. Porter— HeadmistressST. CATHERINE'S SCHOOLRICHMOND, VIRGINIALouisa deB. Bacot Bracket!: — HeadmistressDay and Boarding. Thorough preparation for allleading colleges. Also courses for students not planning to enter college. Music. Art Riding. Outdoor Sports.SECRETARIAL SCHOOLS(atharine GibbsTWO YEAR COURSE — College and cultural subjects, with thorough secretarial training.ONE YEAR COURSE— Intensive secretarial trainingAlso SPECIAL COURSE for COLLEGE WOMENDelightful residences in Boston and in New YorkFor catalog address: office of Admissions.nn ..B0.ST0N . NEW YORK PROVIDENCF90 Marlborough St. 230 Park Ave. 155 Angell StIntensive Stenographic CourseU FOR COLLEGE MEN & WOMEN100 Words a Minute in 100 Days As- a,sured for one Fee. Enroll NOW. Day j\classes only — Begin Jan., Apr., Julyand Oct. Write or Phone Ban. 1575.18 *S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO ^flmmiiiMiiihi:MacCormac School ofCommerceBusiness Administration and SecretarialTrainingDAY AND EVENING CLASSESAccredited by the National Association of Accredited Commercial Schools.1170 E. 63rd St. H. P. 2130LIBRARY SCHOOLLIBRARY SCHOOL209 S. State St., Chicago, III.Preparatory course for public Librarian.Practical book courses for positions inRental Libraries and book stores.Register Mon. to Fri. II a. m. to 4 p. m. CO-EDUCATIONAL SCHOOLGEORGE SCHOoTQuaker. Established 1893. Fully accredited r„ilege preparatory and cultural course. Sevenr*"four graduates entered thirty-two. collefftS £1936. Boys and girls in the same school undSconditions that meet the approval of the mrScareful, discriminating parent. Endowment227-acre campus. 25 miles from Philadelnnin10 miles from Trenton. pnia<G. A. Walton, A. M., PrincipalBox 267, George School, Pa.BOYS' GAMPTHE OLDEST CAMP IN THE WESTCAMP HIGHLANDSFOR BOYSSAYNER, WISCONSINThree Camps— 8-12: 13-14: 15-17Woodcraft, Athletic and Water Sports,Music, Photography, Scouting, Long CanoeTrips, Riding, Shooting, Shop, Nature Lore,Camping Trips, Unexcelled Equipment,Experienced Staff, Doctor-Nurse.WRITE THE DIRECTOR FOR CATALOGW. J. MONILAW, M. D.5712 Kenwood Ave., ChicagoSPECIAL SCHOOLSELIZABETH HULL SCHOOLForRETARDED CHILDRENBoarding and Day Pupils5046Greenwood Ave TelephoneDrexel 1188The Midway School6216 Kimbark Ave. Tel. Dorchester 3299Elementary Grades — High SchoolPreparation — KindergartenFrench, Music and ArtBUS SERVICEA School with Individual Instruction andCultural AdvantagesPublished by the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago, monthly, from November to July. Office of Publication, 403 Cobb Hall, 58th St. atEllis Avenue, Chicago. Annual subscription price $2.00. Single copies 25 cents. Entered as second class matter December 1, 1934, at the Post Officeat Chicago, Illinois, under the act of March 3, 1879. The Graduate Group, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is the official advertising agencypt the University of Chicago Magazine.I.She is young — vibrant with energy— radiantwith health— throbbing with vitality.She seeks expression for the fullness of hercharms. She radiates the glorious adventureof life!Where would we be without her? Her influence keeps us up and coming. 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Y,Please tell me without obligation, how I can get aNew Remington Noiseless Portable, plus FreeTyping Course and Carrying Case, for 10c a day.Send Catalogue.NameAddress City State..If you are abroad in May or June, visitStockholm when Sweden's generous summercrowns her gay, spotless capital with brightand fragrant flowers. Her charm and beautyenhanced by the ethereal afterglow of hersunlit nights will delight you.Discover for yourself why this lovely cityis so rapidly winning the affectionate preference of all American visitors.Make Stockholm your gateway to all thenorthern wonderlands and the fascinatingBaltic region.Only eight hours by plane from London,Paris; five hours from Berlin. By throughtrains from Berlin and Hamburg or direct inSwedish liners from New York in eight luxurious days.Ask your travel agent or us for our new"Lands of Sunlit Nights"suggesting delightful trip in all the Scandinavian countries — a wealth of vacation guidance.Please mention Department GGSWEDISH TRAVELINFORMATION BUREAU630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK piprPlan a summer vacation somewherein the glorious West. Our travelexperts will be glad to help you selectthe vacationland to suit your needs.Hotel and resort rates are reasonably priced, and rail fares are low onChicago & North Western's comfortable air-conditioned trains toBLACK HII1S OF SOUTH DAKOTANORTH WOODS OF WISCONSINUPPER MICHIGAN and MINNESOTACOLORADO; YELLOWSTONE; ZION- BRYCE-GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARKSCALIFORNIA— BOULDER DAMPACIFIC NORTHWESTCANADIAN ROCKIES — ALASKAAsk any C. & N. W. Representative or writeR. THOMSONPassenger Traffic Manager400 W. 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FACTORIES ALSO IN LONDON, ONTARIO, AND LONDON, ENG.(Please favor our advertisers when checking coupon facing Page V. of Rear Advertising Section. Thank you — The Editor.)THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINEPUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI COUNCILCharlton T. Beck, '04 Howard W. MortEditor and Business Manager Associate EditorFred B. Millett, PhD '31; John P. Howe, '27; William V. Morgenstern, '20, JD '22Contributing EditorsMilton E. Robinson, Jr., 11, JD '13; Louise Norton Swain, '09, AM '16; John J. McDonough, '28Council Committee on PublicationsIN THIS ISSUETHE COVER: There is addedsignificance to the arched bridgewhich connects the law school library with the general libraries(Harper). The new educational planfor the law school — explained in thisissue — is an attempt to knit the legalcourses into a more intelligible understanding of all phases of life in adiversified society which is trying tolive peaceably together.The Chicago Plan continues to expand, this time legal-ward, and DeanHarry A. Bigelow, who gave up hislaw practice in Honolulu in 1903 tojoin the University staff, furnishesthe details of the new plan in hisarticle on "Law School Curriculum/'•Library history is being made atChicago by the introduction of thefilm process of preserving cumbersome or rare volumes by photographing the pages onto 35 millimeter filmfrom which it can be read by meansof a desk projector as easily as fromthe original page. One of the manyadvantages of this process is the saving of more than ninety per cent ofthe storage space which these volumestake in their original form. Dr.Raney leaves early in April for Pariswhere this new equipment is to beexhibited at the Paris fair.Dr. Raney's trip abroad is beingmade to arrange the details of thisset-up in the Trocadero on the Exposition grounds and the flow of appropriate materials to the two camerasof different sizes which he is including in his equipment. The rebuilt Trocadero is the chiefbuilding of the fair and the floorsketch sent in calls for a ten by forty-foot space including dark room.The Bibliotheque National pledgescomplete newspaper files for the largeinstrument. In the interest of securing similarly needed materials for thesecond camera, visits will be made tothe British Museum, Oxford andCambridge universities. In this selection, aid is being given by theAmerican Council of Learned Societies, the National Research Council,and the Social Science ResearchCouncil.Assistant Dean Carl H. Henrikson permits us to look in on a veryactive Gun Club which is making history on the quadrangles. Althoughshooting is merely a hobby with Mr.Henrikson, his qualifications forcoaching this University activity include : member National CivilianTABLE OF CONTENTSMARCH, 1937PageQuad Rambles 3New Law School Curriculum, HarryA. Bigelow 5Gone Micro-photographic, M. Llewellyn Raney 7Gunpowder on the Quadrangles,Carl H. Henrikson 9Who Started the Shooting llScience or Metaphysics, Michael H.Guyer 12In My Opinion 15News of the Quadrangles 17Athletics 20Eight O'Clock Mail 21News of the Classes 24 Championship team '30; Wisconsin^State Championship team '29 and '30 ;Illinois State Championship Team '31and '32; A. E. F. Roumanian Team(International Champions) '31 ; Captain National American Legion PistolTeam '35 ; winner of Herald State(Illinois) Trophy '31; and coach ofthe Illinois American Legion Team atthe national matches '35. Dean Henrikson supported himself while a student at Chicago by teaching golf atsome of the better Chicago courses.Colored photography — both movingand still — is another of his numeroushobbies.Dr. Michael F. Guyer picks up thetorch where Doctors Caldwell andCrocker laid it down in the Januaryissue of the Magazine. Dr. Guyerwas a fellow in zoology at Chicagofrom 1897 to 1900, at which time heaccepted a position at the Universityof Cincinnati as professor of zoologyand head of the department of biology. Since 1911 he has been a member of the faculty (department of zoology) at the University of Wisconsin. He has been the recipient ofmany honors in his field and is qualified to speak with authority on thesubject of science as it relates to university curriculums.There is much interesting news inMr. Morgenstern's column this monthwhich you will not wish to miss, andMr. Millett's "In My Opinion" justifies being among the first articles tobe read, which is the habit of somany of our Magazine readers.Drawing by Clay KellySTEPPING STONESTO LEISUREThe Clubhouse for women dedicated, by its donor,to his gracious and gifted wife, Ida E. S. NoyesVOLUME XXIX THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO MAGAZINE NUMBER 5MARCH, 1937QUAD RAMBLESThe 1937 Edition of Mirror passed into history without amajor catastrophe although five of the tap dancers nearlybroke their necks the opening night because the man whotook a shower on the desert just outside his deluxe trailerdidn't have the desert mopped up very carefully beforethe tappers came on for a complicated, high-kicking number. This is the second consecutive year that water hasplayed an unanticipated part in the production. Lastyear a melodramatic pirate sea captain roared for a light.Out of the calm heavens dropped a cigarette lighter on acord. After lighting his cigar, the captain failed to snapout the lighter and it was pulled back to the stage ceilingwith the flame threatening the flimsy drops. The whale,which wasn't due to spout for seventeen more lines, didsome quick thinking and went into action with surprisingpressure — for a stage whale ! Few members of the audience suspected the double significance of that spoutalthough the captain's "There she blows !" two minuteslater sounded like an unsynchronized talking picture. Butthe Mirror whale was entered as a hero in the annals ofUniversity dramatic history in spite of the fact heanticipated his cue.Conrado Benitez, Tl (See Magazine, December, 1936)is due to arrive in New York City on March 26th. Hewill proceed to Washington, D. C, where he is to resideindefinitely. The President of the Philippines has assigned him to the position of General Counsel and Adviser in the office of the Resident Commissioner, andActing Trade Commissioner and Educational Agent ofthe Philippine government in the United States.Harry Swanson,' T7, must have been kept busy this monthwith his income tax report. Else we surely wouldhave heard from him by now concerning a mistake madein "What's Your Score?" in the Alumni Bulletin forFebruary. Harry, you know, is Chief of the Staff of theLa Salle Street Coaches and logically would be thefirst to point out that last year's football team finishedseventh instead of fifth as reported in the Bulletin. The1935 team finished in the center of the pile and we apologize, Harry, for getting our dates mixed. We can'thelp being a little glad that Harry is not still writing the1917 Daily Maroon "Whistle" which he started in hissenior year and signed "TEH" (The Editor Himself), because he would doubtless have had things to say forpublic consumption about our carelessness in reportingvital statistics !Lin Yutang, Chinese author of My Country and MyPeople, editor or a member of the editorial staff of fivemagazines, author of a number of Chinese text bookswritten in English, and a noted scholar of China, was aWilliam Vaughn Moody lecturer at Mandel Hall March9th. His subject was "The Reasonable Spirit." As hegained most of his fame in the cultural world we werea little surprised to have him admit that his presentambition — which he fully expects to realize — is to inventa good Chinese typewriter!Recent Guest Speakers at the Chicago Association ofCommerce were Arthur E. Bestor, '01, President ofChautauqua Institute, and Arthur H. Compton, Chicago's distinguished physicist.Gaudeamus (whatever that means) is the title of thelatest creation in student printer's ink. It rises out of thedusty depths of the Wieboldt stacks (Desk 42), a mimeographed bi-weekly relief from musty research amongthe language classics of the earth. Because the shortbits, skits, and blank verse are in such a variety oflanguages, we don't know whether it's good or not !It costs a nickel and "... Contributions for publication* — in any language or amalgamation of languages and inany literary form — will be accepted greedily if they seemto fit (evenTumpily) the ideal, i. e., apparent nonsensewhich actually clothes something as starkly vital and realas a horse, crumpling to the hot sands in silhouetteagainst a sinking red desert sun." We wouldn't mention it except the second and larger edition is just outand it looks like Gaudeamus may be as long lived as othersporadic student publications that have made brief historyin the past.Renslow P. Sherer, '09, had an oil painting in the recentcurrent Chicago Artists' show at the Art Instituteentitled "Beau Bummel" (spelled, "Bummel"), a character with slouch felt hat, shaggy grey hair, greyishhandlebar mustache, scattered beard, tieless flannel shirt,3THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmuddy maroon sweater and rustic cane who frequentsthe Art Institute and other cultural centers.The comprehensive exhibition of sculpture and drawings, by MaudePhelps Hutchins, at the Renaissance Society galleries in WieboldtHall recently created much favorable comment by Chicagoans andthe metropolitan press. In this exhibition, her much talked aboutDiagramatics" played a minor role in favor of her delightful drawingsand bronze and marble headsWhen Herbert E. Slaught, PhD. '98, (Professor Emeritus of Mathematics) was asked to address the 18thannual meeting of the National Council of Teachers ofMathematics being held in the Palmer House, Chicago,last month he was forced to decline the invitation. Mr.Slaught was one of the founders of this Council, is honorary president for life, and the banquet at which he wasasked to speak was in the nature of a recognition of his9 birthday (76 years). Professor Slaught, of course,would have enjoyed nothing better than to have beenpresent at this banquet but a hip injury, sustained in afall more than two years ago, has since confined him tohis home.So when, at the banquet, the toastmaster announcedMr. Slaught as the first speaker of the evening the members looked mildly surprised. But when the familiarvoice of their honorary President was heard from thebalcony of the banquet hall, they suspected the committee of Voodoo practices. The answer was "electricaltranscription." The record of Mr. Slaught's address wasmade at his home a few days before, and former students and friends heard again the familiar voice andhumorous chuckle of the famous Chicago mathematician,via the revolving disk. The address inspired sevenformer pupils to sit right down and pen one of thoserare, thoughtful greetings that can mean so much toone who has labored hard and long to bring success andhappiness into the lives of others :"To Professor Herbert Ellsworth Slaught, Fromseven admirers, who boast that it has been theirprivilege to realize in person the gracious inspirationof your intellectual . guidance, greetings and mostsincere homage! We are listening tonight to your message, not with pens and note books poised asformerly, but with hearts and minds eager to receive the wise and friendly words which we havelearned always to expect from you. We rejoice inthe honors which have come to you, and with deepgratitude we salute you as a mathematician, teachercounsellor and friend. (Signed)Frances E. Baker (PhD'34)Abba V. Newton (AM'31, PhD'33)Frances H. Wiancko (Gr'33)Julia Wells Bower (PhD'33)Antoinette K. Huston ('26, SM'30, PhD'34)Anna A. Stofford (SM'31, PhD'33)Ruth G. Mason (SM'28, PhD'32)Clarence A. Dykstra, Fellow in History '06-'08, hasbeen appointed President of the University of Wisconsin after being City Manager of Cincinnati for the pastseven years, which you doubtless have already learned'from the daily press.NONE OF OUR BUSINESSEarle Butler, '06 got talked about in the March issueof the American Magazine under the title "The World'sMost Modern Home," which he has built at Des Moines;The subtitle of the article reads : "On a hilltop in Iowastands an amazing new pushbutton house. It's goteverything you can think of in comfort and convenience,even a substitute for stairs."William B. Benton, recently appointed vice-president ofthe University (February Magazine), as chairmanof the board of directors of Benton and Bowles Inc.,(advertising) last year bought $2,419,182 worth of timeon the air for his clientele placing his company sixthamong the leading ether purchasers. The advertisingfirm of Blackett ('14)— Sample-Hummert headed thelist with more than six millions, similarly invested.Cletus D. Dixon, '35, after a number of successful yearsas manager of the Davenport (Iowa) baseball team, isnow a scout for the Brooklyn Dodgers.Dr. Arthur C. Bachmeyer (Director, University Clinics)has an "egg plant" on his sixty acre farm in Loveland,Ohio, where some four hundred contented hens layeggs for the Doctor and his Chicago friends. Theproject was started as a hobby by Dr. Bachmeyer whenhe was a Superintendent of General Hospital and Deanof the College of Medicine at the. University of Cincinnati. As might be expected, Dr. Bachmeyer is quitescientific about his hobby and insists that eggs shouldbe sold by weight, not count. (All eggs from "Hill andHollow" average 25 ounces to the dozen.)Mortimer Post, author of the recent popular mysterystory A Candidate for Murder, is two men: WalterBlair, Assistant Professor of English, and Charles Kirby-Miller, formerly an instructor in English at the University. The scene for this "who done that" story islaid in a faculty club of a midwestern university. Itcan't be our own Quadrangle Club, however, becausethere are not three phone booths in the correspondenceroom of the Club !NEW LAW SCHOOL CURRICULUM• By HARRY A. BIGELOW, Dean of the Law SchoolBEGINNING with the Fall Quarter, 1937, a newfour-year curriculum will gradually be put intoeffect at the Law School.For several years the faculty of the Law School hasbeen working on the problem of the best method offulfilling its obligation to the community at large and tothe legal profession. The answer to this problem involves a consideration of what that obligation is conceived to be.With regard to the community we were influencedby the fact that a large proportion of men in public lifehave had a legal training and have begun their professional lives as members of the bar, and that this willcontinue to be the case. Of the judges this is practicallyuniversally true. Of the men in public administrativepositions, especially the more responsible ones; of themembers of commissions that are partly judicial andpartly administrative; of the members of various legislative bodies ; a majority are lawyers. A great part oftheir education for their work must come, as in otherfields of effort, from the experience, that is proverbiallythe best teacher. This fact, however, does not absolvethe law schools from an effort to do what can be donein providing a formal education consciously framed withthe objective in mind of preparation for the highestgrades of public service. Our duty toward the legal 1profession we consider to be to give future members ofthe bar that training which will enable them with experience to become leaders of the bar, not only as counsellors to clients and as skilled advocates, but as shapers .of legal thought and development. Incidentally, we feelcertain that men who achieve this position will make aname and financial competency for themselves. We areglad that this result is a probable one, but from thepoint of view of our aims, it is incidental. We believethat the education that we have planned as that bestadapted to fulfill our obligation to the community isalso best adapted to fulfill our obligation to the profession, and that it will give the future lawyer an education that is "practical" in the best and broadest senseof that word.Law is a reflection of the life of the people or statefor which it exists. It is conditioned by, and its concepts and formulae in turn condition, that life. As areflection of the life of the state it is affected by the sameconflicts and changes in thought and feelings and interests as are other aspects of the life of the state. Itis not difficult to list certain of the more important elements in the life of the state that go to make it what itis and that serve to fix the law of that state. Thus theeconomic organization, both in its broad outlines andin many of its details, is one of the main factors in fixing the pattern of the life of the state both as a unitand with respect to its individual members. Equally sois the political organization. Equally so, on anotherbasis of classification, are the ethical standards of thecommunity, and from still another point of view, the psychology both of the individual and of the group.Each of these (and others might be mentioned) is anelement in the composite that may be called the life ofthe state, and each correspondingly had an influence indetermining the shape that the law assumes.As a matter of history, it is well recognized that thereis ordinarily a considerable lag between the communitylife change and the correlative change in the law. Ifthe life of the state remains stable or comparativelyso for a considerable period of time, the law of thecountry will tend to be a correspondingly accurate picture of the ideals, express and implicit, of the state, andis largely taken for granted. When periods occur inwhich there are changes in one or more of the fundamental factors the relation between law and these otherelements is realized and the need for a scrutiny of possible incongruities between the two is felt. For example, it may be said that during the period from 1 870-1920 our law was in a tolerably static condition. Forthe last ten years because of world economic and politicalchanges, with resultant reexamination, and in manycases, alteration, of men's thoughts and feelings andideals, the tendency to include in this reexamination thelaw of the state is inevitable; and it is obvious that inproportion as we get into the areas of conflicting ideasor interests, the study of "book" law alone becomes anincreasingly more unsatisfactory means of getting an adequate understanding of current legal questions.This relation between law and the other elements ofcommunity life, and the necessity, if preparation forpublic service or at the bar is to be on the plane thatit should be, for a conscious and detailed examination ofthose elements are obvious in the fields of law wherethe stresses and consequent possible discrepancies between law as formulated and the life of the state, aremost marked. However, the same relations also existin those fields of the law where there is no such discrepancy, and a systematic study of the law should pursue the same methods in those fields.This outline will indicate the point of view fromwhich the reorganization of the curriculum has beenconsidered and the objectives that we have sought toattain. In previous years, we have done what manyother law schools have done in handling this problem,that is, we have prescribed certain pre-professional workfor the student, and made recommendations as to othercourses. Experience with this system, with variouschanges in the pre-legal material and various effortsat coordination, finally led the Faculty to the conclusionthat it was not a satisfactory method of accomplishingthe end desired. Some of the students worked conscientiously at these courses. They either could see, or werewilling to take on faith, that the work was of value totheir coming professional study or they became interested in it for its own sake. With an undesirably largeproportion of the class, however, the attitude was thatthe work of the pre-professional year was one more56 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEobstacle that had to be surmounted before the work inwhich the student was really interested, namely, his professional work, could be started. Consequently, the attitude toward the work was one that varied from fairlykeen interest by a few students to luke-warmness or indifference on the part of a great majority.The new plan is based upon the theory that if the so-called non-legal material can be correlated with the conventional legal material, the interest of the student inboth branches of work will be intensified and the valueof both to him increased. The difficulties of makingsuch a coordination of work are great. Many groupsof non-legal material have a relation of varying degreesof closeness to several fields of law. Yet there is a the extent to which the study of a given non-legalsubject can advantageously be broken into small fragments. Each non-legal subject has a consistency of itsown, and in proportion as it is broken down upon abasis of relating it to various legal subjects, it tends tolose the unity that makes it a separate body of study.The Faculty had to reconcile these conflicting considerations as best it could.The organization of the new curriculum may be outlined thus. The law courses are spread over a periodof four years. In the first year are given the beginning law courses, Torts, Contracts, Procedure, FamilyLaw and a course called Legal Methods and Materials.This latter course is designed to give the student working ideas as to the nature of law and legal concepts intheir relation to logic and social policy, and also to provide practice in handling legal material. Concurrentlywith these courses, the student will take courses inEnglish Constitutional History and in Psychology. Thelatter course lays its emphasis upon individual and socialpsychology as related to legal problems. In the secondyear, the work includes, in addition to more advancedlegal material, the subjects of Accounting and EconomicTheory, and in the third year, the subject of Ethics.Other courses are themselves a combination of legal andnon-legal materials such as, in the second year, thework in Crime and in Government, the latter beingbased upon Constitutional Law and political theory; inthe third year, the work in Historical Methods and inPublic Finance and Taxation; in the fourth year, thework in Economic Organization, which includes Economics, Statistical Methods, Theory of Money andPrices, and more immediately legal material such asanti-trust legislation, and labor law.' It is not, only in the giving of correlated course in-1 struction in the various non-legal subjects that we expect to obtain the amalgamation of legal and non-legalmaterial. The picture that we have of the future activities of the School is that of a constant interchange ofideas by all the members of the Faculty, including themembers whose interests lie primarily in non-legal fields.Our expectation is that the various law members of theFaculty will sit in on the non-legal courses that areof interest to them, and that the members of the Facultydealing primarily with non-legal material will sit in thedifferent law courses as they can make opportunity.The new curriculum, in addition to the incorporationof material ordinarily regarded as non-legal, also has Dean Harry A. Bigelow leans back inhis chair to consider a point at issue inthe new law school planreorganized the law material. In this reorganization mhave had the objective of making the student realize th*the law does not consist of more or less isolated unjtswith particular captions but is, as a great legal scholirdescribed it, "a seamless web." As a matter of mentime and space, it ](impossible to learnand to teach all trelaw at once, but weare taking steps to mas far as we can inthis process of unification.One step is handling the legal material in a comparatively small numberof fairly large unitscomposed of relatedlegal concepts insteadof breaking it up intoa large number ofseparate courses..The four years of theold curriculum hadfrom fifty-five tosixty - three courses.The full new curriculum has thirty-onegroups. It is believed that by this method, we can givethe student a better grasp of fundamental legal principlesand of their development in the more specialized fields ofthe law. Many of these group topics will be in chargeof two or more members of the Faculty, and this cooperation with inevitable differences of opinion on the partof the instructors is bound to prove stimulating and help-lful to the students. ->The only examinations will be comprehensive exam]}nations given at the end of the academic year. Theexaminations for the first year will cover the work ofthat year. Those of the second and other years, whileprimarily concerned with the material covered that year,will assume on the part of the student, a command ofthe material of the preceding years and may be based,specifically upon such material. -JAnother element in the new curriculum to which at*tention should be directed is the amount of time devotedto individual work. One-half the student's time in thelast year, and one-fifth of his time in his third year, are;so devoted. He may elect to do this research work inany two out of seven fields. These fields are ( 1 ) Crime*(2) Civil Procedure, (3) Property, (4) Marketing andCredit, (5) Economic and Business Organization andRegulation, (6) Government, (7) History and Theoryof Law. The idea of this part of the plan is that oneof the best things that the Law School can do for thestudent is to teach him the technique of handling specificproblems and of working out to an organized conclusionthe result of a piece of individual research. Work ofthis kind has a double value. It gives the student allintensive acquaintance with one or two fields of law,(Continued on Page 22),GONE M1CRQPHOTOGRAPHIC• By M. LLEWELLYN RANEY, Director of the LibrariesTHREE years hence Gutenberg will be roundingout five centuries of fame. But Gutenberg's eyeswould bulge if he could see what is going on in acertain stretch of rooms in Swift Hall. There a camel ispassing thru the eye of a needle and coming out biggerthan life — his camel, too! You will be holding a newspaper sheet, see it shrink to a size of lj/^'xl", and thenswell to thirty per cent over natural size. In its reducedstate a month's file would weigh one and a half pounds.Your Encyclopaedia Britannica would come down to twohundred cubic inches, only to reassert comfortable legibility at the press of a button. A library of a millionvolumes could be tucked away in five cubic yards. Itreminds one of the quaint custom among South American natives of shrinking a slain foe's head to about thecompass of an egg shell and keeping it around just forold time's sake.This Swift Hall wizard is no agent of secrecy — whatit hides it means to reveal again. For proof it attaches amicroscope and brings to your eyes a snapshot of anamoeba's private life supposedly invisible. There, thestory's out — the University Libraries have gone micro-photographic.The institution had already harnessed motion picturesto the uses of instruction, fashioning its own reels andselling them widely. Now on a generous grant from theRockefeller Foundation it is enabled to set up a laboratory for turning film and sensitive paper to the miniaturereproduction of library materials. History may recordthis as one of the most revolutionary results of all thefounder's benefactions.But why should one turn at any time from print tominiature ?Needs must when the devil drives. Newpaper files forone thing are rotting on the shelves, because newspapershave been issued on wood pulp since about 1870. Regardless of today's issue, they constitute a prime sourceof the time's history. A single number of an earlyColonial paper commands eight or nine dollars now.We must hand on the files of this engrossing century tothose of the next. Filming is the only way economicallypossible. Ten or twelve metropolitan dailies, includingThe Chicago Daily News, are already filming currently,and the New York Times of 1914-18 is so set up. Thenegatives are kept in Rochester and positives are available at five-eighths of a cent a page, which is just aboutthe cost of the street edition when bound, or half the costof bound rag paper volumes. The Chicago Tribune costsone-hundred and seventy dollars a year in bound rag.The Faculty Newspaper Committee is of the opinionthat the libraries of the Chicago region should receiveand preserve about sixty American and one hundredforeign metropolitan newspapers, with the University ofChicago holding about half of these. We have recentlyadded twenty-six titles to our current list, bringing thetotal up to nearly sixty, and considerable files have beenbought. With the appearance of the filming camera, we shall hereafter rely upon photography and incidentallysave over ninety per cent of the storage space. In likemanner, the library's rarities may be spared handlingby the provision of film copies for use.Again, vast ranges of other source materials in bothprint and manuscript are hopelessly unobtainable, especially by a late-born institution. Of such sort are private papers, business records, and official archives, ephemera multitudinous at the moment and vanished tomorrow, and all sorts of printed matter gone out of print.With a portable camera, one can now repair to the spotand gather up these records without disturbing ownership. Thus the Library of Congress has filmed twomillion pages in foreign archives carrying material concerned with American history. When Dr. Harvey Gushing went to Yale, his Harvard case records followedhim on film. The AAA and NRA Hearings, whichwould have cost a half million dollars to print, or $6000a set to mimeograph, were supplied to each of ten libraries at a little over $400 for the upward of 300,000pages.Clearly, this is a godsend to the records of civilizationunder threat of war. Already the Bank of England isfilming its records for safe preservation elsewhere, aswe are burying our gold in Kentucky. The BritishMuseum lies right in the line of flight from Germanyto the Government centre. One cannot but shudder atthe frightful possibilities in the seige of Madrid. Onebomb could erase a mass of records of inestimable valueto the history of our Southwest. One notes that eventhe University quarter has become a base of militaryoperations. It is reported that strong representationshave been made to President Roosevelt, looking to largescale reproduction of great cultural collections beforethe catastrophe of a European Armageddon.It is interesting to find that the first recorded useof textual microphotography was made in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. A photographer named Dagronoperated a postal service into the beleaguered city byriming newsprint and inserting the film in quills carriedby pigeons. One of these collodion films reproduceslegibly even today.The new medium stands to play an important part inthe less bulky but multitudinous references of the scientist. In the Library of the U. S. Department of Agriculture there has been in successful operation since theautumn of 1934 a Bibliofilm Service now charging acent a page plus service charge of ten cents and a minimum total of twenty-five cents. In its first two yearsmore than a half million pages were filmed on request,despite the fact that as yet no satisfactory reading devicehad appeared in the market. Taken over by ScienceService in January, 1936, it has been enlarged to includepaper prints six inches by eight inches at five cents.Also, scientific editors have been bulletined with thesuggestion to publish in abstract any manuscript too78 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINElong for full or early printing and then deposit the manuscript with Science Service for reproduction as aboveon demand. A national conference is being held inWashington this month with a view to the possible establishment of an Institute of Documentation for integrating all the filming and allied services in thecountry.Director Raney, seated at one of the three types of projectors usedin reading the film "pages"Here at last there appears to the laboratory specialistthe possibility of gathering in his own library the entireperiodical literature of his subject and thus maintaininghis mastery while living wherever he pleases. Our Professor Dempster has for some time been filming selections from the set of the Royal Society Proceedings.Another problem of the specialist may find some solution in microphotography. From his dissertation onward he is apt to be writing books for a small circle.The commercial press wants an edition of two thousandcopies anyhow. Under subsidy the university press willhandle an issue of (say) six hundred. But there are£ases where fifty copies might satisfy the entire market'and yet be very important to the fifty specialists usingit. This need of a conveyance for intermediary studiesleading to later syntheses of wider appeal has resultedin resort to so-called "near-print" processes, the chief ofwhich is "photo-offset," or "lithoprint," or "planograph,"as it is also called. The manuscript is reproduced photographically without resort to typesetting. A film negative is made and applied under an arc light to a thinmetal plate, emulsion-covered. The emulsion underthe clear parts hardens. The image is thus repeated.The hardened portions take ink; the rest, water. Bothink and water are applied continuously by the rollers ofthe printing press. The metal image is transferred toa rubber blanket, from which the final paper print is anoffset. A dissertation of three hundred pages in an edition of six hundred copies is reported from one institution as issued in photo-offset miniature for $107. Buta specialist could issue or get a single copy of a workfilmed, with all illustrations thus reproduced in facsimile,for the price of a printed copy from an edition of twothousand.The method only awaits the appearance of a typewriterequipped for straight margins and printers' font to makequite a splurge. Such typewriters already exist but arenot yet suited to this purpose. Experimentation is under way to produce a telephone directory, a dictionary, andan encyclopedia in film form. Flirtation is beginning;too, with the card catalog. Union catalogs are beingproduced by filming the constituents and then typingcard copies from projection. But the catalog itself majcome to be consulted in film form by means of card-locating machines or stroboscopic index readers. Herethe photo-electric cell would be the selector device.The acetate film employed in libraries is safe and lasting. The image remains fixed in extremes of temperature. Its ultimate contraction is only one per cent. Itasks only the retention of its moisture and freedom fromscratching. So keep it in a case with a wet sponge andbuy only good projectors. The latest of these can beused in the open reading room and will soon appearon the floor like a typewriter stand at table height.Here then is emerging a future university library ofspecial collections uniquely near completeness, dovetailing with others to make a regional unit, linked in turnwith like units to form a national chain. Send a letterin eight carbons and locate any book in America. Thesystem will centre in the individual, who may have whathe wants when he wants it regardless of whether anybody else wants it too. It will be a haymaker for theamateur and break the spell of the metropolis. It willbe the Camera Age, whether by offset preserving thecalligrapher's art and circulating the specialist's studyor by miniature searching out the individual in his needand massing resources at the beck of brains.For a share in this adventure the University of Chicago Libraries are being signally equipped. A stretchof rooms on the ground floor of Swift Hall has just beencompleted — a camera room, one for processing, othersfor drying, for chemical storage, a shop, and office. Hereis being gathered the best apparatus money can buyunder the command of Herman Fussier, physics- andlibrary-trained son of the Professor of Physics at theUniversity of North Carolina. The two chief instruments — a speed camera and an automatic processor —are being built on order.About the former a story plays. These cameras arenot in the market. Since the Eastman Kodak Companywill only lease, there is just one other way to turn, butthat's to an officer in the Navy — Dr. R. H. Draeger, aprofessor in the United States Naval Medical School.It is his camera that makes the wheels go round in Bibliofilm Service. Another was delivered the Library ofCongress last fall. More are under construction for theArmy Medical Library, the Bureau of the Census, and,on a Foundation grant, for the National Library ofPeiping, in order to set up an exchange of materials withthe Library of Congress. These are all Government activities.Well, it happens that there is an International Exposition in Paris this year and, among others, the American National Committee on Intellectual Cooperation ofthe League of Nations was invited to participate. Itdecided to demonstrate American microphotography, because in this case America has repeated the trick of theautomobile assembly line to lower costs greatly, so that,if Europe would accept this method, documentation(Continued on Page 22)GUN POWDEROn the Quadrangles• By CARL H. HENRIKSON, '28, Assistant Dean, School of BusinessTHE University of Chicago Field House was notintended by its planners and builders as the largest,best-equipped indoor rifle range in the world, butsuch it is for three days of the Annual University ofChicago Rifle Club Invitational Match.The big Field House Rifle Match grew before it wasever fired. The original invitational match in April, 1936,was an outgrowth of a conversation among some of theleading members of the Club, namely, Mr. Freeman Morgan, Hugh Bennett, George Matousek, and HarryJames. Plans were immediately set on foot for a50-foot match to be held on the rifle range in the WestStand. The suggestion was so enthusiastically receivedby members of the Illinois State Rifle Association thatthere was every indication that our limited range facilitiescould not accommodate all the shooters. The boys ofthe Rifle Club approached Mr. Mort, Director of theReynolds Club, with the suggestion that a range be setup in the north lounge of the Club. Mr. Mort offeredhis cooperation and a committee was formed, composedof members of the Club, executives from the IllinoisState Rifle Association, and Mr. Mort. Plans had barelybeen started when Mr. Metcalf suggested that the matchbe held in the Field House where it could be fired atthe popular outdoor range of 100 yards and 50 yards.The committee was astounded at the opportunity presented by Mr. Metcalf, particularly after one look atthe facilities provided by the Field House. They at°nce set to work to make this match the outstandingevent of its kind in the United States.It is a strange spectacle indeed to see thirty marksmen dressed in shooting coats with sheep-skin-padded shoulders and elbows, and covered with colorful insignia,evidence of prowess with the rifle, and club affiliation,lying on gym mats placed every five feet the width ofthe Field House, each marksman with a heavy-barreledrifle equipped with micrometer, aperture, and telescopesights, squinting down the barrel or peering through aspotting telescope to locate his last shot on his targetat the other end of the Field House 100 yards away.Scores of other riflemen in shooting coats are gatheredin groups back of the firing line, talking, always of guns,or just waiting, rifles and telescopes ready, for theirturn to fire. The pungent, not unpleasant, odor of burntpowder, and the snapping, reverberating crackle of 22-caliber rifles lends a festive air reminiscent of Independence Day.The chief range officer on his platform calling rangeorders on the loud speaker system, controlling the electric timing clock, telephoning the squadding office, scoring office, or target pits on field telephones, supervisingfour other vigilant range officers who walk back andforth along the firing line, megaphones in hand, seemsnot at all busy, but lends an impression of complete,efficient control of activities.When "Teddy" Linn stayed through the whole dayand a half of the first Annual Match, it was a strongindication that the event was a success as a spectacle.When 217 competitors from eight states showed up tocompete, the match surpassed all expectations as anattraction to marksmen. When National Rifle Association officials, leading marksmen of the country, and theAmerican Rifleman commented on the match in mostlaudatory terms and designated it the classic of all indoor"It is a strange spectacle to see thirty marksmen lying on gym mats placed every five feet the width of the Field House"910 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmatches, the men of the Rifle Club immediately startedplans for a bigger and better Second Annual InvitationalMatch. This year the match will be fired the eveningof Friday, April 2, and all clay and evening of April3 and 4.The matches this year will attract a number of thestellar marksmen of the country. Thurman Randle ofDallas, Texas, will bring his famous match rifle, "OldBacon Getter." Without doubt this rifle has won morematches and more medals than any other gun in theLmited States. It is the most disreputable looking weaponever seen on any firing line. In recent years he has giventhe barrel a coat of white enamel which has cracked andchipped until it looks like a well-worn bathroom fixture.The writer remembers a time when Randle left this gunin the corner of his tent with the barrel sticking througha hole in the tent. It rained all night, and the barrelacted as a funnel, piping rainwater onto the floor of thefent. Next day Randle wiped out the barrel and wentout on the small-bore range to win a very importantmatch. It should be explained that an ordinary guncould not be treated this way without serious damage."Old Bacon Getter" has a stainless steel barrel. Inaddition Randle will bring with him a Remington 37,a new product of the Remington Arms Company, whichis reputed to out- shoot anything on the market.Eric Johnson of Hamden, Connecticut, one of theleading and most colorful shooters of the United States,has indicated that he plans to be here to uphold thehonor of the east coast. Eric is a manufacturer of fine,super-accurate rifle barrels. Many of the leading shooters in the country have their guns equipped with EricJohnson barrels.Fred Johnson of Joliet, Illinois, plans to uphold thereputation of middle-western shooters. Fred has an irritating habit of looking over medals and trophies awardedin matches and indicated in advance which ones he likesbest, then shooting in the matches and taking the medalshe has selected home with him.Half of the membership of the International teamwhich will go to England in July, have ^ indicated thatthey will attend the Chicago match. The team includes :Dr. E. O. Swanson of Minneapolis, Minnesota; V. F.Tiefenbrunn and Earl Mercier of Alton, Illinois ; LouMason of Chicago, Illinois ; William Woodring of Alton,Illinois; Ned Moore of Detroit, Michigan; W. D. Scarborough and V. Z. Canfield of Akron, Ohio.UNIVERSITY RIFLE CLUBThe University of Chicago Rifle and Pistol Club isas novel in its organization and functioning as the bigAnnual Field House Match. The present Club wasstarted on student initiative. Permission to use theold West Stand rifle range, long used as a store room,was granted by Mr. Metcalf as a result of solicitation bystudents. Activities of the Club, although under the¦auspices of the Athletic Department, have been planned,directed, and supervised by students. Student rangeofficers, working on a schedule, are responsible for therange. The range officer for the day has completecharge of the firing line, equipment and scoring of targets. Even coaching and instruction has been underthe jurisdiction of the Club, and for the most part car ried on by the more advanced student marksmen. Allmatches, inter club and intercollegiate, are conducted andmanaged entirely under student supervision. Who shallshoot on the team is decided on the basis of ladder tournament competition among scholastically eligible members.The success of this student-managed sports activity ispartially indicated by the growth of membership andactivities during the past year. On March 9, 104 paid-upmembers were enrolled. Since the beginning of theschool year 35 interclub and intercollegiate matches havebeen fired. Matches have been fired against seven "BigTen" schools, and with schools as far east as the University of Boston and as far west as the University ofCalifornia. Intercollegiate competition is for the mostpart carried on by firing on home ranges. Firing is observed by faculty members, and scores exchanged bymail. This eliminates traveling expenses and enables theteam in some instances to count scores fired for severalmatches during the same week.Earlier in the season the members' ladder tournament,initiated by Freeman Morgan, Club Secretary and Treasurer, resulted in intense competitive interest. New members were encouraged by evidence of rapidly increasingproficiency. Several members invested in new rifles, shooting coats, telescopes, and other equipment, which greatlyrelieved the strain on the two "Club" guns purchased bythe Athletic Department last year, and the rifle loaned tothe Club by Russell Wiles. Later in the season two newWinchester, factory-selected, heavy-barreled rifles werepurchased, one by the Athletic Department, the other bythe Club on the installment plan, through the AthleticDepartment. By mid-winter 8 firing points were in fulloperation during range hours. • This increased activityplaced additional burdens on the executives of the Club,but they accepted their responsibilities cheerfully.The student executives of the Club faced financingproblems from the very inception of activities. Targets,minor equipment, a rifle, a pistol, and mailing expensesare being paid for out of annual Club dues of $1.00 permember, and profits from sale of ammunition. TheClub has been a splendid opportunity for student training in initiative, responsibility, and cooperation.WOMEN RIFLE"MEN"Activities of the Club are open to women as well asmen, another reason, perhaps, for its success. Thewomen have proved beyond any doubt that marksmanship is not exclusively a man's sport. In January thewomen challenged the men to a 20-shot, prone match,5 high scores to count. Eight women fired, and in order to beat their scores the men had to put in 17 shooters,including the whole varsity team, to muster a score tonose out the women by 7 points.If intercollegiate rules of competition permitted, several women would be on the varsity team. Many reasons have been propounded to explain why women usually learn to shoot accurately in a shorter period oftime than men: cleaner living, more attention to finedetails, better temperament, and even the suggestionthat possibly the coach gives them more attention. Thewomen have been a constant challenge to spur the mento greater effort to save "male face."THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 11The general public has little conception of the accuracyattained in present-day rifle matches. In a match againstthe girl's team of the University of Indiana, Miss AlleneTasker, with less than 3 months experience, fired a"possible," a perfect 20-shot matchat 50 feet. This means hitting a bull'seye, l/% oj one inch in diameter, 20times without a miss. Ten-shotprone "possibles" in practice arecommon occurrences for most of thewomen shooters in the Club. RachelReese fired a 4-position match, 5shots each, prone, sitting, kneeling,and standing, against the men in prac-Margaret Conger putfive consecutive shotsin the center at fiftyfeet tice for a score of 180. Only 7 men have bettered thisscore. It usually takes time and practice to develop ex-pertness in the kneeling and standing positions. However, with two years of intermittent training, HughBennett and Freeman Morgan every now and then better the 190 mark in 4 positions. Scot Harvey, a sophomore who served an enlistment in the navy and did agood deal of 30-calibre team shooting while in the service, has adapted himself quickly to the small-bore game,to shoot consistently above 180. George Matousek, theClub President and club room decorator extraordinary,can be counted on for scores averaging over 180.All of which is a round-about way of saying that theUniversity of Chicago Gun Club is again making history.WHO STARTED THE SHOOTING?In 1915, with bombs bursting in air across the Atlantic, President Judson decided that a University gunclub would not be amiss on the quadrangles. The following men, therefore, were commissioned to set upan organization that would teach gun shy students that abulls eye is not always associated with stock farms : William J. G. Land (Professor Emeritus of Botany) ;Charles J. Chamberlain (Professor Emeritus of Botany) ; Adolph C. Noe (Associate Professor of Paleobotany) ; and a graduate student, W. F. Loehwing ('20,SM'21, PhD'25, now in the department of botany at theUniversity of Iowa).A range was set up in the west stands of Stagg Fieldand the shooting began. Here the fundamentals weretaught after which the students were taken to FortSheridan or the Great Lakes Naval Station where theabove "gun faculty" polished off its students for theofficial qualifying tests. Dr. Chamberlain owned a petSpringfield rifle which he always loaned to his protegesfor the final tests for sharpshooters and expert riflemen.As fast as these students qualified with his gun, Dr.Chamberlain carved their names on the stock (see illustration.) Among the names on this stock are those offour young women: Lillian Reynolds '19, PhD'22;Sophie Erickson PhD'll; Norma Pfeiffer '09, PhD'13;and Vieva Moulton '20. These four young women werethe first women in the United States to receive Navydecorations for markmanship.The story of Miss Reynolds' premiere at the GreatLakes Naval Station is a classic. After Miss Reynolds'fiance (he has since changed her name to Sedgwick)joined the Navy and was assigned to a submarine chaser,to keep from biting her fingernails, Miss Reynolds tookup shooting in the Gun Club. One day she asked toaccompany Dr. Land and Dr. Chamberlain on one oftheir trips to the Naval Station. At the Station, shefelt the urge to squeeze a trigger so the range officergranted permission and she was assigned to target No. 1.But when this dainty (93 pounds) girl presented herpermit to the range coach one glance at the feminineapplicant brought forth, "Lady, the kick from thatSpringfield will kill you! You're at least fifty pounds under weight !" Miss Reynolds had her credentials andstood on her rights so the range coach wiped his handsof all responsibility and prepared to place the remainson a stretcher.The two carved sides of Dr. Chamberlain's famous Springfield rifleThe first shot was a bulls eye as were those whichfollowed and examination at the end of the test showedno mark of injury in the shoulder socket which wassupposed to have been torn to pieces with the first discharge. Whereupon Col. Harlee, who had arrived during the shooting, remarked, "Young woman, there willbe no knitting for you during this war. We can useyou right here to give confidence to the boys who arebeing kicked into back somersaults by the very riflewhich you have mastered."Professors Chamberlain and Noe continue to droparound at the range now and then and shoot a fewbulls eyes just to prove to themselves they could still protect a watermelon patch in August if they had one.SCIENCE OR METAPHYSICS?AS a double portion Chicago alumnus I should liketo add my amen to the statement of Doctors Caldwell and Crocker in the January, 1937, issue ofThe University of Chicago Magazine regarding theparamount importance of science in the curriculum of auniversity from the standpoints of both instruction andresearch. To try to substitute ametaphysical for a scientific approachto most of the problems of modernlife seems on a par with trying tolearn from the depth of an armchair how to ride a bicycle or drivean automobile.To be sure, in these days of reversal, when children run their parents, freshmen instruct their professors, wives support their husbandsand the devil himself turns out to beonly good hormones gone wrong,doubtless the scientist must be prepared to refight the old, old battleagainst the opinionated ignorance ofthe "educated" who know scienceonly through hearsay.The most astonishing display ofthis obsession for reversal that hasswept the country in postwar days isthe use of modern science as a sort of whipping boy forall the social and educational shortcomings of the age.Insofar as this practice affects the teaching of science incolleges and universities the responsibility rests mainlyon the administrative boards which select the heads oftheir institutions, since it is from these leaders, especially some of the younger ones, that most of the arraignment of science comes. To avoid the dotard, certain boards have set forth apparently in wide-eyed credulity seeking some wonder child who, without experience or seasoned judgment, through some sort of paedo-genetic omniscience, will solve the complex problems ofa great university ! Such boards doubtless justify theiraction on the ground of introducing new points of view,of revitalizing academic routine and above all of getting a"dynamic personality" to add zest to educational procedure. The biologist, however, can only wonder ifthey have not sometimes mistaken for intellectual acumen merely the drive that comes from early post-adolescent endocrines!Once such leaders are installed as official spokesmenof their institution, innocent as they are of any directcontact with science in laboratory or field, it is not tobe wondered at that the efforts of the scientist remainan enigma to them and he is pronounced a mere "pebble-picker" or "gadgeteer" in the university world. If itwere only a matter of the personal opinion of a layman • By MICHAEL F. GUYER, SB'94, PhD'00little harm would be done, but for a leader to whomstudents look for guidance to make such pronouncementsand thus possibly distort a student's whole outlook onlife and the wonderful universe about us, is certainlydeplorable. However this may be, there is undeniablya modish smartness among certain intellectuals of theday in belittling science and sneering at the plodders of the laboratory.Such worthies would have us turn forenlightenment to the erudite piffle ofmetaphysicians who boastfully setout to tell us all about "the ultimatephilosophy" and then get lost in themaze of their own definitions — a procedure which recalls vividly the oldgag about the backwoods preacherwho solemnly assured his congregation that he was going to "unscrewthe inscrutable." His modern prototypes invariably find that althougheach has his own screw-driver forthe chore, not one of them fits.According to some of these criticsthe world is in a bad way becausescience — so they assert — has, amongother delinquencies, established afalse leadership that is lacking inspiritual significance. Such criticism, of course, dependsupon one's definition of "spiritual values." One wonders, however, if the scientist — and his name is legion—who is working away quietly and with infinite patiencein his laboratory, searching for a cure for infantileparalysis, or scarlet fever or cancer is not adding as muchto the spiritual values of life as is his detractor who"serves God" through much talking.Is there nothing of nobility or spiritual value in theaccomplishment that of the children born today, in themore highly scientific lands, more than twice as manyas formerly survive childhood and live to enjoy the lifeand love and laughter of manhood and womanhood, anddevelop their own spiritual values? Is there no spiritual significance — to take a fairly recent example — in thepassing, almost within a single year, of four greatscientists — Stokes, Noguchi, Young and Meyer — all ofwhom went fearlessly to their death from yellow feverin their attempts to master this dread scourge of mankind? And what of the hundreds of other scientistswho have gone the same way in similar quests?Is it of no significance to the spiritual values of lifethat science has done away largely with the necessity ofserfdom and child labor, has lightened the burdens of:women, has doubled the average length of life, has made*it possible, with half the labor, to provide comfortable^homes and simple luxuries for millions of people who,.12THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 13if former conditions prevailed, would be slaving forfourteen to sixteen hours a day to provide the barenecessities of life? Does not this new freedom and thefeeling of self-respect that accompanies it, the new possibilities for education, the new leisure for the creationand enjoyment of the arts, the increasing security againstpestilence and famine — do not these gifts of science forma secure foundation for the development of highest culture and truest faith? And, facts being what they are,can not our dismal prophets better direct their effortstoward helping the newly released hordes of humanitylearn how wisely to utilize this new liberty, rather thanberating science, their liberator?No wonder, then, that it is with amazement not unmixed with disgust that the modern scientist harks tothe wails of various exalted modern Jeremiahs who cansee in science little but a provider of needless luxuries, aprocurer for materialism and a betrayer of true culture.He is inclined to suspect that these sorrowful folk havebeen so dazzled by some of the wastage of science as tooverlook its innumerable beneficences and to misswholly its true significance in the orientation of humanthought.The scientist himself is usually too busily engaged intrying to learn more about the world he lives in, to takethe time to meet these implications with the proper challenge: "What is your evidence, and by what authorityhave you become mentor ?" Or, in the query of. the Israelites to Moses, "Who made thee a prince and a judgeover us?" The result is that the student, the public atlarge indeed, hearing only one side, is likely to begrossly misled. A common technique of such critics isto set up men of straw which they then demolish withexclamatory tongue and make off with the gate receiptsbefore the more honest and less unctuous scientist canexpose the fraud. In some cases there is apparently atype which simply doesn't know any better. Not infrequently they belong to that excitable fringe commonto every large university faculty which just has to reform something, even if it's only changing the heads ofpins to the other ends. Or as a former colleague onceput it, "always rushing to put out a fire only to find uponarrival, there is no fire." Such an emotionalist can shuthis eyes to the great truths of science and work himselfinto a veritable frenzy over the fly-specks on the glassesthrough which he is viewing it. The customary plow-horse gait of the Scientist on his round of professorialchores seems petty indeed to such dazzlers. This veryexcitability, however, to him who can read brain activities aright, tells its own story.Some of these self-appointed mentors have a contagious enthusiasm when in action which carries awayan audience and often makes the more suggestible hearersexclaim, "Wasn't that wonderful ! Wasn't it true !" Butwhen you ask them wasn't what trt;e, they are sorelyperplexed to tell you one definite provable thing thatwas said. Up in the clouds of beautiful word-paintingand emotional self-intoxication, such an enthusiast proceeds to build a system of so called realities from withinhis skull, totally oblivious of whether it squares with theobvious outside reality or not. Never once does hecome to earth with a concrete suggestion that can be built into a practical system of human advancement. Personally, I have listened to such men, time and again ; Ihave even been moved by their eloquence and have triedto grasp something solid from the floating debris of theirminds, but I have yet to find in their remarks muchmore than a mist on the far horizon of wish fulfillment ;rarely, anything that will make man more worthwhile tohimself or his fellowmen. The trouble with such folkis that they are trying to run the world by words ratherthan deeds.Observation, orderly arrangement and inference arethe three pillars of indispensability about which thefabric of science is woven. The scientist is perfectlywilling to admit that his senses are limited and that thehuman sensory view may be a one-sided interpretationof the universe, but he maintains that so far as it goesit is a true view and that any attempt to deny its truthand to substitute for it views of purely metaphysicalorigin is sheer nonsense. He insists that if there betruth in these other views, it can not in the long run beirreconcilable with the truth arrived at through themethod of science.The scientist realizes more keenly perhaps than mostothers that knowledge in itself gives little final satisfaction; it has to be motivated by a desire to do somethingor get somewhere if one is to get the best out of it ; andthat for the highest pleasure it must be refined emotionally and must appeal to the sense of beauty. Heworks from fact through law to beauty, however, ratherthan by trying to create it out of sheer emotionalism.No one better than he knows that happiness and estheticappreciation come from the inside out, but it can onlybe sustained happiness or abiding beauty when it harmonizes with the truths of nature — and by nature ismeant simply, established order. The test-tube of thechemist, the spectroscope of the physicist, the microscopeof the biologist, the telescope of. the astronomer all proclaim the same fundamental truths, and any program ofliving which denies the validity of these truths is sheermadness. Though, in the words of Ruskin, "ten thousand priests sought refuge from the world of passingphenomena and the lure of the senses," the very fanaticism of these mystics but proclaimed the reality of thatfrom which they sought escape. Only when we get aclear-eyed vision of the world as it is and of our owntrue place in it can we live to the best purpose. Such aquest is the preeminent function of science.In the first place "philosophlings" often confuse theunwary by showing them only certain of the by-productsand material achievements of science instead of honestlypresenting science as primarily a search for truth by themethod of observation and experiment, together withthe accumulated knowledge so obtained. Although vain-; gloriously boastful of their superior acumen in precisedefinition and rational refinements they seem incapableof making even the simple elementary discrimination between science and technology, or even mere invention.They create a false conception of the scientist by picturing him as only a technician or one learned in technical procedure, whereas his chief value lies in his abilityto establish truth by finding the orderly processes uponwhich it is founded. This' search for truth is far and14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEaway his most important function. He is never so muchinterested in the machine as in the principle upon whichit works.While it is true that some of the innumerable factsthe scientist has discovered have in certain hands beenturned to useless, frivolous or even harmful ends, he isnot responsible for such misuse. The same facts in otherhands have been turned to the greatest good of humanity.Practically everything modern man uses for his safety,his comfort or his pleasure has been evoked by the wandof science. Its findings have broadened and enrichedhuman life in innumerable ways. That we are not living today as did our savage ancestors of fifty thousandyears ago is due almost wholly to the benefits, bothmaterial and intellectual, which science has conferred.While the emblem of science is the question mark, notthe dollar mark, the scientist does not decry its materialbenefits as his critics profess to do — although at thesame time using the very latest inventions from fountain pens to radio to broadcast their wares. The factsare that through the application of scientific discoveriesthe impediments of earth, sea and sky have been sweptaside and the uttermost parts of the world made one forthe dissemination of knowledge, relief of suffering andincreased enjoyment of life for untold millions. Whilethe decriers of science are prattling about the lack ofidealism in science, their wives are hastening to thedoctor to save the life of a loved child through administration of diphtheria antitoxin or the use of some otherof the scientific medical discoveries which have preventedimmeasurable agony and preserved thousands uponthousands of lives ; their cooks are purchasing inspectedmeats made safe by knowledge of the life-history oftrichina and other deadly parasites; the city engineeris making sure that the sanitary arrangements of theirpremises, based on scientific knowledge and invention,will keep them safe and well ; their gardeners are settingojrfT. plants which are artistic triumphs of scientific breeding ; their carpenter is screening their house against thetyphoid fever-bearing fly, the malarial or yellow fever-carrying mosquito or other enemies of health which havebeen recognized after long gruelling study and experimentation, made not infrequently at the cost of theinvestigator's life.It is true that the scientist goes on forever prying intothe unknown, finding more unknowns and putting labelson what he finds, but he is not deceived by this processas his critics sometimes try to make people think; heharbors no naive belief that he is thereby understandingand explaining anything in ultimate terms. Since philosophers whose business it is to give such final explanations have so sadly fallen down on the job, why shouldtheir "philosophling" spokesmen rail so at the scientistfor not assuming the responsibility? For testimony ofsuch failure on the part of metaphysicians, the scientistneeds only cite the philosopher Bacon's dictum that,"Final causes are like vestal virgins, dedicated to Godand sterile."The scientist willingly accepts George Sterling's forecast for such "Pathfinders" as himself:"Unrest, unrest, to all who come hereafter !Unrest to the new pathfinders ! There is no anchorage in the atomNor sky-line in the universe.They shall forecast the storms of the electronsAnd the typhoons of the nebulae.They shall hunger for strange countriesAnd make far roads;They shall die in lone desertsAnd sink in dark oceans —Still hungry for the horizons of the mind,For the West of the Soul,For the seas and lands that go on foreverand ever."He is'content to toil on through the gloom of ignoranceseeking no other reward, here or hereafter, than a littlemore light, a little more health, a little more happinessfor humankind. He will continue to learn more of theorder of nature and in so doing gain still fuller understanding and greater power; and he and those whoaccompany him in thought will ripen into yet fullerappreciation and reverence for the beauty and sublimityof it all.Reunion ChairmanA member of the Law School faculty, 1919-20 ; and nowChairman of the Board of Bills Realty Company, Chicago, Benjamin F. Bills, '12, JD'14, has been appointedReunion. Chairman for the spring reunion season whichBenjamin P. Billsbegins with the Alumni School week, June 1 to 4, continues through the evening of the University Sing, June5, and concludes with the South Side Medical SchoolReunion, June 10. Which reminds us to recommend thatyou mail in your suggestions for subjects to be discussedat the afternoon and evening sessions of the AlumniSchool if you have not already done so.IN MY OPINION•By FRED B. MILLETT, PhD'31, Associate Professor of EnglishFIVE or six years ago there appeared above thelow horizon of contemporary British poetry threepoets whose writings have raised a number ofimportant critical questions. These poets — C. DayLewis, W. H. Auden, and Stephen Spender — at firstseemed bewilderingly similar. They were all Oxfordmen; they wrote in some of the most obscure and difficult modern poetic techniques; they owed a commonallegiance to their poetic masters : Gerard Manley Hopkins, Wilfrid Owen, and T. S. Eliot; and they were allavowedly communistic in their political faith.Because of the obvious similarities in the work of thistrio, their critics have, in the main, concerned themselveswith three particular questions. What individual characteristics does each of these poets possess? Which ofthe three poets is the best communist? Which poet issuperior to his two comrades? The variety of answersthese questions have received may serve to illuminatesome of the fundamental problems of contemporary criticism.A valiant attempt to differentiate the works of thesepoets is made by Edwin Berry Burgum in an articleentitled "Three English Radical Poets," now reprintedin Proletarian Literature in the United States (1935).In the work of Spender, Burgum distinguishes Shelley,Lawrence and Whitman as the spirits of specialpotency. Of Auden, Burgum writes, "if the aestheticand ideational confusion of Spender has dissipated hissensitivity, the robust temperament of Auden, less involved in a poetic tradition, has the more readily assimilated the vocabulary and the cadences of modern poetry."Day Lewis, according to Burgum, "combines what isgood in Spender and Auden without repeating theirweaknesses. He is as sensitive to English literary tradition as Spender, but he has borrowed from nearersources and has better assimilated them into his ownpoetic fibre. He is more capable of a good poetic cadenceand a clear poetic image than Auden. But at the sametime he has a strength and an optimism that neverwavers into irresolution and self-pity. And like Auden,he has developed both poetically and politically in a consistent direction." Babette Deutsch in This ModernPoetry (1935) also attempts to establish a number ofusable differentia. "Where Auden is primarily thesatirist, Spender is the romantic. . . . His revulsionfrom his own comfortable background is akin to Shelley's. . . . Lewis is more of a metaphysician than hisfriends." Louis Untermeyer, in the most recent editionof his Modern British Poetry (1936) likewise faces theinevitable" problem : "Auden is satirical, experimental,and often (except to those who understand his privateparables) incomprehensible; Spender is rhapsodic, sometimes sentimental, and usually forthright; Lewis is almost continuously lyrical and candid. Although he, too,plays with internal rhyme and concealed assonance, heis less concerned than Auden with craftsmanship; al though he shares Spender's political convictions, he doesnot lose himself as Spender sometimes does in rhetoric."Another problem that has aroused critical attentionconcerns the purity of these poets' political faith. Onthis question, Burgum renders the verdict that Spenderis the "most confused" politically. He does not find inhim a true progression towards a radical position. "Thepoet seeks to escape pessimism by discovering the oldaristocratic virtues in the lower classes, and especially,it should be noted, in their leaders." Concerning Auden'spolitical stability, Burgum is obviously of two minds.At first, he is delighted that "there is no oscillation between nostalgia for the aristocratic past and a blind graspafter some future state of Communism." On the nextpage, however, he is overcome by doubt. "i\uden hasnot yet made his own union of courage and conviction.Nor ought we expect from an Oxford-bred poet, apparently of a family of Welsh squires, an untroubledacceptance of the radical program. He, too, sometimesfears (as in a poem appropriately published in The NewRepublic) that he belongs to a lost generation." Theelection obviously lights on Comrade Lewis, who is "theonly one of these three poets who senses the strategicoffice of the proletariat in revolutionary action. And hisconviction is the deeper in that he is never attractedmerely by the crude exterior sometimes found in theworking class, but ignoring mere description goes directly to what in old language would be called its spiritual power." Untermeyer sees signs of political wobbling in both Lewis and Auden. Of the former, hewrites, "This poet is still fluctuating between a tradition which he distrusts, but in which he is quite at home,and a conviction which his mind applauds but his imagination has not yet fully accepted." Of Auden's political faith, he says, "He is merciless in his mockery of'the old gang' ; yet he is not convincingly on the 'otherside.' Fie speaks for those who are bullied into war andexploited in peace, but he is not really one of them."The critical reception of Auden's latest book of poems,On This Island, illustrates with beautiful clarity thepolitico-critical issue. Auden's obsession here with personal, as distinct from social, salvation receives thesharpest rebuke from his friendly competitor, Day Lewis."Auden is putting all his eggs in one basket : the survivalof his poetry is bound up with the survival value ofFreud's teachings. If the latter are destined to be builtinto the structure of civilization, then Auden will bewithout the least doubt a classic; but to> a generationthat knew not Freud, his work will appear — with theexception of a few 'anthology pieces' — a literary curiosity." {Poetry, January, 1937.) Edmund Wilson is likewise distressed by the apparent waning of Auden's zealfor the Party. He sees in him "the curious spectacleof a poet with an original language apparently in themost robust English tradition, whose development hasseemed to be arrested at the mentality of an adolescent1516 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEschoolboy. . . . His talk about 'the enemy' and 'theirside' and 'our side' and 'spying' and 'lying in ambush'sounds less like something conceivably to be connectedwith" an underground revolutionary movement than likethe dissimulated resentments and snootiness of the schoolboy with advanced ideas going back to his family forthe holidays. When this brilliant and engaging youngstudent first came out so strongly for the class struggleit seemed a bold and exhilarating step ; but then he simply remained under the roof of his nice family and inthe classroom, with his stuffy professors." (The NewRepublic, Feb. 24, 1937.) Only Louis Bogan, who apparently has no political axe to grind, has a kind wordfor Auden's political position. "He is still out for a newworld, but he is not lined up with the haters and thedogmatists ... he has removed himself from the factions who believe that peace on earth will automaticallycome if the other side is lined up and shot, en masse."(The New Yorker, Feb. 13, 1937.)On the question as to which of the three radical poetsis the best, the critical doctors inevitably disagree, although it is possible to distinguish a swing of the pendulum. Burgum writes, to be sure, that "However attractive to the politically minded the work of Auden, tothe literary critic, the poetry of Day Lewis must seemmore satisfying." Louis Bogan, however, is moved byAuden's latest "volume to say that it "is so well writtenthat it brings tears to the eyes of the tired reader, usedto the purveyors in poetry of the limp line and the soggyepithet. He is now capable, technically, of pretty nearlyeverything. . . . No one who doubts the possibility,in our day, of the healing and illuminating power ofsympathy and imagination can afford to miss thesepoems." Even William Rose Benet whose enthusiasmfor exacting poetry is not excessive, admits that Audenis "the young poet of the highest potential in Englandtoday." (Saturday Review of Literature, Feb. 13, 1937.)But the most enthusiastic judgment comes from the distinguished young American novelist, Frederic Prokosch.On the competitive three, he sums up his current judgment thus : "one of them, is now revealed as a pedestriansort of talent whose chief virtue, a youthful ardor, hastotally vanished ; one of them, at first the most exciting,now stands hidden behind a veil, so to speak, of privatetorments and misty uncertainties, and the third, withthe publication of 'On This Island' emerges, quite indisputably, it seems to me, as a poet of spectacular andexciting powers." Finally, he hails him as "the finestpoet of his generation." (Books, Feb. 7, 1937.)I have cited this rather excessive number of samplesof contemporary criticism, not merely because they happened at the moment to be at my fingers' end, and certainly not because they throw a great deal of light onthe poets under scrutiny, but because, when assembledand considered, they illuminate some of the sound andunsound procedures in contemporary criticism. Two of the problems which these critics have set themselves arelegitimate objects of literary-critical investigation. Inthe case of a group of poets, almost identical in ageculture, and poetic ancestry, it is certainly legitimatefor the contemporary critic to inquire in what respectsthese poets are dissimilar. It is equally legitimate forhim to attempt to decide which of the three is superiorto the other two. These problems are possible of solution because the poets being compared are actually comparable, and because the frame of reference — the work ofthe three poets — is unmistakably definite.No amateur critic, however, need be dismayed eitherby J;he discrepancies in the judgments of professionalcritics nor by his own divergence from them. There areno finalities, no absolutes in literary judgments. It isperfectly clear that contemporary judgments of contemporary writers are no more than straws in the wind.It is almost equally clear to the thoughtful eye that contemporary judgments of established literary figures, suchas Milton and Shakespeare, in so far as those writersstill have elements of life in them, are likewise arguableand tentative. It is only in the case of writers who arecompletely dead — writers like Abraham Cowley andJoel Barlow — that one can rest content with the mortuary judgments of literary-historical textbooks. Andeven here one should be prepared for the contingencyof resurrection. The most that one can ask of the criticis that his frame of reference should be perfectly definite,his analysis complete, and the reasons for his judgmentas numerous and searching as he can make them.The hotly debated question as to which of thesethree poets is the best communist is the one whichshould never have been raised under the guise of literarycriticism. For the problem belongs to the sphere, notof aesthetics, but of politics. To the party-organizer orthe biographer or the historian, the question might havesome significance; for the literary critic it has little ornone. The raising of the issue as a critical issue derivesfrom a mistaken conception of the place of belief inimaginative literature. For the literary critic, whetherfascist, communist, or democratic in his political sympathies, is not in a position to insist that a poem is tobe valued in proportion to the soundness of the politicalcreed implied or expressed. To argue from the soundness of the belief expressed to the excellence of the poeticvehicle is to put several carts before Pegasus. The Marxian critic would be the first to object to the introductionof religious beliefs into poetry. But he is usually unableto see that the tenacity of the poet's political faith is asirrelevant to the excellence of his poetry as the tenacityof a hymn writer's theological faith to the excellence ofthe anthem. In the matter of belief in poetry, the criticcan hardly do more than inquire, first, whether and whythe belief is expressed effectively and, second, whetheror not the belief is significant. Its soundness is of import only to the philosopher.NEWS OF THE QUADRANGLES• By WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN, '20, JD '22THE record of events so briefly outlined heremonth by month presents the more obvious aspectsof the University's activities. It does not give atrue understanding of what the University is doing; achronicle of surface things, it does not attempt any realinterpretation of the deeper and more significant forcesoperating here on the Midway. But if whole facultiesare unable to agree on where they are going, and howthey are going to arrive, there is excuse for avoiding thedangers of lay interpretation. The monthly reports areseparate units that tend to obscure the unity of the story.Perhaps it might be advisable, before adding to therecord, to take a quick look at the various chapters andpoint to some obvious trends.For nearly two years now the University has goneon with its work without excitement or disturbance fromoutside sources. It hasn't changed its view of its function as an institution of higher education, nor has theworld at large any greater insight into the University'splace and usefulness. But it seems that as the countryhas been pulling itself out of the depression it has lostsome of the bogey-man complex with which it wasafflicted in the darker days of the economic difficulties.The professional agents provocateur have subsided for thetime being so far as universities are concerned, althoughthere are occasional flashes to indicate that they are stalking other groups. With no demands on its energy andinterest for fighting will o' the wisps, the Universityhas been free to concentrate on its own recovery fromthe effects of the depression.The financial position of education as a whole hasnot improved as rapidly as has that of business and industry, nor has the University's financial position specifically improved in the same ratio as general recoveryin the country at large. As has been reported here fromtime to time, the University effected large economiesand it has not impaired the effectiveness of its work.Now that the effects of recovery are being felt generally,there is evidence of the beginnings of a "rearmament"race in the educational world, as some of the more prosperous institutions begin to look toward adding ablemen to their faculties. The next several years are likelyto be significant ones, for the result of the competitionmay be appreciable strengthening or weakening of faculties through lively competitive bidding. Chicago's facultyhas lost many able men, mostly through retirement, butpartly because of more attractive offers made by otheruniversities. Some considerable part of that loss hasbeen offset by additions, and there has been awareness tothe need of further strengthening. For the time being,such gifts as the $3,000,000 from the General EducationBoard and the $275,000 conditional gift of the RosenwaldFamily Association, noted in the last two months, willprovide the resources for the immediate needs, but theydo not provide for the longer range needs. Curriculum ImprovementsThe reorganization of the Law School curriculum,reported in full elsewhere in this issue, indicates that theprocess of improving the curriculum is still proceeding.In the near future, the College Curriculum Committeewill submit its recommendations for a universal curriculum of a four-year college which includes the lasttwo years of high school and the first two years of collegeas the unit of organization. Such a college has beenexperimentally in operation here since 1933, when thelast two years of University High School were incorporated in the College program.Mr. Raney's exposition of the miracles of microphotography, also presented in this issue, is another sidelighton the somewhat startling innovations that are in progress here. Even the educational world moves in thewake of changing civilization, although the factor whichProfessor Ogburn has named "social lag" sometimesseems larger in the academic world than in the marts ofindustry and even political action.New Oriental Institute FindsThe reorganization last year of the Oriental Institutesharply reduced its activities in the field work of uncovering the record of earlier civilization in the Near East,but some expeditions are still at work. From the Megiddo(Armageddon) expedition under the field direction ofGordon Loud, came a cablegram the middle of the monthannouncing the discovery of a magnificent hoard ofEgyptian gold in a Palestinian palace of about 1400 B. C.Director Calvin W. McEwan surveys the beautifully carved basaltcolumn base found in the porch of a Hittite palace of the eighthcentury B. C. in North SyriaA fuller report is coming by mail ; Mr. Loud's cabletold briefly of finding Egyptian cosmetic jars, jewelry, anda fluted bowl in the shape of a sea shell. Such treasuretells the experts of the Institute its story, and though1718 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEthey would chose, if able, to uncover a stone tablet thatwould add a larger chapter, even they are not unresponsive to the thrill of buried treasure.While the level of the discovery belongs to the periodbetween 1300 and 1350 B. C, the style of many of thepieces suggests that they were made in Egypt a fewcenturies earlier, and it is surmised that they may havecome down from generation to generation in the familyof a Palestinian prince."It is premature to make any further comment on thediscoveries reported until we have added informationfrom our expedition," said Professor John A. Wilson,Director of the Institute. "But the place and the timesuggested by the cable give rise to interesting conjectures. Several seasons ago we had located the city gateof Megiddo, and we were looking for the Residence Palace of the city near that gate and at a point where itwould benefit by the breezes from the MediterraneanSea to the west. Last year a broad search trench disclosed the heavy masonry walls of an important buildingjust at the appropriate point; we assume that this wasthe Palace of the Prince of Megiddo, and that this wasthe building in which the gold was found."The period about 1400 B. C. is a most interestingtime. The Egyptian Empire' held Palestine just then,but was finding the course of empire particuarly difficultin the face of invasions from outside. One group ofinvaders was called the Habiru, and these have oftenbeen linked with the Hebrews and their invasion withthe Conquest of Canaan. It is tempting to guess thatthe Prince of Megiddo held his town under Egyptianwarrant, as suggested both by the inscriptions of theA "step trench" up the slope of Tell Jedeideh, a mound of manycities, opened by the Syrian Expedition of the Oriental Institute.These mounds are entirely artificial and are an accumulation ofthousands of years of occupation. The statuettes (see story) werefound near the baseperiod and by the Egyptian character of this treasure.When his town was threatened by the invaders he mayhave hidden away the gold in his palace, and some fatebrought it down untouched to our day. Such a preliminary guess that this treasure was connected with themovements of the Hebrews need confirmation by fullerinformation from the field."The earliest representations of human beings in metalever found, small copper statues dating to 3,300 B. C, are on exhibition in the Oriental Institute Museum. T%statues, which are figures of gods and goddesses weadiscovered last season by the Syrian Expedition of theInstitute under the field direction of Dr. Calvin Vy".McEwan. Buried most of the 5,200 years since theywere set up in a prehistoric temple, they required several months of careful treatment for their restoration.By analogy to later periods much better established, themale figures are believed to be war gods and the femalffigures goddesses of fertility. The male figures show tlSuse of circumcision as a religious practice at that earh/period.- The male figures have silver helmets and two of thefemale figures are adorned with silver curls, the otherfigure having an elaborate head dress. Because the nearest deposit of copper is more than 500 miles from themound in which the figures were found, the source ofthe metal is thought to have been trade with Asia Minor,The statues, which range in size from five to ten inches,were found in Tell Jedeideh, between Antioch andAleppo, in the District of Alexandretta, for control ofwhich the Turks and Arabs recently were in dispute.At another site, Tell Tainat, the elaborately carvedbase of a polygonal column in a Hittite palace was uncovered by the expedition. A capital of a column also wasfound, this material constituting the first evidence ofuse of columns and capitals in Hittite architecture. Ofthe period of 800 B. C, the palace was one of the ancientkingdom of Hattina, mentioned in Assyrian records as apowerful obstruction to Assyrian expansion. A colossalstone throne statue of a Hittite god was another findof the expedition in its work last season. Northern Syria,the expedition has demonstrated, had a sedentary population at least as old as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Uneducated Future Citizens?Newton Edwards, professor of education, has beengiving a series of public lectures in the last month inwhich he has been demonstrating some significantlydistressing facts about the disparities of educationalopportunities in these United States. But ProfessorEdwards is a prophet without particular honor as hedemonstrates that the classes who are furnishing thelarger proportion of the future citizens of the countryare those who are least able to provide adequate educational opportunities — and as a consequence are not getting much education for their children. The future socialconsequences, he warns, are likely to be unpleasant.But with U. S. Steel hitting 125, few people have asyet had much time to worry about his prophecies.This is no place to mangle Dr. Edwards' carefullydocumented arguments, but a few of the main pointsmight be given. The Americans of the highest occupational status and richest cultural resources are failing toreplace themselves from one generation to another. Iflcontrast, the under-privileged elements in American life.the mountain people of the Appalachian region, thetenant and Negro farmers of the South, and those onmarginal and submarginal lands elsewhere, and unskilledlabor groups in the cities are the chief sources of popflrlation increase. Regional differences in the rate of reprlPduction cause the child population of school age to mTHE UNIVERSITY OFdistributed unequally in relation to supporting adult education. Compared to the New England, Middle Atlantic,and Pacific states, the adult population in most of theSouthern and Rocky Mountain states is carrying a disproportionate share of the burden of education, both inrelation to numbers and economic resources. The richesteducational opportunity, on the other hand, is providedfor those who need it least.The extent of internal migration in the United Stateshas resulted in an urban population of which 50 per centat least come from rural regions. Approximately 60 percent of the net migration from farms in the last decadehas been from the South."However sound a policy of regarding education asessentially a local matter may have been in a pioneersociety, it takes no great insight to discover its weaknesstoday," Professor Edwards said in one of the lectures."With the degree of mobility that is reasonably sure tocharacterize the American people in the future, the cultural and intellectual level of any region necessarilybecomes of deep concern to the people of every otherregion. The fact is that, for good or ill, persons whomigrate enter into the social, economic, and political lifeof the community in which they spend their mature years.They carry with them their insight or ignorance, theiroccupational adjustability or lack of it, their ability orinability to participate wisely in the determination ofsocial policy. . . . It is of no slight significance that theyouth of the nation who are being provided the mostmeager educational opportunities are the ones who, inlargest numbers, will find it necessary to seek occupational opportunity outside the community in which theyare born."The only answer, Dr. Edwards concludes, is supportof education by the federal government, for in no otherway can the present disparities, with their ultimate consequences, be avoided.Another member of the department of education, William C. Reavis, this month pointed out the need of educational units large enough to support a substantialprogram of education, under competent professional leaders, from kindergarten through high school. One of thechief difficulties of education today, he said, is the retention of the small local unit that was outmoded evenwhen it was adopted after the Revolution. The smalllocal unit is at the basis for most of the financial problems education is facing today. Citing Illinois as anexample, Professor Reavis said that the state's retentionof the local school district has created a more seriousproblem in support than existed when the legislaturefirst attacked the question in 1855.The First Ground Breaking Since 1931Ground was broken the middle of the month for thenew Public Administration Center building, which is tohouse the fourteen autonomous associations of publicofficials now in a private building near the quadrangles.Funds for the erection and maintenance of the buildingwere given the University by the Spelman Fund; thebuilding, however, is for the use of the associations.These agencies are engaged in activities designed to perfect the principles of governmental administration, the CHICAGO MAGAZINE 19professional status of public administrators, and thetechnical practice of public officials. Nine of the fourteen organizations represent functional officials throughout the country in such fields as city management, publicfinance, personnel, public welfare, public works, housing,The new Public Administration Clearing House starts from scratchplanning, tax assessing, and research. Two are jointagencies with no official membership of their own, butdeal with or operate through other governmental associations. Their presence here means that the administrative capital of American government is really in Chicago, though the political center is Washington.The new building, to cost $650,000, will be the firstunder construction since International House was completed in 1932. It is at the southeast corner of KenwoodAvenue and 60th Street, south of the Midway, and thesecond structure on a University-owned site on thatside of the landmark. (Burton and Judson Courts, men'sresidence halls, constitute the other south-of-the-Midwayunit). It is the first completely air-conditioned buildingon the quadrangles. Fronting 152 feet on 60th Street,45 feet deep, with a 36-foot wing at the southwest cornerand a 14-foot wing on the southeast corner of the site,the building is to be four stories and basement in height.Architects are Zantzinger and Borie, of Philadelphia, andEmery B. Jackson associate. The William J. LynchCompany has the general contract.Dr. Albert Johannsen RetiresDr. Albert Johannsen, professor of geology, and aninternationally known petrologist, retired at the end of thequarter after more than twenty-seven years of activeservice in the University. The Chicago petrologistdevised the classification of igneous rocks now in generaluse, after years of work in formulating methods of identifying minerals under the microscope. He published a649-page volume, "Manual of Petrographic Methods,"on this phase of his research. Dr. Johannsen's latestand most important book, "A Descriptive Petrography ofthe Igneous Rocks," has been completed and the first twovolumes of a series of four have been published by theUniversity of Chicago Press, the third volume being.(Continued on Page 22)ATHLETICSScores of the MonthBasketballChicago, 26; Illinois, 34Chicago, 27; Ohio State, 32Chicago, 27; Northwestern,34Chicago, 23; Minnesota, 33WrestlingChicago, 29; West Virginia,3Chicago, 6; Franklin andMarshall, 24Chicago, 19; Northwestern,11Chicago, 6%; Illinois, 23^Chicago,Chicago, Fencing8; Illinois, 98i/" NotreDame, sy2Chicago, 12; Purdue, 5 Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,39;wayChicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago,Chicago, Track42; Purdue, 4425; Iowa, 61, 33; Northwestern,Purdue, 36; (three-meet)28; Northwestern,58Gymnastics562.25; Iowa, 752768; Illinois, 955,5Swimming40; Iowa, 4462; Purdue, 2256; Wisconsin, 2840; Illinois, 44Water Polo, 7; Iowa, 0, 10; Purdue, 3, 5; Wisconsin, 0, 7; Ilinois, 3TWICE during the past two weeks the flag of theMaroons has been hoisted atop the mythical BigTen flagpole, and into old Bartlett's trophy cabinets have been tucked away the conference cups forfencing and water polo, tributes to the efforts of CoachesAlvar Hermanson and E. Wallace McGillivray whomanaged, after a tough struggle — every match was a truecontest this season, with not a walk-away in the bunch —to bring their boys out on top. Edward Fritz, junior,has been conspicuously out in front in every fencingmeet this year, with Lemon, Walter, and Richardsontaking their share of the honors. These latter three arescheduled to graduate in June. Water polo honors werefairly evenly divided among the team members, withperhaps Captain (and Senior Class President) BobBethke deserving special mention.The remaining minor sports failed to attain honorberths and joined the fate of their cagester brothers whowitnessed their twenty-sixth straight defeat at the handsof Minnesota in the last game of the season. Both theIllini and the Northwestern Wildcat basketball teams definitely outclassed their Midway opponents in the preceding two games.During the past couple of weeks sundry meets andtourneys have been held hereabouts. In the Big TenIndoor Trackmeet at the Fieldhouse on March 13, theMaroons finished eighth with Northwestern and Purduetrailing. George Halcrow chalked up the only Chicagomark, finishing third in the 440 yard dash. In the BigTen wrestling bouts, Chicago finished in fifth positionwith even dependable and thus far undefeated CaptainRobert Finwall losing to his Illinois opponent, Mcllvoy,who was conference champion two years ago. Bob heldthe title last year and has another year of competitionto look forward to.Erwin Beyer, sophomore, who created quite a sensation on the bars and flying rings for the gymnasts at the • By WELLS D. BURNETTEstart of the season injured his hand in the middle ofthe season and left a weakened team to finish fourthin the Conference meet. In the Chicago Daily Ne<ws"Chicago Relays" held recently in the Amphitheaterthe University mile relay team placed second in a specialrace. So winds up the winter quarter, and to quote thealready overquoted Walrus, it's time to speak of otherthings, especially since the vernal equinox is at hand.Last month I spoke of the Junior Davis Cup tourneyin which Norbert Burgess, Norman Bickel, Chester andJohn Murphy, and John and Charles Shostrum, all Maroons, were among the ten selected from the Middle Westto try out. The Murphy Brothers and Burgess finishedon top and are now waiting the call to go East for thenational get-together. Who knows, perhaps even greaterthings are yet to come.Tennis Coach Wally Hebert has been quoted as saying that his rostrum of players "shape up as the bestsince 1929, and perhaps including that team whichboasted George Lott and Scott Rexinger." Quite astatement, any tennis fan would agree. His openingmeet is April 23 against Wisconsin. Up to now all thegames have been played inside, but the open air courtsare expected to be put into shape the last of this month.Every indication at the moment shows a stronger teamthan last year when Chicago lost the cup to Northwestern by one point.Bickel, although failing to show well in the Davismatches, is slated for number one position with BillMurphy pressing him hard for it. Burgess and ChesterMurphy rank next in line. Shostrum has fifth positionsure which leaves the last spot to be filled at the momentby competition. Jim Ware, transfer from Californialast year, is among the contestants. Those in the sidelines watching the boys bat the ball back and forth overthe net during the recent workouts, have been in agreement that the tennis team has an A-l opportunity to raisethe pennant on that mythical pole for a third time thisyear.* * sje >jcIn And AboutCoach Norgren's dream (see Magazine, February)of abolishing the center jump in basketball was realizedin the recent session of the National Basketball CoachesAssociation. Big Ten coaches voted that, for the season'37 -'38, the jump at center will be used only at the beginning of the game, at the start of the half, at theopening of overtime periods, and after technical anddouble fouls. The ball, at other times, will be placedin play behind the end line of the team scored upon.The change, they hope, will bring about a speedier game.The University concluded its first season of intercollegiate handball this month. The only major teams ofsize in the field were Illinois and Notre Dame. The Maroons defeated the former and tied the Irish.20THE EIGHT O'CLOCK MAIL'Tn the article, reprinted from the Chicago Daily News,on page seven of the February issue of the University ofChicago Magazine, there is an erroneous statement whichshould be corrected. The fact is that Paul Des Jardienwon his twelve "C's" in four major sports in three consecutive years of varsity competition. Sincerely yours,Nelson H. Norgren."The statement to which Nels refers is ". . . . Norgrenwas one of the two men in University of Chicagohistory to win twelve letters. The other was Paul'Shorty' Des Jardien zvho played at the same time asNorgren, but who fudged a little in collecting hisdozen, since he was in school slightly more than fouryears!'When we complimented Nels on being featured inthe Chicago Daily News his dry reply was, (CWell, it'san off season for sports and the sport writers had tohave something to fill space. The fact that Roy Nelsondrezv my ears so large proves that" (Refer to page14 in the February Magazine if you have forgotten theillustration.)". . . I suppose the suggestion is wholly impractical,but I for one would like a chance to read some of thejournals published periodically under the sponsorshipof the departments of the University To subscribefor any number of them (and it is a diversity of interestoutside of one's own field which is in point) is too muchfor the budget. Would it be possible to formulate somegroup rate to alumni without subsidizing them?"Frederick C. Lusk '17, JD'22.Washington, D. C.We are not sure that this is possible but if you willlist those in which you would be interested we willsee that the list is placed in the proper hands at theUniversity Press. There are sixteen such journalspublished by as many departments at Chicago:Published quarterly:The Social Service ReviewJournal of BusinessPhysiological ZoologySemetic Languages and LiteraturesModern PhilologyBotanical GazetteInternational Journal of EthicsLaw ReviewThe Library QuarterlyClassical PhilologyJournal of Modern HistoryJournal of ReligionandJournal of Political Economy (Bi-monthly)American Journal of Sociology (Bi-monthly) Astrophysical Journal (Monthly ex. Feb. and Aug.)Journal of Geology (8 issues annually)Sample copies of any of the above Journals will begladly mailed to anyone interested. Address your request to the University Press.The answer to why we never get egotistical : "... Ittook me ten minutes to look over the February issueand to know that I did not want to read any more . . .About all the U of C Magazine writes about is athletics,medical schools and rather ephemeral talk about thecampus in many issues."Windsor, Ohio. Ruth Balch '32,"I noticed your desire for something in the mathematical line. . . . Well, my male nurse submits the following : A speaker at a recent scientific meeting saidthat it is 2,000 light years to the middle of the MilkyWay. Question, how far is that? I told him to answerit himself, knowing that light travels 186,000 miles asecond. Herewith is his solution, written on the backof a circular of the American Mathematical Societywhich he rescued from my waste basket — hence thesolution is guaranteed. . . . Al Smith once said to theschool boy who reported the distance to the sun as 92million miles: Tt might be so, I will not argue withyou. You win, kid.' Probably Al would not arguewith my nurse on this distance to the middle of theMilky Way. Yours very sincerely,PI. E. Slaught."(Professor Emeritus of Mathematics)Here is the problem in detail:186,000 Miles per second60 Seconds in minute11,160,000 Miles for one minute60 Minutes in hour669,600,00024 Hours in a day16,070,400,000 Miles for one day365 Days in one year5,865,696,000,0002,00011,731,392,000,000,000 Miles to middle of Milky Wayas stated at a recent scientificmeeting.Which makes us a little ashamed for having vociferously begrudged our daily evening trek to the pasture for the cows in our early days.2122 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEGone Microphotographic(Continued from Page 8)might cross international boundaries more freely. Chicago was asked to provide the demonstration. But Chicago needed a speed camera — and money. The Secretary of the Navy was appealed to. The Surgeon General, the Department of State, and The National Archives supported. Secretary Swanson readily assented— Dr. Draeger was released to build the camera at costand, for good measure, go to Paris also, while the Rockefeller Foundation came through with the necessary second grant, to the American Library Association, underwhose auspices, then, the Chicago staff and apparatuswill sail in April for six months filming before Exposition crowds, a month of barnstorming afterward, andreturn with rich treasure of text, including its cameraby grace of Neptune.Yes, Gutenberg's eyes would bulge all right. But uponsecond thought he need not worry. The little fellow ismore ally than rival — he can get places where the bigfellow cannot go. He can repair some injuries, too.Censors may spoil the page, as penmen make palimpsests,or fire may blacken. The camera in all these cases justdons his infra-red or ultra-violet; spectacles and declaresagain the ancient message. It's the big fellow's worldafter all, for the eyes are with him and readers stay fullsize. But"He says they two will make a team for work :Between them they will lay this farm as smooth !"New Law School Curriculum(Continued from Page 6)and it gives him the training in initiative, organizationand self-expression that has already been referred to.The method of instruction under this new plan willvary with the instructors. The value of the case systemof instruction as a means of training in case analysis andcase comparison is great and there can be no thoughtof abandoning this valuable tool of discipline and instruction. Just as a method of instruction, however, theobjection to it has always been its extreme slowness.After a student, through use of it for some time, hasacquired the training in the technique of analysis forwhich it is most valuable, the continued use of it becomessubject to the law of diminishing returns. One mayhazard the conjecture, therefore, that the use of syllabi,of lectures, of informal discussion, and of individualwork will be followed in varying degrees.The assumption that the student will have the abilityto grasp and assimilate material, the large amount of individual work that will be required of him — in fact thewhole educational program that we have adopted hasthe corrollary that the number of students must be limited. The mere fact that a man has successfully completed two or more years of college work will not entitlehim to admission to the Law School. His class standing, his personality, and his potentialities, so far as wecan form an opinion with regard to them, will be elements in determining his admission.The question may fairly be asked, "What kind ofmen do we expect to turn out from the School with this new curriculum?" We think that our graduates willhave the type of training that a high grade lawyer shouldhave. They will have received a thorough training incase analysis ; they will have a thorough grounding in thefundamental principles of all the important fields of law •they will have had training in individual work and in'formulation of ideas and, consequently, they shouldknow how to go about finding and formulating the answer to any problem that may present itself. But ourchief objective is more than this. We plan that theyshall have a definite understanding of the considerationsother than purely legalistic ones that lawyers, judgesadministrators and legislators have to take into accountin dealing with legal problems of the present time. Ourbelief is that if they have an awareness of these considerations, ethical, economic or political, and have giventhem thought as elements in problems with which theyhave to deal, then, whether their answers to these problems are "conservative" or "radical," they will be basedupon an understanding of what is involved therein. Menso trained will be better lawyers, better public officers,and better citizens.News of the Quadrangles(Continued from Page 19)scheduled for publication this spring. This study is described by Professor Edson S. Bastin, head of the department of geology at the University, as the foremost bookin the English language in its field. Although his fieldof special interest was in the classification of igneousrocks, Dr. Johannsen in his early career did notable workin his studies of the optical properties of rock-formingminerals, and his book on that subject, "A Key for theDetermination of Rock-Forming Minerals in Their Sections," published in 1908, has gone through severalrevisions.Born in Belle Plaine, la., on Dec. 3, 1871, Dr. Johann-sen retired at the age of sixty-six. He received the B. from Illinois and his doctorate from Johns Hopkins. Before coming to the University of Chicago in1909 he served a long apprenticeship in field and laboratory practice of geology and petrology with the U. S.Geological Survey. He became assistant professor ofpetrography here in 1909, and a full professor in 1918.He is a member of the Geologic Society of America, theMineralogical Society of America, the German Mineralogical Society, and an honorary member of the NationalAcademy of Science of Mexico.Despite his distinguished scientific career, Dr. Johanmsen has had time to develop varied hobbies, and heanticipates the freedom he will have to pursue thoseinterests. Collector of "dime novels," first editions ofDickens and other authors whose works were illustratedby Hablot K. Browne (Phiz), and of Browne's originalsteel engravings, he plans to compile a bibliography ofthe old-time thrillers and to complete a technical studyof the Browne engravings.Two Members of Faculty ResignTwo other well known members of the faculty haveTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 23been lost through resignation: George Sherburn, professor of English, and Frederick L. Schuman, assistantprofessor of political science. Professor Sherburn, whocame to Chicago in 1914 as an instructor and became afull professor in 1926, is the authority on AlexanderPope, and a scholar of distinction in the general fieldof 18th century literature. He accepted an appointmentjn Columbia University, where he has been on leaveduring the academic year. Assistant Professor Schumanwas one of the disciples of Professor Merriam; he hasalready attained prominence for his studies on international relations, and his book on "The Nazi Dictatorship"was highly praised by the critical reviewers of the learnedjournals in that field. He was one of the storm centersof the "red inquiry" ; even the committee's report clearedhim of that absurd suspicion. Foremost of his defenderswere President Hutchins and Professor Merriam, butthe young man did a pretty able job of defending himself in the inquiry. He went to Williams College on ayear's leave, and decided to accept an appointment thereas professor of political science, because, as he said in aletter to the Maroon, the "east offers me opportunitiesfor the next few years that I ought not pass by."Living Costs and InflationHigh-cost-of-living note: Professor of Finance Garfield V. Cox, of the School of Business, predicted in oneof the public lectures on "Current Problems in Business," that while wild inflation still appears remote in theUnited States, the next few years are likely to bring asufficient rise in the cost of living to make the personof relatively fixed income the real "forgotten man." For and Against Supreme Court PackingIt seems impossible to achieve unanimity amonglawyers, whether on or off the Supreme Court bench.Seven of the Law School faculty, Professor Wilber G.Katz, Associate Professors William W. Crosskey, CharlesO. Gregory, and Malcolm Sharp ; Assistant ProfessorsEdward H. Levi and James Moore, and Visiting Associate Professor Richard V. Campbell of the Universityof Wisconsin Law School, sent President Roosevelt aletter endorsing his proposal for change in the SupremeCourt. A statement opposing the measure is in processof preparation, with Dean Bigelow, Professors Bogertand Puttkammer, Associate Professor Tefft and Instructor James included among the dissenters.Quincy Wright to GenevaProfessor Quincy Wright, University of Chicago expert on intenational law, will leave Chicago Sunday forGeneva, where he will spend six months as exchangeprofessor at the Institute of Higher International Studies,connected with the University of Geneva. ProfessorWright will lecture on "International Organization,"taking over the course of Professor Pittman B. Potter,who comes to the University of Chicago for the springand the first half of the summer quarters. The exchangerelationship has existed for a considerable period, Professor of Economics Jacob Viner and Bernadotte Schmitt,professor of modern history, having been recent exchangeprofessors to the Geneva school.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEfor Economical TronipOTtatl7 CHEVROLETSALES SERVICEJ. D. Levin '19 Pres.PASSENGER CARS - TRUCKSModern Service StationDREXEL CHEVROLET CO.4733 Cottage GroveDREXEL 3121CLOISTER GARAGECHICAGO PETERSENMOTOR LIVERYA PERSONAL SERVICEof Refinement, Catering to theUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO5650 LAKE PARK AVE.Phone MIDWAY 0949Albert Teachers' Agency25 E. Jackson Blvd., ChicagoEstablished 1885. Placement Bureau for menand women In all hinds of teaching positions.Large and alert College and State Teachers' College departments for Doctors and Masters: fortyper cent of our business. Crltie and Grade Supervisors for Normal Schools placed every year inlarge numbers: excellent opportunities. Specialteachers of Home Economics, Business Administration. Music, and Art. secure fine positions throughus every year. Private Schools in all parts of thecountry among our best patrons: good salaries. Wellprepared High School teachers wanted for city andsuburban High Schools. Special manager handlesGrade and Critic work. Send for folder today.BLACKSTONEHALLanExclusive Women's Hotelin theUniversity of Chicago DistrictOffering Graceful Living to University and Business Women atModerate TariffBLACKSTONE HALL5748 TelephoneBlackstone Ave. Plaza 3313Verna P. Werner, Director NEWS OF THE CLASSESCOLLEGE1920The Alumni Office was recently informed that George E. Hartmann isdean of Beckley College, West Virginia.Hamer H. Jamieson, 621 SouthSpring Street, Los Angeles, has practiced law in that city for some tenyears. His three daughters are 13, 8and \]/2.1921.Mary Amanda Avei.lone of 4950Walsh Street, St. Louis, Mo., finds thatbeing a mother to five, Francesco, 10,Barbara, 8, Gandolfa, 5, Carmela, 3,and Harvey, 2, constitutes a full timeoccupation.Anna Baker, teacher, is head assistant in the Beaumont High School, St.Louis, Mo.Carter W. Hazzard is associatedwith C. S. Brown and Company of Chicago, dealers in investment securities.Elen Meador, high school teacher,sends us her present address as 4513Gaston Avenue, Dallas, Texas.1924Irwin Fischer, young Chicago composer, recently conducted the first performance of his own phonic poem"Marco Polo," in the Illinois SymphonyOrchestra concert held in Chicago.Radio program producer Samuel D.McFadden has his office in MonadnockBuilding, San Francisco, California.A teacher of history and civics at theJohn Hay High School of Cleveland,Ohio, is Nellie Grace Miller.Lillian L. Oleson, of 1115 CameliaAvenue, Baton Rouge, La., has the rankof instructor at the University of Louisiana.The present home address of Elizabeth Christine Miller is 712 Washtenaw Avenue, Ypsilanti, Michigan.1926In addition to his regular geologicallaboratory activities in his position withthe Pure Oil Company, Norman L.Thomas is president of the Fort WorthGeological Society and vice-president ofthe Paleontological Society.1927Executive of the Younger Girls Department of the Pasadena Y. W. C. A.,Elizabeth A. Donnelly had the interesting experience last summer of directing program activities in the Belgian Girl's Camp in Louette, St. Pierre,Belgium. She is active in the work ofthe Pasadena A. A. U. W., and is thisyear vice-president of the CoordinatingCouncil.Clara A. Kostlery, 4135 West 25thPlace, Chicago, teaches in East Chicago, Ind.Madeline E. Maybauer is a mem ber of the teaching staff at the NorthernIllinois State Teachers College.John B. Schneider is an extensHamarketing specialist for the College &Agriculture of the University of Caflfornia at Berkeley.1928Joseph Barron, AM'30, is under an.pointment as a Carnegie lecturer alSyracuse University of New York.'Martha Ireland is studying undera fellowship this year at the Universityof Chicago.Recent notification informs us thatAntonio P. Papin is teaching in theWoodrow High School of DallasTexas.This is Virginia M. Pond's fifth,year as a teacher in the Ravinia Schoolof Highland Park, 111.In addition to his regular duties asassistant director at the Museum ofScience and Industry, Chicago, JohnR. Van Pelt has charge of directingthe building activities which will complete the entire museum.Walter P. Steffen '10, JD '12 former brilliantChicago football star and judge of theSuperior Court of Cook County since 1922,died in Chicago March 9, 19371929Edith Harris' address during theschool year is 119 East Main Street,Lebanon, Ohio.George Mills of 7719 South EssexAve., Chicago, is now a social worker.Carleton D. Speed, Jr., is presidentof the Speed Oil Company in Houston,Texas. For news he submits the following item : "Owner of Discoverywell, La Blanca Structure, HidalgoCounty, Texas. Well blew out, caughtfire and cratered while coring at totaldepth of 7840 feet, still burning afterTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 25two months. Crater is 320 feet long and200 feet wide."E. J. Zeiler, AM'32, supervisingprincipal of the Cumberland School andthe Richards School of the village ofWhitefish Bay, Wisconsin, tells us thatthese two elementary schools enrollseven hundred pupils. He enjoys photography and tinkering with tools inthe basement. These combined withcommunity activities, P.T.A., BoyScouts, etc., and professional reading,more than fill his free hours.RUSH1873John H. Cristler, MD, has retired(age now, 89) from his practice inDallas. He practiced in Pennsylvaniauntil 1886 when he came to Texas. Hisonly daughter is married to an U. major. For recreation, he enjoystraveling.1877At 86, Hamilton W. Hewit writesthat he is "strong and healthy." He retired in 1910 from practice because ofill-health, but later regained his health.He did not resume practice, however,deciding to leave the field "open foryounger men." He is residing in Lincoln, Nebraska.1879Julian F. DuBois, MD, who is sec-letary of the State Board of Examiners,is one of the physicians of Sauk Center,Minnesota.1881As the "best all-year-round climatefor declining years," Hugh Jenkins,MD, has selected Tucson, Arizona. Heretired from active practice in Preston,Iowa, in 1923 after fifty-two years ofservice. Address: 1116 East SeventhStreet. Tucson.1885A varied career of medical workhas marked the life of James Grassick,MD, who now lives in Grand Forks,North Dakota. He has been a leaderin his community and state professionalcircles for many years, having beenpresident of the major associations inNorth Dakota.With three children, four grandchildren and one great-grandchild, not tomention seven college degrees in hisfamily, Robert Hawkins, MD surveysthe present. He is living in Marysville,Kansas. His favorite recreation is tending a small home garden.1887Conrad F. Richter, MD, physicianand surgeon of Newport Beach, California, held the office of mayor of thatcity for two years.1891Joseph Krost, MD, is practicinggeneral medicine in Chicago. His officeis located at 25 East Washington Street.B. M. Caples, MD, is the medicaldirector of the Waukesha Springs Sanitarium in Waukesha, Wisconsin. 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Get in touch with any Westinghouse representative.WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC ELEVATOR COMPANYMerchandise Mart — Chicago Telephone Superior 7878f PR ING suitings of traditional Britishstyle and excellence are now on dis-1 play in our establishment. We inviteyou to make selections from these exclusivefabrics while the range of colors, patterns andweaves remains complete.Campbell Eisele & Polichj Ltd8 South Michigan Avenue — Fourth FloorTelephone State 3863Fernand de Gueldre Hotel StevensWabash 0532Photographer toMary GardenLynn FontanneChaliapinAmelia EarhartVincent BendixStuart ChaseFrederick StockAs low as 3 for $9.50 Jane Addams• PRINTS •OF IDA NOYES DOORWAY FRONTISPIECEA Drawing by Clay KellyMay be obtained in Black and White Lithograph, 10x12 inches at$1.00 or with Gray Waxed Finish Frame, 15y2xl8y2 inches at $3.00.On Sale at the University of Chicago Book Store orThe Studio of the Artist, Clay Kelly, 1542 E. 57th Street26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBUSINESSDIRECTORYAMBULANCE SERVICEBOYDSTON BROS.Emergency 'phones OAK. 0492-0493operatingAuthorized Ambulance Servicefor Billings HospitalUniversity Clinics, etc.24 hour service.ARTIFICIAL LIMBSBARDACH-SCHOENE CO.102 South Canal St.Phone Central 9710Artificial Legs and ArmsComfort and ServiceGUARANTEEDASBESTOSA UNIVERSITY FAVORITEK. & M.FEATHERWEIGHT85% MagnesiaUniform and light in weight. Moredead air cells. Better insulation.KEASBEY & MATTISON CO.205 W. Wacker Drive Ran. 6951AWNINGSPhones Oakland 0690—0691—0692The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.,INC.Awnings and Canopies for All Purposes4508 Cottage Grove AvenueBOILER REPAIRSJOSEPH A. RICHBOILER REPAIRINGWelding and Cutting1414 East 63 rd StreetTelephone Hyde Park 9574BONDSP. H. Davis, 'II. H. I. Markham, *Ex. '06R. W. Davis, '16 W. M. Giblin, '23F. B. Evans, 'IIPaul H. Davis & Co.MembersNew York Stock ExchangeChicago Stock Exchange10 So. La Salle St. Franklin 8622 1896This year Marshall G. Keith, MD,is secretary of the Wyoming- State Medical Society as well as taking an activepart in his local medical group in Casper. Marshall's hobby is collecting Indian relics and two years ago he published An Indian Odyssey.1890A record of three thousand obstetricalcases with almost a 1000 per cent batting average in successes boasts ClemDennin McCoy, MD, who has his offices in Kenton, Ohio.- He is at presentinterested in experimental cooperatives.M A S T E RS1911Daniel Freeman, PhM, heads theBiology Department at Fargo College,N. D.E. Russell Lloyd reports that he isvery busy trying to promote wells andorganize a symposium on the geologyof the "Permian Basin" for the A.A.P.G. convention in Los Angeles thismonth.Arthur Lyman Marsh, AM, 707Lowman Bldg., Seattle, is executive secretary of the Washington EducationAssociation and editor of the Washington Education Journal.Owen Jones Neighbours, PhM' 11,superintendent of the City PublicSchool of Wabash, Ind., was presidentof the Indiana City and Town Superintendents Association last year.1914Herschel T. Manuel, AM, professor of Educational Psychology at theUniversity of Texas, recently publishedthe results of the 1936 Testing Program of the Texas Commission on Coordination in Education.Along with his professorial duties atPurdue University, Amman Swope,AM, is carrying on research in autodriving. He is a member of the National Research Council — Psychology ofHighway Commission.1915On leave this year from her professorship of English at Rockford College,Helen L. Drew, AM, is studying underProfessor Lane Cooper in Cornell University. Her present address is 225Fall Creek Drive, Ithaca, New York.1916Garrett E. Rickard, AM, principalof the LaFayette School, Chicago, iseditor of the Principal's Club Reporter.Dean Leon P. Smith, Sr., SM, ofWesleyan College, is now working ona monograph for the Smithsonian Institute concerning the age of past Indian civilizations based on the degreeof patination or weathering of flints,which has thus far locally checked fairlywell other data. He has examined over5,000 broken flints from definitely knownlocalities and depths. BOOKSMEDICAL BOOKSof All PublishersThe Largest and Most Complete Stock andall New Books Received as soon as published. Come in and browse.SPEAKMAN'S(Chicago Medical Book Co.)Congress and Honore StreetsOne Block from Rush Medical CollegeCAFESMISS LINDQUIST'S CAFE5540 Hyde Park Blvd.GOOD FOOD— MODERATE PRICESA place to meet in large and small groups.Private card rooms.Telephone Midway 7809in the Broadview HotelCATERERJOSEPH H. BIGGSFine Catering in all its branches50 East Huron StreetTel. Sup. 0900—0901Retail Deliveries Daily and SundaysQualify and Service Since 1882CEMENT CONTRACTORSLET US DO YOURCEMENT WORKG. A. GUNGGOLLCOMPANYConcrete Contractors for 35 Years64 1 7 SO. PARK AVE.Telephone Normal 0434CHEMICAL ENGINEERSAlbert K. Epstein, '12B. R. Harris, '2 1Epstein, Reynolds and HarrisConsulting Chemists and Engineers5 S. Wabash Ave. ChicagoTel. Cent. 4285-6COALJAMES COAL CO.ESTABLISHED 1 888YARDS58th & Halsted Sts. Phone Normal 28008 Ist & Wallace Sts. Phone Radcliffe 8000THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 271918As secretary of the Senate Committeeon Education J. G. Lowery, AM, ofMuskingum College collaborated ondrafting the School Foundation Program Law of Ohio, originally known asthe Gunsett-Lowery Bill. His was anactive voice in the Ohio' Senate from1930 to 1936. He is author of the newOhio Code on Certification of Teachers.1920Mamie Dentler, SM, formerly nutritionist at the Nursery School, has resigned her position there and is nowdoing free-lance work in Chicago. Oneof her clients is the Krim-Ko' Company,which puts out a chocolate milk.1921C. L. Cooper, District Geologist forthe National Park Service, has beentransferred to Oak Park, Illinois, wherehe is in charge of the educational andtechnical guidance of National andState park development in the states ofMichigan, Wisconsin, Illinois andIndiana.Population Distribution in ColonialAmerica (Columbia University Press)presents the results of an investigationconducted by Stella H. Sutherland,AM, in state capitols, historical societyarchives, and public and universitylibraries, in an effort to procure censusreturns, or suitable substitutes for suchreturns, for a date as near 1775 as possible. On the basis of what was discovered, Miss Sutherland has added a dotmap of the Colonies to show the population distribution in 1775-1785. Thetext describes the primary factors governing settlement: climate, geography,topography, soil fertility and such considerations as land systems, special inducements to settlers, and the growth ofnon-agricultural pursuits such as fishing, shipbuilding and primitive manufactures.1923Ruth Lehman, AM, who is workingfor her doctor's degree in the HomeEconomics Department at Chicago, isabsent on leave from Texas State Teachers College, Denton.John C. Lazenby, AM, director ofthe Division of Secondary Education atthe Wisconsin State Teachers Collegeat Milwaukee, has been giving all hisextra time to a program of selectiveadmission and revision of the junior college section of curriculum.Last July Wade H. Shumate, AM,accepted an appointment as superintendent of the city schools of Holden-ville, Oklahoma.Beulah M. Woods, AM, is assistantprofessor of education in Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania.1924Robert B. Campbell is president ofthe Peninsular Oil Company, with offices in Tampa, Florida. He is engaged in exploratory work in the southeasternstates, and is working on fish otolithsto determine their value as stratigraphicmarkers.Edna I. Fisse teaches AmericanHistory at the Cleveland High Schoolin St. Louis, Mo.Laura H. Loetscher, SM, juniorcollege teacher, resides at 417 LibertyStreet, Flint, Mich.Professor of Education at the Northern Illinois State Teachers College,Helen R. Messenger, AM, is statepresident and national parliamentarianof Delta Kappa Gama, an honor societyfor women (not undergraduates) whohave attained recognition for outstanding services in some field of education.Albert F. Siepert, AM, of BradleyPolytechnic Institute was elected secretary of the Department of VocationalEducation, N.E.A., for 1936-37.Raymond White, AM, assistant inpractice teaching and extra muralcourses at Teachers College, ColumbiaUniversity, has been a co-worker withDr. John K. Norton in a study of thefinancial condition of the Hartford,Conn., school system as a part of theschool survey there, carried on by theDivision of Field Studies. He receivedthe Doctor of Education degree fromTeachers College with a major in schooladministration.1925Esther Cooley, SM, is spending herleave of absence from Louisiana StateNormal at Nachitoches, Louisiana, doinggraduate work toward a doctor's degreeat the University of Chicago.Rebecca Sholley Gifford (Mrs.Warren), AM, is now a part-timeworker with the American Home Economics Association in the field of childdevelopment and parent education. Address: 615 Lee Street, Columbia, Mo.In Folk Songs of Mississippi, A. P.Hudson, AM, has gathered togethersome hundred and fifty ballads long sungby these folk. Many of them are ofBritish origin, others are similar to theEnglish broadside ballad, and still others are of American origin — ballads andsongs of the West; songs about outlaws and criminals ; songs arising out ofexperiences of the Civil War ; nonsense,dialogue and nursery songs. This is acompanion volume to Mr. Hudson'sHumor of the Old Deep South (University of North Carolina Press).A high schoolf administrator untillast year, William J. Keller, AM,now gives his occupation as farmer,and his address as Route 1, Garfield,Kansas.Robert Lambert, AM, devotes mostof his time to administrative work assuperintendent of the Indiana Schoolfor the Blind.Virginia G. Markham, AM, is living at 2052 East 90th Street, Cleveland,Ohio, where she is teaching Latin.Although most of his time is devotedto administrative work as superintendent of schools at Wilcox, Arizona, W. COFFEE -TEALa Touraine Coffee Co.IMPORTERS AND ROASTERS OFLA TOURAINECOFFEE AND TEA209-13 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGOat Lake and Canal Sts.Phone State 1350Boston*— New York— Philadelphia— SyracuseELECTRIC SIGNSFEDERAL NEONSIGNS•FEDERAL ELECTRIC COMPANYCLAUDE NEON FEDERAL CO.8700 South State Street•W. D. Krupke, *I9Vice-president in Charge of SalesFLOWERS<_> -. -f/t Q CHICAGO$0* Established 1865Q/^r FLOWERSPhones Plaza 6444, 64451364 East 53rd StreetFUNERAL DIRECTORH. D. LUDLOWFUNERAL DIRECTORFine Chapel with New Pipe OrganSEDAN AMBULANCETel. Fairfax 28616110 Cottage Grove Ave.GALLERIESO'BRIEN GALLERIESPaintings Expertly RestoredNew life brought to treasured canvases. Our moderate prices will please.Estimates given without obligation.673 North MichiganSuperior 2270GROCERIESLEIGH'SGROCERY and MARKET1327 East 57th StreetPhones: Hyde Park 9100-1-2QUALITY FOODSTUFFSMODERATE PRICESWE DELIVER28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHOTELS"Famous for Food"Dancing and EntertainmentNightlyCircular CRYSTAL Barthe BREVOORT hotel120 W. Madison St. ChicagoLAUNDRIESMorgan Laundry Service, Inc.2330 Prairie Ave.Phone Calumet 7424Dormitory ServiceSUNSHINE LAUNDRYCOMPANYAll ServicesDry Cleaning2915 Cottage Grove Ave.Telephone Victory 5110THEBEST LAUNDRY andCLEANING COMPANYALL LAUNDRY SERVICESAlsoZoric System of Cleaning- : - Odorless Quality Cleaning - : -Phone Oakland 1383LITHOGRAPHERL C. Mead '21. E. J. Chalifoux '22PHOTOPRESS, INC.Planograph — Offset — Printing731 Plymouth CourtWabash 8182MEDICAL EQUIPMENTCOMPLETE EQUIPMENTInstruments, Sundries and FurnitureforPhysicians, Dentists and HospitalsFrank S. Betz CompanyHammond, IndianaChicago Phone: Saginaw 4710MUSICMANUSCRIPT PAPER— SPEED WRITING50 Double sheets — 12 lines— Regular size, 200 pages;$1 00. Send today.WM. R.BULLOCKMusic Engraver— Printer420 N. La Salle St., ChicagoSuperior 2420 C. Sawyer, AM, is an active memberof the executive committee of the National Law and Order Commission.Paris B. Stochdale is engaged inthe completion of an extensive reporton "The Lower Mississippian Formations of the East-Central Interior," aproduct of extensive field researchesconducted under a Penrose grant fromthe Geological Society of America.1926On leave from Ohio Wesleyan College, Frances Johnston, SM, is nowworking for her doctorate at Chicago.J. C. McMillan, AM^ was promotedto the presidency of the State Normaland Industrial School; Ellendale, NorthDakota, by the action of the Board ofAdministration from the deanship of theJunior College of the State School ofScience at Wahpeton, North Dakota,last May and took active charge the firstof August.Thomas Milton Pearson, AM, ison leave for the first semester of 1936-37 to work for the degree of Doctor ofEducation at the University of Oklahoma. He holds a professorship in theEnglish Department at the NortheasternState Teachers College, Oklahoma.1927Knute O. Broady, AM, a facultymember of the University of Nebraska,tells us that he has two fine children,Karen Margaret, 3 years, and PaulaMarie, 1 year.Edith Deadman, SM, specialist inparent education at the Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund, Chicago, tookpart in several panel discussions at theBiennial Conference of the NationalCouncil of Parent Education held inChicago, November, 1936.Alfred C. Senour, AM, assistant superintendent of the East Chicago, Ind.,Public Schools, has long served as acouncil member of the Boy Scouts ofAmerica and has been a Hospital Boardmember since 1936. He was presidentfor two years of the First (Indiana)District Teachers Association.Recently director of the food servicein the Chicago College Club, JeanSimpson, SM, has returned to work forher doctor's degree in home economics.Clara M. Wallace, AM, who hasbeen in the State Department of PublicInstruction at Des Moines, Iowa, forthe past ten years, now has time off toattend the State University of Iowa andis working on her Ph.D.1928W. A. Anderson, AM, is assistantprofessor of Physics at the Universityof Manitoba.Alberta Childs, AM, who is headof nutrition work in the Infant WelfareSociety of Chicago, with her nutritionists gave a demonstration recently forthe Chicago Dietetics Association of alarge number of racial diets. The dietswere displayed and the nutritionists, assisted by representatives of the foreigngroups, discussed them.In addition to his work as professorof Economics and Business Administration at Whitworth College, Spokane, Wash., Oscar K. Dizmang, AM, isoffering a course in economics for thelocal chapter of the American Instituteof Banking and is a member of theAmerican Economics Association,American Association of UniversityProfessors, National Association ofMarketing Teachers. In 1936 he servedas secretary of the Social Science Section of the Northwest Science Association. His wife, Marie Garten, alsoholds a Master's degree from Chicago.Mildred Robinson Jensen, AM, isassistant director, Women's and Professional Projects Division under theWorks Progress Administration -in Kentucky.Noyes B. Livingston is now operating as an independent geologist in northcentral Texas, with offices in FortWorth.During the fail term Francis E.Lord, AM, assistant professor at Michigan State Normal at Ypsilanti, was acting head of the Department of SpecialEducation last semester.Elsie Maxwell, AM, has this yearbeen made head of the Department ofHome Economics at the University ofIdaho at Moscow.Harry C. Muth, AM, began hisduties as principal of the Lincoln JuniorHigh School of Rockford, Illinois, lastfall.Helen Barrett Rosenquist, SM,although the mother of two children, isconducting a nursery school of her ownin Austin, Texas. Her husband is professor of Sociology at the University ofTexas.Ella Siddall, AM, has left her position in Louisiana to take one at Witten-burg College, in Springfield, Ohio, withLeone Bowman, PhB'18, AM'19.In her present position as secretaryto the Superintendent of the Oyster BayPublic Schools of Long Island, NewYork, Dorothy White, AM'28, doesgeneral administrative office work, someresearch testing, planning guidance program. She finds her job very interesting, as it is a development toward thetype of position she hopes eventually tohold as assistant to a superintendent ofschools.James H. Wilson, AM, superintendent of schools in Rocky Ford, Colorado, is chairman of the State Subcommittee on Vocational Education ofColorado Education Association.1929Assistant Professor of Social Sciencein the Illinois State Normal University,Helen E. Marshall, AM, recentlypublished a complete life portrait ofDorothea Dix: Forgotten Samaritan.Mrs. Loren D. Melton (NellieRushing) is an English instructor atthe Oklahoma City University.Ethel M. Miller, AM, is instructing the students of Earlham College ofRichmond, Indiana, in the finer artsand techniques of Home Economics,1930Sophie Payne Alston, AM, is Director of Home Economics in the BerrySchools at Mount Berry, Georgia. ThisTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29includes work in both the senior-collegeand high-school units. Mrs. Alstonwrites that during 1934-35 they addedfive new teachers to the staff, opened anew home management house, and alsoa model cabin in one of the mountaincommunities where they have begun aninteresting adult program.Elizabeth W. Hardaway is livingin Fresno, California, where she is doing W. P. A. work.Elwood Morton Miller, SM, is onleave from the University of Miami,Florida, where he has been assistantprofessor of Zoology for four years, iscontinuing his graduate study at theUniversity of Chicago this year.Since last August, Edith K. Sears,AM, has been located at the MilwaukeeChildren's Hospital as a medical socialworker.1931The speech Jane E. Clem, AM, delivered before the Commercial Sectionof Northwest Teachers Association heldin Eau Claire, Wis., will soon be published in the Journal of Business Education. She heads the typing departmentat the State Teachers College, Whitewater, Wis.Ida Mae Didier, SM, is teaching atMarygrove College in Detroit this yearNettie J. Kinnon, AM, is principalof the Oak Avenue and Ogden Schoolsin LaGrange, 111.Clemens E. Lueck, AM, formerRipon high school principal, nowteaches journalism, directs publicity.and is doing alumni work at Ripon College.Bess McClelland, SM, who for thepast few years has been nutritionist forthe Red Cross in St. Joseph, Missouri,has accepted a position as nutrition specialist in the Extension Service for theState of Montana.Last September Marcia McNee, AM,accepted a teaching position at Morn-ingside College, Spring Valley, Minnesota. Her subjects are elementarymethods, primary methods, practiceteaching and children's literature.Anna E. Miller, AM, heads thePhysical Education Department of theGeorgia State College for Women atMilledgeville, Ga.Ada Moser, SM, has a leave of absence from her position in Purnell Research in South Carolina and is nowin Washington, D. C, in the Bureau ofHome Economics.Last June E. V. Pullias, AM, wasawarded his doctorate by Duke University and with the opening of the fallsemester he commenced work there asan instructor in the Department of Education, teaching education psychologyand assisting with student adjustmentProgram.Superintendent Keim K. Tibbetts,AM, of Wheaton Schools was recentlyelected president of DuPage Valley Division of the Illinois Education Association. 1932In conjunction with her work as assistant professor of Nursing at FrancesPayne Bolton School of Nursing, Western Reserve University, Anne L. Austin, AM, is a member of the Programof Study Committee of the Central Curriculum Committee of the NationalLeague of Nursing Education, and asher avocation is collecting illustrativematerial for a history of nursing.Wilma Beckman, SM, has acceptedan assistantship in the Department ofHome Economics at Cornell University,where she will work on her doctorate.During the summer she was an instructor in a girls' camp.Ruth Griswold, SM, has accepted aposition in the Division of Home Economics at Michigan State College atEast Lansing.Bernice Hopper, SM, has the honorof being one member of the nutritionstaff of the Illinois Emergency ReliefAdministration who was retained whenrestriction of funds made it necessaryto drop a large number of positions.Adelaide Spohn, '08, SM'13, who isloaned to the agency by the ElizabethMcCormick Memorial Fund, and MissHopper, therefore, constitute the entirenutrition staff.John K. McCalmont, AM, chemistry teacher at the Wells High School,Chicago, had an article in School Review last April on "Instructional Background of General Science Pupils in aCity Community."E. H. Pritchard, AM, has been connected with the Western MaterialsCompany, 39 South LaSalle Street,Chicago, since last June. Prior to that,he had been superintendent of the public schools of St. Marys, Kansas, andprincipal of the Forest Park (Illinois)public schools. Fishing and social-economic problems are his hobbies.This is the second year William B.Storm, AM, has been head of theMathematics Department of the Northern Illinois State Teachers College, DeKalb, 111.Helen Streit, SM, who is directorof the Nursery in Sunset Hill School,Kansas City, spent the summer in Chicago taking work in speech re-education at Northwestern University.1933Executive Beatrice O. Baker ofthe International Institute of the Y.W.C.A., Flint, Mich., belongs to theNational Institute for Immigrant Welfare, the National Conference for SocialWorkers and the Social Workers Club.Lill G. Hainer, AM, a faculty member of the Drexel Institute of Technology, Philadelphia, is active in the A.A.U.W, A.W.A., and A.H.E.A.Duncan McConnell is part-time instructor in geology at the University ofMinnesota, where he hopes to finish hiswork for the doctorate by June, 193?.Raymond D. Meade, AM, is principal of the West High School,Aurora, 111. He devoted some of his Rayner Dalheim & CoMUSICENGRAVERS & PRINTERSof FRATERNITY, SORORITYand UNIVE'RSITYof CHICAGO SONG BOOKSNO 0RDERT00 LARGE 0RT00 SMALL - WRITE FOR PRICES2054 W. LAKE ST. PHONE SEELEY 4710PAINTERSGEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street Kedzie 3 1 86E. STEWART FEIGHINC.PAINTING — DECORATING5559 TelephoneCottage Grove Ave. Midway 4404PHOTOGRAPHERMOFFETT STUDIOCAMERA PORTRAITS OF QUALITY30 So. Michigan Blvd., Chicago . . State 8750OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHERU. of C ALUMNIPLASTERINGHOWARD F. NOLANPLASTERING, BRICKandCEMENT WORKREPAIRING A SPECIALTYllll East 55th StreetTelephone Dorchester 1579PUBLISHERSBOOK MANUSCRIPTSWanted — All subjects, for immediate publication. Booklet sent free.Meador Publishing Co.324 Newbury St., Boston, Mass.ROOFINGGrove Roofing Co.(Gillil and)Old Roofs Repaired- -New Roc Dfs Put On25 Years at 6644 Cottage G rove Ave.Lowest Prices — Estimates FreeFairfax 320630 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERUGSAshjian Bros., inc.Oriental and DomesticRUGSCLEANED and REPAIRED2107 E. 71st St. Phone Dor. 0009TAXIDERMISTSGEORGE D. HESSERTAXIDERMISTGAME HEADS — ANIMALS — FISH —BIRDSArtistically Mounted1315 S. Kostner Ave.Telephone Lawndale 2750TEACHER'S AGENCIESAMERICAN COLLEGE BUREAU28 E. Jackson BoulevardChicagoA Bureau of Placement which limits itswork to the university and college . field.It is affiliated with the Fisk TeachersAgency of Chicago, whose work covers allthe educational fields. Both organizationsassist in the appointment of administratorsas well as of teachers.THEHUGHES TEACHERS AGENCY25 E. JACKSON BLVD.Telephone Harrison 7793Chicago, III.Member National Associationof Teachers AgenciesWe Enjoy a Very Fine High School, NormalSchool, College and University PatronagePaul YatesI ates-Fisher - Teachers' Agenc jfEstablished 1906616 South Michigan Ave., ChicagoVENTILATINGThe Haines CompanyVentilating and Air ConditioningContractors1929-1937 West Lake St.Phones Seeley 2765-2766-2767X-RAY SUPPLIESX-RAY SUPPLIES& Accessories"At Your Service'Tel. Seeley 2550-51Geo. W. Brady & Co.809 So. Western Ave. time during the summer session to studyhere on the quadrangles.Jeannette G. Morrison, AM, instructor and head of the Art Department at Cattey College, Nevada, Missouri, is the author of a recent publication of the University of ChicagoPress bearing the title Children's Preferences for Pictures.Miyo Okada, SM, is still living inTokyo, but hopes to be able to join herhusband in New York City within theyear.Vivian Roberts, SM, has been backfor the last two summers for furtherstudy. She is now locajted at Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut,with Margaret S. Chaney, '14, PhD'25, and Katharine Blunt, PhD'07.Last fall Mary Elizabeth Schuster, AM," accepted a teaching positionat the Joliet Township High School.H. W. Straley, III, has returned tothe University of North Carolina afterspending the spring and summer doinggeomagnetic work for the PathfinderProspecting Company. He recently delivered a lecture on Geomagnetic Prospecting before the Miner's Club, V.P.L,Blacksburg, Virginia.1934Betty Mae Baver, AM, has a position as second grade critic in the Central State Teachers College at StevensPoint, Wis.Mrs. Bell Borland, SM, has had hermaster's thesis published in book formby the University of Chicago Press. Itis entitled Phillippe De LaSaVe: HisContribution to the Textile Industry ofLyons.Faith Clark, SM, who has beenworking with the unemployment reliefadministration in Bucyrus, Ohio, asnutritionist, is now in Baltimore working on a project — a study of consumerpurchases.In his work for the Soil Conservation Service, O. J. Henbest conductsdetailed soil and erosion surveys onfarms contracted by the government.He is located in Berryville, Arkansas,at present.Richard V. Hollingsworth is supervising the sample laboratory of theShell Petroleum Corporation in Tulsa,in addition to making examinations ofwell cuttings.Albertine Loomis, AM, has returnedto Detroit and is now teaching in theHighland Park Senior High School.At the conclusion of the school yearat Augustana College, where he isteaching, Leland Horberg left for thewest where he continued his structuralstudies in the south end of the Teton"Range, Wyoming.Picture Story of Milk and How theCity Serves Its People, by Alta Mc-Intire, AM, came off the press of theFollett Publishing Company, Chicago,in September and October of the pastyear. She is general supervisor of elementary grades of the Berwyn (111.)Public Schools. Richard A. Nuzum, AM, in residence during the Summer Quarter working on his doctorate, is principal of theHobart, Ind., Junior-Senior HighSchool.Henry S. Perdue, who teaches atBrandon College, Canada, says he spentthe summer on the Canadian GeologicalSurvey "wrestling with the 'Coutch-idling.' "As supervisor of Rural Education inPuerto Rico, Oscar E. Porrata, AMhas written "An Evaluation of OurRural School System," which appearedin The Puerto Rico School Review.Mary Satorius, SM, is on the homeeconomics staff at the University ofMinnesota.1935Arthur C. Austin has a positionwith the Seismograph Corporation inTulsa, Oklahoma.Marian Bailey, SM, is a home economics teacher at Wesleyan College, inBuckhannon, West Virginia.William G. Bennett of the Divisionof Geology of the Department of Conservation and Development, of theState of Washington, is carrying onwork on non-metallics, but spends mostof his time assisting with the publication of a new geologic map of the state.He is located in Pullman.Grace Duggan, SM, is president ofthe Edmonton, Canada, Home Eco-Your whole life throughShorthand will be useful to you.LEARN GREGGThe World's Fastest Shorthand.THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY2500 Prairie Ave. ChicagoHAIR REMOVED FOREVER17 Years' ExperienceFREE CONSULTATIONLOTTIE A. METCALFEGraduate NurseALSOELECTROLYSIS EXPERTMultiple 20 platinum needles can beused.Permanent removal of Hair from Face,Eyebrows, Back of Neck or any partof Body; destroys 200 to 600 Hair Rootsper hour.Removal of Facial Veins, Moles andWarts.Member American Assn. Medical Hydrology andPhysical Therapy and III. Chamber of Commerce$1.75 per Treatment for HairTelephone FRA 4885Suite 1705, Stevens Bldg.17 No. State St.flomics Association. She is on the staff0f the University of Alberta.Since her marriage, Carolyn Henryry[rs. Maurice P. Yarger), SM, hasbeen running a nursery school in SouthBend, Ind.Laura Heston, SM'35, is teachinghome economics in Bowling Green StateCollege, Bowling Green, Ohio.A teacher at Hobart, Indiana, forsome twelve years, Fonzo Lawler, AM,has been superintendent of Wanatah,Jnd., Public Schools for the last yearand a half.Catherine Leamy, SM, is back inBoston, where she resumed her workas a nutritionist in the Berkshire HealthDistrict.Crystal Nusbaum Lyons, SM, hasa teaching job in Upper Iowa University at Fayette, Iowa.This past summer Mary O. McClus-key, AM, of Blackwell, Oklahoma, conducted a travel party through severalEuropean countries.D. C. McNaughton, AM, is teachingsurvey courses in science at EasternNew Mexico Junior College. He hasthe rank of assistant professor.Helen Oldham, SM, who is working for her doctor's degree in the HomeEconomics Department at Chicago anddoing her research in connection, withher position as research assistant to Dr.Schultz, has just completed a year'sstudy of the utilization of inorganic andorganic iron in an infant. She presented the paper at the recent meetingof the National Academy of Sciencewhich met at the University.Mabel Pashley, SM, is a teacher inRochester High School, Rochester, NewYork.Mrs. Marion Sniffen, AM, has thisyear taken a position as director ofhealth in a private school in Pasadena,California.Julia Tear, SM, is at MichiganState College at East Lansing. Thesubjects she teaches are textiles andclothing.Early in September Douglas S.Ward, AM, accepted the position ofprincipal of the North Side Junior HighSchool in Boulder, Colorado.1936Esther Aberdeen is teaching general geology and paleontology at Wellesley College. She reports that her sparetime is spent learning to ski and gettinglost in Boston.Claribel Albright, SM, has a position with the Quaker Oats Companyin their plant in St. Joseph, Missouri.Gertrude Austin, SM, nutritionist,is with the Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund, Chicago.David S. Campbell, SM, third baseman and captain of geography championship soft ball team, has recentlyreturned from a survey for AgricultureConservation for A.A.A.Elizabeth Clapp, SM, is teachinga* Kansas State College, Manhattan,Kansas.Grace Cornog, SM, is teaching re lated art in Russell Sage College, Troy,New York.Recently Stella Gavrilavicz, AM,accepted a position instructing art atthe Western Kentucky Teachers College at Bowling Green, Kentucky.Margaret Hodo, now Mrs. PercyWalburn, is living in Montevallo, Alabama. She is continuing her work asrural field worker for the Departmentof Public Welfare of the State of Alabama.Marie Krause, SM, is a dietitian inthe Mt. Sinai Hospital, Philadelphia.Marian LaMeire, SM, is teachingrelated art in the New Trier HighSchool, Winnetka, Illinois.Sally La Valley is spending the winter with friends in California after heryear at the University of Chicago.Blanche Lenning, SM, is teachingdietetics to nurses in George Washington University, Washington, D. C.Margaret Maxwell has taken a position in the newly organized Department of Home Economics, at Davis,California.Catherine MacGibbon, SM, has returned to New Zealand to be in chargeof the Foods Department of the HomeScience School at the University ofOtago. She visited several countries —England, Scotland, and others — before&ULreaching New Zealand. Miss LornaCampell from the University of Otago,who has had an apprenticeship in theinstitution management division of International House for the past year, hasalso returned to the University to joinMiss MacGibbon on their staff.Lemuel E. Minnis, AM, is administrative assistant at the Wells HighSchool, Chicago.Shortly after receiving her master'sdegree last August, Anna M. Nelson,AM, began her work as supervisor ofsocial science at the Junior High Training School, Nebraska State NormalCollege, Chadron.Leone Pazourek, SM, is associatedwith the Illinois Department of Healthunder the Social Security Act.Glen T. Rosselot, AM, and his family recently returned to Freetown,Sierra Leone, West Africa, where they My Purchasing Plans for 1937&i fowl* Unfess seriously -considering purchasing products or services- fisted, p?ea$e don-'t cfoackhOUR ADVERTISERS ARE PRINTED IN TYPEUKfi THIS, PLEASE FAVOR IF POSSIBLE,For My HomeRefrigeratorQ KELYINATOJ*P FRtGIPAlRia -OtherO Electric WsifoarD BoJFer Burner -O Radio.D Etectric Range\ pfcm fo P BaBd ProductsO -CoM-^tokerO EtecHc kronerO Wafer Heaterp Ott Burnerp Air ComirtfoFMngQ RemodeJ in miP BayD Send free boktei on KELVIN HOMEFor My FutureINSURANCE CAREERS: Checfc below If interested in enteringlife insurance- £ate$-maf[£r«p;Q On ettmmtfStttH* basis-. P On fed compensation Jja$feCh&ck riere ter a espy of the free bookM P "taswfettwsCareers #o* Cfrlteg* Or*d*af**/*FOR MY FUTURE* I am Interested hi feceWwg MofmaYmn on;*O Ittves+rrtenf progwin f er the ftitttre-O R^tiremenl Ittcoroe PlanO M«ttth'Jy ittcome for my FamilyO Edtteatfoftat titturart&e for My ChildrenP Inheritance Tax InsurancePersonal Property InsuranceO pferte fend me a free HOUSEHOU* INVENTOR* BookletAutomobilesD Urcder$800 D $fflfe$t20& Q $r2Q<H2QQQ P Over $2000O Bate*o CHtvRourrO CadfBacp eoft& P DodgeD USaHeO OL&SMOB&EP PONTIAC .. truck P D PackardD - ~O UsecfCar:-trsiterAceeQ OOOBRICH TIRESP ,.- Tires,P Auto Radio P BatteryP Auto Heaterp TypewritersD REMINGTOND *? $? SKHTH-COKOtfAO Office Equipment: .... j °I UO Porta bkOfficePersonal |t$m$-P ,^„w — __...„, Electric Razor P ^...^.D .w~~-~~ rvtevie Camera Q r WatchNAMEAMWESSCITY COUHHL STATI__ CLASS.OCCUPATION miTear out couponcarefully alongdotted lines J Please PW OutI Otfcer&deof1 thi$ Coupon Then fold formailing as indicatedon reverse sideMy Future Plans for 1937Trav&lP Europe D SO. AFRICA Q California D National ParksQ SWEBEN p Transcend Q Mexico P Pacific Northwe&fP NASSAU p Florida p Yosemite D Bermudai am considering traveling vi-a:D FRENCH LINEP ITALIAN LINEP ATLANTIC COASTLINE R.R. 0Airlines: J Am Considering UsingP PAN AMERICAN p AMERICAN AJRUNE5SOUTHERN PACIFIC R,R.CHICAGO & N.W. R.R._ $UT HEREP I — r — » WOT* ~BPrivate or Professional SchoolsBoysn Cran brookP FranWin &MarshallD GeorgeP HebronP Milford SNorthwoodRoxburyO Wiltlstett ProfessionalO Amer. Academyof Dramatic ArtsP Acting DirectingP Teachers'" Summer__ . Catherine** CourseP Wheeler Q KatfeafSneOibbsSiinsP $t,A«»e'*O st. rMY SCORE IN THE QUIZ WASFOL» BACK - — * — ~Oo 0>c>yoo2O< -o>mm525 i 2:o 09¦» C58 <A0>TO ZHi3 UI5? t*fl>O* »-•< in££ tp3 gmK«>a-> mZsr <m§* r*a. O-0» tilllllllllllfree Style (taofcietP "Stioe Styles for Men*' {FRANK BROTHERS^Special OfferD NEWS WEEfc-the illustrated News Magazine. Send me'fnenext 20 issues and btil for ||,00 (haff the sJngie. copyprkv}.Speciaf offer new subscribers only,*D HEALTH RAY SUN LAMP— Send full detail of special FREEtRIAl OFFER. FOth0r Purchasing Plans „ , Last Year I BoughtAUTOMOBILE _ ™PEAU:ft™ $,...TIRES .„... „ INSURANCE REFRIGERATOR ._._TYPEWRITER _ 1TRAVEL TO PRIVATE SCHOOL ...TO MAIL: 1 ear outcoupon carefullyalong dotted lines.Open Slit B in topsection with knifeor sharp pencil. ^DEALER..._...ASENT.-,WJ>£ALER_«J>£A3LER-w.-.VIA- — JL~IA) \Please Fill Ov* \Other Sidfc of »Th)& Coupon I(Copyright m? *[ Pah Applied \ will remain until June, 1939. Rosselotis principal of the Albert Academy.Hilding A. Sellin has a positionwith the Magnolia Petroleum Company,studying drill cuttings and aiding in development work in the Oklahoma oilfields. He was married last June, andhe and Mrs. Sellin live in OklahomaCity.Thelma Weber, who has done several quarters of work toward her master's degree with Miss Halliday, hasaccepted a position in the foods department of the School of Domestic Artsand Science, which is headed by Mrs.Mary Koll Heiner, j15.SOCIAL SERVICEJames J. Tunnell, Jr., a formergraduate ^student and Field Work Assistant, was one of the victims of theDenver tragedy when a relief client shotwildly in the offices of the Bureau ofPublic Welfare. James Tunnell, whohad a wide circle of friends among former students, was Acting Director inthe Bureau.The University has recently publishedtwo very useful Social Service Monographs, Salaries and Professional Qualifications of Social Workers in Chicago,1935, by Merrill F. Krughoff, AM'36, and Relief and Health Problems ofa Selected Group of Non-Family Men,by Glenn H. Johnson, AM'37.Winthrop D. Lane, Director of Investigation, Juvenile Delinquency Commission of the state of New Jersey, gavea series of lectures at the School onThe New Jersey Method of Selectingfor Parole, The Work of the JuvenileDelinquency Commission of New Jersey and General Prison Organization inNew Jersey in its Relationship to theDepartment of Institutions and Agencies.In February, Charlotte Towle ofthe faculty of the School of Social Service was on the program of the Ortho-psychiatric Conference in New YorkCity. Gladys Hall, who is Presidentof the National Association of VisitingTeachers, attended the Visiting TeacherConference in New Orleans.Early in March, Wilma Walkerwent to Indianapolis to assist as a member of the Committee on Oral Examinations for the Joint Committee of Personnel Administration of Indiana.Students who received the Master'sdegree at the March Convocation, andtheir present positions, include the following: Glenn H. Johnson, FieldRepresentative, Social Security Board,Washington, D. C. ; Rebecca LaneBott ("Becky Lane"), United Charities; Ruth Gaunt, State Departmentof Public Welfare, Indianapolis; David Bourterse, Works Progress Administration, Norton, Virginia; DonaldVon Wilson, American Red) Cross,Disaster Work, St. Louis; Mark T.G6LDSTYNE, MYLA GOLDBERG, ELIZABETH Nickerson Wilson, Chicago Re-Fold back top section. Fold back bottom section. Inserttab A in slit BMail without postage lief Administration; Olive WalkerSwinney, Assistant Secretary, Neigh.borhood Councils, Washington, D. qCouncil of Social Agencies; and AnnEpperson, new State Welfare Organization of Tennessee.Rachel Egbert, AM'36, has been ap.pointed a Field Work Assistant in oneof the new Child Welfare Field WorkUnits; Lydia Glover, AM'36, hastaken a position with the Chicago Relief Administration; and PenelopeWilson; AM'36, is now a Visitor withthe Children's Home Society at Roanoke, Virginia.ENGAGEDGeorge B. Pidot, '29, JD'30, to Virginia Ruth Ulrich. The wedding willtake place June 5 in Grand Rapids andthe couple will spend their honeymoonin Switzerland. They will live in Larch-mont, N. Y.MARRIEDMarian Austin, ex '35, to RobertLewis Fischer, December 26, 1936.Louise C. Gerwig, '33, to SearingW. East, '34, JD'35, February 27, 1937,Bond Chapel.Forence E. Gerwig, }33, to WilliamA. Burns, '35, February 27, 1937.Bond Chapel.BORNTo Donald A. Martinez, '23, andMrs. Martinez, a daughter, NancyKathleen, January 24, 1937, Chicago.To Horace S. Strong, '25, and Mrs.Strong, a daughter, Natalie Elizabeth,March 8, 1937. Providence, R. I.To Elmer A. Lampe, '26, and Mrs.Lampe, a son, John Eberhart, February10, 1937, Eveleth, Minn.To Toseph Haskell Shaffer, '27,MD'32, and Mrs. Shaffer (MyrtleStump, '29), a son, John Christopher,February 18, 1937, Detroit, Mich.To Harold H. Tucker, PhD'30, andMrs. Tucker (Dorothy Hardt, '26)of 4859 Cumberland Boulevard, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a daughter, MarciaJanet, on February 5th, Chicago.DIEDHenry George Mellick, DB'90, aBaptist pastor in the Maritime Provinces and also Superintendent of Missions of Western Canada for severalyears, died October 25, 1936, in Hants-port, Nova Scotia.Oliver Brown Kinney, DB'82, September 3, 1936, in Virginia. He heldpastorates in the Middle West and inthe East.Edmund Kemper Broadus, AM'OO,for twenty-eight years professor ofEnglish Literature and head of the Department of English at the Universityof Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, diedDecember 17.Otto Gunther, MD'll, 51 years old,a leading Sheboygan, Wis., surgeonduring the last twenty-four years, diedJanuary 26.V.HOW SMART IS A COLLEGEGRADUATE?(Answers to the quiz on Page II. otfront advertising section)1. Napoleon Bonaparte.g! As a liability.3. Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737).4. Wyoming, in 1869.5. Checkers.6. 1,748,000,000.7. Benvenuto Cellini.8. A London insurance underwriters' association.9. The Barber of Seville.10. that of Thomas Jefferson..11. In Athens, in 1896.12. Lhasa.13. Six.14. The Gemini (the twins).15 $7,200,000. Purchased from Russia in1869. FOR PEOPLE WITHfrite your quiz scor'ided in coupon on facing page in space pro-and mail today.TId- Theodore Roosevelt, who was 42 wheninaugurated.17. Henry Ford, on the witness stand in alawsuit with the Chicago Tribune, in1919.18. William Harvey (1578-1657).19. A unit of speed equal to one nauticalmile (6080 feet) per hour.20. Detroit.21. John Masefield.22. The soldiers of Achilles in the TrojanWar.23. Off the coast of South America, 730 mi leswest of Ecuador.24. Silver. (Copper is used commerciallybecause it is comparatively cheap.)25. Yes — South Carolina. AND DELICATELY BALANCED BUDGETSyou, with our compliments, a bottle orsound table wine.The discipline and tradition of athousand years of Breton and Normanseafaring make a firm foundation forthe suave service and civilized comfortof our modern fleet.Your Travel Agent will be glad toarrange reservations on any of our fivecrack liners (averaging less than eightyears in service) running weekly fromNew York to England and France. Hisservices cost you nothing. It is advisable to make early reservations this year.'ifreneh JQj\e610 Fifth Avenue (Rockefeller Center), New York CityFor those of us who like to keep ourbudgets in equilibrium, without givingup the little niceties of life, French Lineships offer the ideal ocean-crossing.Every detail of existence is workedout to perfection ... for the Frenchadd that ultimate touch, that finalflourish which transforms excellenceinto distinction. And at no extra cost.On French Line ships, you find amenu so varied that it could be matchedonly in five or six of the greatest restaurants of the world. An epicure . . .and who of us is not a student of thatenchanting science, gastronomy? . . .may well devote the four to six days ofa French Line crossing to advanced research. And with each meal we offerTo England and France, and thus to all Europe: Normandie, March 17, April14, 28 * Ile de France, March 12, April 1 * Paris, May 4, 28FLY ANYWHERE IN EUROPE VIA AIR-FRANCE(Please favor our advertisers when checking coupon facing this Page. Thank you — The Editor.)VI.TURRET TOP, HO DRAFT VENTILATION,KNEE-ACTION, HYDRAULIC BRAKES AND THAT GAL/WHAT MORE COULD YOU WANT IN A CAR?"Txourou may be satisfied, but General Motors isgoing to keep right on trying to beat its shareof this combination. That's the fortunate advantage of having the vast resources to keepon pioneering — and a demand for its cars vastenough to enable the production of new thingsat a price that fits the average pocketbook.General MotorsA Public-Minded InstitutionCHEVROLET • PONTIAC • OLDSMOBILE • BUICK * LASALLE • CADILLAC NEW CAR ANNOUNCEMENTSBUICK FOR 1937 — "It's Buick Again." A choice ofbrilliantly designed bodies to meet your heart's desireRoomier interior of tailored smartness. Increased power — ^\silent, silky, rugged power that makes you master of timeand distance.CADILLAC V-8: $1445 and up — the lowest Cadillacprice in 26 years: V-8 engine stepped up to 135 horsepower — the most exhilarating performance on the highway. Traditional Cadillac luxury, beauty and excellenceadvanced to a new high degree.The 1937 CHEVROLET — Truly the Complete Car —Completely New, with new 85 horsepower six cylinderengine, All-Silent, All-Steel Bodies, perfected hydraulicbrakes, gliding Knee-Action ride, Super-safe ShockproofSteering and Safety Glass all around at no extra cost.CORD — In contrast to the commonplace — a totally newinterpretation of the function of a motor car. 125 inchwheelbase. Also new Supercharged Cord with 170 h.p.engine, and 132-inch wheelbase Berline Cord.DODGE — New "Windstream Styling." Stronger, safer,all-steel body securely mounted on cushions oflive rubber. Bigger, roomier, and more comfortable — ample roomfor six passengers. And economical — owners reportDodge gives 18 to 24 miles per gallon of gas. Switch toDodge and Save Money.LA SALLE V-8: Now only $995 and up — the lowestpriced, yet the finest La Salle of all time. CompletelyCadillac built. Smooth, powerful 125 horsepower performance. Hydraulic brakes. Unisteel "Turret Top" FisherBodies. Knee-Action Ride.OLDSMOBILE — Newest cars of them all — a distinctive Six and a distinguished Eight — each with a styledistinctly its own. Bigger and finer and safer than ever —at prices that set the pace in value.PACKARD WITH FOUR GREAT CARS — the Six,120, Super-Eight and Twelve — now covers four pricefields with four complete lines, with each model in everyline a truly fine car of luxurious comfort, brilliant performance and smart appearance. 'Ask The Man Who OwnsOne.'PONTIAC — For 1937 America's finest low-priced carhas five inches more wheelbase and is 1 0% more economical. Features include Unisteel Bodies by Fisher, triple-sealed hydraulic brakes, knee-action, 50% more trunk-space. Priced near the lowest.TRAVEL ANNOUNCEMENTSSOUTHERN PACIFIC — Four Scenic Routes to the Westthrough four widely different scenic regions. Go on one,return on another — see twice as much for little or noextra rail fare. Between Los Angeles and San Francisco,ride the streamlined Daylight, newest and most beautifultrain in the West. Check coupon facing Page V. forbooklet.IMPROVES YOUR APPEARANCE 100%m u TAN...That Men and Women Admire!Don't have that pale, indoor, "pasty" look —when you can have the natural ruddy slow ofvigorous health. The same kind of Tan you get ona Florida beach! Your personal appearance is eithera distinct social and business asset — or a handicap.¦ Now a daily "sun bath" in the privacy of yourown home, will keep you looking like a MillionDollars — and feeling as physically 6t as you looklLOOK HEALTHY ¦ Ultra-violet rays actually help. BE HEALTHY to increase youthful vigor andvitality, tending to stimulate glandular functions;are remarkably efficacious in some forms of skindiseases and in destroying germ life. Many casesof pimples yield quickly to their purifying action.SEND NO MONEYI TEST IT AT OUR EXPENSE!f| We want you to experience the remarkableenefits the perfected HEALTH RAY SUN LAMPbrings. Use it FREE for 7 days in your own home.Then if you decide to keep it, it is yours for $7.50.i DOWNPAYMENTBUYS ITIFoi FREE TRIAL OFFER chack coupon facing p.g. V.(Please favor our advertisers when checking coupon facing Page V. Thank you — The Editor.)1937 SUMR-DM FRIGIDAIRE meter -miserCuts Current Cost Amazingly !P/Ufpes THRILLING ADVANCE IN ALI 5 BASIC SERVICESFOR COMPLETE HOME REFRIGERATIONEnds"Cube-Struggle"and "Ice-Famine"!At last, the refrigerator that instantlyreleases all ice trays — and all cubes fromevery tray, with the New INSTANT CUBE-RELEASE! Also freezes more pounds ofice— faster. . . stores 100% more ice-cubesready for use! Most complete ICE SERVICEever known.THRimNG^r/Sf^Thrilling for the new completeness itbrings in All 5 Basic RefrigerationServices every woman wants and needsin her home! . . . Now you can seeproof that Frigidaire is the most complete ice-provider, food-storer andfood-preserver ever known.This year, make sure the refrigeratoryou buy performs All 5 Basic Servicesvital for complete home refrigeration.Visit the thrilling proof-demonstration in your nearest Authorized Frigidaire Dealer's Store. It shows you whatto look for in 1937— how to buy. Andremember— the new "Super-Duty"Frigidaire with the Meter -Miser costsno more than an ordinary refrigerator!FRIGIDAIRE DIVISIONGeneral Motors Sales Corporation, Dayton, O.NEW INSTANT CUBE-RELEASEEn Every Ice Tray 1Only Frigidaire hasit! Instantly releasesice-cubes from tray,two or a dozen, asyou need them.Yields 20% moreice by ending faucet meltage waste.^ ^See proof of its pJAtfquick, easy actionat your Frigidairedealer's. New 9-Way Adjustable Interior! Goodbye to old-fashioned crowding and dish-juggling. Now you get maximum shelfspace up in front. And Full-Width SlidingShelves, Cold-Storage Tray, new Super-Duty Hydrators, ALL adjust like magicto suit any size or shape of food! Mostcomplete STORAGE SERVICE ever known. Keeps Food Safer, Fresher, Longer!Safety-Zone Cold in food compartment—proved by new Food-Safety Indicator withDial on the Door, always in sight. PlusMOIST Cold for vegetables . . . EXTRA Coldfor meats . . . FREEZING Cold for ice creamand frozen desserts. Most complete PROTECTION SERVICE ever known.Five- Year Protection Plan, backed byGeneral Motors, on Frigidaire's sealed-inmechanical unit. This, together withFrigidaire's Sealed Steel Cabinet, SpecialSealed Insulation and Lifetime Porcelainor Durable Dulux exterior, all adds upto the most complete DEPEND- ABILITYever known."** {hOH ^.SiFRIGIDAIREMr =- FRIGIDAIRE . . . MADE ONLY BY GENERAL MOTORS See its lower operating costproved by an electric meterbefore you buy! The Meter-Miser does Super -Duty_ atamazing saving because it'sthe simplest refrigeratingmechanism ever built. . . Only3 moving parts, includingthemotor... permanently oiled,completely sealed againstmoisture and dirt.¦ZrVe Test of oh IwtcstoneHt/ Setwtity Offered/fuuuukdJUhmsJhitute PossifiititiesYou consider all these points in making a money investment. It's even more important to consider them wheninvesting years of effort to build a career.Because of the way life underwriting "checks" on allthree counts, increasing numbers of college graduates areentering tbis business. Those selected by The Penn MutualLife Insurance Company can start their careers on a fixedcompensation basis, instead of a commission basis, ifthey wish.Send for booklet: "Insurance Careers for CollegeGraduates."COLLEGIATE PERSONNEL BUREAUTHE PENN MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANYIndependence Square • PhiladelphiaHand welted Frenchwaxed calf . $18.50If your son is an undergraduate you will realize frompast experience the importance of his wearing theright footwear. FRANK BROTHERS still is, as it was inyour day, the most popular shoe on the campus. Economical too, for the style is built in — not added on.Write for new Style Book and exhibition dates at your city3mnk InrttjrcsS88 FIFTH AVENUE • bet. 47th & 48th Sts. • NEW YORKCHICAGO LOS ANGELES PITTSBURGH112 W. Adams Street Oviatt Building 225 Oliver Avenue SCHOOL DIRECTORYAMERICAN ACADEMYOF DRAMATIC ARTSFounded in 1884 by Franklin H. Sargent. Thefirst and foremost institution for DramaticTraining in Acting, Directing, and Teaching.Spring Term Begins April 1stFor Catalog address Secretary, Room 180,CARNEGIE HALL, NEW YORKAMERICAN ACADEMY OF DRAMATIC ARTS—The leading Institute for dramatic training in AmericaCourses prepare for teaching and directing, as well asacting. Junior classes start each season in October, Januaryand April. There is a special teachers' summer coursecoveringStage-craft. Thecatalogue,supplied upon requestdescribes all courses. Address the Secretary, CarnegieHall, New York City.Secretarial SchoolsKATHARINE GIBBS — Secretarial. Two Year Course-College and cultural subjects, with thorough secretarial'raining. One Year Course — Intensive secretarial trainingAlso Special Course for College Women. Delightful residences in Boston and in New York. For catalog address-Office of Admissions. Boston, 90 Marlboro St., New York'230 Park Ave., Providence, 155 Angell St.Jirls Sch oolsTHE MARY C. WHEELER SCHOOL — A schoolmodern in spirit, methods, equipment, rich in traditions.Excellent college preparatory record. General coursewith varied choice of subjects. Post Graduate. ClassMusic, Dancing, Dramatics, and Art, an integral part of curriculum. Leisure for hobbies. Daily sports. 170-acre farm— - riding, hunting, hockey. Separate residence and lifeadapted to younger girls. Catalog. Mary Helena Dey,M.A., Principal, Providence, Rhode Island.ST. ANNE'S SCHOOL, Charlottesville, VirginiaMargaret L. Porter, Headmistress. ST. CATHERINE'SSCHOOL, Richmond, Virginia. Louisa deB. BacolBracket, Headmistress. Girl's Schools in the Diocese ofVirginia (Episcopal). Day and Boarding. Thorough preparation for all leading colleges. Also courses for studentsnot planning to enter college. Music. Art. Riding. Outdoor Sports.Co-Educational SchoolGEORGE SCHOOL — Quaker. Established 1893. Fullyaccredited. College preparatory and cultural course. 74graduates entered 32 colleges in 1936. Boys and girls inthe same school under conditions that meet the approvalof the most careful, discriminating parent. Endowment.227-acre campus. 25 miles from Philadelphia. 10 milesfrom Trenton. G. A. Walton, A. M., Principal, Box 267,George School, Pa.Boys' SchoolsCRANBROOK SCHOOL — Distinctive endowed preparatory school for boys. Also junior department. Exceptionally beautiful, complete, modern. Unusual opportunities in arts, crafts, sciences. Hobbies encouraged. Allsports. Single rooms. Strong faculty. Individual attention.Graduates in over 40 colleges. Near Detroit. Registrar,3000 Lone Pine Road, Bloomfield Hills, Mich.FRANKLIN & MARSHALL ACADEMY — A widelyrecognized, moderately priced preparatory school. Excellent records in many colleges. Personal attention to eachboy's needs. Varied athletic program. Modern equipment. Junior department. E. M. Hartman, Pd.D., Box G,Lancaster, Pa.HEBRON ACADEMY — Thorough college preparationfor boys at costs surprisingly low due to endowment andcountry location. 70 Hebron boys freshmen in collegethis year. Experienced faculty of 15 men. Excellent dormitory, classroom, laboratory and athletic equipment. Forbook, "Building Scholarship," address Ralph L. (Hunt,Principal, Box G, Hebron, Maine.MILFORD SCHOOL — Small classes. Each boy's program adapted to his needs, abilities, and interests. Homelike environment. All sports. Junior School for boyseleven to fifteen. Summer session combining thoroughinstruction with sea shore recreations. Catalogue. Paul D.Shafer, Ph.D., Headmaster, Milford, Conn.NORTHWOOD SCHOOL — In the Heart of theAdirondacks. Under Lake Placid Club Education Foundation. Unusual success in preparing for college work. Emphasis on outdoor recreation that can be continuedthroughout life. Exceptional winter sports facilities. Modemmethods develop the whole boy to maximum possibilities.AddresslraA.FIinner,Ed.D.,BoxG,LakePlacidClub,N.Y.ROXBURY SCHOOL — For boys 11 years and older.Flexible organization and painstaking supervision of eachboy's program offer opportunity for exceptional scholasticprogress and general development. A. E. Sheriff, Headmaster, Cheshire, Conn.WILLISTON ACADEMY — Unusual educational opportunities at modest cost. Endowment over half a million. Over 150 graduates in 40 colleges. New recrfj*tional center, gymnasium, swimming pool. Experienced,understanding masters. Separate Junior School. AddreHArchibald V. Galbraith, Headmaster, Box 3, Easthampton,Mass.(Please' favor our advertisers when checking coupon facing Page V. Thank you — The Editor.)DON'T STRAIN TO HEARThis scientific Hearing Aid — designed by Bell TelephoneLaboratories — delivers clear, natural sound. You can have air or bone conduction receiver — whichever tests prove right for you.Your Audiphone must be fitted as skilfully as eyeglasses. For proper fitting, go to nearest Audiometrist. Send the coupon for his address.I GRAYBAR ELECTRIC CO.. Graybar Building, New York.I Please send details on Western ElectricAudiphone and name of nearest dealer. _ STATE-July compliments on yourvety good taste, sir>s^> Jor me good tningssmomng can give youChesterfieldCopyright 1937, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.